WorldWideScience

Sample records for human bone remains

  1. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Ancient DNA in human bone remains from Pompeii archaeological site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollaro, M; Di Bernardo, G; Galano, G; Galderisi, U; Guarino, F; Angelini, F; Cascino, A

    1998-06-29

    aDNA extraction and amplification procedures have been optimized for Pompeian human bone remains whose diagenesis has been determined by histological analysis. Single copy genes amplification (X and Y amelogenin loci and Y specific alphoid repeat sequences) have been performed and compared with anthropometric data on sexing.

  3. Naming the body (or the bones): Human remains, anthropological/medical collections, religious beliefs, and restitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    Human bones and biological remains conserved in anthropological, medical, and archaeological collections are foci of ethical debate, as recently illustrated by the affair of Charles Byrne's bones. In the near future, curators will have to choose between global conservation of all (or almost all) anthropological collections and systematic restitution to their original communities or families. Various proposals and examples of restitution and nonrestitution are given (with justifications) in order to support the concept that the body (especially the dead body) is not property. We propose that the only element supporting arguments in favor of restitution could be the name of the individual, highlighting the importance of all identification processes for such "artifacts." This is undoubtedly a universal value: naming the dead, identifying and then burying the person, i.e., reversing the progression along the timeline from individual to scientific specimen. Such elements could be of great interest to all universities and medical institutions that keep human remains in their collections for educational or historical purposes when they are confronted with ethical problems and/or repatriation requests.

  4. Below the Callus Surface: Applying Paleohistological Techniques to Understand the Biology of Bone Healing in Skeletonized Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Sandra; Keenleyside, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Bone trauma is a common occurrence in human skeletal remains. Macroscopic and imaging scrutiny is the approach most currently used to analyze and describe trauma. Nevertheless, this line of inquiry may not be sufficient to accurately identify the type of traumatic lesion and the associated degree of bone healing. To test the usefulness of histology in the examination of bone healing biology, we used an integrative approach that combines gross inspection and microscopy. Six bone samples belonging to 5 adult individuals with signs of bone trauma were collected from the Human Identified Skeletal Collection from the Museu Bocage (Lisbon, Portugal). Previous to sampling, the lesions were described according to their location, morphology, and healing status. After sampling, the bone specimens were prepared for plane light and polarized light analysis. The histological analysis was pivotal: (1) to differentiate between types of traumatic lesions; (2) to ascertain the posttraumatic interval, and (3) to diagnose other associated pathological conditions. The outer surface of a bone lesion may not give a complete picture of the biology of the tissue's response. Accordingly, microscopic analysis is essential to differentiate, characterize, and classify trauma signs. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Radiographic identification of human remains through deformities and anomalies of post-cranial bones: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougé, D; Telmon, N; Arrue, P; Larrouy, G; Arbus, L

    1993-07-01

    Human remains can be identified radiographically by anomalies and deformities of the post-cranial bones when there are no old fractures and the cranium and extremities are not available. These anomalies and deformities of the sternum, vertebrae, sacrum and innominate bone are often protected from damage by scavengers. We report their use to exclude a proposed identity in one case and to confirm identity in another case. The value and number of these criteria and their pathogenesis is discussed with reference to their prevalence and their expression of inter- and intraindividual variability.

  6. Radiocarbon dating of charred human bone remains preserved in urns excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Toshio, E-mail: nakamura@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.j [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sagawa, Shinichi; Yamada, Tetsuya [Gangoji Institute for Research of Cultural Properties, Nakain, Nara 630-8392 (Japan); Kanehara, Masaaki [School of Science Education, Nara University of Education, Takabatake, Nara 630-8528 (Japan); Tsuchimoto, Norio [Ichinomiya City Museum, Yamato, Ichinomiya 491-0922 (Japan); Minami, Masayo [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Omori, Takayuki [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Okuno, Mitsuru [Faculty of Science, Fukuoka University, Jonan, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Ohta, Tomoko [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    For a preliminary test of {sup 14}C dating of cremated human remains, we have collected charred bone and wood-charcoal fragments from cremated remains contained in cinerary urns that had been excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery at the Hoenji temple in Aichi prefecture, central Japan. More than 230 urn vessels were discovered from the excavated area of ca. 14 m wide and 14 m long. The identification of charred bone or charcoal fragments among the remains was performed by observation of surface appearance, inspection of fine structures by a microscope, bubble formation during the HCl treatments in preparing target material for AMS {sup 14}C dating, carbon and nitrogen contents, delta{sup 13}C and delta{sup 15}N values of the fragments. All {sup 14}C ages obtained for the samples that were identified as charred bone remains were almost consistent with the archeological age estimated based on typological analysis of respective urns. On the other hand, some {sup 14}C ages for the remains identified as wood charcoal, which had been produced from firewood or a wooden coffin during the cremation, were not consistent with archeological estimation, shifting toward older {sup 14}C ages, most probably as the result of old wood effect.

  7. Histological analysis and ancient DNA amplification of human bone remains found in caius iulius polybius house in pompeii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollaro, M; Di Bernado, G; Forte, A; Galano, G; De Masi, L; Galderisi, U; Guarino, F M; Angelini, F; Cascino, A

    1999-09-01

    Thirteen skeletons found in the Caius Iulius Polybius house, which has been the object of intensive study since its discovery in Pompeii 250 years ago, have provided an opportunity to study either bone diagenesis by histological investigation or ancient DNA by polymerase chain reaction analysis. DNA analysis was done by amplifying both X- and Y-chromosomes amelogenin loci and Y-specific alphoid repeat locus. The von Willebrand factor (vWF) microsatellite locus on chromosome 12 was also analyzed for personal identification in two individuals showing alleles with 10/11 and 12/12 TCTA repeats, respectively. Technical problems were the scarcity of DNA content from osteocytes, DNA molecule fragmentation, microbial contamination which change bone structure, contaminating human DNA which results from mishandling, and frequent presence of Taq DNA polymerase inhibiting molecules like polyphenols and heavy metals. The results suggest that the remains contain endogenous human DNA that can be amplified and analyzed. The amplifiability of DNA corresponds to the bone preservation and dynamics of the burial conditions subsequent to the 79 A.D. eruption.

  8. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  9. Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krap, Tristan; Nota, Kevin; Wilk, Leah; van de Goot, Frank; Ruijter, Jan; Duijst, Wilma; Oostra, Roelof Jan

    2017-01-01

    Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered

  10. Age estimation of immature human skeletal remains from the dimensions of the girdle bones in the postnatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Spake, Laure; Humphrey, Louise T

    2017-08-01

    This study provides classical calibration regression formulae for age estimation from the dimensions of unfused shoulder and pelvic girdle bones. Age estimation models were derived from a sample of 160 known age and sex individuals (63 females and 97 males) aged birth to 12 years, selected from Portuguese and English skeletal collections. The sample was divided into two age groups at the age of 2 years, and formulae were obtained for the sexes separately and combined. Measurements of the pelvis provide more precise age estimates than the shoulder. In the younger age group, the height and width of the ilium, and the height of the glenoid yield the most precise age estimates. In the older age group, the length of the clavicle provides the most precise estimates, followed by measurements of the pubis and ischium. In the younger individuals (remains from such environments. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Bone natural autofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy: Preliminary results of a novel useful tool to distinguish between forensic and ancient human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Luigi; D'Anastasio, Ruggero; Guarnieri, Simone; Viciano, Joan; Mariggiò, Maria

    2017-03-01

    The fast, high-throughput distinction between palaeoanthropological/archaeological remains and recent forensic/clinical bone samples is of vital importance in the field of medico-legal science. In this paper, a novel dating method was developed using the autofluorescence of human bones and the confocal laser scanning microscope as the means to distinguish between archaeological and forensic anthropological skeletal findings. Human bones exhibit fluorescence, typically induced by natural antibiotics that are absorbed by collagen, and provide secondary, exogenous fluorophores. However, primary natural fluorescence (or autofluorescence) caused by enigmatic endogenous fluorophores is also present as a micro-phenomenon, whose nature is still obscure. Here, we show that the endogenous fluorophores are mucopolysaccharides of the Rouget-Neumann sheath and, more relevant, that the intensity of the natural fluorescence in human bone decreases in a relationship to the antiquity of the samples. These results suggest that the autofluorescence of bone is a promising technique for the assessment of skeletal remains that may be potentially of medico-legal interest. A larger study is proposed to confirm these findings and to create a predictive model between the autofluorescence intensity and the time since death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krap, Tristan; Nota, Kevin; Wilk, Leah S; van de Goot, Franklin R W; Ruijter, Jan M; Duijst, Wilma; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2017-07-01

    Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered from a modern crematory. Luminescence was excited with light sources within the range of 350 to 560 nm. The excitation light was filtered out by using different long pass filters, and the luminescence was analysed by means of a scoring method. The results show that temperature, duration and surrounding medium determine the observed emission intensity and bandwidth. It is concluded that the luminescent characteristic of bone can be useful for identifying thermally altered human remains in a difficult context as well as yield information on the perimortem and postmortem events.

  13. Shells and Bones: A Forensic Medicine Study of the Association of Terrestrial Snail Allopeas micra with Buried Human Remains in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Malthus Fonseca; Pujol-Luz, José Roberto; de Assis Pujol-Luz, Cristiane Vieira; de Rosa, Cássio Thyone Almeida; Simone, Luiz Ricardo L; Báo, Sônia Nair; Barros-Cordeiro, Karine Brenda; Pessoa, Larissa; Bissacot, Giovanna

    2015-09-01

    Little is known regarding the scavenger fauna associated with buried human corpses, particularly in clandestine burials. We report the presence of 20 shells of the terrestrial snail Allopeas micra, within hollow bones of human remains buried for 5 years, during the process of collecting DNA material. The fact that a large number of shells of A. micra had been found in the corpse and in the crime scene supports the assumption that there was no attempt to remove the corpse from the area where the crime occurred. Despite this, our observations cannot be used to estimate the postmortem interval because there is no precise knowledge about the development of this species. This is the first record of a terrestrial snail associated with a human corpse and its role in this forensic medicine case. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Luminol testing in detecting modern human skeletal remains: a test on different types of bone tissue and a caveat for PMI interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudullo, Giorgio; Caruso, Valentina; Cappella, Annalisa; Sguazza, Emanuela; Mazzarelli, Debora; Amadasi, Alberto; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    When forensic pathologists and anthropologists have to deal with the evaluation of the post-mortem interval (PMI) in skeletal remains, luminol testing is frequently performed as a preliminary screening method. However, the repeatability of this test on the same bone, as well as comparative studies on different bones of the same individual, has never been performed. Therefore, with the aim of investigating the influence that different types of bones may exert on the response to the luminol test, the present study analysed three different skeletal elements (femoral diaphysis, vertebra and cranial vault), gathered from ten recent exhumed skeletons (all with a 20-year PMI). The analysis was performed twice on the same bone after 2 months: the analysis at time 0 concerned the whole bone, whereas the second concerned only a part of the same bone taken during the first test (which already had been broken). The overall results showed different responses, depending on the type of bone and on the integrity of the samples. Negative results at the first analysis (6.6% out of the total of samples) are consistent with what is reported in the literature, whilst at the second analysis, the increase of about 20% of false-negative results highlights that the luminol test ought to be performed with caution in case of broken bones or elements which are taphonomically altered. Results have thus proven that the exposition to environmental agents might result in haemoglobin (Hb) loss, as detected even after only 2 months. The study also focused on the crucial issue of the type of bone subjected to testing, remarking the suitability of the femoral diaphysis (100% of positive responses at the first analysis vs only 18% of false-negative results at the second test, corresponding to 5% of total false-negative results) as opposed to other bone elements that showed a low yield. In particular, the cranial vault gave poor results, with 40% of discrepancy between results from the two analyses

  15. The Human Remains from HMS Pandora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Steptoe

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1977 the wreck of HMS Pandora (the ship that was sent to re-capture the Bounty mutineers was discovered off the north coast of Queensland. Since 1983, the Queensland Museum Maritime Archaeology section has carried out systematic excavation of the wreck. During the years 1986 and 1995-1998, more than 200 human bone and bone fragments were recovered. Osteological investigation revealed that this material represented three males. Their ages were estimated at approximately 17 +/-2 years, 22 +/-3 years and 28 +/-4 years, with statures of 168 +/-4cm, 167 +/-4cm, and 166cm +/-3cm respectively. All three individuals were probably Caucasian, although precise determination of ethnicity was not possible. In addition to poor dental hygiene, signs of chronic diseases suggestive of rickets and syphilis were observed. Evidence of spina bifida was seen on one of the skeletons, as were other skeletal anomalies. Various taphonomic processes affecting the remains were also observed and described. Compact bone was observed under the scanning electron microscope and found to be structurally coherent. Profiles of the three skeletons were compared with historical information about the 35 men lost with the ship, but no precise identification could be made. The investigation did not reveal the cause of death. Further research, such as DNA analysis, is being carried out at the time of publication.

  16. Scott's Lake Excavation Letters on Human Remains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is two letters written about the repatriation of Santee Indian human remains and funerary objects to Santee Sioux Tribe. Includes an inventory of human remains...

  17. Kadav Moun PSA (:60) (Human Remains)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about safety precautions for those handling human remains. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  18. The taphonomy of human remains in a glacial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilloud, Marin A; Megyesi, Mary S; Truffer, Martin; Congram, Derek

    2016-04-01

    A glacial environment is a unique setting that can alter human remains in characteristic ways. This study describes glacial dynamics and how glaciers can be understood as taphonomic agents. Using a case study of human remains recovered from Colony Glacier, Alaska, a glacial taphonomic signature is outlined that includes: (1) movement of remains, (2) dispersal of remains, (3) altered bone margins, (4) splitting of skeletal elements, and (5) extensive soft tissue preservation and adipocere formation. As global glacier area is declining in the current climate, there is the potential for more materials of archaeological and medicolegal significance to be exposed. It is therefore important for the forensic anthropologist to have an idea of the taphonomy in this setting and to be able to differentiate glacial effects from other taphonomic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of the volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of decomposing animal remains, and compared with human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cablk, Mary E; Szelagowski, Erin E; Sagebiel, John C

    2012-07-10

    Human Remains Detection (HRD) dogs can be a useful tool to locate buried human remains because they rely on olfactory rather than visual cues. Trained specifically to locate deceased humans, it is widely believed that HRD dogs can differentiate animal remains from human remains. This study analyzed the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the headspace above partially decomposed animal tissue samples and directly compared them with results published from human tissues using established solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. Volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of four different animal tissue samples (bone, muscle, fat and skin) from each of cow, pig and chicken were identified and compared to published results from human samples. Although there were compounds common to both animal and human remains, the VOC signatures of each of the animal remains differed from those of humans. Of particular interest was the difference between pigs and humans, because in some countries HRD dogs are trained on pig remains rather than human remains. Pig VOC signatures were not found to be a subset of human; in addition to sharing only seven of thirty human-specific compounds, an additional nine unique VOCs were recorded from pig samples which were not present in human samples. The VOC signatures from chicken and human samples were most similar sharing the most compounds of the animals studied. Identifying VOCs that are unique to humans may be useful to develop human-specific training aids for HRD canines, and may eventually lead to an instrument that can detect clandestine human burial sites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. TEMPORAL MODELING OF DNA DEGRADATION IN BONE REMAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to follow the changes that occur, in time, at DNA level and to establish an efficient and reliable protocol for ancestral DNA extraction from bones found in archaeological sites. To test whether the protocol is efficient and capable of yielding good quality DNA, extraction was first performed on fresh bones. The material consists of fresh pig (Sus scrofa and cow (Bos taurus bones that were grounded by using a drill operating at low speed. The bone powder was then incubated in lysis buffer in the presence of proteinase K. DNA isolation and purification were done by using the phenol:chloroform protocol and DNA was precipitated with absolute ethanol stored at -20oC. The extractions were carried out once every month for a total of four extractions

  1. Human bovine tuberculosis - remains in the differential.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bilal, Shaukat

    2010-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is a pathogen of cattle. The unpasteurized milk of affected cattle is a source of infection in humans. Despite the screening of cattle and the pasteurization of milk, M bovis has not been eradicated. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed in symptomatic patients with a history of possible exposure. At risk groups include animal workers, farmers, meat packers, vets and zoo keepers. Humans are usually infected by the aerosol route. We present two cases of human bovine tuberculosis. One was a presumptive case and the second was a confirmed case. Both responded well to antituberculous therapy. In the confirmed case, there was evidence of transmission to the partner living in the same house. Rifampicin prophylaxis was given to the exposed case. The M. bovis from the confirmed case was isoniazid resistant, in addition to having the well known resistance to pyrazinamide. Isoniazid resistance has been described before in those who are immunocompromised. We describe it in an immunocompetent patient.

  2. Recovery of human remains after shark attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; James, Ross A; Heath, Karen J

    2006-09-01

    Two cases of fatal shark attack are reported where the only tissues recovered were fragments of lung. Case 1: An 18-year-old male who was in the sea behind a boat was observed by friends to be taken by a great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). The shark dragged him under the water and then, with a second shark, dismembered the body. Witnesses noted a large amount of blood and unrecognizable body parts coming to the surface. The only tissues recovered despite an intensive beach and sea search were 2 fragments of lung. Case 2: A 19-year-old male was attacked by a great white shark while diving. A witness saw the shark swim away with the victim's body in its mouth. Again, despite intensive beach and sea searches, the only tissue recovered was a single piece of lung, along with pieces of wetsuit and diving equipment. These cases indicate that the only tissue to escape being consumed or lost in fatal shark attacks, where there is a significant attack with dismemberment and disruption of the integrity of the body, may be lung. The buoyancy of aerated pulmonary tissue ensures that it rises quickly to the surface, where it may be recovered by searchers soon after the attack. Aeration of the lung would be in keeping with death from trauma rather than from drowning and may be a useful marker in unwitnessed deaths to separate ante- from postmortem injury, using only relatively small amounts of tissues. Early organ recovery enhances the identification of human tissues as the extent of morphologic alterations by putrefactive processes and sea scavengers will have been minimized. DNA testing is also possible on such recovered fragments, enabling confirmation of the identity of the victim.

  3. Differentiation between decomposed remains of human origin and bigger mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosier, E; Loix, S; Develter, W; Van de Voorde, W; Cuypers, E; Tytgat, J

    2017-08-01

    This study is a follow-up study in the search for a human specific marker in the decomposition where the VOC-profile of decomposing human, pig, lamb and roe remains were analyzed using a thermal desorber combined with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer in a laboratory environment during 6 months. The combination of 8 previously identified human and pig specific compounds (ethyl propionate, propyl propionate, propyl butyrate, ethyl pentanoate, 3-methylthio-1-propanol, methyl(methylthio)ethyl disulfide, diethyl disulfide and pyridine) was also seen in these analyzed mammals. However, combined with 5 additional compounds (hexane, heptane, octane, N-(3-methylbutyl)- and N-(2-methylpropyl)acetamide) human remains could be separated from pig, lamb and roe remains. Based on a higher number of remains analyzed, as compared with the pilot study, it was no longer possible to rely on the 5 previously proposed esters to separate pig from human remains. From this follow-up study reported, it was found that pyridine is an interesting compound specific to human remains. Such a human specific marker can help in the training of cadaver dogs or in the development of devices to search for human remains. However, further investigations have to verify these results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Cutmarked human remains bearing Neandertal features and modern human remains associated with the Aurignacian at Les Rois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Rozzi, Fernando V; d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian; Grootes, Pieter M; Kerautret, Bertrand; Dujardin, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    The view that Aurignacian technologies and their associated symbolic manifestations represent the archaeologicalproxy for the spread of Anatomically Modern Humans into Europe, is supported by few diagnostic human remains, including those from the Aurignacian site of Les Rois in south-western France. Here we reassess the taxonomic attribution of the human remains, their cultural affiliation, and provide five new radiocarbon dates for the site. Patterns of tooth growth along with the morphological and morphometric analysis of the human remains indicate that a juvenile mandible showing cutmarks presents some Neandertal features, whereas another mandible is attributed to Anatomically Modern Humans. Reappraisal of the archaeological sequence demonstrates that human remains derive from two layers dated to 28-30 kyr BP attributed to the Aurignacian, the only cultural tradition detected at the site. Three possible explanations may account for this unexpected evidence. The first one is that the Aurignacian was exclusively produced by AMH and that the child mandible from unit A2 represents evidence for consumption or, more likely, symbolic use of a Neandertal child by Aurignacian AMH The second possible explanation is that Aurignacian technologies were produced at Les Rois by human groups bearing both AMH and Neandertal features. Human remains from Les Rois would be in this case the first evidence of a biological contact between the two human groups. The third possibility is that all human remains from Les Rois represent an AMH population with conserved plesiomorphic characters suggesting a larger variation in modern humans from the Upper Palaeolithic.

  5. Atomic scale chemical tomography of human bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langelier, Brian; Wang, Xiaoyue; Grandfield, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Human bone is a complex hierarchical material. Understanding bone structure and its corresponding composition at the nanometer scale is critical for elucidating mechanisms of biomineralization under healthy and pathological states. However, the three-dimensional structure and chemical nature of bone remains largely unexplored at the nanometer scale due to the challenges associated with characterizing both the structural and chemical integrity of bone simultaneously. Here, we use correlative transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography for the first time, to our knowledge, to reveal structures in human bone at the atomic level. This approach provides an overlaying chemical map of the organic and inorganic constituents of bone on its structure. This first use of atom probe tomography on human bone reveals local gradients, trace element detection of Mg, and the co-localization of Na with the inorganic-organic interface of bone mineral and collagen fibrils, suggesting the important role of Na-rich organics in the structural connection between mineral and collagen. Our findings provide the first insights into the hierarchical organization and chemical heterogeneity in human bone in three-dimensions at its smallest length scale – the atomic level. We demonstrate that atom probe tomography shows potential for new insights in biomineralization research on bone.

  6. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Inimluud Mihkli kiriku võlvidelt / Human remains on the vaulted ceiling of Mihkli Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Malve

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 4029 human bones or their fragments from the C 13th–18th were gathered and analysed from soil on the vaults of Mihkli (St Michael’s Church in western Estonia during the rescue works in 2011 (photo 1. Ribs and vertebrae formed the majority of bones, but wholly preserved long bones and other larger bones, as well as, hand and foot bones that are quite typical among mixed human remains were almost absent in this case. Therefore, it can be concluded that during the earthworks larger bones were taken from the soil. The minimum number of adults was determined by the ribs of the right side. Only the ribs with preserved heads (figure 1 were used in calculations. The rib fragments indicate approximately 60 adults among the assorted bones. Judging by the radius, there were at least 16 children among the bone assemblage. Scarceness of children in the Mihkli church can be the result of poor preservation, smallness and fragility of their bones, but the possibility that subadult (child and juvenile burials were fewer in the destroyed part of the churchyard cannot be ruled out.Pathological analysis of the osteological material ascertained several diseases and traumas, the most common pathologies being connected to ageing, for example, wearing of joints (Osteoarthrosis. Various diseases related to degeneration of the spine were present – spondylosis, spondyloarthrosis and osteochondrosis. Compression fractures (fractura compressiva and Schmorl´s nodes (nodi Schmorl indicated strenuous physical activity and/or traumas. Dental diseases included caries (photo 2, alveolar reduction, hypoplasia and tooth abscesses. Several upper and lower jaws showed traces of ante mortem lost teeth (photo 3. In one case a canine of the right mandible of an adult man (age 45 + years had formed but had not erupted (photo 4.Various healed fractures of ribs and limb bones formed the bulk of traumas detected on the bones. Three right ribs had fractures in a stage of

  8. Comprehensive analysis of microorganisms accompanying human archaeological remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Anna; Stolarek, Ireneusz; Kuczkowska, Bogna; Juras, Anna; Handschuh, Luiza; Piontek, Janusz; Kozlowski, Piotr; Figlerowicz, Marek

    2017-07-01

    Metagenome analysis has become a common source of information about microbial communities that occupy a wide range of niches, including archaeological specimens. It has been shown that the vast majority of DNA extracted from ancient samples come from bacteria (presumably modern contaminants). However, characterization of microbial DNA accompanying human remains has never been done systematically for a wide range of different samples. We used metagenomic approaches to perform comparative analyses of microorganism communities present in 161 archaeological human remains. DNA samples were isolated from the teeth of human skeletons dated from 100 AD to 1200 AD. The skeletons were collected from 7 archaeological sites in Central Europe and stored under different conditions. The majority of identified microbes were ubiquitous environmental bacteria that most likely contaminated the host remains not long ago. We observed that the composition of microbial communities was sample-specific and not correlated with its temporal or geographical origin. Additionally, traces of bacteria and archaea typical for human oral/gut flora, as well as potential pathogens, were identified in two-thirds of the samples. The genetic material of human-related species, in contrast to the environmental species that accounted for the majority of identified bacteria, displayed DNA damage patterns comparable with endogenous human ancient DNA, which suggested that these microbes might have accompanied the individual before death. Our study showed that the microbiome observed in an individual sample is not reliant on the method or duration of sample storage. Moreover, shallow sequencing of DNA extracted from ancient specimens and subsequent bioinformatics analysis allowed both the identification of ancient microbial species, including potential pathogens, and their differentiation from contemporary species that colonized human remains more recently. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University

  9. Determining postmortem interval using glycoproteinous adhesion deposits by Balanus improvisus on human skeletal and dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytheway, Joan A; Pustilnik, Stephen M

    2013-01-01

    An anthropological analysis was conducted on skeletal and dental remains brought to the Galveston County Medical Examiner's office. The skeletal remains were dry, fragmented, and absent of typical fluvial characteristics. During microscopic examination, semitransparent, circular objects were discovered on the dentition, the mandible, tibial plateau, and distal femur. The objects were glycoproteinous adhesions deposited by the acorn barnacle, Balanus improvisus. B. improvisus is an intertidal barnacle found in estuaries in Galveston Bay. Basal diameter of the adhesions on the dentition were significantly smaller than those found on the postcranial bones (p = 0.010), indicating two consecutive cohorts adhered to the bone and dentition. As settlement typically occurs once a year, this would indicate that the remains were in the fluvial environment for at least 375-410 days. It is important in geographic areas that have prevalent fluvial environments that human remains, particularly dentition, are microscopically examined for marine life evidence. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Repatriation of human remains following death in international travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Ruairi; Prendiville, Richard; Cusack, Denis; Flaherty, Gerard

    2017-03-01

    Death during international travel and the repatriation of human remains to one's home country is a distressing and expensive process. Much organization is required involving close liaison between various agencies. A review of the literature was conducted using the PubMed database. Search terms included: 'repatriation of remains', 'death', 'abroad', 'tourism', 'travel', 'travellers', 'travelling' and 'repatriation'. Additional articles were obtained from grey literature sources and reference lists. The local national embassy, travel insurance broker and tour operator are important sources of information to facilitate the repatriation of the deceased traveller. Formal identification of the deceased's remains is required and a funeral director must be appointed. Following this, the coroner in the country or jurisdiction receiving the repatriated remains will require a number of documents prior to providing clearance for burial. Costs involved in repatriating remains must be borne by the family of the deceased although travel insurance may help defray some of the costs. If the death is secondary to an infectious disease, cremation at the site of death is preferred. No standardized procedure is in place to deal with the remains of a migrant's body at present and these remains are often not repatriated to their country of origin. Repatriation of human remains is a difficult task which is emotionally challenging for the bereaving family and friends. As a travel medicine practitioner, it is prudent to discuss all eventualities, including the risk of death, during the pre-travel consultation. Awareness of the procedures involved in this process may ease the burden on the grieving family at a difficult time.

  11. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. U-series and radiocarbon analyses of human and faunal remains from Wajak, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Paul; Wood, Rachel; Stringer, Chris; Bartsiokas, Antonis; de Vos, John; Aubert, Maxime; Kinsley, Les; Grün, Rainer

    2013-05-01

    Laser ablation U-series dating results on human and faunal bone fragments from Wajak, Indonesia, indicate a minimum age of between 37.4 and 28.5 ka (thousands of years ago) for the whole assemblage. These are significantly older than previously published radiocarbon estimates on bone carbonate, which suggested a Holocene age for a human bone fragment and a late Pleistocene age for a faunal bone. The analysis of the organic components in the faunal material show severe degradation and a positive δ(13)C ratio indicate a high degree of secondary carbonatisation. This may explain why the thermal release method used for the original age assessments yielded such young ages. While the older U-series ages are not in contradiction with the morphology of the Wajak human fossils or Javanese biostratigraphy, they will require a reassessment of the evolutionary relationships of modern human remains in Southeast Asia and Oceania. It can be expected that systematic direct dating of human fossils from this area will lead to further revisions of our understanding of modern human evolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dental DNA fingerprinting in identification of human remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K L Girish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in molecular biology have revolutionized all aspects of dentistry. DNA, the language of life yields information beyond our imagination, both in health or disease. DNA fingerprinting is a tool used to unravel all the mysteries associated with the oral cavity and its manifestations during diseased conditions. It is being increasingly used in analyzing various scenarios related to forensic science. The technical advances in molecular biology have propelled the analysis of the DNA into routine usage in crime laboratories for rapid and early diagnosis. DNA is an excellent means for identification of unidentified human remains. As dental pulp is surrounded by dentin and enamel, which forms dental armor, it offers the best source of DNA for reliable genetic type in forensic science. This paper summarizes the recent literature on use of this technique in identification of unidentified human remains.

  14. Classification of pelvic ring fractures in skeletonized human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez-Molgado, Socorro; Bartelink, Eric J; Jellema, Lyman M; Spurlock, Linda; Sholts, Sabrina B

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic ring fractures are associated with high rates of mortality and thus can provide key information about circumstances surrounding death. These injuries can be particularly informative in skeletonized remains, yet difficult to diagnose and interpret. This study adapted a clinical system of classifying pelvic ring fractures according to their resultant degree of pelvic stability for application to gross human skeletal remains. The modified Tile criteria were applied to the skeletal remains of 22 individuals from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México that displayed evidence of pelvic injury. Because these categories are tied directly to clinical assessments concerning the severity and treatment of injuries, this approach can aid in the identification of manner and cause of death, as well as interpretations of possible mechanisms of injury, such as those typical in car-to-pedestrian and motor vehicle accidents. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Evidence of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in human skeletal remains from pre-Hispanic Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lavín, M; Mansilla, J; Pineda, C; Pijoán, C; Ochoa, P

    1994-02-01

    Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is one of the earliest recognized disease entities in the history of medicine. It has a peculiar periosteal proliferation distinctive from other bone diseases. In its advanced stage, it leaves an indelible mark on the skeleton. It has been recently shown that digital clubbing is accompanied by a bone remodeling process of the underlying phalanges. Thus, theoretically, this entity can be recognized in ancient human skeletal remains. We studied part of the collection of skeletal remains from pre-Hispanic Mesoamerica preserved at the National Museum of Anthropology of Mexico City. We examined 1000 specimens and found 2 skeletons with widespread, bilateral, symmetric periosteal proliferation of the tubular bones in addition to the bone remodeling changes of the distal phalanges. One of the specimens was from the Formative period (2000 B.C. to 100 A.D.). We conclude that hypertrophic osteoarthropathy can be recognized in ancient human skeletal remains and that this disease was present in Mesoamerica near the time of the original description of clubbing by Hippocrates about 2500 years ago.

  16. Middle Paleolithic and Uluzzian human remains from Fumane Cave, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Stefano; Bailey, Shara E; Peresani, Marco; Mannino, Marcello A; Romandini, Matteo; Richards, Michael P; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-05-01

    The site of Fumane Cave (western Lessini Mountains, Italy) contains a stratigraphic sequence spanning the Middle to early Upper Paleolithic. During excavations from 1989 to 2011, four human teeth were unearthed from the Mousterian (Fumane 1, 4, 5) and Uluzzian (Fumane 6) levels of the cave. In this contribution, we provide the first morphological description and morphometric analysis of the dental remains. All of the human remains, except for Fumane 6, are deciduous teeth. Based on metric data (crown and cervical outline analysis, and lateral enamel thickness) and non-metric dental traits (e.g., mid-trigonid crest), Fumane 1 (lower left second deciduous molar) clearly belongs to a Neandertal. For Fumane 4 (upper right central deciduous incisor), the taxonomic attribution is difficult due to heavy incisal wear. Some morphological features observed in Fumane 5 (lower right lateral deciduous incisor), coupled with the large size of the tooth, support Neandertal affinity. Fumane 6, a fragment of a permanent molar, does not show any morphological features useful for taxonomic discrimination. The human teeth from Fumane Cave increase the sample of Italian fossil remains, and emphasize the need to develop new methods to extract meaningful taxonomic information from deciduous and worn teeth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lower Bone Mass and Higher Bone Resorption in Pheochromocytoma: Importance of Sympathetic Activity on Human Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Jun; Kwak, Mi Kyung; Ahn, Seong Hee; Kim, Hyeonmok; Lee, Seung Hun; Song, Kee-Ho; Suh, Sunghwan; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Koh, Jung-Min

    2017-08-01

    Despite the apparent biological importance of sympathetic activity on bone metabolism in rodents, its role in humans remains questionable. To clarify the link between the sympathetic nervous system and the skeleton in humans. Among 620 consecutive subjects with newly diagnosed adrenal incidentaloma, 31 patients with histologically confirmed pheochromocytoma (a catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumor) and 280 patients with nonfunctional adrenal incidentaloma were defined as cases and controls, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, subjects with pheochromocytoma had 7.2% lower bone mass at the lumbar spine and 33.5% higher serum C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX) than those without pheochromocytoma (P = 0.016 and 0.001, respectively), whereas there were no statistical differences between groups in bone mineral density (BMD) at the femur neck and total hip and in serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSALP) level. The odds ratio (OR) for lower BMD at the lumbar spine in the presence of pheochromocytoma was 3.31 (95% confidence interval, 1.23 to 8.56). However, the ORs for lower BMD at the femur neck and total hip did not differ according to the presence of pheochromocytoma. Serum CTX level decreased by 35.2% after adrenalectomy in patients with pheochromocytoma, whereas serum BSALP level did not change significantly. This study provides clinical evidence showing that sympathetic overstimulation in pheochromocytoma can contribute to adverse effects on human bone through the increase of bone loss (especially in trabecular bone), as well as bone resorption.

  18. Radiocarbon analysis of human remains: a review of forensic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2014-11-01

    Radiocarbon analysis of organic materials, with the comparison of values with those of the post-1950 modern bomb curve, has proven useful in forensic science to help evaluate the antiquity of evidence. Applications are particularly helpful in the study of human remains, especially with those displaying advanced decomposition of soft tissues. Radiocarbon analysis can reveal if the remains relate to the modern, post-1950 era and if so, also provide information needed to evaluate the death and birth date. Sample selection and interpretation of results must be guided by knowledge of the formation and remodeling of different human tissues, as well as contextual information and the approximate age at death of the individual represented. Dental enamel does not remodel and thus captures dietary radiocarbon values at the time of juvenile formation. Most other human tissues do remodel but at differing rates and therefore collectively offer key information relative to the estimation of the death date. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Stratigraphy and chronology of the WLH 50 human remains, Willandra Lakes World Heritage Area, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Rainer; Spooner, Nigel; Magee, John; Thorne, Alan; Simpson, John; Yan, Ge; Mortimer, Graham

    2011-05-01

    We present a detailed description of the geological setting of the burial site of the WLH 50 human remains along with attempts to constrain the age of this important human fossil. Freshwater shells collected at the surface of Unit 3, which is most closely associated with the human remains, and a carbonate sample that encrusted the human bone were analysed. Gamma spectrometry was carried out on the WLH 50 calvaria and TIMS U-series analysis on a small post-cranial bone fragment. OSL dating was applied to a sample from Unit 3 at a level from which the WLH 50 remains may have eroded, as well as from the underlying sediments. Considering the geochemistry of the samples analysed, as well as the possibility of reworking or burial from younger layers, the age of the WLH 50 remains lies between 12.2 ± 1.8 and 32.8 ± 4.6 ka (2-σ errors). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Upper Palaeolithic ritualistic cannibalism at Gough's Cave (Somerset, UK): The human remains from head to toe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Silvia M; Saladié, Palmira; Cáceres, Isabel; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Antonio; Parfitt, Simon A

    2015-05-01

    A recurring theme of late Upper Palaeolithic Magdalenian human bone assemblages is the remarkable rarity of primary burials and the common occurrence of highly-fragmentary human remains mixed with occupation waste at many sites. One of the most extensive Magdalenian human bone assemblages comes from Gough's Cave, a sizeable limestone cave set in Cheddar Gorge (Somerset), UK. After its discovery in the 1880s, the site was developed as a show cave and largely emptied of sediment, at times with minimal archaeological supervision. Some of the last surviving remnants of sediment within the cave were excavated between 1986 and 1992. The excavations uncovered intensively-processed human bones intermingled with abundant butchered large mammal remains and a diverse range of flint, bone, antler, and ivory artefacts. New ultrafiltrated radiocarbon determinations demonstrate that the Upper Palaeolithic human remains were deposited over a very short period of time, possibly during a series of seasonal occupations, about 14,700 years BP (before present). The human remains have been the subject of several taphonomic studies, culminating in a detailed reanalysis of the cranial remains that showed they had been carefully modified to make skull-cups. Our present analysis of the postcrania has identified a far greater degree of human modification than recorded in earlier studies. We identify extensive evidence for defleshing, disarticulation, chewing, crushing of spongy bone, and the cracking of bones to extract marrow. The presence of human tooth marks on many of the postcranial bones provides incontrovertible evidence for cannibalism. In a wider context, the treatment of the human corpses and the manufacture and use of skull-cups at Gough Cave have parallels with other Magdalenian sites in central and western Europe. This suggests that cannibalism during the Magdalenian was part of a customary mortuary practice that combined intensive processing and consumption of the bodies with

  1. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.

    2001-10-01

    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  2. The Effects of Soil Texture on the Ability of Human Remains Detection Dogs to Detect Buried Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michael B; Hodges, Theresa K; Wescott, Daniel J; Aitkenhead-Peterson, Jacqueline A

    2016-05-01

    Despite technological advances, human remains detection (HRD) dogs still remain one of the best tools for locating clandestine graves. However, soil texture may affect the escape of decomposition gases and therefore the effectiveness of HDR dogs. Six nationally credentialed HRD dogs (three HRD only and three cross-trained) were evaluated on novel buried human remains in contrasting soils, a clayey and a sandy soil. Search time and accuracy were compared for the clayey soil and sandy soil to assess odor location difficulty. Sandy soil (p < 0.001) yielded significantly faster trained response times, but no significant differences were found in performance accuracy between soil textures or training method. Results indicate soil texture may be significant factor in odor detection difficulty. Prior knowledge of soil texture and moisture may be useful for search management and planning. Appropriate adjustments to search segment sizes, sweep widths and search time allotment depending on soil texture may optimize successful detection. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Skeletal Indicators of Shark Feeding on Human Remains: Evidence from Florida Forensic Anthropology Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michala K; Winburn, Allysha P; Burgess, George H

    2017-05-02

    This research examines a series of six Florida forensic anthropology cases that exhibit taphonomic evidence of marine deposition and shark-feeding activities. In each case, we analyzed patterns of trauma/damage on the skeletal remains (e.g., sharp-force bone gouges and punctures) and possible mechanisms by which they were inflicted during shark predation/scavenging. In some cases, shark teeth were embedded in the remains; in the absence of this evidence, we measured interdental distance from defects in the bone to estimate shark body length, as well as to draw inferences about the potential species responsible. We discuss similarities and differences among the cases and make comparisons to literature documenting diagnostic shark-inflicted damage to human remains from nearby regions. We find that the majority of cases potentially involve bull or tiger sharks scavenging the remains of previously deceased, adult male individuals. This scavenging results in a distinctive taphonomic signature including incised gouges in cortical bone. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Characterization of cultural remains associated to a human skeleton found at the site HMS Swift (1770)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, M. S.; Gómez, B. A.; Parera, S. D.; Elkin, D.; De Rosa, H.; Ciarlo, N. C.; Svoboda, H.

    2010-08-01

    Different types of materials found in association with a human skeleton found in an 18th century shipwreck in Patagonia (Argentina) were analyzed by means of OM, SEM-EDX, HPLC, and chemical analysis. Alizarin and purpurin, the main anthraquinones of the dye plant Rubia tinctorum L. (madder) were identified as the coloring matter of a red fabric attached to the skeleton. Metallographic and chemical analysis of one of the dome-shaped buttons associated to the human bones revealed that it was composed of a Pb-Sn-Cu alloy known as pewter. The results obtained support the hypothesis that the remains originally were part of a private marine uniform.

  5. Estudio metodológico-comparativo de densidad mineral ósea de restos humanos por Absorciometría Fotónica (DXA Methodological-comparative study of human remains bone mineral density values obtained by Photonic Absorptiometry (DXA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Suby

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La densidad mineral ósea ha sido identificada como una de las propiedades de los huesos que mediatiza la acción de los agentes y procesos tafonómicos (meteorización, atrición, etc. sobre los conjuntos arqueológicos. En los últimos años se han planteado algunos problemas en torno a las metodologías empleadas para el análisis de densidad mineral ósea y su aplicación en arqueología. En el presente trabajo, se comparan los resultados generados a través de dos métodos diferentes de obtención de valores de densidad mineral ósea mediante la técnica de Absorciometría Fotónica de Rayos X, empleados anteriormente por otros autores. Si bien el estudio de las Propiedades Óseas Intrínsecas (forma, tamaño y densidad mineral ósea, entre otros factores ha sido vinculado anteriormente a la tafonomía de restos faunísticos, son escasos los trabajos que estudian estos aspectos sobre el registro biológico humano. En este sentido se discute la aplicación de información biomecánica a conjuntos arqueológicos humanos, como indicador de la acción de procesos tafonómicos ligados a la densidad mineral ósea.Bone mineral density (BMD has been identified as a one of the bone properties that mediate the action of agents and taphonomic processes (weathering, attrition, etc. on archaeological assemblages. In recent years, several problems have been described for methods of BMD evaluation and their application in archaeology. In this paper, results are compared of two different Photon Abpsortiometric methods (DXA to obtain BMD values. Furthermore, their application is interpreted for two human bone assemblages from Tierra del Fuego. Even though BMD information was interpreted in the past from many faunal assemblages, this kind of information has only been included in a few studies related to human remains that analyze bone structure as a taphonomic indicator. In this sense, the application of biomechanical information to human bone assemblages

  6. Bona fide colour: DNA prediction of human eye and hair colour from ancient and contemporary skeletal remains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Draus-Barini (Jolanta); S. Walsh (Susan); E. Pośpiech (Ewelina); T. Kupiec (Tomasz); H. Głab (Henryk); W. Branicki (Wojciech); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: DNA analysis of ancient skeletal remains is invaluable in evolutionary biology for exploring the history of species, including humans. Contemporary human bones and teeth, however, are relevant in forensic DNA analyses that deal with the identification of perpetrators, missing

  7. Bona fide colour: DNA prediction of human eye and hair colour from ancient and contemporary skeletal remains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Draus-Barini (Jolanta); S. Walsh (Susan); E. Pośpiech (Ewelina); T. Kupiec (Tomasz); H. Głab (Henryk); W. Branicki (Wojciech); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: DNA analysis of ancient skeletal remains is invaluable in evolutionary biology for exploring the history of species, including humans. Contemporary human bones and teeth, however, are relevant in forensic DNA analyses that deal with the identification of perpetrators, missing

  8. Diagnostic dry bone histology in human paleopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, H H Hans; Van der Merwe, A E Lida

    2016-10-01

    Paleopathology is the study of trauma and disease as may be observed in ancient (human) remains. In contrast to its central role in current medical practice, microscopy plays a rather modest role in paleopathology. This is at least partially due to the differences between fresh and decomposed (i.e., skeletonized or "dry bone") tissue samples. This review discusses these differences and describes how they affect the histological analysis of paleopathological specimens. First, we provide a summary of some general challenges related to the histological analysis of palaeopathological specimens. Second, the reader is introduced in bone tissue histology and bone tissue dynamics. The remainder of the paper is dedicated to the diagnostic value of dry bone histology. Its value and limitations are illustrated by comparing several well-studied paleopathological cases with similar contemporary, clinical cases. This review illustrates that due to post-mortem loss of soft tissue, a limited number of disorders display pathognomonic features during histological analysis of skeletonized human remains. In the remainder of cases, histology may help to narrow down the differential diagnosis or is diagnostically unspecific. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary diagnostic approach therefore remains essential. Clin. Anat. 29:831-843, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains were..., Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in consultation with representatives...

  10. Estimation of the pre-burning condition of human remains in forensic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, D; Cunha, E; Thompson, T J U

    2015-09-01

    The determination of the original condition of human remains prior to burning is critical since it may facilitate the reconstruction of circumstances surrounding death in forensic cases. Although the use of heat-induced bone changes is not a completely reliable proxy for determining pre-burning conditions, it is not completely devoid of potential, as we can observe a clear difference in the occurrence of such features between the fleshed and dry bones. In order to quantify this difference and determine its true value for forensic research, the frequencies of heat-induced warping and thumbnail fractures were documented on modern cremations of cadavers from recently deceased individuals and from the cremations of skeletons previously inhumed. The effect of age, sex, time span from death to cremation, duration and temperature of combustion on those frequencies was statistically investigated. Results demonstrated that the heat-induced features were significantly more frequent in the sample of cadavers. In addition, warping was determined to be the most useful indicator of the pre-burning condition of human remains. Temperature of combustion was the only variable having a significant effect on the frequency of both features, suggesting that fluctuation of temperature, along with collagen preservation and recrystallization of the inorganic phase, is paramount for their occurrence. Both warping and thumbnail fractures may eventually be used for the estimation of the pre-burning condition of human remains in lack of other indicators, but their reliability is far from absolute. Ideally, such inference must be supported by other data such as skeletal representation, objects or defleshing marks on the bones.

  11. A foetal tile from an archaeological site: anthropological investigation of human remains recovered in a medieval cemetery in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Marta; Rossetti, Chiara; Tosi, Adelaide; Badino, Paola

    2017-04-24

    The recovery of foetal remains is very sporadic in archaeology, especially due the scarce degree of bone mineralisation. This paper presents the singular archaeological discovery of a foetal tile preserving the bone remains, object of our anthropological examination. The foetal tile was discovered during an archaeological excavation in a medieval site (Northern Italy). The tile was analysed by CT scan and later, human remains were anthropologically examined. The archaeological investigation revealed a special ritual destined to foetuses while forensic anthropological analysis allowed estimating the gestational age near to 21-24 weeks.

  12. Estimating the postmortem interval of human skeletal remains by analyzing their optical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzik, V; Jung, T; Jellinghaus, K; Bohnert, M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to figure out a new practically applicable method to distinguish between historical and recent human skeletal remains. Therefore, the optical behavior of bone cross sections was investigated using the combination of two methods: a modification of an already established test (UV-induced fluorescence) and a new method (490 nm-induced fluorescence). We evaluated the areal extent of fluorescence of 30 bone cross sections with known postmortem interval (PMI) using ultraviolet light and 490 nm light. For analysis, the areal extend of fluorescent surface was determined using photos of the samples and an image editing software. The results prove that there is a correlation between PMI and the areal extent of fluorescent surface in both tests. Furthermore, the combination of both methods is a good indicator to distinguish within the forensic relevant post mortem interval between PMI  30 years.

  13. Nondestructive sampling of human skeletal remains yields ancient nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolnick, Deborah A; Bonine, Holly M; Mata-Míguez, Jaime; Kemp, Brian M; Snow, Meradeth H; LeBlanc, Steven A

    2012-02-01

    Museum curators and living communities are sometimes reluctant to permit ancient DNA (aDNA) studies of human skeletal remains because the extraction of aDNA usually requires the destruction of at least some skeletal material. Whether these views stem from a desire to conserve precious materials or an objection to destroying ancestral remains, they limit the potential of aDNA research. To help address concerns about destructive analysis and to minimize damage to valuable specimens, we describe a nondestructive method for extracting DNA from ancient human remains. This method can be used with both teeth and bone, but it preserves the structural integrity of teeth much more effectively than that of bone. Using this method, we demonstrate that it is possible to extract both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from human remains dating between 300 BC and 1600 AD. Importantly, the method does not expose the remains to hazardous chemicals, allowing them to be safely returned to curators, custodians, and/or owners of the samples. We successfully amplified mitochondrial DNA from 90% of the individuals tested, and we were able to analyze 1-9 nuclear loci in 70% of individuals. We also show that repeated nondestructive extractions from the same tooth can yield amplifiable mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. The high success rate of this method and its ability to yield DNA from samples spanning a wide geographic and temporal range without destroying the structural integrity of the sampled material may make possible the genetic study of skeletal collections that are not available for destructive analysis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Diagenetic signals from ancient human remains - bioarchaeological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostek, Krzysztof; Stepańczak, Beata; Szczepanek, Anita; Kępa, Małgorzata; Głąb, Henryk; Jarosz, Paweł; Włodarczak, Piotr; Tunia, Krzysztof; Pawlyta, Jacek; Paluszkiewicz, Czesława; Tylko, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary study examines the potential effects of diagenetic processes on the oxygen-isotope ratios of bone and tooth phosphate (δ18O) from skeletal material of individuals representing the Corded Ware Culture (2500-2400 BC) discovered in Malżyce (Southern Poland). Intra-individual variability of Ca/P, CI, C/P, collagen content (%) and oxygen isotopes was observed through analysis of enamel, dentin and postcranial bones. Using a variety of analytical techniques, it was found that, despite the lack of differences in soil acidity, not all the parts of a skeleton on a given site had been equally exposed to diagenetic post mortem changes. In a few cases, qualitative changes in the FTIR spectrum of analysed bones were observed. The data suggest that apart from quantitative analyses, i.e., the calculation of Ca/P, CI, C/P and collagen content, qualitative analyses such as examination of the absorbance line are recommended. The degree to which a sample is, contaminated on the basis of any additional, non-biogenic peaks, deemed to be contaminated should also be specified.

  15. Toenails as an alternative source material for the extraction of DNA from decomposed human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Andrew; Grimble, Katelyn; Azim, Arani; Owen, Rebecca; Hartman, Dadna

    2016-01-01

    The DNA identification of decomposed human remains for coronial investigations at the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine routinely requires the retrieval and processing of a bone sample obtained from the deceased. Bone is a difficult sample type to work with as it requires surgical removal from the deceased, refrigerated storage, and additional processing steps prior to DNA analysis in comparison to other samples types such as buccal swabs or blood stains. In an attempt to overcome the issues posed by bone, a DNA extraction method utilising toenails as an alternate source material was optimised and trialled. Two DNA extraction methods were optimised for digestion of toenail material, with the method utilising the QIAGEN DNA Investigator Kit selected for a casework trial. Single source DNA profiles, matching those of the conventional samples taken, were obtained for toenail samples collected from 28 of 30 coronial cases available for this study. Of these, 26 toenail samples produced full profiles. Although the overall DNA profile quality from the toenails was less than that of the conventional sample, the profiles from toenails met the reporting requirements for identification. Based on the results obtained, the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine will be implementing toenails as the primary sample type for collection from decomposed remains when blood is not a suitable sample type. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Towards a multidisciplinary practice for human remains: the conservation, collection, and display of human remains and objects made from them.©

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Towards a multidisciplinary practice for human remains: the conservation, collection, and display of human remains and objects made from them. This research discussion examines the breadth and complexity of a unique strand of museum collections, artefacts that often cross boundaries of classification, being defined as both material culture and human remains. It explores some of the controversial methods in which collections of human remains were amassed as well as the decision-making processe...

  17. A non-destructive method for dating human remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lail, Warren K.; Sammeth, David; Mahan, Shannon; Nevins, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The skeletal remains of several Native Americans were recovered in an eroded state from a creek bank in northeastern New Mexico. Subsequently stored in a nearby museum, the remains became lost for almost 36 years. In a recent effort to repatriate the remains, it was necessary to fit them into a cultural chronology in order to determine the appropriate tribe(s) for consultation pursuant to the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Because the remains were found in an eroded context with no artifacts or funerary objects, their age was unknown. Having been asked to avoid destructive dating methods such as radiocarbon dating, the authors used Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to date the sediments embedded in the cranium. The OSL analyses yielded reliable dates between A.D. 1415 and A.D. 1495. Accordingly, we conclude that the remains were interred somewhat earlier than A.D. 1415, but no later than A.D. 1495. We believe the remains are from individuals ancestral to the Ute Mouache Band, which is now being contacted for repatriation efforts. Not only do our methods contribute to the immediate repatriation efforts, they provide archaeologists with a versatile, non-destructive, numerical dating method that can be used in many burial contexts.

  18. Bone regeneration with cultured human bone grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, T.; Nakajima, H. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Pathology; Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Ohgushi, H.; Ueda, Y.; Takakura, Y. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Uemura, T.; Tateishi, T. [National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research (NAIR), Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Research Center; Enomoto, Y.; Ichijima, K. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Pathology

    2001-07-01

    From 73 year old female patient, 3 ml of bone marrow was collected from the ilium. The marrow was cultured to concentrate and expand the marrow mesenchymal cells on a culture dish. The cultured cells were then subculturedeither on another culture dish or in porous areas of hydroxyapatite ceramics in the presence of dexamethasone and beta-glycerophosphate (osteo genic medium). The subculturedtissues on the dishes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and subculturedtissues in the ceramics were implanted intraperitoneally into athymic nude mice. Vigorous growth of spindle-shaped cells and a marked formation of bone matrix beneath the cell layers was observed on the subculture dishes by SEM. The intraperitoneally implanted ceramics with cultured tissues revealed thick layer of lamellar bone together with active osteoblasts lining in many pore areas of the ceramics after 8 weeks. The in vitro bone formations on the culture dishes and in vivo bone formation in porous ceramics were detected. These results indicate that we can assemble an in vitro bone/ceramic construct, and due to the porous framework of the ceramic, the construct has osteogenic potential similar to that of autologous cancellous bone. A significant benefit of this method is that the construct can be made with only a small amount of aspirated marrow cells from aged patients with little host morbidity. (orig.)

  19. Human remains from Zhirendong, South China, and modern human emergence in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu; Jin, Chang-Zhu; Zhang, Ying-Qi; Cai, Yan-Jun; Xing, Song; Wu, Xiu-Jie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence; Pan, Wen-Shi; Qin, Da-Gong; An, Zhi-Sheng; Trinkaus, Erik; Wu, Xin-Zhi

    2010-11-09

    The 2007 discovery of fragmentary human remains (two molars and an anterior mandible) at Zhirendong (Zhiren Cave) in South China provides insight in the processes involved in the establishment of modern humans in eastern Eurasia. The human remains are securely dated by U-series on overlying flowstones and a rich associated faunal sample to the initial Late Pleistocene, >100 kya. As such, they are the oldest modern human fossils in East Asia and predate by >60,000 y the oldest previously known modern human remains in the region. The Zhiren 3 mandible in particular presents derived modern human anterior symphyseal morphology, with a projecting tuber symphyseos, distinct mental fossae, modest lateral tubercles, and a vertical symphysis; it is separate from any known late archaic human mandible. However, it also exhibits a lingual symphyseal morphology and corpus robustness that place it close to later Pleistocene archaic humans. The age and morphology of the Zhiren Cave human remains support a modern human emergence scenario for East Asia involving dispersal with assimilation or populational continuity with gene flow. It also places the Late Pleistocene Asian emergence of modern humans in a pre-Upper Paleolithic context and raises issues concerning the long-term Late Pleistocene coexistence of late archaic and early modern humans across Eurasia.

  20. Sr Isotopes and human skeletal remains, improving a methodological approach in migration studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis Pichardo, G.; Schaaf, P. E.; Hernandez, T.; Horn, P.; Manzanilla, L. R.

    2013-12-01

    Asserting mobility of ancient humans is a major issue for anthropologists. Sr isotopes are widely used in anthropological sciences to trace human migration histories from ancient burials. Sr in bone approximately reflects the isotopic composition of the geological region where the person lived before death; whereas the Sr isotopic system in tooth enamel is thought to remain as a closed system and thus conserves the isotope ratio acquired during childhood. A comparison of the 87Sr/86Sr ratios found in tooth enamel and in bone is performed to determine if the human skeletal remains belonged to a local or a migrant. Until now, tooth enamel was considered to be less sensitive to secondary Sr contamination due to its higher crystallinity and larger sizes of the biogenic apatites in comparison to that in bone and dentine. In the past, enamel as well as bone material was powdered, dissolved and analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). In this contribution we show, however, that simple dissolution of enamel frequently yields erroneous results. Tooth enamel is often affected by secondary strontium contamination processes such as caries or diagenetic and environmental input, which can change the original isotopic composition. To avoid these problems we introduced a pre-treatment and three-step leaching procedure in enamel samples. Leaching is carried out with acetic acid of different concentrations, yielding two leachates and one residue of each sample. Frequently the 87Sr/86Sr results of the three leachates display different values confirming that secondary contamination did occur. Several examples from Teotihuacan, central Mexico demonstrate that enamel 87Sr/86Sr without leaching can show correct biogenic values, but there is also a considerable probability for these values to represent a mixture of original and secondary Sr without significance for migration reconstructions. Only the residue value is interpreted by us as the representative ratio for

  1. Genetic Structure Analysis of Human Remains from Khitan Noble Necropolis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Ancient DNA was extracted from 13 skeletal remains from the burial groups of Khitan nobles, which were excavated in northeast China. The hypervariable segment I sequences ( HVS Ⅰ ) of the mitochondrial DNA control region, in the 13 individuals, were used as genetic markers to determine the genetic relationships between the individuals and the genetic affinity to other interrelated populations by using the known database of mtDNA. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of these ancient DNA sequences, the genetic structures of two Khitan noble kindreds were obtained, including the Yel Yuzhi's kindred and the Xiao He's kindred. Furthermore, the relationships between the Khitan nobles and some modern interrelated populations were analyzed. On the basis of the result of the analysis, the gene flows of the ancient Khitans and their demographic expansion in history was deduced.

  2. 75 FR 5108 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... possession and control of the University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository... notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by University of Wyoming,...

  3. 76 FR 14057 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... possession and control of the University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository... of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in...

  4. The Effect of Time on Bone Fluorescence: Implications for Using Alternate Light Sources to Search for Skeletal Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaraldahab, Mohamed A H; Christensen, Angi M

    2016-03-01

    Bones fluoresce when exposed to certain wavelengths of shortwave light, and this property can be useful in locating and sorting skeletal remains in forensic contexts. The proteins in bone collagen are largely responsible for its fluorescent properties, but these proteins degrade and denature over time. This study examined the fluorescence of bones from four temporal groups (recent, semi-recent, ancient, and historic) ranging from 0 to 1064 years before present. Specimens were photographed under 490 nm wavelength light, and fluorescence was quantified by converting intensity to a gray scale value based on the RGB color model using ImageJ(®) software. Significant (p fluorescence between all four temporal groups, and a 0.324 coefficient of correlation indicates a significant (inverse) relationship between fluorescence and time. Bone fluorescence decreases with time, but some fluorescence is retained even in older samples. Fluorescence can therefore be reliably used in many modern skeletal remains searches.

  5. Identification of human remains from the Second World War mass graves uncovered in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović, Damir; Hadžić Metjahić, Negra; Čakar, Jasmina; Džehverović, Mirela; Dogan, Serkan; Ferić, Elma; Džijan, Snježana; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Madžar, Tomislav; Rod, Eduard; Primorac, Dragan

    2015-06-01

    To present the results obtained in the identification of human remains from World War II found in two mass graves in Ljubuški, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Samples from 10 skeletal remains were collected. Teeth and femoral fragments were collected from 9 skeletons and only a femoral fragment from 1 skeleton. DNA was isolated from bone and teeth samples using an optimized phenol/chloroform DNA extraction procedure. All samples required a pre-extraction decalcification with EDTA and additional post-extraction DNA purification using filter columns. Additionally, DNA from 12 reference samples (buccal swabs from potential living relatives) was extracted using the Qiagen DNA extraction method. QuantifilerTM Human DNA Quantification Kit was used for DNA quantification. PowerPlex ESI kit was used to simultaneously amplify 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, and PowerPlex Y23 was used to amplify 23 Y chromosomal STR loci. Matching probabilities were estimated using a standard statistical approach. A total of 10 samples were processed, 9 teeth and 1 femoral fragment. Nine of 10 samples were profiled using autosomal STR loci, which resulted in useful DNA profiles for 9 skeletal remains. A comparison of established victims' profiles against a reference sample database yielded 6 positive identifications. DNA analysis may efficiently contribute to the identification of remains even seven decades after the end of the World War II. The significant percentage of positively identified remains (60%), even when the number of the examined possible living relatives was relatively small (only 12), proved the importance of cooperation with the members of the local community, who helped to identify the closest missing persons' relatives and collect referent samples from them.

  6. Observations on ca. 175-year old human remains from Antarctica (Cape Shirreff, Livingston Island, South Shetlands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D

    1999-04-01

    Information is presented on human remains from Antarctica and the circumstances under which they were found at Cape Shirreff (62 degrees 27' S., 60 degrees 47' W.), Livingston Island, South Shetlands. Support is given to the hypothesis that all the recovered bones belonged to the same person. A thorough anthropometric analysis revealed that the skull belonged to a mestizo female, 21 years of age, who may have hailed from the Chilean southern channels and whose arrival to Antarctica was possible aboard a sealer boat. Death appears to have occurred in the Antarctic during the sealing period (1819-1825). Signs of nutritional stress, anaemia, and an external otitis were identified. It is intended to use DNA analyses to prove that the femurs recovered in 1988 and 1993 belonged to the same person whose skull was found at Cape Shirreff in 1985.

