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Sample records for human bone morphogenetic

  1. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, E.A.; Rosen, V.; D'Alessandro, J.S.; Bauduy, M.; Cordes, P.; Harada, T.; Israel, D.I.; Hewick, R.M.; Kerns, K.M.; LaPan, P.; Luxenberg, D.P.; McQuaid, D.; Moutsatsos, I.K.; Nove, J.; Wozney, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 μg of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependent on the amount of BMP-2A implanted; at high doses bone formation could be observed at 5 days. The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans

  2. Maxillary anterior ridge augmentation with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Ryan K; Mealey, Brian L; Mills, Michael P; Thoma, Daniel S; Schoolfield, John; Cochran, David L; Mellonig, Jim

    2014-01-01

    No human studies exist on the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) as a sole graft material for lateral ridge augmentation in large ridge defect sites. This series evaluates the treatment outcome of maxillary anterior lateral ridge augmentation with rhBMP-2/ACS. Twenty patients were treated with rhBMP-2/ACS and fixation screws for space maintenance. Cone beam volumetric tomography measurements were used to determine gain in ridge width, and a bone core biopsy was obtained. The mean horizontal ridge gain was 1.2 mm across sites, and every site gained width.

  3. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 in augmentation procedures: case reports.

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    Luiz, Jaques; Padovan, Luis Eduardo Marques; Claudino, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    To successfully rehabilitate edentulous patients using endosseous implants, there must be enough available bone. Several techniques have been proposed for augmentation of sites with insufficient bone volume. Although autogenous bone has long been considered the gold standard for such procedures, the limited availability of graft material and a high morbidity rate are potential disadvantages of this type of graft. An alternative is to use recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2), which is able to support bone regeneration in the oral environment. These cases demonstrate the applicability of rhBMP-2 in maxillary sinus elevation and augmentation procedures in the maxilla to enable dental implant placement. The use of rhBMP-2 in alveolar augmentation procedures had several clinical benefits for these patients.

  4. Connective tissue growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 2 are induced following myocardial ischemia in mice and humans.

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    Rutkovskiy, Arkady; Sagave, Julia; Czibik, Gabor; Baysa, Anton; Zihlavnikova Enayati, Katarina; Hillestad, Vigdis; Dahl, Christen Peder; Fiane, Arnt; Gullestad, Lars; Gravning, Jørgen; Ahmed, Shakil; Attramadal, Håvard; Valen, Guro; Vaage, Jarle

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to study the cardiac expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2, its receptor 1 b, and connective tissue growth factor, factors implicated in cardiac embryogenesis, following ischemia/hypoxia, heart failure, and in remodeling hearts from humans and mice. Biopsies from the left ventricle of patients with end-stage heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy or coronary artery disease were compared with donor hearts and biopsies from patients with normal heart function undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Mouse model of post-infarction remodeling was made by permanent ligation of the left coronary artery. Hearts were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting after 24 hours and after 2 and 4 weeks. Patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and mice post-infarction had increased cardiac expression of connective tissue growth factor. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 was increased in human hearts failing due to coronary artery disease and in mice post-infarction. Gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1 beta was reduced in hearts of patients with failure, but increased two weeks following permanent ligation of the left coronary artery in mice. In conclusion, connective tissue growth factor is upregulated in hearts of humans with dilated cardiomyopathy, bone morphogenetic protein 2 is upregulated in remodeling due to myocardial infarction while its receptor 1 b in human failing hearts is downregulated. A potential explanation might be an attempt to engage regenerative processes, which should be addressed by further, mechanistic studies.

  5. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 promotes chondrogenesis in human amniotic epithelial cells.

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    Zhou, Junjie; Yu, Guangrong; Cao, Chengfu; Pang, Jinhui; Chen, Xianqi

    2011-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play important roles at multiple stages of chondrogenesis. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential role of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) in the differentiation of chondrocytes using tissue engineering techniques. The impact of BMP-7 on human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) was tested. The hAECs were treated either with recombinant human BMP-7 cDNA or with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) as a positive control for three weeks in vitro. Cartilaginous differentiation and proliferation were assayed by quantitative RT-PCR, histology, and in situ hybridization. Our results were such that hAECs treated with either BMP-7 or TGF-β1 expressed cartilage markers (aggrecan, Sox9, CEP-68, and type II and X collagens) within three weeks. Compared with a control vector, BMP-7 induced a decrease in type I collagen expression, while the transcription of the cartilage-specific type II collagen remained stable. In induction experiments, BMP-7 transgenic hAECs exhibited the largest amount of matrix synthesis. In conclusion, these data indicate that BMP-7 plays an important role in inducing the production of cartilage by hAECs in vitro. Cartilage differentiation and matrix maturation can be promoted by BMPs in a cartilage engineering paradigm. These properties make BMPs promising tools in the engineering of cartilaginous joint bio-prostheses and as candidate biological agents or genes for cartilage stabilisation.

  6. The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.

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    Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S

    2009-12-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1067-4; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1069-2; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1070-9. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:1392-1406.

  7. Interleukin 17 enhances bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced ectopic bone formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, M.; Kruyt, M. C.; Groen, W. M.; Van Dorenmalen, K. M.A.; Dhert, W. J.A.; Öner, F. C.; Alblas, J.

    2018-01-01

    Interleukin 17 (IL-17) stimulates the osteogenic differentiation of progenitor cells in vitro through a synergy with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. This study investigates whether the diverse responses mediated by IL-17 in vivo also lead to enhanced BMP-2-induced bone formation. Since IL-17 is

  8. Effects of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 on Vertical Bone Augmentation in a Canine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yung-Ting; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; O'Valle, Francisco; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2017-09-01

    Vertical bone augmentation (VBA) remains unpredictable and challenging for most clinicians. This study aims to compare hard tissue outcomes of VBA, with and without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2, under space-making titanium mesh in a canine model. Eleven male beagle dogs were used in the study. Experimental ridge defects were created to form atrophic ridges. VBA was performed via guided bone regeneration using titanium mesh and allografts. In experimental hemimandibles, rhBMP-2/absorbable collagen sponge was well mixed with allografts prior to procedures, whereas a control buffer was applied within controls. Dogs were euthanized after a 4-month healing period. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed to assess ridge dimensional changes. In addition, specimens were used for microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) assessment and histologic analysis. Membrane exposure was found on five of 11 (45.5%) rhBMP-2-treated sites, whereas it was found on nine of 11 (81.8%) non-rhBMP-2-treated sites. Within 4 months of healing, rhBMP-2-treated sites showed better radiographic bone density, greater defect fill, and significantly more bone gain in ridge height (P 0.05). Under light microscope, predominant lamellar patterns were found in the specimen obtained from rhBMP-2 sites. With inherent limitations of the canine model and the concern of such a demanding surgical technique, current findings suggest that the presence of rhBMP-2 in a composite graft allows an increase of vertical gain, with formation of ectopic bone over the titanium mesh in comparison with non-rhBMP-2 sites.

  9. Enhanced release of bone morphogenetic proteins from demineralized bone matrix by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Choi, Jong-il

    2015-01-01

    Gamma irradiation is a useful method for sterilizing demineralized bone matrix (DBM), but its effect on the osteoinductivity of DBM is still controversial. In this study, the osteoinductive activity of gamma-irradiated DBM was examined using a mouse myoblastic cell line (C2C12). DBM was extracted from adult bovine bone and was irradiated at a dose of 25 kGy using a 60 cobalt gamma-irradiator. Cell proliferation with DBM was not affected by gamma-irradiation, but alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin productions were significantly increased in C2C12 cell groups treated with gamma-irradiated DBM. It was reasoned that bone morphogenetic proteins were more efficiently released from gamma-irradiated DBM than from the non-irradiated control. This result suggests the effectiveness of radiation sterilization of bone implants - Highlights: • Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) was gamma-irradiated for sterilization. • Irradiated DBM had higher alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin production. • It was reasoned the more released bone morphogenetic proteins by irradiation. • This result supports the application of radiation sterilization for bone implants

  10. Bone Morphogenetic Protein Coating on Titanium Implant Surface: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haim Haimov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the study is to systematically review the osseointegration process improvement by bone morphogenetic protein coating on titanium implant surface. Material and Methods: An electronic literature search was conducted through the MEDLINE (PubMed and EMBASE databases. The search was restricted for articles published during the last 10 years from October 2006 to September 2016 and articles were limited to English language. Results: A total of 41 articles were reviewed, and 8 of the most relevant articles that are suitable to the criteria were selected. Articles were analysed regarding concentration of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP, delivery systems, adverse reactions and the influence of the BMP on the bone and peri-implant surface in vivo. Finally, the present data included 340 implants and 236 models. Conclusions: It’s clearly shown from most of the examined studies that bone morphogenetic protein increases bone regeneration. Further studies should be done in order to induce and sustain bone formation activity. Osteogenic agent should be gradually liberated and not rapidly released with priority to three-dimension reservoir (incorporated titanium implant surface in order to avoid following severe side effects: inflammation, bleeding, haematoma, oedema, erythema, and graft failure.

  11. Bone morphogenetic protein signalling in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardwick, James C.; Kodach, Liudmila L.; Offerhaus, G. Johan; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2008-01-01

    Much of the current understanding of colorectal cancer stems from the study of rare, inherited colorectal cancer syndromes. Mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway have been found in juvenile polyposis, an inherited polyposis syndrome that predisposes to colorectal cancer. The

  12. Synergistic effects of dimethyloxallyl glycine and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 on repair of critical-sized bone defects in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Liu, Yang; Ding, Zhen-Yu; Cao, Jia-Qing; Huang, Jing-Huan; Zhang, Jie-Yuan; Jia, Wei-Tao; Wang, Jing; Liu, Chang-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Lin

    2017-02-01

    In bone remodeling, osteogenesis is closely coupled to angiogenesis. Bone tissue engineering using multifunctional bioactive materials is a promising technique which has the ability to simultaneously stimulate osteogenesis and angiogenesis for repair of bone defects. We developed mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG)-doped poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) composite scaffolds as delivery vehicle. Two bioactive molecules, dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), a small-molecule angiogenic drug, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), an osteoinductive growth factor, were co-incorporated into the scaffold. The synergistic effects of DMOG and rhBMP-2 released in the composite scaffolds on osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of hBMSCs were investigated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Moreover, in vivo studies were conducted to observe bone regeneration and vascular formation of critical-sized bone defects in rats using micro-computed tomography, histological analyses, Microfil® perfusion, fluorescence labeling, and immunohistochemical analysis. The results showed that DMOG and rhBMP-2 released in the MBG-PHBHHx scaffolds did exert synergistic effects on the osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. Moreover, DMOG and rhBMP-2 produced significant increases in newly-formed bone and neovascularization of calvarial bone defects in rats. It is concluded that the co-delivery strategy of both rhBMP-2 and DMOG can significantly improve the critical-sized bone regeneration.

  13. Tissue engineering for lateral ridge augmentation with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 combination therapy: a case report.

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    Mandelaris, George A; Spagnoli, Daniel B; Rosenfeld, Alan L; McKee, James; Lu, Mei

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes a tissue-engineered reconstruction with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2/acellular collagen sponge (rhBMP-2/ ACS) + cancellous allograft and space maintenance via Medpor Contain mesh in the treatment of a patient requiring maxillary and mandibular horizontal ridge augmentation to enable implant placement. The patient underwent a previously unsuccessful corticocancellous bone graft at these sites. Multiple and contiguous sites in the maxilla and in the mandibular anterior, demonstrating advanced lateral ridge deficiencies, were managed using a tissue engineering approach as an alternative to autogenous bone harvesting. Four maxillary and three mandibular implants were placed 9 and 10 months, respectively, after tissue engineering reconstruction, and all were functioning successfully after 24 months of follow-up. Histomorphometric analysis of a bone core obtained at the time of the maxillary implant placement demonstrated a mean of 76.1% new vital bone formation, 22.2% marrow/cells, and 1.7% residual graft tissue. Tissue engineering for lateral ridge augmentation with combination therapy requires further research to determine predictability and limitations.

  14. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 is a negative regulator of hepatocyte proliferation downregulated in the regenerating liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Cui-Ping; Ji, Wen-Min; van den Brink, Gijs R.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.

    2006-01-01

    To characterize the expression and dynamic changes of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 in hepatocytes in the regenerating liver in rats after partial hepatectomy (PH), and examine the effects of BMP-2 on proliferation of human Huh7 hepatoma cells. Fifty-four adult male Wistar rats were randomly

  15. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 is a negative regulator of hepatocyte proliferation downregulated in the regenerating liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Cui-Ping; Ji, Wen-Min; van den Brink, Gijs R.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the expression and dynamic changes of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 in hepatocytes in the regenerating liver in rats after partial hepatectomy (PH), and examine the effects of BMP-2 on proliferation of human Huh7 hepatoma cells. METHODS: Fifty-four adult male Wistar rats

  16. Strategies for delivering bone morphogenetic protein for bone healing

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    Begam, Howa [School of Bioscience and Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Nandi, Samit Kumar, E-mail: samitnandi1967@gmail.com [Department of Veterinary Surgery, Radiology West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata 700037 (India); Kundu, Biswanath, E-mail: biswa_kundu@rediffmail.com [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chanda, Abhijit [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2017-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are the most significant growth factors that belong to the Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) super-family. Though more than twenty members of this family have been identified so far in humans, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved two growth factors: BMP-2 and BMP-7 for treatments of spinal fusion and long-bone fractures with collagen carriers. Currently BMPs are clinically used in spinal fusion, oral and maxillofacial surgery and also in the repair of long bone defects. The efficiency of BMPs depends a lot on the selection of suitable carriers. At present, different types of carrier materials are used: natural and synthetic polymers, calcium phosphate and ceramic-polymer composite materials. Number of research articles has been published on the minute intricacies of the loading process and release kinetics of BMPs. Despite the significant evidence of its potential for bone healing demonstrated in animal models, future clinical investigations are needed to define dose, scaffold and route of administration. The efficacy and application of BMPs in various levels with a proper carrier and dose is yet to be established. The present article collates various aspects of success and limitation and identifies the prospects and challenges associated with the use of BMPs in orthopaedic surgery. - Highlights: • Currently BMPs are clinically used in spinal fusion, oral and maxillofacial surgery and also in repair of long bone defects. • Different types of carrier materials are used: natural, synthetic polymers, calcium phosphate and ceramic-polymer composite • Efficacy and application of BMPs in various levels with proper carrier and dose is yet to be established • Number of research articles has been published on minute intricacies of loading process and release kinetics of BMPs • Present article collates success, limitation and identifies prospects, challenges for use of BMPs in orthopaedic surgery.

  17. Osteogenic potential of the human bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene activated nanobone putty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao-bin; Sun, Li; Yang, Shu-hua; Zhang, Yu-kun; Hu, Ru-yin; Fu, De-hao

    2008-04-20

    Nanobone putty is an injectable and bioresorbable bone substitute. The neutral-pH putty resembles hard bone tissue, does not contain polymers or plasticizers, and is self-setting and nearly isothermic, properties which are helpful for the adhesion, proliferation, and function of bone cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the osteogenic potential of human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2) gene activated nanobone putty in inducing ectopic bone formation, and the effects of the hBMP2 gene activated nanobone putty on repairing bone defects. Twenty four Kunming mice were randomly divided into two groups. The nanobone putty + hBMP2 plasmid was injected into the right thigh muscle pouches of the mice (experiment side). The nanobone putty + blank plasmid or nanobone putty was injected into the left thigh muscle pouches of the group 1 (control side 1) or group 2 (control side 2), respectively. The effects of ectopic bone formation were evaluated by radiography, histology, and molecular biology analysis at 2 and 4 weeks after operation. Bilateral 15 mm radial defects were made in forty-eight rabbits. These rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Group A, nanobone putty + hBMP2 plasmid; Group B, putty + blank plasmid; Group C, nanobone putty only. Six rabbits with left radial defects served as blank controls. The effect of bone repairing was evaluated by radiography, histology, molecular biology, and biomechanical analysis at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after operation. The tissue from the experimental side of the mice expressed hBMP2. Obvious cartilage and island-distributed immature bone formation in implants of the experiment side were observed at 2 weeks after operation, and massive mature bone observed at 4 weeks. No bone formation was observed in the control side of the mice. The ALP activity in the experiment side of the mice was higher than that in the control side. The tissue of Group A rabbits expressed hBMP2 protein and higher ALP level. The new bone

  18. Bone morphogenetic proteins: from structure to clinical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granjeiro J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are multi-functional growth factors belonging to the transforming growth factor ß superfamily. Family members are expressed during limb development, endochondral ossification, early fracture, and cartilage repair. The activity of BMPs was first identified in the 1960s but the proteins responsible for bone induction were unknown until the purification and cloning of human BMPs in the 1980s. To date, about 15 BMP family members have been identified and characterized. The signal triggered by BMPs is transduced through serine/threonine kinase receptors, type I and II subtypes. Three type I receptors have been shown to bind BMP ligands, namely: type IA and IB BMP receptors and type IA activin receptors. BMPs seem to be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival, differentiation and apoptosis, but their hallmark is their ability to induce bone, cartilage, ligament, and tendon formation at both heterotopic and orthotopic sites. This suggests that, in the future, they may play a major role in the treatment of bone diseases. Several animal studies have illustrated the potential of BMPs to enhance spinal fusion, repair critical-size defects, accelerate union, and heal articular cartilage lesions. Difficulties in producing and purifying BMPs from bone tissue have prompted the attempts made by several laboratories, including ours, to express these proteins in the recombinant form in heterologous systems. This review focuses on BMP structure, molecular mechanisms of action and significance and potential applications in medical, dental and veterinary practice for the treatment of cartilage and bone-related diseases.

  19. The evaluation of lyophilized polymer matrices for administering recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggirala, S S; Rodgers, J B; DeLuca, P P

    1996-07-01

    Novel unitary devices, prepared by lyophilization of viscous solutions of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and methylcellulose (MC), were evaluated as sustained-release delivery systems for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). In vitro characterization of the unitary devices, which contained rhBMP-2-loaded poly (d,l lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) bioerodible particles (BEPs), was conducted over a 2-month period. Determinations included buffer uptake, mass and molecular weight loss and rhBMP-2 release from the unitary devices. CMC devices imbibed approximately 16 times their weight of buffer, while with MC, equilibrium uptake was approximately 6 times the dry weight of the devices. Overall mass loss percentages were approximately 55 and 35%, respectively, for CMC and MC devices. rhBMP-2 release from the devices was essentially a triphasic process: an initial phase during which "free" protein (rhBMP-2 present on the surface and within the pores of the PLGA BEPs) was released, a lag period during which no release was discerned, and then release of "bound" rhBMP-2 (protein adsorbed to the BEPs). The release of bound protein correlated with the mass loss of the polymer which began after 3 weeks. Release from the unitary devices was lower than that from the BEPs alone, due to a retardation effect of the gelled CMC/MC polymers. In rabbits in which full-thickness cranial bone defects were created, the implants were well tolerated and induced significant new bone growth during an 8-week evaluation period. The CMC devices appear to have induced bone earlier (at 2 weeks), but this did not affect eventual 8-week results. CMC devices without rhBMP-2 appeared to provide some bone conduction, in contrast to the blank MC devices.