  7. Dating human skeletal remains using 90Sr and 210Pb: case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Bettina; Uldin, Tanya; Mangin, Patrice; Bochud, François; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    In legal medicine, the post mortem interval (PMI) of interest covers the last 50 years. When only human skeletal remains are found, determining the PMI currently relies mostly on the experience of the forensic anthropologist, with few techniques available to help. Recently, several radiometric methods have been proposed to reveal PMI. For instance, (14)C and (90)Sr bomb pulse dating covers the last 60 years and give reliable PMI when teeth or bones are available. (232)Th series dating has also been proposed but requires a large amount of bones. In addition, (210)Pb dating is promising but is submitted to diagenesis and individual habits like smoking that must be handled carefully. Here we determine PMI on 29 cases of forensic interest using (90)Sr bomb pulse. In 12 cases, (210)Pb dating was added to narrow the PMI interval. In addition, anthropological investigations were carried out on 15 cases to confront anthropological expertise to the radiometric method. Results show that 10 of the 29 cases can be discarded as having no forensic interest (PMI>50 years) based only on the (90)Sr bomb pulse dating. For 10 other cases, the additional (210)Pb dating restricts the PMI uncertainty to a few years. In 15 cases, anthropological investigations corroborate the radiometric PMI. This study also shows that diagenesis and inter-individual difference in radionuclide uptake represent the main sources of uncertainty in the PMI determination using radiometric methods.

  8. Recovery Rates of Human Fetal Skeletal Remains Using Varying Mesh Sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokines, James T; De La Paz, Jade S

    2016-01-01

    Human fetal skeletal elements of different gestational ages were screened with multiple mesh sizes (6.4 mm [1/4 inch], 3.2 mm [1/8 inch], 2.0 mm, and 1.0 mm) to determine their recovery rates. All remains were previously macerated, and no significantly damaged elements were used. The 6.4 mm mesh allowed a large loss of elements (63.2% overall), including diagnostic elements, while no diagnostic elements were lost when the 1 mm mesh (0.2%) was used. When using the 3.2 mm mesh, 16.2% of the bones were lost, including some diagnostic elements (primarily tooth crowns), while 7.5% were lost using the 2.0 mm mesh. The authors recommend that the potential loss of information incurred when utilizing larger mesh sizes be taken into consideration when planning recovery methods where fetal remains may be encountered and that a minimum of 1.0 mm mesh be utilized in recovery contexts known to include fetal remains. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Middle pleistocene human remains from Tourville-la-Riviere (Normandy, France and their archaeological context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Faivre

    Full Text Available Despite numerous sites of great antiquity having been excavated since the end of the 19th century, Middle Pleistocene human fossils are still extremely rare in northwestern Europe. Apart from the two partial crania from Biache-Saint-Vaast in northern France, all known human fossils from this period have been found from ten sites in either Germany or England. Here we report the discovery of three long bones from the same left upper limb discovered at the open-air site of Tourville-la-Rivière in the Seine Valley of northern France. New U-series and combined US-ESR dating on animal teeth produced an age range for the site of 183 to 236 ka. In combination with paleoecological indicators, they indicate an age toward the end of MIS 7. The human remains from Tourville-la-Rivière are attributable to the Neandertal lineage based on morphological and metric analyses. An abnormal crest on the left humerus represents a deltoid muscle enthesis. Micro- and or macro-traumas connected to repetitive movements similar to those documented for professional throwing athletes could be origin of abnormality.

  10. 78 FR 27993 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... has corrected an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects published in a Notice of... control of these human remains and associated funerary objects should submit a written request to the...

  11. 76 FR 795 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains and associated... Trace Parkway, Tupelo, MS. The human remains and cultural items were removed from Claiborne County, MS...

  12. 78 FR 27994 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... has corrected an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects published in a Notice of... transfer of control of these human remains and associated funerary objects should submit a written request...

  13. 77 FR 11583 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects in the possession of San Diego State University, San Diego, CA. The human remains and cultural items were removed from the vicinity of...

  14. 77 FR 59659 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated....S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA. The ] human remains were removed from...

  15. 78 FR 25470 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... Parkway has corrected an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, published in a Notice... human remains and associated funerary objects under the control of the U.S. Department of the Interior...

  16. 77 FR 68825 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects in the Control of... of human remains and associated funerary objects in the possession of the U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, Coolidge, AZ. The human remains and...

  17. 78 FR 27995 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... these human remains and associated funerary objects should submit a written request to the U.S. Army... human remains and associated funerary objects to the lineal descendants, Indian tribes, or Native...

  18. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... unidentifiable human remains. (a) General. This section implements section 8(c)(5) of the Act and applies to...

  19. 76 FR 58037 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... Society (History Colorado) completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, and... cultural affiliation with the human remains should contact the Colorado Historical Society at the address...

  20. 78 FR 27992 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... has corrected an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects published in a Notice of... control of these human remains and associated funerary objects should submit a written request to the...

  1. Human fetal bone cells in delivery systems for bone engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Diene M H; Scaletta, Corinne; Jaccoud, Sandra; Hirt-Burri, Nathalie; Pioletti, Dominique P; Jaques, Bertrand; Applegate, Lee Ann

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to culture human fetal bone cells (dedicated cell banks of fetal bone derived from 14 week gestation femurs) within both hyaluronic acid gel and collagen foam, to compare the biocompatibility of both matrices as potential delivery systems for bone engineering and particularly for oral application. Fetal bone cell banks were prepared from one organ donation and cells were cultured for up to 4 weeks within hyaluronic acid (Mesolis®) and collagen foams (TissueFleece®). Cell survival and differentiation were assessed by cell proliferation assays and histology of frozen sections stained with Giemsa, von Kossa and ALP at 1, 2 and 4 weeks of culture. Within both materials, fetal bone cells could proliferate in three-dimensional structure at ∼70% capacity compared to monolayer culture. In addition, these cells were positive for ALP and von Kossa staining, indicating cellular differentiation and matrix production. Collagen foam provides a better structure for fetal bone cell delivery if cavity filling is necessary and hydrogels would permit an injectable technique for difficult to treat areas. In all, there was high biocompatibility, cellular differentiation and matrix deposition seen in both matrices by fetal bone cells, allowing for easy cell delivery for bone stimulation in vivo. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Bone invading NSCLC cells produce IL-7: mice model and human histologic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quarto Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone metastases are a common and dismal consequence of lung cancer that is a leading cause of death. The role of IL-7 in promoting bone metastases has been previously investigated in NSCLC, but many aspects remain to be disclosed. To further study IL-7 function in bone metastasis, we developed a human-in-mice model of bone aggression by NSCLC and analyzed human bone metastasis biopsies. Methods We used NOD/SCID mice implanted with human bone. After bone engraftment, two groups of mice were injected subcutaneously with A549, a human NSCLC cell line, either close or at the contralateral flank to the human bone implant, while a third control group did not receive cancer cells. Tumor and bone vitality and IL-7 expression were assessed in implanted bone, affected or not by A549. Serum IL-7 levels were evaluated by ELISA. IL-7 immunohistochemistry was performed on 10 human bone NSCLC metastasis biopsies for comparison. Results At 12 weeks after bone implant, we observed osteogenic activity and neovascularization, confirming bone vitality. Tumor aggressive cells implanted close to human bone invaded the bone tissue. The bone-aggressive cancer cells were positive for IL-7 staining both in the mice model and in human biopsies. Higher IL-7 serum levels were found in mice injected with A549 cells close to the bone implant compared to mice injected with A549 cells in the flank opposite to the bone implant. Conclusions We demonstrated that bone-invading cells express and produce IL-7, which is known to promote osteoclast activation and osteolytic lesions. Tumor-bone interaction increases IL-7 production, with an increase in IL-7 serum levels. The presented mice model of bone invasion by contiguous tumor is suitable to study bone-tumor cell interaction. IL-7 plays a role in the first steps of metastatic process.

  3. Assessing various Infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques for post-mortem interval evaluation of human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woess, Claudia; Unterberger, Seraphin Hubert; Roider, Clemens; Ritsch-Marte, Monika; Pemberger, Nadin; Cemper-Kiesslich, Jan; Hatzer-Grubwieser, Petra; Parson, Walther; Pallua, Johannes Dominikus

    2017-01-01

    Due to the influence of many environmental processes, a precise determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI) of skeletal remains is known to be very complicated. Although methods for the investigation of the PMI exist, there still remains much room for improvement. In this study the applicability of infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques such as reflection-, ATR- and Raman- microscopic imaging for the estimation of the PMI of human skeletal remains was tested. PMI specific features were identified and visualized by overlaying IR imaging data with morphological tissue structures obtained using light microscopy to differentiate between forensic and archaeological bone samples. ATR and reflection spectra revealed that a more prominent peak at 1042 cm-1 (an indicator for bone mineralization) was observable in archeological bone material when compared with forensic samples. Moreover, in the case of the archaeological bone material, a reduction in the levels of phospholipids, proteins, nucleic acid sugars, complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars was detectable at (reciprocal wavelengths/energies) between 3000 cm-1 to 2800 cm-1. Raman spectra illustrated a similar picture with less ν2PO43-at 450 cm-1 and ν4PO43- from 590 cm-1 to 584 cm-1, amide III at 1272 cm-1 and protein CH2 deformation at 1446 cm-1 in archeological bone material/samples/sources. A semi-quantitative determination of various distributions of biomolecules by chemi-maps of reflection- and ATR- methods revealed that there were less carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars in archaeological samples compared with forensic bone samples. Raman- microscopic imaging data showed a reduction in B-type carbonate and protein α-helices after a PMI of 3 years. The calculated mineral content ratio and the organic to mineral ratio displayed that the mineral content ratio increases, while the organic to mineral ratio decreases with time

  4. Assessing various Infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques for post-mortem interval evaluation of human skeletal remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roider, Clemens; Ritsch-Marte, Monika; Pemberger, Nadin; Cemper-Kiesslich, Jan; Hatzer-Grubwieser, Petra; Parson, Walther; Pallua, Johannes Dominikus

    2017-01-01

    Due to the influence of many environmental processes, a precise determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI) of skeletal remains is known to be very complicated. Although methods for the investigation of the PMI exist, there still remains much room for improvement. In this study the applicability of infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques such as reflection-, ATR- and Raman- microscopic imaging for the estimation of the PMI of human skeletal remains was tested. PMI specific features were identified and visualized by overlaying IR imaging data with morphological tissue structures obtained using light microscopy to differentiate between forensic and archaeological bone samples. ATR and reflection spectra revealed that a more prominent peak at 1042 cm-1 (an indicator for bone mineralization) was observable in archeological bone material when compared with forensic samples. Moreover, in the case of the archaeological bone material, a reduction in the levels of phospholipids, proteins, nucleic acid sugars, complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars was detectable at (reciprocal wavelengths/energies) between 3000 cm-1 to 2800 cm-1. Raman spectra illustrated a similar picture with less ν2PO43−at 450 cm-1 and ν4PO43− from 590 cm-1 to 584 cm-1, amide III at 1272 cm-1 and protein CH2 deformation at 1446 cm-1 in archeological bone material/samples/sources. A semi-quantitative determination of various distributions of biomolecules by chemi-maps of reflection- and ATR- methods revealed that there were less carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars in archaeological samples compared with forensic bone samples. Raman- microscopic imaging data showed a reduction in B-type carbonate and protein α-helices after a PMI of 3 years. The calculated mineral content ratio and the organic to mineral ratio displayed that the mineral content ratio increases, while the organic to mineral ratio decreases with

  5. Bona fide colour: DNA prediction of human eye and hair colour from ancient and contemporary skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draus-Barini, Jolanta; Walsh, Susan; Pośpiech, Ewelina; Kupiec, Tomasz; Głąb, Henryk; Branicki, Wojciech; Kayser, Manfred

    2013-01-14

    DNA analysis of ancient skeletal remains is invaluable in evolutionary biology for exploring the history of species, including humans. Contemporary human bones and teeth, however, are relevant in forensic DNA analyses that deal with the identification of perpetrators, missing persons, disaster victims or family relationships. They may also provide useful information towards unravelling controversies that surround famous historical individuals. Retrieving information about a deceased person's externally visible characteristics can be informative in both types of DNA analyses. Recently, we demonstrated that human eye and hair colour can be reliably predicted from DNA using the HIrisPlex system. Here we test the feasibility of the novel HIrisPlex system at establishing eye and hair colour of deceased individuals from skeletal remains of various post-mortem time ranges and storage conditions. Twenty-one teeth between 1 and approximately 800 years of age and 5 contemporary bones were subjected to DNA extraction using standard organic protocol followed by analysis using the HIrisPlex system. Twenty-three out of 26 bone DNA extracts yielded the full 24 SNP HIrisPlex profile, therefore successfully allowing model-based eye and hair colour prediction. HIrisPlex analysis of a tooth from the Polish general Władysław Sikorski (1881 to 1943) revealed blue eye colour and blond hair colour, which was positively verified from reliable documentation. The partial profiles collected in the remaining three cases (two contemporary samples and a 14th century sample) were sufficient for eye colour prediction. Overall, we demonstrate that the HIrisPlex system is suitable, sufficiently sensitive and robust to successfully predict eye and hair colour from ancient and contemporary skeletal remains. Our findings, therefore, highlight the HIrisPlex system as a promising tool in future routine forensic casework involving skeletal remains, including ancient DNA studies, for the prediction of

  6. Aplication of authenticity criteria in mitochondrial studies on archaic bone remains from a prehispanic Muisca population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Díaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ancient DNA (aDNAstudies can support hypotheses regarding ancient populations; molecular studies can analyze the local population’s genetic composition, minimizing biases introduced by later migrations, demographic expansions, mutations, and bottleneck effects. These analyses must be performed with special care because of the low DNA concentrations and contamination risk; therefore, it is necessary to establish protocols to guarantee the reproducibility and veracity of results. Objective: The present study aims to establish a protocol to obtain ancient DNA from 16 pre-Columbian bone samples found in an excavation performed in the area «Candelaria La Nueva» in Bogota, Colombia, dated in the period «Muisca Tardio». Methods: Four founder mitochondrial DNA Amerindian haplotypes were analyzed by high resolution restriction enzyme analyses, obtaining fragments between 121 and 186 base pairs (bp. Different analyses were performed following a strict control of authenticity criteria regarding laboratory conditions, including: positive and negative controls, reproducibility of results, and verification of particular characteristics present in ancient DNA. Results: Results obtained from the bone samples showed the exclusive presence of haplogroup A in the population studied. This data support the statement of the archaeologists of a single biological population in space and time. The distribution of this haplogroup in a 100% frequency supports the hypothesis of Chibcha genetic affiliation. Conclusion: The present study is a contribution to the study of genetic diversity in archaic American populations, allowing the integration of geographic and historic data with genetic characterization techniques associated with linguistic, ethnographic, and glottochronology patterns. Following the protocol proposed in the present study allows fulfilling authenticity criteria for ancient samples with the available techniques.

  7. The virtual approach to the assessment of skeletal injuries in human skeletal remains of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, Petra; Ross, Ann H; Jurda, Mikoláš; Šplíchalová, Ivana

    2017-07-01

    While assessing skeletal injuries in human skeletal remains, forensic anthropologists are frequently presented with fractured, fragmented, or otherwise modified skeletal remains. The examination of evidence and the mechanisms of skeletal injuries often require that separate osseous elements be permanently or temporarily reassembled or reconstructed. If not dealt with properly, such reconstructions may impede accurate interpretation of the evidence. Nowadays, routine forensic examinations increasingly incorporate digital imaging technologies. As a result, a variety of PC-assisted imaging techniques, collectively referred to as the virtual approach, have been made available to treat fragmentary skeletal remains. The present study employs a 3D virtual approach to assess mechanisms of skeletal injuries, and provides an expert opinion of causative tools in three forensic cases involving human skeletal remains where integrity was compromised by multiple peri- or postmortem alterations resulting in fragmentation and/or incompleteness. Three fragmentary skulls and an incomplete set of foot bones with evidence of perimortem fractures (gunshot wounds) and sharp force trauma (saw marks) were digitized using a desktop laser scanner. The digitized skeletal elements were reassembled in the virtual workspace using functionalities incorporated in AMIRA(®) version 5.0 software, and simultaneously in real physical space by traditional reconstructive approaches. For this study, the original skeletal fragments were substituted by replicas built by 3D printing. Inter-method differences were quantified by mesh-based comparison after the physically reassembled elements had been re-digitized. Observed differences were further reinforced by visualizing local variations using colormaps and other advanced 3D visualization techniques. In addition, intra-operator and inter-operator error was computed. The results demonstrate that the importance of incorporating the virtual approach into the

  8. Visitor Perceptions of Ancient Egyptian Human Remains in Three United Kindom Museums

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh Kilminster

    2003-01-01

    Although the issues of retention and display of human remains have become topical over the last decade, the thoughts of museum visitors about this topic have not been registered, despite their being the museums’ main stakeholder. The vast majority (82.5%) of 300 respondents questioned in the summer of 2002 at three British museums displaying ancient Egyptian human remains supported the idea of having these remains on display. However, a small percentage of visitors (14.2%) wanted the remains ...

  9. Dating human skeletal remains using a radiometric method: biogenic versus diagenetic 90Sr and 210Pb in vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Bettina; Uldin, Tanya; Mangin, Patrice; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2012-07-10

    In forensic science, there is a strong interest in determining the post-mortem interval (PMI) of human skeletal remains up to 50 years after death. Currently, there are no reliable methods to resolve PMI, the determination of which relies almost exclusively on the experience of the investigating expert. Here we measured (90)Sr and (210)Pb ((210)Po) incorporated into bones through a biogenic process as indicators of the time elapsed since death. We hypothesised that the activity of radionuclides incorporated into trabecular bone will more accurately match the activity in the environment and the food chain at the time of death than the activity in cortical bone because of a higher remodelling rate. We found that determining (90)Sr can yield reliable PMI estimates as long as a calibration curve exists for (90)Sr covering the studied area and the last 50 years. We also found that adding the activity of (210)Po, a proxy for naturally occurring (210)Pb incorporated through ingestion, to the (90)Sr dating increases the reliability of the PMI value. Our results also show that trabecular bone is subject to both (90)Sr and (210)Po diagenesis. Accordingly, we used a solubility profile method to determine the biogenic radionuclide only, and we are proposing a new method of bone decontamination to be used prior to (90)Sr and (210)Pb dating.

  10. Least destructive sampling of human remains using laser drilling for Sr isotope analysis by TIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmes, Malte; Moffat, Ian; Grün, Rainer; Armstrong, Richard; Kinsley, Les; McMorrow, Linda

    2013-04-01

    Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) measured in ancient human remains can be used to reconstruct migration patterns of ancient human populations. This application is based on the fact that different geologic regions have distinct Sr isotope signatures that are cycled through the soils, plants and rivers, and eventually enter the food cycle. Sr isotope ratios measured in skeletal remains (bones and teeth) reflect the average of dietary Sr that was consumed when the tissue was formed, allowing the investigation of human migration between geologically distinct terrains. The analysis of human remains is always a sensitive topic requiring minimal damage to the sample, while at the same time providing highly precise and accurate results. Samples can be analysed either by solution methods like thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), or by in-situ laser ablation MC-ICP-MS. For TIMS a drill is used to extract a small amount of sample, which is then digested in acid and Sr is separated out using ion exchange chromatography. This technique provides highly precise and accurate results, because any isobaric interferences are removed during chemical separation. The drawback is that drilling may cause visible damage to the sample, restricting access to precious human remains. LA-MC-ICP-MS analysis is very fast and nearly destruction free. However, the accuracy and precision of LA-MC-ICP-MS is limited by a number of factors including large instrumental mass discrimination, laser-induced isotopic and elemental fractionations and molecular interferences on 87Sr. Its application thus requires rigorous data reduction, which can introduce significant uncertainties into the analysis. This is especially true for samples with relatively low Sr concentrations such as human teeth (e.g., Woodhead et al., 2005; Horstwood et al., 2008; Vroon et al., 2008). In addition, LA-MC-ICP-MS has traditionally required a flat sample surface, thus an unbroken tooth needs to be cut, which is rather

  11. Early reversal cells in adult human bone remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelgawad, Mohamed Essameldin; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Hinge, Maja

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism coupling bone resorption and formation is a burning question that remains incompletely answered through the current investigations on osteoclasts and osteoblasts. An attractive hypothesis is that the reversal cells are likely mediators of this coupling. Their nature is a big matter...... of debate. The present study performed on human cancellous bone is the first one combining in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to demonstrate their osteoblastic nature. It shows that the Runx2 and CD56 immunoreactive reversal cells appear to take up TRAcP released by neighboring osteoclasts...... demonstrates that reversal cells colonizing bone surfaces right after resorption are osteoblast-lineage cells, and extends to adult human bone remodeling their role in rendering eroded surfaces osteogenic....

  12. Mummified remains from the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia - Reviewing peculiarities and limitations of human and non-human radiological identification and analysis in mummified remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaros, Anja; Janković, Ivor; Cavalli, Fabio; Ivanac, Gordana; Brkljačić, Boris; Čavka, Mislav

    2015-10-01

    Forensic protocols and medico-legal techniques are increasingly being employed in investigations of museological material. The final findings of such investigations may reveal interesting facts on historical figures, customs and habits, as well as provide meaningful data for forensic use. Herein we present a case review where forensic experts were requested to identify taxonomic affinities, stage of preservation and provide skeletal analysis of mummified non-human archaeological remains, and verify whether two mummified hands are human or not. The manuscript offers a short review on the process and particularities of radiological species identification, the impact of post-mortem changes in the analysis and imaging of mummified remains as well as the macroscopical interpretation of trauma, pathology and authenticity in mummified remains, which can all turn useful when dealing with forensic cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Taphonomic alterations by the rodent species woodland vole (Microtus pinetorum) upon human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokines, James T

    2015-12-01

    This forensic case report describes the taphonomic effects of woodland vole (Microtus pinetorum) upon a set of skeletonized human remains recovered in Massachusetts, USA. Remains of an individual of this rodent species were discovered where it had been nesting inside the human cranium. Fine, parallel grooves indicative of small rodent gnawing were noted on multiple postcranial elements, and all isolated grooves were consistent in size with the incisors of this species. Other taphonomic alterations to these remains include some gnawing damage and dispersal by large carnivores. This case represents the first report of this rodent species affecting human remains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Human remains in museums: research, preservation and communication. The experience of Turin University Museum of Anthropology and Etnography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boano, Rosa; Grilletto, Renato; Rabino Massa, Emma

    2013-01-01

    The creation of large scientific collections has been an important development for anthropological and paleopathological research. Indeed the biological collections are irreplaceable reference systems for the biological reconstruction of past population. They also assume the important role of anthropological archives and, in the global description of man, permit the integration of historical data with those from bio-anthropolgical research. Thinking about the role of mummies and bones as scientific resources, best practice of preservation of ancient specimens should be of high priority for institution and researchers. By way of example, the authors mention their experience regarding ancient human remains preserved in the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography at the University of Turin.

  15. "SINCE I MUST PLEASE THOSE BELOW": HUMAN SKELETAL REMAINS RESEARCH AND THE LAW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    The ethics of non-invasive scientific research on human skeletal remains are poorly articulated and lack a single, definitive analogue in western law. Laws governing invasive research on human fleshed remains, as well as bio-ethical principles established for research on living subjects, provide effective models for the establishment of ethical guidelines for non-invasive research on human skeletal remains. Specifically, non-invasive analysis of human remains is permissible provided that the analysis and collection of resulting data (1) are accomplished with respect for the dignity of the individual, (2) do not violate the last-known desire of the deceased, (3) do not adversely impact the right of the next of kin to perform a ceremonious and decent disposal of the remains, and (4) do not unduly or maliciously violate the privacy interests of the next of kin.

  16. The Paleoparasitology in Brazil and Findings in Human Remains from South America: A Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shênia Patrícia Corrêa Novo; Luiz Fernando Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    .... In sequence, it is made a presentation of parasitological findings on human remains found in archaeological sites in South America, highlighting Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Peru, where major discoveries have occurred...

  17. Scott's Lake Site/Santee Indian Mound/Fort Watson Human Remains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a generic dataset collected on human remains and funerary objects during Scott's Lake Site Excavation. Excavated by Dr. Leland G. Ferguson of SCIAA in 1973,...

  18. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Public Health Command; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Bock, Robert Eldon [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  19. Overexpression of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Laurel; Malone, Christine, C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Pichiapastoris expression system was utilized to produce functionally active human bone alkaline phosphatase in gram quantities. Bone alkaline phosphatase is a key enzyme in bone formation and biomineralization, yet important questions about its structural chemistry and interactions with other cellular enzymes in mineralizing tissues remain unanswered. A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase was constructed by deletion of the 25 amino acid hydrophobic C-terminal region of the encoding cDNA and inserted into the X-33 Pichiapastoris strain. An overexpression system was developed in shake flasks and converted to large-scale fermentation. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mgAL when cultured in shake flasks. Enzyme activity was 12U/mg measured by a spectrophotometric assay. Fermentation yielded 880mgAL with enzymatic activity of 968U/mg. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation is alkaline phosphatase. A purification scheme has been developed using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. We are currently screening crystallization conditions of the purified recombinant protein for subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  20. Field Documentation of Unusual Post-Mortem Arthropod Activity on Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Crippen, Tawni L; Tarone, Aaron M; Singh, Baneshwar; Lenhart, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    During a forensic investigation, the presence of physical marks on human remains can influence the interpretation of events related to the death of an individual. Some tissue injury on human remains can be misinterpreted as ante- or peri-mortem wounds by an investigator when in reality the markings resulted from post-mortem arthropod activity. Unusual entomological data were collected during a study examining the decomposition of a set of human remains in San Marcos, Texas. An adult female Pediodectes haldemani (Girard) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and an Armadillidium cf. vulgare (Isopoda: Armadilidiidae) were documented feeding on the remains. Both arthropods produced physical marks or artifacts on the remains that could be misinterpreted as attack, abuse, neglect, or torture. Additionally, red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were observed constructing structures in the mark produced by the P. haldemani feeding. These observations provide insight into the potential of post-mortem arthropod damage to human remains, which previously had not been described for these taxa, and therefore, physical artifacts on any remains found in similar circumstances may result from arthropod activity and not ante- or peri-mortem wounds. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Scavenging behavior of Lynx rufus on human remains during the winter months of Southeast Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippley, Angela; Larison, Nicole C; Moss, Kathryn E; Kelly, Jeffrey D; Bytheway, Joan A

    2012-05-01

    Animal-scavenging alterations on human remains can be mistaken as human criminal activity. A 32-day study, documenting animal scavenging on a human cadaver, was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas. A Stealth Cam Rogue IR was positioned near the cadaver to capture scavenging activity. An atypical scavenger, the bobcat, Lynx rufus, was recorded feeding on the cadaver. Scavenging by bobcats on human remains is not a predominant behavior and has minimal documentation. Scavenging behaviors and destruction of body tissues were analyzed. Results show that the bobcat did not feed on areas of the body that it does for other large animal carcasses. Results also show the bobcat feeds similarly during peak and nonpeak hours. Understanding the destruction of human tissue and covering of the body with leaf debris may aid forensic anthropologists and pathologists in differentiating between nefarious human activity and animal scavenging. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Age changes in human bone: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, W.D.

    1977-12-03

    The human skeleton steadily changes structure and mass during life because of a variety of internal and external factors. Extracellular substance and bone cells get old, characteristic structural remodeling occurs with age and these age-related changes are important in the discrimination between pathological and physiological changes. Perhaps 20 percent of the bone mass is lost between the fourth and the ninth decades, osteoblasts function less efficiently and gradual loss of bone substance is enhanced by delayed mineralization of an increased surface area of thin and relatively less active osteoid seams. After the fifth decade, osteoclasia and the number of Howship's lacunae increase, and with age, the number of large osteolytic osteocytes increases as the number of small osteocytes declines and empty osteocyte lacunae become more common. The result is greater liability to fracture and diminished healing or replacement of injured bone.

  3. Ethical Issues Surrounding the Use of Modern Human Remains for Research in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briers, N; Dempers, J J

    2017-02-01

    Chapter 8 of the South African National Health Act 61 of 2003 (NHA) that deals with the donation of human tissue was promulgated in 2012. The new Act is perceived to impose restrictions on low-risk research involving human remains. This study aimed to identify the issues raised by a research ethics committee (REC) when reviewing protocols where human remains are used as data source. REC minutes from 2009 to 2014 were reviewed, and issues raised by the committee were categorized. In total, 127 protocols submitted to the committee over 6 years involved human remains. Queries relating to science (22.2%) and administration (18.9%) were the most common, whereas queries relating to legal issues constituted only 10.2%. Ethical issues centered on informed consent regarding sensitive topics such as HIV, DNA, and deceased children. The change in legislation did not change the number or type of legal issues identified by the REC.

  4. Bioarchaeological Analysis of the Human Skeletal Remains from the Late Mediaeval Cemetery of Koprivno, Southern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Novak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of bioarchaeological analysis of the late mediaeval (13th-14th century skeletal sample from Koprivno, southern Croatia. Skeletal remains of 21 individuals (eight males, nine females, and four subadults were examined for the possible presence of dental pathologies (caries and alveolar bone diseases, subadult stress indicators (cribra orbitalia and dental enamel hypoplasia, degenerative osteoarthritis of the vertebrae and major joints, Schmorl’s nodes on vertebrae, periostitis, and bone trauma. The analysed sample is characterised by high frequency of alveolar bone disease, most probably as a result of somewhat longer average life span (around 41 years and very poor oral hygiene, while the data concerning dental caries indicate mixed diet evenly based on meat and cereals. High frequencies of cribra orbitalia, dental enamel hypoplasia and periostitis suggest frequent episodes of physiological stress (hunger, epidemics of infectious diseases which is in accordance with historical data. Distribution and prevalence of cranial traumas strongly suggest a relatively high degree of interpersonal violence in the analysed community.

  5. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena

    2016-03-01

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Results Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner’s syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen.

  6. The Early Aurignacian human remains from La Quina-Aval (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verna, Christine; Dujardin, Véronique; Trinkaus, Erik

    2012-05-01

    There is a dearth of diagnostic human remains securely associated with the Early Aurignacian of western Europe, despite the presence of similarly aged early modern human remains from further east. One small and fragmentary sample of such remains consists of the two partial immature mandibles plus teeth from the Early Aurignacian of La Quina-Aval, Charente, France. The La Quina-Aval 4 mandible exhibits a prominent anterior symphyseal tuber symphyseos on a vertical symphysis and a narrow anterior dental arcade, both features of early modern humans. The dental remains from La Quina-Aval 1 to 4 (a dm(1), 2 dm(2), a P(4) and a P(4)) are unexceptional in size and present occlusal configurations that combine early modern human features with a few retained ancestral ones. Securely dated to ~33 ka (14)C BP (~38 ka cal BP), these remains serve to confirm the association of early modern humans with the Early Aurignacian in western Europe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena [University of Insubria (Varese), Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Varese (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner's syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen. (orig.)

  8. Study of dental occlusion in ancient human remains: a methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorin, Elena; Cadafalch, Joan; Ceperuelo, Dolors; Adserias Adserias, Maria José; Chimenos-Küstner, Eduard; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2014-09-01

    The anthropological dental and maxillary study in human skeletal remains usually refers to alterations or conditions of the oral cavity. These alterations could have repercussions on life style, dietary habits and diseases. In this particular context, dental occlusion is not often analyzed due to the fragmented condition of the remains, and especially due to the lack of methodology adapted to study ancient remains. The aim of this study is to propose an anthropological method based on clinical dental practice. In the method presented in this work, odontological parameters such as overjet, overbite, and Angle's Classification of Malocclusion, are evaluated.

  9. Application of the Stephan et al. Chest Radiograph Comparison Method to Decomposed Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Mariyam I; Hefner, Joseph T; Markey, Michael A

    2017-09-01

    This manuscript describes the use of comparative radiography of the chest to facilitate positive identification of human remains in advanced stages of decomposition. The method reported by Stephan et al. for positive identification of dry, disarticulated skeletal elements was used on semifleshed, decomposing remains. Positive identification was established through multiple points of concordance observed in radiographs of the left and right clavicles and the C5-T1 vertebrae. This case study demonstrates the applicability of the Stephan et al.'s method in cases involving decomposing remains. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Stable isotopic analysis on ancient human bones in Jiahu site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YaoWu; S.H.AMBROSE; WANG ChangSui

    2007-01-01

    Palaeodietary analysis is one of important topics in bioarchaeology field and has been paid great attention to by Chinese archaeometrists recently. Ancient human bones in Jiahu Site were analyzed by means of stable isotopes of C, N and 0.13 human bones were excluded from 28 bones for dietary reconstruction due to their unusual collagen contents, C and N contents, and C/N atomic ratios especially.δ13C(-20.37±0.53‰)in collagen of remaining samples showed that C3 food were consumed mainly, which is consistent of the archaeological findings that rice was the staple in Jiahu. According to the difference of δ15N and δ13C values in bone collagen, the samples can be classified into four clusters. The changes of δ15N values in bone collagen and δ13C values in hydroxylapatite through whole cultural phases indicated the transition from hunting to gathering and fishing to rice agriculture and animal domestication ultimately. Meanwhile, the δ18O change in hydroxylapatite showed that palaeoclimate was relatively constant during Jiahu culture.

  11. Stable isotopic analysis on ancient human bones in Jiahu site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.H.AMBROSE

    2007-01-01

    Palaeodietary analysis is one of important topics in bioarchaeology field and has been paid great at- tention to by Chinese archaeometrists recently. Ancient human bones in Jiahu Site were analyzed by means of stable isotopes of C, N and O. 13 human bones were excluded from 28 bones for dietary re- construction due to their unusual collagen contents, C and N contents, and C/N atomic ratios espe- cially. δ 13C (-20.37±0.53‰) in collagen of remaining samples showed that C3 food were consumed mainly, which is consistent of the archaeological findings that rice was the staple in Jiahu. According to the difference of δ 15N and δ 13C values in bone collagen, the samples can be classified into four clusters. The changes of δ 15N values in bone collagen and δ 13C values in hydroxylapatite through whole cultural phases indicated the transition from hunting to gathering and fishing to rice agriculture and animal domestication ultimately. Meanwhile, the δ 18O change in hydroxylapatite showed that pa- laeoclimate was relatively constant during Jiahu culture.

  12. Emerging bone problems in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondy, Kristin; Tebas, Pablo

    2003-04-01

    Recently, a high incidence of osteopenia and osteoporosis has been observed in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This problem appears to be more frequent in patients receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. Other bone-related complications in HIV-infected individuals, including avascular necrosis of the hip and compression fracture of the lumbar spine, have also been reported. People living with HIV have significant alterations in bone metabolism, regardless of whether they are receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. The underlying mechanisms to account for these observations remain unknown, although studies are underway to examine the relationship between the bone abnormalities and other complications associated with HIV and antiretroviral therapy. HIV-infected patients with osteopenia or osteoporosis should be treated similarly to HIV-seronegative patients with appropriate use of nutritional supplements (calcium and vitamin D) and exercise. Hormone replacement and antiresorptive therapies might be also indicated.

  13. Decontamination and management of human remains following incidents of hazardous chemical release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Veronique D; Watson, Annetta; Bock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To provide specific guidance and resources for systematic and orderly decontamination of human remains resulting from a chemical terrorist attack or accidental chemical release. A detailed review and health-based decision criteria protocol is summarized. Protocol basis and logic are derived from analyses of compound-specific toxicological data and chemical/physical characteristics. Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present, such as sites of transportation accidents, terrorist operations, or medical examiner processing points. Guidance is developed from data-characterizing controlled experiments with laboratory animals, fabrics, and materiel. Logic and specific procedures for decontamination and management of remains, protection of mortuary affairs personnel, and decision criteria to determine when remains are sufficiently decontaminated are presented. Established procedures as well as existing materiel and available equipment for decontamination and verification provide reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from chemically exposed remains. Unique scenarios such as those involving supralethal concentrations of certain liquid chemical warfare agents may prove difficult to decontaminate but can be resolved in a timely manner by application of the characterized systematic approaches. Decision criteria and protocols to "clear" decontaminated remains for transport and processing are also provided. Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for management of remains and release can be followed.

  14. Evolutionary anthropology and genes: investigating the genetics of human evolution from excavated skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Evilena; Mitchell, Piers D

    2013-10-01

    The development of molecular tools for the extraction, analysis and interpretation of DNA from the remains of ancient organisms (paleogenetics) has revolutionised a range of disciplines as diverse as the fields of human evolution, bioarchaeology, epidemiology, microbiology, taxonomy and population genetics. The paper draws attention to some of the challenges associated with the extraction and interpretation of ancient DNA from archaeological material, and then reviews the influence of paleogenetics on the field of human evolution. It discusses the main contributions of molecular studies to reconstructing the evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships between extinct hominins (human ancestors) and anatomically modern humans. It also explores the evidence for evolutionary changes in the genetic structure of anatomically modern humans in recent millennia. This breadth of research has led to discoveries that would never have been possible using traditional approaches to human evolution.

  15. An Upper Palaeolithic engraved human bone associated with ritualistic cannibalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Silvia M; Wallduck, Rosalind; Parfitt, Simon A; Stringer, Chris B

    2017-01-01

    Cut-marked and broken human bones are a recurrent feature of Magdalenian (~17-12,000 years BP, uncalibrated dates) European sites. Human remains at Gough's Cave (UK) have been modified as part of a Magdalenian mortuary ritual that combined the intensive processing of entire corpses to extract edible tissues and the modification of skulls to produce skull-cups. A human radius from Gough's Cave shows evidence of cut marks, percussion damage and human tooth marks, indicative of cannibalism, as well as a set of unusual zig-zagging incisions on the lateral side of the diaphysis. These latter incisions cannot be unambiguously associated with filleting of muscles. We compared the macro- and micro-morphological characteristics of these marks to over 300 filleting marks on human and non-human remains and to approximately 120 engraved incisions observed on two artefacts from Gough's Cave. The new macro- and micro-morphometric analyses of the marks, as well as further comparisons with French Middle Magdalenian engraved artefacts, suggest that these modifications are the result of intentional engraving. The engraved motif comfortably fits within a Magdalenian pattern of design; what is exceptional in this case, however, is the choice of raw material (human bone) and the cannibalistic context in which it was produced. The sequence of the manipulations suggests that the engraving was a purposeful component of the cannibalistic practice, implying a complex ritualistic funerary behaviour that has never before been recognized for the Palaeolithic period.

  16. DNA Identification of Commingled Human Remains from the Cemetery Relocated by Flooding in Central Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čakar, Jasmina; Pilav, Amela; Džehverović, Mirela; Ahatović, Anesa; Haverić, Sanin; Ramić, Jasmin; Marjanović, Damir

    2017-05-11

    The floods in Bosnia and Herzegovina in May 2014 caused landslides all over the country. In the small village of Šerići, near the town of Zenica, a landslide destroyed the local cemetery, relocated graves, and commingled skeletal remains. As the use of other physical methods of identification (facial recognition, fingerprint analysis, dental analysis, etc.) was not possible, DNA analysis was applied. DNA was isolated from 20 skeletal remains (bone and tooth samples) and six reference samples (blood from living relatives) and amplified using PowerPlex(®) Fusion and PowerPlex(®) Y23 kits. DNA profiles were generated for all reference samples and 17 skeletal remains. A statistical analysis (calculation of paternity, maternity, and sibling indexes and matching probabilities) resulted in 10 positive identifications. In this study, 5 individuals were identified based on one reference sample. This has once again demonstrated the significance of DNA analysis in resolving the most complicated cases, such as the identification of commingled human skeletal remains. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. The ambiguity of human ashes: Exploring encounters with cremated remains in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, B.M.H.P.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores cremation and disposal practices in the Netherlands, focusing on the attitudes and experiences of bereaved Dutch people in relation to cremated remains. In academic and professional narratives, human ashes are commonly described as “important,” as “sacred,” and as a vehicle to

  18. 78 FR 19303 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... pieces of cinder. In the Federal Register (66 FR 32846-32847, June 18, 2001), paragraph number 12 is... Federal Register (66 FR 32846-32847, June 18, 2001). A reassessment of the inventory during tribal... group identity with the human remains and associated funerary objects. In the Federal Register (66...

  19. Isolation of PCR ready-human DNA using copper nanoparticles from skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Anand; Ansari, Niha; Shah, Shahil; Rao, M V; Menon, Shobhana K

    2017-01-01

    Present study represents a novel approach of PCR ready-human DNA extraction method from skeletal remains using copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) for personnel identification. To achieve rapid, cost effective, sensitive and non-hazardous method for DNA extraction we utilized CuNPs synthesized using microwave. The applicability of this approach was first tested in blood samples and afterwards, this system was extended to skeletal remains' samples also. This method yields good quality DNA that are ready for PCR reactions from small quantities of blood and skeletal remains. Consequently, even small quantities of nanoparticles could be potentially utilized for a highly efficient isolation of DNA from skeletal remains as well as from ancient archaeological samples. The present method has the advantages that it is quick with high yield, inexpensive, robust, environment friendly and does not require use of hazardous organic solvents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Late Stone Age human remains from Ishango (Democratic Republic of Congo): New insights on Late Pleistocene modern human diversity in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevecoeur, I; Brooks, A; Ribot, I; Cornelissen, E; Semal, P

    2016-07-01

    Although questions of modern human origins and dispersal are subject to intense research within and outside Africa, the processes of modern human diversification during the Late Pleistocene are most often discussed within the context of recent human genetic data. This situation is due largely to the dearth of human fossil remains dating to the final Pleistocene in Africa and their almost total absence from West and Central Africa, thus limiting our perception of modern human diversification within Africa before the Holocene. Here, we present a morphometric comparative analysis of the earliest Late Pleistocene modern human remains from the Central African site of Ishango in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The early Late Stone Age layer (eLSA) of this site, dated to the Last Glacial Maximum (25-20 Ky), contains more than one hundred fragmentary human remains. The exceptional associated archaeological context suggests these remains derived from a community of hunter-fisher-gatherers exhibiting complex social and cognitive behaviors including substantial reliance on aquatic resources, development of fishing technology, possible mathematical notations and repetitive use of space, likely on a seasonal basis. Comparisons with large samples of Late Pleistocene and early Holocene modern human fossils from Africa and Eurasia show that the Ishango human remains exhibit distinctive characteristics and a higher phenotypic diversity in contrast to recent African populations. In many aspects, as is true for the inner ear conformation, these eLSA human remains have more affinities with Middle to early Late Pleistocene fossils worldwide than with extant local African populations. In addition, cross-sectional geometric properties of the long bones are consistent with archaeological evidence suggesting reduced terrestrial mobility resulting from greater investment in and use of aquatic resources. Our results on the Ishango human remains provide insights into past African modern

  1. Sexual dimorphism of the lateral angle of the internal auditory canal and its potential for sex estimation of burned human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, David; Thompson, Tim J U; Cunha, Eugénia

    2015-09-01

    The potential of the petrous bone for sex estimation has been recurrently investigated in the past because it is very resilient and therefore tends to preserve rather well. The sexual dimorphism of the lateral angle of the internal auditory canal was investigated in two samples of cremated Portuguese individuals in order to assess its usefulness for sex estimation in burned remains. These comprised the cremated petrous bones from fleshed cadavers (N = 54) and from dry and disarticulated bones (N = 36). Although differences between males and females were more patent in the sample of skeletons, none presented a very significant sexual dimorphism, thus precluding any attempt of sex estimation. This may have been the result of a difficult application of the method and of a differential impact of heat-induced warping which is known to be less frequent in cremains from dry skeletons. Results suggest that the lateral angle method cannot be applied to burned human skeletal remains.

  2. High genetic diversity on a sample of pre-Columbian bone remains from Guane territories in northwestern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Vargas, Andrea; Gómez, Alberto; Briceño, Ignacio; Díaz-Matallana, Marcela; Bernal, Jaime E; Rodríguez, José Vicente

    2011-12-01

    Ancient DNA was recovered from 17 individuals found in a rock shelter in the district of "La Purnia" (Santander, Colombia). This region is the homeland of pre-Columbian Guane, whom spread over the "Río Suarez" to the "Río de Oro", and were surrounded to the west by the Central Andes, south and east by foothills of Eastern Andes, and north by the "Chicamocha" river canyon. Guanes established in a region that straddles the Andes and the northern Amazon basin, possibly making it an unavoidable conduit for people moving to and from South America. We amplified mtDNA hypervariable region I (HVI) segments from ancient bone remains, and the resulting sequences were compared with both ancient and modern mitochondrial haplogroups from American and non-American populations. Samples showed a distribution of 35% for haplogroup A, 41% for haplogroup B and 24% for haplogroup D. Nine haplotypes were found in 17 samples, indicating an unusually high genetic diversity on a single site ancient population. Among them, three haplotypes have not been previously found in America, two are shared in Asia, and one is a private haplotype. Despite geographical barriers that eventually isolated them, an important influence of gene flow from neighboring pre-Columbian communities, mainly Muiscas, could explain the high genetic polymorphism of this community before the Spanish conquest, and argues against Guanes as being a genetic isolate.

  3. Osteoblast recruitment routes in human cancellous bone remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Helene B; Levin Andersen, Thomas; Marcussen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly proposed that bone forming osteoblasts recruited during bone remodeling originate from bone marrow perivascular cells, bone remodeling compartment canopy cells, or bone lining cells. However, an assessment of osteoblast recruitment during adult human cancellous bone remodeling......-terminal peptide versus osterix, and (ii) canopy cell densities, found to decline with age, and canopy-capillary contacts above eroded surfaces correlated positively with osteoblast density on bone-forming surfaces. Furthermore, we showed that bone remodeling compartment canopies arise from a mesenchymal envelope...

  4. A Re-Appraisal of the Early Andean Human Remains from Lauricocha in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Llamas, Bastien; Lindauer, Susanne; Tomasto-Cagigao, Elsa; Kuzminsky, Susan; Rohland, Nadin; Santos, Fabrício R; Kaulicke, Peter; Valverde, Guido; Richards, Stephen M; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Seidenberg, Verena; Mallick, Swapan; Cooper, Alan; Reich, David; Haak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of human remains from the Lauricocha cave in the Central Andean highlands in the 1960's provided the first direct evidence for human presence in the high altitude Andes. The skeletons found at this site were ascribed to the Early to Middle Holocene and represented the oldest known population of Western South America, and thus were used in several studies addressing the early population history of the continent. However, later excavations at Lauricocha led to doubts regarding the antiquity of the site. Here, we provide new dating, craniometric, and genetic evidence for this iconic site. We obtained new radiocarbon dates, generated complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear SNP data from five individuals, and re-analyzed the human remains of Lauricocha to revise the initial morphological and craniometric analysis conducted in the 1960's. We show that Lauricocha was indeed occupied in the Early to Middle Holocene but the temporal spread of dates we obtained from the human remains show that they do not qualify as a single contemporaneous population. However, the genetic results from five of the individuals fall within the spectrum of genetic diversity observed in pre-Columbian and modern Native Central American populations.

  5. A Re-Appraisal of the Early Andean Human Remains from Lauricocha in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzminsky, Susan; Rohland, Nadin; Santos, Fabrício R.; Kaulicke, Peter; Valverde, Guido; Richards, Stephen M.; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Seidenberg, Verena; Mallick, Swapan; Cooper, Alan; Reich, David; Haak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of human remains from the Lauricocha cave in the Central Andean highlands in the 1960’s provided the first direct evidence for human presence in the high altitude Andes. The skeletons found at this site were ascribed to the Early to Middle Holocene and represented the oldest known population of Western South America, and thus were used in several studies addressing the early population history of the continent. However, later excavations at Lauricocha led to doubts regarding the antiquity of the site. Here, we provide new dating, craniometric, and genetic evidence for this iconic site. We obtained new radiocarbon dates, generated complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear SNP data from five individuals, and re-analyzed the human remains of Lauricocha to revise the initial morphological and craniometric analysis conducted in the 1960’s. We show that Lauricocha was indeed occupied in the Early to Middle Holocene but the temporal spread of dates we obtained from the human remains show that they do not qualify as a single contemporaneous population. However, the genetic results from five of the individuals fall within the spectrum of genetic diversity observed in pre-Columbian and modern Native Central American populations. PMID:26061688

  6. Biomolecular identification of ancient Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA in human remains from Britain and continental Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Romy; Roberts, Charlotte A; Brown, Terence A

    2014-02-01

    Tuberculosis is known to have afflicted humans throughout history and re-emerged towards the end of the 20th century, to an extent that it was declared a global emergency in 1993. The aim of this study was to apply a rigorous analytical regime to the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) DNA in 77 bone and tooth samples from 70 individuals from Britain and continental Europe, spanning the 1st-19th centuries AD. We performed the work in dedicated ancient DNA facilities designed to prevent all types of modern contamination, we checked the authenticity of all products obtained by the polymerase chain reaction, and we based our conclusions on up to four replicate experiments for each sample, some carried out in an independent laboratory. We identified 12 samples that, according to our strict criteria, gave definite evidence for the presence of MTBC DNA, and another 22 that we classified as "probable" or "possible." None of the definite samples came from vertebrae displaying lesions associated with TB. Instead, eight were from ribs displaying visceral new bone formation, one was a tooth from a skeleton with rib lesions, one was taken from a skeleton with endocranial lesions, one from an individual with lesions to the sacrum and sacroiliac joint and the last was from an individual with no lesions indicative of TB or possible TB. Our results add to information on the past temporal and geographical distribution of TB and affirm the suitability of ribs for studying ancient TB.

  7. Cerebral water and ion balance remains stable when humans are exposed to acute hypoxic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avnstorp, Magnus B; Rasmussen, Peter; Brassard, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Avnstorp, Magnus B., Peter Rasmussen, Patrice Brassard, Thomas Seifert, Morten Overgaard, Peter Krustrup, Niels H. Secher, and Nikolai B. Nordsborg. Cerebral water and ion balance remains stable when humans are exposed to acute hypoxic exercise. High Alt Med Biol 16:000-000, 2015.-Background...... metabolism and increased an index of cerebral blood flow, but cerebral net water and ion homeostasis remained stable. Thus, although AMS develops within hours and may be related to exercise-induced disturbance of cerebral ion and water balance, such changes are not detectable when subjects are exposed...

  8. Dental erosion in archaeological human remains: A critical review of literature and proposal of a differential diagnosis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupal, Isabelle; Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz

    2017-09-18

    Although studies of dental wear on archaeological human remains have largely focused on mechanical wear (attrition and abrasion) in the past, chemical wear (erosion) is being increasingly identified as a separate form of wear. This paper aims to review the current state of research and to develop a protocol that may be universally used by biorchaeologists to specifically identify dental erosion. A critical review of literature has been done in order to highlight the issues related to diagnosis of dental erosion in archaeological human remains. The bodies of work based on the analysis of both modern and archaeological dentitions raise their separate problems. In addition to a need to re-evaluate symptoms of dental erosion, notably dentin 'cupping', it is apparent that no specific protocol is adapted from medical to archaeological sciences. Authors rather rely on tooth wear indices and photographs of modern clinical cases for diagnosis. Furthermore, the diagenetic chemical alternation has rarely been considered as a bias. Here we suggest a three-step protocol: the primary method is the microscopic identification of dental erosion by SEM, followed by the exclusion of taphonomic aetiology on surrounding bone and soil pH analysis. Archaeologists should also explore possible causative agents of wear using archaeological and historic knowledge about the population being analyzed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Indoors forensic entomology: colonization of human remains in closed environments by specific species of sarcosaprophagous flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L O; Karhunen, Pekka J; Goebeler, Sirkka; Saukko, Pekka; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2010-06-15

    Fly species that are commonly recovered on human corpses concealed in houses or other dwellings are often dependent on human created environments and might have special features in their biology that allow them to colonize indoor cadavers. In this study we describe nine typical cases involving forensically relevant flies on human remains found indoors in southern Finland. Eggs, larvae and puparia were reared to adult stage and determined to species. Of the five species found the most common were Lucilia sericata Meigen, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Protophormia terraenovae Robineau-Desvoidy. The flesh fly Sarcophaga caerulescens Zetterstedt is reported for the first time to colonize human cadavers inside houses and a COI gene sequence based DNA barcode is provided for it to help facilitate identification in the future. Fly biology, colonization speed and the significance of indoors forensic entomological evidence are discussed.

  10. More comprehensive forensic genetic marker analyses for accurate human remains identification using massively parallel DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambers, Angie D; Churchill, Jennifer D; King, Jonathan L; Stoljarova, Monika; Gill-King, Harrell; Assidi, Mourad; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-10-17

    Although the primary objective of forensic DNA analyses of unidentified human remains is positive identification, cases involving historical or archaeological skeletal remains often lack reference samples for comparison. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers an opportunity to provide biometric data in such cases, and these cases provide valuable data on the feasibility of applying MPS for characterization of modern forensic casework samples. In this study, MPS was used to characterize 140-year-old human skeletal remains discovered at a historical site in Deadwood, South Dakota, United States. The remains were in an unmarked grave and there were no records or other metadata available regarding the identity of the individual. Due to the high throughput of MPS, a variety of biometric markers could be typed using a single sample. Using MPS and suitable forensic genetic markers, more relevant information could be obtained from a limited quantity and quality sample. Results were obtained for 25/26 Y-STRs, 34/34 Y SNPs, 166/166 ancestry-informative SNPs, 24/24 phenotype-informative SNPs, 102/102 human identity SNPs, 27/29 autosomal STRs (plus amelogenin), and 4/8 X-STRs (as well as ten regions of mtDNA). The Y-chromosome (Y-STR, Y-SNP) and mtDNA profiles of the unidentified skeletal remains are consistent with the R1b and H1 haplogroups, respectively. Both of these haplogroups are the most common haplogroups in Western Europe. Ancestry-informative SNP analysis also supported European ancestry. The genetic results are consistent with anthropological findings that the remains belong to a male of European ancestry (Caucasian). Phenotype-informative SNP data provided strong support that the individual had light red hair and brown eyes. This study is among the first to genetically characterize historical human remains with forensic genetic marker kits specifically designed for MPS. The outcome demonstrates that substantially more genetic information can be obtained from

  11. Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch: initial development and preliminary performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iseli, A.M.; Kwen, H.D.; Ul-Alam, M.; Balasubramanian, M.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2011-11-07

    The objective is to produce a proof of concept prototype Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch (ECHRP) with self-decontamination capability to provide increased protection to emergency response personnel. The key objective was to decrease the concentration of toxic chemicals through the use of an absorbent and reactive nanocellulose liner. Additionally, nanomaterials with biocidal properties were developed and tested as a 'stand-alone' treatment. The setting was a private company research laboratory. The main outcome measures were production of a functional prototype. A functional prototype capable of mitigating the threats due to sulfur mustard, Soman, and a large variety of liquid and vapor toxic industrial chemicals was produced. Stand-alone biocidal treatment efficacy was validated. The ECHRP provides superior protection from both chemical and biological hazards to various emergency response personnel and human remains handlers.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of human remains from the Yuansha site in Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Idelisi; ABUDURESULE; Victor; H.; MAIR

    2008-01-01

    The Yuansha site is located in the center of the Taklimakan Desert of Xinjiang, in the southern Silk Road region. MtDNA was extracted from fifteen human remains excavated from the Yuansha site, dating back 2,000―2,500 years. Analysis of the phylogenetic tree and the multidimensional scaling (MDS) reveals that the Yuansha population has relatively close relationships with the modern populations of South Central Asia and Indus Valley, as well as with the ancient population of Chawuhu.

  13. THE LATE EARLY PLEISTOCENE HUMAN REMAINS FROM BUIA, DANAKIL DEPRESSION, ERITREA

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The Early Pleistocene sedimentary succession of the Dandiero (Buia) Basin (Danakil Depression, Eritrea) has preserved a rich paleontological, paleoanthropological, and archeological record. Fieldwork undertaken between 1995 and 2003 on a site at Uadi Aalad (Abbate et al. 1998) led to the discovery of one-million-year-old human remains. They consist of a cranium in excellent preservation condition (UA-31), two permanent teeth (UA-222 and UA-369), and three pelvic portions (UA-173, UA-405 and U...

  14. A code of ethics for evidence-based research with ancient human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreissl Lonfat, Bettina M; Kaufmann, Ina Maria; Rühli, Frank

    2015-06-01

    As clinical research constantly advances and the concept of evolution becomes a strong and influential part of basic medical research, the absence of a discourse that deals with the use of ancient human remains in evidence-based research is becoming unbearable. While topics such as exhibition and excavation of human remains are established ethical fields of discourse, when faced with instrumentalization of ancient human remains for research (i.e., ancient DNA extractions for disease marker analyses) the answers from traditional ethics or even more practical fields of bio-ethics or more specific biomedical ethics are rare to non-existent. The Centre for Evolutionary Medicine at the University of Zurich solved their needs for discursive action through the writing of a self-given code of ethics which was written in dialogue with the researchers at the Institute and was published online in Sept. 2011: http://evolutionäremedizin.ch/coe/. The philosophico-ethical basis for this a code of conduct and ethics and the methods are published in this article. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effects of Spaceflight on Bone: The Rat as an Animal Model for Human Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B.; Weider, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1999-01-01

    The loss of weight bearing during spaceflight results in osteopenia in humans. Decrements in bone mineral reach 3-10% after as little as 75-184 days in space. Loss of bone mineral during flight decreases bone strength and increases fracture risk. The mechanisms responsible for, and the factors contributing to, the changes in bone induced by spaceflight are poorly understood. The rat has been widely used as an animal model for human bone loss during spaceflight. Despite its potential usefulness, the results of bone studies performed in the rat in space have been inconsistent. In some flights bone formation is decreased and cancellous bone volume reduced, while in others no significant changes in bone occur. In June of 1996 Drs. T. Wronski, S. Miller and myself participated in a flight experiment (STS 78) to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on bone during weightlessness. Technically the 17 day flight experiment was flawless. The results, however, were surprising. Cancellous bone volume and osteoblast surface in the proximal tibial metaphysis were the same in flight and ground-based control rats. Normal levels of cancellous bone mass and bone formation were also detected in the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck of flight rats. Furthermore, periosteal bone formation rate was found to be identical in flight and ground-based control rats. Spaceflight had little or no effect on bone metabolism! These results prompted us to carefully review the changes in bone observed in, and the flight conditions of previous spaceflight missions.

  16. Effects of Spaceflight on Bone: The Rat as an Animal Model for Human Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B.; Weider, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1999-01-01

    The loss of weight bearing during spaceflight results in osteopenia in humans. Decrements in bone mineral reach 3-10% after as little as 75-184 days in space. Loss of bone mineral during flight decreases bone strength and increases fracture risk. The mechanisms responsible for, and the factors contributing to, the changes in bone induced by spaceflight are poorly understood. The rat has been widely used as an animal model for human bone loss during spaceflight. Despite its potential usefulness, the results of bone studies performed in the rat in space have been inconsistent. In some flights bone formation is decreased and cancellous bone volume reduced, while in others no significant changes in bone occur. In June of 1996 Drs. T. Wronski, S. Miller and myself participated in a flight experiment (STS 78) to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on bone during weightlessness. Technically the 17 day flight experiment was flawless. The results, however, were surprising. Cancellous bone volume and osteoblast surface in the proximal tibial metaphysis were the same in flight and ground-based control rats. Normal levels of cancellous bone mass and bone formation were also detected in the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck of flight rats. Furthermore, periosteal bone formation rate was found to be identical in flight and ground-based control rats. Spaceflight had little or no effect on bone metabolism! These results prompted us to carefully review the changes in bone observed in, and the flight conditions of previous spaceflight missions.

  17. Is the corticomedullary index valid to distinguish human from nonhuman bones: a multislice computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rérolle, Camille; Saint-Martin, Pauline; Dedouit, Fabrice; Rousseau, Hervé; Telmon, Norbert

    2013-09-10

    The first step in the identification process of bone remains is to determine whether they are of human or nonhuman origin. This issue may arise when only a fragment of bone is available, as the species of origin is usually easily determined on a complete bone. The present study aims to assess the validity of a morphometric method used by French forensic anthropologists to determine the species of origin: the corticomedullary index (CMI), defined by the ratio of the diameter of the medullary cavity to the total diameter of the bone. We studied the constancy of the CMI from measurements made on computed tomography images (CT scans) of different human bones, and compared our measurements with reference values selected in the literature. The measurements obtained on CT scans at three different sites of 30 human femurs, 24 tibias, and 24 fibulas were compared between themselves and with the CMI reference values for humans, pigs, dogs and sheep. Our results differed significantly from these reference values, with three exceptions: the proximal quarter of the femur and mid-fibular measurements for the human CMI, and the proximal quarter of the tibia for the sheep CMI. Mid-tibial, mid-femoral, and mid-fibular measurements also differed significantly between themselves. Only 22.6% of CT scans of human bones were correctly identified as human. We concluded that the CMI is not an effective method for determining the human origin of bone remains.

  18. X-ray, CT and DXA study of bone loss on medieval remains from North-West Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrè, Alda; Boano, Rosa; Di Stefano, Marco; Castiglione, Anna; Ciccone, Giovannino; Isaia, Giovanni Carlo; Panattoni, Gian Luigi; Faletti, Carlo

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the population differences in osteoporosis observed nowadays is a reflection of the times and modern lifestyle factors, or whether they were also present in the past. The study was performed on the skeletal remains of medieval and post-medieval populations from a burial ground in the North-West of Italy. Some individuals had been buried inside the church (privileged subjects), others outside in the parvis (members of rural population), and others still to the north of the church. X-ray, computed tomography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry studies were carried out on the lumbar spines and/or femurs of 27 male and 28 female individuals to determine any associations between cortical index, bone mineral density (BMD), gender, age and social status. No statistically significant differences were observed in cortical index values according to gender, age or place of burial. Conversely, statistically significant differences in average BMD values were observed according to place of burial; in particular, among those buried inside the church, a lower BMD was observed compared to the parvis group (1.09 vs. 1.42, p < 0.001) and the north group (1.09 vs. 1.49, p < 0.001). The differences observed in the BMD values may be related to the different lifestyle of the rural population, i.e. more dietary calcium intake, more sun exposure and vigorous physical activity, compared to that of the privileged individuals.