  20. Neuropeptide Y, substance P, and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulate human osteoblast osteogenic activity by enhancing gap junction intercellular communication

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    Ma, W.H.; Liu, Y.J.; Wang, W.; Zhang, Y.Z. [The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, The Provincial Key Laboratory for Orthopedic Biomechanics of Hebei, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province (China)

    2015-02-13

    Bone homeostasis seems to be controlled by delicate and subtle “cross talk” between the nervous system and “osteo-neuromediators” that control bone remodeling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of interactions between neuropeptides and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2) on human osteoblasts. We also investigated the effects of neuropeptides and hBMP2 on gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). Osteoblasts were treated with neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP), or hBMP2 at three concentrations. At various intervals after treatment, cell viability was measured by the MTT assay. In addition, cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin were determined by colorimetric assay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. The effects of NPY, SP and hBMP on GJIC were determined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The viability of cells treated with neuropeptides and hBMP2 increased significantly in a time-dependent manner, but was inversely associated with the concentration of the treatments. ALP activity and osteocalcin were both reduced in osteoblasts exposed to the combination of neuropeptides and hBMP2. The GJIC of osteoblasts was significantly increased by the neuropeptides and hBMP2. These results suggest that osteoblast activity is increased by neuropeptides and hBMP2 through increased GJIC. Identification of the GJIC-mediated signal transduction capable of modulating the cellular activities of bone cells represents a novel approach to studying the biology of skeletal innervation.

  1. Neuropeptide Y, substance P, and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulate human osteoblast osteogenic activity by enhancing gap junction intercellular communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, W.H.; Liu, Y.J.; Wang, W.; Zhang, Y.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Bone homeostasis seems to be controlled by delicate and subtle “cross talk” between the nervous system and “osteo-neuromediators” that control bone remodeling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of interactions between neuropeptides and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2) on human osteoblasts. We also investigated the effects of neuropeptides and hBMP2 on gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). Osteoblasts were treated with neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP), or hBMP2 at three concentrations. At various intervals after treatment, cell viability was measured by the MTT assay. In addition, cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin were determined by colorimetric assay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. The effects of NPY, SP and hBMP on GJIC were determined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The viability of cells treated with neuropeptides and hBMP2 increased significantly in a time-dependent manner, but was inversely associated with the concentration of the treatments. ALP activity and osteocalcin were both reduced in osteoblasts exposed to the combination of neuropeptides and hBMP2. The GJIC of osteoblasts was significantly increased by the neuropeptides and hBMP2. These results suggest that osteoblast activity is increased by neuropeptides and hBMP2 through increased GJIC. Identification of the GJIC-mediated signal transduction capable of modulating the cellular activities of bone cells represents a novel approach to studying the biology of skeletal innervation

  2. Cyst-Like Osteolytic Formations in Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (rhBMP-2) Augmented Sheep Spinal Fusion.

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    Pan, Hsin Chuan; Lee, Soonchul; Ting, Kang; Shen, Jia; Wang, Chenchao; Nguyen, Alan; Berthiaume, Emily A; Zara, Janette N; Turner, A Simon; Seim, Howard B; Kwak, Jin Hee; Zhang, Xinli; Soo, Chia

    2017-07-01

    Multiple case reports using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) have reported complications. However, the local adverse effects of rhBMP-2 application are not well documented. In this report we show that, in addition to promoting lumbar spinal fusion through potent osteogenic effects, rhBMP-2 augmentation promotes local cyst-like osteolytic formations in sheep trabecular bones that have undergone anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Three months after operation, conventional computed tomography showed that the trabecular bones of the rhBMP-2 application groups could fuse, whereas no fusion was observed in the control group. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed that the core implant area's bone volume fraction and bone mineral density increased proportionately with rhBMP-2 dose. Multiple cyst-like bone voids were observed in peri-implant areas when using rhBMP-2 applications, and these sites showed significant bone mineral density decreases in relation to the unaffected regions. Biomechanically, these areas decreased in strength by 32% in comparison with noncystic areas. Histologically, rhBMP-2-affected void sites had an increased amount of fatty marrow, thinner trabecular bones, and significantly more adiponectin- and cathepsin K-positive cells. Despite promoting successful fusion, rhBMP-2 use in clinical applications may result in local adverse structural alterations and compromised biomechanical changes to the bone. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A new biocompatible delivery scaffold containing heparin and bone morphogenetic protein 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanyaphoo Suphannee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Silicon-substituted calcium phosphate (Si-CaP was developed in our laboratory as a biomaterial for delivery in bone tissue engineering. It was fabricated as a 3D-construct of scaffolds using chitosan-trisodium polyphosphate (TPP cross-linked networks. In this study, heparin was covalently bonded to the residual -NH2 groups of chitosan on the scaffold applying carbodiimide chemistry. Bonded heparin was not leached away from scaffold surfaces upon vigorous washing or extended storage. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2 was bound to conjugated scaffolds by ionic interactions between the negatively charged SO42- clusters of heparin and positively charged amino acids of rhBMP-2. The resulting scaffolds were inspected for bone regenerative capacity by subcutaneous implanting in rats. Histological observation and mineralization assay were performed after 4 weeks of implantation. Results from both in vitro and in vivo experiments suggest the potential of the developed scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications in the future.

  4. STRO-1 selected rat dental pulp stem cells transfected with adenoviral-mediated human bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene show enhanced odontogenic differentiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Dolder, J. van den; Walboomers, X.F.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Dental pulp stem cells harbor great potential for tissue-engineering purposes. However, previous studies have shown variable results, and some have reported only limited osteogenic and odontogenic potential.Because bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are well-established agents to induce bone and

  5. Key role of the expression of bone morphogenetic proteins in increasing the osteogenic activity of osteoblast-like cells exposed to shock waves and seeded on bioactive glass-ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

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    Muzio, Giuliana; Martinasso, Germana; Baino, Francesco; Frairia, Roberto; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Canuto, Rosa A

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the role of shock wave-induced increase of bone morphogenetic proteins in modulating the osteogenic properties of osteoblast-like cells seeded on a bioactive scaffold was investigated using gremlin as a bone morphogenetic protein antagonist. Bone-like glass-ceramic scaffolds, based on a silicate experimental bioactive glass developed at the Politecnico di Torino, were produced by the sponge replication method and used as porous substrates for cell culture. Human MG-63 cells, exposed to shock waves and seeded on the scaffolds, were treated with gremlin every two days and analysed after 20 days for the expression of osteoblast differentiation markers. Shock waves have been shown to induce osteogenic activity mediated by increased expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, type I collagen, BMP-4 and BMP-7. Cells exposed to shock waves plus gremlin showed increased growth in comparison with cells treated with shock waves alone and, conversely, mRNA contents of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were significantly lower. Therefore, the shock wave-mediated increased expression of bone morphogenetic protein in MG-63 cells seeded on the scaffolds is essential in improving osteogenic activity; blocking bone morphogenetic protein via gremlin completely prevents the increase of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. The results confirmed that the combination of glass-ceramic scaffolds and shock waves exposure could be used to significantly improve osteogenesis opening new perspectives for bone regenerative medicine. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. A high concentration of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 induces low-efficacy bone regeneration in sinus augmentation: a histomorphometric analysis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji-Youn; Kim, Min-Soo; Lim, Hyun-Chang; Lee, Jung-Seok; Choi, Seong-Ho; Jung, Ui-Won

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the efficacy of bone regeneration at the early stage of healing in rabbit sinuses grafted with a biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) carrier soaked in a high concentration of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). Both maxillary sinuses of eight male rabbits were used. The sinus on one side (assigned randomly) was grafted with BCP loaded with rhBMP-2 (1.5 mg/ml; test group) using a soaking method, while the other was grafted with saline-soaked BCP (control group). After a 2-week healing period, the sinuses were analyzed by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry. The total augmented area and soft tissue space were significantly larger in the test group than in the control group, whereas the opposite was true for the area of residual material and newly formed bone. Most of the new bone in the test group was localized to the Schneiderian membrane (SM), while very little bone formation was observed in the window and center regions of the sinus. New bone was distributed evenly in the control group sinuses. Within the limitations of this study, it appeared that application of a high concentration of rhBMP-2 soaked onto a BCP carrier inhibited bone regeneration from the pristine bone and increased soft tissue swelling and inflammatory response at the early healing stage of sinus augmentation, although osteoinductive potential was found along the SM. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Simvastatin enhances bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Hong; Sung, Arthur; Zhao, Guohua; Shi, Lingfang; Qiu Daoming; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Kao, Peter N.

    2006-01-01

    Statins confer therapeutic benefits in systemic and pulmonary vascular diseases. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors serve essential signaling functions in cardiovascular development and skeletal morphogenesis. Mutations in BMP receptor type II (BMPR2) are associated with human familial and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and pathologic neointimal proliferation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells within small pulmonary arteries. In severe experimental pulmonary hypertension, simvastatin reversed disease and conferred a 100% survival advantage. Here, modulation of BMPR2 gene expression by simvastatin is characterized in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T, pulmonary artery smooth muscle, and lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). A 1.4 kb BMPR2 promoter containing Egr-1 binding sites confers reporter gene activation in 293T cells which is partially inhibited by simvastatin. Simvastatin enhances steady-state BMPR2 mRNA and protein expression in HLMVEC, through posttranscriptional mRNA stabilization. Simvastatin induction of BMPR2 expression may improve BMP-BMPR2 signaling thereby enhancing endothelial differentiation and function

  8. Delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and substance P using graphene oxide for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La WG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wan-Geun La,1 Min Jin,1 Saibom Park,1,2 Hee-Hun Yoon,1 Gun-Jae Jeong,1 Suk Ho Bhang,1 Hoyoung Park,1,2 Kookheon Char,1,2 Byung-Soo Kim1,31School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2The National Creative Research Initiative Center for Intelligent Hybrids, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Institute of Bioengineering, Institute of Chemical Processes, Engineering Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of KoreaAbstract: In this study, we demonstrate that graphene oxide (GO can be used for the delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 and substance P (SP, and that this delivery promotes bone formation on titanium (Ti implants that are coated with GO. GO coating on Ti substrate enabled a sustained release of BMP-2. BMP-2 delivery using GO-coated Ti exhibited a higher alkaline phosphatase activity in bone-forming cells in vitro compared with bare Ti. SP, which is known to recruit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, was co-delivered using Ti or GO-coated Ti to further promote bone formation. SP induced the migration of MSCs in vitro. The dual delivery of BMP-2 and SP using GO-coated Ti showed the greatest new bone formation on Ti implanted in the mouse calvaria compared with other groups. This approach may be useful to improve osteointegration of Ti in dental or orthopedic implants.Keywords: bone morphogenetic protein-2, bone regeneration, graphene oxides, stem cell recruitment, substance P

  9. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2, but Not Mesenchymal Stromal Cells, Exert Regenerative Effects on Canine and Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, Frances C.; Miranda-Bedate, Alberto; Van Heel, Ferdi W M; Riemers, Frank M.; Müller, Margot C M E; Creemers, Laura B.; Ito, Keita; Benz, Karin; Meij, Björn P.; Tryfonidou, Marianna A.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic back pain is related to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and dogs are employed as animal models to develop growth factor- and cell-based regenerative treatments. In this respect, the differential effects of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2

  10. Bone morphogenetic protein-2, but not mesenchymal stromal cells, exert regenerative effects on canine and human nucleus pulposus cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, Frances; Miranda-Bedate, Alberto; van Heel, Ferdi; Riemers, Frank; Muller, Margot; Creemers, Laura; Ito, Keita; Benz, Karin; Meij, Björn; Tryfonidou, M

    2017-01-01

    Chronic back pain is related to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and dogs are employed as animal models to develop growth factor- and cell-based regenerative treatments. In this respect, the differential effects of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2

  11. Bone morphogenetic protein-2, but not mesenchymal stromal cells, exert regenerative effects on Canine and human nucleus pulposus cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, F.C.; Miranda-Bedate, A.; Van Heel, F.W.M.; Riemers, F.M.; Müller, M.C.M.E.; Creemers, L.B.; Ito, K.; Benz, K.; Meij, B.P.; Tryfonidou, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic back pain is related to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and dogs are employed as animal models to develop growth factor- and cell-based regenerative treatments. In this respect, the differential effects of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2

  12. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 and bone therapy: successes and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Bonnie; Kha, Tram; Tran, Sally; Dass, Crispin R

    2016-02-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), more specifically BMP-2, are being increasingly used in orthopaedic surgery due to advanced research into osteoinductive factors that may enhance and improve bone therapy. There are many areas in therapy that BMP-2 is being applied to, including dental treatment, open tibial fractures, cancer and spinal surgery. Within these areas of treatment, there are many reports of successes and pitfalls. This review explores the use of BMP-2 and its successes, pitfalls and future prospects in bone therapy. The PubMed database was consulted to compile this review. With successes in therapy, there were descriptions of a more rapid healing time with no signs of rejection or infection attributed to BMP-2 treatment. Pitfalls included BMP-2 'off-label' use, which lead to various adverse effects. Our search highlighted that optimising treatment with BMP-2 is a direction that many researchers are exploring, with areas of current research interest including concentration and dose of BMP-2, carrier type and delivery. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Radiographic and Histologic Evaluation of a Bone Void that Formed After Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2-Mediated Sinus Graft Augmentation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Joo; Jun, Choong-Man; Yun, Jeong-Ho

    2016-01-01

    In the present case report, the authors describe radiographic and histologic observations of a bone void that formed after a sinus augmentation using a graft material that contained recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and discuss clinical and histologic implications of their findings. Sinus augmentation was performed using a graft material comprising 1 g of hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate, which contained 1 mg of rhBMP-2. Radiographic evaluation was conducted with panoramic radiographs and computed tomography images of the augmented maxillary sinus, which were analyzed using a three-dimensional image-reconstruction program. Histologic evaluation was also performed on a biopsy specimen obtained 6 months after the sinus augmentation. The total augmented volume increased from 1,582.2 mm(3) immediately after the sinus augmentation to 3,344.9 mm3 at 6 months after the augmentation because of the formation of a bone void. Twenty-six months after the sinus augmentation, the bone void remained but had reduced in volume, with the total augmented volume reduced to 2,551.7 mm(3). Histologically, new bone was observed to be in contact with the grafted particles, and a fatty marrow-like tissue was present in the area of the bone void. This case report shows that the bone void that had formed after sinus augmentation resolved over time and seemed to be partially replaced with new bone. Furthermore, none of the implants failed, and clinical adverse events were not observed during the follow-up period.

  14. Expression of human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2 and BMP-4 genes in transgenic bovine fibroblasts Expressão dos genes bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2 e BMP-4 em fibroblastos bovinos transgênicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Oleskovicz

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available cDNAs dos genes bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 e bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4 foram sintetizados a partir de RNA total extraído de tecidos ósseos de pacientes que apresentavam trauma facial (fraturas do maxilar entre o 7º e o 10º dia pós-trauma e clonados num vetor para expressão em células mamíferas, sob controle do promotor de citomegalovírus (CMV. Os vetores contendo os genes BMP-2 e o BMP-4 foram utilizados para a transfecção de fibroblastos bovinos. mRNAs foram indiretamente detectados por RT-PCR nas células transfectadas. As proteínas BMP-2 e BMP-4 foram detectadas mediante análises de Western blot. Os resultados demonstram a possibilidade de produção desses fatores de crescimento celular em fibroblastos bovinos. Essas células poderão ser utilizadas como fontes doadoras de material genético para a técnica de transferência nuclear na geração de animais transgênicos.

  15. Bone morphogenetic protein use in spine surgery-complications and outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundez, Antonio; Tournier, Clément; Garcia, Matthieu; Aunoble, Stéphane; Le Huec, Jean-Charles

    2016-06-01

    Because of significant complications related to the use of autologous bone grafts in spinal fusion surgery, bone substitutes and growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) have been developed. One of them, recombinant human (rh) BMP-2, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use under precise conditions. However, rhBMP-2-related side effects have been reported, used in FDA-approved procedures, but also in off-label use.A systematic review of clinical data was conducted to analyse the rhBMP-2-related adverse events (AEs), in order to assess their prevalence and the associated surgery practices. Medline search with keywords "bone morphogenetic protein 2", "lumbar spine", "anterolateral interbody fusion" (ALIF) and the filter "clinical trial". FDA published reports were also included. Study assessment was made by authors (experienced spine surgeons), based on quality of study designs and level of evidence. Extensive review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled series published up to the present point, reveal no evidence of a significant increase of AEs related to rhBMP-2 use during ALIF surgeries, provided that it is used following FDA guidelines. Two additional RCTs performed with rhBMP-2 in combination with allogenic bone dowels reported increased bone remodelling in BMP-treated patients. This AE was transient and had no consequence on the clinical outcome of the patients. No other BMP-related AEs were reported in these studies. This literature review confirms that the use of rhBMP-2 following FDA-approved recommendations (i.e. one-level ALIF surgery with an LT-cage) is safe. The rate of complications is low and the AEs had been identified by the FDA during the pre-marketing clinical trials. The clinical efficiency of rhBMP-2 is equal or superior to that of allogenic or autologous bone graft in respect to fusion rate, low back pain disability, patient satisfaction and rate of re-operations. For all other off

  16. Polyhedral microcrystals encapsulating bone morphogenetic protein 2 improve healing in the alveolar ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Goichi; Ueda, Takayo; Sugita, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Katsutoshi; Mizoguchi, Megumi; Kotani, Eiji; Oda, Naoki; Kawamata, Shin; Segami, Natsuki; Mori, Hajime

    2015-08-01

    Atelocollagen sponges incorporating polyhedra encapsulating bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) were implanted into lateral bone defects in the mandible. Half of the bone defects on the left side were treated with atelocollagen sponges containing 1.8 × 10(7) BMP-2 polyhedra, and half were treated with sponges containing 3.6 × 10(6) BMP-2 polyhedra. As controls, we treated the right-side bone defects in each animal with an atelocollagen sponge containing 5 µg of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) or 1.8 × 10(7) empty polyhedral. After a healing period of six months, whole mandibles were removed for micro-computed tomography (CT) and histological analyses. Micro-CT images showed that more bone had formed at all experimental sites than at control sites. However, the density of the new bone was not significantly higher at sites with an atelocollagen sponge containing BMP-2 polyhedra than at sites with an atelocollagen sponge containing rhBMP-2 or empty polyhedra. Histological examination confirmed that the BMP-2 polyhedra almost entirely replaced the atelocollagen sponges and connected the original bone with the regenerated bone. These results show that the BMP-2 delivery system facilitates the regeneration of new bone in the mandibular alveolar bone ridge and has an advance in the technology of bone regeneration for implant site development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Expression of the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2 in the human cumulus cells as a biomarker of oocytes and embryo quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirin B Demiray

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The members of the transforming growth factor-B superfamily, as the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs subfamily and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH, play a role during follicular development, and the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2, AMH, and THY1 are expressed in ovaries. Aim: This study was designed to define whether or not the expressions of these proteins in human cumulus cells (CCs can be used as predictors of the oocyte and embryo competence. Settings and Design: The study included nine female patients who were diagnosed as idiopathic infertility, aged 25–33 years (median 30 years and underwent Assisted Reproductive Technologies. Materials and Methods: The CCs from 60 oocyte–cumulus complexes obtained from the nine patients were evaluated with immunofluorescence staining in respect of BMPs, AMH and THY1 markers. The CCs surrounding the same oocytes were evaluated separately according to the oocyte and embryo quality. Statistical Analysis: Quantitative data were statistically analyzed for differences using the two-sided Mann–Whitney U test (P < 0.05. Results and Conclusions: Significant differences in immunofluorescence staining were observed in oocyte quality and embryo quality for the BMP2 only (P < 0.05. No significant differences were observed for AMH or CD90/THY1. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that there is a significant difference in the expression of BMP2 in the CCs of good quality oocytes and subsequently a good embryo.

  18. Bone Regeneration Using N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone as an Enhancer for Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in a Rabbit Sinus Augmentation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun-Chang; Thoma, Daniel S; Yoon, So-Ra; Cha, Jae-Kook; Lee, Jung-Seok; Jung, Ui-Won

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) can decrease the dose of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in sinus augmentation of rabbits. In each of 15 rabbits, 2 sinuses were randomly grafted using 1 of 3 treatment modalities: (i) biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP; control), (ii) rhBMP-2-coated BCP (BMP), or (iii) rhBMP-2-coated BCP soaked in NMP solution (BMP/NMP). The rabbits were sacrificed 2 weeks postoperatively. Histologic and histomorphometric analyses were performed. Bone formation in all groups was predominantly located close to the access window and the lateral walls. Newly formed bone within the total augmented area (NB TA ) was greatest in BMP/NMP (1.94 ± 0.69 mm 2 ), followed by BMP (1.50 ± 0.72 mm 2 ) and BCP (1.28 ± 0.52 mm 2 ) ( P > 0.05). In the center of the augmentation (NB ROI_C ) and the area close to the sinus membrane (NB ROI_M ), BMP/NMP produced the largest area of NB (NB ROI_C : 0.10 ± 0.11 mm 2 ; NB ROI_M : 0.17 ± 0.08 mm 2 ); the corresponding NB values for BCP were 0.05 ± 0.05 mm 2 and 0.08 ± 0.09 mm 2 , respectively ( P > 0.05 for all comparisons). The effect of NMP on bone regeneration was inconsistent between the specimens. Adding NMP as an adjunct to rhBMP-2-coated BCP produced inconsistent effects on bone regeneration, resulting in no significant benefit compared to controls.

  19. Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP-7 expression is decreased in human hypertensive nephrosclerosis

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    Cohen Clemens D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP-7 is protective in different animal models of acute and chronic kidney disease. Its role in human kidneys, and in particular hypertensive nephrosclerosis, has thus far not been described. Methods BMP-7 mRNA was quantified using real-time PCR and localised by immunostaining in tissue samples from normal and nephrosclerotic human kidneys. The impact of angiotensin (AT-II and the AT-II receptor antagonist telmisartan on BMP-7 mRNA levels and phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8 (pSmad 1/5/8 expression was quantified in proximal tubular cells (HK-2. Functional characteristics of BMP-7 were evaluated by testing its influence on TGF-β induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT, expression of TGF-β receptor type I (TGF-βRI and phosphorylated Smad 2 (pSmad 2 as well as on TNF-α induced apoptosis of proximal tubular cells. Results BMP-7 was predominantly found in the epithelia of the distal tubule and the collecting duct and was less abundant in proximal tubular cells. In sclerotic kidneys, BMP-7 was significantly decreased as demonstrated by real-time PCR and immunostaining. AT-II stimulation in HK-2 cells led to a significant decrease of BMP-7 and pSmad 1/5/8, which was partially ameliorated upon co-incubation with telmisartan. Only high concentrations of BMP-7 (100 ng/ml were able to reverse TNF-α-induced apoptosis and TGF-β-induced EMT in human proximal tubule cells possibly due to a decreased expression of TGF-βRI. In addition, BMP-7 was able to reverse TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of Smad 2. Conclusions The findings suggest a protective role for BMP-7 by counteracting the TGF-β and TNF-α-induced negative effects. The reduced expression of BMP-7 in patients with hypertensive nephrosclerosis may imply loss of protection and regenerative potential necessary to counter the disease.

  20. Crestal Sinus Augmentation with Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes of 2-Year Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchler, Ulrike; Rudelstorfer, Claudia M; Barth, Barbara; Tepper, Gabor; Lidinsky, Dominika; Heimel, Patrick; Watzek, Georg; Gruber, Reinhard

    Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) together with an absorbable collagen carrier (ACS) was approved for augmentation of the maxillary sinus prior to implant placement. The original registration trial was based on a lateral window approach. Clinical outcomes of crestal sinus augmentation with rhBMP-2 have not been reported so far. An uncontrolled pilot trial in which seven patients with a residual maxillary height below 5 mm were enrolled to receive crestal sinus augmentation with rhBMP-2/ACS was conducted. Elevation of the sinus mucosa was performed by gel pressure. Primary endpoints were the gain in augmentation height and volume measured by computed tomography after 6 months. Evaluation of bone quality at the time of implant placement was based on histology. Secondary endpoints were the clinical and radiologic evaluation of the implants and patient satisfaction by visual analog scale (VAS) at the 2-year follow-up. Median gain in augmentation height was 7.2 mm (range 0.0 to 17.5 mm). Five patients gained at least 5 mm of bone height. Two patients with a perforation of the sinus mucosa failed to respond to rhBMP-2/ACS and underwent lateral window augmentation. The median gain in augmentation volume of the five patients was 781.3 mm³ (range 426.9 to 1,242.8 mm³). Biopsy specimens showed a cancellous network consisting of primary plexiform bone with little secondary lamellar bone. After 2 years, implants were in function with no signs of inflammation or peri-implant bone loss. Patients were satisfied with the esthetic outcomes and chewing function. This pilot clinical trial supports the original concept that rhBMP-2/ACS supports bone formation, also in crestal sinus augmentation, and emphasizes the relevance of the integrity of the sinus mucosa to predict the bone gain.

  1. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 outcomes for maxillary sinus floor augmentation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guo-Hao; Lim, Glendale; Chan, Hsun-Liang; Giannobile, William V; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2016-11-01

    To study the effect of the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) on sinus volumetric and histometric changes after sinus floor augmentation compared to a conventional approach of non-biologic bone grafting materials. An electronic search of 4 databases (January 1990-February 2015), including PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Central, and a hand search of peer-reviewed journals for relevant articles were performed. Human clinical trials with data on comparison of sinus volumetric and/or histometric outcomes with and without the use of rhBMP-2 in sinus grafting procedures, with ≥10 augmentation sites in each study group, and with a follow-up period of at least 6 months, were included. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to analyze weighted mean difference (WMD) and confidence interval (CI) for the recorded variables according to PRISMA guidelines. Six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. The results of the meta-analyses showed that the WMD of vertical bone height gain was -0.14 mm (95% CI = -1.91 to 1.62 mm, P = 0.87), the WMD of bone density was -142.42 mg/cm 3 (95% CI = -310.62-25.78 mg/cm 3 , P = 0.10), the WMD of the percentage of vital bone was -4.59% (95% CI = -11.73-2.56%, P = 0.21), and the WMD of the percentage of residual bone grafting materials was -9.90% (95% CI = -26.38-6.58%, P = 0.21). The comparison of implant survival rate presented an overall risk ratio of 1.00 (95% CI = 0.94-1.07). The two approaches (conventional bone grafting compared to BMPs) demonstrated comparable effectiveness for both clinical and histomorphometric measures. This systematic review revealed that the use of rhBMP-2 in maxillary sinus floor augmentation achieved similar clinical and histometric outcomes when compared to conventional sinus grafting procedures after a healing period of 6-9 months. However, previous studies showed the morbidity and other patient-reported outcomes were improved in

  2. Efficiently engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate nanocomposites plus bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene to promote new bone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin H

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Han Jin,1 Kai Zhang,2 Chunyan Qiao,1 Anliang Yuan,1 Daowei Li,1 Liang Zhao,1 Ce Shi,1 Xiaowei Xu,1 Shilei Ni,1 Changyu Zheng,3 Xiaohua Liu,4 Bai Yang,2 Hongchen Sun11Department of Pathology, School of Stomatology, Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China; 3Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; 4Department of Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, TX, USAAbstract: Regeneration of large bone defects is a common clinical problem. Recently, stem cell sheet has been an emerging strategy in bone tissue engineering. To enhance the osteogenic potential of stem cell sheet, we fabricated bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 gene-engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate (PEI–al nanocomposites plus human BMP-2 complementary(cDNA plasmid, and studied its osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. PEI–al nanocomposites carrying BMP-2 gene could efficiently transfect bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The cell sheet was made by culturing the cells in medium containing vitamin C for 10 days. Assays on the cell culture showed that the genetically engineered cells released the BMP-2 for at least 14 days. The expression of osteogenesis-related gene was increased, which demonstrated that released BMP-2 could effectively induce the cell sheet osteogenic differentiation in vitro. To further test the osteogenic potential of the cell sheet in vivo, enhanced green fluorescent protein or BMP-2-producing cell sheets were treated on the cranial bone defects. The results indicated that the BMP-2-producing cell sheet group was more efficient than other groups in promoting bone formation in the defect area. Our results suggested that PEI

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 with a Demineralized Bone Matrix versus Iliac Crest Bone Graft for Secondary Alveolar Bone Grafts in Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate: Review of 501 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudeh, Jeffrey A; Fahradyan, Artur; Gould, Daniel J; Liang, Fan; Imahiyerobo, Thomas; Urbinelli, Leo; Nguyen, JoAnna T; Magee, William; Yen, Stephen; Urata, Mark M

    2017-08-01

    Alveolar cleft reconstruction using iliac crest bone graft is considered standard of care for children with complete cleft lip and palate at the time of mixed dentition. Harvesting bone may result in donor-site morbidity and additional operating time and length of hospitalization. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2 with a demineralized bone matrix is an alternative bone source for alveolar cleft reconstruction. The authors investigated the outcomes of rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix versus iliac crest bone graft for alveolar cleft reconstruction by reviewing postoperative surgical complications and cleft closure. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 258 rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix procedures (mean follow-up, 2.9 years) and 243 iliac crest bone graft procedures (mean follow-up, 4.1 years) on 414 patients over a 12-year period. The authors compared complications, canine eruption, and alveolar cleft closure between the two groups. In the rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix group, one patient required prolonged intubation because of intraoperative airway swelling not thought to be caused by rhBMP-2, 36 reported facial swelling and one required outpatient steroids as treatment, and 12 had dehiscence; however, half of these complications resolved without intervention. Twenty-three of the 228 rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix patients and 28 of the 242 iliac crest bone graft patients required repeated surgery for alveolar cleft repair. Findings for canine tooth eruption into the cleft site through the graft were similar between the groups. The rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix appears to be an acceptable alternative for alveolar cleft repair. The authors found no increase in serious adverse events with the use of this material. Local complications, such as swelling and minor wound dehiscence, predominantly improved without intervention. Therapeutic, III.

  4. Outcome of nonunion fractures in dogs treated with fixation, compression resistant matrix, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Anna M; Kapatkin, Amy S; Fuller, Mark C; Verstraete, Frank J M; Arzi, Boaz

    2017-03-20

    To report the use of compression resistant matrix (CRM) infused with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) prospectively in the healing of nonunion long-bone fractures in dogs. A longitudinal cohort of dogs that were presented with nonunion fractures were classified and treated with CRM soaked with rhBMP-2 and fracture fixation. They were followed with serial radiographs and evaluated for healing times and complications according to the time frame and definitions previously established for orthopaedic clinical cases. Eleven nonunion fractures in nine dogs were included. Median healing time was 10 weeks (range: 7-20 weeks). Major perioperative complications due to bandage morbidity were encountered in two of 11 limbs and resolved. All other complications were minor. They occurred perioperatively in eight of 11 limbs. Minor follow-up complications included short-term in one of two limbs, mid-term in one of three, and long-term in four of five limbs. Nine limbs returned to full function and two limbs returned to acceptable function at the last follow-up. Nonunion fractures given a poor prognosis via standard-of-care treatment were successfully repaired using CRM with rhBMP-2 accompanying fixation. These dogs, previously at high risk of failure, returned to full or acceptable function.

  5. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 released from polyurethane-based scaffolds promotes early osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinku; Hollinger, Jeffrey O

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the pharmacokinetics of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) from a polyurethane (PUR)-based porous scaffold and to determine the biological responses of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to the rhBMP-2 released from those scaffolds. The rhBMP-2 was incorporated into the PUR three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds and release profiles were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The bioactivity of the rhBMP-2 containing releasates was determined using hMSCs and compared with exogenous rhBMP-2. Release of rhBMP-2 from PUR-based systems was bi-phasic and characterized by an initial burst followed by a sustained release for up to 21 days. Expression of alkaline phosphatase activity by hMSCs treated with the rhBMP-2 releasates was significantly greater than the cells alone (control) throughout the time periods. Furthermore, after 14 days of culture, the hMSCs cultured with rhBMP-2 releasate had a greater amount of mineralization compared to exogenous rhBMP-2. Overall, the rhBMP-2 release from the PUR-based scaffolds was sustained for 21 days and the releasates appeared to be bioactive and promoted earlier osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of hMSCs than the exogenous rhBMP-2. (paper)

  6. Effect of hydrophilicity of carbon nanotube arrays on the release rate and activity of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Zhaojun; Ostrikov, Kostya [Plasma Nanoscience Centre Australia (PNCA), CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Lindfield, New South Wales 2070 (Australia); Tan, Cher Ming; Tay, Beng Kang [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore); Peel, Sean A F, E-mail: zhaojun.han@csiro.au [Department of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5G 1G6 (Canada)

    2011-07-22

    Novel nanostructures such as vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have received increasing interest as drug delivery carriers. In the present study, two CNT arrays with extreme surface wettabilities are fabricated and their effects on the release of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) are investigated. It is found that the superhydrophilic arrays retained a larger amount of rhBMP-2 than the superhydrophobic ones. Further use of a poloxamer diffusion layer delayed the initial burst and resulted in a greater total amount of rhBMP-2 released from both surfaces. In addition, rhBMP-2 bound to the superhydrophilic CNT arrays remained bioactive while they denatured on the superhydrophobic surfaces. These results are related to the combined effects of rhBMP-2 molecules interacting with poloxamer and the surface, which could be essential in the development of advanced carriers with tailored surface functionalities.

  7. In vitro bone formation using muscle-derived cells: a new paradigm for bone tissue engineering using polymer-bone morphogenetic protein matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Helen H; Kofron, Michelle D; El-Amin, Saadiq F; Attawia, Mohammed A; Laurencin, Cato T

    2003-06-13

    Over 800,000 bone grafting procedures are performed in the United States annually, creating a demand for viable alternatives to autogenous bone, the grafting standard in osseous repair. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of a BMP-polymer matrix in inducing the expression of the osteoblastic phenotype and in vitro bone formation by muscle-derived cells. Specifically, we evaluated the ability of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7), delivered from a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA) matrix, to induce the differentiation of cells derived from rabbit skeletal muscle into osteoblast-like cells and subsequently form mineralized tissue. Results confirmed that muscle-derived cells attached and proliferated on the PLAGA substrates. BMP-7 released from PLAGA induced the muscle-derived cells to increase bone marker expression and form mineralized cultures. These results demonstrate the efficacy of a BMP-polymer matrix in inducing the expression of the osteoblastic phenotype by muscle-derived cells and present a new paradigm for bone tissue engineering.

  8. Bone morphogenetic protein-induced heterotopic bone formation: What have we learned from the history of a half century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenobu Katagiri, PhD

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP was originally discovered by Marshall Urist a half century ago following the observation of a unique activity that induced heterotopic bone formation in skeletal muscle tissue. The molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of heterotopic bone formation in skeletal muscle by BMPs were elucidated through the purification and molecular cloning of BMPs and identification of their functional receptors and downstream effectors, as well as from genetic disorders related to BMP activity. BMPs are important regulators of not only skeletal development and regeneration but also the homeostasis of normal skeletal muscle mass. There is still much to learn about the physiology and pathology at the interface of BMPs and skeletal muscle.

  9. High doses of bone morphogenetic protein 2 induce structurally abnormal bone and inflammation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Janette N; Siu, Ronald K; Zhang, Xinli; Shen, Jia; Ngo, Richard; Lee, Min; Li, Weiming; Chiang, Michael; Chung, Jonguk; Kwak, Jinny; Wu, Benjamin M; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2011-05-01

    The major Food and Drug Association-approved osteoinductive factors in wide clinical use are bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Although BMPs can promote robust bone formation, they also induce adverse clinical effects, including cyst-like bone formation and significant soft tissue swelling. In this study, we evaluated multiple BMP2 doses in a rat femoral segmental defect model and in a minimally traumatic rat femoral onlay model to determine its dose-dependent effects. Results of our femoral segmental defect model established a low BMP2 concentration range (5 and 10 μg/mL, total dose 0.375 and 0.75 μg in 75 μg total volume) unable to induce defect fusion, a mid-range BMP2 concentration range able to fuse the defect without adverse effects (30 μg/mL, total dose 2.25 μg in 75 μg total volume), and a high BMP2 concentration range (150, 300, and 600 μg/mL, total dose 11.25, 22.5, and 45 μg in 75 μg total volume) able to fuse the defect, but with formation of cyst-like bony shells filled with histologically confirmed adipose tissue. In addition, compared to control, 4 mg/mL BMP2 also induced significant tissue inflammatory infiltrates and exudates in the femoral onlay model that was accompanied by increased numbers of osteoclast-like cells at 3, 7, and 14 days. Overall, we consistently reproduced BMP2 side effects of cyst-like bone and soft tissue swelling using high BMP2 concentration approaching the typical human 1500 μg/mL.