  19. Comparison of decomposition rates between autopsied and non-autopsied human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Lennon N; Wescott, Daniel J

    2016-04-01

    Penetrating trauma has been cited as a significant factor in the rate of decomposition. Therefore, penetrating trauma may have an effect on estimations of time-since-death in medicolegal investigations and on research examining decomposition rates and processes when autopsied human bodies are used. The goal of this study was to determine if there are differences in the rate of decomposition between autopsied and non-autopsied human remains in the same environment. The purpose is to shed light on how large incisions, such as those from a thorocoabdominal autopsy, effect time-since-death estimations and research on the rate of decomposition that use both autopsied and non-autopsied human remains. In this study, 59 non-autopsied and 24 autopsied bodies were studied. The number of accumulated degree days required to reach each decomposition stage was then compared between autopsied and non-autopsied remains. Additionally, both types of bodies were examined for seasonal differences in decomposition rates. As temperature affects the rate of decomposition, this study also compared the internal body temperatures of autopsied and non-autopsied remains to see if differences between the two may be leading to differential decomposition. For this portion of this study, eight non-autopsied and five autopsied bodies were investigated. Internal temperature was collected once a day for two weeks. The results showed that differences in the decomposition rate between autopsied and non-autopsied remains was not statistically significant, though the average ADD needed to reach each stage of decomposition was slightly lower for autopsied bodies than non-autopsied bodies. There was also no significant difference between autopsied and non-autopsied bodies in the rate of decomposition by season or in internal temperature. Therefore, this study suggests that it is unnecessary to separate autopsied and non-autopsied remains when studying gross stages of human decomposition in Central Texas

  20. Middle Pleistocene Human Remains from Tourville-la-Rivière (Normandy, France) and Their Archaeological Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Maureille, Bruno; Bayle, Priscilla; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Duval, Mathieu; Grün, Rainer; Bemilli, Céline; Bonilauri, Stéphanie; Coutard, Sylvie; Bessou, Maryelle; Limondin-Lozouet, Nicole; Cottard, Antoine; Deshayes, Thierry; Douillard, Aurélie; Henaff, Xavier; Pautret-Homerville, Caroline; Kinsley, Les; Trinkaus, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Despite numerous sites of great antiquity having been excavated since the end of the 19th century, Middle Pleistocene human fossils are still extremely rare in northwestern Europe. Apart from the two partial crania from Biache-Saint-Vaast in northern France, all known human fossils from this period have been found from ten sites in either Germany or England. Here we report the discovery of three long bones from the same left upper limb discovered at the open-air site of Tourville-la-Rivière in the Seine Valley of northern France. New U-series and combined US-ESR dating on animal teeth produced an age range for the site of 183 to 236 ka. In combination with paleoecological indicators, they indicate an age toward the end of MIS 7. The human remains from Tourville-la-Rivière are attributable to the Neandertal lineage based on morphological and metric analyses. An abnormal crest on the left humerus represents a deltoid muscle enthesis. Micro- and or macro-traumas connected to repetitive movements similar to those documented for professional throwing athletes could be origin of abnormality. PMID:25295956

  1. 43 CFR 10.7 - Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of unclaimed human remains... REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony From Federal or Tribal Lands § 10.7 Disposition of unclaimed human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects...

  2. 78 FR 25468 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Funerary Objects in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Funerary Objects... Interior, National Park Service, Big Cypress National Preserve has corrected an inventory of human remains.... 3003, of the correction of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects under the...

  3. 78 FR 64436 - Disposition of Unclaimed Human Remains and Other Cultural Items Discovered on Federal Lands After...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... Office of the Secretary 43 CFR Part 10 RIN 1024-AE00 Disposition of Unclaimed Human Remains and Other... human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, or objects of cultural patrimony discovered on Federal... the Secretary of the Interior to: (1) Promulgate regulations for disposition of human remains...

  4. Time-dependent VOC-profile of decomposed human and animal remains in laboratory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosier, E; Loix, S; Develter, W; Van de Voorde, W; Tytgat, J; Cuypers, E

    2016-09-01

    A validated method using a thermal desorber combined with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer was used to identify the volatile organic compounds released in decomposed human and animal remains after 9 and 12 months in glass jars in a laboratory environment. This is a follow-up study on a previous report where the first 6 months of decomposition of 6 human and 26 animal remains was investigated. In the first report, out of 452 identified compounds, a combination of 8 compounds was proposed as human and pig specific. The goal of the current study was to investigate if these 8 compounds were still released after 9 and 12 months. The next results were noticed: 287 compounds were identified; only 9 new compounds were detected and 173 were no longer seen. Sulfur-containing compounds were less prevalent as compared to the first month of decomposition. The appearance of nitrogen-containing compounds and alcohols was increasingly evident during the first 6 months, and the same trend was seen in the following 6 months. Esters became less important after 6 months. From the proposed human and pig specific compounds, diethyl disulfide was only detected during the first months of decomposition. Interestingly, the 4 proposed human and pig specific esters, as well as pyridine, 3-methylthio-1-propanol and methyl(methylthio)ethyl disulfide were still present after 9 and 12 months of decomposition. This means that these 7 human and pig specific markers can be used in the development of training aids for cadaver dogs during the whole decomposition process. Diethyl disulfide can be used in training aids for the first month of decomposition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanistic fracture criteria for the failure of human cortical bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalla, Ravi K.; Kinney, John H.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2002-12-13

    A mechanistic understanding of fracture in human bone is critical to predicting fracture risk associated with age and disease. Despite extensive work, a mechanistic framework for describing how the underlying microstructure affects the failure mode in bone is lacking.

  6. Blood or spores? A cautionary note on interpreting cellular debris on human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, A; Stefanelli, S; Caccianiga, M; Rizzi, A; Bertoglio, B; Sforza, C; Cattaneo, C

    2015-07-01

    The identification of red blood cells on both skeletal human remains and decomposed corpses is of remarkable importance in forensic sciences, irrespective of its diagnostic value; their presence is often perplexing and difficult to interpret especially when in the context of decomposition and taphonomical variables. Some clinical research has focused on the morphological changes of red blood cells over time by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but no research has investigated whether botanical structures can be confused for red blood cells. Since some literature has recently presumed the detection of erythrocyte-like cells on skeletal remains (even ancient) as surely erythrocytes, and most have never taken into consideration the chance of an origin different from blood, such as botanical, the present study aims at verifying the possibility of confusion between erythrocytes and botanical cells by applying SEM analysis and at highlighting the pitfalls in this particular issue through a test submitted to pathologists and natural scientists asked to discriminate between red blood cells and different vegetal structures (60 images obtained by SEM analysis). The results showed that although there are diagnostic features useful in identifying red blood cells from botanical structures, some spores resulted very similar to decaying red blood cells, which calls for attention and great caution when studying decomposed human remains.

  7. Human Coronavirus 229E Remains Infectious on Common Touch Surface Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnes, Sarah L; Little, Zoë R; Keevil, C William

    2015-11-10

    The evolution of new and reemerging historic virulent strains of respiratory viruses from animal reservoirs is a significant threat to human health. Inefficient human-to-human transmission of zoonotic strains may initially limit the spread of transmission, but an infection may be contracted by touching contaminated surfaces. Enveloped viruses are often susceptible to environmental stresses, but the human coronaviruses responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) have recently caused increasing concern of contact transmission during outbreaks. We report here that pathogenic human coronavirus 229E remained infectious in a human lung cell culture model following at least 5 days of persistence on a range of common nonbiocidal surface materials, including polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon; PTFE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), ceramic tiles, glass, silicone rubber, and stainless steel. We have shown previously that noroviruses are destroyed on copper alloy surfaces. In this new study, human coronavirus 229E was rapidly inactivated on a range of copper alloys (within a few minutes for simulated fingertip contamination) and Cu/Zn brasses were very effective at lower copper concentration. Exposure to copper destroyed the viral genomes and irreversibly affected virus morphology, including disintegration of envelope and dispersal of surface spikes. Cu(I) and Cu(II) moieties were responsible for the inactivation, which was enhanced by reactive oxygen species generation on alloy surfaces, resulting in even faster inactivation than was seen with nonenveloped viruses on copper. Consequently, copper alloy surfaces could be employed in communal areas and at any mass gatherings to help reduce transmission of respiratory viruses from contaminated surfaces and protect the public health. Respiratory viruses are responsible for more deaths globally than any other infectious agent. Animal coronaviruses that "host jump" to humans result in

  8. Genetic identification of missing persons: DNA analysis of human remains and compromised samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Cubero, M J; Saiz, M; Martinez-Gonzalez, L J; Alvarez, J C; Eisenberg, A J; Budowle, B; Lorente, J A

    2012-01-01

    Human identification has made great strides over the past 2 decades due to the advent of DNA typing. Forensic DNA typing provides genetic data from a variety of materials and individuals, and is applied to many important issues that confront society. Part of the success of DNA typing is the generation of DNA databases to help identify missing persons and to develop investigative leads to assist law enforcement. DNA databases house DNA profiles from convicted felons (and in some jurisdictions arrestees), forensic evidence, human remains, and direct and family reference samples of missing persons. These databases are essential tools, which are becoming quite large (for example the US Database contains 10 million profiles). The scientific, governmental and private communities continue to work together to standardize genetic markers for more effective worldwide data sharing, to develop and validate robust DNA typing kits that contain the reagents necessary to type core identity genetic markers, to develop technologies that facilitate a number of analytical processes and to develop policies to make human identity testing more effective. Indeed, DNA typing is integral to resolving a number of serious criminal and civil concerns, such as solving missing person cases and identifying victims of mass disasters and children who may have been victims of human trafficking, and provides information for historical studies. As more refined capabilities are still required, novel approaches are being sought, such as genetic testing by next-generation sequencing, mass spectrometry, chip arrays and pyrosequencing. Single nucleotide polymorphisms offer the potential to analyze severely compromised biological samples, to determine the facial phenotype of decomposed human remains and to predict the bioancestry of individuals, a new focus in analyzing this type of markers.

  9. Modified DOP-PCR for improved STR typing of degraded DNA from human skeletal remains and bloodstains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambers, Angie; Turnbough, Meredith; Benjamin, Robert; Gill-King, Harrell; King, Jonathan; Sajantila, Antti; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Forensic and ancient DNA samples often are damaged and in limited quantity as a result of exposure to harsh environments and the passage of time. Several strategies have been proposed to address the challenges posed by degraded and low copy templates, including a PCR based whole genome amplification method called degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR (DOP-PCR). This study assessed the efficacy of four modified versions of the original DOP-PCR primer that retain at least a portion of the 5' defined sequence and alter the number of bases on the 3' end. The use of each of the four modified primers resulted in improved STR profiles from environmentally-damaged bloodstains, contemporary human skeletal remains, American Civil War era bone samples, and skeletal remains of WWII soldiers over those obtained by previously described DOP-PCR methods and routine STR typing. Additionally, the modified DOP-PCR procedure allows for a larger volume of DNA extract to be used, reducing the need to concentrate the sample and thus mitigating the effects of concurrent concentration of inhibitors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Detection and characterization of volatile organic compounds from burned human and animal remains in fire debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaan, John D; Taormina, Eimi I; Brien, David J

    2017-03-01

    Debris collected from various test sites where mammalian remains (human and porcine) had been burned in a variety of full-scale fire scenarios was evaluated for the presence of volatile residues that could be characteristic of those remains. Levels of volatiles were measured using the method commonly used for fire debris analysis: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Homologous n-aldehydes (from n-pentanal to n-nonanal) proved to be a significant indicator of the presence of burned animal tissue as they were observed in nearly all of the samples. Such aldehydes are created by the combustion of animal fats. One aldehyde, n-hexanal, appeared more frequently than the other aldehydes, n-pentanal, n-heptanal, n-octanal, and n-nonanal. Ethanol was detected in two-thirds of the samples, while acetone appeared in about three-fourths of the samples, but both were detected at much lower concentrations than n-hexanal. These appear to have been combustion products of the substrates on which each body burned, rather than originating from the combustion of the body. There appeared to be no qualitative distinction between volatile products produced from burned porcine carcasses and those from human cadavers. Since a homologous series of C5-C9n-aldehydes is not produced as a dominant species by the pyrolysis or combustion of any normally encountered substrate (carpet, bedding, wood products or upholstery), their detection by normal fire debris methods appears to be a valid indicator of the presence of burned animal remains. These data will also provide guidance to fire debris analysts as to the nature of volatiles associated with the combustion of human bodies in real-world fires. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. DNA and RNA profiling of excavated human remains with varying postmortem intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berge, M; Wiskerke, D; Gerretsen, R R R; Tabak, J; Sijen, T

    2016-11-01

    When postmortem intervals (PMIs) increase such as with longer burial times, human remains suffer increasingly from the taphonomic effects of decomposition processes such as autolysis and putrefaction. In this study, various DNA analysis techniques and a messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling method were applied to examine for trends in nucleic acid degradation and the postmortem interval. The DNA analysis techniques include highly sensitive DNA quantitation (with and without degradation index), standard and low template STR profiling, insertion and null alleles (INNUL) of retrotransposable elements typing and mitochondrial DNA profiling. The used mRNA profiling system targets genes with tissue specific expression for seven human organs as reported by Lindenbergh et al. (Int J Legal Med 127:891-900, 27) and has been applied to forensic evidentiary traces but not to excavated tissues. The techniques were applied to a total of 81 brain, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, heart, kidney and skin samples obtained from 19 excavated graves with burial times ranging from 4 to 42 years. Results show that brain and heart are the organs in which both DNA and RNA remain remarkably stable, notwithstanding long PMIs. The other organ tissues either show poor overall profiling results or vary for DNA and RNA profiling success, with sometimes DNA and other times RNA profiling being more successful. No straightforward relations were observed between nucleic acid profiling results and the PMI. This study shows that not only DNA but also RNA molecules can be remarkably stable and used for profiling of long-buried human remains, which corroborate forensic applications. The insight that the brain and heart tissues tend to provide the best profiling results may change sampling policies in identification cases of degrading cadavers.

  12. The clandestine multiple graves in Malaysia: The first mass identification operation of human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Noor, Mohd Suhani; Khoo, Lay See; Zamaliana Alias, Wan Zafirah; Hasmi, Ahmad Hafizam; Ibrahim, Mohamad Azaini; Mahmood, Mohd Shah

    2017-09-01

    The first ever mass identification operation of skeletal remains conducted for the clandestine graves in Malaysia consisted of 165 individuals unearthed from 28 human trafficking transit camps located in Wang Kelian, along the Thai-Malaysia border. A DVI response was triggered in which expert teams comprising of pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists, radiologists and DNA experts were gathered at the identified operation centre. The Department of Forensic Medicine, Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Star, Kedah, located approximately 75km away from Wang Kelian, was temporarily converted into a victim identification centre (VIC) as it is the nearest available forensic facility to the mass grave site. The mortuary operation was conducted over a period of 3 months from June to September 2015, and was divided into two phases; phase 1 involving the postmortem examination of the remains of 116 suspected individuals and for phase 2 the remains of 49 suspected individuals. The fact that the graves were of unknown individuals afforded the mass identification operation a sufficient duration of 2 weeks as preparatory phase enabling procedurals and daily victim identification workflow to be established, and the setting up of a temporary body storage for the designated mortuary. The temporary body storage has proven to be a significant factor in enabling the successful conclusion of the VIC operation to the final phase of temporary controlled burials. Recognition from two international observers, Mr. Andréas Patiño Umaña, from the International Committee of Red Cross (ICRC) and Prof. Noel Woodford from Victoria Institute of Forensic Medicine (VIFM) had proven the mortuary operation was in compliance to the international quality and standards. The overall victim identification and mortuary operation identified a number of significant challenges, in particular the management of commingled human remains as well as the compilation of postmortem data in the absence of

  13. The ambiguity of human ashes: Exploring encounters with cremated remains in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    This article explores cremation and disposal practices in the Netherlands, focusing on the attitudes and experiences of bereaved Dutch people in relation to cremated remains. In academic and professional narratives, human ashes are commonly described as "important," as "sacred," and as a vehicle to continue intense and physical relationships with the dead. Based on quantitative and qualitative data this article illustrates the ambiguity of such relationships. It highlights the diverse experiences, unexpected challenges, and moral obligations that can be evoked by the deceased's ashes, where the latter are seen as embedded in material practices and entangled in social relationships.

  14. Ancient DNA analysis of human remains from the Upper Capital City of Kublai Khan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuqin; Xie, Chengzhi; Xu, Xuelian; Li, Chunxiang; Zhang, Quanchao; Zhou, Hui; Zhu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of DNA from human archaeological remains is a powerful tool for reconstructing ancient events in human history. To help understand the origin of the inhabitants of Kublai Khan's Upper Capital in Inner Mongolia, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms in 21 ancient individuals buried in the Zhenzishan cemetery of the Upper Capital. MtDNA coding and noncoding region polymorphisms identified in the ancient individuals were characteristic of the Asian mtDNA haplogroups A, B, N9a, C, D, Z, M7b, and M. Phylogenetic analysis of the ancient mtDNA sequences, and comparison with extant reference populations, revealed that the maternal lineages of the population buried in the Zhenzishan cemetery are of Asian origin and typical of present-day Han Chinese, despite the presence of typical European morphological features in several of the skeletons.

  15. Recovery of human DNA profiles from poached deer remains: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobe, Shanan S; Govan, James; Welch, Lindsey A

    2011-12-01

    Poaching is a crime that occurs worldwide and can be extremely difficult to investigate and prosecute due to the nature of the evidence available. If a species is protected by international legislation such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora then simply possessing any part of that species is illegal. Previous studies have focused on the identification of endangered species in cases of potential poaching. Difficulties arise if the poached animal is not endangered. Species such as deer have hunting seasons whereby they can legally be hunted however poaching is the illegal take of deer, irrespective of season. Therefore, identification of deer alone has little probative value as samples could have originated from legal hunting activities in season. After a deer is hunted it is usual to remove the innards, head and lower limbs. The limbs are removed through manual force and represent a potential source of human touch DNA. We investigate the potential to recover and profile human autosomal DNA from poached deer remains. Samples from the legs of ten culled deer were obtained (40 in total) using minitapes. DNA from samples was extracted, quantified and amplified to determine if it would be possible to recover human STR profiles. Low quantification data led to the use of an extended PCR cycling protocol of 34 cycles. Samples from seven deer amplified, however some samples were excluded from further analysis due to 'drop in' alleles or the low level of successfully amplified loci. Samples from five deer could be further analysed and gave match probabilities ranging from 6.37×10(-3) to 9.53×10(-11). This study demonstrates the potential of recovering human touch DNA from poached animal remains. There is the potential for this test to be used in relation to other species of poached remains or other types of wildlife crimes. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that human STR profiling has been successfully applied to

  16. Aging, human immunodeficiency virus, and bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim C Mansky

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Kim C ManskyDivision of Orthodontics, Department of Developmental and Surgical Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has had a profound impact on improving the long-term prognosis for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. HAART has been available for close to two decades, and now a significant number of patients with access to HAART are over the age of 50 years. Many clinical studies have indicated that HIV infection, as well as components of HAART, can increase the risk in these individuals to a variety of noninfectious complications, including a risk to bone health. There is a significant need for detailed mechanistic analysis of the aging, HIV-infected population regarding the risk of HIV infection and therapy in order to maintain bone health. Insights from basic mechanistic studies will help to shed light on the role of HIV infection and the components of HAART that impact bone health, and will help in identifying preventative countermeasures, particularly for individuals 50 years of age and older.Keywords: osteopenia, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, bisphosphonates, tenofovir, osteoimmunology

  17. The Paleoparasitology in Brazil and Findings in Human Remains from South America: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Shênia Patrícia Corrêa; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    2016-10-01

    The review article presents some of the history of how paleoparasitology started in Brazil, making highlight the great responsible Dr. Luiz Fernando Ferreira and Dr. Adauto Araújo, the trajectory of paleoparasitology in Brazil since 1978 and its performance in science to the present day. In sequence, it is made a presentation of parasitological findings on human remains found in archaeological sites in South America, highlighting Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Peru, where major discoveries have occurred. Many of the parasites found in archaeological material and mentioned in this review went out of Africa with the peopling of Europe and from there they dispersed around the world, where climatic conditions allow the transmission. However, humans have acquired other parasites of animals, since humans invaded new habitats or creating new habits adopting new technologies, thus expanding its range of influence on the environment. Thus, this review article is finalized with information that explain the importance of these findings in the interaction between parasites, human host, and ambient.

  18. First forensic records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, R A; Soriano, E P; Carvalho, M V D; Caldas-Junior, A F; Souza, E H A; Coelho-Junior, L G T M; Campello, R I C; Almeida, A C; Farias, R C A P; Vasconcellos, A

    2016-07-25

    The aim of this study was to describe the first records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil. The cases reported in this study resulted from forensic analysis of six human skeletons found in northeastern Brazil between 2012 and 2014. Traces of tunnels and nests commonly produced by termites were found on several human bone surfaces as well as the specimens and characteristic signs of osteophagic activity. In four cases, the species were identified: Amitermes amifer Silvestri, 1901, Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855) (on two skeletons), and Microcerotermes indistinctus Mathews, 1977. In two other cases, the activity of termites on bone surfaces was evidenced by remains of nests and tunnels produced by these insects. At least in the samples of human remains available for this report, the number of termites collected was greater on bones found during autumn, the rainy season in the Northeast of Brazil. The human bones examined showed termites like insects with lots of strength at bone degradation, capable of continuing the process of decomposition of human remains even in completely skeletonized bodies.

  19. First forensic records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Queiroz

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the first records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil. The cases reported in this study resulted from forensic analysis of six human skeletons found in northeastern Brazil between 2012 and 2014. Traces of tunnels and nests commonly produced by termites were found on several human bone surfaces as well as the specimens and characteristic signs of osteophagic activity. In four cases, the species were identified: Amitermes amifer Silvestri, 1901, Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855 (on two skeletons, and Microcerotermes indistinctus Mathews, 1977. In two other cases, the activity of termites on bone surfaces was evidenced by remains of nests and tunnels produced by these insects. At least in the samples of human remains available for this report, the number of termites collected was greater on bones found during autumn, the rainy season in the Northeast of Brazil. The human bones examined showed termites like insects with lots of strength at bone degradation, capable of continuing the process of decomposition of human remains even in completely skeletonized bodies.

  20. Human parvovirus 4 'PARV4' remains elusive despite a decade of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Philippa C; Sharp, Colin; Simmonds, Peter; Klenerman, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Human parvovirus 4 ('PARV4') is a small DNA tetraparvovirus, first reported in 2005. In some populations, PARV4 infection is uncommon, and evidence of exposure is found only in individuals with risk factors for parenteral infection who are infected with other blood-borne viruses. In other settings, seroprevalence studies suggest an endemic, age-associated transmission pattern, independent of any specific risk factors. The clinical impact of PARV4 infection remains uncertain, but reported disease associations include an influenza-like syndrome, encephalitis, acceleration of HIV disease, and foetal hydrops. In this review, we set out to report progress updates from the recent literature, focusing on the investigation of cohorts in different geographical settings, now including insights from Asia, the Middle East, and South America, and discussing whether attributes of viral or host populations underpin the striking differences in epidemiology. We review progress in understanding viral phylogeny and biology, approaches to diagnostics, and insights that might be gained from studies of closely related animal pathogens. Crucial questions about pathogenicity remain unanswered, but we highlight new evidence supporting a possible link between PARV4 and an encephalitis syndrome. The unequivocal evidence that PARV4 is endemic in certain populations should drive ongoing research efforts to understand risk factors and routes of transmission and to gain new insights into the impact of this virus on human health.

  1. Refining Stable Oxygen and Hydrogen Isoscapes for the Identification of Human Remains in Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Monica M; Plemons, Amber M; Herrmann, Nicholas P; Regan, Laura A

    2017-06-30

    Isoscape refinement is an essential component for accurately predicting region-of-origin in forensic investigations involving isotope analysis of unidentified human remains. Stable oxygen (δ(18) O) and hydrogen (δ(2) H) isotopes were measured from 57 tap water samples collected across Mississippi to model refined isoscapes for the state. A tap water conversion equation, δ(18) Otw =1.64 δ(18) Op-31.35, was developed for the southeastern USA to test the prediction accuracy of the δ(18) Otw isoscape using individuals with known residential histories. A local Mississippi resident (USAFA-134) was assigned with 90% probability to the correct region-of-origin reported by the participant. Assignments for Georgia residents (USAFA-118 and USAFA-205) had variable results, predicting USAFA-118 from Mississippi and USAFA-205 as a nonlocal resident. Stable isotope values often overlap geographically and a multi-isotope approach should be used when narrowing region(s)-of-origin(s). This study demonstrates the utility of refining isoscapes and the importance of tissue calibration in prediction assignments of human remains. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Evaluation of the efficacy of spatiotemporal Pb isoscapes for provenancing of human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Austin T; Regan, Laura A; Lundstrom, Craig C; Bower, Nathan W

    2016-04-01

    Geospatially distributed isotopes (isoscapes) from biogeochemically fractionated processes have been applied in many forensic investigations, such as authentication of food and sourcing of drugs. Provenancing of human remains using isotopes has been hindered by a lack of appropriate isoscapes, by changes in these isoscapes over time, and by various homogenization processes. In this study we create spatiotemporal isoscapes for anthropogenic lead (Pb) for the contiguous United States and Europe using literature data from dated sediments, soils and biological tissues. We compare (206)Pb/(207)Pb isoscapes with isoscapes of δ(13)C, δ(18)O and (87)Sr/(86)Sr to determine their relative efficacy for the forensic identification of human remains. We do this comparison using third molar enamel data from 22 United States Air Force Academy cadets with known life trajectories born between 1983 and 1985. We use these spatiotemporal isoscapes with osteologic analyses, hospital records and isotopic analyses of tooth enamel carbonate from permanent teeth to help identify 32 individuals from unmarked graves found in a forgotten 19th century mental asylum cemetery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human parvovirus 4 ‘PARV4’ remains elusive despite a decade of study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Philippa C.; Sharp, Colin; Simmonds, Peter; Klenerman, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (‘PARV4’) is a small DNA tetraparvovirus, first reported in 2005. In some populations, PARV4 infection is uncommon, and evidence of exposure is found only in individuals with risk factors for parenteral infection who are infected with other blood-borne viruses. In other settings, seroprevalence studies suggest an endemic, age-associated transmission pattern, independent of any specific risk factors. The clinical impact of PARV4 infection remains uncertain, but reported disease associations include an influenza-like syndrome, encephalitis, acceleration of HIV disease, and foetal hydrops. In this review, we set out to report progress updates from the recent literature, focusing on the investigation of cohorts in different geographical settings, now including insights from Asia, the Middle East, and South America, and discussing whether attributes of viral or host populations underpin the striking differences in epidemiology. We review progress in understanding viral phylogeny and biology, approaches to diagnostics, and insights that might be gained from studies of closely related animal pathogens. Crucial questions about pathogenicity remain unanswered, but we highlight new evidence supporting a possible link between PARV4 and an encephalitis syndrome. The unequivocal evidence that PARV4 is endemic in certain populations should drive ongoing research efforts to understand risk factors and routes of transmission and to gain new insights into the impact of this virus on human health. PMID:28184291

  4. Molecular paleoparasitological hybridization approach as effective tool for diagnosing human intestinal parasites from scarce archaeological remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitology is the science that uses parasitological techniques for diagnosing parasitic diseases in the past. Advances in molecular biology brought new insights into this field allowing the study of archaeological material. However, due to technical limitations a proper diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of parasites is not always possible, especially in scarce and degraded archaeological remains. In this study, we developed a Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization (MPH) approach using ancient DNA (aDNA) hybridization to confirm and complement paleoparasitological diagnosis. Eight molecular targets from four helminth parasites were included: Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The MPH analysis using 18th century human remains from Praça XV cemetery (CPXV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed for the first time the presence E. vermicularis aDNA (50%) in archaeological sites of Brazil. Besides, the results confirmed T. trichiura and Ascaris sp. infections. The prevalence of infection by Ascaris sp. and E. vermicularis increased considerably when MPH was applied. However, a lower aDNA detection of T. trichiura (40%) was observed when compared to the diagnosis by paleoparasitological analysis (70%). Therefore, based on these data, we suggest a combination of Paleoparasitological and MPH approaches to verify the real panorama of intestinal parasite infection in human archeological samples.

  5. Pelvic bone indices as effective parameters of sex determination in skeletal remains: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishan R. Siddapur

    2014-08-01

    Results: When unpaired t test was applied on the mean and standard deviation of Coxal and Genove's sciatic notch indices of the two groups, Males (n=15 and Females (n=10, the result was statistically very significant. Conclusions: Coxal index values of our present study can be reliably applied for sex determination of dry hip bones of Indian origin. But, our study values can be considered more reliable when using Genoves' sciatic notch index in determining sex of hip bones of South-Eastern region only (keeping racial variations in mind. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1526-1529

  6. TAPHONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE LATE EARLY PLEISTOCENE BONE REMAINS FROM BUIA (DANDIERO BASIN, DANAKIL DEPRESSION, ERITREA:EVIDENCE FOR LARGE MAMMAL AND REPTILE BUTCHERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANA FIORE

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Early Pleistocene sedimentary succession of the Dandiero (Buia Basin (Danakil Depression, Eritrea has preserved a rich paleontological, paleoanthropological, and archeological record circa one million years old. Fieldwork undertaken between 1995 and 2003 led to the collection of fossil vertebrate remains now stored at the National Museum of Eritrea. Bones were recovered in different localities of the Dandiero Basin, where abundant archaeological and paleontological remains outcrop from the eroded sediments. The faunal collection of 436 animal bones from the Buia Basin, mostly derived from Uadi Aalad area, have undergone taphonomic analysis. Even though bone surfaces are poorly preserved due to abrasion, our work demonstrates carcass exploitation. Some specimens, mostly representing Hippopotamus gorgops and medium- to large-sized bovids, show traces of butchering left by stone tools. We also document, as far as we know for the first time, a single case of butchering involving a femur of a crocodile.   

  7. 78 FR 26653 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Funerary Objects in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Funerary Objects... read ``The human remains and funerary objects were collected from six sites by National Park Service... following correction: On page 25468, in the third column, beginning in the sixth line, ``remains and...

  8. The effects of different maceration techniques on nuclear DNA amplification using human bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Esther J; Luedtke, Jennifer G; Allison, Jamie L; Arber, Carolyn E; Merriwether, D Andrew; Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe

    2010-07-01

    Forensic anthropologists routinely macerate human bone for the purposes of identity and trauma analysis, but the heat and chemical treatments used can destroy genetic evidence. As a follow-up to a previous study on nuclear DNA recovery that used pig ribs, this study utilizes human skeletal remains treated with various bone maceration techniques for nuclear DNA amplification using the standard Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) markers. DNA was extracted from 18 samples of human lower leg bones subjected to nine chemical and heat maceration techniques. Genotyping was carried out using the AmpFlSTR COfiler and AmpFlSTR Profiler Plus ID kits. Results showed that heat treatments via microwave or Biz/Na(2)CO(3) in sub-boiling water efficiently macerate bone and produce amplifiable nuclear DNA for genetic analysis. Long-term use of chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide is discouraged as it results in poor bone quality and has deleterious effects on DNA amplification.

  9. Alu SINE analyses of 3,000-year-old human skeletal remains: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, Maximilian; Seidenberg, Verena; Hummel, Susanne; Piskurek, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    As Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs), human-specific Alu elements can be used for population genetic studies. Very recent inserts are polymorphic within and between human populations. In a sample of 30 elements originating from three different Alu subfamilies, we investigated whether they are preserved in prehistorical skeletal human remains from the Bronze Age Lichtenstein cave in Lower Saxony, Germany. In the present study, we examined a prehistoric triad of father, mother and daughter. For 26 of the 30 Alu loci investigated, definite results were obtained. We were able to demonstrate that presence/absence analyses of Alu elements can be conducted on individuals who lived 3,000 years ago. The preservation of the ancient DNA (aDNA) is good enough in two out of three ancient individuals to routinely allow the amplification of 500 bp fragments. The third individual revealed less well-preserved DNA, which results in allelic dropout or complete amplification failures. We here present an alternative molecular approach to deal with these degradation phenomena by using internal Alu subfamily specific primers producing short fragments of approximately 150 bp. Our data clearly show the possibility of presence/absence analyses of Alu elements in individuals from the Lichtenstein cave. Thus, we demonstrate that our method is reliably applicable for aDNA samples with good or moderate DNA preservation. This method will be very useful for further investigations with more Alu loci and larger datasets. Human population genetic studies and other large-scale investigations would provide insight into Alu SINE-based microevolutionary processes in humans during the last few thousand years and help us comprehend the evolutionary dynamics of our genome.

  10. An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part I: Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Dabbs, Gretchen R; Spencer, Jessica R

    2016-01-01

    This work reviews the hazards and risks of practicing forensic anthropology in North America, with a focus on pathogens encountered through contact with unpreserved human remains. Since the publication of Galloway and Snodgrass' seminal paper concerning the hazards of forensic anthropology, research has provided new information about known pathogen hazards, and regulating authorities have updated recommendations for the recognition and treatment of several infections. Additionally, forensic anthropology has gained popularity, exposing an increased number of students and practitioners to these hazards. Current data suggest many occupational exposures to blood or body fluids go unreported, especially among students, highlighting the need for this discussion. For each pathogen and associated disease, this work addresses important history, reviews routes of exposure, provides an overview of symptoms and treatments, lists decontamination procedures, and presents data on postmortem viability. Personal protection and laboratory guidelines should be established and enforced in conjunction with the consideration of these data.

  11. Incidental findings in the use of DNA to identify human remains: an ethical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa S; London, Alex John; Aronson, Jay D

    2013-02-01

    DNA analysis is increasingly used to identify the remains of victims of conflicts and disasters. This is especially true in cases where remains are badly damaged and fragmented, or where antemortem records are unavailable. Incidental findings (IFs)-that is, genetics-related information for which investigators were not looking-may result from these identification efforts employing DNA analysis. Because of the critical role played by family members of the missing in identification efforts, as well as the familial nature of DNA, identification initiatives employing DNA analysis are particularly prone to reveal IFs about familial relationships, such as misattributed paternity or false beliefs about sibling relationships. Despite forensic scientists' widespread awareness of the possibility of generating IFs, to date there has been relatively little explicit guidance about their management. This paper fills that gap. It offers substantive guidance about the ethical management of IFs in this context. To ensure that the analysis addresses actual needs and practices in the field, one author (JDA) conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants from six regionally diverse organizations involved in post-conflict or post-disaster identification efforts. The paper first describes how methods of DNA analysis give rise to IFs. Next, it explains the importance of developing an ethically justified general policy for managing IFs and discusses features of DNA identification efforts that are relevant to such a policy. Then it presents an argument in support of a general policy of nondisclosure-specifically, that considerations of fair access to the individual and social benefits of identification efforts, and the concern to minimize and fairly distribute the risks of participation, support a policy of nondisclosure. It concludes by considering some implications of this argument for the choice among scientific practices involved in using DNA analysis to identify human remains

  12. Incidental Findings in the Use of DNA to Identify Human Remains: An Ethical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa S.; Aronson, Jay D.

    2012-01-01

    DNA analysis is increasingly used to identify the remains of victims of conflicts and disasters. This is especially true in cases where remains are badly damaged and fragmented, or where antemortem records are unavailable. Incidental findings (IFs)—that is, genetics-related information for which investigators were not looking—may result from these identification efforts employing DNA analysis. Because of the critical role played by family members of the missing in identification efforts, as well as the familial nature of DNA, identification initiatives employing DNA analysis are particularly prone to reveal IFs about familial relationships, such as misattributed paternity or false beliefs about sibling relationships. Despite forensic scientists’ widespread awareness of the possibility of generating IFs, to date there has been relatively little explicit guidance about their management. This paper fills that gap. It offers substantive guidance about the ethical management of IFs in this context. To ensure that the analysis addresses actual needs and practices in the field, one author (JDA) conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants from six regionally diverse organizations involved in post-conflict or post-disaster identification efforts. The paper first describes how methods of DNA analysis give rise to IFs. Next, it explains the importance of developing an ethically justified general policy for managing IFs and discusses features of DNA identification efforts that are relevant to such a policy. Then it presents an argument in support of a general policy of nondisclosure—specifically, that considerations of fair access to the individual and social benefits of identification efforts, and the concern to minimize and fairly distribute the risks of participation, support a policy of nondisclosure. It concludes by considering some implications of this argument for the choice among scientific practices involved in using DNA analysis to identify human

  13. THE LATE EARLY PLEISTOCENE HUMAN REMAINS FROM BUIA, DANAKIL DEPRESSION, ERITREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO MACCHIARELLI

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Early Pleistocene sedimentary succession of the Dandiero (Buia Basin (Danakil Depression, Eritrea has preserved a rich paleontological, paleoanthropological, and archeological record. Fieldwork undertaken between 1995 and 2003 on a site at Uadi Aalad (Abbate et al. 1998 led to the discovery of one-million-year-old human remains. They consist of a cranium in excellent preservation condition (UA-31, two permanent teeth (UA-222 and UA-369, and three pelvic portions (UA-173, UA-405 and UA-466, the latter recovered on 2003. The cranium and the postcranial remains represent a single adult individual, likely of female sex. The cranium evidences a blend of "erectus-like" and progressive morpho-architectural features, the latter more commonly found in the Middle Pleistocene. Preparation and restoration of the specimens (notably, of the virtually complete UA-31 face were only completed on September 2003. The revision, refinement, and integration of our previous analytical and interpretative work (cf. Abbate et al. 1998; Macchiarelli et al. 2002 is in progress within the context of the paleoanthropological reord currently available for the African Early to Middle Pleistocene.

  14. Cremated human remains: is measurement of the lateral angle of the meatus acusticus internus a reliable method of sex determination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masotti, Sabrina; Succi-Leonelli, Elisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lateral angle (LA) method-based on the measurement of the angle at which the internal acoustic canal opens up to the surface of the petrous bone-for sex determination in cremated skeletal remains of Italians. The sample consisted of 160 adult individuals of known age and sex who had recently died and were cremated in the crematorium of Ferrara (northern Italy). Several studies have demonstrated that the petrous portion of the temporal bone may be a valuable tool for sex diagnosis in unburned skeletal remains. Since petrous bones are usually preserved after cremation, this method could be of particular interest in the case of burned skeletal remains. The repeatability of intra- and inter-observer measurements was good. The results indicated that male and female lateral angles were significantly different but that the values did not differ among age-groups. There was no bilateral difference in LA. However, neither the 45° angle, proposed in earlier studies as the sectioning point for this variable from male and female data distributions, nor another angular value allowed satisfactory discrimination between the sexes in our sample. The influence of the "age" factor (about 82 % of females were of ≥ 75 years of age) on the results is critically discussed. The results of this study suggest that the LA method is not sufficiently reliable to assess the sex of elderly Italian individuals from their burned remains and thus should only be used in conjunction with other sexing techniques.

  15. Neonate Human Remains: A Window of Opportunity to the Molecular Study of Ancient Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Rafael; Solórzano, Eduvigis; Díaz, Nancy; Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A.; González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Cañadas, Mari Pau; Simões, Nelson; Isidro, Albert; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2012-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis can be a useful tool in bacterial disease diagnosis in human remains. However, while the recovery of Mycobacterium spp. has been widely successful, several authors report unsuccessful results regarding ancient treponemal DNA, casting doubts on the usefulness of this technique for the diagnosis of ancient syphilis. Here, we present results from an analysis of four newborn specimens recovered from the crypt of “La Ermita de la Soledad” (XVI–XVII centuries), located in the province of Huelva in the southwest of Spain. We extracted and analyzed aDNA in three independent laboratories, following specific procedures generally practiced in the aDNA field, including cloning of the amplified DNA fragments and sequencing of several clones. This is the most ancient case, reported to date, from which detection of DNA from T. pallidum subspecies pallidum has been successful in more than one individual, and we put forward a hypothesis to explain this result, taking into account the course of the disease in neonate individuals. PMID:22567153

  16. Human Placenta-Derived Adherent Cells Prevent Bone loss, Stimulate Bone formation, and Suppress Growth of Multiple Myeloma in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Ling, Wen; Pennisi, Angela; Wang, Yuping; Khan, Sharmin; Heidaran, Mohammad; Pal, Ajai; Zhang, Xiaokui; He, Shuyang; Zeitlin, Andy; Abbot, Stewart; Faleck, Herbert; Hariri, Robert; Shaughnessy, John D.; van Rhee, Frits; Nair, Bijay; Barlogie, Bart; Epstein, Joshua; Yaccoby, Shmuel

    2011-01-01

    Human placenta has emerged as a valuable source of transplantable cells of mesenchymal and hematopoietic origin for multiple cytotherapeutic purposes, including enhanced engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells, modulation of inflammation, bone repair, and cancer. Placenta-derived adherent cells (PDACs) are mesenchymal-like stem cells isolated from postpartum human placenta. Multiple myeloma is closely associated with induction of bone disease and large lytic lesions, which are often not repaired and are usually the sites of relapses. We evaluated the antimyeloma therapeutic potential, in vivo survival, and trafficking of PDACs in the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)–rab model of medullary myeloma-associated bone loss. Intrabone injection of PDACs into non-myelomatous and myelomatous implanted bone in SCID-rab mice promoted bone formation by stimulating endogenous osteoblastogenesis, and most PDACs disappeared from bone within 4 weeks. PDACs inhibitory effects on myeloma bone disease and tumor growth were dose-dependent and comparable with those of fetal human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Intrabone, but not subcutaneous, engraftment of PDACs inhibited bone disease and tumor growth in SCID-rab mice. Intratumor injection of PDACs had no effect on subcutaneous growth of myeloma cells. A small number of intravenously injected PDACs trafficked into myelomatous bone. Myeloma cell growth rate in vitro was lower in coculture with PDACs than with MSCs from human fetal bone or myeloma patients. PDACs also promoted apoptosis in osteoclast precursors and inhibited their differentiation. This study suggests that altering the bone marrow microenvironment with PDAC cytotherapy attenuates growth of myeloma and that PDAC cytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach for myeloma osteolysis. PMID:21732484

  17. Tea flavonoids for bone health: from animals to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Chyu, Ming-Chien

    2016-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a deterioration of bone mass and bone quality that predisposes an individual to a higher risk of fragility fractures. Emerging evidence has shown that the risk for low bone mass and osteoporosis-related fractures can be reduced by nutritional approaches aiming to improve bone microstructure, bone mineral density, and strength. Tea and its flavonoids, especially those of black tea and green tea, have been suggested to protect against bone loss and to reduce risk of fracture, due to tea's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on the results of animal studies, moderate intake of tea has shown to benefit bone health as shown by mitigation of bone loss and microstructural deterioration as well as improvement of bone strength and quality. Epidemiological studies have reported positive, insignificant, and negative impacts on bone mineral density at multiple skeletal sites and risk of fracture in humans with habitual tea consumption. There are limited human clinical trials that objectively and quantitatively assessed tea consumption and bone efficacy using validated outcome measures in a population at high risk for osteoporosis, along with safety monitoring approach. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of laboratory animal research, epidemiological observational studies, and clinical trials assessing the skeletal effects of tea and its active flavonoids, along with discussion of relevant future directions in translational research.

  18. Bone tissue engineering via human induced pluripotent, umbilical cord and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in rat cranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Xian; Zhao, Liang; Weir, Michael D; Sun, Jirun; Chen, Wenchuan; Man, Yi; Xu, Hockin H K

    2015-05-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are an exciting cell source with great potential for tissue engineering. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) have been used in clinics but are limited by several disadvantages, hence alternative sources of MSCs such as umbilical cord MSCs (hUCMSCs) are being investigated. However, there has been no report comparing hiPSCs, hUCMSCs and hBMSCs for bone regeneration. The objectives of this pilot study were to investigate hiPSCs, hUCMSCs and hBMSCs for bone tissue engineering, and compare their bone regeneration via seeding on biofunctionalized macroporous calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in rat cranial defects. For all three types of cells, approximately 90% of the cells remained alive on CPC scaffolds. Osteogenic genes were up-regulated, and mineral synthesis by cells increased with time in vitro for all three types of cells. The new bone area fractions at 12weeks (mean±sd; n=6) were (30.4±5.8)%, (27.4±9.7)% and (22.6±4.7)% in hiPSC-MSC-CPC, hUCMSC-CPC and hBMSC-CPC respectively, compared to (11.0±6.3)% for control (pcells (p>0.1). New blood vessel density was higher in cell-seeded groups than control (pcells was confirmed via immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, (1) hiPSCs, hUCMSCs and hBMSCs greatly enhanced bone regeneration, more than doubling the new bone amount of cell-free CPC control; (2) hiPSC-MSCs and hUCMSCs represented viable alternatives to hBMSCs; (3) biofunctionalized macroporous CPC-stem cell constructs had a robust capacity for bone regeneration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Fundamental ratios and logarithmic periodicity in human limb bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietak, Alexis; Ma, Siyan; Beck, Caroline W; Stringer, Mark D

    2013-05-01

    Fundamental mathematical relationships are widespread in biology yet there is little information on this topic with regard to human limb bone lengths and none related to human limb bone volumes. Forty-six sets of ipsilateral upper and lower limb long bones and third digit short bones were imaged by computed tomography. Maximum bone lengths were measured manually and individual bone volumes calculated from computed tomography images using a stereologic method. Length ratios of femur : tibia and humerus : ulna were remarkably similar (1.21 and 1.22, respectively) and varied little (bone volume ratios varied much more than upper limb ratios. The relationship between bone length and volume was found to be well described by power laws, with R(2) values ranging from 0.983 to 0.995. The most striking finding was a logarithmic periodicity in bone length moving from distal to proximal up the limb (upper limb λ = 0.72, lower limb λ = 0.93). These novel data suggest that human limb bone lengths and volumes follow fundamental and highly conserved mathematical relationships, which may contribute to our understanding of normal and disordered growth, stature estimation, and biomechanics.

  20. Immunogenetics and HPLC analyses contribute to understanding the etiopathology of rheumatoid arthritis through studies on ancient human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, A; Carlucci, G; Fontecchio, G

    2012-01-01

    Genetic investigations on ancient human remains affected by rheumatological pathologies are a research field of particular interest for identifying origins and the etiopathology of diseases, especially those having an autoimmune background such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We wish to demonstrate how reliable studies concerning this topic require collaboration between multiple disciplines, usually starting from paleopathologic observations up to immunogenetic screening, even involving analytical chemistry. Here, we focused our investigation on the skeleton of Cardinal Carlo de'Medici (1595-1666) for whom RA and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) were postulated after paleopathologic examination. RA susceptibility is linked to specific HLA alleles belonging to DRB1 04 locus, such as DRB1 0401, while Cw 0602 and DRB1 07 predispose to PsA. Thus, we genotyped the Cardinal?s remains to search for RA or PsA risk genes. Ancient DNA is often subjected to hydrolysis followed by fragmentation. For this reason, all immunogenetic tests were preceded by an original RP-HPLC-FL method able to inform on the ancient DNA preservation and the extent of contamination, with the purpose of avoiding the risk of false positive results. After DNA isolation from a piece of bone from the Cardinal, PCR-SSP and reverse-SSO hybridization assays were applied to perform genomic HLA-typing. RP-HPLC-FL analysis revealed a good preservation of DNA without contamination by exogenous genomes. Molecular tests assigned to the Cardinal the genotype DRB1 0401/1102 for HLA-DRB locus and Cw 04/ 12 for HLA-C locus, data that support a genetic predisposition for RA but not for PsA. This multidisciplinary study has allowed us: (i) to ascertain that the remains undoubtedly belonged to the specific subject, Cardinal Carlo de?Medici; (ii) to sustain that the subject suffered from RA rather then that PsA, and (iii) to state that RA was already widespread in Europe at the Renaissance age, despite some authors claiming that

  1. Bone dosimetry using synthetic images to represent trabecular bones of five regions of the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Filho, Jose de M. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose W. [Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco (POLI). Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Vanildo J. de M., E-mail: vjr@ufpe.br [Departamento de Anatomia. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Lindeval F., E-mail: lindeval@dmat.ufrr.br [Departamento de Matematica (DMAT). Universidade Federal de Roraima (UFRR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil); Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/NE-CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Wagner E. de [Departamento de Energia Nuclear (DEN). Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    One of the greatest challenges in numerical dosimetry of ionizing radiation is to estimate the absorbed dose by bone tissue in the human body. The bone tissues of greater radiosensitivity are the red bone marrow (RBM), that consist of the hematopoietic cells, located within the trabecular bones, and the bone surface cells (BSC), called osteogenic cells. The report 70 of the ICRP lists five spongiosa regions with their respective volume percent of trabecular bone: ribs (also contemplating the clavicles and sternum), spine, long bones, pelvis and skull (also contemplating mandible). The Grupo de Pesquisa em Dosimetria Numerica (GDN/CNPq) has been built exposure computational models (ECMs) based on voxel phantoms and EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. To estimate the energy deposited in the RBM and in the BSC of a phantom, the GDN/CNPq has used a method based on micro-CT images of the five trabecular regions mentioned above. These images were provided by other research institutes and were obtained from scan of bone samples of adult. Here is the greatest difficulty in reproducing this method: besides the need for bone images of real people with micrometer resolution, the distribution of bone marrow in the human body, according to ICRP 70, varies with age. This article presents some proposals of the GDN/CNPQ for replacing in the ECMs the micro-CT images by images synthesized by the computer, based on Monte Carlo sampling. (author)

  2. Physical activity according to sex in the argar culture. An approach based on the human remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Brobeil, Silvia A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A collection of human remains, from the Argaric Culture sites, was studied to broaden knowledge about the physical activity carried out by those populations. Three types of activity markers were analyzed: osteoarthritis, musculoskeletal stress markers and traumatisms. The obtained results coincide with the environment and terrain in which the archaeological sites were found, demonstrating a remarkable difference between sexes. Although it is impossible to determine the profession of the studied individuals, it can be affirmed that the men would perform activities that required muscular strength, walking through rugged and steeped terrain in which they risked suffering further trauma. The women, however, carried out activities centred around the domestic environment.

    Se estudian restos humanos procedentes de yacimientos de la Cultura de El Argar con el objetivo de ampliar el conocimiento sobre la actividad física llevada a cabo por los individuos. Se analizan tres tipos de marcadores: la artrosis, los marcadores de estrés músculo-esquelético y los traumatismos. Los resultados obtenidos son coincidentes con el entorno y los terrenos en los que se ubicaron los asentamientos argáricos y señalan una clara diferencia entre sexos. Aunque es imposible determinar la “profesión” de los individuos, sí se puede afirmar que los varones realizarían actividades que requerían fuerza muscular, caminar por terrenos duros y escarpados y en las que había riesgo de sufrir traumatismos. Las mujeres, sin embargo, llevarían a cabo actividades centradas en el entorno doméstico.

  3. Contested Heritages: National Collections, Archaeological Research and Ethnic Claims about Human Remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endere, María Luz

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades the claims made by Indigenous peoples and ethnic minorities about the human remains of their ancestors, found in archaeological sites or held in museums, have become a world scale phenomenon, as part of a whole range of ethnic restitutions. Even though these claims have been made in very different contexts (e.g. Native American peoples, Jewish in Israel, etc., they have challenged values which seemed to be indisputable, such as the progress of scientific research and the role of nation states as guardians of the cultural heritage. The aims of this paper consist in analysing the development and the evolution of the reburial issue in different countries as well as discussing the legal, professional and ethical implications of this topic for archaeology and cultural heritage management.

    En las últimas décadas los reclamos de pueblos indígenas y minorías étnicas sobre restos humanos de sus antepasados hallados en sitios arqueológicos o depositados en museos se han convertido en un fenómeno que ha alcanzado escala mundial, en el marco de reivindicaciones étnicas de todo tipo. Aún cuando estos reclamos han sido efectuados en contextos muy diferentes (ej. pueblos nativos americanos; judíos en Israel, etc., han desafiado valores que parecerían indiscutibles, como el progreso de la investigación científica y el rol de los estados nacionales como guardianes del patrimonio cultural. En este trabajo se analiza el desarrollo y evolución de la cuestión de las reinhumaciones en distintos países y se discuten las implicancias legales, profesionales y éticas del mismo para la arqueología y la gestión del patrimonio cultural.

  4. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Atul Kumar [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo [Tissue Bank, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400012 (India); Rai, Ratan Kumar [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Khan, Mohd Parvez [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Singh, Chandan [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Barbhuyan, Tarun [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Vijayalakshmi, S. [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Sinha, Neeraj, E-mail: neerajcbmr@gmail.com [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Kumar, Ashutosh, E-mail: ashutoshk@iitb.ac.in [Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Bellare, Jayesh R., E-mail: jb@iitb.ac.in [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-05-01

    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS® (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  5. Morphological Study of Wormian Bones in Dried Human Skulls

    OpenAIRE

    Divyesh Patel; Ketan Chauhan; Dhananjay Patil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Wormian bones may be defined as a those accidental bones found in the cranium having no regular relation to their normal ossification centre. They are assocated with cranial and central nervous system abnormalities. Knowledge of these bones is important for anthropo-logists, forensic experts, radiologists, orthopedic and neurosurgeons to avoid misleading for multiple fractures of the skull. Materials and Methods: Adult dry human skulls (n= 27) of unknown age and sex availablei...

  6. Comparative cortical bone thickness between the long bones of humans and five common non-human mammal taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Sarah L; Reed, Warren; Donlon, Denise

    2016-03-01

    The task of identifying fragments of long bone shafts as human or non-human is difficult but necessary, for both forensic and archaeological cases, and a fast simple method is particularly useful. Previous literature suggests there may be differences in the thickness of the cortical bone between these two groups, but this has not been tested thoroughly. The aim of this study was not only to test this suggestion, but also to provide data that could be of practical assistance for future comparisons. The major limb bones (humerus, radius, femur and tibia) of 50 Caucasoid adult skeletons of known age and sex were radiographed, along with corresponding skeletal elements from sheep, pigs, cattle, large dogs and kangaroos. Measurements were taken from the radiographs at five points along the bone shaft, of shaft diameter, cortical bone thickness, and a cortical thickness index (sum of cortices divided by shaft diameter) in both anteroposterior and mediolateral orientations. Each variable for actual cortical bone thickness as well as cortical thickness indices were compared between the human group (split by sex) and each of the non-human groups in turn, using Student's t-tests. Results showed that while significant differences did exist between the human groups and many of the non-human groups, these were not all in the same direction. That is, some variables in the human groups were significantly greater than, and others were significantly less than, the corresponding variable in the non-human groups, depending on the particular non-human group, sex of the human group, or variable under comparison. This was the case for measurements of both actual cortical bone thickness and cortical thickness index. Therefore, for bone shaft fragments for which the skeletal element is unknown, the overlap in cortical bone thickness between different areas of different bones is too great to allow identification using this method alone. However, by providing extensive cortical bone

  7. A simplified procedure for preparation of undecalcified human bone sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, J A; Tkocz, I; Levinsen, J

    1985-01-01

    A new type of apparatus for sectioning samples of hard, undecalcified bone is described. Slices of fresh or archeological human bone 4-5 mm thick are dehydrated and then embedded in epoxy resin. The apparatus used to prepare sections from the resulting blocks consists of a low-speed rim-type diam...

  8. A simplified procedure for preparation of undecalcified human bone sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, J A; Tkocz, I; Levinsen, J

    1985-01-01

    A new type of apparatus for sectioning samples of hard, undecalcified bone is described. Slices of fresh or archeological human bone 4-5 mm thick are dehydrated and then embedded in epoxy resin. The apparatus used to prepare sections from the resulting blocks consists of a low-speed rim...

  9. Early reversal cells in adult human bone remodeling: osteoblastic nature, catabolic functions and interactions with osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgawad, Mohamed Essameldin; Delaisse, Jean-Marie; Hinge, Maja; Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Alnaimi, Ragad Walid; Rolighed, Lars; Engelholm, Lars H; Marcussen, Niels; Andersen, Thomas Levin

    2016-06-01

    The mechanism coupling bone resorption and formation is a burning question that remains incompletely answered through the current investigations on osteoclasts and osteoblasts. An attractive hypothesis is that the reversal cells are likely mediators of this coupling. Their nature is a big matter of debate. The present study performed on human cancellous bone is the first one combining in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to demonstrate their osteoblastic nature. It shows that the Runx2 and CD56 immunoreactive reversal cells appear to take up TRAcP released by neighboring osteoclasts. Earlier preclinical studies indicate that reversal cells degrade the organic matrix left behind by the osteoclasts and that this degradation is crucial for the initiation of the subsequent bone formation. To our knowledge, this study is the first addressing these catabolic activities in adult human bone through electron microscopy and analysis of molecular markers. Periosteoclastic reversal cells show direct contacts with the osteoclasts and with the demineralized resorption debris. These early reversal cells show (1) ¾-collagen fragments typically generated by extracellular collagenases of the MMP family, (2) MMP-13 (collagenase-3) and (3) the endocytic collagen receptor uPARAP/Endo180. The prevalence of these markers was lower in the later reversal cells, which are located near the osteoid surfaces and morphologically resemble mature bone-forming osteoblasts. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that reversal cells colonizing bone surfaces right after resorption are osteoblast-lineage cells, and extends to adult human bone remodeling their role in rendering eroded surfaces osteogenic.

  10. Report: EPA Prepared to Implement Strategic Human Capital Management Activities But Challenges Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2004-P-00024, September 20, 2004. EPA’s headquarters and regional offices are prepared to implement strategic human capital management activities, but an alignment of office-level activities to the Agency’s Strategy for Human Capital is lacking.

  11. Human foot bones from Klasies River main site, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rightmire, G Philip; Deacon, H J; Schwartz, Jeffrey H; Tattersall, Ian

    2006-01-01

    The caves at Klasies River contain abundant archaeological evidence relating to human evolution in the late Pleistocene of southern Africa. Along with Middle Stone Age artifacts, animal bones, and other food waste, there are hominin cranial fragments, mandibles with teeth, and a few postcranial remains. Three foot bones can now be added to this inventory. An adult first metatarsal is similar in size and discrete anatomical features to those from Holocene burials in the Cape Province. A complete and well-preserved second metatarsal is especially long and heavy at midshaft in comparison to all Holocene and more recent South African homologues. A large fifth metatarsal is highly distinctive in its morphology. In overall size, these pedal elements resemble specimens from late Pleistocene sites in western Asia, but there are some differences in proportions. The fossils support earlier suggestions concerning a relatively high level of sexual dimorphism in the African Middle Stone Age population. Squatting facets on the two lateral metatarsals appear to indicate a high frequency of kneeling among members of this group. The new postcranial material also underlines the fact that the morphology of particular skeletal elements of some of the 100,000-year-old Klasies River individuals falls outside the range of modern variation.

  12. Bioreactor cultivation of anatomically shaped human bone grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Joshua P; Yeager, Keith; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Grayson, Warren L

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe a method for engineering bone grafts in vitro with the specific geometry of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle. The anatomical geometry of the bone grafts was segmented from computed tomography (CT) scans, converted to G-code, and used to machine decellularized trabecular bone scaffolds into the identical shape of the condyle. These scaffolds were seeded with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using spinner flasks and cultivated for up to 5 weeks in vitro using a custom-designed perfusion bioreactor system. The flow patterns through the complex geometry were modeled using the FloWorks module of SolidWorks to optimize bioreactor design. The perfused scaffolds exhibited significantly higher cellular content, better matrix production, and increased bone mineral deposition relative to non-perfused (static) controls after 5 weeks of in vitro cultivation. This technology is broadly applicable for creating patient-specific bone grafts of varying shapes and sizes.

  13. Ethanol inhibits human bone cell proliferation and function in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, K.E.; Howard, G.A. (University of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1991-06-01

    The direct effects of ethanol on human bone cell proliferation and function were studied in vitro. Normal human osteoblasts from trabecular bone chips were prepared by collagenase digestion. Exposure of these osteoblasts to ethanol in concentrations of 0.05% to 1% for 22 hours induced a dose-dependent reduction in bone cell DNA synthesis as assessed by incorporation of 3H-thymidine. After 72 hours of ethanol exposure in concentrations of 0.01% to 1%, protein synthesis as measured by 3H-proline incorporation into trichbroacetic acid (TCA)-precipitable material was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Human bone cell protein concentrations and alkaline phosphatase total activity were significantly reduced after exposure to 1% ethanol for 72 hours, but not with lower concentrations of ethanol. This reduction in osteoblast proliferation and activity may partially explain the development of osteopenia in humans consuming excessive amounts of ethanol.

  14. On the volume of cremated remains - a comparative study of archaeologically recovered cremated bone volume as measured manually and assessed by Computed Tomography and by Stereology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvig, L.; Lynnerup, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Weight but occasionally also the volume of cremated human remains may often be the primary basis for interpreting the many stages involved in past cremation ceremonies. However, methods used for describing volume for cremated remains are extremely varying and biased by many factors. Here we...... bodies probably are represented more often than discussed in osteoarchaeology. Hence, this contests many suppositions on ritual selection of cremated human remains in prehistoric and early historical archaeology. A simple descriptive Fragmentation Index for cremated remains is further suggested....... evaluate different methods for calculating and describing volume and propose a method for estimating the original prehistoric post-cremation weight. Our data suggests that low cremation weights reported for archaeologically recovered cremated remains are markedly underestimated, and that whole cremated...