  10. Estrogens increase expression of bone morphogenetic protein 8b in brown adipose tissue of mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Grefhorst (Aldo); J.C. van den Beukel (Anneke); A.F. van Houten (A.); J. Steenbergen (Jacobie); J.A. Visser (Jenny); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In mammals, white adipose tissue (WAT) stores fat and brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates fat to produce heat. Several studies showed that females have more active BAT. Members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) families are expressed

  11. Novel Wnt Regulator NEL-Like Molecule-1 Antagonizes Adipogenesis and Augments Osteogenesis Induced by Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jia; James, Aaron W.; Zhang, Xinli; Pang, Shen; Zara, Janette N.; Asatrian, Greg; Chiang, Michael; Lee, Min; Khadarian, Kevork; Nguyen, Alan; Lee, Kevin S.; Siu, Ronald K.; Tetradis, Sotirios; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2017-01-01

    The differentiation factor NEL-like molecule-1 (NELL-1) has been reported as osteoinductive in multiple in vivo preclinical models. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 is used clinically for skeletal repair, but in vivo administration can induce abnormal, adipose-filled, poor-quality bone. We demonstrate that NELL-1 combined with BMP2 significantly optimizes osteogenesis in a rodent femoral segmental defect model by minimizing the formation of BMP2-induced adipose-filled cystlike bone. In vitro studies using the mouse bone marrow stromal cell line M2-10B4 and human primary bone marrow stromal cells have confirmed that NELL-1 enhances BMP2-induced osteogenesis and inhibits BMP2-induced adipogenesis. Importantly, the ability of NELL-1 to direct BMP2-treated cells toward osteogenesis and away from adipogenesis requires intact canonical Wnt signaling. Overall, these studies establish the feasibility of combining NELL-1 with BMP2 to improve clinical bone regeneration and provide mechanistic insight into canonical Wnt pathway activity during NELL-1 and BMP2 osteogenesis. The novel abilities of NELL-1 to stimulate Wnt signaling and to repress adipogenesis may highlight new treatment approaches for bone loss in osteoporosis. PMID:26772960

  12. Activity of bone morphogenetic protein-7 after treatment at various temperatures: freezing vs. pasteurization vs. allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Munetomo; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Yamamoto, Norio; Shirai, Toshiharu; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Nishida, Hideji; Tanzawa, Yoshikazu; Kimura, Hiroaki; Miwa, Shinji; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2011-12-01

    Insufficient bone union is the occasional complication of biomechanical reconstruction after malignant bone tumor resection using temperature treated tumor bearing bone; freezing, pasteurization, and autoclaving. Since bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) plays an important role in bone formation, we assessed the amount and activity of BMP preserved after several temperature treatments, including -196 and -73°C for 20 min, 60 and 100°C for 30 min, 60°C for 10h following -80°C for 12h as an allograft model, and 4°C as the control. The material extracted from the human femoral bone was treated, and the amount of BMP-7 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Then, the activity of recombinant human BMP-7 after the treatment was assessed using a bioassay with NIH3T3 cells and immunoblotting analysis to measure the amount of phospho-Smad, one of the signaling substrates that reflect the intracellular reaction of BMPs. Both experiments revealed that BMP-7 was significantly better preserved in the hypothermia groups. The percentages of the amount of BMP-7 in which the control group was set at 100% were 114%, 108%, 70%, 49%, and 53% in the -196, -73, 60, 100°C, and the allograft-model group, respectively. The percentages of the amount of phospho-Smad were 89%, 87%, 24%, 4.9%, and 14% in the -196, -73, 60, 100°C, and the allograft-model group, respectively. These results suggested that freezing possibly preserves osteoinductive ability than hyperthermia treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Depot injectable biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan AH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ali Habiballah Hassan,1 Khaled Mohamed Hosny,2,3 Zuahir A Murshid,1 Adel Alhadlaq,4 Ahmed Alyamani,5 Ghada Naguib6 1Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt; 4Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, 5Department of Oral Surgery, 6Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Objective: The aim of this study is to utilize the biocompatibility characteristics of biodegradable polymers, viz, poly lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA and polycaprolactone (PCL, to prepare sustained-release injectable nanoparticles (NPs of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 for the repair of alveolar bone defects in rabbits. The influence of formulation parameters on the functional characteristics of the prepared NPs was studied to develop a new noninvasive injectable recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2 containing grafting material for the repair of alveolar bone clefts.Materials and methods: BMP-2 NPs were prepared using a water-in-oil-in-water double-emulsion solvent evaporation/extraction method. The influence of molar ratio of PLGA to PCL on a suitable particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and sustained drug release was studied. Critical size alveolar defects were created in the maxilla of 24 New Zealand rabbits divided into three groups, one of them treated with 5 µg/kg of rhBMP-2 NP formulations.Results: The results found that NPs formula prepared using blend of PLGA and PCL in 4:2 (w/w ratio showed the best sustained-release pattern with lower initial burst, and showed up to 62.7% yield, 64.5% encapsulation efficiency, 127 nm size, and more than 90% in vitro release. So, this formula was selected for

  14. Xerogel Interfaced Nanofibers Stimulate Bone Regeneration Through the Activation of Integrin and Bone Morphogenetic Protein Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoo-Mi; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Lee, Hye-Young; Lim, Hyun-Chang; Lee, Hae-Hyoung; Kim, Hae-Won; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2017-02-01

    A xerogel was interfaced onto biopolymer nanofibers though a core–shell electrospinning design for bone regeneration. The xerogel-interfaced biopolymer nanofibrous matrix was bioactive and highly hydrophilic, with a significant decrease in the water contact angle. The matrix showed excellent in vitro responses of primary osteoblasts in terms of adhesion, proliferation, and migration. Furthermore, the osteoblastic differentiation of cells, including alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization, and gene expression, was significantly upregulated by the xerogel interface. In vivo animal tests in a critical-sized calvarial defect confirmed the new bone formation ability of the xerogel-surfaced nanofiber matrices. The underlying signaling mechanisms of the stimulation were implied to be integrin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathways, as demonstrated by the activation of integrin (α2β1) and downstream signaling molecules (FAK, paxillin, RhoA, MAPK, and NF-κB), as well as the BMPs and the downstream transcription factor Smad1/5/8. Taking these findings together, the xerogel-surfaced biopolymer nanofibers are proposed to be a promising scaffold candidate for bone regeneration.

  15. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in the treatment of bone fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Ghodadra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neil Ghodadra, Kern SinghDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USAAbstract: Over one million fractures occur per year in the US and are associated with impaired healing increasing patient morbidity, stress, and economic costs. Despite improvements in surgical technique, internal fixation, and understanding of biologics, fracture healing is delayed or impaired in up to 4% of all fractures. Complications due to impaired fracture healing present therapeutic challenges to the orthopedic surgeon and often lead to chronic functional and psychological disability for the patient. As a result, it has become clinically desirable to augment mechanical fixation with biologic strategies in order to accelerate osteogenesis and promote successful arthrodesis. The discovery of bone morphogenic protein (BMP has been pivotal in understanding the biology of fracture healing and has been a source of intense clinical research as an adjunct to fracture treatment. Multiple in vitro and in vivo studies in animals have elucidated the complex biologic interactions between BMPs and cellular receptors and have convincingly demonstrated rhBMP-2 to be a safe, effective treatment option to enhance bone healing. Multiple clinical trials in trauma surgery have provided level 1 evidence for the use of rhBMP-2 as a safe and effective treatment of fractures. Human clinical trials have provided further insight into BMP-2 dosage, time course, carriers, and efficacy in fracture healing of tibial defects. These promising results have provided hope that a new biologic field of technology has emerged as a useful adjunct in the treatment of skeletal injuries and conditions.Keywords: bone morphogenic protein-2, bone fracture, bone healing

  16. Efficiently engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate nanocomposites plus bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene to promote new bone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Han; Zhang, Kai; Qiao, Chunyan; Yuan, Anliang; Li, Daowei; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Ce; Xu, Xiaowei; Ni, Shilei; Zheng, Changyu; Liu, Xiaohua; Yang, Bai; Sun, Hongchen

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration of large bone defects is a common clinical problem. Recently, stem cell sheet has been an emerging strategy in bone tissue engineering. To enhance the osteogenic potential of stem cell sheet, we fabricated bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) gene-engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate (PEI–al) nanocomposites plus human BMP-2 complementary(c)DNA plasmid, and studied its osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. PEI–al nanocomposites carrying BMP-2 gene could efficiently transfect bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The cell sheet was made by culturing the cells in medium containing vitamin C for 10 days. Assays on the cell culture showed that the genetically engineered cells released the BMP-2 for at least 14 days. The expression of osteogenesis-related gene was increased, which demonstrated that released BMP-2 could effectively induce the cell sheet osteogenic differentiation in vitro. To further test the osteogenic potential of the cell sheet in vivo, enhanced green fluorescent protein or BMP-2-producing cell sheets were treated on the cranial bone defects. The results indicated that the BMP-2-producing cell sheet group was more efficient than other groups in promoting bone formation in the defect area. Our results suggested that PEI–al nanocomposites efficiently deliver the BMP-2 gene to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and that BMP-2 gene-engineered cell sheet is an effective way for promoting bone regeneration. PMID:24855355

  17. Dose reduction of bone morphogenetic protein-2 for bone regeneration using a delivery system based on lyophilization with trehalose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang X

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiaochen Zhang,1,* Quan Yu,2,* Yan-an Wang,1 Jun Zhao2 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck Oncology, 2Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Ninth People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: To induce sufficient new bone formation, high doses of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 are applied in regenerative medicine that often induce serious side effects. Therefore, improved treatment strategies are required. Here, we investigate whether the delivery of BMP-2 lyophilized in the presence of trehalose reduced the dose of BMP-2 required for bone regeneration. Materials and methods: A new growth factor delivery system was fabricated using BMP-2-loaded TiO2 nanotubes by lyophilization with trehalose (TiO2-Lyo-Tre-BMP-2. We measured BMP-2 release characteristics, bioactivity, and stability, and determined the effects on the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in vitro. Additionally, we evaluated the ability of this formulation to regenerate new bone around implants in rat femur defects by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT, sequential fluorescent labelling, and histological analysis. Results: Compared with absorbed BMP-2-loaded TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2-BMP-2, TiO2-Lyo-Tre-BMP-2 exhibited sustained release, consistent bioactivity, and higher stability of BMP-2, and resulted in greater osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Eight weeks post-operation, TiO2-Lyo-Tre-BMP-2 nanotubes, with various dosages of BMP-2, regenerated larger amounts of new bone than TiO2-BMP-2 nanotubes. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that delivery of BMP-2 lyophilized with trehalose may be a promising method to reduce the dose of BMP-2 and avoid the associated side effects. Keywords: bone morphogenetic protein-2, dose reduction, delivery system, trehalose, lyophilization, TiO2 nanotubes, BMP-2, regenerative medicine, surface

  18. Intervariability and intravariability of bone morphogenetic proteins in commercially available demineralized bone matrix products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyun W; Zhao, Li; Kanim, Linda E A; Wong, Pamela; Delamarter, Rick B; Dawson, Edgar G

    2006-05-20

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 2, 4, and 7 in 9 commercially available ("off the shelf") demineralized bone matrix (DBM) product formulations using 3 different manufacturer's production lots of each DBM formulation. To evaluate and compare the quantity of BMPs among several different DBM formulations (inter-product variability), as well as examine the variability of these proteins in different production lots within the same DBM formulation (intra-product variability). DBMs are commonly used to augment available bone graft in spinal fusion procedures. Surgeons are presented with an ever-increasing variety of commercially available human DBMs from which to choose. Yet, there is limited information on a specific DBM product's osteoinductive efficacy, potency, and constancy. There were protein extracts from each DBM sample separately dialyzed 4 times against distilled water at 4 degrees C for 48 hours. The amount of BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-7 was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS.: The concentrations of detected BMP-2 and BMP-7 were low for all DBM formulations, only nanograms of BMP were extracted from each gram of DBM (20.2-120.6 ng BMP-2/g DBM product; 54.2-226.8 ng BMP-7/g DBM). The variability of BMP concentrations among different lots of the same DBM formulation, intra-product variability, was higher than the variability of concentrations among different DBM formulations, inter-product variability (coefficient of variation range BMP-2 [16.34% to 76.01%], P DBMs are low, in the order of 1 x 10(-9) g of BMP/g of DBM. There is higher variability in concentration of BMPs among 3 different lots of the same DBM formulation than among different DBM formulations. This variability questions DBM products' reliability and, possibly, efficacy in providing consistent osteoinduction.

  19. Early inhibitory effects of zoledronic acid in tooth extraction sockets in dogs are negated by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, David A; Carlson, Eric R; Gotcher, Jack E; Pickett, David O

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted with 2 purposes. The first was to determine the effect of a single dose of zoledronic acid (ZA) on the healing of a tooth extraction socket in dogs. The second was to determine if placement of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)/absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) - INFUSE, (Medtronic, Memphis, TN) into these extraction sockets would inhibit the inhibition on bone healing and remodeling by ZA. Nine adult female beagle dogs (2 to 3 yr old) were placed into 3 groups of 3 dogs each. Group I received 15 mL of sterile saline intravenously; group II received 2.5 mg of ZA intravenously; and group III received 5 mg of ZA intravenously. Forty-five days after treatment, all dogs underwent extraction of noncontiguous right and left mandibular first molars and second premolars. In group I, the right mandibular extraction sockets had nothing placed in them, whereas the left mandibular sockets had only ACS placed in them. In groups II and III, the right mandibular sockets had rhBMP-2/ACS placed in them, whereas the left mandibular sockets had only ACS placed. All extraction sockets were surgically closed. Tetracycline was given intravenously 5 and 12 days later, and all animals were euthanized 15 days after tooth extraction. The extraction sockets and rib and femur samples were harvested immediately after euthanasia, processed, and studied microscopically. A single dose of ZA significantly inhibited healing and bone remodeling in the area of the tooth extractions. The combination of rhBMP-2/ACS appeared to over-ride some of the bone remodeling inhibition of the ZA and increased bone fill in the extraction sites, and remodeling activity in the area was noted. The effects of rhBMP-2/ACS were confined to the area of the extraction sockets because bone activity at distant sites was not influenced. A single dose of ZA administered intravenously inhibits early healing of tooth extraction sockets and bone remodeling in this animal model. The

  20. Mechanism of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in repairing hematopoietic injury in mice exposed to γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuibing; Hu Peizhen; Hou Ying; Li Xubo; Tian Qiong; Shi Mei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in repairing hematopoietic injury in mice irradiated with γ-ray. To prepare SRY gene probe and study the effect of rhBMP-2 in repairing hematopoietic injury in mice by in situ hybridization. Methods: Twenty-two BALB/c female mice were randomly divided into the irradiated group and BMP treated group, respectively. Bone marrow cells of normal male mice were transplanted into 22 female mice post-irradiation to 8.5 Gy of 60 Co γ rays. The left femurs of the survived female mice were re-irradiated with 9 Gy 14 days later. Mice in BMP treated group were given rhBMP-2 20 mg/kg while those in control group were treated with 0.9% saline by intraperitoneal injection every day for 6 days. These mice were killed 14 days later and paraffin sections of femurs were made. The SRY gene was detected with in situ hybridization. Results: There were more positive blots in the left femurs of the mice in irradiated group than those in BMP treated group (T=155.0, P 0.05). The number of positive blots in the left femurs of the mice in BMPtreated group was significantly less than those in the right femurs of the mice in two groups (T=155.0, 55.0, P<0.05). Conclusions: No donor cell of male mice was detected in the left femurs of BMP treated group, suggesting that rhBMP-2 promoted the restoration of residuary bone marrow cells. Thus, rhBMP-2 promotes the proliferation or differentiation of residuary mesenchymal stem cells, improves hematopoietic microenvironment and accelerates the hematopoietic restoration. (authors)

  1. Exaggerated inflammatory response after use of recombinant bone morphogenetic protein in recurrent unicameral bone cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Kevin M; Swanstrom, Morgan M; McCarthy, James J; Nemeth, Blaise A; Guliani, Teresa A; Noonan, Kenneth J

    2010-03-01

    Recurrent unicameral bone cysts (UBCs) can result in significant morbidity during a child's physical and emotional development. Multiple treatment options are available and a review of the literature fails to clearly define the optimal treatment for UBCs. Recombinant bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) has been used with success in other disorders of poor bone formation. This manuscript is the first to report on the use of recombinant BMP in the treatment of UBCs. Three patients with recurrent UBCs underwent revision surgery with recombinant BMP. Radiographic and medical review was performed and is reported here. In these patients, the use of BMP failed to fully resolve their UBC; 2 patients had complete recurrence that required further surgery. In addition to poor radiographic results, all patients developed exaggerated inflammatory responses in the acute postoperative period. Each child developed clinically significant limb swelling and pain that mimicked infection. On the basis of our poor radiographic results and a paradoxical clinical result, we no longer recommend the use of recombinant BMP in the manner reported here for the treatment of recurrent UBCs. Level IV, case series.

  2. The Deep-Sea Natural Products, Biogenic Polyphosphate (Bio-PolyP and Biogenic Silica (Bio-Silica, as Biomimetic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: Fabrication of a Morphogenetically-Active Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Draenert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone defects in human, caused by fractures/nonunions or trauma, gain increasing impact and have become a medical challenge in the present-day aging population. Frequently, those fractures require surgical intervention which ideally relies on autografts or suboptimally on allografts. Therefore, it is pressing and likewise challenging to develop bone substitution materials to heal bone defects. During the differentiation of osteoblasts from their mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells and of osteoclasts from their hemopoietic precursor cells, a lineage-specific release of growth factors and a trans-lineage homeostatic cross-talk via signaling molecules take place. Hence, the major hurdle is to fabricate a template that is functioning in a way mimicking the morphogenetic, inductive role(s of the native extracellular matrix. In the last few years, two naturally occurring polymers that are produced by deep-sea sponges, the biogenic polyphosphate (bio-polyP and biogenic silica (bio-silica have also been identified as promoting morphogenetic on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. These polymers elicit cytokines that affect bone mineralization (hydroxyapatite formation. In this manner, bio-silica and bio-polyP cause an increased release of BMP-2, the key mediator activating the anabolic arm of the hydroxyapatite forming cells, and of RANKL. In addition, bio-polyP inhibits the progression of the pre-osteoclasts to functionally active osteoclasts. Based on these findings, new bioinspired strategies for the fabrication of bone biomimetic templates have been developed applying 3D-printing techniques. Finally, a strategy is outlined by which these two morphogenetically active polymers might be used to develop a novel functionally active polymer.