  15. Bone blood flow and metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kaskinoro, Kimmo

    2012-01-01

    in femoral bone at rest and during one leg intermittent isometric exercise with increasing exercise intensities. In nine men, blood flow in femur was determined at rest and during dynamic one leg exercise, and two other physiological perturbations: moderate systemic hypoxia (14 O(2) ) at rest and during...... leg. In conclusion, resting femoral bone blood flow increases by physical exercise, but appears to level off with increasing exercise intensities. Moreover, while moderate systemic hypoxia does not change bone blood flow at rest or during exercise, intra-arterially administered adenosine during...

  16. Bone mineral density, Bone mineral contents, MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels in Human Mandible and alveolar bone: Simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Catalina, Maria

    Exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes in astronauts and cosmonauts, including an osteoporosis-like loss of bone mass. It has been reported that head-down tilt bed-rest studies mimic many of the observations seen in flights. There is no study on the correlation on effects of mandibular bone and alveolar bone loss in both sex in simulating microgravity. This study was designed to determine the Bone mineral density and GCF MMP-8 MMP-9 in normal healthy subject of both sexes in simulated microgravity condition of -6 head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. The subjects of this investigation were 10 male and 10 female volunteers participated in three weeks 6 HDT bed-rest exposure. The Bone density and bone mineral contents were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and in simulated microgravity. The GCF MMP-8 MMP-8 were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Human Quantikine MMP-8,-9 ELISA kit). The bone mineral density and bone mineral contents levels were significantly decreased in simulated microgravity condition in both genders, although insignificantly loss was higher in females as compared to males. MMP-8 MMP-9 levels were significantly increased in simulated microgravity as compared to normal condition although insignificantly higher in females as compared to males. Further study is required on large samples size including all factors effecting in simulated microgravity and microgravity. Keys words-Simulated microgravity condition, head-down-tilt, Bone loss, MMP-8, MMP-9, Bone density, Bone mineral contents.

  17. Low calorie sweeteners: Evidence remains lacking for effects on human gut function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Charlotte; Mclaughlin, John

    2016-10-01

    The importance of nutrient induced gut-brain signalling in the regulation of human food intake has become an increasing focus of research. Much of the caloric excess consumed comes from dietary sugars, but our knowledge about the mechanisms mediating the physiological and appetitive effects of sweet tastants in the human gut and gut-brain axis is far from complete. The comparative effects of natural sugars vs low calorie sweeteners are also poorly understood. Research in animal and cellular models has suggested a key functional role in gut endocrine cells for the sweet taste receptors previously well described in oral taste. However human studies to date have very consistently failed to show that activation of the sweet taste receptor by low calorie sweeteners placed in the human gut fails to replicate any of the effects on gastric motility, gut hormones or appetitive responses evoked by caloric sugars. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Insect succession on remains of human and animals in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Ma, Meng-Yun; Jiang, Xin-Yu; Wang, Jiang-Feng; Li, Liang-Liang; Yin, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Min; Lai, Yue; Tao, Lu-Yang

    2017-02-01

    Most forensic entomological succession studies have been carried out using pig or rabbit carcasses; however, there have been few studies on the differences between insect succession patterns on human cadavers and on animal carcasses. In order to clarify the differences between decomposition and insect succession patterns of human cadavers and animal carcasses, one 49.5kg human cadaver, two large pig carcasses (45 and 48kg), two small pig carcasses (23 and 25kg) and two rabbit carcasses (both 1.75kg) were placed in the same field conditions in Shenzhen, China for a comparative study on August, 2013. The results indicated that: (1) The duration from fresh to skeletonization is in order of human cadaver>large pig carcasses>small pig carcasses>rabbit carcasses; (2) insect assemblages (including developmental stages) are more complex on larger carcasses, in order of human cadaver=large pig carcasses>small pig carcasses>rabbit carcasses; (3) the developmental rates of the same forensically important fly species on all carcasses are consistent; (4) all identified species of Calliphoridae can complete development of one generation on human cadaver, and both large and small pig carcasses, while on rabbit carcasses, only a subset of the Calliphoridae species can finish development of one generation; (5) beetles can generate offspring on human cadaver, and both large and small pig carcasses, while they do not generate offspring on rabbit carcasses. This study provides useful comparative data for decomposition and insect succession pattern of human cadaver with animal carcasses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. No effect of Osteoset, a bone graft substitute, on bone healing in humans: a prospective randomized double-blind study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petruskevicius, Juozas; Nielsen, Mette Strange; Kaalund, Søren;

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of a newly marketed bone substitute, Osteoset, on bone healing in a tibial defect in humans. 20 patients undergoing an ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction with bone-patella tendon-bone graft were block-randomized into 2 groups of 10 each. In the treatment group...

  20. Predicting the Remaining Lifespan and Cultivation-Related Loss of Osteogenic Capacity of Bone Marrow Multipotential Stromal Cells Applicable across a Broad Donor Age Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchman, Sarah M; Boxall, Sally A; McGonagle, Dennis; Jones, Elena A

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Culture expanded multipotential stromal cells (MSCs) have considerable potential for bone regeneration therapy but their wider use is constrained by the lack of simple and predictive assays of functional potency. Extended passaging leads to loss of multipotency but speed of decline depends on MSC donor age. The aim of this study was to develop an assay predictive of MSC culture longevity applicable to a broad donor age range. Materials and Methods. Bone marrow (BM, n = 7) was obtained from a diverse range (2-72 years) of healthy donors. MSCs were culture expanded to senescence and their osteoprogenitor content, gene expression profiles, epigenetic signature, and telomere behaviour were measured throughout. Output data was combined for modelling purposes. Results. Regardless of donor age, cultures' osteoprogenitor content correlated better with remaining lifespan (population doublings before senescence, PD-BS) than proliferative history (accrued PDs). Individual gene's expression or telomere length did not predict PD-BS but methylation of individual CpG islands did, PRAMEF2 in particular (r = 0.775). Coupling the steep relationship of relative SPARC expression with PD-BS (r = -0.753) the formula SPARC × 1/PREMEF2 gave an improved correlation (r = -0.893). Conclusion. A formula based on SPARC mRNA and PRAMEF2 methylation may be used to predict remaining BM-MSC longevity and related loss of multipotentiality independent of donor age.

  1. Predicting the Remaining Lifespan and Cultivation-Related Loss of Osteogenic Capacity of Bone Marrow Multipotential Stromal Cells Applicable across a Broad Donor Age Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Churchman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Culture expanded multipotential stromal cells (MSCs have considerable potential for bone regeneration therapy but their wider use is constrained by the lack of simple and predictive assays of functional potency. Extended passaging leads to loss of multipotency but speed of decline depends on MSC donor age. The aim of this study was to develop an assay predictive of MSC culture longevity applicable to a broad donor age range. Materials and Methods. Bone marrow (BM, n=7 was obtained from a diverse range (2–72 years of healthy donors. MSCs were culture expanded to senescence and their osteoprogenitor content, gene expression profiles, epigenetic signature, and telomere behaviour were measured throughout. Output data was combined for modelling purposes. Results. Regardless of donor age, cultures’ osteoprogenitor content correlated better with remaining lifespan (population doublings before senescence, PD-BS than proliferative history (accrued PDs. Individual gene’s expression or telomere length did not predict PD-BS but methylation of individual CpG islands did, PRAMEF2 in particular (r=0.775. Coupling the steep relationship of relative SPARC expression with PD-BS (r=-0.753 the formula SPARC × 1/PREMEF2 gave an improved correlation (r=-0.893. Conclusion. A formula based on SPARC mRNA and PRAMEF2 methylation may be used to predict remaining BM-MSC longevity and related loss of multipotentiality independent of donor age.

  2. CD133+ adult human retinal cells remain undifferentiated in Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer Eric J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD133 is a cell surface marker of haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF, sustains proliferation and not differentiation of embryonic stem cells. We used CD133 to purify adult human retinal cells and aimed to determine what effect LIF had on these cultures and whether they still had the ability to generate neurospheres. Methods Retinal cell suspensions were derived from adult human post-mortem tissue with ethical approval. With magnetic automated cell sorting (MACS CD133+ retinal cells were enriched from post mortem adult human retina. CD133+ retinal cell phenotype was analysed by flow cytometry and cultured cells were observed for proliferative capacity, neuropshere generation and differentiation with or without LIF supplementation. Results We demonstrated purification (to 95% of CD133+ cells from adult human postmortem retina. Proliferating cells were identified through BrdU incorporation and expression of the proliferation markers Ki67 and Cyclin D1. CD133+ retinal cells differentiated whilst forming neurospheres containing appropriate lineage markers including glia, neurons and photoreceptors. LIF maintained CD133+ retinal cells in a proliferative and relatively undifferentiated state (Ki67, Cyclin D1 expression without significant neurosphere generation. Differentiation whilst forming neurospheres was re-established on LIF withdrawal. Conclusion These data support the evidence that CD133 expression characterises a population of cells within the resident adult human retina which have progenitor cell properties and that their turnover and differentiation is influenced by LIF. This may explain differences in retinal responses observed following disease or injury.

  3. Investigating kinship of Neolithic post-LBK human remains from Krusza Zamkowa, Poland using ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juras, Anna; Chyleński, Maciej; Krenz-Niedbała, Marta; Malmström, Helena; Ehler, Edvard; Pospieszny, Łukasz; Łukasik, Sylwia; Bednarczyk, Józef; Piontek, Janusz; Jakobsson, Mattias; Dabert, Miroslawa

    2017-01-01

    We applied an interdisciplinary approach to investigate kinship patterns and funerary practices during the middle Neolithic. Genetic studies, radiocarbon dating, and taphonomic analyses were used to examine two grave clusters from Krusza Zamkowa, Poland. To reconstruct kinship and determine biological sex, we extracted DNA from bones and teeth, analyzed mitochondrial genomes and nuclear SNPs using the HID-Ion AmpliSeq™ Identity panel generated on Illumina and Ion Torrent platforms, respectively. We further dated the material (AMS (14)C) and to exclude aquatic radiocarbon reservoir effects, measures of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes for diet reconstruction were used. We found distinct mitochondrial genomes belonging to haplogroups U5b2a1a, K1c and H3d in the first grave cluster, and excluded maternal kin patterns among the three analyzed individuals. In the second grave cluster one individual belonged to K1a4. However, we could not affiliate the second individual to a certain haplogroup due to the fragmented state of the mitochondrial genome. Although the individuals from the second grave cluster differ at position 6643, we believe that more data is needed to fully resolve this issue. We retrieved between 26 and 77 autosomal SNPs from three of the individuals. Based on kinship estimations, taking into account the allelic dropout distribution, we could not exclude first degree kin relation between the two individuals from the second grave cluster. We could, however, exclude a first degree kinship between these two individuals and an individual from the first grave cluster. Presumably, not only biological kinship, but also social relations played an important role in the funerary practice during this time period. We further conclude that the HID-Ion AmpliSeq™ Identity Panel may prove useful for first degree kin relation studies for samples with good DNA preservation, and that mitochondrial genome capture enrichment is a powerful tool for excluding direct

  4. Identification of molecular markers related to human alveolar bone cells and pathway analysis in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Ren, Q H; Bai, L; Feng, Q

    2015-10-28

    Alveolar bone osteoblasts are widely used in dental and related research. They are easily affected by systemic diseases such as diabetes. However, the mechanism of diabetes-induced alveolar bone absorption remains unclear. This study systematically explored the changes in human alveolar bone cell-related gene expression and biological pathways, which may facilitate the investigation of its mechanism. Alveolar bone osteoblasts isolated from 5 male diabetics and 5 male healthy adults were cultured. Total RNA was extracted from these cells and subjected to gene microarray analysis. Differentially expressed genes were screened, and a gene interaction network was constructed. An enrichment pathway analysis was simultaneously performed on differentially expressed genes to identify the biological pathways associated with changes in the alveolar bone cells of diabetic humans. In total, we identified 147 mRNAs that were differentially expressed in diabetic alveolar bone cells (than in the normal cells; 91 upregulated and 36 downregulated mRNAs). The constructed co-expression network showed 3 pairs of significantly-expressed genes. High-enrichment pathway analysis identified 8 pathways that were affected by changes in gene expression; three of the significant pathways were related to metabolism (inositol phosphate metabolism, propanoate metabolism, and pyruvate metabolism). Here, we identified a few potential genes and biological pathways for the diagnosis and treatment of alveolar bone cells in diabetic patients.

  5. Human Bone Matrix Changes During Deep Saturation Dives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-08

    agreement notwithstanding, much remains unknown about its pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment . DON is currently disqualifying for U.S. Navy divers...recourse for symptomatic treatment is surgical joint replacement.7 The principal mechanism of bone injury is generally accepted to be bubble formation...urine concentrations of Ntx have been demonstrated in bone diseases such as osteoporosis, primary hyperthyroidism , and Paget’s disease. Also

  6. Effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of buried human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Denton, John; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Ivaneanu, Tatiana; Leentjes, Sarah; Janaway, Rob C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2012-04-10

    Recent casework in Belgium involving the search for human remains buried with lime, demonstrated the need for more detailed understanding of the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition and its micro-environment. Six pigs (Sus scrofa) were used as body analogues in field experiments. They were buried without lime, with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)(2)) and with quicklime (CaO) in shallow graves in sandy loam soil in Belgium and recovered after 6 months of burial. Observations from these field recoveries informed additional laboratory experiments that were undertaken at the University of Bradford, UK. The combined results of these studies demonstrate that despite conflicting evidence in the literature, hydrated lime and quicklime both delay the decay of the carcass during the first 6 months. This study has implications for the investigation of clandestine burials and for a better understanding of archaeological plaster burials. Knowledge of the effects of lime on decomposition processes also has bearing on practices involving burial of animal carcasses and potentially the management of mass graves and mass disasters by humanitarian organisations and DVI teams.

  7. Recent advances and remaining gaps in our knowledge of associations between gut microbiota and human health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Volker Mai; Peter V Draganov

    2009-01-01

    The complex gut microbial flora harbored by individuals (microbiota) has long been proposed to contribute to intestinal health as well as disease. Pre- and probiotic products aimed at improving health by modifying microbiota composition have already become widely available and acceptance of these products appears to be on the rise. However, although required for the development of effective microbiota based interventions, our basic understanding of microbiota variation on a population level and its dynamics within individuals is still rudimentary. Powerful new parallel sequence technologies combined with other efficient molecular microbiota analysis methods now allow for comprehensive analysis of microbiota composition in large human populations. Recent findings in the field strongly suggest that microbiota contributes to the development of obesity, atopic diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal cancers. Through the ongoing National Institutes of Health Roadmap 'Human of the world, a large coordinated effort is currently underway to study how microbiota can impact human health. Translating findings from these studies into effective interventions that can improve health,possibly personalized based on an individuals existing microbiota, will be the task for the next decade(s).

  8. Investigations on human and animal remains from a medieval shaft well in Ayasuluk/Ephesos (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanz, Fabian; Pfeiffer-Taş, Şule; Forstenpointner, Gerhard; Galik, Alfred; Weissengruber, Gerald; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U

    2014-01-01

    In course of the archaeological survey of Ayasuluk/Ephesos region (Turkey), a shaft well situated at the area of an extensive medieval bathing complex was excavated. In the stratum corresponding to the reign Mehmed II the well-preserved skeletons of two humans, an equine and a canine were recovered. Anthropological analysis of the human skeletons indentified two males aged 22 (± 3) and 36 (± 5) years. The skeleton of the younger individual showed signs of various antemortal conditions, including a well-healed fraction of right arc of the fifth lumbar vertebra, and a marked asymmetry of the shoulder joints. The older individual exhibited significant peri/postmortem injuries at the elbows, with evident signs of peeling and external burning. Also, the few elements of the cranium recovered showed also indications of burning. Archaeozoological characterization of the complete skeletons of the equine and canine established evidence of well cared-for animals of high value. The time of disposal of this group coincides with uprising of the formerly ruling Aydnoullar clan against the Ottomans in power. The human individuals recovered from the well may have been members of Aydnoullar tribe or men in service of the latter, suffering severe torture and/or mutilation for siding with the rebels after defeat.

  9. IFITM1 increases osteogenesis through Runx2 in human alveolar-derived bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Jin Seong; You, Yong-Ouk; Zadeh, Homa; Shin, Hong-In; Lee, Seung-Jin; Park, Yoon-Jeong; Takata, Takashi; Pi, Sung-Hee; Lee, Jun; You, Hyung-Keun

    2012-09-01

    The exact molecular mechanisms governing the differentiation of bone marrow stromal stem/progenitor cells (BMSCs) into osteoblasts remain largely unknown. In this study, a highly expressed protein that had a high degree of homology with interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) was identified using differentially expressed gene (DEG) screening. We sought to determine whether IFITM1 influenced osteoblast differentiation. During differentiation, IFITM1 expression gradually increased from 5 to 10days and subsequently decreased at 15 days in culture. Analysis of IFITM1 protein expression in several cell lines as well as in situ studies on human tissues revealed its selective expression in bone cells and human bone. Proliferation of human alveolar-derived bone marrow stromal cells (hAD-BMSCs) was significantly inhibited by IFITM1 knockdown by using short hairpin RNA, as were bone specific markers such as alkaline phosphatase, collagen type I α 1, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and osterix were decreased. Calcium accumulation also decreased following IFITM1 knockdown. Moreover, IFITM1 knockdown in hAD-BMSCs was associated with inhibition of Runx2 mRNA and protein expression. Collectively, the present data provide evidence for the role of IFITM1 in osteoblast differentiation. The exact mechanisms of IFITM1's involvement in osteoblast differentiation are still under investigation.

  10. Potential Use of Bacterial Community Succession in Decaying Human Bone for Estimating Postmortem Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damann, Franklin E; Williams, Daniel E; Layton, Alice C

    2015-07-01

    Bacteria are taphonomic agents of human decomposition, potentially useful for estimating postmortem interval (PMI) in late-stage decomposition. Bone samples from 12 individuals and three soil samples were analyzed to assess the effects of decomposition and advancing time on bacterial communities. Results indicated that partially skeletonized remains maintained a presence of bacteria associated with the human gut, whereas bacterial composition of dry skeletal remains maintained a community profile similar to soil communities. Variation in the UniFrac distances was significantly greater between groups than within groups (p < 0.001) for the unweighted metric and not the weighted metric. The members of the bacterial communities were more similar within than between decomposition stages. The oligotrophic environment of bone relative to soft tissue and the physical protection of organic substrates may preclude bacterial blooms during the first years of skeletonization. Therefore, community membership (unweighted) may be better for estimating PMI from skeletonized remains than community structure (weighted).

  11. Changes in the stiffness of the human tibial cartilage-bone complex in early-stage osteoarthrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M; Linde, F

    1998-01-01

    Cylindrical human tibial cartilage-bone unit specimens were removed from 9 early-stage medial osteoarthrotic (OA) tibiae (mean age 74 years) and 10 normal age-matched tibiae (mean age 73 years). These specimens were divided into 4 groups: OA, lateral comparison, medial age-matched, and lateral ag...... and bone remained significant in the three control groups. Our findings suggest that both cartilage and bone in early-stage OA are mechanically inferior to normal, and that OA cartilage and bone have lost their unit function to mechanical loading....

  12. Human remains and the environment of Early Pleistocene in the Nihewan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI; Baoquan; LI; Qiang

    2004-01-01

    A new Early Pleistocene Paleolithic site was found in July 2001 in the Nihewan Basin, Hebei Province. Totally 500 mammal specimens assigned to 21 species and 5 lithic artifacts were collected. The coexistence of Allophaiomys deucalion, Borsodia chinensis and Yangia tingi provides important evidence of chronology. On the basis of the comparison of mammalian fauna, the date of Paleolithic artifacts is probably earlier than 1.8 MaBP, possibly 2.0 MaBP. This is the earliest evidence of hominid activity found so far in North China. The hominid at that time in the Nihewan Basin lived in an environment of arid grasslands with scattered trees of temperate zone. This discovery is significant to the study of human origin and cultural development.

  13. First record of Talaromyces udagawae in soil related to decomposing human remains in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchida, María C; Centeno, Néstor D; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N

    2016-01-01

    The morphologic features of Talaromyces udagawae Stolk and Samson are here described and illustrated. This teleomorphic Ascomycota fungus was isolated from soil obtained in Buenos Aires province (Argentina) from beneath a human cadaver in an advanced state of decomposition. After washing and serial dilution of the soil along with moist-chamber techniques for fungal cultivation, T. udagawae formed very restricted colonies of bright yellow color on different growth media with 8-ascospored asci. The ascospores were ellipsoidal and ornamented. The anamorphic state was not observed. Molecular-genetic techniques identified the species. The present record is the first of the species in Argentina, pointing it as a tool to identify soils where cadaver decomposition occurs. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mails: lnogueira@con.ufrj.br; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2007-07-01

    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}OH{sub 2}], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 {mu}m ({+-}5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95 g.cm{sup -3} and 1.92 g.cm{sup -3} respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content

  15. Morphological Study of Wormian Bones in Dried Human Skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyesh Patel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wormian bones may be defined as a those accidental bones found in the cranium having no regular relation to their normal ossification centre. They are assocated with cranial and central nervous system abnormalities. Knowledge of these bones is important for anthropo-logists, forensic experts, radiologists, orthopedic and neurosurgeons to avoid misleading for multiple fractures of the skull. Materials and Methods: Adult dry human skulls (n= 27 of unknown age and sex availablein the Department of Anatomy, Govt. Medical College, Surat were included in the study. Result: Overall incidence of wormian bone was 44.4%. They occurred more frequently at lambdoid suture (48.14%.Wormian bones were also presentat asterion (18.5%, along the coronal suture (0.03%, along the parito-temporal suture (0.07%, along the occipito-mastoid suture (0.03%,andat pterion (0.03 %. Wormain bones were found 48.1% on left half of skull and 37.03% on right half of skull. Conclusion: The Wormian bones were more frequent at the lambdoid suture. The clinical importances of these variant bones were emphasized with relevant review of literature. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(3.000: 222-225

  16. Human remains from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition of southwest China suggest a complex evolutionary history for East Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curnoe, Darren; Xueping, Ji; Herries, Andy I R; Kanning, Bai; Taçon, Paul S C; Zhende, Bao; Fink, David; Yunsheng, Zhu; Hellstrom, John; Yun, Luo; Cassis, Gerasimos; Bing, Su; Wroe, Stephen; Shi, Hong; Parr, William C H; Shengmin, Huang; Rogers, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Later Pleistocene human evolution in East Asia remains poorly understood owing to a scarcity of well described, reliably classified and accurately dated fossils. Southwest China has been identified from genetic research as a hotspot of human diversity, containing ancient mtDNA and Y-DNA lineages, and has yielded a number of human remains thought to derive from Pleistocene deposits. We have prepared, reconstructed, described and dated a new partial skull from a consolidated sediment block collected in 1979 from the site of Longlin Cave (Guangxi Province). We also undertook new excavations at Maludong (Yunnan Province) to clarify the stratigraphy and dating of a large sample of mostly undescribed human remains from the site. We undertook a detailed comparison of cranial, including a virtual endocast for the Maludong calotte, mandibular and dental remains from these two localities. Both samples probably derive from the same population, exhibiting an unusual mixture of modern human traits, characters probably plesiomorphic for later Homo, and some unusual features. We dated charcoal with AMS radiocarbon dating and speleothem with the Uranium-series technique and the results show both samples to be from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition: ∼14.3-11.5 ka. Our analysis suggests two plausible explanations for the morphology sampled at Longlin Cave and Maludong. First, it may represent a late-surviving archaic population, perhaps paralleling the situation seen in North Africa as indicated by remains from Dar-es-Soltane and Temara, and maybe also in southern China at Zhirendong. Alternatively, East Asia may have been colonised during multiple waves during the Pleistocene, with the Longlin-Maludong morphology possibly reflecting deep population substructure in Africa prior to modern humans dispersing into Eurasia.

  17. Human Remains from the Pleistocene-Holocene Transition of Southwest China Suggest a Complex Evolutionary History for East Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curnoe, Darren; Xueping, Ji; Herries, Andy I. R.; Kanning, Bai; Taçon, Paul S. C.; Zhende, Bao; Fink, David; Yunsheng, Zhu; Hellstrom, John; Yun, Luo; Cassis, Gerasimos; Bing, Su; Wroe, Stephen; Shi, Hong; Parr, William C. H.; Shengmin, Huang; Rogers, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Background Later Pleistocene human evolution in East Asia remains poorly understood owing to a scarcity of well described, reliably classified and accurately dated fossils. Southwest China has been identified from genetic research as a hotspot of human diversity, containing ancient mtDNA and Y-DNA lineages, and has yielded a number of human remains thought to derive from Pleistocene deposits. We have prepared, reconstructed, described and dated a new partial skull from a consolidated sediment block collected in 1979 from the site of Longlin Cave (Guangxi Province). We also undertook new excavations at Maludong (Yunnan Province) to clarify the stratigraphy and dating of a large sample of mostly undescribed human remains from the site. Methodology/Principal Findings We undertook a detailed comparison of cranial, including a virtual endocast for the Maludong calotte, mandibular and dental remains from these two localities. Both samples probably derive from the same population, exhibiting an unusual mixture of modern human traits, characters probably plesiomorphic for later Homo, and some unusual features. We dated charcoal with AMS radiocarbon dating and speleothem with the Uranium-series technique and the results show both samples to be from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition: ∼14.3-11.5 ka. Conclusions/Significance Our analysis suggests two plausible explanations for the morphology sampled at Longlin Cave and Maludong. First, it may represent a late-surviving archaic population, perhaps paralleling the situation seen in North Africa as indicated by remains from Dar-es-Soltane and Temara, and maybe also in southern China at Zhirendong. Alternatively, East Asia may have been colonised during multiple waves during the Pleistocene, with the Longlin-Maludong morphology possibly reflecting deep population substructure in Africa prior to modern humans dispersing into Eurasia. PMID:22431968

  18. Human remains from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition of southwest China suggest a complex evolutionary history for East Asians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Curnoe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Later Pleistocene human evolution in East Asia remains poorly understood owing to a scarcity of well described, reliably classified and accurately dated fossils. Southwest China has been identified from genetic research as a hotspot of human diversity, containing ancient mtDNA and Y-DNA lineages, and has yielded a number of human remains thought to derive from Pleistocene deposits. We have prepared, reconstructed, described and dated a new partial skull from a consolidated sediment block collected in 1979 from the site of Longlin Cave (Guangxi Province. We also undertook new excavations at Maludong (Yunnan Province to clarify the stratigraphy and dating of a large sample of mostly undescribed human remains from the site. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook a detailed comparison of cranial, including a virtual endocast for the Maludong calotte, mandibular and dental remains from these two localities. Both samples probably derive from the same population, exhibiting an unusual mixture of modern human traits, characters probably plesiomorphic for later Homo, and some unusual features. We dated charcoal with AMS radiocarbon dating and speleothem with the Uranium-series technique and the results show both samples to be from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition: ∼14.3-11.5 ka. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis suggests two plausible explanations for the morphology sampled at Longlin Cave and Maludong. First, it may represent a late-surviving archaic population, perhaps paralleling the situation seen in North Africa as indicated by remains from Dar-es-Soltane and Temara, and maybe also in southern China at Zhirendong. Alternatively, East Asia may have been colonised during multiple waves during the Pleistocene, with the Longlin-Maludong morphology possibly reflecting deep population substructure in Africa prior to modern humans dispersing into Eurasia.

  19. Analysis of suspected trace human remains from an indoor concrete surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Carolyn M; Laskay, Unige A; Jackson, Glen P

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the sequence of analyses used to determine the nature of a stain located on the floor of room in the former Athens Mental Health and Retardation Hospital in Athens, OH. The location of the stain was reported to be the position in which a decomposing body was discovered on January 11, 1979. The current stain is found to contain strong evidence for both natural decomposition products and deliberate adulteration. Microscopic analyses, solubility tests, FTIR, ICP-OES, pyrolysis-MS, and derivatization GC-MS were consistent in determining the removable parts of the stain to be composed mostly of calcium and sodium salts of free fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, consistent with previous descriptions of adipocere. The free fatty acids could have been formed via known bacterial degradation pathways or via saponification through the basic environment caused through contact with the concrete. To our knowledge, adipocere formation on an exposed indoor environment has not been described before. The stain and concrete also show signs of being chemically modified with an acidic reagent, such as Blu-Lite--a phosphoric acid-based cleaner that was a commonly used cleaner in the building from the time of discovery to the present day. The chemical etching appears to have been restricted to an area resembling the shape of a human body, which is consistent with deliberate adulteration of the appearance of the stain.

  20. Digit ratio (2D:4D): Is it possible to use it for sex determination in the study of human skeletal remains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakholdina, Varvara Yu; Movsesian, Alla A; Sineva, Irina M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual dimorphism in the relative length of the second-to-fourth digits (the digit ratio, or 2D:4D) in humans has been reported in many studies. The aim of our study was to ascertain possibility of using the 2D:4D ratio as an additional marker for sex determination in the study of human skeletal remains. We have studied 2D:4D ratios obtained from measurements of finger phalanges and metacarpal bones in Russian (45 adult males and 26 adult females) and German (58 adult males and 29 adult females) skeletal series. The difference in 2D:4D ratio between the male and female subsamples in both skeletal series was not statistically significant. Analysis of variance revealed that the 2D:4D ratios in our sample varied more by ethnicity than by the sexual identity of the skeletal material. Our results suggest that the 2D:4D ratio cannot be used as an appropriate trait for the sex determination of human skeletal remains. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:591-593, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Fe and Cu stable isotopes in archeological human bones and their relationship to sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouen, Klervia; Balter, Vincent; Herrscher, Estelle; Lamboux, Aline; Telouk, Philippe; Albarède, Francis

    2012-07-01

    Accurate sex assignment of ancient human remains usually relies on the availability of coxal bones or well-preserved DNA. Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) stable isotope compositions ((56)Fe/(54)Fe and (65)Cu/(63)Cu, respectively) were recently measured in modern human blood, and an unexpected result was the discovery of a (56)Fe-depletion and a (65)Cu-enrichment in men's blood compared to women's blood. Bones, being pervasively irrigated by blood, are expected to retain the (56)Fe/(54)Fe and (65)Cu/(63)Cu signature of blood, which in turn is useful for determining the sex of ancient bones. Here, we report the (56)Fe/(54)Fe, (65)Cu/(63)Cu, and (66)Zn/(64)Zn ratios from a suite of well-preserved phalanxes (n = 43) belonging to individuals buried in the 17th and 18th centuries at the necropolis of Saint-Laurent de Grenoble, France, and for which the sex was independently estimated from pelvic bone morphology. The metals were purified from the bone matrix by liquid chromatography on ion exchange resin and the isotope compositions were measured by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results show that, as expected from literature data on blood, male bone iron is depleted in (56)Fe and enriched in (65)Cu relative to female. No sex difference is found in the (66)Zn/(64)Zn ratios of bone. The concentration and isotopic data show no evidence of soil contamination. Four samples of five (77%) can be assigned their correct sex, a result comparable to sex assignment using Fe and Cu isotopes in blood (81%). Isotopic analysis of metals may therefore represent a valid method of sex assignment applicable to incomplete human remains.

  2. Determinants of microdamage in elderly human vertebral trabecular bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Follet

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that microdamage accumulates in bone as a result of physiological loading and occurs naturally in human trabecular bone. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors associated with pre-existing microdamage in human vertebral trabecular bone, namely age, architecture, hardness, mineral and organic matrix. Trabecular bone cores were collected from human L2 vertebrae (n = 53 from donors 54-95 years of age (22 men and 30 women, 1 unknown and previous cited parameters were evaluated. Collagen cross-link content (PYD, DPD, PEN and % of collagen was measured on surrounding trabecular bone. We found that determinants of microdamage were mostly the age of donors, architecture, mineral characteristics and mature enzymatic cross-links. Moreover, linear microcracks were mostly associated with the bone matrix characteristics whereas diffuse damage was associated with architecture. We conclude that linear and diffuse types of microdamage seemed to have different determinants, with age being critical for both types.

  3. DNA and bone structure preservation in medieval human skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Norton, Andrew L; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Ali, Nadir; Elmrghni, Samir; Gil, Cristiane D; Sasso, Gisela R S; Dixon, Ronald A; Nader, Helena B

    2015-06-01

    Morphological and ultrastructural data from archaeological human bones are scarce, particularly data that have been correlated with information on the preservation of molecules such as DNA. Here we examine the bone structure of macroscopically well-preserved medieval human skeletons by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, and the quantity and quality of DNA extracted from these skeletons. DNA technology has been increasingly used for analyzing physical evidence in archaeological forensics; however, the isolation of ancient DNA is difficult since it is highly degraded, extraction yields are low and the co-extraction of PCR inhibitors is a problem. We adapted and optimised a method that is frequently used for isolating DNA from modern samples, Chelex(®) 100 (Bio-Rad) extraction, for isolating DNA from archaeological human bones and teeth. The isolated DNA was analysed by real-time PCR using primers targeting the sex determining region on the Y chromosome (SRY) and STR typing using the AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler PCR Amplification kit. Our results clearly show the preservation of bone matrix in medieval bones and the presence of intact osteocytes with well preserved encapsulated nuclei. In addition, we show how effective Chelex(®) 100 is for isolating ancient DNA from archaeological bones and teeth. This optimised method is suitable for STR typing using kits aimed specifically at degraded and difficult DNA templates since amplicons of up to 250bp were successfully amplified.

  4. The characterization of Helicobacter pylori DNA associated with ancient human remains recovered from a Canadian glacier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treena Swanston

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of nearly half of the world's population. Genotypic characterization of H. pylori strains involves the analysis of virulence-associated genes, such as vacA, which has multiple alleles. Previous phylogenetic analyses have revealed a connection between modern H. pylori strains and the movement of ancient human populations. In this study, H. pylori DNA was amplified from the stomach tissue of the Kwäday Dän Ts'ìnchi individual. This ancient individual was recovered from the Samuel Glacier in Tatshenshini-Alsek Park, British Columbia, Canada on the traditional territory of the Champagne and Aishihik First Nations and radiocarbon dated to a timeframe of approximately AD 1670 to 1850. This is the first ancient H. pylori strain to be characterized with vacA sequence data. The Tatshenshini H. pylori strain has a potential hybrid vacA m2a/m1d middle (m region allele and a vacA s2 signal (s region allele. A vacA s2 allele is more commonly identified with Western strains, and this suggests that European strains were present in northwestern Canada during the ancient individual's time. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the vacA m1d region of the ancient strain clusters with previously published novel Native American strains that are closely related to Asian strains. This indicates a past connection between the Kwäday Dän Ts'ìnchi individual and the ancestors who arrived in the New World thousands of years ago.

  5. Non-invasive photo acoustic approach for human bone diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thella, Ashok Kumar; Rizkalla, James; Helmy, Ahdy; Suryadevara, Vinay Kumar; Salama, Paul; Rizkalla, Maher

    2016-12-01

    The existing modalities of bone diagnosis including X-ray and ultrasound may cite drawback in some cases related to health issues and penetration depth, while the ultrasound modality may lack image quality. Photo acoustic approach however, provides light energy to the acoustic wave, enabling it to activate and respond according to the propagating media (which is type of bones in this case). At the same time, a differential temperature change may result in the bio heat response, resulting from the heat absorbed across the multiple materials under study. In this work, we have demonstrated the features of using photo acoustic modality in order to non-invasively diagnose the type of human bones based on their electrical, thermal, and acoustic properties that differentiate the output response of each type. COMSOL software was utilized to combine both acoustic equations and bio heat equations, in order to study both the thermal and acoustic responses through which the differential diagnosis can be obtained. In this study, we solved both the acoustic equation and bio heat equations for four types of bones, bone (cancellous), bone (cortical), bone marrow (red), and bone marrow (yellow). 1 MHz acoustic source frequency was chosen and 10(5) W/m(2) power source was used in the simulation. The simulation tested the dynamic response of the wave over a distance of 5 cm from each side for the source. Near 2.4 cm was detected from simulation from each side of the source with a temperature change of within 0.5 K for various types of bones, citing a promising technique for a practical model to detect the type of bones via the differential temperature as well as the acoustic was response via the multiple materials associated with the human bones (skin and blood). The simulation results suggest that the PA technique may be applied to non-invasive diagnosis for the different types of bones, including cancerous bones. A practical model for detecting both the temperature change via

  6. Effect of boundary conditions on yield properties of human femoral trabecular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyasantisuk, J; Pahr, D H; Zysset, P K

    2016-10-01

    Trabecular bone plays an important mechanical role in bone fractures and implant stability. Homogenized nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis of whole bones can deliver improved fracture risk and implant loosening assessment. Such simulations require the knowledge of mechanical properties such as an appropriate yield behavior and criterion for trabecular bone. Identification of a complete yield surface is extremely difficult experimentally but can be achieved in silico by using micro-FE analysis on cubical trabecular volume elements. Nevertheless, the influence of the boundary conditions (BCs), which are applied to such volume elements, on the obtained yield properties remains unknown. Therefore, this study compared homogenized yield properties along 17 load cases of 126 human femoral trabecular cubic specimens computed with classical kinematic uniform BCs (KUBCs) and a new set of mixed uniform BCs, namely periodicity-compatible mixed uniform BCs (PMUBCs). In stress space, PMUBCs lead to 7-72 % lower yield stresses compared to KUBCs. The yield surfaces obtained with both KUBCs and PMUBCs demonstrate a pressure-sensitive ellipsoidal shape. A volume fraction and fabric-based quadric yield function successfully fitted the yield surfaces of both BCs with a correlation coefficient [Formula: see text]. As expected, yield strains show only a weak dependency on bone volume fraction and fabric. The role of the two BCs in homogenized FE analysis of whole bones will need to be investigated and validated with experimental results at the whole bone level in future studies.

  7. Eight hundred-year-old human remains from the Ituri tropical forest, Democratic Republic of Congo: the rock shelter site of Matangai Turu Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, J; Garralda, M D; Pearson, O M; Bailey, R C

    2001-05-01

    Little is known about human prehistory in the central African lowland tropical forest due to a paucity of archaeological evidence. Here we report results from our archaeological investigations of a late Holocene site in the northeast Congo Basin, with emphasis on a single skeleton from the rock shelter site of Matangai Turu Northwest, in the Ituri Forest, Democratic Republic of Congo. The skeleton dates from approximately 810 BP (1235 calibrated AD) and is associated with Later Stone Age lithics, animal bone and shell remains from wild taxa, fruit endocarps from forest trees, phytoliths from tropical forest plants, Late Iron Age ceramics, and a single iron artifact. Phytolith analysis indicates that the habitat was dense tropical forest, without evidence of domesticated food.

  8. Creation of training aids for human remains detection canines utilizing a non-contact, dynamic airflow volatile concentration technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGreeff, Lauryn E; Weakley-Jones, Barbara; Furton, Kenneth G

    2012-04-10

    Human remains detection (HRD) canines are trained to locate human remains in a variety of locations and situations which include minimal quantities of remains that may be buried, submerged or extremely old. The aptitude of HRD canines is affected by factors such as training, familiarity with the scent source and environmental conditions. Access to appropriate training aids is a common issue among HRD canine handlers due to overly legal restrictions, difficulty in access and storage, and the potential biological hazards stemming from the use of actual human remains as training aids. For this reason, we propose a unique approach of training aid creation, utilizing non-contact, dynamic air-flow odor concentration onto sorbent materials. Following concentration, the sorbent material retains the odor from the scent source composed of volatile organic compounds. The sorbent material containing the odor can then be utilized as a canine training aid. Training materials prepared in this manner were tested under a variety of conditions with many HRD canines to demonstrate the efficacy of the new training aids. A high level of correct canine responses to the new training aids was achieved, approaching 90%, with minimal false positives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A comprehensive clinical review of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (INFUSE® Bone Graft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Steven M.; Badura, Jeffrey M.

    2007-01-01

    The combination of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) carrier has been shown to induce bone formation in a number of preclinical and clinical investigations. In 2002, rhBMP-2/ACS at a 1.5-mg/cc concentration (INFUSE® Bone Graft, Medtronic Spinal and Biologics, Memphis, TN) was FDA-approved as an autograft replacement for certain interbody spinal fusion procedures. In 2004, INFUSE® Bone Graft was approved for open tibial fractures with an intermedullary (IM) nail fixation. Most recently, in March 2007, INFUSE® Bone Graft was approved as an alternative to autogenous bone grafts for sinus augmentations, and for localised alveolar ridge augmentations for defects associated with extraction sockets. The culmination of extensive preclinical and clinical research and three FDA approvals makes rhBMP-2 one of the most studied, published and significant advances in orthopaedics. This review article summarises a number of clinical findings of rhBMP-2/ACS, including the FDA-approved investigational device exemption (IDE) studies used in gaining the aforementioned approvals. PMID:17639384

  10. Managing commingled remains from mass graves: considerations, implications and recommendations from a human rights case in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido Varas, Claudia; Intriago Leiva, Marisol

    2012-06-10

    This paper focuses on a little discussed part of Chilean history and the efforts to resolve Human Rights cases from the period 1973 to 1990. A case file is presented to illustrate the different stages, problems and solutions found in one particularly challenging case studied by the Special Unit of Identification of Detained and Missing (UEIDDDD) of the Human Rights Program of the Forensic Service, Chile, during the period 2006-2009. A major complication found in this example was the fact that the remains studied were commingled, and in addition, were mixed with remains that were not of medico-legal interest - deposited prior to and after the case in question, but within the same common grave. Multiple burials and the consequences of commingled skeletal human remains are reviewed, paying special attention to the roles that different agents related to these types of cases play, how they influence the decision making process and the outcomes that can be expected in commingled cases due to the complexities and challenges they present. Effective communication between prosecutors and forensic practitioners is vital to optimize the resources. Equally important is the relationship that is built between the practitioners and the victims' families regarding communication, information and expectations that both parties may have. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. American alligator proximal pedal phalanges resemble human finger bones: Diagnostic criteria for forensic investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Joseph V; Binetti, Katie M

    2014-07-01

    A scientific approach to bone and tooth identification requires analysts to pursue the goal of empirical falsification. That is, they may attribute a questioned specimen to element and taxon only after having ruled out all other possible attributions. This requires analysts to possess a thorough understanding of both human and non-human osteology, particularly so for remains that may be morphologically similar across taxa. To date, forensic anthropologists have identified several potential 'mimics' for human skeletal remains, including pig teeth and bear paws. Here we document another possible mimic for isolated human skeletal elements--the proximal pedal phalanges of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) closely resemble the proximal and intermediate hand phalanges of adult humans. We detail morphological similarities and differences between these elements, with the goal of providing sufficient information for investigators to confidently falsify the hypothesis that a questioned phalanx is derived from an American alligator.

  12. Age variations in the properties of human tibial trabecular bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M; Danielsen, CC;

    1997-01-01

    We tested in compression specimens of human proximal tibial trabecular bone from 31 normal donors aged from 16 to 83 years and determined the mechanical properties, density and mineral and collagen content. Young's modulus and ultimate stress were highest between 40 and 50 years, whereas ultimate...

  13. [Microdetermination of fluoride in human bones (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanocq, M; Helson-Cambier, M

    1979-01-15

    A spectrophotometric method (cerium(III)-alizarin complexan-fluoride in presence of 25% dimethylsulfoxyde) is described for the determination of fluoride in human bones. The anion is determined after separation by microdiffusion as hydrofluoric acid using Petri boxes without any mineralization. This analytical method is selective, accurate and rapid.

  14. Training human mesenchymal stromal cells for bone tissue engineering applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.

    2012-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are an interesting source for cell therapies and tissue engineering applications, because these cells are able to differentiate into various target tissues, such as bone, cartilage, fat and endothelial cells. In addition, they secrete a wide array of growth fa

  15. [Thermo-elastic stress analysis of human bones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger-Franke, M; Heiland, A; Plitz, W; Refior, H J

    1995-01-01

    The Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (THESA) is a widely used procedure in motorcar- and airplane engineering. This study investigated the reliability of THESA for stress analysis of human bone. A human femur was cyclic stressed and the resulting stress pattern was scanned from the surface of the bone by means of the thermoelastic stress measuring instrument SPATE 9000. To proof whether the scan of SPATE 9000 is equivalent to the stress distribution of human femur surface, strain gauges are used to control the results at two different regions of the femur diaphysis under equal but static conditions. It could be shown, that both measuring methods lead to corresponding results of stress pattern on human femur surface.

  16. [Diagnostics of the skeletal massiveness and human somatotype using hand bones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zviagin, V N; Zamiatina, A O; Galitskaia, O I

    2003-01-01

    The skeleton massiveness (SM) and the somatotype of human constitution were determined on the basis of osteometry of bones of carpal and metacarpal bones (MB) and of phalanxes. Seventy male and 13 female skeletons from the collection of the chair for anthropology, Moscow State University, were investigated. Described are the results of examinations of 8 carpal bones made according to 3 signs (length, width, and height), and of 5 metacarpal bones made according to 4 signs (length, base and head width, and base height); investigation findings of finger phalanxes (in full) are also presented. Methods of current multidimensional statistics were used within the case study, i.e. related with the key components--for SM specification and the discriminative analysis--for constitution specification. The SM determination accuracy according to type A was 40%, according to type B--80%, according to type C--37.5% and according to type D--52.9%. The classification accuracy of constitutions by carpal bones was 50.0%, by MB--46.4%, and by MB plus finger phalanxes--48.1%. It is pointed out that it was for the first time that the elaborated quantitative criteria of osteometry of hand bones could be used in the expertise practice for the purpose of personality identification by osseous remains.

  17. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation attenuates axonal injur y in stroke rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Xu; Shiwei Du; Xinguang Yu; Xiao Han; Jincai Hou; Hao Guo

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that transplantation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promotes neural functional recovery after stroke, but the neurorestorative mechanisms remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that functional recovery of myelinated axons may be one of underlying mechanisms. In this study, an ischemia/reperfusion rat model was established using the middle cerebral artery occlusion method. Rats were used to test the hypothesis that in-travenous transplantation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells through the femoral vein could exert neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia via a mechanism associated with the ability to attenuate axonal injury. The results of behavioral tests, infarction volume analysis and immunohistochemistry showed that cerebral ischemia caused severe damage to the myelin sheath and axons. After rats were intravenously transplanted with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, the levels of axon and myelin sheath-related proteins, including mi-crotubule-associated protein 2, myelin basic protein, and growth-associated protein 43, were elevated, infarct volume was decreased and neural function was improved in cerebral ischemic rats. These ifndings suggest that intravenously transplanted human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promote neural function. Possible mechanisms underlying these beneifcial effects in-clude resistance to demyelination after cerebral ischemia, prevention of axonal degeneration, and promotion of axonal regeneration.

  18. Ex Vivo Behaviour of Human Bone Tumor Endothelial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infante, Teresa [SDN-Foundation, Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development, IRCCS, 80143 Naples (Italy); Cesario, Elena [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Second University of Naples, 80138 Naples (Italy); Gallo, Michele; Fazioli, Flavio [Division of Skeletal Muscles Oncology Surgery, National Cancer Institute, Pascale Foundation, 80131 Naples (Italy); De Chiara, Annarosaria [Anatomic Pathology Unit, National Cancer Institute, Pascale Foundation, 80131 Naples (Italy); Tutucci, Cristina; Apice, Gaetano [Medical Oncology of Bone and Soft Sarcoma tissues Unit, National Cancer Institute, Pascale Foundation, 80131 Naples (Italy); Nigris, Filomena de, E-mail: filomena.denigris@unina2.it [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Second University of Naples, 80138 Naples (Italy)

    2013-04-11

    Cooperation between endothelial cells and bone in bone remodelling is well established. In contrast, bone microvasculature supporting the growth of primary tumors and metastasis is poorly understood. Several antiangiogenic agents have recently been undergoing trials, although an extensive body of clinical data and experimental research have proved that angiogenic pathways differ in each tumor type and stage. Here, for the first time, we characterize at the molecular and functional level tumor endothelial cells from human bone sarcomas at different stages of disease and with different histotypes. We selected a CD31{sup +} subpopulation from biopsies that displayed the capability to grow as adherent cell lines without vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Our findings show the existence in human primary bone sarcomas of highly proliferative endothelial cells expressing CD31, CD44, CD105, CD146 and CD90 markers. These cells are committed to develop capillary-like structures and colony formation units, and to produce nitric oxide. We believe that a better understanding of tumor vasculature could be a valid tool for the design of an efficacious antiangiogenic therapy as adjuvant treatment of sarcomas.

  19. Concepts of the body and personhood in the Mesolithic-Neolithic Danube Gorges: interpreting animal remains from human burials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Živaljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, humanities have brought forward the idea of non-human agency; either in the form of meanings bestowed upon objects, animals and natural phenomena, or through deconstruction of ontological differences between ‘people’ and ‘things’. In case of the former, it has been argued that non-human agents have the power to act as ‘participants’ in social action (e.g. the agentive power of material properties of things, or of animal behaviour. In this paper, I discuss the practice of placing animal body parts alongside human bodies in the Mesolithic-Neolithic Danube Gorges, by using the concept of perspectivism as a theoretical framework. The choice of species and their body parts varied, but was by no means accidental. Rather, it reflected certain culturally specific taxonomies, which were based on animal properties: how they look, move, feel or what they do. Common examples include red deer antlers, which have the power to ‘regenerate’ each year, or dog mandibles (physical remains of ‘mouths’ which have the power to ‘communicate’ (i.e. bark. The aim of the paper is to explore how various aspects of animal corporeality, associated with certain ways of seeing and experiencing the world, could be ‘borrowed’ by humans utilizing animal body parts.

  20. Recent origin of low trabecular bone density in modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirchir, Habiba; Kivell, Tracy L; Ruff, Christopher B; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Carlson, Kristian J; Zipfel, Bernhard; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-01-13

    Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and early fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at least a few anatomical regions modern humans today appear to have relatively low trabecular density, but little is known about how that density varies throughout the human skeleton and across species or how and when the present trabecular patterns emerged over the course of human evolution. Here, we test the hypotheses that (i) recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and (ii) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in early Homo erectus, consistent with the shift toward a modern human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. We used peripheral quantitative CT and microtomography to measure trabecular bone of limb epiphyses (long bone articular ends) in modern humans and chimpanzees and in fossil hominins attributed to Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus/early Homo from Swartkrans, Homo neanderthalensis, and early Homo sapiens. Results show that only recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the limb joints. Extinct hominins, including pre-Holocene Homo sapiens, retain the high levels seen in nonhuman primates. Thus, the low trabecular density of the recent modern human skeleton evolved late in our evolutionary history, potentially resulting from increased sedentism and reliance on technological and cultural innovations.

  1. Observational case series: an algorithm incorporating multidetector computed tomography in the medicolegal investigation of human remains after a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berran, Philip J; Mazuchowski, Edward L; Marzouk, Abubakr; Harcke, H Theodore

    2014-07-01

    An algorithm incorporating multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), digital radiographs, and external examination was used to triage cases for noninvasive or complete autopsy after a natural disaster. The algorithm was applied to 27 individuals who died during or soon after the earthquake that struck the Republic of Haiti on January 12, 2010. Of the 27 cases reviewed, 7 (26%) required a complete autopsy to determine cause and manner of death. In the remaining 20 (74%), cause and manner of death were determined with a reasonable degree of medical certainty after review of circumstances, an external examination, and postmortem imaging by MDCT and digital radiography (noninvasive autopsy). MDCT was particularly useful in detecting skeletal fractures caused by blunt force injury which were not evident on digital radiographs. The algorithm incorporating postmortem MDCT can be useful in the triage of human remains for autopsy after a natural disaster. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Creep of trabecular bone from the human proximal tibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novitskaya, Ekaterina, E-mail: eevdokim@ucsd.edu [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Zin, Carolyn [Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chang, Neil; Cory, Esther; Chen, Peter [Departments of Bioengineering and Orthopaedic Surgery, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); D’Lima, Darryl [Shiley Center for Orthopaedic Research and Education, Scripps Health, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Sah, Robert L. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Departments of Bioengineering and Orthopaedic Surgery, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); McKittrick, Joanna [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Creep is the deformation that occurs under a prolonged, sustained load and can lead to permanent damage in bone. Creep in bone is a complex phenomenon and varies with type of loading and local mechanical properties. Human trabecular bone samples from proximal tibia were harvested from a 71-year old female cadaver with osteoporosis. The samples were initially subjected to one cycle load up to 1% strain to determine the creep load. Samples were then loaded in compression under a constant stress for 2 h and immediately unloaded. All tests were conducted with the specimens soaked in phosphate buffered saline with proteinase inhibitors at 37 °C. Steady state creep rate and final creep strain were estimated from mechanical testing and compared with published data. The steady state creep rate correlated well with values obtained from bovine tibial and human vertebral trabecular bone, and was higher for lower density samples. Tissue architecture was analyzed by micro-computed tomography (μCT) both before and after creep testing to assess creep deformation and damage accumulated. Quantitative morphometric analysis indicated that creep induced changes in trabecular separation and the structural model index. A main mode of deformation was bending of trabeculae. - Highlights: • Compressive creep tests of human trabecular bone across the tibia were performed. • The creep rate was found to be inversely proportional to the density of the samples. • μ-computed tomography before and after testing identified regions of deformation. • Bending of the trabeculae was found to be the main deformation mode.

  3. Characterization of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Christine C.; Ciszak, Eva; Karr, Laurel J.

    1999-01-01

    A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase has been expressed in a recombinant strain of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. We constructed a plasmid containing cDNA encoding for human bone alkaline phosphatase, with the hydrophobic carboxyl terminal portion deleted. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mg/L when cultured in shake flasks, and enzyme activity was 12U/mg, as measured by a spectrophotometric assay. By conversion to a fermentation system, a yield of 880mg/L has been achieved with an enzyme activity of 968U/mg. By gel electrophoresis analysis, it appears that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation media is alkaline phosphatase. Although purification procedures are not yet completely optimized, they are expected to include filtration, ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Our presentation will focus on the purification and crystallization results up to the time of the conference. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  4. Human parvovirus 4 ‘PARV4’ remains elusive despite a decade of study [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa C. Matthews

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human parvovirus 4 (‘PARV4’ is a small DNA tetraparvovirus, first reported in 2005. In some populations, PARV4 infection is uncommon, and evidence of exposure is found only in individuals with risk factors for parenteral infection who are infected with other blood-borne viruses. In other settings, seroprevalence studies suggest an endemic, age-associated transmission pattern, independent of any specific risk factors. The clinical impact of PARV4 infection remains uncertain, but reported disease associations include an influenza-like syndrome, encephalitis, acceleration of HIV disease, and foetal hydrops. In this review, we set out to report progress updates from the recent literature, focusing on the investigation of cohorts in different geographical settings, now including insights from Asia, the Middle East, and South America, and discussing whether attributes of viral or host populations underpin the striking differences in epidemiology. We review progress in understanding viral phylogeny and biology, approaches to diagnostics, and insights that might be gained from studies of closely related animal pathogens. Crucial questions about pathogenicity remain unanswered, but we highlight new evidence supporting a possible link between PARV4 and an encephalitis syndrome. The unequivocal evidence that PARV4 is endemic in certain populations should drive ongoing research efforts to understand risk factors and routes of transmission and to gain new insights into the impact of this virus on human health.

  5. Calcium isotope ratios in animal and human bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, L. M.; Henderson, G. M.; Hedges, R. E. M.

    2010-07-01

    Calcium isotopes in tissues are thought to be influenced by an individual's diet, reflecting parameters such as trophic level and dairy consumption, but this has not been carefully assessed. We report the calcium isotope ratios (δ 44/42Ca) of modern and archaeological animal and human bone ( n = 216). Modern sheep raised at the same location show 0.14 ± 0.08‰ higher δ 44/42Ca in females than in males, which we attribute to lactation by the ewes. In the archaeological bone samples the calcium isotope ratios of the herbivorous fauna vary by location. At a single site, the archaeological fauna do not show a trophic level effect. Humans have lower δ 44/42Ca than the mean site fauna by 0.22 ± 0.22‰, and the humans have a greater δ 44/42Ca range than the animals. No effect of sex or age on the calcium isotope ratios was found, and intra-individual skeletal δ 44/42Ca variability is negligible. We rule out dairy consumption as the main cause of the lower human δ 44/42Ca, based on results from sites pre-dating animal domestication and dairy availability, and suggest instead that individual physiology and calcium intake may be important in determining bone calcium isotope ratios.

  6. Aged human bone marrow stromal cells maintaining bone forming capacity in vivo evaluated using an improved method of visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenderup, Karin; Rosada, Cecilia; Justesen, J;

    2004-01-01

    an in vivo assay for quantifying the bone forming capacity (BFC) and we compared the BFC of osteoblastic cells obtained from young and old donors. Osteoblasts were obtained from human bone marrow stromal cell cultures and implanted subcutaneously in immuno-deficient mice (NOD/LtSz- Prkdc(scid)). After 8...... weeks, the implants were removed and embedded un-decalcified in methyl methacrylate (MMA). Sections were stained histochemically with Goldner's Trichrome stain and immuno-histochemically using human-specific antibodies against known osteogenic markers. Implanted human marrow stromal cells (hMSC) were...... able to form bone in vivo. The donor origin of bone was verified using several human-specific antibodies. Dose-response experiments demonstrated that 5 x 10(5) hMSC per implant gave the maximal bone formation after 8 weeks. No difference in BFC was observed between cells obtained from young (24...

  7. The late Early Pleistocene human dental remains from Uadi Aalad and Mulhuli-Amo (Buia), Eritrean Danakil: macromorphology and microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanolli, Clément; Bondioli, Luca; Coppa, Alfredo; Dean, Christopher M; Bayle, Priscilla; Candilio, Francesca; Capuani, Silvia; Dreossi, Diego; Fiore, Ivana; Frayer, David W; Libsekal, Yosief; Mancini, Lucia; Rook, Lorenzo; Medin Tekle, Tsegai; Tuniz, Claudio; Macchiarelli, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    Fieldwork performed during the last 15 years in various Early Pleistocene East African sites has significantly enlarged the fossil record of Homo erectus sensu lato (s.l.). Additional evidence comes from the Danakil Depression of Eritrea, where over 200 late Early to early Middle Pleistocene sites have been identified within a ∼1000 m-thick sedimentary succession outcropping in the Dandiero Rift Basin, near Buia. Along with an adult cranium (UA 31), which displays a blend of H. erectus-like and derived morpho-architectural features and three pelvic remains, two isolated permanent incisors (UA 222 and UA 369) have also been recovered from the 1 Ma (millions of years ago) Homo-bearing outcrop of Uadi Aalad. Since 2010, our surveys have expanded to the nearby (4.7 km) site of Mulhuli-Amo (MA). This is a fossiliferous area that has been preliminarily surveyed because of its exceptional concentration of Acheulean stone tools. So far, the site has yielded 10 human remains, including the unworn crown of a lower permanent molar (MA 93). Using diverse analytical tools (including high resolution μCT and μMRI), we analysed the external and internal macromorphology and microstructure of the three specimens, and whenever possible compared the results with similar evidence from early Homo, H. erectus s.l., H. antecessor, H. heidelbergensis (from North Africa), Neanderthals and modern humans. We also assessed the UA 369 lower incisor from Uadi Aalad for root completion timing and showed that it compares well with data for root apex closure in modern human populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The value of radiocarbon analysis in determining the forensic interest of human skeletal remains found in unusual circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Puentes, Katerina; Soares, António Monge; Santos, Agostinho; Magalhães, Teresa

    2012-02-01

    The case under analysis refers to the remains of a young adult female found in a shallow grave during the construction work of a hospital in Northern Portugal. The forensic interest of the finding could not be ruled out since distinguishing features pointing to an archaeological grave were lacking. For example, absence of archaeological artefacts could not establish its forensic significance with certainty, together with the absence of modern objects, such as remnants of clothing or personal objects. In addition, although the remains were badly preserved, the condition may not have resulted from a long post-depositional period, but instead could be explained by the geology of the site and the presence of plant roots. The radiocarbon analysis of the remains was meant to establish the death of the individual to before or after the mid-1950s, from comparison with bomb-curve content values. A value of 0.9789 ± 0.0044 for F(14)C (pmC = 97.19 ± 0.44% Modern or Δ(14)C = -28.1 ± 4.4‰) was obtained, which placed the death of the individual in the pre-mod-1950s period. This report illustrates the use of radiocarbon analysis in establishing whether the human remains are contemporary or not and describes evidence for what appears to be an historic clandestine grave. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Longitudinal evolution of bone mineral density and bone markers in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondy, Kristin; Yarasheski, Kevin; Powderly, William G; Whyte, Michael; Claxton, Sherry; DeMarco, Debra; Hoffmann, Mary; Tebas, Pablo

    2003-02-15

    The underlying mechanisms of several bone disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons and any relation to antiretroviral therapy have yet to be defined. A longitudinal study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of osteopenia or osteoporosis in HIV-infected persons; to assess bone mineralization, metabolism, and histomorphometry over time; and to evaluate predisposing factors. A total of 128 patients enrolled the study, and 93 were observed for 72 weeks. "Classic" risk factors (low body mass index, history of weight loss, steroid use, and smoking) for low bone mineral density (BMD) and duration of HIV infection were strongly associated with osteopenia. There was a weak association between low BMD and receipt of treatment with protease inhibitors; this association disappeared after controlling for the above factors. Markers of bone turnover tended to be elevated in the whole cohort but were not associated with low BMD. BMD increased slightly during follow-up. Traditional risk factors and advanced HIV infection play a more significant pathogenic role in the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis associated with HIV infection than do treatment-associated factors.

  10. Effects of heterodimeric bone morphogenetic protein-2/7 on osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Guo, J.; Wu, G.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Roles of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) on osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) remain ambiguous. In this study, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo functional characteristics of BMPs of different dimerization types, with the aim of determining osteoinductive efficien

  11. Human mobility on the Brazilian coast: an analysis of strontium isotopes in archaeological human remains from Forte Marechal Luz Sambaqui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Q. R Bastos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated strontium isotopes in the dental enamel of 32 human skeletons from Forte Marechal Luz sambaqui (shellmound, Santa Catarina, Brazil, aiming at identifying local and non-local individuals. The archeological site presents pot sherds in the uppermost archeological layers. Dental enamel was also examined from specimens of terrestrial fauna (87Sr/86Sr = 0. 71046 to 0. 71273 and marine fauna (87Sr/86Sr = 0. 70917. The 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio for individuals classified as locals ranged from 0. 70905 to 0. 71064 and was closer to the isotope ratio of the seawater than to the ratio of the terrestrial fauna, indicating a strong influence of marine strontium on the inhabitants of this sambaqui. The results indicate the existence of three non-local individuals (87Sr/86Sr = 0. 70761 to 0. 70835, buried in both the level without pottery and the layer with pottery, possibly originated from the Santa Catarina Plateau, close to the municipality of Lages, or from the Curitiba Plateau. The occurrence of a slight difference between the isotope ratios of local individuals buried in the archeological layer without pottery, when compared to those in the layer with pottery, suggests a possible change in dietary patterns between these two moments in the site's occupationO presente estudo investigou isótopos de estrôncio em esmalte dentário de 32 remanescentes humanos do sambaqui do Forte Marechal Luz, Santa Catarina, Brasil, com o objetivo de identificar indivíduos locais e não-locais. O sítio arqueológico apresenta fragmentos de cerâmica em suas camadas arqueológicas mais recentes. Além das amostras humanas, foram analisadas amostras de esmalte dentário de espécimes de fauna terrestre (87Sr/86Sr = 0,71046 a 0,71273 e fauna marinha (87Sr/86Sr = 0,70917. A razão 87Sr/86Sr dos indivíduos classificados como locais variou de 0,70905 a 0,71064, sendo próxima a razão de estrôncio existente nos oceanos e distante da razão obtida para a

  12. Palaeopathology and genes: investigating the genetics of infectious diseases in excavated human skeletal remains and mummies from past populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Evilena; Mitchell, Piers D

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the use of genetics in palaeomicrobiology, and to highlight the importance of understanding past diseases. Palaeomicrobiology is the study of disease pathogens in skeletal and mummified remains from archaeological contexts. It has revolutionarised our understanding of health in the past by enabling a deeper knowledge of the origins and evolution of many diseases that have shaped us as a species. Bacterial diseases explored include tuberculosis, leprosy, bubonic plague, typhoid, syphilis, endemic and epidemic typhus, trench fever, and Helicobacter pylori. Viral diseases discussed include influenza, hepatitis B, human papilloma virus (HPV), human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Parasitic diseases investigated include malaria, leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease, roundworm, whipworm, pinworm, Chinese liver fluke, fleas and lice. Through a better understanding of disease origins and their evolution, we can place into context how many infectious diseases are changing over time, and so help us estimate how they may change in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The use of immunochromatographic rapid test for soft tissue remains identification in order to distinguish between human and non-human origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascho, Dominic; Morf, Nadja V; Thali, Michael J; Schaerli, Sarah

    2017-05-01

    Clear identification of soft tissue remains as being of non-human origin may be visually difficult in some cases e.g. due to decomposition. Thus, an additional examination is required. The use of an immunochromatographic rapid tests (IRT) device can be an easy solution with the additional advantage to be used directly at the site of discovery. The use of these test devices for detecting human blood at crime scenes is a common method. However, the IRT is specific not only for blood but also for differentiation between human and non-human soft tissue remains. In the following this method is discussed and validated by means of two forensic cases and several samples of various animals. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bone diseases associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection: pathogenesis, risk factors and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovanni, Marco; Tincati, Camilla

    2006-06-01

    Bone disorders such as osteopenia and osteoporosis have been recently reported in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but their etiology remains still unknown. The prevalence estimates vary widely among the different studies and can be affected by concomitant factors such as the overlapping of other possible conditions inducing bone loss as lypodystrophy, advanced HIV-disease, advanced age, low body weight or concomitant use of other drugs. All the reports at the moment available in the literature showed a higher than expected prevalence of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV-infected subjects both naïve and receiving potent antiretroviral therapy compared to healthy controls. This controversial can suggest a double role played by both antiretroviral drugs and HIV itself due to immune activation and/or cytokines disregulation. An improved understanding of the pathogenesis of bone disorders can result in better preventative and therapeutic measures. However, the clinical relevance and the risk of fractures remains undefined in HIV-population. The clinical management of osteopenia and osteoporosis in HIV-infected subjects is still being evaluated. Addressing potential underlying bone disease risk factors (e.g., smoking and alcohol intake, use of corticosteroids, advanced age, low body weight), evaluating calcium and vitamin D intake, and performing dual x-ray absorptiometry in HIV-infected individuals who have risk factors for bone disease can be important strategies to prevent osteopenia and osteoporosis in this population. The administration of bisphosphonates (e.g., alendronate), with calcium and vitamin D supplementation, may be a reasonable and effective option to treat osteoporosis in these subjects.

  15. Subchondral bone density distribution in the human femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, David A.; Meguid, Michael; Lubovsky, Omri; Whyne, Cari M. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    This study aims to quantitatively characterize the distribution of subchondral bone density across the human femoral head using a computed tomography derived measurement of bone density and a common reference coordinate system. Femoral head surfaces were created bilaterally for 30 patients (14 males, 16 females, mean age 67.2 years) through semi-automatic segmentation of reconstructed CT data and used to map bone density, by shrinking them into the subchondral bone and averaging the greyscale values (linearly related to bone density) within 5 mm of the articular surface. Density maps were then oriented with the center of the head at the origin, the femoral mechanical axis (FMA) aligned with the vertical, and the posterior condylar axis (PCA) aligned with the horizontal. Twelve regions were created by dividing the density maps into three concentric rings at increments of 30 from the horizontal, then splitting into four quadrants along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes. Mean values for each region were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and a Bonferroni post hoc test, and side-to-side correlations were analyzed using a Pearson's correlation. The regions representing the medial side of the femoral head's superior portion were found to have significantly higher densities compared to other regions (p < 0.05). Significant side-to-side correlations were found for all regions (r {sup 2} = 0.81 to r {sup 2} = 0.16), with strong correlations for the highest density regions. Side-to-side differences in measured bone density were seen for two regions in the anterio-lateral portion of the femoral head (p < 0.05). The high correlation found between the left and right sides indicates that this tool may be useful for understanding 'normal' density patterns in hips affected by unilateral pathologies such as avascular necrosis, fracture, developmental dysplasia of the hip, Perthes disease, and slipped capital femoral head epiphysis. (orig.)

  16. A Crust-based Method of Reconstructing Human Bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Shu-chao; LIU Yi

    2014-01-01

    We present a crust-based procedure for modeling human being’s bone, which is based on voronoi diagram and its dual, Delaunay triangulation. In three-dimensional space, the crust algorithm can generate a 3D-model using a set of sample points. The purposes of this paper is to extract precise contour from CT series, then refer to these contours as sample points, and then apply the crust algorithm to these sample points to get three dimensional mesh.

  17. Aging and Fracture of Human Cortical Bone and Tooth Dentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ager, Joel; Koester, Kurt J.; Ager III, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-05-07

    Mineralized tissues, such as bone and tooth dentin, serve as structural materials in the human body and, as such, have evolved to resist fracture. In assessing their quantitative fracture resistance or toughness, it is important to distinguish between intrinsic toughening mechanisms which function ahead of the crack tip, such as plasticity in metals, and extrinsic mechanisms which function primarily behind the tip, such as crack bridging in ceramics. Bone and dentin derive their resistance to fracture principally from extrinsic toughening mechanisms which have their origins in the hierarchical microstructure of these mineralized tissues. Experimentally, quantification of these toughening mechanisms requires a crack-growth resistance approach, which can be achieved by measuring the crack-driving force, e.g., the stress intensity, as a function of crack extension ("R-curve approach"). Here this methodology is used to study of the effect of aging on the fracture properties of human cortical bone and human dentin in order to discern the microstructural origins of toughness in these materials.

  18. Complexities in the Use of Bomb-Curve Radiocarbon to Determine Time Since Death of Human Skeletal Remains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubelaker, D H; Buchholz, B A

    2005-04-26

    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the 1950s and early 1960s doubled the level of radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) in the atmosphere. From the peak in 1963, the level of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} has decreased exponentially with a mean life of about 16 years, not due to radioactive decay, but due to mixing with large marine and terrestrial carbon reservoirs. Since radiocarbon is incorporated into all living things, the bomb-pulse is an isotopic chronometer of the past half century. The absence of bomb radiocarbon in skeletonized human remains generally indicates a date of death before 1950. Comparison of the radiocarbon values with the post 1950 bomb-curve may also help elucidate when in the post 1950 era, the individual was still alive. Such interpretation however, must consider the age at death of the individual and the type of tissue sampled.

  19. Demineralized bone matrix and human cancellous bone enhance fixation of titanium implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babiker, Hassan; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    Denmark, DenmarkAbstractReplacement of extensive local bone loss especially in revision joint arthroplasty and spine fusion is a significant clinical challenge. Allograft and autograft have been considered as gold standard for bone replacement. However, there are several disadvantages such as donor site...... from human tissue were included (IsoTis OrthoBiologics, Inc. USA). Both materials are commercially available. Titanium alloy implants (Biomet Inc.) of 10 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter were inserted bilaterally into the femoral condyles of 8 skeletally mature sheep. Thus four implants...... with a concentric gap of 2 mm were implanted in each sheep. The gap was filled with: DBM; DBM/CB with ratio of 1/3; DBM/allograft with ratio of 1/3; or allograft (Gold standard), respectively. Standardised surgical procedure was used1. At sacrifice, 6 weeks after surgery, both distal femurs were harvested...

  20. Bone formation induced in mouse thigh by cultured human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H C; Coulter, P R

    1967-04-01

    Cultured FL human amnion cells injected intramuscularly into cortisone-conditioned mice proliferate to form discrete nodules which become surrounded by fibroblasts. Within 12 days, fibroblastic zones differentiate into cartilage which calcifies to form bone. Experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that FL cells behave as an inductor of bone formation. In the electron microscope, FL cells were readily distinguished from surrounding fibroblasts. Transitional forms between the two cell types were not recognized. Stains for acid mucopolysaccharides emphasized the sharp boundary between metachromatic fibroblastic and cartilaginous zones and nonmetachromatic FL cells. (35)S was taken up preferentially by fibroblasts and chondrocytes and then deposited extracellularly in a manner suggesting active secretion of sulfated mucopolysaccharides. FL cells showed negligible (35)S utilization and secretion. FL cells, labeled in vitro with thymidine-(3)H, were injected and followed radioautographically, during bone formation. Nuclear label of injected FL cells did not appear in adjacent fibroblasts in quantities sufficient to indicate origin of the latter from FL cells. The minimal fibroblast nuclear labeling seen may represent reutilization of label from necrotic FL cells. It is suggested that FL cells injected into the mouse thigh induced cartilage and bone formation by host fibroblasts.

  1. Short-term effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues: Laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Denton, John; Fletcher, Jonathan N; Janaway, Robert C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2014-05-01

    Contradictions and misconceptions regarding the effect of lime on the decay of human remains have demonstrated the need for more research into the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition. This study follows previous research by the authors who have investigated the effect of lime on the decomposition of human remains in burial environments. A further three pig carcasses (Sus scrofa), used as human body analogues, were observed and monitored for 78 days without lime, with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and with quicklime (CaO) in the taphonomy laboratory at the University of Bradford. The results showed that in the early stages of decay, the unlimed and hydrated lime cadavers follow a similar pattern of changes. In contrast, the application of quicklime instigated an initial acceleration of decay. Microbial investigation demonstrated that the presence of lime does not eliminate all aerobic bacteria. The experiment also suggested that lime functions as a sink, buffering the carbon dioxide evolution. This study complements the field observations. It has implications for the investigation of time since death of limed remains. Knowledge of the effects of lime on decomposition processes is of interest to forensic pathologists, archaeologists, humanitarian organisations and those concerned with disposal of animal carcasses or human remains in mass disasters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The identification and restitution of human remains from an Aché girl named "Damiana": an interdisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koel-Abt, Katrin; Winkelmann, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    In June 2010, the postcranial skeleton of an adolescent girl was returned by the Natural History Museum of La Plata, Argentina, to the Aché community in Paraguay. In March 2011 the missing skull was identified in the anatomical collection of Charité in Berlin. We initiated a historical and anthropological investigation to confirm the identity of the human remains and to reconstruct the fate of the individual in question in its historical context. Anthropological publications from Argentina had indicated that the girl named "Damiana" was abducted by colonising settlers in Southern Paraguay in 1897 at the age of 3-4 years, later taken to La Plata in Argentina where she grew up as a "maidservant", and died in 1907 of "galloping consumption". In accordance with these reports, the present palaeopathological investigation confirms tuberculous meningitis as a likely cause of death. It also demonstrates some markers of "stress", the nature of which, however, is difficult to determine. Surviving letters and publications by Berlin anatomist Hans Virchow reveal that the girl's preserved head was sent from La Plata to Berlin in January 1908 for comparative investigations in the context of the racial theories of the time. We were convinced that the justified wishes of the Aché community to bury these remains alongside those restituted in 2010 outweighed any future scientific interest in these remains. In April 2012, the skull and two related specimens were returned from the Charité to the Aché community, mediated by the Paraguayan ambassador in Berlin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Human Urine Derived Stem Cells in Combination with β-TCP Can Be Applied for Bone Regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Guan

    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering requires highly proliferative stem cells that are easy to isolate. Human urine stem cells (USCs are abundant and can be easily harvested without using an invasive procedure. In addition, in our previous studies, USCs have been proved to be able to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Therefore, USCs may have great potential and advantages to be applied as a cell source for tissue engineering. However, there are no published studies that describe the interactions between USCs and biomaterials and applications of USCs for bone tissue engineering. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the interactions between USCs with a typical bone tissue engineering scaffold, beta-Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP, and to determine whether the USCs seeded onto β-TCP scaffold can promote bone regeneration in a segmental femoral defect of rats. Primary USCs were isolated from urine and seeded on β-TCP scaffolds. Results showed that USCs remained viable and proliferated within β-TCP. The osteogenic differentiation of USCs within the scaffolds was demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content. Furthermore, β-TCP with adherent USCs (USCs/β-TCP were implanted in a 6-mm critical size femoral defect of rats for 12 weeks. Bone regeneration was determined using X-ray, micro-CT, and histologic analyses. Results further demonstrated that USCs in the scaffolds could enhance new bone formation, which spanned bone defects in 5 out of 11 rats while β-TCP scaffold alone induced modest bone formation. The current study indicated that the USCs can be used as a cell source for bone tissue engineering as they are compatible with bone tissue engineering scaffolds and can stimulate the regeneration of bone in a critical size bone defect.

  4. Human Urine Derived Stem Cells in Combination with β-TCP Can Be Applied for Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Junjie; Zhang, Jieyuan; Li, Haiyan; Zhu, Zhenzhong; Guo, Shangchun; Niu, Xin; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering requires highly proliferative stem cells that are easy to isolate. Human urine stem cells (USCs) are abundant and can be easily harvested without using an invasive procedure. In addition, in our previous studies, USCs have been proved to be able to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Therefore, USCs may have great potential and advantages to be applied as a cell source for tissue engineering. However, there are no published studies that describe the interactions between USCs and biomaterials and applications of USCs for bone tissue engineering. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the interactions between USCs with a typical bone tissue engineering scaffold, beta-Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP), and to determine whether the USCs seeded onto β-TCP scaffold can promote bone regeneration in a segmental femoral defect of rats. Primary USCs were isolated from urine and seeded on β-TCP scaffolds. Results showed that USCs remained viable and proliferated within β-TCP. The osteogenic differentiation of USCs within the scaffolds was demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content. Furthermore, β-TCP with adherent USCs (USCs/β-TCP) were implanted in a 6-mm critical size femoral defect of rats for 12 weeks. Bone regeneration was determined using X-ray, micro-CT, and histologic analyses. Results further demonstrated that USCs in the scaffolds could enhance new bone formation, which spanned bone defects in 5 out of 11 rats while β-TCP scaffold alone induced modest bone formation. The current study indicated that the USCs can be used as a cell source for bone tissue engineering as they are compatible with bone tissue engineering scaffolds and can stimulate the regeneration of bone in a critical size bone defect.

  5. Insights into the processes behind the contamination of degraded human teeth and bone samples with exogenous sources of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M. T. P.; Hansen, Anders J.; Willerslev, E.

    2006-01-01

    A principal problem facing human DNA studies that use old and degraded remains is contamination from other sources of human DNA. In this study we have attempted to contaminate deliberately bones and teeth sampled from a medieval collection excavated in Trondheim, Norway, in order to investigate...... and are difficult to decontaminate using the tested protocol. We believe that this is largely due to the porous nature of bone and teeth facilitating the deep penetration of the contaminant DNA. To simulate a more realistic handling situation, 27 further teeth were directly handled and washed, then decontaminated...

  6. Building bones in babies: can and should we exceed the human milk-fed infant's rate of bone calcium accretion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing calcium absorption and bone calcium accretion to levels above those achieved by human milk-fed, full-term infants is possible with infant formulas. However, no data support such a goal or suggest that it is beneficial to short- or long-term bone health. Small differences in the bioavailab...

  7. Human papillomavirus major capsid protein L1 remains associated with the incoming viral genome throughout the entry process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiuseppe, Stephen; Bienkowska-Haba, Malgorzata; Guion, Lucile G M; Keiffer, Timothy R; Sapp, Martin

    2017-05-31

    During infectious entry, acidification within the endosome triggers uncoating of the HPV capsid whereupon host cyclophilins facilitate the release of most of the major capsid protein, L1, from the minor capsid protein L2 and the viral genome. The L2/DNA complex traffics to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Following the onset of mitosis, HPV-harboring transport vesicles bud from the TGN followed by association with mitotic chromosomes. During this time, the HPV genome remains in a vesicular compartment until the nucleus has completely reformed. Recent data suggests that while most of L1 protein dissociates and is degraded in the endosome, some L1 protein remains associated with the viral genome. The L1 protein has DNA binding activity and L2 protein has multiple domains capable of interacting with L1 capsomeres. In this study, we report that some L1 protein traffics with L2 and viral genome to the nucleus. The accompanying L1 protein is mostly full-length and retains conformation-dependent epitopes, which are recognized by neutralizing antibodies. Since more than one L1 molecule contributes to these epitopes and require assembly into capsomeres, we propose that L1 protein is present in form of pentamers. Furthermore, we provide evidence that L1 protein interacts directly with viral DNA within the capsid. Based on our findings, we propose that the L1 protein, likely arranged as capsomeres, stabilizes the viral genome within the subviral complex during intracellular trafficking.IMPORTANCE After internalization, the non-enveloped human papillomavirus virion uncoats in the endosome whereupon conformational changes result in a dissociation of a subset of the major capsid protein L1 from the minor capsid protein L2, which remains in complex with the viral DNA. Recent data suggests that some L1 protein may accompany the viral genome beyond the endosomal compartment. Herein, we demonstrate that conformationally intact L1 protein, likely still arranged as capsomeres, remains

  8. Tissue engineered humanized bone supports human hematopoiesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, Boris M; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Nowlan, Bianca; Barbier, Valerie; Thibaudeau, Laure; Theodoropoulos, Christina; Hooper, John D; Loessner, Daniela; Clements, Judith A; Russell, Pamela J; Pettit, Allison R; Winkler, Ingrid G; Levesque, Jean-Pierre

    2015-08-01

    Advances in tissue-engineering have resulted in a versatile tool-box to specifically design a tailored microenvironment for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in order to study diseases that develop within this setting. However, most current in vivo models fail to recapitulate the biological processes seen in humans. Here we describe a highly reproducible method to engineer humanized bone constructs that are able to recapitulate the morphological features and biological functions of the HSC niches. Ectopic implantation of biodegradable composite scaffolds cultured for 4 weeks with human mesenchymal progenitor cells and loaded with rhBMP-7 resulted in the development of a chimeric bone organ including a large number of human mesenchymal cells which were shown to be metabolically active and capable of establishing a humanized microenvironment supportive of the homing and maintenance of human HSCs. A syngeneic mouse-to-mouse transplantation assay was used to prove the functionality of the tissue-engineered ossicles. We predict that the ability to tissue engineer a morphologically intact and functional large-volume bone organ with a humanized bone marrow compartment will help to further elucidate physiological or pathological interactions between human HSCs and their native niches. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Elastic Comparison Between Human and Bovine Femural Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Gaith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the elastic stiffness and the degree of anisotropy will be compared for the femur human and bovine bones are presented. A scale for measuring the overall elastic stiffness of the bone at different locations is introduced and its correlation with the calculated bulk modulus is analyzed. Based on constructing orthonormal tensor basis elements using the form-invariant expressions, the elastic stiffness for orthotropic system materials is decomposed into two parts; isotropic (two terms and anisotropic parts. The overall elastic stiffness is calculated and found to be directly proportional to bulk modulus. A scale quantitative comparison of the contribution of the anisotropy to the elastic stiffness and to measure the degree of anisotropy in an anisotropic material is proposed using the Norm Ratio Criteria (NRC. It is found that bovine femure plexiform has the largest overall elastic stiffness and bovine has the most isotropic (least anisotropic symmetry.

  10. Anthropological and palaeopathological analysis of the human remains from three "Tombs of the Nobles" of the necropolis of Thebes-west, upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, A; Zink, A; Hagedorn, H G; Szeimies, U; Weyss, C

    2000-12-01

    During several recent excavation campaigns at the necropolis of Sheikh-Abd-el-Gurna, Thebes-West, Upper Egypt, we investigated the human remains of three "Tombs of the Nobles" totalling at least 273 individuals. The investigation covered the human material (skeletons and mummy residues) from the tombs TT-84, TT-85 and TT-95. These tombs had been built in the New Kingdom (approx. 1500-1000 B.C.) and used until the Late period (up to 330 BC). All samples were analyzed macroscopically, isolated findings were further investigated by endoscopic and radiological techniques. The at least 273 individuals covered an age range from newborns to senile individuals with a main age of death between 20 and 40 years of age. The rate of infants and subadults was at 20.2% of all individuals and there was a slight male predominance comprising 54.5% of the adults. In this population a fairly high rate of pathological lesions was seen. Thus, dental conditions generally were poor with a high degree of dental abrasion, an also high rate of carious dental lesions (affecting between 13.8% and 27.7% of the yaws) and consequently a significant number of dental abscesses (mean 15.9%). Residues of trauma were observed in a considerable number of individuals ranging between 12.3% and 22.6% depending on the burial place (mean 15.8%). Inflammatory bone reactions (except the dental abscesses) were present to variable extent, in some locations ranging up to 6.8% of the cases (mean 5.1%). In addition, we noted several cases showing cribra orbitalia (mean 29.2%) and porotic hyperostosis (15.4% of cases), mild to severe osteopenia (7.5%) and in several cases subperiosteal new bone formation suggestive of chronic vitamin D-deficiency ("scurvy") (9.5%). The data support the notion of a significant impairment of living conditions in a high number of individuals. The rates of osteoarthrotic joint alterations were considerably variable depending on the burial places (between 1.9% and 18.5%) providing

  11. Comparative study on seeding methods of human bone marrow stromal cells in bone tissue engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐欣; 刘建国; 常颖; 徐莘香

    2004-01-01

    Background In general the traditional static seeding method has its limitation while the dynamic seeding method reveals its advantages over traditional static method. We compared static and dynamic seeding method for human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) in bone tissue engineering.Methods DNA assay was used for detecting the maximal initial seeding concentration for static seeding. Dynamic and static seeding methods were compared, when scaffolds were loaded with hBMSCs at this maximal initial cell seeding concentration. Histology and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were examined to evaluate the distribution of cells inside the constructs. Markers encoding osteogenic genes were measured by fluorescent RT-PCR. The protocol for dynamic seeding of hBMSCs was also investigated.Results DNA assay showed that the static maximal initial seeding concentration was lower than that in dynamic seeding. Histology and SEM showed even distribution and spread of cells in the dynamically seeded constructs, while their statically seeded counterparts showed cell aggregation.Fluorescent RT-PCR again showed stronger osteogenic potential of dynamically seeded constructs.Conclusion dynamic seeding of hBMSCs is a promising technique in bone tissue engineering.

  12. Route of delivery influences biodistribution of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells following experimental bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang FJ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs have shown promise as treatment for graft-versus-host disease (GvHD following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT. Mechanisms mediating in vivo effects of MSCs remain largely unknown, including their biodistribution following infusion. To this end, human bone-marrow derived MSCs (hMSCs were injected via carotid artery (IA or tail vein (TV into allogeneic and syngeneic BMT recipient mice. Following xenogeneic transplantation, MSC biodistribution was measured by bioluminescence imaging (BLI using hMSCs transduced with a reporter gene system containing luciferase and by scintigraphic imaging using hMSCs labeled with [99mTc]-HMPAO. Although hMSCs initially accumulated in the lungs in both transplant groups, more cells migrated to organs in alloBMT recipient as measured by in vivo BLI and scintigraphy and confirmed by ex vivo BLI imaging, immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. IA injection resulted in persistent whole–body hMSC distribution in alloBMT recipients, while hMSCs were rapidly cleared in the syngeneic animals within one week. In contrast, TV-injected hMSCs were mainly seen in the lungs with fewer cells traveling to other organs. Summarily, these results demonstrate the potential use of IA injection to alter hMSC biodistribution in order to more effectively deliver hMSCs to targeted tissues and microenvironments.

  13. On the origin of human adipocytes and the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydén, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, results in both animal models and humans have demonstrated that white adipocytes are generated over the entire life-span. This adds to the plasticity of adipose tissue and alterations in adipocyte turnover are linked to metabolic dysfunction. Adipocytes are derived from precursors present primarily in the perivascular areas of adipose tissue but their precise origin remains unclear. The multipotent differentiation capacity of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC) has prompted the suggestion that BMDC may contribute to different cell tissue pools, including adipocytes. However, data in murine transplantation models have been conflicting and it has been a matter of debate whether BMDC actually differentiate into adipocytes or just fuse with resident fat cells. To resolve this controversy in humans, we recently performed a study in 65 subjects that had undergone bone marrow transplantation. Using a set of newly developed assays including single cell genome-wide analyses of mature adipocytes, we demonstrated that bone marrow contributes with approximately 10 % to the adipocyte pool. This proportion was more than doubled in obesity, suggesting that BMDC may constitute a reserve pool for adipogenesis, particularly upon weight gain. This commentary discusses the possible relevance of these and other recent findings for human pathophysiology.

  14. Late effects on human bone marrow after extended field radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmentier, C.; Morardet, N.; Tubiana, M.

    1983-09-01

    Thirty-two patients with lymphoma were treated by extended radiotherapy (RT) at a dose of 40 Gy and were studied by ferrokinetic studies and surface counting at various times following irradiation. Loss of hematopoietic activity in the irradiated areas is compensated by increased activity in the non-irradiated areas. Despite the return of peripheral blood counts to normal, the hyperactivity of the non-irradiated bone marrow persists over up to 13 years after RT, while the hematopoietic activity of the irradiated areas remains depressed and is only slightly higher than immediately after RT. The hypoactivity persisted even when the hemopoietic tissues had been subjected to the intense stimulation provoked by an aplasia caused by chemotherapy. However, a recovery was observed for dose of 20 Gy or lower. The hemopoietic activity of the irradiated bone marrow appears to be related to the volume of the marrow irradiated and is higher after a mantle + inverted Y field than after a mantle field. Bone marrow scintigraphies with /sup 59/Fe in 7 out of 9 patients studied revealed an extension of hematopoiesis into a normally dormant area of the marrow, such as the femora. In 2 patients an erythropoietic activity was observed in spleens which had received a dose of 40 Gy, and extra medullary erythropoiesis was found in approximately two-thirds of the patients.

  15. Large-scale microstructural simulation of load-adaptive bone remodeling in whole human vertebrae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badilatti, Sandro D.; Christen, Patrik; Levchuk, Alina; Hazrati Marangalou, Javad; Rietbergen, van Bert; Parkinson, Ian; Müller, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Identification of individuals at risk of bone fractures remains challenging despite recent advances in bone strength assessment. In particular, the future degradation of the microstructure and load adaptation has been disregarded. Bone remodeling simulations have so far been restricted to small-volu

  16. Development of a Human Cranial Bone Surrogate for Impact Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jack C; Merkle, Andrew C; Carneal, Catherine M; Voo, Liming M; Johannes, Matthew S; Paulson, Jeff M; Tankard, Sara; Uy, O Manny

    2013-01-01

    In order to replicate the fracture behavior of the intact human skull under impact it becomes necessary to develop a material having the mechanical properties of cranial bone. The most important properties to replicate in a surrogate human skull were found to be the fracture toughness and tensile strength of the cranial tables as well as the bending strength of the three-layer (inner table-diplöe-outer table) architecture of the human skull. The materials selected to represent the surrogate cranial tables consisted of two different epoxy resins systems with random milled glass fiber to enhance the strength and stiffness and the materials to represent the surrogate diplöe consisted of three low density foams. Forty-one three-point bending fracture toughness tests were performed on nine material combinations. The materials that best represented the fracture toughness of cranial tables were then selected and formed into tensile samples and tested. These materials were then used with the two surrogate diplöe foam materials to create the three-layer surrogate cranial bone samples for three-point bending tests. Drop tower tests were performed on flat samples created from these materials and the fracture patterns were very similar to the linear fractures in pendulum impacts of intact human skulls, previously reported in the literature. The surrogate cranial tables had the quasi-static fracture toughness and tensile strength of 2.5 MPa√ m and 53 ± 4.9 MPa, respectively, while the same properties of human compact bone were 3.1 ± 1.8 MPa√ m and 68 ± 18 MPa, respectively. The cranial surrogate had a quasi-static bending strength of 68 ± 5.7 MPa, while that of cranial bone was 82 ± 26 MPa. This material/design is currently being used to construct spherical shell samples for drop tower and ballistic tests.

  17. Bones and humanity. On Forensic Anthropology and its constitutive power facing forced disappearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Huffschmid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forensic anthropologists seek to decipher traces of anonymous dead, to restitute identities of human remains and to provide their families with the possibility to conclude mourning and even of justice. The article explores the contributions and meanings of forensic anthropology as state-independent practice beyond a mereley criminalistic approach, as it was conceptualized by the Argentine pioneers after the last dictatorship in this nation. I conceive this practice as a sort of arqueology of contemporary terror that seeks to confront a specific violence as the forced disappearance of persons and the deshumanization of their dead bodies. The article proposes reading forensic anthropology as a 'situated cience', with its complexities and ambigueties, that operates between nameless bones (the human remains and names without bodies (the so-called disappeared in settings of violent pasts such as Argentina or Guatemala, and especially in Mexico, where mass graves became the new symbol of a horrified present.

  18. Can experimental data in humans verify the finite element-based bone remodeling algorithm?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, C.; Gehrchen, P.M.; Kiaer, T.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A finite element analysis-based bone remodeling study in human was conducted in the lumbar spine operated on with pedicle screws. Bone remodeling results were compared to prospective experimental bone mineral content data of patients operated on with pedicle screws. OBJECTIVE......: The validity of 2 bone remodeling algorithms was evaluated by comparing against prospective bone mineral content measurements. Also, the potential stress shielding effect was examined using the 2 bone remodeling algorithms and the experimental bone mineral data. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In previous studies......, in the human spine, the bone remodeling algorithms have neither been evaluated experimentally nor been examined by comparing to unsystematic experimental data. METHODS: The site-specific and nonsite-specific iterative bone remodeling algorithms were applied to a finite element model of the lumbar spine...

  19. Nanoscale Bonding between Human Bone and Titanium Surfaces: Osseohybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Sik Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now, the chemical bonding between titanium and bone has been examined only through a few mechanical detachment tests. Therefore, in this study, a sandblasted and acid-etched titanium mini-implant was removed from a human patient after 2 months of placement in order to identify the chemical integration mechanism for nanoscale osseointegration of titanium implants. To prepare a transmission electron microscopy (TEM specimen, the natural state was preserved as much as possible by cryofixation and scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam (SEM-FIB milling without any chemical treatment. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and scanning TEM (STEM/electron energy loss spectroscopic analysis (EELS were used to investigate the chemical composition and structure at the interface between the titanium and bone tissue. HRTEM and EDS data showed evidence of crystalline hydroxyapatite and intermixing of bone with the oxide layer of the implant. The STEM/EELS experiment provided particularly interesting results: carbon existed in polysaccharides, calcium and phosphorus existed as tricalcium phosphate (TCP, and titanium existed as oxidized titanium. In addition, the oxygen energy loss near edge structures (ELNESs showed a possibility of the presence of CaTiO3. These STEM/EELS results can be explained by structures either with or without a chemical reaction layer. The possible existence of the osseohybridization area and the form of the carbon suggest that reconsideration of the standard definition of osseointegration is necessary.

  20. Long-term effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues: Field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Fletcher, Jonathan N; Denton, John; Janaway, Robert C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2014-05-01

    An increased number of police enquiries involving human remains buried with lime have demonstrated the need for more research into the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition and its micro-environment. This study follows previous studies by the authors who have investigated the effects of lime on the decay of human remains in laboratory conditions and 6 months of field experiments. Six pig carcasses (Sus scrofa), used as human body analogues, were buried without lime with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and quicklime (CaO) in shallow graves in sandy-loam soil in Belgium and recovered after 17 and 42 months of burial. Analysis of the soil, lime and carcasses included entomology, pH, moisture content, microbial activity, histology and lime carbonation. The results of this study demonstrate that despite conflicting evidence in the literature, the extent of decomposition is slowed down by burial with both hydrated lime and quicklime. The more advanced the decay process, the more similar the degree of liquefaction between the limed and unlimed remains. The end result for each mode of burial will ultimately result in skeletonisation. This study has implications for the investigation of clandestine burials, for a better understanding of archaeological plaster burials and potentially for the interpretation of mass graves and management of mass disasters by humanitarian organisation and DVI teams. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION XRF MICROPROBE STUDY OF HUMAN BONE TUMOR SLICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The experimental apparatus of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe analysis at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) is described Using the bovine liver as the standard reference.the minimum detection limit(MDL) of trace element was measured to determine the capability of biological sample analysis by synchrotron radiation XRF microprobe.The relative change of the content of the major or trace element in the normal and tumor part of human bone tissue slice was investigated The experimental result relation to the clinical medicine was also discussed.

  2. AMS {sup 14}C chronology of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius Blum.) remains from the Shestakovo upper paleolithic site, western Siberia: Timing of human-mammoth interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenin, V.N.; Plicht, J. van der E-mail: plicht@phys.rug.nl; Orlova, L.A.; Kuzmin, Y.V

    2000-10-01

    We present a series of AMS {sup 14}C dates from the upper paleolithic site of Shestakovo, southwestern Siberia. The {sup 14}C ages range between 21 and 26 ka BP, corresponding to the so-called Sartan Glacial and Karginian Interglacial in Siberia. The majority of dates are from woolly mammoth bones, obtained from several discrete cultural layers, and range from ca. 25,700 to 21,600 BP. One charcoal date, ca. 23,300 BP, pinpoints the timing of at least one phase of site occupation by humans. The overlap of this date with the mammoth bone dates shows clearly that paleolithic people scavenged bones from natural death accumulations near the site. Mammoth hunting was most probably of limited scale. Conventional {sup 14}C dates from Shestakovo are also discussed.

  3. Methods and theory in bone modeling drift: comparing spatial analyses of primary bone distributions in the human humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiano, Corey M; Maggiano, Isabel S; Tiesler, Vera G; Chi-Keb, Julio R; Stout, Sam D

    2016-01-01

    This study compares two novel methods quantifying bone shaft tissue distributions, and relates observations on human humeral growth patterns for applications in anthropological and anatomical research. Microstructural variation in compact bone occurs due to developmental and mechanically adaptive circumstances that are 'recorded' by forming bone and are important for interpretations of growth, health, physical activity, adaptation, and identity in the past and present. Those interpretations hinge on a detailed understanding of the modeling process by which bones achieve their diametric shape, diaphyseal curvature, and general position relative to other elements. Bone modeling is a complex aspect of growth, potentially causing the shaft to drift transversely through formation and resorption on opposing cortices. Unfortunately, the specifics of modeling drift are largely unknown for most skeletal elements. Moreover, bone modeling has seen little quantitative methodological development compared with secondary bone processes, such as intracortical remodeling. The techniques proposed here, starburst point-count and 45° cross-polarization hand-drawn histomorphometry, permit the statistical and populational analysis of human primary tissue distributions and provide similar results despite being suitable for different applications. This analysis of a pooled archaeological and modern skeletal sample confirms the importance of extreme asymmetry in bone modeling as a major determinant of microstructural variation in diaphyses. Specifically, humeral drift is posteromedial in the human humerus, accompanied by a significant rotational trend. In general, results encourage the usage of endocortical primary bone distributions as an indicator and summary of bone modeling drift, enabling quantitative analysis by direction and proportion in other elements and populations.

  4. Mineralogical and Geochemical Studies of Bone Detritus of Pleistocene Mammals, Including the Earliest in Northern Eurasia Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Silaev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presents the preliminary results of mineralogical and geochemical studies of the primary and epigenetic properties of the bio-mineral and protein components in the fossil bone detritus as an example of first step of continued interdisciplinary research program. During the further implementation of this program, it is expected not only to solve a set of interrelated mineralogical, paleontological, paleoecological, paleoclimatic, and archaeological problems, but also to obtain new knowledge about the coevolution of organic, organo-mineral and inorganic substances in the geological history. The main objects of study are the fossil remains of the large Pleistocene mammals (mammoths, woolly rhinoceroses, deer, elk, horses, bison, cave and brown bear found on the territory of the Pechora Urals (62-67 ° N , South Pri-Irtyshie in Western Siberia (57-58 ° N, and Northern Taymyr (75-77 ° N. The oldest bone of Homo sapiens (Ust-Ishim human found in Northern Eurasia and remains of medieval Tobol and Irtysh Turk will be investigated as well. The results of previous studies of skin and hair of biological material from today's wild fisheries (analogues Pleistocene mammals, wild and domestic animals are considered as the reliable prerequisites for planned isotopic and geochemical studies. Use of cutting-edge research techniques will allow determining the chemical composition of bones; the elemental composition of bone collagen and bone proteins; the degree of crystallinity of bone bioapatite, and phase composition of xenomineral impurities; the isotopic composition of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen in bioapatite and collagen; the actual molecular and crystal structure of the protein biomineral, and bone substance; the concentration of trace elements; the conditions and duration of burial and reburial of bone detritus; bone collagen bacterial degradation at an early stage of fossilization. It is expected that the implementation of the proposed project

  5. A re-evaluation of the premaxillary bone in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barteczko, K; Jacob, M

    2004-03-01

    The discovery of the premaxillary bone (os incisivum, os intermaxillare or premaxilla) in humans has been attributed to Goethe, and it has also been named os Goethei. However, Broussonet (1779) and Vicq d'Azyr (1780) came to the same result with different methods. The first anatomists described this medial part of the upper jaw as a separate bone in the vertebrate skull, and, as we know, Coiter (1573) was the first to present an illustration of the sutura incisiva in the human. This fact, and furthermore its development from three parts:-(1) the alveolar part with the facial process, (2) the palatine process, and (3) the processus Stenonianus-can no longer be found in modern textbooks of developmental biology. At the end of the nineteenth and in the early twentieth century a vehement discussion focused on the number and position of its ossification centers and its sutures. Therefore, it is hard to believe that the elaborate work of the old embryologists is ignored and that the existence of a premaxillary bone in humans is even denied by many authors. Therefore this re-evaluation was done to demonstrate the early development of the premaxillary bone using the reconstructions of Felber (1919), Jarmer (1922) and data from our own observations on SEM micrographs and serial sections from 16 mm embryo to 68 mm fetus. Ossification of a separate premaxilla was first observed in a 16 mm embryo. We agree with Jarmer (1922), Peter (1924), and Shepherd and McCarthy (1955) that it develops from three anlagen, which are, however, not fully separated. The predominant sutura incisiva (rudimentarily seen on the facial side in a prematurely born child) and a shorter sutura intraincisiva argue in this sense. The later growth of this bone and its processes establish an important structure in the middle of the facial skull. Its architecture fits well with the functional test of others. We also focused on the relation of the developing premaxilla to the forming nasal septum moving from

  6. Bone regenerative properties of rat, goat and human platelet-rich plasma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plachokova, A.S.; Dolder, J. van den; Beucken, J.J.J.P. van den; Jansen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    To explore the reported contradictory osteogenic capacity of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), the aim of the study was to examine and compare the bone regenerative effect of: PRPs of different species (rat, goat, human); human bone graft (HB) vs. HB combined with human PRP (HB+hPRP); and HB+hPRP vs. synt

  7. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nogami, Makiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Koike, Chika; Okabe, Motonori [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Noto, Zenko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nikaido, Toshio, E-mail: tnikaido@med.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAM{alpha} cells and induced to osteogenic status-their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAM{alpha} cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAM{alpha} cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAM{alpha} cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAM{alpha} cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAM{alpha} cells) that have the properties of MSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAM{alpha} was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  8. Can experimental data in humans verify the finite element-based bone remodeling algorithm?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Christian; Gehrchen, P Martin; Kiaer, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A finite element analysis-based bone remodeling study in human was conducted in the lumbar spine operated on with pedicle screws. Bone remodeling results were compared to prospective experimental bone mineral content data of patients operated on with pedicle screws....

  9. Age variations in the properties of human tibial trabecular bone and cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2000-01-01

    ) to investigate the age-related and osteoarthrosis-related changes in the mechanical properties of the human tibial cartilage-bone complex; and 3) to evaluate mutual associations among various properties. Normal specimens from human autopsy proximal tibiae were used for investigation of age variations...... in the properties of trabecular bone and the cartilage-bone complex, and osteoarthrotic specimens were used for the investigation of changes in the mechanical properties of the cartilage-bone complex induced by this disease process. The mechanical properties and physical/compositional properties of trabecular bone...... is parallel to the longitudinal loading axis of the tibia. The mechanical properties of the normal cartilage and bone vary with age and respond simultaneously to mechanical loading. Both cartilage and bone in early-stage OA are mechanically inferior to normal, and OA cartilage and bone have lost their unit...

  10. The relevance of mouse models for investigating age-related bone loss in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilka, Robert L

    2013-10-01

    Mice are increasingly used for investigation of the pathophysiology of osteoporosis because their genome is easily manipulated, and their skeleton is similar to that of humans. Unlike the human skeleton, however, the murine skeleton continues to grow slowly after puberty and lacks osteonal remodeling of cortical bone. Yet, like humans, mice exhibit loss of cancellous bone, thinning of cortical bone, and increased cortical porosity with advancing age. Histologic evidence in mice and humans alike indicates that inadequate osteoblast-mediated refilling of resorption cavities created during bone remodeling is responsible. Mouse models of progeria also show bone loss and skeletal defects associated with senescence of early osteoblast progenitors. Additionally, mouse models of atherosclerosis, which often occurs in osteoporotic participants, also suffer bone loss, suggesting that common diseases of aging share pathophysiological pathways. Knowledge of the causes of skeletal fragility in mice should therefore be applicable to humans if inherent limitations are recognized.

  11. In Vitro Impact of Conditioned Medium From Demineralized Freeze-Dried Bone on Human Umbilical Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnik, Branko; Miron, Richard J; Buser, Daniel; Gruber, Reinhard

    2017-03-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for the consolidation of bone allografts. The underlying molecular mechanism, however, remains unclear. Soluble factors released from demineralized freeze-dried bone target mesenchymal cells; however, their effect on endothelial cells has not been investigated so far. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the effect of conditioned medium from demineralized freeze-dried bone on human umbilical endothelial cells in vitro. Conditioned medium was first prepared from demineralized freeze-dried bone following 24 hours incubation at room temperature to produce demineralized bone conditioned media. Thereafter, conditioned medium was used to stimulate human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro by determining the cell response based on viability, proliferation, expression of apoptotic genes, a Boyden chamber to determine cell migration, and the formation of branches. The authors report here that conditioned medium decreased viability and proliferation of endothelial cells. Neither of the apoptotic marker genes was significantly altered when endothelial cells were exposed to conditioned medium. The Boyden chamber revealed that endothelial cells migrate toward conditioned medium. Moreover, conditioned medium moderately stimulated the formation of branches. These findings support the concept that conditioned medium from demineralized freeze-dried bone targets endothelial cells by decreasing their proliferation and enhancing their motility under these in vitro conditions.

  12. Organotypic culture of human bone marrow adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Aoki, Shigehisa; Shigematsu, Masamori; Kamochi, Noriyuki; Sonoda, Emiko; Soejima, Hidenobu; Fukudome, Kenji; Sugihara, Hajime; Hotokebuchi, Takao; Toda, Shuji

    2010-04-01

    The precise role of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) in the marrow remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was therefore to describe a novel method for studying BMAT using 3-D collagen gel culture of BMAT fragments, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Mature adipocytes and CD45+ leukocytes were retained for >3 weeks. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) including a small number of lipid-laden preadipocytes and CD44+/CD105+ mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like cells, developed from BMAT. Dexamethasone (10 micromol/L), but not insulin (20 mU/mL), significantly increased the number of preadipocytes. Dexamethasone and insulin also promoted leptin production and gene expression in BMAT. Adiponectin production by BMAT was BMAT, in which adiponectin protein secretion is normally very low, and that BMAT may exhibit a different phenotype from that of the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues. BMAT-osteoblast interactions were also examined, and it was found that osteoblasts inhibited the development of BMSC and reduced leptin production, while BMAT inhibited the growth and differentiation of osteoblasts. The present novel method proved to be useful for the study of BMAT biology.

  13. The distribution of mercury and other trace elements in the bones of two human individuals from medieval Denmark – the chemical life history hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kaare Lund; Skytte, Lilian; Pilekær, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Excavating human skeletons is the closest archaeologists can get to the people who lived in the past. Once excavated the bones are often analysed chemically in order to yield as much information as possible. Most archaeometric analyses performed on samples of human skeletal remains have been perf...

  14. Accuracy of 18-F FDG PET/CT to detect bone marrow clearance in patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma - tissue remains the issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Anthony Q; Broski, Stephen M; Habermann, Thomas M; Jevremovic, Dragan; Wiseman, Gregory A; Feldman, Andrew L; Maurer, Matthew J; Ristow, Kay M; Witzig, Thomas E

    2017-10-01

    Staging of peripheral T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PTCL) is determined by 18-F FDG PET scan and bone marrow biopsy. This study addressed the accuracy of PET at detecting bone marrow (BM) involvement at restaging in patients with known involvement pretreatment. We identified patients with biopsy proven BM PTCL at diagnosis and concomitant BM and PET at the end of therapy. Pre-treatment PET demonstrated 50% (8/16) had a false-negative PET scan of the BM. After induction, repeat biopsy revealed 62.5% (10/16) with BM involvement. Of these 10, two had a positive PET; eight were false negative by PET. Of the six patients with a negative posttherapy BM biopsy, four were PET negative and two false positive. The sensitivity of PET at end of treatment was 20% (2/10) with a specificity of 66.7% (4/6). PET/CT is not an accurate predictor of BM involvement in patients with known PTCL in the marrow.

  15. In vitro induction of alkaline phosphatase levels predicts in vivo bone forming capacity of human bone marrow stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk-Jan Prins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the applications of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs that are produced by ex vivo expansion is for use in in vivo bone tissue engineering. Cultured stromal cells are a mixture of cells at different stages of commitment and expansion capability, leading to a heterogeneous cell population that each time can differ in the potential to form in vivo bone. A parameter that predicts for in vivo bone forming capacity is thus far lacking. We employed single colony-derived BMSC cultures to identify such predictive parameters. Using limiting dilution, we have produced sixteen single CFU-F derived BMSC cultures from human bone marrow and found that only five of these formed bone in vivo. The single colony-derived BMSC strains were tested for proliferation, osteogenic-, adipogenic- and chondrogenic differentiation capacity and the expression of a variety of associated markers. The only robust predictors of in vivo bone forming capacity were the induction of alkaline phosphatase, (ALP mRNA levels and ALP activity during in vitro osteogenic differentiation. The predictive value of in vitro ALP induction was confirmed by analyzing “bulk-cultured” BMSCs from various bone marrow biopsies. Our findings show that in BMSCs, the additional increase in ALP levels over basal levels during in vitro osteogenic differentiation is predictive of in vivo performance.

  16. Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  17. Building bones in babies: can and should we exceed the human milk-fed infant's rate of bone calcium accretion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Steven A

    2006-11-01

    Increasing calcium absorption and bone calcium accretion to levels above those achieved by human milk-fed, full-term infants is possible with infant formulas. However, no data support such a goal or suggest that it is beneficial to short- or long-term bone health. Small differences in the bioavailability of calcium between infant formulas are unlikely to have long-term consequences. Long-term studies of the effects of infant feeding type on ultimate bone mass are needed. For now, the vitamin-replete breast-fed infant's rate of calcium accretion during the first year of life should be the standard targeted for infant formulas.

  18. Microtomography of the human tooth-alveolar bone complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalstra, Michel; Cattaneo, Paolo M.; Beckmann, Felix; Sakima, Maurício T.; Lemor, Carsten; Laursen, Morten G.; Melsen, Birte

    2006-08-01

    In this study the structure of the adult human dentoalveolar process is examined using conventional and synchrotron radiation-based microtomography (SRμCT). Mandibular and maxillary segments containing two to five adjacent teeth were harvested at autopsy from 49 adult donors. These segments were embedded in blocks of methylmetacrylate and scanned using a conventional table-top μCT-scanner at a pixel size and slice thickness of 35 μm. A few segments were also scanned at a synchrotron facility at an initial pixel size of 16.4 μm, which was binned by a factor 2 to result in an effective voxel size of almost 32.8 μm. The three-dimensional reconstructions revealed how intricately the teeth are supported by the alveolar bone. Furthermore, this support is highly inhomogeneous with respect to the buccal, mesial, lingual and distal quadrants. Reflecting their various degrees of mineralization, tissues like bone, dentine, enamel and cementum, could well be identified, especially in the scans made with SRμCT. Despite comparable voxel sizes, the reconstructed data-sets obtained with conventional μCT were less detailed and somewhat fuzzy in appearance compared to the data-sets of SRμCT. However, for quantification of macroscopical features like the thickness of the alveolar wall or the presence of dehiscences/fenestrations this seemed sufficient.

  19. Inner ear contribution to bone conduction hearing in the human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenfelt, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    Bone conduction (BC) hearing relies on sound vibration transmission in the skull bone. Several clinical findings indicate that in the human, the skull vibration of the inner ear dominates the response for BC sound. Two phenomena transform the vibrations of the skull surrounding the inner ear to an excitation of the basilar membrane, (1) inertia of the inner ear fluid and (2) compression and expansion of the inner ear space. The relative importance of these two contributors were investigated using an impedance lumped element model. By dividing the motion of the inner ear boundary in common and differential motion it was found that the common motion dominated at frequencies below 7 kHz but above this frequency differential motion was greatest. When these motions were used to excite the model it was found that for the normal ear, the fluid inertia response was up to 20 dB greater than the compression response. This changed in the pathological ear where, for example, otosclerosis of the stapes depressed the fluid inertia response and improved the compression response so that inner ear compression dominated BC hearing at frequencies above 400 Hz. The model was also able to predict experimental and clinical findings of BC sensitivity in the literature, for example the so called Carhart notch in otosclerosis, increased BC sensitivity in superior semicircular canal dehiscence, and altered BC sensitivity following a vestibular fenestration and RW atresia.

  20. Collection and identification of human remains volatiles by non-contact, dynamic airflow sampling and SPME-GC/MS using various sorbent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGreeff, Lauryn E; Furton, Kenneth G

    2011-09-01

    Human remains detection canines are used in locating deceased humans in diverse scenarios and environments based on odor produced during the decay process of the human body. It has been established that human remains detection canines are capable of locating human remains specifically, as opposed to living humans or animal remains, thus suggesting a difference in odor between the different sources. This work explores the collection and determination of such odors using a dynamic headspace concentration device. The airflow rate and three sorbent materials-Dukal cotton gauze, Johnson & Johnson cotton-blend gauze, and polyester material-used for odor collection were evaluated using standard compounds. It was determined that higher airflow rates and openly woven material, e.g., Dukal cotton gauze, yielded significantly less total volatile compounds due to compound breakthrough through the sorbent material. Collection from polymer- and cellulose-based materials demonstrated that the molecular backbone of the material is a factor in compound collection as well. Volatiles, including cyclic and straight-chain hydrocarbons, organic acids, sulfides, aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols, were collected from a population of 27 deceased bodies from two collection locations. The common compounds between the subjects were compared and the odor profiles were determined. These odor profiles were compared with those of animal remains and living human subjects collected in the same manner. Principal component analysis showed that the odor profiles of the three sample types were distinct.

  1. Scanning electron microscopy of human cortical bone failure surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braidotti, P; Branca, F P; Stagni, L

    1997-02-01

    Undecalcified samples extracted from human femoral shafts are fractured by bending and the fracture surfaces are examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The investigation is performed on both dry and wet (hydrated with a saline solution) specimens. SEM micrographs show patterns in many respects similar to those observed in fractography studies of laminated fiber-reinforced synthetic composites. In particular, dry and wet samples behave like brittle and ductile matrix laminates, respectively. An analysis carried out on the basis of the mechanisms that dominate the fracture process of laminates shows that a reasonable cortical bone model is that of a laminated composite material whose matrix is composed of extracellular noncollagenous calcified proteins, and the reinforcement is constituted by the calcified collagen fiber system.

  2. A high volume extraction and purification method for recovering DNA from human bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Pamela L; Stoljarova, Monika; Schmedes, Sarah E; King, Jonathan L; Budowle, Bruce

    2014-09-01

    DNA recovery, purity and overall extraction efficiency of a protocol employing a novel silica-based column, Hi-Flow(®) (Generon Ltd., Maidenhead, UK), were compared with that of a standard organic DNA extraction methodology. The quantities of DNA recovered by each method were compared by real-time PCR and quality of DNA by STR typing using the PowerPlex(®) ESI 17 Pro System (Promega Corporation, Madison, WI) on DNA from 10 human bone samples. Overall, the Hi-Flow method recovered comparable quantities of DNA ranging from 0.8ng±1 to 900ng±159 of DNA compared with the organic method ranging from 0.5ng±0.9 to 855ng±156 of DNA. Complete profiles (17/17 loci tested) were obtained for at least one of three replicates for 3/10 samples using the Hi-Flow method and from 2/10 samples with the organic method. All remaining bone samples yielded partial profiles for all replicates with both methods. Compared with a standard organic DNA isolation method, the results indicated that the Hi-Flow method provided equal or improved recovery and quality of DNA without the harmful effects of organic extraction. Moreover, larger extraction volumes (up to 20mL) can be employed with the Hi-Flow method which enabled more bone sample to be extracted at one time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Animal Models and Bone Histomorphometry: Translational Research for the Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of animal models to research and inform bone morphology, in particular relating to human research in bone loss as a result of low gravity environments. Reasons for use of animal models as tools for human research programs include: time-efficient, cost-effective, invasive measures, and predictability as some model are predictive for drug effects.

  4. A physical mechanism for coupling bone resorption and formation in adult human bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Levin; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Skorzynska, Katarzyna Ewa

    2009-01-01

    During skeletal remodeling, pre-osteoclasts and pre-osteoblasts are targeted to critical sites of the bone to resorb and reconstruct bone matrix, respectively. Coordination of site-specific recruitment of these two cell types is a prerequisite to maintain the specific architecture of each bone...... within strict limits throughout adult life. Here, we determined that the bone marrow microanatomy adjacent to remodeling areas is a central player in this process. By using histomorphometry and multiple immunostainings, we demonstrated in biopsies exhibiting coupled bone resorption and formation...... that osteoclasts and osteoblasts on the bone surface were always covered by a canopy of flat cells expressing osteoblast markers. In contrast, in biopsies in which this canopy was disrupted, bone formation was deficient. Three-dimensional visualizations revealed that this canopy covered the entire remodeling site...

  5. Anti-Müllerian hormone remains highly expressed in human cumulus cells during the final stages of folliculogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, M L; Nielsen, M Eilsø; Dal Canto, M B

    2011-01-01

    , AMH receptor 2, FSH receptor, aromatase and androgen receptor were performed in CC in IVM patients where cumulus-oocyte-complex had expanded, CC in IVM patients where cumulus-oocyte-complex remained compacted, GC from immature follicles and CC and GC from IVF patients. Microarray data on corresponding...

  6. Relationship between mechanical properties and bone mineral density of human femoral bone retrieved from patients with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yvonne; Lindner, Tobias; Fritsche, Andreas; Schiebenhöfer, Ann-Kristin; Souffrant, Robert; Kluess, Daniel; Skripitz, Ralf; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse retrieved human femoral bone samples using three different test methods, to elucidate the relationship between bone mineral density and mechanical properties. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 22 donors undergoing primary total hip replacement due to hip osteoarthritis and stored for a maximum of 24 hours postoperatively at + 6 °C to 8 °C.Analysis revealed an average structural modulus of 232±130 N/mm(2) and ultimate compression strength of 6.1±3.3 N/mm(2) with high standard deviations. Bone mineral densities of 385±133 mg/cm(2) and 353±172 mg/cm(3) were measured using thedual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT), respectively. Ashing resulted in a bone mineral density of 323±97 mg/cm(3). In particular, significant linear correlations were found between DXA and ashing with r = 0.89 (p < 0.01, n = 22) and between structural modulus and ashing with r = 0.76 (p < 0.01, n = 22).Thus, we demonstrated a significant relationship between mechanical properties and bone density. The correlations found can help to determine the mechanical load capacity of individual patients undergoing surgical treatments by means of noninvasive bone density measurements.

  7. Human bone hardness seems to depend on tissue type but not on anatomical site in the long bones of an old subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Caroline; Zwierzak, Iwona; Baleani, Massimiliano; Viceconti, Marco

    2013-02-01

    It has been hypothesised that among different human subjects, the bone tissue quality varies as a function of the bone segment morphology. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the quality, evaluated in terms of hardness of packages of lamellae, of cortical and trabecular bones, at different anatomical sites within the human skeleton. The contralateral six long bones of an old human subject were indented at different levels along the diaphysis and at both epiphyses of each bone. Hardness value, which is correlated to the degree of mineralisation, of both cortical and trabecular bone tissues was calculated for each indentation location. It was found that the cortical bone tissue was harder (+18%) than the trabecular one. In general, the bone hardness was found to be locally highly heterogeneous. In fact, considering one single slice obtained for a bone segment, the coefficient of variation of the hardness values was up to 12% for cortical bone and up to 17% for trabecular bone. However, the tissue hardness was on average quite homogeneous within and among the long bones of the studied donor, although differences up to 9% among levels and up to 7% among bone segments were found. These findings seem not to support the mentioned hypothesis, at least not for the long bones of an old subject.

  8. Demineralized bone matrix and human cancellous bone enhance fixation of porous-coated titanium implants in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babiker, Hassan; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Allogenic bone graft has been considered the gold standard in connection with bone graft material in revision joint arthroplasty. However, the lack of osteogenic potential and the risk of disease transmission are clinical challenges. The use of osteoinductive materials, such as demineralized bone...... of DBM alone, DBM with CB, or allograft on the fixation of porous-coated titanium implants. DBM100 and CB produced from human tissue were included. Both materials are commercially available. DBM granules are placed in pure DBM and do not contain any other carrier. Titanium alloy implants, 10 mm long × 10...... (gold standard), respectively. A standardized surgical procedure was used. At sacrifice 6 weeks after implantation, both distal femurs were harvested. The implant fixation was evaluated by mechanical push-out testing to test shear mechanical properties between implant and the host bone...

  9. Easily-handled method to isolate mesenchymal stem cells from coagulated human bone marrow samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng-Xiang; Wang; Zhi-Yong; Li; Zhi-Kun; Guo; Zi-Kuan; Guo

    2015-01-01

    AIM:To establish an easily-handled method to isolate mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) from coagulated human bone marrow samples. METHODS: Thrombin was added to aliquots of seven heparinized human bone marrow samples to mimic marrow coagulation. The clots were untreated,treated with urokinase or mechanically cut into pieces before culture for MSCs. The un-coagulated samples and the clots were also stored at 4 ℃ for 8 or 16 h before the treatment. The numbers of colony-forming unit-fibroblast(CFU-F) in the different samples were determined. The adherent cells from different groups were passaged and their surface profile was analyzed with flow cytometry. Their capacities of in vitro osteogenesis and adipogenesis were observed after the cells were exposed to specific inductive agents.RESULTS: The average CFU-F number of urokinasetreated samples(16.85 ± 11.77/106) was comparable to that of un-coagulated control samples(20.22 ± 10.65/106,P = 0.293),which was significantly higher than those of mechanically-cut clots(6.5 ± 5.32/106,P < 0.01) and untreated clots(1.95 ± 1.86/106,P < 0.01). The CFU-F numbers decreased after samples were stored,but those of control and urokinase-treated clots remained higher than the other two groups. Consistently,the numbers of the attached cells at passage 0 were higher in control and urokinase-treated clots than those of mechanically-cut clots and untreated clots.The attached cells were fibroblast-like in morphology and homogenously positive for CD44,CD73 and CD90,and negative for CD31 and CD45. Also,they could be induced to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes in vitro. CONCLUSION: Urokinase pretreatment is an optimal strategy to isolate MSCs from human bone marrow samples that are poorly aspirated and clotted.