  3. The Deep-Sea Natural Products, Biogenic Polyphosphate (Bio-PolyP) and Biogenic Silica (Bio-Silica), as Biomimetic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: Fabrication of a Morphogenetically-Active Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C.; Feng, Qingling; Draenert, Florian; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2013-01-01

    Bone defects in human, caused by fractures/nonunions or trauma, gain increasing impact and have become a medical challenge in the present-day aging population. Frequently, those fractures require surgical intervention which ideally relies on autografts or suboptimally on allografts. Therefore, it is pressing and likewise challenging to develop bone substitution materials to heal bone defects. During the differentiation of osteoblasts from their mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells and of osteoclasts from their hemopoietic precursor cells, a lineage-specific release of growth factors and a trans-lineage homeostatic cross-talk via signaling molecules take place. Hence, the major hurdle is to fabricate a template that is functioning in a way mimicking the morphogenetic, inductive role(s) of the native extracellular matrix. In the last few years, two naturally occurring polymers that are produced by deep-sea sponges, the biogenic polyphosphate (bio-polyP) and biogenic silica (bio-silica) have also been identified as promoting morphogenetic on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. These polymers elicit cytokines that affect bone mineralization (hydroxyapatite formation). In this manner, bio-silica and bio-polyP cause an increased release of BMP-2, the key mediator activating the anabolic arm of the hydroxyapatite forming cells, and of RANKL. In addition, bio-polyP inhibits the progression of the pre-osteoclasts to functionally active osteoclasts. Based on these findings, new bioinspired strategies for the fabrication of bone biomimetic templates have been developed applying 3D-printing techniques. Finally, a strategy is outlined by which these two morphogenetically active polymers might be used to develop a novel functionally active polymer. PMID:23528950

  4. Effects of laser photherapy on bone defects grafted with mineral trioxide aggregate, bone morphogenetic proteins, and guided bone regeneration: a Raman spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antonio L B; Aciole, Gilberth T S; Cangussú, Maria Cristina T; Pacheco, Marcos T T; Silveira, Landulfo

    2010-12-15

    We have used Raman analysis to assess bone healing on different models. Benefits on the isolated or combined use of mineral trioxide aggregate, bone morphogenetic proteins, guided bone regeneration and laser on bone repair have been reported, but not their combination. We studied peaks of hydroxyapatite and CH groups on defects grafted with MTA, treated or not with laser, BMPs, and GBR. Ninety rats were divided in 10 groups each, subdivided into three subgroups. Laser (λ850 nm) was applied at every other day for 2 weeks. Raman readings were taken at the surface of the defect. Statistical analysis (CHA) showed significant differences between all groups (p = 0.001) and between Group II and all other (p hydroxyapatite (CHA) that is indicative of greater calcification and resistance of the bone. We conclude that the association of the MTA with laser phototherapy (LPT) and/or not with GBR resulted in a better bone repair. The use of the MTA associated to IR LPT resulted in a more advanced and quality bone repair. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cross talk between insulin and bone morphogenetic protein signaling systems in brown adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Schulz, Tim J; Espinoza, Daniel O

    2010-01-01

    Both insulin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling systems are important for adipocyte differentiation. Analysis of gene expression in BMP7-treated fibroblasts revealed a coordinated change in insulin signaling components by BMP7. To further investigate the cross talk between insulin...... BMP7's suppressive effect on pref-1 transcription. Together, these data suggest cross talk between the insulin and BMP signaling systems by which BMP7 can rescue brown adipogenesis in cells with insulin resistance....

  6. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 signaling negatively modulates lymphatic development in vertebrate embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunworth, William P; Cardona-Costa, Jose; Bozkulak, Esra Cagavi

    2014-01-01

    : Our aim was to delineate the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 signaling in lymphatic development. METHODS AND RESULTS: BMP2 signaling negatively regulates the formation of LECs. Developing LECs lack any detectable BMP signaling activity in both zebrafish and mouse embryos, and excess BMP2...... signaling in zebrafish embryos and mouse embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid bodies substantially decrease the emergence of LECs. Mechanistically, BMP2 signaling induces expression of miR-31 and miR-181a in a SMAD-dependent mechanism, which in turn results in attenuated expression of prospero homeobox...

  7. Acceleration of Alveolar Ridge Augmentation Using a Low Dose of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Loaded on a Resorbable Bioactive Ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Rania A; Mahmoud, Naguiba; Soliman, Samia; Nouh, Samir R; Cunningham, Larry; El-Ghannam, Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a porous silica-calcium phosphate composite (SCPC50) loaded with and without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on alveolar ridge augmentation in saddle-type defects. Micro-granules of SCPC50 resorbable bioactive ceramic were coated with rhBMP-2 10 mg and then implanted into a saddle-type defect (12 × 7 mm) in a dog mandible and covered with a collagen membrane. Control groups included defects grafted with SCPC50 granules without rhBMP-2 and un-grafted defects. Bone healing was evaluated at 8 and 16 weeks using histologic and histomorphometric techniques. The increase in bone height and total defect fill were assessed for each specimen using the ImageJ 1.46 program. The release kinetics of rhBMP-2 was determined in vitro. The height of the bone in the grafted defects and the total defect fill were statistically analyzed. SCPC50 enhanced alveolar ridge augmentation as indicated by the increased vertical bone height, bone surface area, and bone volume after 16 weeks. SCPC50-rhBMP-2 provided a sustained release profile of a low effective dose (BMP-2 4.6 ± 1.34 pg/mL per hour) during the 1- to 21-day period. The slow rate of release of rhBMP-2 from SCPC50 accelerated synchronized complete bone regeneration and graft material resorption in 8 weeks. Successful rapid reconstruction of the alveolar ridge by SCPC50 and SCPC50-rhBMP-2 occurred without any adverse excessive bone formation, inflammation, or fluid-filled voids. Results of this study suggest that SCPC50 is an effective graft material to preserve the alveolar ridge after tooth extraction. Coating SCPC50-rhBMP-2 further accelerated bone regeneration and a considerable increase in vertical bone height. These findings make SCPC50 the primary choice as a carrier for rhBMP-2. SCPC50-rhBMP-2 can serve as an alternative to autologous bone grafting. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Bone morphogenetic protein-9 suppresses growth of myeloma cells by signaling through ALK2 but is inhibited by endoglin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, O E; Wader, K F; Misund, K; Våtsveen, T K; Rø, T B; Mylin, A K; Turesson, I; Størdal, B F; Moen, S H; Standal, T; Waage, A; Sundan, A; Holien, T

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignancy of plasma cells predominantly located in the bone marrow. A number of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce apoptosis in myeloma cells in vitro, and with this study we add BMP-9 to the list. BMP-9 has been found in human serum at concentrations that inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro. We here show that the level of BMP-9 in serum was elevated in myeloma patients (median 176 pg/ml, range 8–809) compared with healthy controls (median 110 pg/ml, range 8–359). BMP-9 was also present in the bone marrow and was able to induce apoptosis in 4 out of 11 primary myeloma cell samples by signaling through ALK2. BMP-9-induced apoptosis in myeloma cells was associated with c-MYC downregulation. The effects of BMP-9 were counteracted by membrane-bound (CD105) or soluble endoglin present in the bone marrow microenvironment, suggesting a mechanism for how myeloma cells can evade the tumor suppressing activity of BMP-9 in multiple myeloma

  9. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in Localized Alveolar Ridge and Maxillary Sinus Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mick P; Vaughn, Olushola L Akinshemoyin; Anderson, Paul A

    2016-05-01

    Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a viable alternative to bone graft in spinal fusion and maxillary sinus lift. The research questions for meta-analysis were: Is rhBMP-2 an effective bone graft substitute in localized alveolar ridge augmentation and maxillary sinus floor augmentation? What are the potential adverse events? A search of MEDLINE from January 1980 to January 2014 using PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Controlled Trials, CINAHL, and EMBASE was performed. Searches were performed from Medical Subject Headings. The quality of each study included was graded by Review Manager software. The primary outcome variable was bone formation measured as change in bone height on computed tomogram. A systematic review of adverse events also was performed. A random-effects model was chosen. Continuous variables were calculated using the standardized mean difference and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing improvement from baseline of the experimental group with that of the control group. Change in bone height was calculated using logarithmic odds ratio. Test of significance used the Z statistic with a P value of .05. Ten studies met the criteria for systematic review; 8 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Five studies assessed localized alveolar ridge augmentation and resulted in an overall standardized mean difference of 0.56 (CI, 0.20-0.92) in favor of BMP; this result was statistically important. Three studies assessed maxillary sinus floor augmentation and resulted in an overall standardized mean difference of -0.50 (CI, -0.93 to -0.09), which was meaningfully different in favor of the control group. Adverse events were inconsistently reported, ranging from no complications to widespread adverse events. For localized alveolar ridge augmentation, this meta-analysis showed that rhBMP-2 substantially increases bone height. However, rhBMP-2 does not perform as

  10. Effects of LED phototherapy on bone defects grafted with MTA, bone morphogenetic proteins and guided bone regeneration: a Raman spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antonio L B; Soares, Luiz G P; Cangussú, Maria Cristina T; Santos, Nicole R S; Barbosa, Artur Felipe S; Silveira Júnior, Landulfo

    2012-09-01

    We studied peaks of calcium hydroxyapatite (CHA) and protein and lipid CH groups in defects grafted with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) treated or not with LED irradiation, bone morphogenetic proteins and guided bone regeneration. A total of 90 rats were divided into ten groups each of which was subdivided into three subgroups (evaluated at 15, 21 and 30 days after surgery). Defects were irradiated with LED light (wavelength 850 ± 10 nm) at 48-h intervals for 15 days. Raman readings were taken at the surface of the defects. There were no statistically significant differences in the CHA peaks among the nonirradiated defects at any of the experimental time-points. On the other hand, there were significant differences between the defects filled with blood clot and the irradiated defects at all time-points (p Raman spectral analysis indicate that infrared LED light irradiation improves the deposition of CHA in healing bone grafted or not with MTA.

  11. Activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway mediates bone morphogenetic protein 2-induced invasion of pancreatic cancer cells Panc-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiong; Liao, Jie; Lu, YeBin; Duan, XiaoHui; Sun, WeiJia

    2011-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) signaling has an emerging role in pancreatic cancer. However, because of the multiple effects of different BMPs, no final conclusions have been made as to the role of BMPs in pancreatic cancer. In our studies, we have focused on bone morphogenetic protein 2(BMP-2) because it induces an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and accelerates invasion in the human pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1. It has been reported that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway mediates invasion of gastric and colon cancer cells, which is unrevealed in pancreatic cancer cells. The objective of our study was to investigate whether BMP-2 mediated invasion might pass through the PI3K/Akt pathway. Our results show that expression of phosphorylation of Akt was increased by treatment with BMP-2, but not Noggin, a BMP-2 antagonist. Then pretreatment of Panc-1 cells with LY294002, an inhibitor of the PI3K/AKT pathway, significantly inhibited BMP-2-induced EMT and invasiveness. The data suggest that BMP-2 accelerates invasion of panc-1 cells via the PI3K/AKT pathway in panc-1 cells, which gives clues to searching new therapy targets in advanced pancreatic cancer.

  12. Pharmacological activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 promotes osteoblast differentiation via bone morphogenetic protein-2 and induces bone anabolic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Monika; Pal, Subhashis; China, Shyamsundar Pal; Porwal, Konica [Division of Endocrinology and Centre for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Dev, Kapil [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Shrivastava, Richa [Division of Toxicology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Raju, Kanumuri Siva Rama; Rashid, Mamunur [Pharmaceutics Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Trivedi, Arun Kumar; Sanyal, Sabyasachi [Biochemistry Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Wahajuddin, Muhammad [Pharmaceutics Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Bhaduria, Smrati [Division of Toxicology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Maurya, Rakesh [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Chattopadhyay, Naibedya, E-mail: n_chattopadhyay@cdri.res.in [Division of Endocrinology and Centre for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India)

    2017-02-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are a family of enzymes involved in detoxifying aldehydes. Previously, we reported that an ALDH inhibitor, disulfiram caused bone loss in rats and among ALDHs, osteoblast expressed only ALDH2. Loss-of-function mutation in ALDH2 gene is reported to cause bone loss in humans which suggested its importance in skeletal homeostasis. We thus studied whether activating ALDH2 by N-(1, 3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl)-2, 6-dichlorobenzamide (alda-1) had osteogenic effect. We found that alda-1 increased and acetaldehyde decreased the differentiation of rat primary osteoblasts and expressions of ALDH2 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Silencing ALDH2 in osteoblasts abolished the alda-1 effects. Further, alda-1 attenuated the acetaldehyde-induced lipid-peroxidation and oxidative stress. BMP-2 is essential for bone regeneration and alda-1 increased its expression in osteoblasts. We then showed that alda-1 (40 mg/kg dose) augmented bone regeneration at the fracture site with concomitant increase in BMP-2 protein compared with control. The osteogenic dose (40 mg/kg) of alda-1 attained a bone marrow concentration that was stimulatory for osteoblast differentiation, suggesting that the tissue concentration of alda-1 matched its pharmacologic effect. In addition, alda-1 promoted modeling-directed bone growth and peak bone mass achievement, and increased bone mass in adult rats which reiterated its osteogenic effect. In osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats, alda-1 reversed trabecular osteopenia with attendant increase in serum osteogenic marker (procollagen type I N-terminal peptide) and decrease in oxidative stress. Alda-1 has no effect on liver and kidney function. We conclude that activating ALDH2 by alda-1 had an osteoanabolic effect involving increased osteoblastic BMP-2 production and decreased OVX-induced oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Alda-1 induced osteoblast differentiation that involved upregulation of ALDH2 and BMP-2 • Alda-1

  13. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Induced Msx1 and Msx2 Inhibit Myocardin-Dependent Smooth Muscle Gene Transcription▿

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Ken'ichiro; Nakamura, Seiji; Nishida, Wataru; Sobue, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    During the onset and progression of atherosclerosis, the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype changes from differentiated to dedifferentiated, and in some cases, this change is accompanied by osteogenic transition, resulting in vascular calcification. One characteristic of dedifferentiated VSMCs is the down-regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) marker gene expression. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are involved in the induction of osteogenic gene ex...

  14. Promotion of bone morphogenetic protein signaling by tetraspanins and glycosphingolipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyu Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs belong to the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ superfamily of secreted molecules. BMPs play essential roles in multiple developmental and homeostatic processes in metazoans. Malfunction of the BMP pathway can cause a variety of diseases in humans, including cancer, skeletal disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Identification of factors that ensure proper spatiotemporal control of BMP signaling is critical for understanding how this pathway is regulated. We have used a unique and sensitive genetic screen to identify the plasma membrane-localized tetraspanin TSP-21 as a key new factor in the C. elegans BMP-like "Sma/Mab" signaling pathway that controls body size and postembryonic M lineage development. We showed that TSP-21 acts in the signal-receiving cells and genetically functions at the ligand-receptor level. We further showed that TSP-21 can associate with itself and with two additional tetraspanins, TSP-12 and TSP-14, which also promote Sma/Mab signaling. TSP-12 and TSP-14 can also associate with SMA-6, the type I receptor of the Sma/Mab pathway. Finally, we found that glycosphingolipids, major components of the tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, are required for Sma/Mab signaling. Our findings suggest that the tetraspanin-enriched membrane microdomains are important for proper BMP signaling. As tetraspanins have emerged as diagnostic and prognostic markers for tumor progression, and TSP-21, TSP-12 and TSP-14 are all conserved in humans, we speculate that abnormal BMP signaling due to altered expression or function of certain tetraspanins may be a contributing factor to cancer development.

  15. Physiological role of growth factors and bone morphogenetic proteins in osteogenesis and bone fracture healing: а review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sagalovsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The repair of large bone defects remains a major clinical orthopedic challenge. Bone regeneration and fracture healing is a complex physiological mechanisms regulated by a large number of biologically active molecules. Multiple factors regulate this cascade of molecular events, which affects different stages in the osteoblast and chondroblast lineage during such processes as migration, proliferation, chemotaxis, differentiation, inhibition, and extracellular protein synthesis. A recent review has focused on the mechanisms by which growth and differentiation factors regulate the fracture healing process. Rapid progress in skeletal cellular and molecular biology has led to identification of many signaling molecules associated with formation of skeletal tissues, including a large family of growth factors (transforming growth factor-β and bone morphogenetic proteins, fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, cytokines and interleukins. There is increasing evidence indicating that they are critical regulators of cellular proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix biosynthesis and bone mineralization. A clear understanding of cellular and molecular pathways involved in fracture healing is not only critical for improvement of fracture treatments, but it may also enhance further our knowledge of mechanisms involved in skeletal growth and repair, as well as mechanisms of aging. This suggests that, in the future, they may play a major role in the treatment of bone disease and fracture repair.

  16. The effect of platelet rich plasma from bone marrow aspirate with added bone morphogenetic protein-2 on the Achilles tendon-bone junction in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak Jun; Nam, Hyok-Woo; Hur, Chang-Yong; Park, Misu; Yang, Hee Seok; Kim, Byung-Soo; Park, Jung-Ho

    2011-12-01

    To determine if exogenously injected bone marrow derived platelet-rich plasma (PRP) plus bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 could accelerate the healing of bone-tendon junction injuries and increase the junction holding strength during the early regeneration period. A direct injury model of the bone-tendon junction was made using an Achilles tendon-calcaneus bone junction in a rabbit. In the PRP/BMP-2/fibrin group, 0.05 mL of bone marrow derived PRP and 100 ng/mL of BMP-2 both incorporated into 0.1 mL of fibrin glue were injected into Achilles tendon-calcaneus bone junctions. The effect of the intervention was tested by comparing the results of an intervention group to a control group. The results of biomechanical testing, and histological and gross analyses were compared between the 2 groups at the following time points after surgery: 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Histologic examinations showed that woven bone developed in tendon-bone junctions at 2 weeks after surgery in the PRP/BMP-2/fibrin group. Mechanical test results showed no significant difference between the PRP/BMP-2/fibrin and control groups at 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, but the mean maximal load in the PRP/BMP-2/fibrin group was significantly higher than in the control group (p rabbit model of tendon-bone junction injury.

  17. Canola and hydrogenated soybean oils accelerate ectopic bone formation induced by implantation of bone morphogenetic protein in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Hashimoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Canola oil (Can and hydrogenated soybean oil (H2-Soy are commonly used edible oils. However, in contrast to soybean oil (Soy, they shorten the survival of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP rats. It has been proposed that the adverse effects of these oils on the kidney and testis are caused at least in part by dihydro-vitamin K (VK 1 in H2-Soy and unidentified component(s in Can. Increased intake of dihydro-VK1 is associated with decreased tissue VK2 levels and bone mineral density in rats and humans, respectively. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of these oils on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-induced ectopic bone formation, which is promoted by VK2 deficiency, in relation to the role of VK in the γ-carboxylation of osteocalcin and matrix Gla protein. A crude extract of BMPs was implanted into a gap in the fascia of the femoral muscle in 5-week-old mice maintained on a Soy, Can, or H2-Soy diet. Newly formed bone volume, assessed by three-dimensional X-ray micro-computed tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction imaging for bone, was 4-fold greater in the Can and H2-Soy groups than in the Soy group. The plasma carboxylated osteocalcin (Gla-OC and total OC (Gla-OC plus undercarboxylated osteocalcin [Glu-OC] levels were significantly lower in the Can group than in the Soy group (p < 0.05. However, these levels did not significantly differ between the H2-Soy and Soy groups. The plasma Gla-OC/Glu-OC ratio in the Can and H2-Soy groups was significantly lower (in Can; p = 0.044 or was almost significantly lower (in H2-Soy; p = 0.053 than that in the Soy group. In conclusion, Can and H2-Soy accelerated BMP-induced bone formation in mice to a greater extent than Soy. Further research is required to evaluate whether the difference in accelerated ectopic bone formation is associated with altered levels of VK2 and VK-dependent protein(s among the three dietary groups.