  10. Fifty years of human space travel: implications for bone and calcium research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S M; Abrams, S A; Davis-Street, J E; Heer, M; O'Brien, K O; Wastney, M E; Zwart, S R

    2014-01-01

    Calcium and bone metabolism remain key concerns for space travelers, and ground-based models of space flight have provided a vast literature to complement the smaller set of reports from flight studies. Increased bone resorption and largely unchanged bone formation result in the loss of calcium and bone mineral during space flight, which alters the endocrine regulation of calcium metabolism. Physical, pharmacologic, and nutritional means have been used to counteract these changes. In 2012, heavy resistance exercise plus good nutritional and vitamin D status were demonstrated to reduce loss of bone mineral density on long-duration International Space Station missions. Uncertainty continues to exist, however, as to whether the bone is as strong after flight as it was before flight and whether nutritional and exercise prescriptions can be optimized during space flight. Findings from these studies not only will help future space explorers but also will broaden our understanding of the regulation of bone and calcium homeostasis on Earth.

  11. Human {beta}-globin gene polymorphisms characterized in DNA extracted from ancient bones 12,000 years old

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beraud-Colomb, E. [Genetique Medicale et Developpement, Marseille (France)]|[Laboratoire d`Anthropologie, Marseille (France); Maroc, N. [Genetique Medicale et Developpement, Marseille (France); Roubin, R. [Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille (France)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Analyzing the nuclear DNA from ancient human bones is an essential step to the understanding of genetic diversity in current populations, provided that such systematic studies are experimentally feasible. This article reports the successful extraction and amplification of nuclear DNA from the P-globin region from 5 of 10 bone specimens up to 12,000 years old. These have been typed for P-globin frameworks by sequencing through two variable positions and for a polymorphic (AT){sub x}(T){sub y} microsatellite 500 bp upstream of the P-globin gene. These specimens of human remains are somewhat older than those analyzed in previous nuclear gene sequencing reports and considerably older than those used to study high-copy-number human mtDNA. These results show that the systematic study of nuclear DNA polymorphisms of ancient populations is feasible. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Engineering new bone via a minimally invasive route using human bone marrow-derived stromal cell aggregates, microceramic particles, and human platelet-rich plasma gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjea, Anindita; Yuan, Huipin; Fennema, Eelco; Burer, Ruben; Chatterjea, Supriyo; Garritsen, Henk; Renard, Auke; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; de Boer, Jan

    2013-02-01

    There is a rise in the popularity of arthroscopic procedures in orthopedics. However, the majority of cell-based bone tissue-engineered constructs (TECs) rely on solid preformed scaffolding materials, which require large incisions and extensive dissections for placement at the defect site. Thus, they are not suitable for minimally invasive techniques. The aim of this study was to develop a clinically relevant, easily moldable, bone TEC, amenable to minimally invasive techniques, using human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) and calcium phosphate microparticles in combination with an in situ forming platelet-rich plasma gel obtained from human platelets. Most conventional TECs rely on seeding and culturing single-cell suspensions of hMSCs on scaffolds. However, for generating TECs amenable to the minimally invasive approach, it was essential to aggregate the hMSCs in vitro before seeding them on the scaffolds as unaggregated MSCs did not generate any bone. Twenty four hours of in vitro aggregation was determined to be optimal for maintaining cell viability in vitro and bone formation in vivo. Moreover, no statistically significant difference was observed in the amount of bone formed when the TECs were implanted via an open approach or a minimally invasive route. TECs generated using MSCs from three different human donors generated new bone through the minimally invasive route in a reproducible manner, suggesting that these TECs could be a viable alternative to preformed scaffolds employed through an open surgery for treating bone defects.

  13. Peri-implant bone response to retrieved human zirconia oral implants after a 4-year loading period: A histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of 22 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohal, Ralf-Joachim; Schwindling, Franz Sebastian; Bächle, Maria; Spies, Benedikt Christopher

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the bone tissue response to surface modified zirconia oral implants retrieved from humans. Twenty-nine one-piece zirconia implants showed increased marginal bone loss and did not response to the applied peri-implantitis therapy. After their removal using a trephine bur, 22 of the implant-bone biopsies were suitable for an evaluation and immediately immersed in formalin for two weeks. Subsequent, the retrieved specimens were histologically prepared and the regions still showing osseointegration computer-assisted analyzed regarding the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone density using a transmitted-light microscope. The removed implants were in situ for a mean time period of 47.7 months. After their removal, compact bone could be depicted at the apical regions. The remaining bone that was attached to the implants contained a regular lamellar structure with osteons and osteocytes. The BIC ranged from 58.1% to 93.7% (mean: 76.5%) and the bone area/density within the implant threads ranged from 57% to 97.2% (mean: 84.8%). The porous zirconia implants showed a sufficient BIC in the areas where bone still was attached. Although the implants had to be removed due to increased bone loss, it seems that the presented zirconia implant surface per se elicited appropriate osseointegration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1622-1631, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Fish remains and humankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The four papers in this issue represent a trawl of the reports presented to the Fourth meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group, which met at the University of York in 1987. The conference discussed material from many parts of the world - from Australasia to the north-west coast of America - and many eras, ranging in date from the early Pleistocene to the 1980s. It demonstrated both the variety of work being carried out and the growing interest in ancient fish remains. Internet Archaeology plans to publish other batches of papers from this conference. These reports will demonstrate the effort being made to distinguish between assemblages of fish remains which have been deposited by people and those which occur in ancient deposits as a result of the action of other agents. To investigate this area, experiments with modern material and observations of naturally occurring fish bone assemblages are supplemented with detailed analysis of ancient and modern fish remains. The papers published here illustrate the breadth of research into osteology, biogeography, documentary research, and the practicalities of recovering fish remains. Read, digest and enjoy them! Using the Internet for publishing research papers is not only ecologically sound (saving paper, etc. it disseminates scholarship to anyone anywhere on the planet with access to what is gradually becoming necessary technology in the late 20th century. Hopefully, future groups of papers will include video and audio material recorded at the conference, and so enable those who could not attend to gain further insights into the meeting and the scholarship underpinning this area of research.

  15. Three-dimensional microstructure of human alveolar trabecular bone: a micro-computed tomography study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The microstructural characteristics of trabecular bone were identified using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), in order to develop a potential strategy for implant surface improvement to facilitate osseointegration. Methods Alveolar bone specimens from the cadavers of 30 humans were scanned by high-resolution micro-CT and reconstructed. Volumes of interest chosen within the jaw were classified according to Hounsfield units into 4 bone quality categories. Several structural parameters were measured and statistically analyzed. Results Alveolar bone specimens with D1 bone quality had significantly higher values for all structural parameters than the other bone quality categories, except for trabecular thickness (Tb.Th). The percentage of bone volume, trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), and trabecular number (Tb.N) varied significantly among bone quality categories. Tb.Sp varied markedly across the bone quality categories (D1: 0.59±0.22 mm, D4: 1.20±0.48 mm), whereas Tb.Th had similar values (D1: 0.30±0.08 mm, D4: 0.22±0.05 mm). Conclusions Bone quality depended on Tb.Sp and number—that is, endosteal space architecture—rather than bone surface and Tb.Th. Regardless of bone quality, Tb.Th showed little variation. These factors should be taken into account when developing individualized implant surface topographies. PMID:28261521

  16. Paleodietary Analysis of Human Remains from a Hellenistic-Roman Cemetery at Camihöyük, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf İzci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of copper, zinc, magnesium, iron, lead, molybdenum, manganese and nickel was discovered on 22 human ribs in a Hellenistic-Roman cemetery located in the ancient city of Camihöyük, Turkey. The levels of each element found in the males were higher than those in females, except iron. Copper, magnesium, iron, molybdenum, and nickel levels were measured to be higher in the soil than in the skeletons, whereas the other elements were higher in the human skeletons. Lead was not traced in the soil, but on the skeletons. These individuals had probably been exposed to this element during their lives due to higher consumption of vegetables than meat.

  17. The Social and Ethical Acceptability of NBICs for Purposes of Human Enhancement: Why Does the Debate Remain Mired in Impasse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béland, Jean-Pierre; Patenaude, Johane; Legault, Georges A; Boissy, Patrick; Parent, Monelle

    2011-12-01

    The emergence and development of convergent technologies for the purpose of improving human performance, including nanotechnology, biotechnology, information sciences, and cognitive science (NBICs), open up new horizons in the debates and moral arguments that must be engaged by philosophers who hope to take seriously the question of the ethical and social acceptability of these technologies. This article advances an analysis of the factors that contribute to confusion and discord on the topic, in order to help in understanding why arguments that form a part of the debate between transhumanism and humanism result in a philosophical and ethical impasse: 1. The lack of clarity that emerges from the fact that any given argument deployed (arguments based on nature and human nature, dignity, the good life) can serve as the basis for both the positive and the negative evaluation of NBICs. 2. The impossibility of providing these arguments with foundations that will enable others to deem them acceptable. 3. The difficulty of applying these same arguments to a specific situation. 4. The ineffectiveness of moral argument in a democratic society. The present effort at communication about the difficulties of the argumentation process is intended as a necessary first step towards developing an interdisciplinary response to those difficulties.

  18. Legumain Regulates Differentiation Fate of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and Is Altered in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Abbas; Qanie, Diyako; Andersen, Thomas L; Zhang, Yuxi; Chen, Li; Postert, Benno; Parsons, Stuart; Ditzel, Nicholas; Khosla, Sundeep; Johansen, Harald Thidemann; Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Per; Delaisse, Jean-Marie; Abdallah, Basem M; Hesselson, Daniel; Solberg, Rigmor; Kassem, Moustapha

    2017-02-14

    Secreted factors are a key component of stem cell niche and their dysregulation compromises stem cell function. Legumain is a secreted cysteine protease involved in diverse biological processes. Here, we demonstrate that legumain regulates lineage commitment of human bone marrow stromal cells and that its expression level and cellular localization are altered in postmenopausal osteoporotic patients. As shown by genetic and pharmacological manipulation, legumain inhibited osteoblast (OB) differentiation and in vivo bone formation through degradation of the bone matrix protein fibronectin. In addition, genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of legumain activity led to precocious OB differentiation and increased vertebral mineralization in zebrafish. Finally, we show that localized increased expression of legumain in bone marrow adipocytes was inversely correlated with adjacent trabecular bone mass in a cohort of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Our data suggest that altered proteolytic activity of legumain in the bone microenvironment contributes to decreased bone mass in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  19. The three-dimensional microstructure of trabecular bone: Analysis of site-specific variation in the human jaw bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jo Eun; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Huh, Kyung Hoe [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jae Myung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sung Ook [A Plus Dental Clinic, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    This study was performed to analyze human maxillary and mandibular trabecular bone using the data acquired from micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and to characterize the site-specific microstructures of trabeculae. Sixty-nine cylindrical bone specimens were prepared from the mandible and maxilla. They were divided into 5 groups by region: the anterior maxilla, posterior maxilla, anterior mandible, posterior mandible, and mandibular condyle. After the specimens were scanned using a micro-CT system, three-dimensional microstructural parameters such as the percent bone volume, bone specific surface, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, trabecular number, structure model index, and degrees of anisotropy were analyzed. Among the regions other than the condylar area, the anterior mandibular region showed the highest trabecular thickness and the lowest value for the bone specific surface. On the other hand, the posterior maxilla region showed the lowest trabecular thickness and the highest value for the bone specific surface. The degree of anisotropy was lowest at the anterior mandible. The condyle showed thinner trabeculae with a more anisotropic arrangement than the other mandibular regions. There were microstructural differences between the regions of the maxilla and mandible. These results suggested that different mechanisms of external force might exist at each site.

  20. Crestal bone resorption in augmented bone using mineralized freeze-dried bone allograft or pristine bone during submerged implant healing: a prospective study in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiang-yun; Ogata, Yumi; Hanley, James; Finkelman, Matthew; Hur, Yong

    2016-02-01

    There is limited evidence on the crestal bone level changes around implants placed in bone augmented by guided bone regeneration (GBR) during submerged healing. The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare radiographic crestal bone changes around implants placed in augmented bone with changes around implants placed in pristine bone. Patients receiving dental implants in the augmented or pristine mandibular posterior edentulous ridge were included in the study. The digital standardized radiographs from the implant placement procedure were compared to the radiographs from the second-stage procedure to evaluate the peri-implant marginal bone level changes. The soft tissue thickness (ST), width of keratinized mucosa (wKM), and early cover screw exposure (eIE) were measured at the time of the second-stage procedure. A total of 29 implants in 26 patients, 11 in augmented bone (test group) and 18 in pristine bone (control group), were analyzed. The mean peri-implant bone loss (ΔBL) was 0.74 ± 0.74 mm (mean ± SD) in the test group and 0.25 ± 0.55 mm (mean ± SD) in the control group. The differences between the test and control groups in the mesial, distal, and mean peri-implant crestal bone level changes were statistically significant (P = 0.009, P = 0.004, and P = 0.001, respectively). The confounding factors (ST, wKM, and eIE) were adjusted. More peri-implant crestal bone loss during the submerged healing period was observed in augmented bone than in pristine bone. Augmented bone may not exhibit the same characteristics as pristine bone during the implant submerged healing period. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Role of purinergic receptor polymorphisms in human bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesselius, Anke; Bours, Martijn J L; Agrawal, Ankita

    2011-01-01

    in the mechanotransductory process, where mechanical stimulation on bone leads to anabolic responses in the skeleton. A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in the P2 receptor genes, where especially the P2X7 subtype has been the focus of extensive investigation where several polymorphisms have......Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. Variations in a number of genes have been shown to associate with bone turnover and risk of osteoporosis. P2 purinergic receptors are proteins that have ATP or other nucleotides as their natural ligands. Various P2Y and P2X...... receptor subtypes have been identified on bone cells. Several cellular functions in bone tissue are coupled to P2-receptor activation, including bone resorption, cytokine release, apoptosis, bone formation, and mineral deposition. Furthermore, ATP release and P2 purinergic signalling is a key pathway...

  2. Ancient Human Bone Microstructure in Medieval England: Comparisons between Two Socio-Economic Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Miszkiewicz, Justyna J.; Mahoney, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the links between bone microstructure and human lifestyle is critical for clinical and anthropological research into skeletal\\ud growth and adaptation. The present study is the first to report correspondence between socio-economic status and variation in bone microstructure\\ud in ancient humans. Products of femoral cortical remodeling were assessed using histological methods in a large human medieval\\ud sample (N:450) which represented two distinct socio-economic groups. Osteona...

  3. CKbeta-8 [CCL23], a novel CC chemokine, is chemotactic for human osteoclast precursors and is expressed in bone tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votta, B J; White, J R; Dodds, R A; James, I E; Connor, J R; Lee-Rykaczewski, E; Eichman, C F; Kumar, S; Lark, M W; Gowen, M

    2000-05-01

    We have previously demonstrated that a tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive subpopulation of mononuclear cells isolated from collagenase digests of human osteoclastoma tissue exhibits an osteoclast phenotype and can be induced to resorb bone. Using these osteoclast precursors as a model system, we have assessed the chemotactic potential of 16 chemokines. Three CC chemokines, the recently described CKbeta-8, RANTES, and MIP-1alpha elicited significant chemotactic responses. In contrast, 10 other CC chemokines (MIP-1beta, MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-3, MCP-4, HCC-1, eotaxin-2, PARC, SLC, ELC) and 3 CXC chemokines (IL-8, GROalpha, SDF-1) were inactive. None of these chemokines showed any chemotactic activity for either primary osteoblasts derived from human bone explants or the osteoblastic MG-63 cell line. The identity of the osteoclast receptor that mediates the chemotactic response remains to be established. However, all three active chemokines have been reported to bind to CCR1 and cross-desensitization studies demonstrate that RANTES and MIP-1alpha can partially inhibit the chemotactic response elicited by CKbeta-8. CKbeta-8, the most potent of the active CC chemokines (EC(max) 0.1-0.3 nM), was further characterized with regard to expression in human bone and cartilage. Although expression is not restricted to these tissues, CKbeta-8 mRNA was shown to be highly expressed in osteoblasts and chondrocytes in human fetal bone by in situ hybridization. In addition, CKbeta-8 protein was shown to be present in human osteophytic tissue by immunolocalization. These observations suggest that CKbeta-8, and perhaps other chemokines, may play a role in the recruitment of osteoclast precursors to sites of bone resorption.

  4. Tracing residential mobility during the Merovingian period: An isotopic analysis of human remains from the Upper Rhine Valley, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Christine; Makarewicz, Cheryl A

    2016-09-01

    Written sources have provided information about the rise of Merovingian power and their territorial conquests after the disintegration of the Western Roman Empire, but the extent to which altered power relations in the newly annexed territories reshaped regional and local communities is poorly understood. The early medieval cemetery of Dirmstein, located in the Upper Rhine Valley, is one of the rare sites bearing archeological evidence of simultaneous use by an indigenous community and newcomers from outside the Merovingian core area, and it offers the opportunity to investigate residential mobility at the former Roman Rhine frontier during the Merovingian period. We conducted strontium, oxygen, and carbon isotope analyses on human tooth enamel recovered from 25 sixth century inhumations at the Dirmstein cemetery to establish the presence of newcomers to the Upper Rhine region. The low δ(13) C values exhibited by the Dirmstein individuals revealed ingestion of a C3 terrestrial based diet, with no detectable contribution of C4 plants, which indicates the absence of individuals from regions where a C4 -based diet was common. Human (87) Sr/(86) Sr values well outside the local range of bioavailable strontium, in combination with low δ(18) O values, suggest a notable presence of newcomers from more eastern or high altitude regions. The isotopic evidence indicates that residential mobility was important and new settlers, most likely from outside the Merovingian core area, contributed to the settlement of the northern Upper Rhine Valley during the sixth century AD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The contributions of anthropology and mitochondrial DNA analysis to the identification of the human skeletal remains of the Australian outlaw Edward 'Ned' Kelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, S; Catelli, L; Garrone, F; Hartman, D; Romanini, C; Romero, M; Vullo, C

    2014-07-01

    This paper details the anthropological and genetic analyses that contributed to the identification of the notorious Australian outlaw ('bushranger') Edward ('Ned') Kelly. In 1880 at the age of 25, Kelly was hanged and buried at the former Melbourne Gaol in Victoria, Australia. In 1929, the remains of executed prisoners (including those of Kelly) were haphazardly disinterred following the demolition of parts of the Melbourne Gaol and haphazardly reinterred in three distinct "pits" at the Pentridge Prison. In 1999 the Pentridge Prison was sold for commercial development and subsequently in 2008 and 2009 the human remains of prisoners were recovered. A total of 41 cases of unidentified human skeletal remains from Pentridge were examined using traditional anthropological techniques. At least one representative sample from each of the remains (mostly clavicles) from all three pits was selected for DNA analysis. Comparative ante-mortem reference samples were also located. Given the antiquity and condition of remains recovered from Pentridge, and the 130 years that had passed since Kelly's execution, mitochondrial DNA analysis was chosen as a suitable DNA analysis tool to examine the Pentridge cases to assist in the inclusion or exclusion of remains as being those of Ned Kelly. Only one of the Pentridge cases (Pen14) matched the HV1/HV2 mitochondrial DNA haplotype of the reference sample. Additional anthropological analyses indicated a number of pathological features that provided support that the remains of Pen14 are those of Edward ("Ned") Kelly.

  6. Molecular and cellular characteristics of human and non-human primate multipotent stromal cells from the amnion and bone marrow during long term culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogozhykh, Olena; Pogozhykh, Denys; Neehus, Anna-Lena; Hoffmann, Andrea; Blasczyk, Rainer; Müller, Thomas

    2015-08-22

    Multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) are among the key candidates in regenerative medicine. However variety of MSC sources and general heterogeneity lead to controversial data in functional characterization. Furthermore, despite intensive usage as preclinical animal model, little is known about MSCs of the common marmoset monkey. MSCs derived from placental amnion and bone marrow samples from human and common marmoset were characterized in parallel over 12 passages to monitor similarities and significant differences (p ≤ 0.05, Student's t-test) in MSC markers and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, real-time PCR, metabolic activity test, with special focus on pluripotency associated genes. Human and non-human primate MSCs were characterized for expression of MSC markers and capability of differentiation into mesenchymal lineages. MSCs could be cultured more than 100 days (26 passages), but metabolic activity was significantly enhanced in amnion vs. bone marrow MSCs. Interestingly, MHC class I expression is significantly reduced in amnion MSCs until passage 6 in human and marmoset, but not in bone marrow cells. For MSC markers, CD73 and CD105 levels remain unchanged in amnion MSCs and slightly decline in bone marrow at late passages; CD166 is significantly higher expressed in human MSCs, CD106 significantly lower vs. marmoset. All cultured MSCs showed pluripotency marker expression like Oct-4A at passage 3 significantly decreasing over time (passages 6-12) while Nanog expression was highest in human bone marrow MSCs. Furthermore, human MSCs demonstrated the highest Sox2 levels vs. marmoset, whereas the marmoset exhibited significantly higher Lin28A values. Bisulfite sequencing of the Oct-4 promoter region displayed fewer methylations of CpG islands in the marmoset vs. human. Little is known about MSC characteristics from the preclinical animal model common marmoset vs. human during long term culture

  7. One Million Bones: Measuring the Effect of Human Rights Participation in the Social Work Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Jane; Cheatham, Leah P.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the integration of human rights content and a national arts-activism initiative--One Million Bones--into a bachelor's-level macro practice class as a human rights teaching strategy. Two previously validated scales, the Human Rights Exposure (HRX) in Social Work and the Human Rights Engagement (HRE) in Social Work (McPherson…

  8. One Million Bones: Measuring the Effect of Human Rights Participation in the Social Work Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Jane; Cheatham, Leah P.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the integration of human rights content and a national arts-activism initiative--One Million Bones--into a bachelor's-level macro practice class as a human rights teaching strategy. Two previously validated scales, the Human Rights Exposure (HRX) in Social Work and the Human Rights Engagement (HRE) in Social Work (McPherson…

  9. The identification of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in archaeological human bones and teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Norton, Andrew L; Gesteira, Tarsis F; Cavalheiro, Renan P; Meneghetti, Maria Cecília Z; Martins, João R; Dixon, Ronald A; Nader, Helena B

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue is mineralized dense connective tissue consisting mainly of a mineral component (hydroxyapatite) and an organic matrix comprised of collagens, non-collagenous proteins and proteoglycans (PGs). Extracellular matrix proteins and PGs bind tightly to hydroxyapatite which would protect these molecules from the destructive effects of temperature and chemical agents after death. DNA and proteins have been successfully extracted from archaeological skeletons from which valuable information has been obtained; however, to date neither PGs nor glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains have been studied in archaeological skeletons. PGs and GAGs play a major role in bone morphogenesis, homeostasis and degenerative bone disease. The ability to isolate and characterize PG and GAG content from archaeological skeletons would unveil valuable paleontological information. We therefore optimized methods for the extraction of both PGs and GAGs from archaeological human skeletons. PGs and GAGs were successfully extracted from both archaeological human bones and teeth, and characterized by their electrophoretic mobility in agarose gel, degradation by specific enzymes and HPLC. The GAG populations isolated were chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA). In addition, a CSPG was detected. The localization of CS, HA, three small leucine rich PGs (biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin) and glypican was analyzed in archaeological human bone slices. Staining patterns were different for juvenile and adult bones, whilst adolescent bones had a similar staining pattern to adult bones. The finding that significant quantities of PGs and GAGs persist in archaeological bones and teeth opens novel venues for the field of Paleontology.

  10. The identification of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in archaeological human bones and teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette M Coulson-Thomas

    Full Text Available Bone tissue is mineralized dense connective tissue consisting mainly of a mineral component (hydroxyapatite and an organic matrix comprised of collagens, non-collagenous proteins and proteoglycans (PGs. Extracellular matrix proteins and PGs bind tightly to hydroxyapatite which would protect these molecules from the destructive effects of temperature and chemical agents after death. DNA and proteins have been successfully extracted from archaeological skeletons from which valuable information has been obtained; however, to date neither PGs nor glycosaminoglycan (GAG chains have been studied in archaeological skeletons. PGs and GAGs play a major role in bone morphogenesis, homeostasis and degenerative bone disease. The ability to isolate and characterize PG and GAG content from archaeological skeletons would unveil valuable paleontological information. We therefore optimized methods for the extraction of both PGs and GAGs from archaeological human skeletons. PGs and GAGs were successfully extracted from both archaeological human bones and teeth, and characterized by their electrophoretic mobility in agarose gel, degradation by specific enzymes and HPLC. The GAG populations isolated were chondroitin sulfate (CS and hyaluronic acid (HA. In addition, a CSPG was detected. The localization of CS, HA, three small leucine rich PGs (biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin and glypican was analyzed in archaeological human bone slices. Staining patterns were different for juvenile and adult bones, whilst adolescent bones had a similar staining pattern to adult bones. The finding that significant quantities of PGs and GAGs persist in archaeological bones and teeth opens novel venues for the field of Paleontology.

  11. Inca - interparietal bones in neurocranium of human skulls in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Rr; Yogesh, As; Pandit, Sv; Joshi, M; Trivedi, Gn

    2010-01-01

    Inca bones are accessory bones found in neurocranium of human skulls. Occurrence of Inca bones is rare as compared to other inter sutural bones such as wormian bones. These Inca ossicles are regarded as variants of the normal. The reporting of such occurrences is inadequate from Central India. To find the incidence of Inca variants in Central India. In the present study, 380 dried adult human skulls were examined. All specimen samples were procured from various Medical colleges of Central India. They were analyzed for gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones. Gross incidence of Inca bones was found to be 1.315 %. Incidence rate was higher in male skulls than female skulls (male: 1.428%; female: 1.176%). The Inca bones frequently occurred signally. Out of the five observed Inca ossicles, two were fragmented. This data gives idea regarding gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones in neurocranium of human skulls from Central India. The knowledge of this variable is useful for neurosurgeons, anthropologists and radiologists.

  12. [A general review on the procedures in a human temporal bone laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Mehmet Faruk; Cüreoğlu, Sebahattin; Schachern, Patricia A; Paparella, Micheal M

    2006-01-01

    Structures of the human ear are usually inaccessible during life for examination of pathologic changes of the underlying disease, which is only possible with postmortem studies of the human temporal bone. Human temporal bone laboratories serve as a unique source of material for research in this respect. They enable comparison between histologic findings of temporal bone sections and the ear pathologies documented prior to death, as well as comparison of diseased ears with any selected temporal bone specimens, both of which provide invaluable knowledge to be shared among researchers and other laboratories. This article aims to provide insight into the functions of temporal bone laboratories and to familiarize the reader with histopathologic studies conducted therein.

  13. Evaluating differential nuclear DNA yield rates and osteocyte numbers among human bone tissue types: A synchrotron radiation micro-CT approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronowski, Janna M; Mundorff, Amy Z; Pratt, Isaac V; Davoren, Jon M; Cooper, David M L

    2017-05-01

    Molecular human identification has conventionally focused on DNA sampling from dense, weight-bearing cortical bone tissue, typically from femora or tibiae. A comparison of skeletal elements from three contemporary individuals demonstrated that elements with high quantities of cancellous bone yielded nuclear DNA at the highest rates, suggesting that preferentially sampling cortical bone may be suboptimal (Mundorff & Davoren, 2014). Despite these findings, the reason for the differential DNA yields between cortical and cancellous bone tissues remains unknown. The primary goal of this work is to ascertain whether differences in bone microstructure can be used to explain differential nuclear DNA yield among bone tissue types observed by Mundorff and Davoren (2014), with a focus on osteocytes and the three-dimensional (3D) quantification of their associated lacunae. Osteocytes and other bone cells are recognized to house DNA in bone tissue, thus examining the density of their lacunae may explain why nuclear DNA yield rates differ among bone tissue types. Lacunae were visualized and quantified using synchrotron radiation-based micro-Computed Tomographic imaging (SR micro-CT). Volumes of interest (VOIs) from cortical and cancellous bone tissues (n=129) were comparatively analyzed from the three skeletons sampled for Mundorff and Davoren's (2014) study. Analyses tested the primary hypothesis that the abundance and density of osteocytes (inferred from their lacunar spaces) vary between cortical and cancellous bone tissue types. Results demonstrated that osteocyte lacunar abundance and density vary between cortical and cancellous bone tissue types, with cortical bone VOIs containing a higher lacunar abundance and density. We found that the osteocyte lacunar density values are independent of nuclear DNA yield, suggesting an alternative explanation for the higher nuclear DNA yields from bones with greater quantities of cancellous bone tissue. The use of SR micro-CT allowed for

  14. MicroRNA profiling in human neutrophils during bone marrow granulopoiesis and in vivo exudation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maria T; Hother, Christoffer; Häger, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of neutrophils and their precursors from the initiation of granulopoiesis in the bone marrow to extravasation and accumulation in skin windows. We analyzed three different cell populations from human bone marrow, p...

  15. Relation between in vitro and in vivo osteogenic potential of cultured human bone marrow stromal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, SC; Tibbe, JM; Veenhof, M; Both, S; Oner, FC; van Blitterswijk, CA; de Bruijn, Joost D.

    2004-01-01

    The use of cell therapies in bone reconstruction has been the subject of extensive research. It is known that human bone marrow stromal cell (HBMSC) cultures contain a population of progenitor cells capable of differentiation towards the osteogenic lineage. In the present study, the correlation betw

  16. Multiparameter Analysis of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Identifies Distinct Immunomodulatory and Differentiation-Competent Subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. James (Sally); J. Fox (James); F. Afsari (Farinaz); J. Lee (Jennifer); S. Clough (Sally); C. Knight (Charlotte); J. Ashmore (James); P. Ashton (Peter); O. Preham (Olivier); M.J. Hoogduijn (Martin); R.D.A.R. Ponzoni (Raquel De Almeida Rocha); Y. Hancock; M. Coles (Mark); P.G. Genever (Paul)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also called bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells) provide hematopoietic support and immunoregulation and contain a stem cell fraction capable of skeletogenic differentiation. We used immortalized human BMSC clonal lines for multi-level analysis

  17. In vivo application of an optical segment tracking approach for bone loading regimes recording in humans: a reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng-Fei; Sanno, Maximilian; Ganse, Bergita; Koy, Timmo; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Müller, Lars Peter; Rittweger, Jörn

    2014-08-01

    This paper demonstrates an optical segment tracking (OST) approach for assessing the in vivo bone loading regimes in humans. The relative movement between retro-reflective marker clusters affixed to the tibia cortex by bone screws was tracked and expressed as tibia loading regimes in terms of segment deformation. Stable in vivo fixation of bone screws was tested by assessing the resonance frequency of the screw-marker structure and the relative marker position changes after hopping and jumping. Tibia deformation was recorded during squatting exercises to demonstrate the reliability of the OST approach. Results indicated that the resonance frequencies remain unchanged prior to and after all exercises. The changes of Cardan angle between marker clusters induced by the exercises were rather minor, maximally 0.06°. The reproducibility of the deformation angles during squatting remained small (0.04°/m-0.65°/m). Most importantly, all surgical and testing procedures were well tolerated. The OST method promises to bring more insights of the mechanical loading acting on bone than in the past.

  18. Skeletons in the closet : future avenues for the curation of archaeological human skeletal remains in the Dutch Caribbean and the rest of the region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mickleburgh, H.L.; Hofman, C.L.; Haviser, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Human skeletal remains from archaeological contexts in the Dutch Caribbean and the rest of the region are curated in a variety of facilities such as museums and the premises of heritage organizations, history and archaeology interest groups or in some cases private collections. These curating

  19. Human retinal disease from AIPL1 gene mutations: foveal cone loss with minimal macular photoreceptors and rod function remaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Samuel G; Cideciyan, Artur V; Aleman, Tomas S; Sumaroka, Alexander; Roman, Alejandro J; Swider, Malgorzata; Schwartz, Sharon B; Banin, Eyal; Stone, Edwin M

    2011-01-05

    To determine the human retinal phenotype caused by mutations in the gene encoding AIPL1 (Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein-like 1) now that there are proof-of-concept results for gene therapy success in Aipl1-deficient mice. Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) patients (n = 10) and one patient with a later-onset retinal degeneration (RD) and AIPL1 mutations were studied by ocular examination, retinal imaging, perimetry, full-field sensitivity testing, and pupillometry. The LCA patients had severe visual acuity loss early in life, nondetectable electroretinograms (ERGs), and little or no detectable visual fields. Hallmarks of retinal degeneration were present in a wide region, including the macula and midperiphery; there was some apparent peripheral retinal sparing. Cross-sectional imaging showed foveal cone photoreceptor loss with a ring of minimally preserved paracentral photoreceptor nuclear layer. Features of retinal remodeling were present eccentric to the region of detectable photoreceptors. Full-field sensitivity was reduced by at least 2 log units, and chromatic stimuli, by psychophysics and pupillometry, revealed retained but impaired rod function. The RD patient, examined serially over two decades (ages, 45-67 years), retained an ERG in the fifth decade of life with abnormal rod and cone signals; and there was progressive loss of central and peripheral function. AIPL1-LCA, unlike some other forms of LCA with equally severe visual disturbance, shows profound loss of foveal as well as extrafoveal photoreceptors. The more unusual late-onset and slower form of AIPL1 disease may be better suited to gene augmentation therapy and is worthy of detection and further study.

  20. Three-dimensional Invasion of Human Glioblastoma Cells Remains Unchanged by X-ray and Carbon Ion Irradiation In Vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eke, Iris; Storch, Katja; Kaestner, Ina; Vehlow, Anne [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Faethe, Christina; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang [Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Taucher-Scholz, Gisela [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Temme, Achim; Schackert, Gabriele [Section of Experimental Neurosurgery/Tumor Immunology, Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Cordes, Nils, E-mail: Nils.Cordes@Oncoray.de [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Cell invasion represents one of the major determinants that treatment has failed for patients suffering from glioblastoma. Contrary findings have been reported for cell migration upon exposure to ionizing radiation. Here, the migration and invasion capability of glioblastoma cells on and in collagen type I were evaluated upon irradiation with X-rays or carbon ions. Methods and Materials: Migration on and invasion in collagen type I were evaluated in four established human glioblastoma cell lines exposed to either X-rays or carbon ions. Furthermore, clonogenic radiation survival, proliferation (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine positivity), DNA double-strand breaks ({gamma}H2AX/53BP1-positive foci), and expression of invasion-relevant proteins (eg, {beta}1 integrin, FAK, MMP2, and MMP9) were explored. Migration and invasion assays for primary glioblastoma cells also were carried out with X-ray irradiation. Results: Neither X-ray nor carbon ion irradiation affected glioblastoma cell migration and invasion, a finding similarly observed in primary glioblastoma cells. Intriguingly, irradiated cells migrated unhampered, despite DNA double-strand breaks and reduced proliferation. Clonogenic radiation survival was increased when cells had contact with extracellular matrix. Specific inhibition of the {beta}1 integrin or proliferation-associated signaling molecules revealed a critical function of JNK, PI3K, and p38 MAPK in glioblastoma cell invasion. Conclusions: These findings indicate that X-rays and carbon ion irradiation effectively reduce proliferation and clonogenic survival without modifying the migration and invasion ability of glioblastoma cells in a collagen type I environment. Addition of targeted agents against members of the MAPK and PI3K signaling axis to conventional chemoradiation therapy seems potentially useful to optimize glioblastoma therapy.

  1. New model for estimating the relationship between surface area and volume in the human body using skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasabova, Boryana E; Holliday, Trenton W

    2015-04-01

    A new model for estimating human body surface area and body volume/mass from standard skeletal metrics is presented. This model is then tested against both 1) "independently estimated" body surface areas and "independently estimated" body volume/mass (both derived from anthropometric data) and 2) the cylindrical model of Ruff. The model is found to be more accurate in estimating both body surface area and body volume/mass than the cylindrical model, but it is more accurate in estimating body surface area than it is for estimating body volume/mass (as reflected by the standard error of the estimate when "independently estimated" surface area or volume/mass is regressed on estimates derived from the present model). Two practical applications of the model are tested. In the first test, the relative contribution of the limbs versus the trunk to the body's volume and surface area is compared between "heat-adapted" and "cold-adapted" populations. As expected, the "cold-adapted" group has significantly more of its body surface area and volume in its trunk than does the "heat-adapted" group. In the second test, we evaluate the effect of variation in bi-iliac breadth, elongated or foreshortened limbs, and differences in crural index on the body's surface area to volume ratio (SA:V). Results indicate that the effects of bi-iliac breadth on SA:V are substantial, while those of limb lengths and (especially) the crural index are minor, which suggests that factors other than surface area relative to volume are driving morphological variation and ecogeographical patterning in limb prorportions.

  2. Human bone marrow harbors cells with neural crest-associated characteristics like human adipose and dermis tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, Cécile; Neirinckx, Virginie; Sharma, Anil; Agirman, Gulistan; Rogister, Bernard; Foguenne, Jacques; Lallemend, François; Gothot, André; Wislet, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Adult neural crest stem-derived cells (NCSC) are of extraordinary high plasticity and promising candidates for use in regenerative medicine. Several locations such as skin, adipose tissue, dental pulp or bone marrow have been described in rodent, as sources of NCSC. However, very little information is available concerning their correspondence in human tissues, and more precisely for human bone marrow. The main objective of this study was therefore to characterize NCSC from adult human bone marrow. In this purpose, we compared human bone marrow stromal cells to human adipose tissue and dermis, already described for containing NCSC. We performed comparative analyses in terms of gene and protein expression as well as functional characterizations. It appeared that human bone marrow, similarly to adipose tissue and dermis, contains NESTIN+ / SOX9+ / TWIST+ / SLUG+ / P75NTR+ / BRN3A+/ MSI1+/ SNAIL1+ cells and were able to differentiate into melanocytes, Schwann cells and neurons. Moreover, when injected into chicken embryos, all those cells were able to migrate and follow endogenous neural crest migration pathways. Altogether, the phenotypic characterization and migration abilities strongly suggest the presence of neural crest-derived cells in human adult bone marrow.

  3. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 suspended in fibrin glue enhances bone formation during distraction osteogenesis in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunfeng; Li, Rui; Hu, Jing; Song, Donghui; Jiang, Xiaowen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) has high potential for bone formation, but its in vivo effects are unpredictable due to the short life time. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of recombinant human (rh) BMP-2 suspended in fibrin on bone formation during distraction osteogenesis (DO) in rabbits. Material and methods The in vitro release kinetics of rhBMP-2 suspended in fibrin was tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Unilateral tibial lengthening for 10 mm was achieved in 48 rabbits. At the completion of osteodistraction, vehicle, fibrin, rhBMP-2 or rhBMP-2 suspended in fibrin (rhBMP-2 + fibrin) was injected into the center of the lengthened gap, with 12 animals in each group. Eight weeks later, the distracted callus was examined by histology, micro-CT and biomechanical testing. Radiographs of the distracted tibiae were taken at both 4 and 8 weeks after drug treatment. Results It was found that fibrin prolonged the life span of rhBMP-2 in vitro with sustained release during 17 days. The rhBMP-2 + fibrin treated animals showed the best results in bone mineral density, bone volume fraction, cortical bone thickness by micro-CT evaluation and mechanical properties by the three-point bending test when compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). In histological images, rhBMP-2 + fibrin treatment showed increased callus formation and better gap bridging compared to the other groups. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that fibrin holds promise to be a good carrier of rhBMP-2, and rhBMP-2 suspended in fibrin showed a stronger promoting effect on bone formation during DO in rabbits. PMID:27279839

  4. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength evaluation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S N Khan; R M Warkhedkar; A K Shyam

    2015-08-01

    The bone density (BMD) is a medical term normally referring to the amount of mineral matter per square centimetre of bones. Twenty-five patients (18 female and 7 male patients with a mean age of 71.3 years) undergoing both lumbar spine DXA scans and computed tomography imaging were evaluated to determine if HU correlates with BMD and T-scores. BMD is used in clinical medicine as an indirect indicator of osteoporosis and fracture risk. This medical bone density is not the true physical ``density'' of the bone, which would be computed as mass per volume. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, previously DEXA), a means of measuring BMD, is the most widely used and most thoroughly studied bone density measurement technologies. Different types of bone strength are required for various applications, but this strength calculation requires different machines for each strength property or it is done by different software like X-ray, CT scan, DEXA and BIA. The paper includes the design of an experimental setup which performs different types of test like tension, compression, three point bending, four point bending and torsion. The modified correlation between BMD and HU for various strength calculations is found out and validated with the experimental results.

  5. Micro-CT characterization of human trabecular bone in osteogenesis imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, John; Albert, Carolyne; Smith, Peter; Molthen, Robert; Harris, Gerald

    2011-03-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic syndrome affecting collagen synthesis and assembly. Its symptoms vary widely but commonly include bone fragility, reduced stature, and bone deformity. Because of the small size and paucity of human specimens, there is a lack of biomechanical data for OI bone. Most literature has focused on histomorphometric analyses, which rely on assumptions to extrapolate 3-D properties. In this study, a micro-computed tomography (μCT) system was used to directly measure structural and mineral properties in pediatric OI bone collected during routine surgical procedures. Surface renderings suggested a poorly organized, plate-like orientation. Patients with a history of bone-augmenting drugs exhibited increased bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and connectivity density (Eu.Conn.D). The latter two parameters appeared to be related to OI severity. Structural results were consistently higher than those reported in a previous histomorphometric study, but these differences can be attributed to factors such as specimen collection site, drug therapy, and assumptions associated with histomorphometry. Mineral testing revealed strong correlations with several structural parameters, highlighting the importance of a dual approach in trabecular bone testing. This study reports some of the first quantitative μCT data of human OI bone, and it suggests compelling possibilities for the future of OI bone assessment.

  6. Mechanical properties of the normal human cartilage-bone complex in relation to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M; Linde, F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the age-related variations in the mechanical properties of the normal human tibial cartilage-bone complex and the relationships between cartilage and bone. DESIGN: A novel technique was applied to assess the mechanical properties of the cartilage and bone by means...... normal donors aged 16-83 years were tested in compression. The deformation was measured simultaneously in bone and cartilage to obtain the mechanical properties of both tissues. RESULTS: The stiffnesses and elastic energies of both cartilage and bone showed an initial increase, with maxima at 40 years......, followed by a steady decline. The viscoelastic energy was maximal at younger ages (16-29 years), followed by a steady decline. The energy absorption capacity did not vary with age. Stiffnesses and elastic energies were correlated significantly between cartilage and bone. CONCLUSIONS: The present study...

  7. Study on the Microstructure of Human Articular Cartilage/Bone Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaxiong Liu; Qin Lian; Jiankang He; Jinna Zhao; Zhongmin Jin; Dichen Li

    2011-01-01

    For improving the theory of gradient microstructure of cartilage/bone interface, human distal femurs were studied. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), histological sections and MicroCT were used to observe, measure and model the microstructure of cartilage/bone interface. The results showed that the cartilage/bone interface is in a hierarchical structure which is composed of four different tissue layers. The interlocking of hyaline cartilage and calcified cartilage and that of calcified cartilage and subchondral bone are in the manner of"protrusion-pore" with average diameter of 17.0 μm and 34.1 μm respectively. In addition, the cancellous bone under the cartilage is also formed by four layer hierarchical structure, and the adjacent layers are connected by bone trabecula in the shape of H, I and Y, forming a complex interwoven network structure. Finally, the simplified structure model of the cartilage/bone interface was proposed according to the natural articular cartilage/bone interface. The simplified model is a 4-layer gradient biomimetic structure, which corresponds to four different tissues of natural cartilage/bone interface. The results of this work would be beneficial to the design of bionic scaffold for the tissue engineering of articular cartilage/bone.

  8. Synchrotron radiation micro-CT at the micrometer scale for the analysis of the three-dimensional morphology of microcracks in human trabecular bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric Larrue

    Full Text Available Bone quality is an important concept to explain bone fragility in addition to bone mass. Among bone quality factors, microdamage which appears in daily life is thought to have a marked impact on bone strength and plays a major role in the repair process. The starting point for all studies designed to further our understanding of how bone microdamage initiate or dissipate energy, or to investigate the impact of age, gender or disease, remains reliable observation and measurement of microdamage. In this study, 3D Synchrotron Radiation (SR micro-CT at the micrometric scale was coupled to image analysis for the three-dimensional characterization of bone microdamage in human trabecular bone specimens taken from femoral heads. Specimens were imaged by 3D SR micro-CT with a voxel size of 1.4 µm. A new tailored 3D image analysis technique was developed to segment and quantify microcracks. Microcracks from human trabecular bone were observed in different tomographic sections as well as from 3D renderings. New 3D quantitative measurements on the microcrack density and morphology are reported on five specimens. The 3D microcrack density was found between 3.1 and 9.4/mm3 corresponding to a 2D density between 0.55 and 0.76 /mm2. The microcrack length and width measured in 3D on five selected microcrack ranged respectively from 164 µm to 209 µm and 100 µm to 120 µm. This is the first time that various microcracks in unloaded human trabecular bone--from the simplest linear crack to more complex cross-hatch cracks--have been examined and quantified by 3D imaging at this scale. The suspected complex morphology of microcracks is here considerably more evident than in the 2D observations. In conclusion, this technique opens new perspective for the 3D investigation of microcracks and the impact of age, disease or treatment.

  9. Effect of human bone morphogenetic protein 2 implant on tooth eruption in an experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, B; Chiego, D J; Huizinga, P J; Wozney, J M; Wikesjö, U M

    1999-07-01

    This study evaluated the influence of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) on the development and eruption of the secondary dentition. Primary premolar tooth extraction sockets in 12 16-week-old felines were implanted with either rhBMP-2, in collagen sponge or with buffer/absorbable collagen sponge (ACS). Unoperated jaw quadrants served as controls. Experimental conditions were randomized between jaw quadrants in all animals. Two animals receiving rhBMP-2/ACS and buffer/ACS in two quadrants per implant were sacrificed at 4 weeks postsurgery. Ten animals receiving rhBMP-2/ACS (two quadrants), buffer/ACS implants (one quadrant), and one quadrant serving as an unoperated control were evaluated at 12 weeks postsurgery. Clinical assessments included healing, eruption patterns, and crown development. Radiographic assessments included tooth development, eruption patterns, and bone formation. Histological observations were also made from the 4-week animals. The secondary dentition remained unerupted at 4 weeks postsurgery. Histological analysis showed normal alveolar bone coronal to the erupting teeth in rhBMP-2/ACS-implanted quadrants. At 12 weeks postsurgery, all teeth were erupted without differences between quadrants. Clinically, the crowns of all teeth were normal. Radiographs suggested that teeth in rhBMP-2/ACS- and buffer/ACS-implanted jaw quadrants exhibited similar tooth development and eruption patterns as the normal control. The evidence from this study suggests that surgical implantation of rh-BMP-2/ACS in the pathway of the developing and erupting secondary dentition does not interfere with the normal development and eruption patterns of the teeth.

  10. Radiation response of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and human pluripotent stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Mohammad S; Stemig, Melissa E.; Takahashi, Yutaka; Hui, Susanta K.

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from human pluripotent stem cells are comparable with bone marrow-derived MSCs in their function and immunophenotype. The purpose of this exploratory study was comparative evaluation of the radiation responses of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow- (BMMSCs) and from human embryonic stem cells (hESMSCs). BMMSCs and hESMSCs were irradiated at 0 Gy (control) to 16 Gy using a linear accelerator commonly used for cancer treatment. Cells were harv...

  11. Development of a realistic in vivo bone metastasis model of human renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valta, Maija P; Zhao, Hongjuan; Ingels, Alexandre; Thong, Alan E; Nolley, Rosalie; Saar, Matthias; Peehl, Donna M

    2014-06-01

    About one-third of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have bone metastases. The incidence of RCC is increasing and bone metastatic RCC merits greater focus. Realistic preclinical bone metastasis models of RCC are lacking, hampering the development of effective therapies. We developed a realistic in vivo bone metastasis model of human RCC by implanting precision-cut tissue slices under the renal capsule of immunodeficient mice. The presence of disseminated cells in bone marrow of tissue slice graft (TSG)-bearing mice was screened by human-specific polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by immunohistology using human-specific antibody. Disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow of TSG-bearing mice derived from three of seven RCC patients were detected as early as 1 month after tissue implantation at a high frequency with close resemblance to parent tumors (e.g., CAIX expression and high vascularity). The metastatic patterns of TSGs correlated with disease progression in patients. In addition, TSGs retained capacity to metastasize to bone at high frequency after serial passaging and cryopreservation. Moreover, bone metastases in mice responded to Temsirolimus treatment. Intratibial injections of single cells generated from TSGs showed 100 % engraftment and produced X-ray-visible tumors as early as 3 weeks after cancer cell inoculation. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) and histological analysis revealed osteolytic characteristics of these lesions. Our results demonstrated that orthotopic RCC TSGs have potential to develop bone metastases that respond to standard therapy. This first reported primary RCC bone metastasis model provides a realistic setting to test therapeutics to prevent or treat bone metastases in RCC.

  12. Use of human remains detection dogs for wide area search after wildfire: a new experience for TexasTask Force 1 Search and Rescue resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migala, Alexandre F; Brown, Susann E

    2012-12-01

    In September 2011, wildfires in Bastrop County, TX, were the most destructive in the state's history, consuming more than 34000 acres (13759 hectares) and more than 1600 homes in the process. The wildfires began by consuming more than 30 homes across 2 miles (3.2 km) in 17 minutes, raising the fear that local residents may not have had sufficient time to escape the conflagration. Texas Task Force 1 deployed for a new mission, the search and recovery of human remains. Although there have been other larger and more widespread fires in the past, it was the speed at which this fire spread that created the environment requiring such a search. The mission was focused primarily on human detection, searching an area almost 72 square miles (186 km(2)) between September 7 and 11, 2011. To our knowledge, never before have human remains detection dogs been tasked with such an undertaking. Lessons learned from this event will educate all levels of government agencies, emergency medical services, fire departments, law enforcement, utilities, veterinary services, and search and rescue/recovery activities in the future. The utilization of human remains detection canines integrated with search teams trained in larger scale events is one such area that will benefit from this experience, with a final area searched of 15 598 acres (6312 hectares). Copyright © 2012 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of fatty acid composition in human bone marrow aspirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshimaru, Ryota; Ishitani, Ken; Makita, Kazuya; Horiguchi, Fumi; Nozawa, Shiro

    2005-09-01

    In the present study, the fatty acid composition of bone marrow aspirates and serum phospholipids in nine patients with hematologic diseases was investigated, and the effect of fatty acids on osteoblast differentiation in ST2 cells was examined. The concentrations of oleic acid and palmitic acid were significantly higher in bone marrow aspirates than in serum phospholipids, but the concentrations of other fatty acids did not differ. The rate of alkaline phosphatase positive ST2 cells induced by BMP2 was significantly increased by oleic acid, but was unaffected by the presence or absence of palmitic acid. We conclude that the fatty acid composition of bone marrow aspirates differs from that of serum phospholipids. This difference may affect osteoblast differentiation in the bone marrow microenvironment.

  14. Engineering bone tissue substitutes from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giuseppe Maria de Peppo; Iván Marcos-Campos; David John Kahler; Dana Alsalman; Linshan Shang; Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic; Darja Marolt

    2013-01-01

    ...) for bone tissue engineering. We first induced three hiPSC lines with different tissue and reprogramming backgrounds into the mesenchymal lineages and used a combination of differentiation assays, surface antigen profiling...

  15. INCIDENCE OF WORMIAN BONE IN HUMAN SKULLS IN RAJAST HAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Wormian bones are formations associated with insuff icient growth at suture closure and are regarded as epigenetic and hypostatic traits. There exists racial variation in its incidence. AIM : To find the incidence of wormian bone and compare with other study. MATERIAL AND METHOD : This was autopsy study on 150 dead bodies of both sexes of all age groups. RESULT - Incidence of wormian bone in Rajasthan was 4.7 % (4.1% in males & 3.6 % in females. This is comparable with study in other par t of India & abroad and it is in accordance with racial variation. CONCLUSION - knowledge of wormian bone is important to neuroanatomist, neurosurgeon, radiologist, anthropol ogist and morphologist

  16. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, Peter S., E-mail: Peter.Gilmour@astrazeneca.com [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); O' Shea, Patrick J.; Fagura, Malbinder [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Pilling, James E. [Discovery Sciences, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Sanganee, Hitesh [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Wada, Hiroki [R and I IMed, AstraZeneca R and D, Molndal (Sweden); Courtney, Paul F. [DMPK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Kavanagh, Stefan; Hall, Peter A. [Safety Assessment, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Escott, K. Jane [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/μCT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused β-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH{sub 1–34} or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/μCT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: • Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. • Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis

  17. Influence of bone volume fraction and architecture on computed large-deformation failure mechanisms in human trabecular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevill, Grant; Eswaran, Senthil K; Gupta, Atul; Papadopoulos, Panayiotis; Keaveny, Tony M

    2006-12-01

    Large-deformation bending and buckling have long been proposed as failure mechanisms by which the strength of trabecular bone can be affected disproportionately to changes in bone density, and thus may represent an important aspect of bone quality. We sought here to quantify the contribution of large-deformation failure mechanisms on strength, to determine the dependence of these effects on bone volume fraction and architecture, and to confirm that the inclusion of large-deformation effects in high-resolution finite element models improves predictions of strength versus experiment. Micro-CT-based finite element models having uniform hard tissue material properties were created from 54 cores of human trabecular bone taken from four anatomic sites (age = 70+/-11; 24 male, 27 female donors), which were subsequently biomechanically tested to failure. Strength predictions were made from the models first including, then excluding, large-deformation failure mechanisms, both for compressive and tensile load cases. As expected, strength predictions versus experimental data for the large-deformation finite element models were significantly improved (p deformation models in both tension and compression. Below a volume fraction of about 0.20, large-deformation failure mechanisms decreased trabecular strength from 5-80% for compressive loading, while effects were negligible above this volume fraction. Step-wise nonlinear multiple regression revealed that structure model index (SMI) and volume fraction (BV/TV) were significant predictors of these reductions in strength (R2 = 0.83, p deformation failure mechanisms on trabecular bone strength is highly heterogeneous and is not well explained by standard architectural metrics.

  18. 旧石器时代的火塘与古人类用火%Remains of Human Fire-Use: An Overview of Paleolithic Hearth and Human Fire-use Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周振宇; 关莹; 王春雪; 高星

    2012-01-01

    archaeological contexts, although rarely be systematic studied. Zhoukoudian Loc.15 (Beijing), Huanglongdong Cave (Hubei), Gezidong Cave (Liaoning), and the like, are all notable with defined earth hearths andthe associated remains, such as burnt bones and charcoals. Until the last stage of Pleistocene, which is associated with Late Paleolithic period, the adaptability of human beings was dramatically enhanced, as a result, the surviving mode subsequently varied. Therefore, fire-use activity became to be common and universal. One of the most notable sites from which distinguished hearth remains were found is Hutouliang open air site (Hebei). In Zhijidong Cave site (Henan), Dahe site (Yunnan), Shuidonggou site (Ningxia), Xishan site (Jilin), Chuandong Cave (Guizhou), Heimahe site (Qinghai), Shizitan (Shanxi), earth hearths were also found in situ. These finding provide abundant of information of fire use and management in East Asia during the Pleistocene.Based on the ethnographic record, prehistoric hearths are divided into two types: the low-investment category, covering the open hearths which is basically a shallow hole in the ground and set fire inside; and the high-investment category, which refer to any other type beyond low-investment category, including structured hearth and oven.The hearth functions are strongly related to the daily activities of ancient occupants. Therefore, hearth could be used for multiple purposes, including cooking, sleeping by, giving warmth and light and acting as the point around which people relax, chat, social interaction, or perform ceremonies.Hearth study would bring great significance to Paleolithic archaeology. As the product of comprehensive human behaviors, hearth does not only yield burnt soil, charcoal, ash, etc, but also provide the remains of the ancient cooking. These remnant could considerably help us in paleodiet reconstruction, and the pursuit of the hunting and gathering activities; the distribution and variety of hearth forms

  19. In naming the dead: Autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR typing on human skeletal remains from an 18th/19th century aristocratic crypt in Gallspach, Upper Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Reinhard; Renhart, Silvia; Gruber, Heinz; Kli Mesch, Wolfgang; Neuhuber, Franz; Cemper-Kiesslich, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Ancient DNA analyses have shown to be a powerful tool in the joint transdisciplinary assessment of archaeological records involving human remains. In this study we set out to identify single inhumations by synoptically evaluating the historical, archaeological, anthropological and molecular records on human remains from the crypt of the aristocratic family of Hoheneck (or: Hohenegg) dating to the 18(th) and 19(th) century AD. A total of 11 individuals were under investigation, yielding complete autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR profiles for 5 persons clearly showing a family group. DNA results, anthropological data and archaeological records taken together resulted in (almost) unambiguous correlation to historical records on the persons entombed in the crypt.

  20. Cortical bone growth and maturational changes in dwarf rats induced by recombinant human growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, D. A.; Orth, M. W.; Carr, K. E.; Vanderby, R. Jr; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-deficient dwarf rat was used to investigate recombinant human (rh) GH-induced bone formation and to determine whether rhGH facilitates simultaneous increases in bone formation and bone maturation during rapid growth. Twenty dwarf rats, 37 days of age, were randomly assigned to dwarf plus rhGH (GH; n = 10) and dwarf plus vehicle (n = 10) groups. The GH group received 1.25 mg rhGH/kg body wt two times daily for 14 days. Biochemical, morphological, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the femur middiaphysis. rhGH stimulated new bone growth in the GH group, as demonstrated by significant increases (P bone length (6%), middiaphyseal cross-sectional area (20%), and the amount of newly accreted bone collagen (28%) in the total pool of middiaphyseal bone collagen. Cortical bone density, mean hydroxyapatite crystal size, and the calcium and collagen contents (microgram/mm3) were significantly smaller in the GH group (P bone collagen maturation, and mean hydroxyapatite crystal size may be independently regulated during rapid growth.

  1. Alterations of mass density and 3D osteocyte lacunar properties in bisphosphonate-related osteonecrotic human jaw bone, a synchrotron µCT study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Hesse

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the jaw, in association with bisphosphonates (BRONJ used for treating osteoporosis or cancer, is a severe and most often irreversible side effect whose underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain largely unknown. Osteocytes are involved in bone remodeling and mineralization where they orchestrate the delicate equilibrium between osteoclast and osteoblast activity and through the active process called osteocytic osteolysis. Here, we hypothesized that (i changes of the mineralized tissue matrix play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of BRONJ, and (ii the osteocyte lacunar morphology is altered in BRONJ. Synchrotron µCT with phase contrast is an appropriate tool for assessing both the 3D morphology of the osteocyte lacunae and the bone matrix mass density. Here, we used this technique to investigate the mass density distribution and 3D osteocyte lacunar properties at the sub-micrometer scale in human bone samples from the jaw, femur and tibia. First, we compared healthy human jaw bone to human tibia and femur in order to assess the specific differences and address potential explanations of why the jaw bone is exclusively targeted by the necrosis as a side effect of BP treatment. Second, we investigated the differences between BRONJ and control jaw bone samples to detect potential differences which could aid an improved understanding of the course of BRONJ. We found that the apparent mass density of jaw bone was significantly smaller compared to that of tibia, consistent with a higher bone turnover in the jaw bone. The variance of the lacunar volume distribution was significantly different depending on the anatomical site. The comparison between BRONJ and control jaw specimens revealed no significant increase in mineralization after BP. We found a significant decrease in osteocyte-lacunar density in the BRONJ group compared to the control jaw. Interestingly, the osteocyte-lacunar volume distribution was not altered after

  2. BST2 Mediates Osteoblast Differentiation via the BMP2 Signaling Pathway in Human Alveolar-Derived Bone Marrow Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Su-Hyang; Kim, Jae Goo; Kim, Beom-Su; Lee, Jun; Pi, Sung-Hee; Lim, Hyun-Dae; Shin, Hong-In; Cho, Eui-Sic; You, Hyung-Keun

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling the differentiation of bone marrow stromal stem cells into osteoblasts remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated whether bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST2) influences differentiation toward the osteoblasts lineage. BST2 mRNA expression in human alveolar-derived bone marrow stromal cells (hAD-BMSCs) increased during differentiation into osteoblasts. hAD-BMSCs differentiation into osteoblasts and the mRNA expression of the bone-specific markers alkaline phosphatase, collagen type α 1, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and osterix were reduced by BST2 knockdown using siRNA. Furthermore, BST2 knockdown in hAD-BMSCs resulted in decreased RUNX2 mRNA and protein expression. We hypothesized that BST2 is involved in differentiation of into osteoblasts via the BMP2 signaling pathway. Accordingly, we evaluated the mRNA expression levels of BMP2, BMP receptors (BMPR1 and 2), and the downstream signaling molecules SMAD1, SMAD4, and p-SMAD1/5/8 in BST2 knockdown cells. BMP2 expression following the induction of differentiation was significantly lower in BST2 knockdown cells than in cells treated with a non-targeting control siRNA. Similar results were found for the knockdown of the BMP2 receptor- BMPR1A. We also identified significantly lower expression of SMAD1, SMAD4, and p-SMAD1/5/8 in the BST2 knockdown cells than control cells. Our data provide the first evidence that BST2 is involved in the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells via the regulation of the BMP2 signaling pathway.

  3. Living with cracks: Damage and repair in human bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David; Hazenberg, Jan G.; Lee, T. Clive

    2007-04-01

    Our bones are full of cracks, which form and grow as a result of daily loading activities. Bone is the major structural material in our bodies. Although weaker than many engineering materials, it has one trick that keeps it ahead - it can repair itself. Small cracks, which grow under cyclic stresses by the mechanism of fatigue, can be detected and removed before they become long enough to be dangerous. This article reviews the work that has been done to understand how cracks form and grow in bone, and how they can be detected and repaired in a timely manner. This is truly an interdisciplinary research field, requiring the close cooperation of materials scientists, biologists and engineers.

  4. Use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 with local bone graft instead of iliac crest bone graft in posterolateral lumbar spine arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daniel K; Kim, Sung S; Thakur, Nikhil; Boden, Scott D

    2013-05-20

    Prospective clinical study. Compare fusion rates between recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) with rhBMP-2 and local bone graft (LBG) (±bone graft extenders) in posterolateral fusion. Previous reports have shown higher fusion rates when adding rhBMP-2 to ICBG in lumbar posterolateral fusion, compared with ICBG alone. We compared the fusion success rates between rhBMP-2 delivered with ICBG versus that with LBG. Fusion rates were compared in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis (1-2 levels) with accompanying lumbar stenosis. RhBMP-2 (INFUSE, Medtronic) was delivered on an absorbable collagen sponge (6 mg/side at 1.5 mg/mL) with ICBG alone or with LBG wrapped inside the sponge. Thin slice computed tomographic scans were assessed at 6, 12, and 24 months. In a consecutive series, 16 patients (30 levels) received ICBG with rhBMP-2 and 35 patients (49 levels) received LBG with rhBMP-2. For the ICBG cohort, 80.0%, 93.4%, 96.7% of levels were fused at 6, 12, and 24 months. In contrast, for the local bone with rhBMP-2 cohort, 87.7%, 98.0%, and 98.0% were fused at 6, 12, and 24 months. There was no statistically significant difference in fusion success rates between the 2 groups at any time point. As for fusion quality, the fusion mass showed superior quality in ICBG group than in the local bone group at each time point. This study validates the high fusion success rates previously reported by adding rhBMP-2 to ICBG and shows that local bone may be safely substituted for ICBG in 1- to 2-level posterolateral fusion. The fusion rates were comparable. The avoidance of ICBG harvest has implications for operative time, blood loss, and morbidity. Lastly, this is the first study that directly compares the fusion success rate and quality using local bone with rhBMP-2 versus ICBG with rhBMP-2 at various times. 4.

  5. Beyond the functional matrix hypothesis: a network null model of human skull growth for the formation of bone articulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Altava, Borja; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2014-09-01

    Craniofacial sutures and synchondroses form the boundaries among bones in the human skull, providing functional, developmental and evolutionary information. Bone articulations in the skull arise due to interactions between genetic regulatory mechanisms and epigenetic factors such as functional matrices (soft tissues and cranial cavities), which mediate bone growth. These matrices are largely acknowledged for their influence on shaping the bones of the skull; however, it is not fully understood to what extent functional matrices mediate the formation of bone articulations. Aiming to identify whether or not functional matrices are key developmental factors guiding the formation of bone articulations, we have built a network null model of the skull that simulates unconstrained bone growth. This null model predicts bone articulations that arise due to a process of bone growth that is uniform in rate, direction and timing. By comparing predicted articulations with the actual bone articulations of the human skull, we have identified which boundaries specifically need the presence of functional matrices for their formation. We show that functional matrices are necessary to connect facial bones, whereas an unconstrained bone growth is sufficient to connect non-facial bones. This finding challenges the role of the brain in the formation of boundaries between bones in the braincase without neglecting its effect on skull shape. Ultimately, our null model suggests where to look for modified developmental mechanisms promoting changes in bone growth patterns that could affect the development and evolution of the head skeleton. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  6. Filling the gap. Human cranial remains from Gombore II (Melka Kunture, Ethiopia; ca. 850 ka) and the origin of Homo heidelbergensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profico, Antonio; Di Vincenzo, Fabio; Gagliardi, Lorenza; Piperno, Marcello; Manzi, Giorgio

    2016-06-20

    African archaic humans dated to around 1,0 Ma share morphological affinities with Homo ergaster and appear distinct in cranio-dental morphology from those of the Middle Pleistocene that are referred to Homo heidelbergensis. This observation suggests a taxonomic and phylogenetic discontinuity in Africa that ranges across the Matuyama/Brunhes reversal (780 ka). Yet, the fossil record between roughly 900 and 600 ka is notoriously poor. In this context, the Early Stone Age site of Gombore II, in the Melka Kunture formation (Upper Awash, Ethiopia), provides a privileged case-study. In the Acheulean layer of Gombore II, somewhat more recent than 875 ±10 ka, two large cranial fragments were discovered in 1973 and 1975 respectively: a partial left parietal (Melka Kunture 1) and a right portion of the frontal bone (Melka Kunture 2), which probably belonged to the same cranium. We present here the first detailed description and computer-assisted reconstruction of the morphology of the cranial vault pertaining to these fossil fragments. Our analysis suggest that the human fossil specimen from Gombore II fills a phenetic gap between Homo ergaster and Homo heidelbergensis. This appears in agreement with the chronology of such a partial cranial vault, which therefore represents at present one of the best available candidates (if any) for the origin of Homo heidelbergensis in Africa.

  7. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide inhibits bone resorption in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Anne; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    -minute glucose clamps with co-infusion of GIP (4 pmol/kg/min for 15 min, followed by 2 pmol/kg/min for 45 min) or placebo. The samples were analyzed for concentrations of degradation products of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), a bone resorption marker. RESULTS regarding effects...

  8. Human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Abdallah, Basem M

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of cells present in bone-marrow stroma and the stroma of various organs with the capacity for mesoderm-like cell differentiation into, for example, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. MSC are being introduced in the clinic for the treatment...

  9. Trabecular bone histomorphometry in humans with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Laura A G; Akhter, Mohammed P; Drincic, Andjela; Recker, Robert R

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have markedly increased risk of fracture, but little is known about abnormalities in bone microarchitecture or remodeling properties that might give insight into the pathogenesis of skeletal fragility in these patients. We report here a case-control study comparing bone histomorphometric and micro-CT results from iliac biopsies in 18 otherwise healthy subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with those from healthy age- and sex-matched non-diabetic control subjects. Five of the diabetics had histories of low-trauma fracture. Transilial bone biopsies were obtained after tetracycline labeling. The biopsy specimens were fixed, embedded, and scanned using a desktop μCT at 16 μm resolution. They were then sectioned and quantitative histomorphometry was performed as previously described by Recker et al. [1]. Two sections, >250 μm apart, were read from the central part of each biopsy. Overall there were no significant differences between diabetics and controls in histomorphometric or micro-CT measurements. However, fracturing diabetics had structural and dynamic trends different from nonfracturing diabetics by both methods of analysis. In conclusion, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus does not result in abnormalities in bone histomorphometric or micro-CT variables in the absence of manifest complications from the diabetes. However, diabetics suffering fractures may have defects in their skeletal microarchitecture that may underlie the presence of excess skeletal fragility.

  10. Bone mineral measurement, experiment M078. [space flight effects on human bone composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Vogel, J. M.; Ullmann, J.; Brown, S.; Kolb, F., III

    1973-01-01

    Measurement tests revealed few deviations from baseline bone mineral measurements after 56 days in a Skylab-type environment. No mineral change was observed in the right radius. One individual, however, showed a possible mineral loss in the left os calcis and another gained mineral in the right ulna. The cause of the gain is unclear but may be attributable to the heavy exercise routines engaged in by the crewmember in question. Equipment problems were identified during the experiment and rectified.

  11. Late Adherent Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Form Bone and Restore the Hematopoietic Microenvironment In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Fernandes Vianna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs are a valuable resource for skeletal regenerative medicine because of their osteogenic potential. In spite of the very general term “stem cell,” this population of cells is far from homogeneous, and different BMSCs clones have greatly different phenotypic properties and, therefore, potentially different therapeutic potential. Adherence to a culture flask surface is a primary defining characteristic of BMSCs. We hypothesized that based on the adherence time we could obtain an enriched population of cells with a greater therapeutic potential. We characterized two populations of bone marrow-derived cells, those that adhered by three days (R-cells and those that did not adhere by three days but did by six days (L-cells. Clones derived from L-cells could be induced into adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. L-cells appeared to have greater proliferative capacity, as manifested by larger colony diameter and clones with higher CD146 expression. Only clones from L-cells developed bone marrow stroma in vivo. We conclude that the use of late adherence of BMSCs is one parameter that can be used to enrich for cells that will constitute a superior final product for cell therapy in orthopedics.

  12. Clinical Application of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindita Chatterjea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The gold standard in the repair of bony defects is autologous bone grafting, even though it has drawbacks in terms of availability and morbidity at the harvesting site. Bone-tissue engineering, in which osteogenic cells and scaffolds are combined, is considered as a potential bone graft substitute strategy. Proof-of-principle for bone tissue engineering using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs has been demonstrated in various animal models. In addition, 7 human clinical studies have so far been conducted. Because the experimental design and evaluation parameters of the studies are rather heterogeneous, it is difficult to draw conclusive evidence on the performance of one approach over the other. However, it seems that bone apposition by the grafted MSCs in these studies is observed but not sufficient to bridge large bone defects. In this paper, we discuss the published human clinical studies performed so far for bone-tissue regeneration, using culture-expanded, nongenetically modified MSCs from various sources and extract from it points of consideration for future clinical studies.

  13. Local origins impart conserved bone type-related differences in human osteoblast behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M; Gburcik, V; Reilly, P; Sankey, R A; Emery, R J; Clarkin, C E; Pitsillides, A A

    2015-03-04

    Osteogenic behaviour of osteoblasts from trabecular, cortical and subchondral bone were examined to determine any bone type-selective differences in samples from both osteoarthritic (OA) and osteoporotic (OP) patients. Cell growth, differentiation; alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) mRNA and activity, Runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2), SP7-transcription factor (SP7), bone sialoprotein-II (BSP-II), osteocalcin/bone gamma-carboxyglutamate (BGLAP), osteoprotegerin (OPG, TNFRSF11B), receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ ligand (RANKL, TNFSF11) mRNA levels and proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) mRNA and protein release were assessed in osteoblasts from paired humeral head samples from age-matched, human OA/OP (n = 5/4) patients. Initial outgrowth and increase in cell number were significantly faster (p origins in OA and trabecular origins in OP. We found virtually identical bone type-related differences, however, in TNFRSF11B:TNFSF11 in OA and OP, consistent with greater potential for paracrine effects on osteoclasts in trabecular osteoblasts. Subchondral osteoblasts (OA) exhibited highest VEGF-A mRNA levels and release. Our data indicate that human osteoblasts in trabecular, subchondral and cortical bone have inherent, programmed diversity, with specific bone type-related differences in growth, differentiation and pro-angiogenic potential in vitro.

  14. Gene Expression Changes in Femoral Head Necrosis of Human Bone Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadett Balla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH is the result of an interruption of the local circulation and the injury of vascular supply of bone. Multiple factors have been implicated in the development of the disease. However the mechanism of ischemia and necrosis in non-traumatic ONFH is not clear. The aim of our investigation was to identify genes that are differently expressed in ONFH vs. non-ONFH human bone and to describe the relationships between these genes using multivariate data analysis. Six bone tissue samples from ONFH male patients and 8 bone tissue samples from non-ONFH men were examined. The expression differences of selected 117 genes were analyzed by TaqMan probe-based quantitative real-time RT-PCR system. The significance test indicated marked differences in the expression of nine genes between ONFH and non-ONFH individuals. These altered genes code for collagen molecules, an extracellular matrix digesting metalloproteinase, a transcription factor, an adhesion molecule, and a growth factor. Canonical variates analysis demonstrated that ONFH and non-ONFH bone tissues can be distinguished by the multiple expression profile analysis of numerous genes controlled via canonical TGFB pathway as well as genes coding for extracellular matrix composing collagen type molecules. The markedly altered gene expression profile observed in the ONFH of human bone tissue may provide further insight into the pathogenetic process of osteonecrotic degeneration of bone.

  15. Morphological Characterization of the Frontal and Parietal Bones of the Human Skull

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    frozen, male postmortem human subject (PMHS) donors aged 76–86 yrs. The skulls did not have a history of musculoskeletal diseases nor did they...to 17 as assessed by computed tomography. European J of Plastic Surgery. 2015;38(3):193–198. Hubbard RP. Flexure of layered cranial bone. J of...changes with age and sex from computed tomography scans. J of Bone and Mineral Research. 2016;31(2):299–307. Approved for public release

  16. Quantification of anatomical variation at the atlanto-occipital articulation: morphometric resolution of commingled human remains within the repatriation documentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudar, J Christopher; Castillo, Eric R

    2016-12-15

    Within many institutional collections are skeletal and mummified human remains representing a part of our species' adaptation and evolution to various biocultural environments. Archaeologically recovered individuals come from deep into our past, and possess information that provides insight into population history, genetics, diet, health and other questions relevant to all living peoples. Academic concerns have been raised regarding the reinterment of these collections due to the rise of the international repatriation movement, the passage of various laws and implementation of institutional policies. While all potential research questions cannot be anticipated, the proactive documentation of collections is one way to ensure primary data are maintained for future study. This paper explores developments in digitization technology that allow the archive of virtual copies of human remains, and an example of how anatomical and archaeological collections can be digitized towards pragmatic research goals. The anatomical variability of the human atlanto-occipital (AO) articular surfaces was studied using non-metric categorical shape, 2D measurement and 3D morphometric analyses to provide reference standards for the reassociation of individuals from commingled skeletal remains, such as found in some archaeological sites or forensic investigations including mass grave or mass disaster recovery scenes. Results suggest that qualitative shape observations and caliper-derived measurements of the articulating AO condyles tend to display significant sexual dimorphism and biological ancestry-related size and shape differences. Variables derived from a scanned 3D mesh, such as condylar angle and articular surface curvature, quantify biomechanical variation and display a stronger congruency within individuals. It is recommended that a two-stage approach involving initial screening and identification of possible reassociation candidates is accomplished with a linear osteometric

  17. Human maxillary sinus floor elevation as a model for bone regeneration enabling the application of one-step surgical procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farre-Guasch, E.; Prins, H.J.; Overman, J.R.; ten Bruggenkate, C.M.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; Helder, M.N.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2013-01-01

    Bone loss in the oral and maxillofacial region caused by trauma, tumors, congenital disorders, or degenerative diseases is a health care problem worldwide. To restore (reconstruct) these bone defects, human or animal bone grafts or alloplastic (synthetic) materials have been used. However, several d

  18. Total lymphatic irradiation and bone marrow in human heart transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, D.R.; Hong, R.; Greenberg, A.J.; Gilbert, E.F.; Dacumos, G.C.; Dufek, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    Six patients, aged 36 to 59 years, had heart transplants for terminal myocardial disease using total lymphatic irradiation (TLI) and donor bone marrow in addition to conventional therapy. All patients were poor candidates for transplantation because of marked pulmonary hypertension, unacceptable tissue matching, or age. Two patients are living and well more than four years after the transplants. Two patients died of infection at six and seven weeks with normal hearts. One patient, whose preoperative pulmonary hypertension was too great for an orthotopic heart transplant, died at 10 days after such a procedure. The other patient died of chronic rejection seven months postoperatively. Donor-specific tolerance developed in 2 patients. TLI and donor bone marrow can produce specific tolerance to donor antigens and allow easy control of rejection, but infection is still a major problem. We describe a new technique of administering TLI with early reduction of prednisone that may help this problem.

  19. Thermal Conductivity of Human Bone in Cryoprobe Freezing as Related to Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kyle E; Baldini, Todd; Lindeque, Bennie G

    2016-12-09

    Cryoprobes create localized cell destruction through freezing. Bone is resistant to temperature flow but is susceptible to freezing necrosis at warmer temperatures than tumor cells. Few studies have determined the thermal conductivity of human bone. No studies have examined conductivity as related to density. The study goal was to examine thermal conductivity in human bone while comparing differences between cancellous and cortical bone. An additional goal was to establish a relationship between bone density and thermal conductivity. Six knee joints from 5 cadavers were obtained. The epiphyseal region was sliced in half coronally prior to inserting an argon-circulating cryoprobe directed away from the joint line. Thermistor thermometers were placed perpendicularly at measured increments, and the freezing cycle was recorded until steady-state conditions were achieved. For 2 cortical samples, the probe was placed intramedullary in metaphyseal samples and measurements were performed radially from the central axis of each sample. Conductivity was calculated using Fournier's Law and then plotted against measured density of each sample. Across samples, density of cancellous bone ranged from 0.86 to 1.38 g/mL and average thermal conductivity ranged between 0.404 and 0.55 W/mK. Comparatively, cortical bone had a density of 1.70 to 1.86 g/mL and thermal conductivity of 0.0742 to 0.109 W/mK. A strong 2-degree polynomial correlation was seen (R(2)=0.8226, P<.001). Bone is highly resistant to temperature flow. This resistance varies and inversely correlates strongly with density. This information is clinically relevant to maximize tumor ablation while minimizing morbidity through unnecessary bone loss and damage to surrounding structures. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.].

  20. The relationship between the mechanical anisotropy of human cortical bone tissue and its microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Orias, Alejandro A.

    Orthopedics research has made significant advances in the areas of biomechanics, bone implants and bone substitute materials. However, to date there is no definitive model to explain the structure-property relationships in bone as a material to enable better implant designs or to develop a true biomechanical analog of bone. The objective of this investigation was to establish a relationship between the elastic anisotropy of cortical bone tissue and its microstructure. Ultrasonic wave propagation was used to measure stiffness coefficients for specimens sectioned along the length of a human femur. The elastic constants were orthotropic and varied with anatomical location. Stiffness coefficients were generally largest at the midshaft and stiffness anisotropy ratios were largest at the distal and proximal ends. These tests were run on four additional human femurs to assess the influence of phenotypic variation, and in most cases, it was found that phenotypes do not exert a significant effect. Stiffness coefficients were shown to be correlated as a power law relation to apparent density, but anisotropy ratios were not. Texture analysis was performed on selected samples to measure the orientation distribution of the bone mineral crystals. Inverse pole figures showed that bone mineral crystals had a preferred crystallographic orientation, coincident with the long axis of the femur, which is its principal loading direction. The degree of preferred orientation was represented in Multiples of a Random Distribution (MRD), and correlated to the anisotropy ratios. Variation in elastic anisotropy was shown to be primarily due to the bone mineral orientation. The results found in this work can be used to incorporate anisotropy into structural analysis for bone as a material.

  1. Targeted regeneration of bone in the osteoporotic human femur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth E S Poole

    Full Text Available We have recently developed image processing techniques for measuring the cortical thicknesses of skeletal structures in vivo, with resolution surpassing that of the underlying computed tomography system. The resulting thickness maps can be analysed across cohorts by statistical parametric mapping. Applying these methods to the proximal femurs of osteoporotic women, we discover targeted and apparently synergistic effects of pharmaceutical osteoporosis therapy and habitual mechanical load in enhancing bone thickness.

  2. Characterization of a Composite Material to Mimic Human Cranial Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    a general population. These file formats can be sent directly to additive manufacturing machines , generically referred to as 3-D printers, to...Illustration of the SLA additive manufacturing process. The SLA machine used in this study to manufacture specimens was a Viper Si (3D Systems, Rock...architectures while possessing physical and mechanical characteristics similar to that of bone. We are utilizing additive manufacturing , more generally

  3. Digging up the recent Spanish memory: genetic identification of human remains from mass graves of the Spanish Civil War and posterior dictatorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeta, Miriam; Núñez, Carolina; Cardoso, Sergio; Palencia-Madrid, Leire; Herrasti, Lourdes; Etxeberria, Francisco; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2015-11-01

    The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) and posterior dictatorship (until 1970s) stands as one of the major conflicts in the recent history of Spain. It led to nearly two hundred thousand men and women executed or murdered extra-judicially or after dubious legal procedures. Nowadays, most of them remain unidentified or even buried in irretraceable mass graves across Spain. Here, we present the genetic identification of human remains found in 26 mass graves located in Northern Spain. A total of 252 post-mortem remains were analyzed and compared to 186 relatives, allowing the identification of 87 victims. Overall, a significant success of DNA profiling was reached, since informative profiles (≥ 12 STRs and/or mitochondrial DNA profile) were obtained in 85.71% of the remains. This high performance in DNA profiling from challenging samples demonstrated the efficacy of DNA extraction and amplification methods used herein, given that only around 14.29% of the samples did not provide an informative genetic profile for the analysis performed, probably due to the presence of degraded and/or limited DNA in these remains. However, this study shows a partial identification success rate, which is clearly a consequence of the lack of both appropriate family members for genetic comparisons and accurate information about the victims' location. Hence, further perseverance in the exhumation of other intact graves as well as in the search of more alleged relatives is crucial in order to facilitate and increase the number of genetic identifications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Breast Cancer Cell Colonization of the Human Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach S. Templeton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bone is a preferred site of breast cancer metastasis, suggesting the presence of tissue-specific features that attract and promote the outgrowth of breast cancer cells. We sought to identify parameters of human bone tissue associated with breast cancer cell osteotropism and colonization in the metastatic niche. METHODS: Migration and colonization patterns of MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP (luciferase-enhanced green fluorescence protein and MCF-7-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cells were studied in co-culture with cancellous bone tissue fragments isolated from 14 hip arthroplasties. Breast cancer cell migration into tissues and toward tissue-conditioned medium was measured in Transwell migration chambers using bioluminescence imaging and analyzed as a function of secreted factors measured by multiplex immunoassay. Patterns of breast cancer cell colonization were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Enhanced MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cell migration to bone-conditioned versus control medium was observed in 12/14 specimens (P = .0014 and correlated significantly with increasing levels of the adipokines/cytokines leptin (P = .006 and IL-1β (P = .001 in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry of fragments underscored the extreme adiposity of adult human bone tissues and revealed extensive breast cancer cell colonization within the marrow adipose tissue compartment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that breast cancer cells migrate to human bone tissue-conditioned medium in association with increasing levels of leptin and IL-1β, and colonize the bone marrow adipose tissue compartment of cultured fragments. Bone marrow adipose tissue and its molecular signals may be important but understudied components of the breast cancer metastatic niche.

  5. Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells: A Reliable, Challenging Tool for In Vitro Osteogenesis and Bone Tissue Engineering Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Hempel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC are important for many scientific purposes because of their multipotency, availability, and relatively easy handling. They are frequently used to study osteogenesis in vitro. Most commonly, hBMSC are isolated from bone marrow aspirates collected in clinical routine and cultured under the “aspect plastic adherence” without any further selection. Owing to the random donor population, they show a broad heterogeneity. Here, the osteogenic differentiation potential of 531 hBMSC was analyzed. The data were supplied to correlation analysis involving donor age, gender, and body mass index. hBMSC preparations were characterized as follows: (a how many passages the osteogenic characteristics are stable in and (b the influence of supplements and culture duration on osteogenic parameters (tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP, octamer binding transcription factor 4, core-binding factor alpha-1, parathyroid hormone receptor, bone gla protein, and peroxisome proliferator-activated protein γ. The results show that no strong prediction could be made from donor data to the osteogenic differentiation potential; only the ratio of induced TNAP to endogenous TNAP could be a reliable criterion. The results give evidence that hBMSC cultures are stable until passage 7 without substantial loss of differentiation potential and that established differentiation protocols lead to osteoblast-like cells but not to fully authentic osteoblasts.

  6. Restoration of a Critical Mandibular Bone Defect Using Human Alveolar Bone-Derived Stem Cells and Porous Nano-HA/Collagen/PLA Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Xing, Helin; Zhang, Guilan; Wu, Xia; Zou, Xuan; Feng, Lin; Wang, Dongsheng; Li, Meng; Zhao, Jing; Du, Jianwei; Lv, Yan; E, Lingling; Liu, Hongchen

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal bone defects occur in a wide variety of clinical situations. Adult stem cell- and biomaterial-based bone tissue regeneration are a promising alternative to natural bone grafts. Recent evidence has demonstrated that two populations of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) can be distinguished based on their embryonic origins. These BMSCs are not interchangeable, as bones preferentially heal using cells that share the same embryonic origin. However, the feasibility of tissue engineering using human craniofacial BMSCs was unclear. The goal of this study was to explore human craniofacial BMSC-based therapy for the treatment of localized mandibular defects using a standardized, minimally invasive procedure. The BMSCs' identity was confirmed. Scanning electron microscopy, a cell proliferation assay, and supernatant detection indicated that the nHAC/PLA provided a suitable environment for aBMSCs. Real-time PCR and electrochemiluminescence immunoassays demonstrated that osteogenic markers were upregulated by osteogenic preinduction. Moreover, in a rabbit critical-size mandibular bone defect model, total bone formation in the nHAC/PLA + aBMSCs group was significantly higher than in the nHAC/PLA group but significantly lower than in the nHAC/PLA + preinduced aBMSCs. These findings demonstrate that this engineered bone is a valid alternative for the correction of mandibular bone defects.

  7. The human vascular endothelial cell line HUV-EC-C harbors the integrated HHV-6B genome which remains stable in long term culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioda, Setsuko; Kasai, Fumio; Ozawa, Midori; Hirayama, Noriko; Satoh, Motonobu; Kameoka, Yousuke; Watanabe, Ken; Shimizu, Norio; Tang, Huamin; Mori, Yasuko; Kohara, Arihiro

    2017-07-28

    Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) is a common human pathogen that is most often detected in hematopoietic cells. Although human cells harboring chromosomally integrated HHV-6 can be generated in vitro, the availability of such cell lines originating from in vivo tissues is limited. In this study, chromosomally integrated HHV-6B has been identified in a human vascular endothelial cell line, HUV-EC-C (IFO50271), derived from normal umbilical cord tissue. Sequence analysis revealed that the viral genome was similar to the HHV-6B HST strain. FISH analysis using a HHV-6 DNA probe showed one signal in each cell, detected at the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 9. This was consistent with a digital PCR assay, validating one copy of the viral DNA. Because exposure of HUV-EC-C to chemicals did not cause viral reactivation, long term cell culture of HUV-EC-C was carried out to assess the stability of viral integration. The growth rate was altered depending on passage numbers, and morphology also changed during culture. SNP microarray profiles showed some differences between low and high passages, implying that the HUV-EC-C genome had changed during culture. However, no detectable change was observed in chromosome 9, where HHV-6B integration and the viral copy number remained unchanged. Our results suggest that integrated HHV-6B is stable in HUV-EC-C despite genome instability.

  8. Optical detection of carotenoid antioxidants in human bone and surrounding tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V; Ermakova, Maia R; Rosenberg, Thomas D; Gellermann, Werner

    2013-11-01

    Carotenoids are known to play an important role in health and disease state of living human tissue based on their antioxidant and optical filtering functions. In this study, we show that carotenoids exist in human bone and surrounding fatty tissue both in significant and individually variable concentrations. Measurements of biopsied tissue samples with molecule-specific Raman spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography reveal that all carotenoids that are known to exist in human skin are also present in human bone. This includes all carotenes, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin. We propose quantitative reflection imaging as a noncontact optical method suitable for the measurement of composite carotenoid levels in bone and surrounding tissue exposed during open surgeries such as total knee arthroplasty, and as a proof of concept, demonstrate carotenoid measurements in biopsied bone samples. This will allow one to establish potential correlations between internal tissue carotenoid levels and levels in skin and to potentially use already existing optical skin carotenoid tests as surrogate marker for bone carotenoid status.

  9. T3 Regulates a Human Macrophage-Derived TSH-β Splice Variant: Implications for Human Bone Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliram, R; Latif, R; Morshed, S A; Zaidi, M; Davies, T F

    2016-09-01

    TSH and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) are intimately involved in bone biology. We have previously reported the presence of a murine TSH-β splice variant (TSH-βv) expressed specifically in bone marrow-derived macrophages and that exerted an osteoprotective effect by inducing osteoblastogenesis. To extend this observation and its relevance to human bone biology, we set out to identify and characterize a TSH-β variant in human macrophages. Real-time PCR analyses using human TSH-β-specific primers identified a 364-bp product in macrophages, bone marrow, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells that was sequence verified and was homologous to a human TSH-βv previously reported. We then examined TSH-βv regulation using the THP-1 human monocyte cell line matured into macrophages. After 4 days, 46.1% of the THP-1 cells expressed the macrophage markers CD-14 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor and exhibited typical morphological characteristics of macrophages. Real-time PCR analyses of these cells treated in a dose-dependent manner with T3 showed a 14-fold induction of human TSH-βv mRNA and variant protein. Furthermore, these human TSH-βv-positive cells, induced by T3 exposure, had categorized into both M1 and M2 macrophage phenotypes as evidenced by the expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor for M1 and CCL-22 for M2. These data indicate that in hyperthyroidism, bone marrow resident macrophages have the potential to exert enhanced osteoprotective effects by oversecreting human TSH-βv, which may exert its local osteoprotective role via osteoblast and osteoclast TSH receptors.

  10. Forensically Important Blow Flies Chrysomya pinguis, C. villeneuvi, and Lucilia porphyrina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Case of Human Remains in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monum, Tawatchai; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Sukontason, Kom; Samerjai, Chutharat; Limsopatham, Kwankamol; Suwannayod, Suttida; Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Wannasan, Anchalee

    2017-02-01

    This is the first study to report Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) and Lucilia porphyrina (Walker) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as forensically important blow fly species from human cadavers in Thailand, in addition to Chrysomya villeneuvi (Patton) already known in Thailand. In 2016, a fully decomposed body of an unknown adult male was discovered in a high mountainous forest during winter in Chiang Mai province. The remains were infested heavily with thousands of blow fly larvae feeding simultaneously on them. Morphological identification of adults reared from the larvae, and molecular analysis based on sequencing of 1,247 bp partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (CO1) of the larvae and puparia, confirmed the above mentioned 3 species. The approving forensic fly evidence by molecular approach was described for the first time in Thailand. Moreover, neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis of the CO1 was performed to compare the relatedness of the species, thereby affirming the accuracy of identification. As species of entomofauna varies among cases in different geographic and climatic circumstances, C. pinguis and L. porphyrina were added to the list of Thai forensic entomology caseworks, including colonizers of human remains in open, high mountainous areas during winter. Further research should focus on these 3 species, for which no developmental data are currently available.

  11. Forensically Important Blow Flies Chrysomya pinguis, C. villeneuvi, and Lucilia porphyrina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Case of Human Remains in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monum, Tawatchai; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Sukontason, Kom; Samerjai, Chutharat; Limsopatham, Kwankamol; Suwannayod, Suttida; Klong-klaew, Tunwadee; Wannasan, Anchalee

    2017-01-01

    This is the first study to report Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) and Lucilia porphyrina (Walker) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as forensically important blow fly species from human cadavers in Thailand, in addition to Chrysomya villeneuvi (Patton) already known in Thailand. In 2016, a fully decomposed body of an unknown adult male was discovered in a high mountainous forest during winter in Chiang Mai province. The remains were infested heavily with thousands of blow fly larvae feeding simultaneously on them. Morphological identification of adults reared from the larvae, and molecular analysis based on sequencing of 1,247 bp partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (CO1) of the larvae and puparia, confirmed the above mentioned 3 species. The approving forensic fly evidence by molecular approach was described for the first time in Thailand. Moreover, neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis of the CO1 was performed to compare the relatedness of the species, thereby affirming the accuracy of identification. As species of entomofauna varies among cases in different geographic and climatic circumstances, C. pinguis and L. porphyrina were added to the list of Thai forensic entomology caseworks, including colonizers of human remains in open, high mountainous areas during winter. Further research should focus on these 3 species, for which no developmental data are currently available. PMID:28285509

  12. Adhesion and growth of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on precise-geometry 3D organic-inorganic composite scaffolds for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzinikolaidou, Maria; Rekstyte, Sima; Danilevicius, Paulius; Pontikoglou, Charalampos; Papadaki, Helen; Farsari, Maria; Vamvakaki, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Engineering biomaterial scaffolds that promote attachment and growth of mesenchymal stem cells in three dimensions is a crucial parameter for successful bone tissue engineering. Towards this direction, a lot of research effort has focused recently into the development of three-dimensional porous scaffolds, aiming to elicit positive cellular behavior. However, the fabrication of three-dimensional tissue scaffolds with a precise geometry and complex micro- and nano-features, supporting cell in-growth remains a challenge. In this study we report on a positive cellular response of human bone marrow-derived (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) onto hybrid material scaffolds consisting of methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane, zirconium propoxide, and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). First, we use Direct fs Laser Writing, a 3D scaffolding technology to fabricate the complex structures. Subsequently, we investigate the morphology, viability and proliferation of BM-MSCs onto the hybrid scaffolds and examine the cellular response from different donors. Finally, we explore the effect of the materials' chemical composition on cell proliferation, employing three different material surfaces: (i) a hybrid consisting of methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane, zirconium propoxide and 50mol% DMAEMA, (ii) a hybrid material comprising methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane and zirconium propoxide, and (iii) a purely organic polyDMAEMA. Our results show a strong adhesion of BM-MSCs onto the hybrid material containing 50% DMAEMA from the first 2h after seeding, and up to several days, and a proliferation increase after 14 and 21days, similar to the polystyrene control, independent of cell donor. These findings support the potential use of our proposed cell-material combination in bone tissue engineering.

  13. Adhesion and growth of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on precise-geometry 3D organic–inorganic composite scaffolds for bone repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzinikolaidou, Maria, E-mail: mchatzin@materials.uoc.gr [Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete (Greece); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH) (Greece); Rekstyte, Sima; Danilevicius, Paulius [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH) (Greece); Pontikoglou, Charalampos; Papadaki, Helen [Hematology Laboratory, School of Medicine, University of Crete (Greece); Farsari, Maria [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH) (Greece); Vamvakaki, Maria [Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete (Greece); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH) (Greece)

    2015-03-01

    Engineering biomaterial scaffolds that promote attachment and growth of mesenchymal stem cells in three dimensions is a crucial parameter for successful bone tissue engineering. Towards this direction, a lot of research effort has focused recently into the development of three-dimensional porous scaffolds, aiming to elicit positive cellular behavior. However, the fabrication of three-dimensional tissue scaffolds with a precise geometry and complex micro- and nano-features, supporting cell in-growth remains a challenge. In this study we report on a positive cellular response of human bone marrow-derived (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) onto hybrid material scaffolds consisting of methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane, zirconium propoxide, and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). First, we use Direct fs Laser Writing, a 3D scaffolding technology to fabricate the complex structures. Subsequently, we investigate the morphology, viability and proliferation of BM-MSCs onto the hybrid scaffolds and examine the cellular response from different donors. Finally, we explore the effect of the materials' chemical composition on cell proliferation, employing three different material surfaces: (i) a hybrid consisting of methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane, zirconium propoxide and 50 mol% DMAEMA, (ii) a hybrid material comprising methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane and zirconium propoxide, and (iii) a purely organic polyDMAEMA. Our results show a strong adhesion of BM-MSCs onto the hybrid material containing 50% DMAEMA from the first 2 h after seeding, and up to several days, and a proliferation increase after 14 and 21 days, similar to the polystyrene control, independent of cell donor. These findings support the potential use of our proposed cell–material combination in bone tissue engineering. - Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy image depicting cell adhesion of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into a pore of a hybrid Direct Laser Writing

  14. Survival of free and encapsulated human and rat islet xenografts transplanted into the mouse bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Raphael P H; Seebach, Jörg D; Morel, Philippe; Mahou, Redouan; Borot, Sophie; Giovannoni, Laurianne; Parnaud, Geraldine; Montanari, Elisa; Bosco, Domenico; Wandrey, Christine; Berney, Thierry; Bühler, Leo H; Muller, Yannick D

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow was recently proposed as an alternative and potentially immune-privileged site for pancreatic islet transplantation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival and rejection mechanisms of free and encapsulated xenogeneic islets transplanted into the medullary cavity of the femur, or under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. The median survival of free rat islets transplanted into the bone marrow or under the kidney capsule was 9 and 14 days, respectively, whereas that of free human islets was shorter, 7 days (bone marrow) and 10 days (kidney capsule). Infiltrating CD8+ T cells and redistributed CD4+ T cells, and macrophages were detected around the transplanted islets in bone sections. Recipient mouse splenocytes proliferated in response to donor rat stimulator cells. One month after transplantation under both kidney capsule or into bone marrow, encapsulated rat islets had induced a similar degree of fibrotic reaction and still contained insulin positive cells. In conclusion, we successfully established a small animal model for xenogeneic islet transplantation into the bone marrow. The rejection of xenogeneic islets was associated with local and systemic T cell responses and macrophage recruitment. Although there was no evidence for immune-privilege, the bone marrow may represent a feasible site for encapsulated xenogeneic islet transplantation.

  15. Survival of free and encapsulated human and rat islet xenografts transplanted into the mouse bone marrow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael P H Meier

    Full Text Available Bone marrow was recently proposed as an alternative and potentially immune-privileged site for pancreatic islet transplantation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival and rejection mechanisms of free and encapsulated xenogeneic islets transplanted into the medullary cavity of the femur, or under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. The median survival of free rat islets transplanted into the bone marrow or under the kidney capsule was 9 and 14 days, respectively, whereas that of free human islets was shorter, 7 days (bone marrow and 10 days (kidney capsule. Infiltrating CD8+ T cells and redistributed CD4+ T cells, and macrophages were detected around the transplanted islets in bone sections. Recipient mouse splenocytes proliferated in response to donor rat stimulator cells. One month after transplantation under both kidney capsule or into bone marrow, encapsulated rat islets had induced a similar degree of fibrotic reaction and still contained insulin positive cells. In conclusion, we successfully established a small animal model for xenogeneic islet transplantation into the bone marrow. The rejection of xenogeneic islets was associated with local and systemic T cell responses and macrophage recruitment. Although there was no evidence for immune-privilege, the bone marrow may represent a feasible site for encapsulated xenogeneic islet transplantation.

  16. Noninvasive optical measurement of bone marrow lesions: a Monte Carlo study on visible human dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu; Li, Ting

    2016-03-01

    Bone marrow is both the main hematopoietic and important immune organ. Bone marrow lesions (BMLs) may cause a series of severe complications and even myeloma. The traditional diagnosis of BMLs rely on mostly bone marrow biopsy/ puncture, and sometimes MRI, X-ray, and etc., which are either invasive and dangerous, or ionizing and costly. A diagnosis technology with advantages in noninvasive, safe, real-time continuous detection, and low cost is requested. Here we reported our preliminary exploration of feasibility verification of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in clinical diagnosis of BMLs by Monte Carlo simulation study. We simulated and visualized the light propagation in the bone marrow quantitatively with a Monte Carlo simulation software for 3D voxelized media and Visible Chinese Human data set, which faithfully represents human anatomy. The results indicate that bone marrow actually has significant effects on light propagation. According to a sequence of simulation and data analysis, the optimal source-detector separation was suggested to be narrowed down to 2.8-3.2cm, at which separation the spatial sensitivity distribution of NIRS cover the most region of bone marrow with high signal-to-noise ratio. The display of the sources and detectors were optimized as well. This study investigated the light transport in spine addressing to the BMLs detection issue and reported the feasibility of NIRS detection of BMLs noninvasively in theory. The optimized probe design of the coming NIRS-based BMLs detector is also provided.

  17. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα stimulates the growth of human bone marrow stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rougier

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports that TNF-α is a potent mitogen for human bone marrow sternal cells in vitro (assessed by [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA and cell counts. In contrast, cytokines such as IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, LIF, SCF, M-CSF, G-CSF and GM-CSF had no effect. The effect of TNF-α on the growth of human bone marrow stromal cells could be of importance during inflammatory processes which take place in the marrow, for example marrow fibrosis.

  18. Antinociceptive Effect of Intrathecal Injection of Genetically Engineered Human Bone Marrow Stem Cells Expressing the Human Proenkephalin Gene in a Rat Model of Bone Cancer Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to investigate the use of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs genetically engineered with the human proenkephalin (hPPE gene to treat bone cancer pain (BCP in a rat model. Methods. Primary cultured hBMSCs were passaged and modified with hPPE, and the cell suspensions (6 × 106 were then intrathecally injected into a rat model of BCP. Paw mechanical withdrawal threshold (PMWT was measured before and after BCP. The effects of hPPE gene transfer on hBMSC bioactivity were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. Results. No changes were observed in the surface phenotypes and differentiation of hBMSCs after gene transfer. The hPPE-hBMSC group showed improved PMWT values on the ipsilateral side of rats with BCP from day 12 postoperatively, and the analgesic effect was reversed by naloxone. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-6 were ameliorated, and leucine-enkephalin (L-EK secretion was augmented, in the hPPE-engineered hBMSC group. Conclusion. The intrathecal administration of BMSCs modified with the hPPE gene can effectively relieve pain caused by bone cancer in rats and might be a potentially therapeutic tool for cancer-related pain in humans.

  19. Antinociceptive Effect of Intrathecal Injection of Genetically Engineered Human Bone Marrow Stem Cells Expressing the Human Proenkephalin Gene in a Rat Model of Bone Cancer Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuke; Li, Haifeng; Zhang, Dengwen; Sun, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to investigate the use of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) genetically engineered with the human proenkephalin (hPPE) gene to treat bone cancer pain (BCP) in a rat model. Methods. Primary cultured hBMSCs were passaged and modified with hPPE, and the cell suspensions (6 × 106) were then intrathecally injected into a rat model of BCP. Paw mechanical withdrawal threshold (PMWT) was measured before and after BCP. The effects of hPPE gene transfer on hBMSC bioactivity were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. Results. No changes were observed in the surface phenotypes and differentiation of hBMSCs after gene transfer. The hPPE-hBMSC group showed improved PMWT values on the ipsilateral side of rats with BCP from day 12 postoperatively, and the analgesic effect was reversed by naloxone. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-6 were ameliorated, and leucine-enkephalin (L-EK) secretion was augmented, in the hPPE-engineered hBMSC group. Conclusion. The intrathecal administration of BMSCs modified with the hPPE gene can effectively relieve pain caused by bone cancer in rats and might be a potentially therapeutic tool for cancer-related pain in humans. PMID:28286408

  20. β-Cell regeneration mediated by human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Milanesi

    Full Text Available Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs have been shown to ameliorate diabetes in animal models. The mechanism, however, remains largely unknown. An unanswered question is whether BMSCs are able to differentiate into β-cells in vivo, or whether BMSCs are able to mediate recovery and/or regeneration of endogenous β-cells. Here we examined these questions by testing the ability of hBMSCs genetically modified to transiently express vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF or pancreatic-duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1 to reverse diabetes and whether these cells were differentiated into β-cells or mediated recovery through alternative mechanisms. Human BMSCs expressing VEGF and PDX1 reversed hyperglycemia in more than half of the diabetic mice and induced overall improved survival and weight maintenance in all mice. Recovery was sustained only in the mice treated with hBMSCs-VEGF. However, de novo β-cell differentiation from human cells was observed in mice in both cases, treated with either hBMSCs-VEGF or hBMSCs- PDX1, confirmed by detectable level of serum human insulin. Sustained reversion of diabetes mediated by hBMSCs-VEGF was secondary to endogenous β-cell regeneration and correlated with activation of the insulin/IGF receptor signaling pathway involved in maintaining β-cell mass and function. Our study demonstrated the possible benefit of hBMSCs for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes and gives new insight into the mechanism of β-cell recovery after injury mediated by hBMSC therapy.

  1. On the multiscale origins of fracture resistance in human bone and its biological degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Barth, Holly D.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2012-03-09

    Akin to other mineralized tissues, human cortical bone can resist deformation and fracture due to the nature of its hierarchical structure, which spans the molecular to macroscopic length-scales. Deformation at the smallest scales, mainly through the composite action of the mineral and collagen, contributes to bone?s strength or intrinsic fracture resistance, while crack-tip shielding mechanisms active on the microstructural scale contribute to the extrinsic fracture resistance once cracking begins. The efficiency with which these structural features can resist fracture at both small and large length-scales becomes severely degraded with such factors as aging, irradiation and disease. Indeed aging and irradiation can cause changes to the cross-link profile at fibrillar length-scales as well as changes at the three orders of magnitude larger scale of the osteonal structures, both of which combine to inhibit the bone's overall resistance to the initiation and growth of cracks.

  2. In vivo measurement of mechanical properties of human long bone by using sonic sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. Jayed; Rahman, M. Moshiur; Alam, Morshed

    2016-07-01

    Vibration analysis has evaluated as non-invasive techniques for the in vivo assessment of bone mechanical properties. The relation between the resonant frequencies, long bone geometry and mechanical properties can be obtained by vibration analysis. In vivo measurements were performed on human ulna as a simple beam model with an experimental technique and associated apparatus. The resonant frequency of the ulna was obtained by Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) analysis of the vibration response of piezoelectric accelerometer. Both elastic modulus and speed of the sound were inferred from the resonant frequency. Measurement error in the improved experimental setup was comparable with the previous work. The in vivo determination of bone elastic response has potential value in screening programs for metabolic bone disease, early detection of osteoporosis and evaluation of skeletal effects of various therapeutic modalities.

  3. Cortical bone growth and maturational changes in dwarf rats induced by recombinant human growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, D. A.; Orth, M. W.; Carr, K. E.; Vanderby, R. Jr; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-deficient dwarf rat was used to investigate recombinant human (rh) GH-induced bone formation and to determine whether rhGH facilitates simultaneous increases in bone formation and bone maturation during rapid growth. Twenty dwarf rats, 37 days of age, were randomly assigned to dwarf plus rhGH (GH; n = 10) and dwarf plus vehicle (n = 10) groups. The GH group received 1.25 mg rhGH/kg body wt two times daily for 14 days. Biochemical, morphological, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the femur middiaphysis. rhGH stimulated new bone growth in the GH group, as demonstrated by significant increases (P growth.

  4. Osteogenic potential of the human bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene activated nanobone putty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Xiao-bin; SUN Li; YANG Shu-hua; ZHANG Yu-kun; HU Ru-yin; FU De-hao

    2008-01-01

    Background Nanobone putty is an injectable and bioresorbable bone substitute. The neutral-pH putty resembles hard bone tissue, does not contain polymers or plasticizers, and is self-setting and nearly isothermic, properties which are helpful for the adhesion, proliferation, and function of bone cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the osteogenic potential of human bone morphogenetic protein 2(hBMP2)gene activated nanobone putty in inducing ectopic bone formation, and the effects of the hBMP2 gene activated nanobone putry on repairing bone defects. Methods Twenty four Kunming mice were randomly divided into two groups. The nanobone putty+hBMP2 plasmid was injected into the right thigh muscle pouches of the mice(experiment side). The nanobone putty+blank plasmid or nanobone putty was injected into the left thigh muscle pouches of the group 1(control side 1)or group 2(control side 2), respectively. The effects of ectopic bone formation were evaluated by radiography, histology, and molecular biology analysis at 2 and 4 weeks after operation. Bilateral 15 mm radial defects were made in forty-eight rabbits. These rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Group A, nanobone putty+hBMP2 plasmid;Group B, putty+blank plasmid; Group C, nanobone putty only. Six rabbits with left radial defects served as blank controls. The effect of bone repairing was evaluated by radiography, histology, molecular biology, and biomechanical analysis at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after operation. Results The tissue from the experimental side of the mice expressed hBMP2. Obvious cartilage and island-distributed immature bone formation in implants of the experiment side were observed at 2 weeks after operation, and massive mature bone observed at 4 weeks. No bone formation was observed in the control side of the mice. The ALP activity in the experiment side of the mice was higher than that in the control side. The tissue of Group A rabbits expressed hBMP2 protein and higher ALP level

  5. Undifferentiated Human Adipose-derived Stromal/Stem Cells loaded onto Wet-Spun Starch-polycaprolactone Scaffolds Enhance Bone Regeneration: Nude Mice Calvarial Defect in vivo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Pedro P.; Leonor, Isabel B.; Smith, Brenda J.; Dias, Isabel R.; Reis, Rui L.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Gomes, Manuela E.

    2014-01-01

    The repair of large bony defects remains challenging in the clinical setting. Human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (hASCs) have been reported to differentiate along different cell lineages, including the osteogenic. The objective of the present study was to assess the bone regeneration potential of undifferentiated hASCs loaded in starch-polycaprolactone (SPCL) scaffolds, in a critical-sized nude mice calvarial defect. Human ASCs were isolated from lipoaspirate of five female donors, cryopreserved and pooled together. Critical-sized (4 mm) calvarial defects were created in the parietal bone of adult male nude mice. Defects were either left empty, treated with an SPCL scaffold alone, or SPCL scaffold with human ASCs. Histological analysis and Micro-CT imaging of the retrieved implants were performed. Improved new bone deposition and osseointegration was observed in SPCL loaded with hASC engrafted calvarial defects as compared to control groups that showed little healing. Non differentiated human ASCs enhance ossification of non-healing nude mice calvarial defects, and wet-spun SPCL confirmed its suitability for bone tissue engineering. This study supports the potential translation for ASC use in the treatment of human skeletal defects. PMID:24123913

  6. Strontium-90 concentration measurements in human bones and teeth in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamoulis, K C; Assimakopoulos, P A; Ioannides, K G; Johnson, E; Soucacos, P N

    1999-05-19

    Strontium-90 concentration was measured in human bones and teeth collected in Greece during the period 1992-1996. One hundred and five bone samples, mainly cancellous bone, and 108 samples, taken from a total of 896 individual teeth were processed. Samples were classified according to the age and sex of the donors. Samples were chemically pre-treated according to a specially devised method to enable extraction of 90Y, at equilibrium with 90Sr in the original sample. Subsequently, 90Y beta activity was measured with a gas proportional counter. Radiostrontium concentration in bone samples showed small variations with respect to age or sex, with an average value of 30 mBq 90Sr/g Ca. However, 90Sr concentration measurements in teeth demonstrated a pronounced structure, which clearly reflects contamination from the 1960s atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and the more recent Chernobyl accident. This difference is attributed to the different histological structure of skeletal bones and teeth, the later consisting mainly of compact bone. An age-dependent model for radiostrontium concentration in human bones and teeth is developed which is able to successfully reproduce the experimental data. Through a fitting process, the model also yielded calcium turnover rates for compact bone, as a function of age, as well as an estimate of radiostrontium contamination of foodstuffs in Greece for the past four decades. The results obtained in this study indicate that radiostrontium environmental contamination which resulted from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the 1960s, exceed by far that caused by the Chernobyl accident.

  7. Comparison of three methods of DNA extraction from human bones with different degrees of degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowska, Joanna; Maciejewska, Agnieszka; Pawłowski, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    There is a necessity for deceased identification as a result of many accidents and sometimes bones are the only accessible source of DNA. So far, a universal method that allows for extraction of DNA from materials at different stages of degradation does not exist. The aims of this study were: the comparison of three methods of DNA extraction from bones with different degree of degradation and an evaluation of the usefulness of these methods in forensic genetics. The efficiency of DNA extraction, the degree of extract contamination by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors and the possibility of determining the STR loci profile were especially being compared. Nuclear DNA from bones at different states of degradation was isolated using three methods: classical, organic phenol-chloroform extraction, DNA extraction from crystal aggregates and extraction by total demineralisation. Total demineralisation is the best method for most cases of DNA extraction from bones, although it does not provide pure DNA. DNA extraction from aggregates removes inhibitors much better and is also a good method of choice when identity determination of exhumed remains is necessary. In the case of not buried bones (remains found outside) total demineralisation or phenol-chloroform protocols are more efficient for successful DNA extraction.

  8. Identification of ancient remains through genomic sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow, Matthew J.; Zhang, Tao; Woyke, Tanja; Speller, Camilla F.; Krivoshapkin, Andrei; Yang, Dongya Y.; Derevianko, Anatoly; Rubin, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of ancient DNA have been hindered by the preciousness of remains, the small quantities of undamaged DNA accessible, and the limitations associated with conventional PCR amplification. In these studies, we developed and applied a genomewide adapter-mediated emulsion PCR amplification protocol for ancient mammalian samples estimated to be between 45,000 and 69,000 yr old. Using 454 Life Sciences (Roche) and Illumina sequencing (formerly Solexa sequencing) technologies, we examined over 100 megabases of DNA from amplified extracts, revealing unbiased sequence coverage with substantial amounts of nonredundant nuclear sequences from the sample sources and negligible levels of human contamination. We consistently recorded over 500-fold increases, such that nanogram quantities of starting material could be amplified to microgram quantities. Application of our protocol to a 50,000-yr-old uncharacterized bone sample that was unsuccessful in mitochondrial PCR provided sufficient nuclear sequences for comparison with extant mammals and subsequent phylogenetic classification of the remains. The combined use of emulsion PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing allows for the generation of large quantities of DNA sequence data from ancient remains. Using such techniques, even small amounts of ancient remains with low levels of endogenous DNA preservation may yield substantial quantities of nuclear DNA, enabling novel applications of ancient DNA genomics to the investigation of extinct phyla. PMID:18426903

  9. Human dental pulp stem cell is a promising autologous seed cell for bone tissue engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-hui; LIU Da-yong; ZHANG Fang-ming; WANG Fan; ZHANG Wen-kui; ZHANG Zhen-ting

    2011-01-01

    Background The seed cell is a core problem in bone tissue engineering research.Recent research indicates that human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) can differentiate into osteoblasts in vitro,which suggests that they may become a new kind of seed cells for bone tissue engineering.The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs in vitro and bone-like tissue formation when transplanted with three-dimensional gelatin scaffolds in vivo,and hDPSCs may become appropriate seed cells for bone tissue engineering.Methods We have utilized enzymatic digestion to obtain hDPSCs from dental pulp tissue extracted during orthodontic treatment.After culturing and expansion to three passages,the cells were seeded in 6-well plates or on three-dimensional gelatin scaffolds and cultured in osteogenic medium.After 14 days in culture,the three-dimensional gelatin scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously in nude mice for 4 weeks.In 6-well plate culture,osteogenesis was assessed by alkaline phosphatase staining,Von Kossa staining,and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of the osteogenesis-specific genes type I collagen (COL l),bone sialoprotein (BSP),osteocalcin (OCN),RUNX2,and osterix (OSX).In three-dimensional gelatin scaffold culture,X-rays,hematoxylin/eosin staining,and immunohistochemical staining were used to examine bone formation.Results In vitro studies revealed that hDPSCs do possess osteogenic differentiation potential.In vivo studies revealed that hDPSCs seeded on gelatin scaffolds can form bone structures in heterotopic sites of nude mice.Conclusions These findings suggested that hDPSCs may be valuable as seed cells for bone tissue engineering.As a special stem cell source,hDPSCs may blaze a new path for bone tissue engineering.

  10. Characteristics of porous zirconia coated with hydroxyapatite as human bones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V V Narulkar; S Prakash; K Chandra

    2007-08-01

    Since hydroxyapatite has excellent biocompatibility and bone bonding ability, porous hydroxyapatite ceramics have been intensively studied. However, porous hydroxyapatite bodies are mechanically weak and brittle, which makes shaping and implantation difficult. One way to solve this problem is to introduce a strong porous network onto which hydroxyapatite coating is applied. In this study, porous zirconia and alumina-added zirconia ceramics were prepared by ceramic slurry infiltration of expanded polystyrene bead compacts, followed by firing at 1500°C. Then slurry of hydroxyapatite–borosilicate glass mixed powder was used to coat the porous ceramics, followed by firing at 1200°C. The porous structures without the coating had high porosities of 51–69%, high pore interconnectivity, and sufficiently large pore window sizes (300–500 m). The porous ceramics had compressive strengths of 5.3∼36.8 MPa, favourably comparable to the mechanical properties of cancellous bones. In addition, porous hydroxyapatite surface was formed on the top of the composite coating, whereas a borosilicate glass layer was found on the interface. Thus, porous zirconia-based ceramics were modified with a bioactive composite coating for biomedical applications.

  11. Relationships of human plasma fluoride and bone fluoride to age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkins, F.M.; Tinanoff, N.; Moutinho, M.; Anstey, M.B.; Waziri, M.H.

    1976-04-01

    There is evidence that fluoride levels in plasma correlate with the fluoride content in bones. The authors determined whether or not fluoride in plasma and bones might correlate with age. In 41 in-patients at the University Hospital, Iowa City, 36 of whom had been residing in fluoridated communities plasma fluoride was determined in the fasting stage by the fluoride ion selective electrode. The teeth of these children were compared with those of a neighboring city where the natural fluoride content in drinking water was 0.1 ppm. For the second sampling 42 months following the beginning of the program only 10 and 11 year old children - who had been 6 and 7 years old at the beginning of the experiment - were selected. Twenty-five boys and girls in each group were compared with a similar group of children as controls. After 28 months (approximately 33 rinsing with sodium fluoride solution) the DMF index in the fluoride-treated children was 18.4% less than in the controls. In the second group among 10 and 11 year old children after 42 months with 55 rinsings the difference was 35.0%. The author acknowledged that factors other than applications of sodium fluoride may have contributed to the prevention of caries in the fluoride-treated groups.

  12. Establishment of an experimental human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A-1BM with high bone metastases potency by {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Shunfang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)], E-mail: yzyg@sh163.net; Dong Qianggang [Laboratory of Mol-diagnosis, Shanghai Cancer Institute of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yao Ming [Laboratory of Pathology, Shanghai Cancer Institute of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shi Meiping [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ye Jianding [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhao Langxiang [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Su Jianzhong; Gu Weiyong [Shanghai Thoracic Tumor Institute, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Xie Wenhui [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Wang Kankan; Du Yanzhi [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Ruijin Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200025 (China); Li Yao [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Yan [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: huangyan@fudan.edu.cn

    2009-04-15

    Background: Bone metastasis is one of the most common clinical phenomena of late stage lung cancer. A major impediment to understanding the pathogenesis of bone metastasis has been the lack of an appropriate animal and cell model. This study aims to establish human lung adenocarcinoma cell line with highly bone metastases potency with {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Methods: The human lung adenocarcinoma cancer cells SPC-A-1 were injected into the left cardiac ventricle of NIH-Beige-Nude-XID (NIH-BNX) immunodeficient mice. The metastatic lesions of tumor-bearing mice were imaged with {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy on a Siemens multi-single photon emission computed tomography. Pinhole images were acquired on a GZ-B conventional gamma camera with a self-designed pinhole collimator. The mice with bone metastasis were sacrificed under deep anesthesia, and the lesions were resected. Bone metastatic cancer cells in the resected lesions were subjected for culture and then reinoculated into the NIH-BNX mice through left cardiac ventricle. The process was repeated for eight cycles to obtain a novel cell subline SPC-A-1BM. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to compare the gene expression differences in the parental and SPC-A-1BM cells. Results: The bone metastasis sites were successfully revealed by bone scintigraphy. The established bone metastasis cell line SPC-A-1BM had a high potential to metastasize in bone, including mandible, humerus, thoracic vertebra, lumbar, femur, patella, ilium and cartilage rib. The expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor gene family, Bcl-2 and cell adhesion-related genes ECM1, ESM1, AF1Q, SERPINE2 and FN1 were examined. Gene expression difference was found between parental and bone-seeking metastasis cell SPC-A-1BM, which indicates SPC-A-1BM has metastatic capacity vs. its parental cells. Conclusion: SPC-A-1BM is a bone-seeking metastasis human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Bone scintigraphy may be used as

  13. Establishment of an experimental human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A-1BM with high bone metastases potency by (99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shunfang; Dong, Qianggang; Yao, Ming; Shi, Meiping; Ye, Jianding; Zhao, Langxiang; Su, Jianzhong; Gu, Weiyong; Xie, Wenhui; Wang, Kankan; Du, Yanzhi; Li, Yao; Huang, Yan

    2009-04-01

    Bone metastasis is one of the most common clinical phenomena of late stage lung cancer. A major impediment to understanding the pathogenesis of bone metastasis has been the lack of an appropriate animal and cell model. This study aims to establish human lung adenocarcinoma cell line with highly bone metastases potency with (99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. The human lung adenocarcinoma cancer cells SPC-A-1 were injected into the left cardiac ventricle of NIH-Beige-Nude-XID (NIH-BNX) immunodeficient mice. The metastatic lesions of tumor-bearing mice were imaged with (99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy on a Siemens multi-single photon emission computed tomography. Pinhole images were acquired on a GZ-B conventional gamma camera with a self-designed pinhole collimator. The mice with bone metastasis were sacrificed under deep anesthesia, and the lesions were resected. Bone metastatic cancer cells in the resected lesions were subjected for culture and then reinoculated into the NIH-BNX mice through left cardiac ventricle. The process was repeated for eight cycles to obtain a novel cell subline SPC-A-1BM. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to compare the gene expression differences in the parental and SPC-A-1BM cells. The bone metastasis sites were successfully revealed by bone scintigraphy. The established bone metastasis cell line SPC-A-1BM had a high potential to metastasize in bone, including mandible, humerus, thoracic vertebra, lumbar, femur, patella, ilium and cartilage rib. The expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor gene family, Bcl-2 and cell adhesion-related genes ECM1, ESM1, AF1Q, SERPINE2 and FN1 were examined. Gene expression difference was found between parental and bone-seeking metastasis cell SPC-A-1BM, which indicates SPC-A-1BM has metastatic capacity vs. its parental cells. SPC-A-1BM is a bone-seeking metastasis human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Bone scintigraphy may be used as an accurate, sensitive, noninvasive tool to detect

  14. Comparison of mesenchymal stem cells from human placenta and bone marrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅; 李长东; 江小霞; 李荷莲; 唐佩弦; 毛宁

    2004-01-01

    Background Nowadays bone marrow represents the main source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We identified a new population of MSCs derived from human placenta and compared its biological characterization with bone marrow derived MSCs.Methods Mononucleated cells (MNC) were isolated from the human placenta tissue perfusate by density gradient fractionation. Individual colonies were selected and cultured in tissue dishes. At the same time, human bone marrow derived MSCs were identified. Culture-expanded cells were characterized by immune phenotyping and cultured under conditions promoting differetiation to osteoblasts or adipocytes. The hematopoietic cytokines were assayed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results Human placental MSCs exhibited fibroblastoid morphology. Flow cytometric analyses showed that the placental MSC were CD29, CD44, CD73, CD105, CD166, HLA-ABC positive; but were negative for CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR. Functionally, they could be induced into adipocytes or osteocytes. Moreover, several hematopoietic cytokine mRNA was found in placenta-derived MSCs by RT-PCR analysis, including IL-6, M-CSF, Flt3-ligand and SCF. These results were consistent with the properties of bone marrow derived MSCs.Conclusion These observations implicate the postpartum human placenta as an important and novel source of multipotent stem cells that could potentially be used for investigating mesenchymal differentiation and regulation of hematopoiesis.