  18. Genetic and evolutionary analyses of the human bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2 in the pathophysiology of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorit Schleinitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2 is essential for BMP signalling and may be involved in the regulation of adipogenesis. The BMPR2 locus has been suggested as target of recent selection in human populations. We hypothesized that BMPR2 might have a role in the pathophysiology of obesity.Evolutionary analyses (dN/dS, Fst, iHS were conducted in vertebrates and human populations. BMPR2 mRNA expression was measured in 190 paired samples of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The gene was sequenced in 48 DNA samples. Nine representative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped for subsequent association studies on quantitative traits related to obesity in 1830 German Caucasians. An independent cohort of 925 Sorbs was used for replication. Finally, relation of genotypes to mRNA in fat was examined.The evolutionary analyses indicated signatures of selection on the BMPR2 locus. BMPR2 mRNA expression was significantly increased both in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue of 37 overweight (BMI>25 and 30 kg/m² compared with 44 lean subjects (BMI< 25 kg/m² (P<0.001. In a case-control study including lean and obese subjects, two intronic SNPs (rs6717924, rs13426118 were associated with obesity (adjusted P<0.05. Combined analyses including the initial cohort and the Sorbs confirmed a consistent effect for rs6717924 (combined P = 0.01 on obesity. Moreover, rs6717924 was associated with higher BMPR2 mRNA expression in visceral adipose tissue.Combined BMPR2 genotype-phenotype-mRNA expression data as well as evolutionary aspects suggest a role of BMPR2 in the pathophysiology of obesity.

  19. Non-viral bone morphogenetic protein 2 transfection of rat dental pulp stem cells using calcium phosphate nanoparticles as carriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Walboomers, X.F.; Dolder, J. van den; Yang, F.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate nanoparticles have shown potential as non-viral vectors for gene delivery. The aim of this study was to induce bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp)2 transfection in rat dental pulp stem cells using calcium phosphate nanoparticles as a gene vector and then to evaluate the efficiency and

  20. The ventralizing activity of Radar, a maternally expressed bone morphogenetic protein, reveals complex bone morphogenetic protein interactions controlling dorso-ventral patterning in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutel, C; Kishimoto, Y; Schulte-Merker, S; Rosa, F

    2000-12-01

    In Xenopus and zebrafish, BMP2, 4 and 7 have been implicated, after the onset of zygotic expression, in inducing and maintaining ventro-lateral cell fate during early development. We provide evidence here that a maternally expressed bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Radar, may control early ventral specification in zebrafish. We show that Radar ventralizes zebrafish embryos and induces the early expression of bmp2b and bmp4. The analysis of Radar overexpression in both swirl/bmp2b mutants and embryos expressing truncated BMP receptors shows that Radar-induced ventralization is dependent on functional BMP2/4 pathways, and may initially rely on an Alk6-related signaling pathway. Finally, we show that while radar-injected swirl embryos still exhibit a strongly dorsalized phenotype, the overexpression of Radar into swirl/bmp2b mutant embryos restores ventral marker expression, including bmp4 expression. Our results suggest that a complex regulation of different BMP pathways controls dorso-ventral (DV) patterning from early cleavage stages until somitogenesis.

  1. Facilitated receptor-recognition and enhanced bioactivity of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baolin; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Tong; Ding, Sai; Zhang, Wenjing; Gu, Yuantong; Liu, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterial surface functionalized with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a promising approach to fabricating successful orthopedic implants/scaffolds. However, the bioactivity of BMP-2 on material surfaces is still far from satisfactory and the mechanism of related protein-surface interaction remains elusive. Based on the most widely used bone-implants/scaffolds material, hydroxyapatite (HAP), we developed a matrix of magnesium-substituted HAP (Mg-HAP, 2.2 at% substitution) to address these issues. Further, we investigated the adsorption dynamics, BMPRs-recruitment, and bioactivity of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) on the HAP and Mg-HAP surfaces. To elucidate the mechanism, molecular dynamic simulations were performed to calculate the preferred orientations, conformation changes, and cysteine-knot stabilities of adsorbed BMP-2 molecules. The results showed that rhBMP-2 on the Mg-HAP surface exhibited greater bioactivity, evidenced by more facilitated BMPRs-recognition and higher ALP activity than on the HAP surface. Moreover, molecular simulations indicated that BMP-2 favoured distinct side-on orientations on the HAP and Mg-HAP surfaces. Intriguingly, BMP-2 on the Mg-HAP surface largely preserved the active protein structure evidenced by more stable cysteine-knots than on the HAP surface. These findings explicitly clarify the mechanism of BMP-2-HAP/Mg-HAP interactions and highlight the promising application of Mg-HAP/BMP-2 matrixes in bone regeneration implants/scaffolds. PMID:27075233

  2. [Sustained release of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 combined with stromal vascular fraction cells in promoting posterolateral spinal fusion in rat model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Zheng, Jun; Qian, Jinyu; Zhou, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Minghui; Wang, Xiuhui

    2017-07-01

    To observe the effect of stromal vascular fraction cells (SVFs) from rat fat tissue combined with sustained release of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in promoting the lumbar fusion in rat model. SVFs were harvested from subcutaneous fat of bilateral inguinal region of 4-month-old rat through the collagenase I digestion. The sustained release carrier was prepared via covalent bond of the rhBMP-2 and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) by the biominetic apatite coating process. The sustained release effect was measured by BCA method. Thirty-two rats were selected to establish the posterolateral lumbar fusion model and were divided into 4 groups, 8 rats each group. The decalcified bone matrix (DBX) scaffold+PBS, DBX scaffold+rhBMP-2/β-TCP sustained release carrier, DBX scaffold+SVFs, and DBX scaffold+rhBMP-2/β-TCP sustained release carrier+SVFs were implanted in groups A, B, C, and D respectively. X-ray films, manual spine palpation, and high-resolution micro-CT were used to evaluate spinal fusion at 8 weeks after operation; bone mineral density (BMD) and bone volume fraction were analyzed; the new bone formation was evaluated by HE staining and Masson's trichrome staining, osteocalcin (OCN) was detected by immunohistochemical staining. The cumulative release amount of rhBMP-2 was about 40% at 2 weeks, indicating sustained release effect of rhBMP-2; while the control group was almost released within 2 weeks. At 8 weeks, the combination of manual spine palpation, X-ray, and micro-CT evaluation showed that group D had the strongest bone formation (100%, 8/8), followed by group B (75%, 6/8), group C (37.5%, 3/8), and group A (12.5%, 1/8). Micro-CT analysis showed BMD and bone volume fraction were significantly higher in group D than groups A, B, and C ( P cells with bone matrix deposition, and an active osteogenic process similar to the mineralization of long bones in group D. The bone formation of group B was weaker than that of group D, and

  3. Human Articular Cartilage Progenitor Cells Are Responsive to Mechanical Stimulation and Adenoviral-Mediated Overexpression of Bone-Morphogenetic Protein 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Neumann

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage progenitor cells (ACPCs represent a new and potentially powerful alternative cell source to commonly used cell sources for cartilage repair, such as chondrocytes and bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. This is particularly due to the apparent resistance of ACPCs to hypertrophy. The current study opted to investigate whether human ACPCs (hACPCs are responsive towards mechanical stimulation and/or adenoviral-mediated overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2. hACPCs were cultured in fibrin-polyurethane composite scaffolds. Cells were cultured in a defined chondro-permissive medium, lacking exogenous growth factors. Constructs were cultured, for 7 or 28 days, under free-swelling conditions or with the application of complex mechanical stimulation, using a custom built bioreactor that is able to generate joint-like movements. Outcome parameters were quantification of BMP-2 and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1 concentration within the cell culture medium, biochemical and gene expression analyses, histology and immunohistochemistry. The application of mechanical stimulation alone resulted in the initiation of chondrogenesis, demonstrating the cells are mechanoresponsive. This was evidenced by increased GAG production, lack of expression of hypertrophic markers and a promising gene expression profile (significant up-regulation of cartilaginous marker genes, specifically collagen type II, accompanied by no increase in the hypertrophic marker collagen type X or the osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase. To further investigate the resistance of ACPCs to hypertrophy, overexpression of a factor associated with hypertrophic differentiation, BMP-2, was investigated. A novel, three-dimensional, transduction protocol was used to transduce cells with an adenovirus coding for BMP-2. Over-expression of BMP-2, independent of load, led to an increase in markers associated with hypertropy. Taken together ACPCs

  4. Increased bone morphogenetic protein signaling contributes to age-related declines in neurogenesis and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Emily A; Gobeske, Kevin T; Bond, Allison M; Jarrett, Jennifer C; Peng, Chian-Yu; Kessler, John A

    2016-02-01

    Aging is associated with decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus and diminished hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions. Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) increases with age by more than 10-fold in the mouse dentate gyrus while levels of the BMP inhibitor, noggin, decrease. This results in a profound 30-fold increase in phosphorylated-SMAD1/5/8, the effector of canonical BMP signaling. Just as observed in mice, a profound increase in expression of BMP4 is observed in the dentate gyrus of humans with no known cognitive abnormalities. Inhibition of BMP signaling either by overexpression of noggin or transgenic manipulation not only increases neurogenesis in aging mice, but remarkably, is associated with a rescue of cognitive deficits to levels comparable to young mice. Additive benefits are observed when combining inhibition of BMP signaling and environmental enrichment. These findings indicate that increased BMP signaling contributes significantly to impairments in neurogenesis and to cognitive decline associated with aging, and identify this pathway as a potential druggable target for reversing age-related changes in cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Purification of bone morphogenetic protein-2 from refolding mixtures using mixed-mode membrane chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieseler, Gesa; Pepelanova, Iliyana; Stuckenberg, Lena; Villain, Louis; Nölle, Volker; Odenthal, Uwe; Beutel, Sascha; Rinas, Ursula; Scheper, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we present the development of a process for the purification of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) using mixed-mode membrane chromatography. RhBMP-2 was produced as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. In vitro refolding using rapid dilution was carried out according to a previously established protocol. Different membrane chromatography phases were analyzed for their ability to purify BMP-2. A membrane phase with salt-tolerant properties resulting from mixed-mode ligand chemistry was able to selectively purify BMP-2 dimer from refolding mixtures. No further purification or polishing steps were necessary and high product purity was obtained. The produced BMP-2 exhibited a biological activity of 7.4 × 10 5  U/mg, comparable to commercial preparations. Mixed-mode membrane chromatography can be a valuable tool for the direct purification of proteins from solutions with high-conductivity, for example refolding buffers. In addition, in this particular case, it allowed us to circumvent the use of heparin-affinity chromatography, thus allowing the design of an animal-component-free process.

  6. Survey of the Effectiveness of Internet Information on Patient Education for Bone Morphogenetic Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng; Briceño, Valentina; Lam, Sandi K; Luerssen, Thomas G; Jea, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    In light of recent reports of potential short- and long-term complications of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and increasing "off-label" use among spine surgeons, we wished to analyze online information on BMP and its controversial uses, as patients frequently search the Internet for medical information, even though the quality and accuracy of available information are highly variable. Between December 2014 and January 2015, we conducted a Google search to identify the 50 most accessed websites providing BMP information using the search phrase "bone morphogenetic protein." Websites were classified based on authorship. Each website was examined for the provision of appropriate patient inclusion and exclusion criteria, surgical and nonsurgical treatment alternatives, purported benefits, disclosure of common and potential complications, peer-reviewed literature citations, and discussion of off-label use. Two percent of websites were authored by private medical groups, 2% by academic medical groups, 10% by insurance companies, 16% by biomedical industries, 4% by news sources, 0% by lawyers, and 66% by others. Sixty-two percent referenced peer-reviewed literature. Benefits and complications were reported in 44% and 26% of websites, respectively. Surgical and nonsurgical treatment alternatives were mentioned in 16% and 4% of websites, respectively. Discussion of off-label BMP use occurred in 18% of websites. Our study showed the ineffectiveness of the Internet in reporting quality information on BMP use. We found that websites authored by insurance companies provide an acceptable foundation for patient education. This, however, cannot replace the need for a thorough dialogue between doctor and patient about risks, benefits, and indications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Nuclear variants of bone morphogenetic proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinhart Christopher A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs contribute to many different aspects of development including mesoderm formation, heart development, neurogenesis, skeletal development, and axis formation. They have previously been recognized only as secreted growth factors, but the present study detected Bmp2, Bmp4, and Gdf5/CDMP1 in the nuclei of cultured cells using immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting of nuclear extracts. Results In all three proteins, a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS was found to overlap the site at which the proproteins are cleaved to release the mature growth factors from the propeptides. Mutational analyses indicated that the nuclear variants of these three proteins are produced by initiating translation from downstream alternative start codons. The resulting proteins lack N-terminal signal peptides and are therefore translated in the cytoplasm rather than the endoplasmic reticulum, thus avoiding proteolytic processing in the secretory pathway. Instead, the uncleaved proteins (designated nBmp2, nBmp4, and nGdf5 containing the intact NLSs are translocated to the nucleus. Immunostaining of endogenous nBmp2 in cultured cells demonstrated that the amount of nBmp2 as well as its nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution differs between cells that are in M-phase versus other phases of the cell cycle. Conclusions The observation that nBmp2 localization varies throughout the cell cycle, as well as the conservation of a nuclear localization mechanism among three different BMP family members, suggests that these novel nuclear variants of BMP family proteins play an important functional role in the cell.

  8. Role of bone morphogenetic protein-7 in renal fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xi eLi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Renal fibrosis is final common pathway of end stage renal disease. Irrespective of the primary cause, renal fibrogenesis is a dynamic process which involves a large network of cellular and molecular interaction, including pro-inflammatory cell infiltration and activation, matrix-producing cell accumulation and activation, and secretion of profibrogenic factors that modulate extracellular matrix (ECM formation and cell-cell interaction. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 is a protein of the TGF-β super family and increasingly regarded as a counteracting molecule against TGF-β. A large variety of evidence shows an anti-fibrotic role of BMP-7 in chronic kidney disease, and this effect is largely mediated via counterbalancing the profibrotic effect of TGF-β. Besides, BMP-7 reduced ECM formation by inactivating matrix-producing cells and promoting mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET. BMP-7 also increased ECM degradation. Despite these observations, the anti-fibrotic effect of BMP-7 is still controversial such that fine regulation of BMP-7 expression in vivo might be a great challenge for its ultimate clinical application.

  9. Role of bone morphogenetic protein-7 in renal fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui Xi; Yiu, Wai Han; Tang, Sydney C. W.

    2015-01-01

    Renal fibrosis is final common pathway of end stage renal disease. Irrespective of the primary cause, renal fibrogenesis is a dynamic process which involves a large network of cellular and molecular interaction, including pro-inflammatory cell infiltration and activation, matrix-producing cell accumulation and activation, and secretion of profibrogenic factors that modulate extracellular matrix (ECM) formation and cell-cell interaction. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 is a protein of the TGF-β super family and increasingly regarded as a counteracting molecule against TGF-β. A large variety of evidence shows an anti-fibrotic role of BMP-7 in chronic kidney disease, and this effect is largely mediated via counterbalancing the profibrotic effect of TGF-β. Besides, BMP-7 reduced ECM formation by inactivating matrix-producing cells and promoting mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). BMP-7 also increased ECM degradation. Despite these observations, the anti-fibrotic effect of BMP-7 is still controversial such that fine regulation of BMP-7 expression in vivo might be a great challenge for its ultimate clinical application. PMID:25954203

  10. Coordinated Proliferation and Differentiation of Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells Depend on Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling Regulation by GREMLIN 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylund, Jeffery B; Trinh, Linh T; Awgulewitsch, Cassandra P; Paik, David T; Jetter, Christopher; Jha, Rajneesh; Zhang, Jianhua; Nolan, Kristof; Xu, Chunhui; Thompson, Thomas B; Kamp, Timothy J; Hatzopoulos, Antonis K

    2017-05-01

    Heart development depends on coordinated proliferation and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), but how the two processes are synchronized is not well understood. Here, we show that the secreted Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) antagonist GREMLIN 2 (GREM2) is induced in CPCs shortly after cardiac mesoderm specification during differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. GREM2 expression follows cardiac lineage differentiation independently of the differentiation method used, or the origin of the pluripotent stem cells, suggesting that GREM2 is linked to cardiogenesis. Addition of GREM2 protein strongly increases cardiomyocyte output compared to established procardiogenic differentiation methods. Our data show that inhibition of canonical BMP signaling by GREM2 is necessary to promote proliferation of CPCs. However, canonical BMP signaling inhibition alone is not sufficient to induce cardiac differentiation, which depends on subsequent JNK pathway activation specifically by GREM2. These findings may have broader implications in the design of approaches to orchestrate growth and differentiation of pluripotent stem cell-derived lineages that depend on precise regulation of BMP signaling.

  11. Coordinated Proliferation and Differentiation of Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells Depend on Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling Regulation by GREMLIN 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylund, Jeffery B.; Trinh, Linh T.; Awgulewitsch, Cassandra P.; Paik, David T.; Jetter, Christopher; Jha, Rajneesh; Zhang, Jianhua; Nolan, Kristof; Xu, Chunhui; Thompson, Thomas B.; Kamp, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Heart development depends on coordinated proliferation and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), but how the two processes are synchronized is not well understood. Here, we show that the secreted Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) antagonist GREMLIN 2 (GREM2) is induced in CPCs shortly after cardiac mesoderm specification during differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. GREM2 expression follows cardiac lineage differentiation independently of the differentiation method used, or the origin of the pluripotent stem cells, suggesting that GREM2 is linked to cardiogenesis. Addition of GREM2 protein strongly increases cardiomyocyte output compared to established procardiogenic differentiation methods. Our data show that inhibition of canonical BMP signaling by GREM2 is necessary to promote proliferation of CPCs. However, canonical BMP signaling inhibition alone is not sufficient to induce cardiac differentiation, which depends on subsequent JNK pathway activation specifically by GREM2. These findings may have broader implications in the design of approaches to orchestrate growth and differentiation of pluripotent stem cell-derived lineages that depend on precise regulation of BMP signaling. PMID:28125926

  12. Improved healing of transected rabbit Achilles tendon after a single injection of cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Carina; Aspenberg, Per

    2003-01-01

    Achilles tendon ruptures in humans might be treated more efficiently with the help of a growth factor. Cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 has been shown to induce formation of tendon-like tissue. Cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 has a positive effect on mechanical parameters for tendon healing in a rabbit model with Achilles tendon transection. Controlled laboratory study. The right Achilles tendon of 40 rabbits was transected without tendon suture. Cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 (10 micro g) or vehicle control (acetate buffer) was injected locally 2 hours postoperatively. All tendons were tested biomechanically at 8 and 14 days, and treated tendons were histologically and radiographically evaluated at 56 days. At 14 days, both failure load and stiffness of treated tendons were increased by 35%. The treated tendons had significantly larger callus size at 8 and 14 days. Histologic and radiographic examination showed no signs of ossification in the treated tendons after 56 days. A single injection of cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 led to a stronger and stiffer tendon callus than that in the controls without inducing bone formation. Similar results from a larger animal model would suggest a possible future use of cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 in the treatment of human Achilles tendon ruptures.