  15. Immune humanization of immunodeficient mice using diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from carcinoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Werner-Klein

    Full Text Available Tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice, while routinely used in cancer research, preclude studying interactions of immune and cancer cells or, if humanized by allogeneic immune cells, are of limited use for tumor-immunological questions. Here, we explore a novel way to generate cancer models with an autologous humanized immune system. We demonstrate that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs from bone marrow aspirates of non-metastasized carcinoma patients, which are taken at specialized centers for diagnostic purposes, can be used to generate a human immune system in NOD-scid IL2rγ(null (NSG and HLA-I expressing NSG mice (NSG-HLA-A2/HHD comprising both, lymphoid and myeloid cell lineages. Using NSG-HLA-A2/HHD mice, we show that responsive and self-tolerant human T cells develop and human antigen presenting cells can activate human T cells. As critical factors we identified the low potential of bone marrow HSPCs to engraft, generally low HSPC numbers in patient-derived bone marrow samples, cryopreservation and routes of cell administration. We provide here an optimized protocol that uses a minimum number of HSPCs, preselects high-quality bone marrow samples defined by the number of initially isolated leukocytes and intra-femoral or intra-venous injection. In conclusion, the use of diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from non-metastasized carcinoma patients for the immunological humanization of immunodeficient mice is feasible and opens the chance for individualized analyses of anti-tumoral T cell responses.

  16. Aldosterone breakthrough caused by chronic blockage of angiotensin II type 1 receptors in human adrenocortical cells: Possible involvement of bone morphogenetic protein-6 actions

    OpenAIRE

    Otani, Hiroyuki; Otsuka, Fumio; Inagaki, Kenichi; Suzuki, Jiro; Miyoshi, Tomoko; KANO, YOSHIHIRO; GOTO, Junko; Ogura, Toshio; Makino, Hirofumi

    2008-01-01

    Circulating aldosterone concentrations occasionally increase after initial suppression with angiotensin II (Ang II) converting enzyme inhibitors or Ang II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs), a phenomenon referred to as aldosterone breakthrough. However, the underlying mechanism causing the aldosterone breakthrough remains unknown. Here we investigated whether aldosterone breakthrough occurs in human adrenocortical H295R cells in vitro. We recently reported that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6...

  17. Synergistic effects of dimethyloxallyl glycine and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 on repair of critical-sized bone defects in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Liu, Yang; Ding, Zhen-Yu; Cao, Jia-Qing; Huang, Jing-Huan; Zhang, Jie-Yuan; Jia, Wei-Tao; Wang, Jing; Liu, Chang-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Lin

    2017-02-01

    In bone remodeling, osteogenesis is closely coupled to angiogenesis. Bone tissue engineering using multifunctional bioactive materials is a promising technique which has the ability to simultaneously stimulate osteogenesis and angiogenesis for repair of bone defects. We developed mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG)-doped poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) composite scaffolds as delivery vehicle. Two bioactive molecules, dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), a small-molecule angiogenic drug, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), an osteoinductive growth factor, were co-incorporated into the scaffold. The synergistic effects of DMOG and rhBMP-2 released in the composite scaffolds on osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of hBMSCs were investigated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Moreover, in vivo studies were conducted to observe bone regeneration and vascular formation of critical-sized bone defects in rats using micro-computed tomography, histological analyses, Microfil® perfusion, fluorescence labeling, and immunohistochemical analysis. The results showed that DMOG and rhBMP-2 released in the MBG-PHBHHx scaffolds did exert synergistic effects on the osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. Moreover, DMOG and rhBMP-2 produced significant increases in newly-formed bone and neovascularization of calvarial bone defects in rats. It is concluded that the co-delivery strategy of both rhBMP-2 and DMOG can significantly improve the critical-sized bone regeneration.

  18. The water jet as a new tool for endoprosthesis revision surgery--an in vitro study on human bone and bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honl, Matthias; Rentzsch, Reemt; Schwieger, Karsten; Carrero, Volker; Dierk, Oliver; Dries, Sebastian; Louis, Hartmut; Pude, Frank; Bishop, Nick; Hille, Ekkehard; Morlock, Michael

    2003-01-01

    In revision surgeries of endoprostheses, the interface between implant and bone cement or bone must be loosened. Conventional tools have many disadvantages because of their size and limited range. Taking advantage of the selective and athermic cutting process, a plain water jet is already used in order to cut soft tissues. This study investigates the possibilities of both a plain and an abrasive water jet as cutting tools for revision surgery. Samples of the mid-diaphysis of human femora and bone cement (CMW3) were cut with a plain water jet (PWJ) and an abrasive water jet (AWJ) at two different jet-to-surface angles (30 degrees,90 degrees ) and at five different pressure levels (30, 40, 50, 60, 70 MPa). For a PWJ a selective pressure range was identified, where only bone cement was cut. Injecting a bio-compatible abrasive (lactose) to the jet stream resulted in significantly higher cut depths in both materials. Material removal in bone was significantly less at the smaller jet-to-surface angle for both techniques. No clear selectivity between bone and bone cement was observed for application of the AWJ. However, the material removal rate was significantly higher for bone cement than for bone at all pressure levels. The results indicate that an AWJ might be an alternative tool for cement removal. The possibility for localised cutting at interfaces could be an advantage for revision of a non-cemented prosthesis.

  19. Synergistic effects of dimethyloxallyl glycine and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 on repair of critical-sized bone defects in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Liu, Yang; Ding, Zhen-yu; Cao, Jia-qing; Huang, Jing-huan; Zhang, Jie-yuan; Jia, Wei-tao; Wang, Jing; Liu, Chang-sheng; Li, Xiao-lin

    2017-01-01

    In bone remodeling, osteogenesis is closely coupled to angiogenesis. Bone tissue engineering using multifunctional bioactive materials is a promising technique which has the ability to simultaneously stimulate osteogenesis and angiogenesis for repair of bone defects. We developed mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG)-doped poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) composite scaffolds as delivery vehicle. Two bioactive molecules, dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), a small-molecule angiogenic drug, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), an osteoinductive growth factor, were co-incorporated into the scaffold. The synergistic effects of DMOG and rhBMP-2 released in the composite scaffolds on osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of hBMSCs were investigated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Moreover, in vivo studies were conducted to observe bone regeneration and vascular formation of critical-sized bone defects in rats using micro-computed tomography, histological analyses, Microfil® perfusion, fluorescence labeling, and immunohistochemical analysis. The results showed that DMOG and rhBMP-2 released in the MBG-PHBHHx scaffolds did exert synergistic effects on the osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. Moreover, DMOG and rhBMP-2 produced significant increases in newly-formed bone and neovascularization of calvarial bone defects in rats. It is concluded that the co-delivery strategy of both rhBMP-2 and DMOG can significantly improve the critical-sized bone regeneration. PMID:28230059

  20. Human bloodstains on bone artefacts: an SEM intra- and inter-sample comparative study using ratite bird tibiotarsus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortolà, Policarp

    2016-11-01

    Apart from their forensic significance in crime investigation, human bloodstains have an anthropological interest due to their occurrence on certain traditional weapons and ritual objects. Previously, a guiding study of erythrocytes in experimental samples including domestic sheep (Ovis aries) tibia was carried out using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Here, a comparative SEM study to reveal the potential differences in bloodstain surface morphology as a function of intra-sample (smear region) and inter-sample (individual smear, smearing mechanism, bone origin) parameters is reported. A fragment of emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) tibiotarsus was smeared with an adult man's peripheral blood. After air-drying and storing indoors, the boundary and neighbouring inner areas of the three individual bloodstains obtained were examined via secondary electrons in a variable-pressure SEM working in low-vacuum mode. As a whole, desiccation microcracks were present, the limits between the smear and the substrate appeared poorly defined, and no erythrocyte negative replicas were observed in the examined areas. In addition, a putative fibrin network, more or less embedded in the dried plasma matrix, was observed in the smears' boundary. Regarding the smear region in sliding smears, the periphery and boundary revealed to be different, while the head and tail were similar. Considering individual sliding smears, they had similar characteristics. Relating to the smear region as a function of the smearing mechanism, the periphery was different whether sliding or touching, while the boundary was similar in sliding and touching smears. Concerning the smear region as a function of the bone origin, the periphery revealed to be similar in both ratite and mammalian bone, while the boundary did different in ratite and mammalian bone. The results of this study show that SEM examination can be used fruitfully to detect bloodstains on ratite bone. Combined with previous SEM results in

  1. Purple Staining of Archaeological Human Bone: An Investigation of Probable Cause and Implications for Other Tissues and Artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrard Cole

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excavations in the 1990s at the medieval Chapter House of Worcester Cathedral, UK, revealed medieval human skeletal remains, some of which exhibited a distinctive purple coloration. The nature of the colored bone was investigated using solvents for stain extraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, plane polarized (PPL and cross-polarized (XPL light microscopy, and auto fluorescence (AF microscopy. Normal bone from the cemetery was used as a control. The color does not arise from a stain soluble in normal organic solvents. EDX and XRD analysis showed no significant difference between purple and normal bone. XRF analysis shows the presence of trace levels of iron, manganese, zinc, and copper in the affected material. This exhibited a pink color in acid phase and a blue color in alkaline phase. These two states were reversible. The alkaline phase gradually changed irreversibly to yellow over time. These data suggest that the coloration is consistent with the presence of high levels of purple acid phosphatase (PAP enzyme. The presence of trace amounts of iron, manganese, zinc, and copper suggests a plant or fungal origin for the putative PAP, possibly a member of the Aspergillus ficuum species.

  2. Biological Characteristics of Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Cultured in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FA Xian'en; WANG Lixia; HOU Jianfeng; ZHANG Ruicheng; WANG Haiyong; YANG Chenyuan

    2005-01-01

    Summary: Some biological characteristics of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured in vitro were observed. hMSCs were isolated from bone marrow and purified by density gradient centrifugation method, and then cultured in vitro. The proliferation and growth characteristics of hMSCs were observed in primary and passage culture. MSCs of passage 3 were examined for the purify by positive rate of CD29 and CD44 through flow cytometry. Human bone marrow MSCs showed active proliferation capacity in vitro. The purify of MSCs separated by our method was higher than 90 %. It was concluded that hMSCs have been successfully cultured and expanded effectively. It provided a foundation for further investigation and application of MSCs.

  3. The use of total human bone marrow fraction in a direct three-dimensional expansion approach for bone tissue engineering applications: focus on angiogenesis and osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Julien; Oliveira, Hugo; Catros, Sylvain; Siadous, Robin; Derkaoui, Sidi-Mohammed; Bareille, Reine; Letourneur, Didier; Amédée, Joëlle

    2015-03-01

    Current approaches in bone tissue engineering have shown limited success, mostly owing to insufficient vascularization of the construct. A common approach consists of co-culture of endothelial cells and osteoblastic cells. This strategy uses cells from different sources and differentiation states, thus increasing the complexity upstream of a clinical application. The source of reparative cells is paramount for the success of bone tissue engineering applications. In this context, stem cells obtained from human bone marrow hold much promise. Here, we analyzed the potential of human whole bone marrow cells directly expanded in a three-dimensional (3D) polymer matrix and focused on the further characterization of this heterogeneous population and on their ability to promote angiogenesis and osteogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo, in a subcutaneous model. Cellular aggregates were formed within 24 h and over the 12-day culture period expressed endothelial and bone-specific markers and a specific junctional protein. Ectopic implantation of the tissue-engineered constructs revealed osteoid tissue and vessel formation both at the periphery and within the implant. This work sheds light on the potential clinical use of human whole bone marrow for bone regeneration strategies, focusing on a simplified approach to develop a direct 3D culture without two-dimensional isolation or expansion.

  4. The Sommersdorf mummies-An interdisciplinary investigation on human remains from a 17th-19th century aristocratic crypt in southern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterauge, Amelie; Kellinghaus, Manuel; Jackowski, Christian; Shved, Natallia; Rühli, Frank; Maixner, Frank; Zink, Albert; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Lösch, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Sommersdorf Castle (Bavaria, Germany) is a medieval castle complex which has been inhabited by the aristocratic family von Crailsheim. The deceased were entombed in a crypt located in the parapets underneath the castle's church, resulting in mummification of the bodies. Based on the family chronicle and oral history, identities have been ascribed to the mummies. The aim of the study is therefore to test the accuracy of the historical records in comparison to archaeological, anthropological and genetic data. Today, the crypt houses eleven wooden coffins from the 17th to 19th century AD. In ten of these, mummified and scattered human remains were found. Archive records were studied in order to identify names, ancestry, titles, occupation, date of birth and death, and place of interment of the individuals. The coffins were visually inspected and dated by typo-chronology, and the mummified and scattered skeletal remains were subjected to a physical anthropological examination. In total, the crypt contains the remains of a minimum number of nine individuals, among them three adult males, five adult females and one infant. A detailed scientific examination, including prior conservation, ancient DNA analyses, and computed tomography (CT), was performed on five mummies. By means of the CT data age at death, sex, body height, pathologies, and anatomical variants were investigated. CT analysis further showed that the bodies were naturally mummified. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that the tested individuals are not maternally related. In addition, health, living conditions and circumstances of death of the entombed individuals could be highlighted. Being confronted with the strengths, weaknesses and limitations of each methodological approach, probable identification was achieved in two cases.

  5. Bone within a bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.J.; Davies, A.M. E-mail: wendy.turner@roh.nhs.uk; Chapman, S

    2004-02-01

    The 'bone within a bone' appearance is a well-recognized radiological term with a variety of causes. It is important to recognize this appearance and also to be aware of the differential diagnosis. A number of common conditions infrequently cause this appearance. Other causes are rare and some remain primarily of historical interest, as they are no longer encountered in clinical practice. In this review we illustrate some of the conditions that can give the bone within a bone appearance and discuss the physiological and pathological aetiology of each where known.

  6. In Vitro Fracture of Human Cortical Bone: Local Fracture Criteria and Toughening Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalla, R; Stolken, J; Kinney, J; Ritchie, R

    2004-08-18

    A micro-mechanistic understanding of bone fracture that encompasses how cracks interact with the underlying microstructure and defines their local failure mode is lacking, despite extensive research on the response of bone to a variety of factors like aging, loading, and/or disease. Micro-mechanical models for fracture incorporating such local failure criteria have been widely developed for metallic and ceramic materials systems; however, few such deliberations have been undertaken for the fracture of bone. In fact, although the fracture event in mineralized tissues such as bone is commonly believed to be locally strain controlled, until recently there has been little experimental evidence to support this widely held belief. In the present study, a series of in vitro experiments involving a double-notch bend test geometry are performed in order to shed further light on the nature of the local cracking events that precede catastrophic fracture in bone and to define their relationship to the microstructure. Specifically, crack-microstructure interactions are examined to determine the salient toughening mechanisms in human cortical bone and to characterize how these may affect the anisotropy in fracture properties. Based on preliminary micro-mechanical models of these processes, in particular crack deflection and uncracked ligament bridging, the relative importance of these toughening mechanisms is established.

  7. Influence of Environmental Factors and Relationships between Vanadium, Chromium, and Calcium in Human Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I; Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Sokolowski, Sebastian; Kolodziej, Lukasz; Budis, Halina; Safranow, Krzysztof; Kot, Karolina; Ciosek, Zaneta; Tomska, Natalia; Galant, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of environmental factors on the concentrations of vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), and calcium (Ca) and to examine the synergistic or antagonistic relationships between these metals, in cartilage (C), cortical bone (CB), and spongy bone (SB) samples obtained following hip joint surgery on patients with osteoarthritis in NW Poland. We found significantly higher concentrations of V and Cr in spongy bone in patients who consumed game meat and also those with prosthetic implants. Chromium levels were significantly lower in patients with kidney diseases. The greatest positive correlations were found between spongy bone V and (i) the amount of consumed beer and (ii) seafood diet. Correlation analysis also showed a significant correlation between Cr levels and seafood diet. To a certain extent these results indicate that the concentrations of V, Cr, and Ca in the human hip joint tissues are connected with occupational exposure, kidney diseases, diet containing game meat, sea food, beer, and the presence of implants. Furthermore, we noted new types of interactions in specific parts of the femoral head. Vanadium may contribute to the lower bone Ca levels, especially in the external parts (cartilage and cortical bone).

  8. The Pyrolytic Profile of Lyophilized and Deep-Frozen Compact Part of the Human Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Lodowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bone grafts are used in the treatment of nonunion of fractures, bone tumors and in arthroplasty. Tissues preserved by lyophilization or deep freezing are used as implants nowadays. Lyophilized grafts are utilized in the therapy of birth defects and bone benign tumors, while deep-frozen ones are applied in orthopedics. The aim of the study was to compare the pyrolytic pattern, as an indirect means of the analysis of organic composition of deep-frozen and lyophilized compact part of the human bone. Methods. Samples of preserved bone tissue were subjected to thermolysis and tetrahydroammonium-hydroxide- (TMAH- associated thermochemolysis coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. Results. Derivatives of benzene, pyridine, pyrrole, phenol, sulfur compounds, nitriles, saturated and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, and fatty acids (C12–C20 were identified in the pyrolytic pattern. The pyrolyzates were the most abundant in derivatives of pyrrole and nitriles originated from proteins. The predominant product in pyrolytic pattern of the investigated bone was pyrrolo[1,2-α]piperazine-3,6-dione derived from collagen. The content of this compound significantly differentiated the lyophilized graft from the deep-frozen one. Oleic and palmitic acid were predominant among fatty acids of the investigated samples. The deep-frozen implants were characterized by higher percentage of long-chain fatty acids than lyophilized grafts.

  9. Influence of Environmental Factors and Relationships between Vanadium, Chromium, and Calcium in Human Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Lanocha-Arendarczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of environmental factors on the concentrations of vanadium (V, chromium (Cr, and calcium (Ca and to examine the synergistic or antagonistic relationships between these metals, in cartilage (C, cortical bone (CB, and spongy bone (SB samples obtained following hip joint surgery on patients with osteoarthritis in NW Poland. We found significantly higher concentrations of V and Cr in spongy bone in patients who consumed game meat and also those with prosthetic implants. Chromium levels were significantly lower in patients with kidney diseases. The greatest positive correlations were found between spongy bone V and (i the amount of consumed beer and (ii seafood diet. Correlation analysis also showed a significant correlation between Cr levels and seafood diet. To a certain extent these results indicate that the concentrations of V, Cr, and Ca in the human hip joint tissues are connected with occupational exposure, kidney diseases, diet containing game meat, sea food, beer, and the presence of implants. Furthermore, we noted new types of interactions in specific parts of the femoral head. Vanadium may contribute to the lower bone Ca levels, especially in the external parts (cartilage and cortical bone.

  10. Mineralization of human bone tissue under hypokinesia and physical exercise with calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Verentsov, Grigori E.; Abratov, Nikolai I.

    It has been suggested that physical exercise and calcium supplements may be used to prevent demineralization of bone tissue under hypokinesia (diminished muscular activity). Thus, the aim of this study was to determine mineral content of bones of 12 physically healthy men aged 19-24 years under 90 days of hypokinesia and intensive physical exercise (PE) with calcium lactate (C) supplements. They were divided into experimental and control groups with 6 men in each. The experimental group of men were subjected to hypokinesia (HK) and intensive PE and took 650 mg C 6 times per day; the control group was placed under pure HK, i.e. without the use of any preventive measures. The mineral content of different bone tissues was measured with a densitometric X-ray method in milligrams of calcium per 1 mm 3 before and after exposure to HK. The level of bone density of the examined bone tissues decreased by 7-9% and 5-7% for the control and experimental groups of men, respectively. A statistical analysis revealed that the reduction of bone mineralization was significant with P human organisms, since the entire animal kingdom had been formed in an environment of high motor activity which left its imprint on the evolution, structure, function and behaviour of animals and men. The impossibility of the body tissues to retain optimum amounts of fluid and electrolytes is the dominant hypokinetic effect.

  11. How Tough is Human Cortical Bone? In-Situ Measurements on Realistically Short Cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, Robert O; Koester, K. J.; Ager III, J. W.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2008-05-10

    Bone is more difficult to break than to split. Although this is well known, and many studies exist on the behavior of long cracks in bone, there is a need for data on the orientation-dependent crack-growth resistance behavior of human cortical bone which accurately assesses its toughness at appropriate size-scales. Here we use in-situ mechanical testing in the scanning electron microscope and x-ray computed tomography to examine how physiologically-pertinent short (<600 mu m) cracks propagate in both the transverse and longitudinal orientations in cortical bone, using both crack-deflection/twist mechanics and nonlinear-elastic fracture mechanics to determine crack-resistance curves. We find that after only 500 mu m of cracking, the driving force for crack propagation was more than five times higher in the transverse (breaking) direction than in the longitudinal (splitting) direction due to major crack deflections/twists principally at cement sheathes. Indeed, our results show that the true transverse toughness of cortical bone is far higher than previously reported. However, the toughness in the longitudinal orientation, where cracks tend to follow the cement lines, is quite low at these small crack sizes; it is only when cracks become several millimeters in length that bridging mechanisms can develop leading to the (larger-crack) toughnesses generally quoted for bone.

  12. Legumain Regulates Differentiation Fate of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and Is Altered in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jafari Kermani, Abbas; Qanie, Diyako; Andersen, Thomas L

    2017-01-01

    Secreted factors are a key component of stem cell niche and their dysregulation compromises stem cell function. Legumain is a secreted cysteine protease involved in diverse biological processes. Here, we demonstrate that legumain regulates lineage commitment of human bone marrow stromal cells...

  13. The Human Figure Drawing with Donor and Nondonor Siblings of Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, Wendy L.; Beck, Vanessa L.; VanZutphen, Kelly H.; Long, Janet K.; Spengler, Gisele

    2003-01-01

    There is little research on the psychological impact of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) on family members. This study uses the Human Figure Drawing (HFD) to measure siblings' emotional distress toward BMT. Among the siblings, feelings of isolation, anger, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem emerged as major themes. Findings indicate the…

  14. Forskolin enhances in vivo bone formation by human mesenchymal stromal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.; Siddappa, R.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.; Boer, de J.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway with dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (db-cAMP) was recently shown to enhance osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) in vitro and bone formation in vivo. The major drawback of this compound is its inhibitory effe

  15. Increased presence of capillaries next to remodeling sites in adult human cancellous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Helene Bjoerg; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Marcussen, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    by pericytes. Furthermore, the BRC canopy cells were found to express SMA. These ordered distributions support the existence of an osteogenic-vascular interface in adult human cancellous bone. The organization of this interface fits the current knowledge on the mode of action of vasculature on osteogenesis...

  16. Development of biomimetic nanocomposites as bone extracellular matrix for human osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Arundhati; Mitra, Tapas; Gnanamani, Arumugam; Das, Manas; Kundu, Patit Paban

    2016-05-05

    Here, we have developed biomimetic nanocomposites containing chitosan, poly(vinyl alcohol) and nano-hydroxyapatite-zinc oxide as bone extracellular matrix for human osteoblastic cells and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed interconnected macroporous structures. Moreover, in this study, the problem related to fabricating a porous composite with good mechanical strength has been resolved by incorporating 5wt% of nano-hydroxyapatite-zinc oxide into chitosan-poly(vinyl alcohol) matrix; the present composite showed high tensile strength (20.25MPa) while maintaining appreciable porosity (65.25%). These values are similar to human cancellous bone. These nanocomposites also showed superior water uptake, antimicrobial and biodegradable properties than the previously reported results. Compatibility with human blood and pH was observed, indicating nontoxicity of these materials to the human body. Moreover, proliferation of osteoblastic MG-63 cells onto the nanocomposites was also observed without having any negative effect.

  17. Direct U-series analysis of the Lezetxiki humerus reveals a Middle Pleistocene age for human remains in the Basque Country (northern Iberia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-la-Rúa, Concepción; Altuna, Jesús; Hervella, Monserrat; Kinsley, Leslie; Grün, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    In 1964, a human humerus was found in a sedimentary deposit in Lezetxiki Cave (Basque Country, northern Iberia). The first studies on the stratigraphy, associated mammal faunal remains and lithic implements placed the deposits containing the humerus into the Riss glacial stage. Direct chronometric evidence has so far been missing, and the previous chronostratigraphic framework and faunal dating gave inconsistent results. Here we report laser ablation U-series analyses on the humerus yielding a minimum age of 164 ± 9 ka, corresponding to MIS 6. This is the only direct dating analysis of the Lezetxiki humerus and confirms a Middle Pleistocene age for this hominin fossil. Morphometric analyses suggest that the Lezetxiki humerus has close affinities to other Middle Pleistocene archaic hominins, such as those from La Sima de los Huesos at Atapuerca. This emphasizes the significance of the Lezetxiki fossil within the populations that predate the Neanderthals in south-western Europe. It is thus an important key fossil for the understanding of human evolution in Europe during the Middle Pleistocene, a time period when a great morphological diversity is observed but whose phylogenetic meaning is not yet fully understood.

  18. Ridge preservation with acellular dermal matrix and anorganic bone matrix cell-binding peptide P-15 after tooth extraction in humans. A histologic and morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur B. Novaes Jr

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze by histomorphometric parameters the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM with or without anorganic bovine bone matrix (ABM / synthetic cell-binding peptide P-15 in the formation of bone in human alveoli. Materials and methods: Eighteen patients in need of extraction of maxillary anterior teeth were selected and randomly assigned to the test group (ADM plus ABM/P-15 or the control group (ADM only. Histomorphometric measurements and histological analysis were recorded about 6 months after ridge preservation procedures in ten patients. The amount of newly formed bone, the most recently formed bone, fibrous tissue plus marrow spaces and remaining graft particles were measured and analyzed. Results: At 6 months, the new bone area parameter and the percentage of fibrous tissue plus marrow space areas showed higher values to the control group, and statistically significant differences when compared with the test group (p=0.03. Conclusion: The ADM acted as a membrane. The association of ABM/P-15 with ADM resulted in new bone formation within the alveoli, but the results were not considered relevant when used in this indication.

  19. Stable expression and characterization of N-terminal tagged recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinglei; Rajanahally, Saneal; Edson, Mark A.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2009-01-01

    Oocyte-derived growth factors are critically involved in multiple ovarian processes via paracrine actions. Although recombinant proteins have been applied to dissect the physiological functions of these factors, variation of activities among different protein preparations remains an issue. To further elucidate the roles of one of these growth factors, bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), in mediating oocyte-regulated molecular and cellular events and to explore its potential clinical application, we engineered the human BMP15 sequence to efficiently produce bioactive recombinant human BMP15 (rhBMP15). The proteolytic cleavage site of the hBMP15 precursor was optimized to facilitate the production of the mature protein, and a FLAG-tag was placed at the N-terminus of the mature region to ease purification and avoid potential interference of the tag with the cystine knot structure. The rhBMP15 protein was purified using anti-FLAG M2 affinity gel. Our results demonstrated that the N-terminal tagged rhBMP15 was efficiently processed in HEK-293 cells. Furthermore, the purified rhBMP15 could activate SMAD1/5/8 and induce the transcription of genes encoding cumulus expansion-related transcripts (Ptx3, Has2, Tnfaip6 and Ptgs2), inhibitory SMADs (Smad6 and Smad7), BMP antagonists (Grem1 and Fst), activin/inhibin βA (Inhba) and βB (Inhbb) subunits, etc. Thus, our rhBMP15 containing a genetically modified cleavage sequence and an N-terminal FLAG-tag can be efficiently produced, processed and secreted in a mammalian expression system. The purified rhBMP15 is also biologically active and very stable, and can induce the expression of a variety of mouse granulosa cell genes. PMID:19651638

  20. [Comparison of fluoride concentrations in human, dog, fox and raccoon dog bones from northwestern Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palczewska-Komsa, Mirona

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of the XXth there has been a constant increase in fluoride (F-) emissions into the environment, mainly due to the development of industry, the fluoridation of drinking water, and the widespread use of toothpaste containing fluoride. All these factors have resulted in an intensive accumulation of F- in the bodies of vertebrates, mainly in their bones. It is therefore reasonable to estimate the F- concentration in humans and other long-lived mammals. Accordingly, ecotoxicologists worldwide have looked for mammalian species that may serve as good bioindicators of environmental fluoride pollution. In contrast to ungulates, long-lived domestic mammals and wild carnivores have rarely been used for this purpose (including the dog, fox and raccoon dog). The main aims of this study were to: 1) investigate F- concentrations in bones obtained from humans, dog, fox and raccoon dog from northwestern Poland, 2) perform intra- and inter-specific comparisons of F- concentrations in the studied mammalian bones against the background of environmental and living conditions, 3) examine the relationship between concentrations of F- in bones and the age or age category of the studied mammals. The study material comprised bones of the hip joint obtained from 36 patients who underwent hip replacement in Szczecin, 43 dogs from Szczecin veterinary clinics, 32 foxes and 18 raccoon dogs provided by hunters, with the whole test material consisting of 129 samples. The indications of F- (using potentiometry with Thermo Orion ion-selective electrodes) were performed in triplicate. The F- concentration was expressed on a dry weight basis. Interspecific analysis showed that the largest number of differences in the concentrations of F- were between the fox and raccoon, and then between the dog and fox, and then between the dog and the wild canids (foxes and raccoon dogs together). Close statistically significant differences were also found between the samples from humans and the

  1. Effects of ionizing radiation on proteins in demineralized, lyophilized or frozen human bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antebi, Uri; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: uri@usp.br, E-mail: mathor@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Guimaraes, Rodrigo P., E-mail: clinicaguimaraes@gmail.com [Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (FCM/SCSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2015-07-01

    The aim is the study of the application of ionizing radiation (gamma and electron) as sterilizing agents at doses of 15 kGy, 25 kGy and 50 kGy, the demineralized bone tissue frozen and freeze-dried for use in transplants. Five human femoral diaphysis of different donors demineralized bone tissues were preserved as lyophilized or frozen at - 80 deg C. The samples were divided into non-irradiated groups (control) and irradiated by gamma rays or electron beam. The bone proteins were extracted and used to determine the concentrations of total protein, BMP 2 and 7. It was observed a decrease in total protein concentrations, and BMP 2 and 7. The decrease in total protein concentrations, as compared to respective control groups was significant in the lyophilized and frozen samples irradiated at a dose of 50 kGy gamma radiation and beam electrons with greater than 30% reduction. The significant decrease in the levels of BMP 2 and 7 were also observed in higher doses and especially by electron beam. The reductions in the concentrations of total protein and osteoinductive proteins (BMP 2 and 7), were related to the radiation dose, i.e., increase with higher doses of ionizing radiation type and the type of preservation of the bones. The largest reductions in concentrations were observed in bone irradiated by electron beam and at a dose of 50 kGy. But this type of radiation and this high dose are not usual practice for the sterilization of bone tissue. Keywords: demineralized bone tissue, ionizing radiation, Tissue Bank, BMP 2, BMP 7, bone proteins. (author)

  2. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay for the study of human bone regeneration: a refinement animal model for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Jiménez, Inés; Hulsart-Billstrom, Gry; Lanham, Stuart A; Janeczek, Agnieszka A; Kontouli, Nasia; Kanczler, Janos M; Evans, Nicholas D; Oreffo, Richard Oc

    2016-08-31

    Biomaterial development for tissue engineering applications is rapidly increasing but necessitates efficacy and safety testing prior to clinical application. Current in vitro and in vivo models hold a number of limitations, including expense, lack of correlation between animal models and human outcomes and the need to perform invasive procedures on animals; hence requiring new predictive screening methods. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) can be used as a bioreactor to culture and study the regeneration of human living bone. We extracted bone cylinders from human femoral heads, simulated an injury using a drill-hole defect, and implanted the bone on CAM or in vitro control-culture. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to quantify the magnitude and location of bone volume changes followed by histological analyses to assess bone repair. CAM blood vessels were observed to infiltrate the human bone cylinder and maintain human cell viability. Histological evaluation revealed extensive extracellular matrix deposition in proximity to endochondral condensations (Sox9+) on the CAM-implanted bone cylinders, correlating with a significant increase in bone volume by μCT analysis (p < 0.01). This human-avian system offers a simple refinement model for animal research and a step towards a humanized in vivo model for tissue engineering.

  3. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay for the study of human bone regeneration: a refinement animal model for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Jiménez, Inés; Hulsart-Billstrom, Gry; Lanham, Stuart A.; Janeczek, Agnieszka A.; Kontouli, Nasia; Kanczler, Janos M.; Evans, Nicholas D.; Oreffo, Richard Oc

    2016-08-01

    Biomaterial development for tissue engineering applications is rapidly increasing but necessitates efficacy and safety testing prior to clinical application. Current in vitro and in vivo models hold a number of limitations, including expense, lack of correlation between animal models and human outcomes and the need to perform invasive procedures on animals; hence requiring new predictive screening methods. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) can be used as a bioreactor to culture and study the regeneration of human living bone. We extracted bone cylinders from human femoral heads, simulated an injury using a drill-hole defect, and implanted the bone on CAM or in vitro control-culture. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to quantify the magnitude and location of bone volume changes followed by histological analyses to assess bone repair. CAM blood vessels were observed to infiltrate the human bone cylinder and maintain human cell viability. Histological evaluation revealed extensive extracellular matrix deposition in proximity to endochondral condensations (Sox9+) on the CAM-implanted bone cylinders, correlating with a significant increase in bone volume by μCT analysis (p < 0.01). This human-avian system offers a simple refinement model for animal research and a step towards a humanized in vivo model for tissue engineering.

  4. Methodologies for Development of Patient Specific Bone Models from Human Body CT Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Vikas Narayan; Mulay, Arati Vinayak; Ahuja, Bharatkumar Bhagatraj

    2016-06-01

    This work deals with development of algorithm for physical replication of patient specific human bone and construction of corresponding implants/inserts RP models by using Reverse Engineering approach from non-invasive medical images for surgical purpose. In medical field, the volumetric data i.e. voxel and triangular facet based models are primarily used for bio-modelling and visualization, which requires huge memory space. On the other side, recent advances in Computer Aided Design (CAD) technology provides additional facilities/functions for design, prototyping and manufacturing of any object having freeform surfaces based on boundary representation techniques. This work presents a process to physical replication of 3D rapid prototyping (RP) physical models of human bone from various CAD modeling techniques developed by using 3D point cloud data which is obtained from non-invasive CT/MRI scans in DICOM 3.0 format. This point cloud data is used for construction of 3D CAD model by fitting B-spline curves through these points and then fitting surface between these curve networks by using swept blend techniques. This process also can be achieved by generating the triangular mesh directly from 3D point cloud data without developing any surface model using any commercial CAD software. The generated STL file from 3D point cloud data is used as a basic input for RP process. The Delaunay tetrahedralization approach is used to process the 3D point cloud data to obtain STL file. CT scan data of Metacarpus (human bone) is used as the case study for the generation of the 3D RP model. A 3D physical model of the human bone is generated on rapid prototyping machine and its virtual reality model is presented for visualization. The generated CAD model by different techniques is compared for the accuracy and reliability. The results of this research work are assessed for clinical reliability in replication of human bone in medical field.

  5. Contour changes in human alveolar bone following tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bei; Wang, Yao

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to observe contour changes in human alveolar bone after tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor and to provide original morphological evidence for aesthetic implant treatment in the maxillary anterior area. Forty patients were recruited into the study. Each patient had two CBCT scans (CBCT I and CBCT II), one taken before and one taken three months after tooth extraction of maxillary central incisor (test tooth T). A fixed anatomic reference point was used to orient the starting axial slice of the two scans. On three CBCT I axial slices, which represented the deep, middle, and shallow layers of the socket, labial and palatal alveolar bone widths of T were measured. The number of sagittal slices from the start point to the pulp centre of T was recorded. On three CBCT II axial slices, the pulp centres of extracted T were oriented according to the number of moved sagittal slices recorded in CBCT I. Labial and palatal alveolar bone widths at the oriented sites were measured. On the CBCT I axial slice which represented the middle layer of the socket, sagittal slices were reconstructed. Relevant distances of T on the sagittal slice were measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor. On the CBCT II axial slice, which represented the middle layer of the socket, relevant distances recorded in CBCT I were transferred on the sagittal slice. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides was measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor at the oriented site. Intraobserver reliability assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) was high. Paired sample t-tests were performed. The alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor showed no statistical differences (P<0.05). The labial alveolar bone widths of T at the deep, middle, and shallow layers all showed

  6. Correlative Light and Scanning X-Ray Scattering Microscopy of Healthy and Pathologic Human Bone Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, C.; Siliqi, D.; Bunk, O.; Beraudi, A.; Ladisa, M.; Altamura, D.; Stea, S.; Baruffaldi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Scanning small and wide angle X-ray scattering (scanning SWAXS) experiments were performed on healthy and pathologic human bone sections. Via crystallographic tools the data were transformed into quantitative images and as such compared with circularly polarized light (CPL) microscopy images. SWAXS and CPL images allowed extracting information of the mineral nanocrystalline phase embedded, with and without preferred orientation, in the collagen fibrils, mapping local changes at sub-osteon resolution. This favorable combination has been applied for the first time to biopsies of dwarfism syndrome and Paget's disease to shed light onto the cortical structure of natural bone in healthy and pathologic sections. PMID:22666538

  7. Evaluation of the osteogenesis and angiogenesis effects of erythropoietin and the efficacy of deproteinized bovine bone/recombinant human erythropoietin scaffold on bone defect repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Donghai; Deng, Liqing; Xie, Xiaowei; Yang, Zhouyuan; Kang, Pengde

    2016-06-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) could promote the angiogenesis and may also play a role in bone regeneration. This study was conducted to evaluate the osteogenesis and angiogenesis effects of EPO and the efficacy of deproteinized bovine bone/recombinant human EPO scaffold on bone defect repair. Twenty-four healthy adult goats were chosen to build goat defects model and randomly divided into four groups. The goats were treated with DBB/rhEPO scaffolds (group A), porous DBB scaffolds (group B), autogenous cancellous bone graft (group C), and nothing (group D). Animals were evaluated with radiological and histological methods at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. The grey value of radiographs was used to evaluate the healing of the defects and the outcome revealed that the group A had a better outcome of defect healing compared with group B (P 0.05). The newly formed bone area was calculated from histological sections and the results demonstrated that the amount of new bone in group A increased significantly compared with that in group B (P 0.05) at 4, 8, 12 weeks respectively. In addition, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by immunohistochemical testing and real-time polymerase chain reaction at 12 weeks in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (P 0.05). Therefore, EPO has significant effects on bone formation and angiogenesis, and has capacity to promote the repair of bone defects. It is worthy of being recommended to further studies.

  8. Effect of space flight on sodium, copper, manganese and magnesium content in the skeletal bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhonchukov, A. A.; Taitsev, V. P.; Shakhunov, B. A.; Zhizhina, V. A.; Kolesnik, A. G.; Komissarova, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Sodium content decreased in the human skeletal bones and rose in the rat bones following space flight. In man copper content rose in the femoral bone and decreased in the vertebral body and the sternum, but was unchanged in the rest of the bones. Magnesium content was decreased in the femoral bone and the sternum, and in the vertebrae, but remained unchanged in the rest of the bones. Possible mechanisms of the changes detected are discussed.

  9. Osteogenic Differentiation Capacity of In Vitro Cultured Human Skeletal Muscle for Expedited Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Miao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Expedited bone tissue engineering employs the biological stimuli to harness the intrinsic regenerative potential of skeletal muscle to trigger the reparative process in situ to improve or replace biological functions. When genetically modified with adenovirus mediated BMP2 gene transfer, muscle biopsies from animals have demonstrated success in regenerating bone within rat bony defects. However, it is uncertain whether the human adult skeletal muscle displays an osteogenic potential in vitro when a suitable biological trigger is applied. In present study, human skeletal muscle cultured in a standard osteogenic medium supplemented with dexamethasone demonstrated significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity approximately 24-fold over control at 2-week time point. More interestingly, measurement of mRNA levels revealed the dramatic results for osteoblast transcripts of alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoproteins, transcription factor CBFA1, collagen type I, and osteocalcin. Calcified mineral deposits were demonstrated on superficial layers of muscle discs after an extended 8-week osteogenic induction. Taken together, these are the first data supporting human skeletal muscle tissue as a promising potential target for expedited bone regeneration, which of the technologies is a valuable method for tissue repair, being not only effective but also inexpensive and clinically expeditious.

  10. Osteogenic Differentiation Capacity of In Vitro Cultured Human Skeletal Muscle for Expedited Bone Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Chunlei; Zhou, Lulu; Tian, Lufeng; Zhang, Yingjie; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Fanghong; Liu, Tianyi

    2017-01-01

    Expedited bone tissue engineering employs the biological stimuli to harness the intrinsic regenerative potential of skeletal muscle to trigger the reparative process in situ to improve or replace biological functions. When genetically modified with adenovirus mediated BMP2 gene transfer, muscle biopsies from animals have demonstrated success in regenerating bone within rat bony defects. However, it is uncertain whether the human adult skeletal muscle displays an osteogenic potential in vitro when a suitable biological trigger is applied. In present study, human skeletal muscle cultured in a standard osteogenic medium supplemented with dexamethasone demonstrated significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity approximately 24-fold over control at 2-week time point. More interestingly, measurement of mRNA levels revealed the dramatic results for osteoblast transcripts of alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoproteins, transcription factor CBFA1, collagen type I, and osteocalcin. Calcified mineral deposits were demonstrated on superficial layers of muscle discs after an extended 8-week osteogenic induction. Taken together, these are the first data supporting human skeletal muscle tissue as a promising potential target for expedited bone regeneration, which of the technologies is a valuable method for tissue repair, being not only effective but also inexpensive and clinically expeditious. PMID:28210626

  11. Resorption of monetite granules in alveolar bone defects in human patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Faleh; Torres, Jesus; Bassett, David; Barralet, Jake; Cabarcos, Enrique L

    2010-04-01

    Bone grafting is often required to restore mandibular or maxillary bone volume prior to prosthetic tooth root implantation. Preclinical animal models are often used to study the in vivo properties of new bone graft products designed for human use. Although animal studies may offer valuable data regarding bioperformance, materials do not necessarily perform the same in human patients. In this study we implanted bovine hydroxyapatite (BH), a widely used porous apatite granule, and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (monetite) granules, bilaterally in human patients post extraction alveolar sockets. After six months, histomorphometrical analysis of the biopsies revealed that the amount of bone regenerated with monetite (59.5 +/- 13%) was significantly higher than that obtained with BH (33.1% +/- 4.9), while the amount of unresorbed graft was higher in the sockets treated with BH (37.8 +/- 6.1) than in those implanted with monetite (25.8 +/- 14.3). Resorption of calcium phosphate ceramics is discussed by applying the Hixon-Crowell dissolution model.

  12. Biochemical and physical correlates of DNA contamination in archaeological human bones and teeth excavated at Matera, Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M. T. P.; Rudbeck, L.; Willerslev, E.

    2005-01-01

    The majority of ancient DNA studies on human specimens have utilised teeth and bone as a source of genetic material. In this study the levels of endogenous contamination (i.e. present within the sample prior to sampling for the DNA analysis) are assessed within human bone and teeth specimens...... sampled from the cemetery of Santa Lucia alle Malve, Matera, Italy. This site is of exceptional interest, because the samples have been assayed for IS measures of biochemical and physical preservation, and it is the only one identified in a study of more than 107 animal and 154 human bones from 43 sites...... across Europe, where a significant number of human bones was well preserved. The findings demonstrate several important issues: (a) although teeth are more resilient to contamination than bone, both are readily contaminated (presumably through handling or washing), and (b) once contaminated in this way...

  13. Parasite remains in archaeological sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Françoise; Guidon, Niéde; Dittmar, Katharina; Harter, Stephanie; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Chaves, Sergio Miranda; Reinhard, Karl; Araújo, Adauto

    2003-01-01

    Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefy surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  14. Parasite remains in archaeological sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Bouchet

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefly surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  15. A 3D in vitro bone organ model using human progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Papadimitropoulos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D organotypic culture models based on human cells may reduce the use of complex and costly animal models, while gaining clinical relevance. This study aimed at developing a 3D osteoblastic-osteoclastic-endothelial cell co-culture system, as an in vitro model to mimic the process of bone turnover. Osteoprogenitor and endothelial lineage cells were isolated from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF of human adipose tissue, whereas CD14+ osteoclast progenitors were derived from human peripheral blood. Cells were co-cultured within 3D porous ceramic scaffolds using a perfusion-based bioreactor device, in the presence of typical osteoclastogenic factors. After 3 weeks, the scaffolds contained cells with endothelial (2.0 ±0.3%, pre/osteoclastic (14.0 ±1.4% and mesenchymal/osteoblastic (44.0 ±8.4% phenotypes, along with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+ osteoclastic cells in contact with deposited bone-like matrix. Supernatant analysis demonstrated sustained matrix deposition (by C-terminus procollagen-I propeptides, resorption (by N-terminus collagen-I telopeptides and phosphate levels and osteoclastic activity (by TRAP-5b only when SVF and CD14+ cells were co-cultured. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the pattern of matrix deposition and resorption. The effectiveness of Vitamin D in replacing osteoclastogenic factors indicated a functional osteoblast-osteoclast coupling in the system. The formation of human-origin bone-like tissue, blood vessels and osteoclasts upon ectopic implantation validated the functionality of the developed cell types. The 3D co-culture system and the associated non-invasive analytical tools can be used as an advanced model to capture some aspects of the functional coupling of bone-like matrix deposition and resorption and could be exploited toward the engineering of multi-functional bone substitute implants.

  16. Differentiation of adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into Schwann-like cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-ye; ZHENG Jia-kun; WANG Chao-yang; LI Wen-yu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differentiative capability of adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into Schwann-like cells. Methods: Bone marrows were aspirated from healthy donors and mononuclear cells were separated by Percoll lymphocytes separation liquid (1.073 g/ml) with centrifugation, cells were cultured in DMEM/F12 (1:1) medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 20 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF) and 20 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Cells of passage 1 were identified with immunocytochemistry. Conclusions: Bone marrow contains the stem cells with the ability of differentiating into Schwann-like cells, which may represent an alternative stem cell sources for neural transplantation.

  17. Early human bone response to laser metal sintering surface topography: a histologic report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Carlo; Piattelli, Adriano; d'Avila, Susana; Iezzi, Giovanna; Mangano, Francesco; Onuma, Tatiana; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2010-01-01

    This histologic report evaluated the early human bone response to a direct laser metal sintering implant surface retrieved after a short period of healing. A selective laser sintering procedure using a Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder with a particle size of 25-45 microm prepared this surface topography. One experimental microimplant was inserted into the anterior mandible of a patient during conventional implant surgery of the jaw. The microimplant and surrounding tissues were removed after 2 months of unloaded healing and were prepared for histomorphometric analysis. Histologically, the peri-implant bone appeared in close contact with the implant surface, whereas marrow spaces could be detected in other areas along with prominently stained cement lines. The mean of bone-to-implant contact was 69.51%. The results of this histologic report suggest that the laser metal sintering surface could be a promising alternative to conventional implant surface topographies.

  18. Non-invasive assessment of bone quantity and quality in human trabeculae using scanning ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yi

    Fractures and associated bone fragility induced by osteoporosis and osteopenia are widespread health threat to current society. Early detection of fracture risk associated with bone quantity and quality is important for both the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and consequent complications. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is an engineering technology for monitoring bone quantity and quality of humans on earth and astronauts subjected to long duration microgravity. Factors currently limiting the acceptance of QUS technology involve precision, accuracy, single index and standardization. The objective of this study was to improve the accuracy and precision of an image-based QUS technique for non-invasive evaluation of trabecular bone quantity and quality by developing new techniques and understanding ultrasound/tissue interaction. Several new techniques have been developed in this dissertation study, including the automatic identification of irregular region of interest (iROI) in bone, surface topology mapping (STM) and mean scattering spacing (MSS) estimation for evaluating trabecular bone structure. In vitro results have shown that (1) the inter- and intra-observer errors in QUS measurement were reduced two to five fold by iROI compared to previous results; (2) the accuracy of QUS parameter, e.g., ultrasound velocity (UV) through bone, was improved 16% by STM; and (3) the averaged trabecular spacing can be estimated by MSS technique (r2=0.72, p<0.01). The measurement errors of BUA and UV introduced by the soft tissue and cortical shells in vivo can be quantified by developed foot model and simplified cortical-trabecular-cortical sandwich model, which were verified by the experimental results. The mechanisms of the errors induced by the cortical and soft tissues were revealed by the model. With developed new techniques and understanding of sound-tissue interaction, in vivo clinical trail and bed rest study were preformed to evaluate the performance of QUS in

  19. Interleukin-1β modulates endochondral ossification by human adult bone marrow stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mumme

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines present in the milieu of the fracture site are important modulators of bone healing. Here we investigated the effects of interleukin-1β (IL-1β on the main events of endochondral bone formation by human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC, namely cell proliferation, differentiation and maturation/remodelling of the resulting hypertrophic cartilage. Low doses of IL-1β (50 pg/mL enhanced colony-forming units-fibroblastic (CFU-f and -osteoblastic (CFU-o number (up to 1.5-fold and size (1.2-fold in the absence of further supplements and glycosaminoglycan accumulation (1.4-fold upon BM-MSC chondrogenic induction. In osteogenically cultured BM-MSC, IL-1β enhanced calcium deposition (62.2-fold and BMP-2 mRNA expression by differential activation of NF-κB and ERK signalling. IL-1β-treatment of BM-MSC generated cartilage resulted in higher production of MMP-13 (14.0-fold in vitro, mirrored by an increased accumulation of the cryptic cleaved fragment of aggrecan, and more efficient cartilage remodelling/resorption after 5 weeks in vivo (i.e., more TRAP positive cells and bone marrow, less cartilaginous areas, resulting in the formation of mature bone and bone marrow after 12 weeks. In conclusion, IL-1β finely modulates early and late events of the endochondral bone formation by BM-MSC. Controlling the inflammatory environment could enhance the success of therapeutic approaches for the treatment of fractures by resident MSC and as well as improve the engineering of implantable tissues.

  20. Multivariate Analysis of Remains of Molluscan Foods Consumed by Latest Pleistocene and Holocene Humans in Nerja Cave, Málaga, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Francisco; Guerra-Merchán, Antonio; Lozano-Francisco, Carmen; Vera-Peláez, José Luis

    1997-09-01

    Nerja Cave is a karstic cavity used by humans from Late Paleolithic to post-Chalcolithic times. Remains of molluscan foods in the uppermost Pleistocene and Holocene sediments were studied with cluster analysis and principal components analysis, in both Qand Rmodes. The results from cluster analysis distinguished interval groups mainly in accordance with chronology and distinguished assemblages of species mainly according to habitat. Significant changes in the shellfish diet through time were revealed. In the Late Magdalenian, most molluscs consumed consisted of pulmonate gastropods and species from sandy sea bottoms. The Epipaleolithic diet was more varied and included species from rocky shorelines. From the Neolithic onward most molluscs consumed were from rocky shorelines. From the principal components analysis in Qmode, the first factor reflected mainly changes in the predominant capture environment, probably because of major paleogeographic changes. The second factor may reflect selective capture along rocky coastlines during certain times. The third factor correlated well with the sea-surface temperature curve in the western Mediterranean (Alboran Sea) during the late Quaternary.

  1. Identification of Rorβ targets in cultured osteoblasts and in human bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roforth, Matthew M., E-mail: roforth.matthew@mayo.edu; Khosla, Sundeep, E-mail: khosla.sundeep@mayo.edu; Monroe, David G., E-mail: monroe.david@mayo.edu

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •We examine the gene expression patterns controlled by Rorβ in osteoblasts. •Genes involved in extracellular matrix regulation and proliferation are affected. •Rorβ mRNA levels increase in aged, human bone biopsies. •Rorβ may affect osteoblast activity by modulation of these pathways. -- Abstract: Control of osteoblastic bone formation involves the cumulative action of numerous transcription factors, including both activating and repressive functions that are important during specific stages of differentiation. The nuclear receptor retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor β (Rorβ) has been recently shown to suppress the osteogenic phenotype in cultured osteoblasts, and is highly upregulated in bone marrow-derived osteogenic precursors isolated from aged osteoporotic mice, suggesting Rorβ is an important regulator of osteoblast function. However the specific gene expression patterns elicited by Rorβ are unknown. Using microarray analysis, we identified 281 genes regulated by Rorβ in an MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast cell model (MC3T3-Rorβ-GFP). Pathway analysis revealed alterations in genes involved in MAPK signaling, genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) regulation, and cytokine-receptor interactions. Whereas the identified Rorβ-regulated ECM genes normally decline during osteoblastic differentiation, they were highly upregulated in this non-mineralizing MC3T3-Rorβ-GFP model system, suggesting that Rorβ may exert its anti-osteogenic effects through ECM disruption. Consistent with these in vitro findings, the expression of both RORβ and a subset of RORβ-regulated genes were increased in bone biopsies from postmenopausal women (73 ± 7 years old) compared to premenopausal women (30 ± 5 years old), suggesting a role for RORβ in human age-related bone loss. Collectively, these data demonstrate that Rorβ regulates known osteogenic pathways, and may represent a novel therapeutic target for age-associated bone loss.

  2. The quartic piecewise-linear criterion for the multiaxial yield behavior of human trabecular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Arnav; Scheffelin, Joanna; Keaveny, Tony M

    2015-01-01

    Prior multiaxial strength studies on trabecular bone have either not addressed large variations in bone volume fraction and microarchitecture, or have not addressed the full range of multiaxial stress states. Addressing these limitations, we utilized micro-computed tomography (lCT) based nonlinear finite element analysis to investigate the complete 3D multiaxial failure behavior of ten specimens (5mm cube) of human trabecular bone, taken from three anatomic sites and spanning a wide range of bone volume fraction (0.09–0.36),mechanical anisotropy (range of E3/E1¼3.0–12.0), and microarchitecture. We found that most of the observed variation in multiaxial strength behavior could be accounted for by normalizing the multiaxial strength by specimen-specific values of uniaxial strength (tension,compression in the longitudinal and transverse directions). Scatter between specimens was reduced further when the normalized multiaxial strength was described in strain space.The resulting multiaxial failure envelope in this normalized-strain space had a rectangular boxlike shape for normal–normal loading and either a rhomboidal box like shape or a triangular shape for normal-shear loading, depending on the loading direction. The finite element data were well described by a single quartic yield criterion in the 6D normalized strain space combined with a piecewise linear yield criterion in two planes for normalshear loading (mean error SD: 4.660.8% for the finite element data versus the criterion).This multiaxial yield criterion in normalized-strain space can be used to describe the complete 3D multiaxial failure behavior of human trabecular bone across a wide range of bone volume fraction, mechanical anisotropy, and microarchitecture.

  3. AMS 14C chronology of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius Blum.) remains from the Shestakovo upper paleolithic site, western Siberia : Timing of human-mammoth interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenin, V.N.; Plicht, J. van der; Orlova, L.A.; Kuzmin, Y.V.

    2000-01-01

    We present a series of AMS 14C dates from the upper paleolithic site of Shestakovo, southwestern Siberia. The 14C ages range between 21 and 26 ka BP, corresponding to the so-called Sartan Glacial and Karginian Interglacial in Siberia. The majority of dates are from woolly mammoth bones, obtained fro

  4. AMS C-14 chronology of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius Blum.) remains from the Shestakovo upper paleolithic site, western Siberia : Timing of human-mammoth interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenin, VN; van der Plicht, J; Orlova, LA; Kuzmin, YV

    2000-01-01

    We present a series of AMS C-14 dates from the upper paleolithic site of Shestakovo, southwestern Siberia. The C-14 ages range between 21 and 26 ka BP, corresponding to the so-called Sartan Glacial and Karginian Interglacial in Siberia. The majority of dates are from woolly mammoth bones, obtained f

  5. Prostaglandin E2 regulates macrophage colony stimulating factor secretion by human bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, A; Trimoreau, F; Faucher, J L; Praloran, V; Denizot, Y

    1999-07-08

    Bone marrow stromal cells regulate marrow haematopoiesis by secreting growth factors such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) that regulates the proliferation, differentiation and several functions of cells of the mononuclear-phagocytic lineage. By using a specific ELISA we found that their constitutive secretion of M-CSF is enhanced by tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) markedly reduces in a time- and dose-dependent manner the constitutive and TNF-alpha-induced M-CSF synthesis by bone marrow stromal cells. In contrast, other lipid mediators such as 12-HETE, 15-HETE, leukotriene B4, leukotriene C4 and lipoxin A4 have no effect. EP2/EP4 selective agonists (11-deoxy PGE1 and 1-OH PGE1) and EP2 agonist (19-OH PGE2) inhibit M-CSF synthesis by bone marrow stromal cells while an EP1/EP3 agonist (sulprostone) has no effect. Stimulation with PGE2 induces an increase of intracellular cAMP levels in bone marrow stromal cells. cAMP elevating agents (forskolin and cholera toxin) mimic the PGE2-induced inhibition of M-CSF production. In conclusion, PGE2 is a potent regulator of M-CSF production by human bone marrow stromal cells, its effects being mediated via cAMP and PGE receptor EP2/EP4 subtypes.

  6. Engineering a human bone marrow model: a case study on ex vivo erythropoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantalaris, A; Keng, P; Bourne, P; Chang, A Y; Wu, J H

    1998-01-01

    Bone marrow, with its intricate, three-dimensional tissue structure facilitating cell-cell interactions, provides a microenvironment supporting the production of hundreds of billions of multilineal blood cells everyday. We have developed a three-dimensional bone marrow culture system in which marrow cells are cultured in a reactor packed with porous microspheres. The culture supports a three-dimensional growth configuration and multilineal hemopoiesis mimicking the bone marrow in vivo. We studied ex vivo human erythropoiesis using the three-dimensional culture system. The system sustained extensive erythropoiesis at low erythropoietin concentrations (0.2 U/mL), plus stem cell factor, interleukin-3, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and insulin-like growth factor-I. Erythroid cell production lasted for more than 5 weeks, and the percentage of erythroid cells in the nonadherent cell population was approximately 60%. Flow cytometric analysis using cell surface markers specific for erythroid cells (CD71 and glycophorin-A) indicated that the culture produced early, intermediate, and late erythroid cells. As the culture progressed, the erythroid cell population shifted gradually toward mature cell types. When compared to the three-dimensional culture, the traditional flask cultures failed to support extensive erythropoiesis under the same conditions. This indicates that the three-dimensional bone marrow culture system provides a microenvironment conducive to erythropoiesis under more physiological conditions and is a better bone marrow model.

  7. Effect of Aging on the Toughness of Human Cortical Bone: Evaluation by R-Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, J

    2004-10-08

    Age-related deterioration of the fracture properties of bone, coupled with increased life expectancy, are responsible for increasing incidence of bone fracture in the elderly, and hence, an understanding of how its fracture properties degrade with age is essential. The present study describes ex vivo fracture experiments to quantitatively assess the effect of aging on the fracture toughness properties of human cortical bone in the longitudinal direction. Because cortical bone exhibits rising crack-growth resistance with crack extension, unlike most previous studies the toughness is evaluated in terms of resistance-curve (R-curve) behavior, measured for bone taken from wide range of age groups (34-99 years). Using this approach, both the ex vivo crack-initiation and crack-growth toughness are determined and are found to deteriorate with age; the initiation toughness decreases some 40% over six decades from 40 to 100 years, while the growth toughness is effectively eliminated over the same age range. The reduction in crack-growth toughness is considered to be associated primarily with a degradation in the degree of extrinsic toughening, in particular involving crack bridging in the wake of the crack.

  8. Radiocarbon dating and compositional analysis of pre-Columbian human bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E.; Solís, C.; Canto, C. E.; de Lucio, O. G.; Chavez, E.; Rocha, M. F.; Villanueva, O.; Torreblanca, C. A.

    2014-08-01

    Analysis of ancient human bones found in "El Cóporo", an archaeological site in Guanajuato, Mexico; were performed using a multi techniques scheme: 14C radiocarbon dating, IBA (Ion Beam Analysis), SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy). We measured the elemental composition of the bones, especially some with a superficial black pigmentation. Soil samples collected from the burial place were also analyzed. The 14C dating was performed with a new High Voltage Europe 1 MV Tandentron Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) recently installed in the IFUNAM (Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México). The radiocarbon dating allowed us to determine the date of death of the individual in a period between the year 890 and 975 AD, which is consistent with the late period of the Cóporo civilization. The element sample analysis of bones with the surface black pigmentation show higher levels of Fe, Mn and Ba compared when bone's black surface was mechanically removed. These three elements were found in soil samples from the skeleton burial place. These results indicate more likely that the