  13. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite surfaces-mediated adsorption alters recognition of BMP receptor IA and bioactivity of bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baolin; Yuan, Yuan; Ding, Sai; Li, Jianbo; Ren, Jie; Feng, Bo; Li, Tong; Gu, Yuantong; Liu, Changsheng

    2015-11-01

    Highly efficient loading of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) onto carriers with desirable performance is still a major challenge in the field of bone regeneration. Till now, the nanoscaled surface-induced changes of the structure and bioactivity of BMP-2 remains poorly understood. Here, the effect of nanoscaled surface on the adsorption and bioactivity of BMP-2 was investigated with a series of hydroxyapatite surfaces (HAPs): HAP crystal-coated surface (HAP), HAP crystal-coated polished surface (HAP-Pol), and sintered HAP crystal-coated surface (HAP-Sin). The adsorption dynamics of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) and the accessibility of the binding epitopes of adsorbed rhBMP-2 for BMP receptors (BMPRs) were examined by a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. Moreover, the bioactivity of adsorbed rhBMP-2 and the BMP-induced Smad signaling were investigated with C2C12 model cells. A noticeably high mass-uptake of rhBMP-2 and enhanced recognition of BMPR-IA to adsorbed rhBMP-2 were found on the HAP-Pol surface. For the rhBMP-2-adsorbed HAPs, both ALP activity and Smad signaling increased in the order of HAP-Sinuses of rhBMP-2 in clinical applications and arouse broad interests among researchers in the fields of nano-biotechnology, biomaterials and bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 and decorin expression in old fracture fragments and surrounding tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X G; Wang, D K; Gao, F; Liu, R H; Bi, Z G

    2015-09-21

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) can promote fracture healing. Although the complex role BMP-2 in bone formation is increasingly understood, the role of endogenous BMP-2 in nonunion remains unclear. Decorin (DCN) can promote the formation of bone matrix and calcium deposition to control bone morphogenesis. In this study, tissue composition and expression of BMP-2 and DCN were detected in different parts of old fracture zones to explore inherent anti-fibrotic ability and osteogenesis. Twenty-three patients were selected, including eight cases of delayed union and 15 cases of nonunion. Average duration of delayed union or nonunion was 15 months. Fracture fragments and surrounding tissues, including bone grafts, marrow cavity contents, and sticking scars, were categorically sampled during surgery. Through observation and histological testing, component comparisons were made between fracture fragments and surrounding tissue. The expression levels of DCN and BMP-2 in different tissues were detected by immunohistochemical staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of DCN and BMP- 2 in different parts of the nonunion area showed that, compared with bone graft and marrow cavity contents, sticking scars had the highest expression of BMP-2. Compared with the marrow cavity contents and sticking scars, bone grafts had the highest expression of DCN. The low antifibrotic and osteogenic activity of the nonunion area was associated with non-co-expression of BMP-2 and DCN. Therefore, the co-injection of osteogenic factor BMP and DCN into the nonunion area can improve the induction of bone formation and enhance the conversion of the old scar, thereby achieving better nonunion treatment.

  15. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 inhibits insulin secretion from rodent beta cells through regulation of calbindin1 expression and reduced voltage-dependent calcium currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gitte L.; Jacobsen, Maria L. B.; Wendt, Anna

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes is characterised by progressive loss of pancreatic beta cell mass and function. Therefore, it is of therapeutic interest to identify factors with the potential to improve beta cell proliferation and insulin secretion. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) expression...

  16. Profile of serum alkaline phosphatase after inoculation of mononuclear cells and bone morphogenetic protein in the repair of osteochondral defects in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto de Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, serum alkaline phosphatase activity was measured in response to the repair of osteochondral defects in twenty-four New Zealand rabbits. The animals were divided into three groups: a control (GC, those treated with bone marrow mononuclear cells (GCM and those that received mononuclear cells with autologous bone morphogenetic protein (BMP + GCM. After exposing the trochlear groove of the left stifle joint, a wedge-shaped segment was removed. Later, the defect was filled with an osteochondral autograft preserved in 98% glycerin. For the GC group, only the bone graft was performed. For the GCM, in addition to the graft, 2x106 seed mononuclear cells were implanted. For the GCM + BMP, the same number of cells, associated with 1μg of bone morphogenetic protein, were intraarticularly administered. The osteoblastic response was measured by analyzing the serum alkaline phosphatase on day 0 (preoperative 3, 15, 30, and 45 after surgery, and by radiographic examinations. Analysis of variance in randomized blocks, factorial and Tukey’s test (p = 0.05 were made. The overall mean GCM was superior to the other groups and the highest rates were among the 15th and 45th days postoperatively. The discrepancy in values between individuals of the same group casts doubts on the veracity of the test.

  17. Regulation of bone morphogenetic protein signalling and cranial osteogenesis by Gpc1 and Gpc3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Prem P; Grose, Randall H; Filmus, Jorge; Hii, Charles S T; Xian, Cory J; Anderson, Peter J; Powell, Barry C

    2013-08-01

    From birth, the vault of the skull grows at a prodigious rate, driven by the activity of osteoblastic cells at the fibrous joints (sutures) that separate the bony calvarial plates. One in 2500 children is born with a medical condition known as craniosynostosis because of premature bony fusion of the calvarial plates and a cessation of bone growth at the sutures. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are potent growth factors that promote bone formation. Previously, we found that Glypican-1 (GPC1) and Glypican-3 (GPC3) are expressed in cranial sutures and are decreased during premature suture fusion in children. Although glypicans are known to regulate BMP signalling, a mechanistic link between GPC1, GPC3 and BMPs and osteogenesis has not yet been investigated. We now report that human primary suture mesenchymal cells coexpress GPC1 and GPC3 on the cell surface and release them into the media. We show that they inhibit BMP2, BMP4 and BMP7 activities, which both physically interact with BMP2 and that immunoblockade of endogenous GPC1 and GPC3 potentiates BMP2 activity. In contrast, increased levels of GPC1 and GPC3 as a result of overexpression or the addition of recombinant protein, inhibit BMP2 signalling and BMP2-mediated osteogenesis. We demonstrate that BMP signalling in suture mesenchymal cells is mediated by both SMAD-dependent and SMAD-independent pathways and that GPC1 and GPC3 inhibit both pathways. GPC3 inhibition of BMP2 activity is independent of attachment of the glypican on the cell surface and post-translational glycanation, and thus appears to be mediated by the core glypican protein. The discovery that GPC1 and GPC3 regulate BMP2-mediated osteogenesis, and that inhibition of endogenous GPC1 and GPC3 potentiates BMP2 responsiveness of human suture mesenchymal cells, indicates how downregulation of glypican expression could lead to the bony suture fusion that characterizes craniosynostosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of orthopedic implants with a polycaprolactone polymer coating containing bone morphogenetic protein-2 on osseointegration in bones of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Andrew J; Anderson, David E; Samii, Valerie F; Weisbrode, Steven E; Johnson, Jed K; Noon, Mike S; Tomasko, David L; Lannutti, John J

    2009-11-01

    To determine elution characteristics of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 from a polycaprolactone coating applied to orthopedic implants and determine effects of this coating on osseointegration. 6 sheep. An in vitro study was conducted to determine BMP-2 elution from polycaprolactone-coated implants. An in vivo study was conducted to determine the effects on osseointegration when the polycaprolactone with BMP-2 coating was applied to bone screws. Osseointegration was assessed via radiography, measurement of peak removal torque and bone mineral density, and histomorphometric analysis. Physiologic response was assessed by measuring serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity and uptake of bone markers. Mean +/- SD elution on day 1 of the in vitro study was 263 +/- 152 pg/d, which then maintained a plateau at 59.8 +/- 29.1 pg/d. Mean peak removal torque for screws coated with polycalprolactone and BMP-2 (0.91 +/- 0.65 dN x m) and screws coated with polycaprolactone alone (0.97 +/- 1.30 dN.m) did not differ significantly from that for the control screws (2.34 +/- 1.62 dN x m). Mean bone mineral densities were 0.535 +/- 0.060 g/cm(2), 0.596 +/- 0.093 g/cm(2), and 0.524 +/- 0.142 g/cm(2) for the polycaprolactone-BMP-2-coated, polycaprolactone-coated, and control screws, respectively, and did not differ significantly among groups. Histologically, bone was in closer apposition to the implant with the control screws than with either of the coated screws. BMP-2 within the polycaprolactone coating did not stimulate osteogenesis. The polycaprolactone coating appeared to cause a barrier effect that prevented formation of new bone. A longer period or use of another carrier polymer may result in increased osseointegration.

  19. The content of bone morphogenetic proteins in platelets varies greatly between different platelet donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalen, Anders; Wahlstroem, Ola; Linder, Cecilia Halling; Magnusson, Per

    2008-01-01

    Platelet derivates and platelet rich plasma have been used to stimulate bone formation and wound healing because of the rich content of potent growth factors. However, not all reports have been conclusive since some have not been able to demonstrate a positive effect. We investigated the interindividual variation of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in platelets from healthy donors, and the pH-dependent effect on the release of BMPs in preparations of lysed platelets in buffer (LPB). Platelet concentrates from 31 healthy donors were prepared in pH 4.3 and pH 7.4 buffers and investigated with respect to BMP-2, -4, -6, and -7. BMP-2 and BMP-4 were significantly more common in acidic LPBs in comparison with neutral preparations. We also observed a considerable variation among platelet donors with respect to the release of BMPs at pH 4.3 and 7.4. In conclusion, a considerable variation was found among platelet donors, which may be of importance considering the ambiguous results previously reported on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation

  20. Effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on bone cells in primary culture: immunohistochemical and electronmicroscopical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, I.; Prochnow, N.; Mueller, K.M. [Berufsgenossenschaftliche Kliniken Bergmannsheil, Bochum (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie; Wiemann, M.; Schirrmacher, K.; Bingmann, D. [Essen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physiologie; Sebald, W. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physiologische Chemie II

    2001-02-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), among other morphogenetic effects on non osseous tissues, promotes bone formation in vivo. Therefore, BMP-2 may accelerate the integration of osseous implants. Although the effects of BMPs on cell proliferation have been studied extensively in vivo or in cell lines, little is published about effects on bone cells in primary cultures, especially on cell differentiation. As such information is a prerequisite to understand and to control effects of BMPs on cells at the surface of implant materials, the present experiments aimed to describe effects of BMP-2 on primary cultures derived from calvarial fragments of neonatal rats. The cells were stimulated with 50 nM BMP-2 added to the nutrient medium for 3 or 6 days. Light- and electronmicroscopical studies showed that cells in the sprouting zones were larger and more often spindle shaped. Stimulated cells had more nucleoli than control cells and the endoplasmic reticulum was widened. They retained properties of typical bone cells: An immunhistochemical analysis showed that stimulated cells increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase, they secreted collagen type I and to a minor extent collagen type III. In BMP-2 treated cells the pattern of cells stained for actin, desmin and vimentin hardly changed whereas extracellular fibronectin appeared to be less cross-linked in BMP-2 treated cultures. The distribution and labeling strength of osteocalcin, a specific marker protein of bone cells did not change markedly. After exposure to BMP-2 cells tended to detach from the cover slips. Electron microscopy showed a reduced number of cell processes possibly facilitating the detachment and/or mobility. Stimulated cells contained an increased number of lamellar bodies which may reflect an increased synthesis and/or membrane turnover. Staining of non-osseous cells with anti-CD68-or anti-myeloid antibodies revealed that the small percentage of these cells regularly occurring in primary cultures

  1. The Effects of Irradiation and Calcium-deficient Diet on the Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2/4 during Early Tooth Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dai Hee; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/4 during early tooth development after irradiation and calcium-deficient diet. The pregnant three-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the study. The control group was non-irradiation/normal diet group (Group 1), and the experimental groups were irradiation/normal diet group (Group 2) and irradiation/calcium-diet group (Group 3). The abdomen of the rats at the 9th day of pregnancy were irradiated with single dose of 350 cGy. The rat pups were sacrificed at embryonic 18 days, 3 days and 14 days after delivery and the maxillae tooth germs were taken. The tissue sections of specimen were stained immunohistochemically with anti-BMP-2/4 antibody. At embryo-18 days, immunoreacivity for BMP-2/4 of the Group 1 was modetate in stratum intermedium of dental organ and weak in dental papilla and dental follicle, but that of Group 2 was weak in cell layer of dental organ, and no immunoreacivity was shown in dental papilla and dental follice of Group 2 and in all tissue components of the Group 3. At postnatal-3 days, immunoreacivity for BMP-2/4 of the Group 1 was strong in cell layer of dental organ, odontoblasts and developing alveolar bone, but that of Group of 2 and Group 3 was weak in odontoblasts and developing alveolar bone. At postnatal-14 days, immunoreacivity for BMP-2/4 of the Group 1 was strong in newly formed cementum, alveolar bone and odontoblasts, but that of Group 2 was weaker than that of Group 1. In the Group 3, tooth forming cell layer showed weak immunoreactivity, but other cell layers showed no immunoreactivity. The expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/4 during early tooth development was disturbed after irradiation and calcium-deficient diet.

  2. The Effects of Irradiation and Calcium-deficient Diet on the Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2/4 during Early Tooth Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dai Hee; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-15

    To investigate the expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/4 during early tooth development after irradiation and calcium-deficient diet. The pregnant three-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the study. The control group was non-irradiation/normal diet group (Group 1), and the experimental groups were irradiation/normal diet group (Group 2) and irradiation/calcium-diet group (Group 3). The abdomen of the rats at the 9th day of pregnancy were irradiated with single dose of 350 cGy. The rat pups were sacrificed at embryonic 18 days, 3 days and 14 days after delivery and the maxillae tooth germs were taken. The tissue sections of specimen were stained immunohistochemically with anti-BMP-2/4 antibody. At embryo-18 days, immunoreacivity for BMP-2/4 of the Group 1 was modetate in stratum intermedium of dental organ and weak in dental papilla and dental follicle, but that of Group 2 was weak in cell layer of dental organ, and no immunoreacivity was shown in dental papilla and dental follice of Group 2 and in all tissue components of the Group 3. At postnatal-3 days, immunoreacivity for BMP-2/4 of the Group 1 was strong in cell layer of dental organ, odontoblasts and developing alveolar bone, but that of Group of 2 and Group 3 was weak in odontoblasts and developing alveolar bone. At postnatal-14 days, immunoreacivity for BMP-2/4 of the Group 1 was strong in newly formed cementum, alveolar bone and odontoblasts, but that of Group 2 was weaker than that of Group 1. In the Group 3, tooth forming cell layer showed weak immunoreactivity, but other cell layers showed no immunoreactivity. The expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/4 during early tooth development was disturbed after irradiation and calcium-deficient diet.

  3. Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins and Msx genes during root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, T; Tummers, M; Thesleff, I

    2003-03-01

    Like crown development, root formation is also regulated by interactions between epithelial and mesenchymml tissues. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), together with the transcription factors Msx1 and Msx2, play important roles in these interactions during early tooth morphogenesis. To investigate the involvement of this signaling pathway in root development, we analyzed the expression patterns of Bmp2, Bmp3, Bmp4, and Bmp7 as well as Msx1 and Msx2 in the roots of mouse molars. Bmp4 was expressed in the apical mesenchyme and Msx2 in the root sheath. However, Bmps were not detected in the root sheath epithelium, and Msx transcripts were absent from the underlying mesenchyme. These findings indicate that this Bmp signaling pathway, required for tooth initiation, does not regulate root development, but we suggest that root shape may be regulated by a mechanism similar to that regulating crown shape in cap-stage tooth germs. Msx2 expression continued in the epithelial cell rests of Malassez, and the nearby cementoblasts intensely expressed Bmp3, which may regulate some functions of the fragmented epithelium.

  4. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 is overexpressed in and promotes migration and invasion of drug-resistant cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kairui; Shi, Xiaoli; Huo, Jinling; Liu, Weihua; Yang, Dongxiao; Yang, Tengjiao; Qin, Tiantian; Wang, Cong

    2017-08-01

    Drug resistance and metastasis significantly hinder chemotherapy and worsen prognoses in cancer. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) belongs to the TGF-β superfamily, has broad biological activities in cell proliferation and cartilage differentiation and is also able to induce migration and invasion. Herein, we investigated the role of BMP4 in the regulation of metastasis in paclitaxel-resistant human esophageal carcinoma EC109 cells (EC109/Taxol) and docetaxel-resistant human gastric cancer MGC803 cells (MGC/Doc). In these drug-resistant cell lines, we found the cell motility was enhanced and BMP4 was up-regulated relative to their respective parental cell lines. Consistent with in vitro assays, migration potential and BMP4 expression were increased in EC109/Taxol nude mice. Furthermore, to address whether BMP4 was required to enhance the metastatic in EC109/Taxol cells, the pharmacological inhibitor of BMP signaling dorsomorphin was used; meanwhile, we found that the migration and invasion abilities were inhibited. Moreover, the canonical Smad signaling pathway was investigated. Overall, our studies demonstrated that BMP4 participates in the regulation of invasion and migration by EC109/Taxol cells, and inhibition of BMP4 may be a novel strategy to interfere with metastasis in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. External fixation of femoral defects in athymic rats: Applications for human stem cell implantation and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terasa Foo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An appropriate animal model is critical for the research of stem/progenitor cell therapy and tissue engineering for bone regeneration in vivo. This study reports the design of an external fixator and its application to critical-sized femoral defects in athymic rats. The external fixator consists of clamps and screws that are readily available from hardware stores as well as Kirschner wires. A total of 35 rats underwent application of the external fixator with creation of a 6-mm bone defect in one femur of each animal. This model had been used in several separate studies, including implantation of collagen gel, umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, or bone morphogenetic protein-2. One rat developed fracture at the proximal pin site and two rats developed deep tissue infection. Pin loosening was found in nine rats, but it only led to the failure of external fixation in two animals. In 8 to 10 weeks, various degrees of bone growth in the femoral defects were observed in different study groups, from full repair of the bone defect with bone morphogenetic protein-2 implantation to fibrous nonunion with collagen gel implantation. The external fixator used in these studies provided sufficient mechanical stability to the bone defects and had a comparable complication rate in athymic rats as in immunocompetent rats. The external fixator does not interfere with the natural environment of a bone defect. This model is particularly valuable for investigation of osteogenesis of human stem/progenitor cells in vivo.

  6. Enhanced healing of rabbit segmental radius defects with surface-coated calcium phosphate cement/bone morphogenetic protein-2 scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yi; Hou, Juan; Yin, ManLi [Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Jing, E-mail: biomatwj@163.com [Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liu, ChangSheng, E-mail: csliu@sh163.net [Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2014-11-01

    Large osseous defects remain a difficult clinical problem in orthopedic surgery owing to the limited effective therapeutic options, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is useful for its potent osteoinductive properties in bone regeneration. Here we build a strategy to achieve prolonged duration time and help inducting new bone formation by using water-soluble polymers as a protective film. In this study, calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds were prepared as the matrix and combined with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) respectively to protect from the digestion of rhBMP-2. After being implanted in the mouse thigh muscles, the surface-modified composite scaffolds evidently induced ectopic bone formation. In addition, we further evaluated the in vivo effects of surface-modified scaffolds in a rabbit radius critical defect by radiography, three dimensional micro-computed tomographic (μCT) imaging, synchrotron radiation-based micro-computed tomographic (SRμCT) imaging, histological analysis, and biomechanical measurement. The HPMC-modified CPC scaffold was regarded as the best combination for segmental bone regeneration in rabbit radius. - Highlights: • A simple surface-coating method was used to fabricate composite scaffolds. • Growth factor was protected from rapid depletion via superficial coating. • Significant promotion of bone regeneration was achieved. • HPMC-modification displayed optimal effect of bone regeneration.

  7. Form-deprivation myopia induces decreased expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2, 5 in guinea pig sclera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To identify the presence of various bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs and their receptors in normal sclera of human, rat and guinea pigs, and to determine whether their expression changed with form-deprivation myopia (FDM in guinea pig sclera. METHODS: The expression of BMPs and BMP receptors were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Two-week-old guinea pigs were monocularly form-deprived with a translucent lens. After fourteen days induction of FDM, total RNA was isolated and subjected to RT-PCR to examine the changes of BMPs and BMP receptors in tissues from the posterior sclera. Western blotting analysis was used to investigate their changes in protein levels. RESULTS: Human sclera expressed mRNAs for BMP-2, -4, -5, -7, -RIA, -RIB and BMP-RII. Conversely, rat sclera only expressed mRNA for BMP-7 and BMP-RIB, while the expression of BMPs and BMP receptors in guinea pigs were similar to that of humans. Human sclera also expresses BMP-2, -4, -5,-7 in protein level. Fourteen days after the induction of myopia, significant decreased expressions for BMP-2 and BMP-5 in the posterior sclera of FDM-affected eyes (PCONCLUSION: Various BMPs were expressed in human and guinea pig sclera. In the posterior sclera, expressions of BMP-2 and BMP-5 significantly decreased in FDM eyes. This finding indicates that various BMPs as components of the scleral cytokines regulating tissue homeostasis and provide evidence that alterations in the expression of BMP-2 and BMP-5 are associated with sclera remodeling during myopia induction.

  8. MB109 as bioactive human bone morphogenetic protein-9 refolded and purified from E. coli inclusion bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of chemical refolding of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily ligands has been instrumental to produce the recombinant proteins for biochemical studies and exploring the potential of protein therapeutics. The osteogenic human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (hBMP-2) and its Drosophila DPP homolog were the early successful cases of refolding into functional form. Despite the similarity in their three dimensional structure and amino acid sequences, several other TGF-β superfamily ligands could not be refolded readily by the same methods. Results Here, we report a comprehensive study on the variables of a rapid-dilution refolding method, including the concentrations of protein, salt, detergent and redox agents, pH, refolding duration and the presence of aggregation suppressors and host-cell contaminants, in order to identify the optimal condition to refold human BMP-9 (hBMP-9). To produce a recombinant form of hBMP-9 in E. coli cells, a synthetic codon-optimized gene was designed to encode the mature domain of hBMP-9 (Ser320 – Arg429) directly behind the first methionine, which we herein referred to as MB109. An effective purification scheme was also developed to purify the refolded MB109 to homogeneity with a final yield of 7.8 mg from 100 mg of chromatography-purified inclusion bodies as a starting material. The chemically refolded MB109 binds to ALK1, ActRIIb and BMPRII receptors with relatively high affinity as compared to other Type I and Type II receptors based on surface plasmon resonance analysis. Smad1-dependent luciferase assay in C2C12 cells shows that the MB109 has an EC50 of 0.61 ng/mL (25 pM), which is nearly the same as hBMP-9. Conclusion MB109 is prone to be refolded as non-functional dimer and higher order multimers in most of the conditions tested, but bioactive MB109 dimer can be refolded with high efficiency in a narrow window, which is strongly dependent on the pH, refolding duration, the presence of

  9. Addition of bone morphogenetic protein type 2 to ascorbate and β-glycerophosphate supplementation did not enhance osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells

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    Ariadne Cristiane Cabral Cruz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein type 2 (BMP-2 is a potent local factor, which promotes bone formation and has been used as an osteogenic supplement for mesenchymal stem cells. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effect of a recombinant BMP-2 as well as the endogenous BMP-4 and BMP-7 in the osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs in medium supplemented with ascorbate and β-glycerophosphate. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Human ASCs were treated with osteogenic medium in the presence (ASCs+OM+BMP-2 or absence (ASCs+OM of BMP-2. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was determined and the extracellular matrix mineralization was evaluated by Von Kossa staining and calcium quantification. The expressions of BMP-4, BMP-7, Smad1, Smad4, and phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 were analyzed by western blotting. Relative mRNA expressions of Smad1, BMP receptor type II (BMPR-II, osteonectin, and osteocalcin were evaluated by qPCR. Results: ASCs+OM demonstrated the highest expression of BMP-4 and BMP-7 at days 21 and 7, respectively, the highest levels of BMPR-II mRNA expression at day 28, and the highest levels of Smad1 mRNA at days 14 and 28. ASCs+OM+BMP-2 demonstrated the highest levels of Smad1 mRNA expression at days 1, 7, and 21, the highest expression of Smad1 at day 7, the highest expression of Smad4 at day 14, the highest ALP activity at days 14 and 21, and expression of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 at day 7. ASCs+OM and ASCs+OM+BMP2 showed similar ALP activity at days 7 and 28, similar osteonectin and osteocalcin mRNA expression at all time periods, and similar calcium depositions at all time periods. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that human ASCs expressed endogenous BMP-4 and BMP-7. Moreover, the supplementation of ASCs with BMP-2 did not increase the level of osteogenic markers in the initial (ALP activity, intermediate (osteonectin and osteocalcin, or final (calcium deposition phases, suggesting that the exogenous addition of BMP-2 did not improve

  10. The Effects of Tocotrienol and Lovastatin Co-Supplementation on Bone Dynamic Histomorphometry and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Expression in Rats with Estrogen Deficiency

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    Kok-Yong Chin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Both tocotrienol and statins are suppressors of the mevalonate pathway. Supplementation of tocotrienol among statin users could potentially protect them against osteoporosis. This study aimed to compare the effects of tocotrienol and lovastatin co-supplementation with individual treatments on bone dynamic histomorphometric indices and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 gene expression in ovariectomized rats. Forty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized equally into six groups. The baseline was sacrificed upon receipt. All other groups were ovariectomized, except for the sham group. The ovariectomized groups were administered orally daily with (1 lovastatin 11 mg/kg/day alone; (2 tocotrienol derived from annatto bean (annatto tocotrienol 60 mg/kg/day alone; (3 lovastatin 11 mg/kg/day, and annatto tocotrienol 60 mg/kg/day. The sham and ovariectomized control groups were treated with equal volume of vehicle. After eight weeks of treatment, the rats were sacrificed. Their bones were harvested for bone dynamic histomorphometry and BMP-2 gene expression. Rats supplemented with annatto tocotrienol and lovastatin concurrently demonstrated significantly lower single-labeled surface, but increased double-labeled surface, mineralizing surface, mineral apposition rate and bone formation rate compared to individual treatments (p < 0.05. There was a parallel increase in BMP-2 gene expression in the rats receiving combined treatment (p < 0.05. The combination of annatto tocotrienol and lovastatin exerted either additively or synergistically on selected bone parameters. In conclusion, tocotrienol can augment the bone formation and mineralization in rats receiving low-dose statins. Supplementation of tocotrienol in statin users can potentially protect them from osteoporosis.

  11. The combined use of rhBMP-2/ACS, autogenous bone graft, a bovine bone mineral biomaterial, platelet-rich plasma, and guided bone regeneration at nonsubmerged implant placement for supracrestal bone augmentation. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclar, Anthony G; Best, Steven P

    2013-01-01

    This case report presents the clinical application and outcomes of the use of a combined approach to treat a patient with a severe alveolar defect. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in an absorbable collagen sponge carrier, along with autogenous bone graft, bovine bone mineral, platelet-rich plasma, and guided bone regeneration, were used simultaneous with nonsubmerged implant placement. At 1 year postsurgery, healthy peri-implant soft tissues and radiographically stable peri-implant crestal bone levels were observed along with locally increased radiographic bone density. In addition, a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan demonstrated apparent supracrestal peri-implant bone augmentation with the appearance of normal alveolar ridge contours, including the facial bone wall.

  12. Vascular endothelial growth factor/bone morphogenetic protein-2 bone marrow combined modification of the mesenchymal stem cells to repair the avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Wei; Cui, Da-Ping; Zhao, De-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) combined with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) was used to repair avascular necrosis of the femoral head, which can maintain the osteogenic phenotype of seed cells, and effectively secrete VEGF and BMP-2, and effectively promote blood vessel regeneration and contribute to formation and revascularization of tissue engineered bone tissues. To observe the therapeutic effect on the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head by using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) modified by VEGF-165 and BMP-2 in vitro. The models were avascular necrosis of femoral head of rabbits on right leg. There groups were single core decompression group, core decompression + BMSCs group, core decompression + VEGF-165/BMP-2 transfect BMSCs group. Necrotic bone was cleared out under arthroscope. Arthroscopic observation demonstrated that necrotic bone was cleared out in each group, and fresh blood flowed out. Histomorphology determination showed that blood vessel number and new bone area in the repair region were significantly greater at various time points following transplantation in the core decompression + VEGF-165/BMP-2 transfect BMSCs group compared with single core decompression group and core decompression + BMSCs group (P < 0.05). These suggested that VEGF-165/BMP-2 gene transfection strengthened osteogenic effects of BMSCs, elevated number and quality of new bones and accelerated the repair of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. PMID:26629044

  13. Leiomyoma-derived transforming growth factor-β impairs bone morphogenetic protein-2-mediated endometrial receptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Leo F; Taylor, Hugh S

    2015-03-01

    To determine whether transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 is a paracrine signal secreted by leiomyoma that inhibits bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-mediated endometrial receptivity and decidualization. Experimental. Laboratory. Women with symptomatic leiomyomas. Endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and leiomyoma cells were isolated from surgical specimens. Leiomyoma-conditioned media (LCM) was applied to cultured ESC. The TGF-β was blocked by two approaches: TGF-β pan-specific antibody or transfection with a mutant TGF-β receptor type II. Cells were then treated with recombinant human BMP-2 to assess BMP responsiveness. Expression of BMP receptor types 1A, 1B, 2, as well as endometrial receptivity mediators HOXA10 and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed elevated TGF-β levels in LCM. LCM treatment of ESC reduced expression of BMP receptor types 1B and 2 to approximately 60% of pretreatment levels. Preincubation of LCM with TGF-β neutralizing antibody or mutant TGF receptor, but not respective controls, prevented repression of BMP receptors. HOXA10 and LIF expression was repressed in recombinant human BMP-2 treated, LCM exposed ESC. Pretreatment of LCM with TGF-β antibody or transfection with mutant TGF receptor prevented HOXA10 and LIF repression. Leiomyoma-derived TGF-β was necessary and sufficient to alter endometrial BMP-2 responsiveness. Blockade of TGF-β prevents repression of BMP-2 receptors and restores BMP-2-stimulated expression of HOXA10 and LIF. Blockade of TGF signaling is a potential strategy to improve infertility and pregnancy loss associated with uterine leiomyoma. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bone morphogenic protein: an elixir for bone grafting--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Prasun; Keppler, Louis; Rutkowski, James

    2012-12-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional growth factors that belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. This literature review focuses on the molecular biology of BMPs, their mechanism of action, and subsequent applications. It also discusses uses of BMPs in the fields of dentistry and orthopedics, research on methods of delivering BMPs, and their role in tissue regeneration. BMP has positive effects on bone grafts, and their calculated and timely use with other growth factors can provide extraordinary results in fractured or nonhealing bones. Use of BMP introduces new applications in the field of implantology and bone grafting. This review touches on a few unknown facts about BMP and this ever-changing field of research to improve human life.

  15. [The role of Smads and related transcription factors in the signal transduction of bone morphogenetic protein inducing bone formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-liang; Dai, Ke-rong; Tang, Ting-ting

    2003-09-01

    To clarify the mechanisms of the signal transduction of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) inducing bone formation and to provide theoretical basis for basic and applying research of BMPs. We looked up the literature of the role of Smads and related transcription factors in the signal transduction of BMPs inducing bone formation. The signal transduction processes of BMPs included: 1. BMPs combined with type II and type I receptors; 2. the type I receptor phosphorylated Smads; and 3. Smads entered the cell nucleus, interacted with transcription factors and influenced the transcription of related proteins. Smads could be divided into receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads: Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad5, Smad8 and Smad9), common-mediator Smad (co-Smad: Smad4), and inhibitory Smads (I-Smads: Smad6 and Smad7). Smad1, Smad5, Smad8, and probable Smad9 were involved in the signal transduction of BMPs. Multiple kinases, such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and Akt serine/threonine kinase were related to Smads signal transduction. Smad1 and Smad5 related with transcription factors included core binding factor A1 (CBFA1), smad-interacting protein 1 (SIP1), ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (OAZ), activating protein-1 (AP-1), xenopus ventralizing homeobox protein-2 (Xvent-2), sandostatin (Ski), antiproliferative proteins (Tob), and homeodomain-containing transcriptian factor-8 (Hoxc-8), et al. CBFA1 could interact with Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, and Smad5, so it was involved in TGF-beta and BMP-2 signal transduction, and played an important role in the bone formation. Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) was thought to be caused by heterozygous mutations in CBFA1. The CBFA1 knockout mice showed no osteogenesis and had maturational disturbance of chondrocytes. Smads and related transcription factors, especially Smad1, Smad5, Smad8 and CBFA1, play an important role in the signal transduction of BMPs inducing bone

  16. Cancer risk after use of recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 for spinal arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, Eugene J; Chu, Gilbert; Rohatgi, Rajat; Hurwitz, Eric L; Weiner, Bradley K; Yoon, S Tim; Comer, Garet; Kopjar, Branko

    2013-09-04

    Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is a growth factor known to have in vitro effects on the growth and invasiveness of cancer. It has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in limited doses for single-level anterior spinal arthrodesis, but it is commonly used off-label and at high doses. The effect of rhBMP-2 on the risk of cancer has been a concern. We sought to evaluate the risk of new cancers in patients receiving high-dose rhBMP-2. We used publicly available data from a pivotal, multicenter, randomized controlled trial of patients with degenerative lumbar spine conditions who underwent a single-level instrumented posterolateral arthrodesis with either high-dose rhBMP-2 in a compression-resistant matrix (CRM) (rhBMP-2/CRM; n = 239) or autogenous bone graft (control group; n = 224). We compared the risks of new cancers in the rhBMP-2/CRM and control groups at two and five years after surgery. At two years, with 86% follow-up, there were fifteen new cancer events in eleven patients in the rhBMP-2/CRM group compared with two new cancer events in two patients in the control group treated with autogenous bone graft. The incidence rate of new cancer events per 100 person-years was 3.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.89 to 5.56) in the rhBMP-2/CRM group at two years compared with 0.50 (95% CI, 0.06 to 1.80) in the control group. The incidence rate ratio was 6.75 (95% CI, 1.57 to 60.83; p = 0.0026) at two years. Calculated in terms of the number of patients with one or more cancer events two years after the surgery, the incidence rate per 100 person-years was 2.54 (95% CI, 1.27 to 4.54) in the rhBMP-2/CRM group compared with 0.50 (95% CI, 0.06 to 1.82) in the control group at two years; the incidence rate ratio was 5.04 (95% CI, 1.10 to 46.82; p = 0.0194). At five years, there was a 37% loss of follow-up, but a significantly greater incidence of cancer events was still observed in the rhBMP-2/CRM group. A high dose of 40 mg of rh

  17. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) immobilized collagen-coated polyetheretherketone (PEEK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ya-Wei; Zhang, Li-Nan; Ye, Xin; Nie, He-Min; Hou, Zeng-Tao; Zeng, Teng-Hui; Yan, Guo-Ping; Shang, Peng

    2015-03-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is regarded as one of the most potential candidates of biomaterials in spinal implant applications. However, as a bioinert material, PEEK plays a limited role in osteoconduction and osseointegration. In this study, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) was immobilized onto the surface of collagen-coated PEEK in order to prepare a multi-functional material. After adsorbed onto the PEEK surface by hydrophobic interaction, collagen was cross-linked with N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethyl carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). EDC/NHS system also contributed to the immobilization of rhBMP-2. Water contact angle tests, XPS and SEM clearly demonstrated the surface changes. ELISA tests quantified the amount of rhBMP-2 immobilized and the release over a period of 30 d. In vitro evaluation proved that the osteogenesis differentiation rate was higher when cells were cultured on modified PEEK discs than on regular ones. In vivo tests were conducted and positive changes of major parameters were presented. This report demonstrates that the rhBMP-2 immobilized method for PEEK modification increase bioactivity in vitro and in vivo, suggesting its practicability in orthopedic and spinal clinical applications.

  18. Astrocytes from the contused spinal cord inhibit oligodendrocyte differentiation of adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells by increasing the expression of bone morphogenetic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaping; Cheng, Xiaoxin; He, Qian; Zheng, Yiyan; Kim, Dong H; Whittemore, Scott R; Cao, Qilin L

    2011-04-20

    Promotion of remyelination is an important therapeutic strategy to facilitate functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) or oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) has been used to enhance remyelination after SCI. However, the microenvironment in the injured spinal cord is inhibitory for oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation of NSCs or OPCs. Identifying the signaling pathways that inhibit OL differentiation in the injured spinal cord could lead to new therapeutic strategies to enhance remyelination and functional recovery after SCI. In the present study, we show that reactive astrocytes from the injured rat spinal cord or their conditioned media inhibit OL differentiation of adult OPCs with concurrent promotion of astrocyte differentiation. The expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) is dramatically increased in the reactive astrocytes and their conditioned media. Importantly, blocking BMP activity by BMP receptor antagonist, noggin, reverse the effects of active astrocytes on OPC differentiation by increasing the differentiation of OL from OPCs while decreasing the generation of astrocytes. These data indicate that the upregulated bone morphogenetic proteins in the reactive astrocytes are major factors to inhibit OL differentiation of OPCs and to promote its astrocyte differentiation. These data suggest that manipulation of BMP signaling in the endogenous or grafted NSCs or OPCs may be a useful therapeutic strategy to increase their OL differentiation and remyelination and enhance functional recovery after SCI.

  19. Growth differentiation factor 3 is induced by bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) and BMP-7 and increases luteinizing hormone receptor messenger RNA expression in human granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jia; Yoshino, Osamu; Osuga, Yutaka; Akiyama, Ikumi; Harada, Miyuki; Koga, Kaori; Fujimoto, Akihisa; Yano, Tetsu; Taketani, Yuji

    2012-04-01

    To examine the relevance of growth differentiation factor 3 (GDF-3) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) cytokines in human ovary. Molecular studies. Research laboratory. Eight women undergoing salpingo-oophorectomy and 30 women undergoing ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization. Localizing GDF-3 protein in human ovaries; granulosa cells (GC) cultured with GDF-3, BMP-6, or BMP-7 followed by RNA extraction. The localization of GDF-3 protein in normal human ovaries via immunohistochemical analysis, GDF-3 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression evaluation via quantitative real-time reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and evaluation of the effect of GDF-3 on leuteinizing hormone (LH) receptor mRNA expression via quantitative real-time RT-PCR. In the ovary, BMP cytokines, of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, are known as a luteinization inhibitor by suppressing LH receptor expression in GC. Growth differentiation factor 3, a TGF-β superfamily cytokine, is recognized as an inhibitor of BMP cytokines in other cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that GDF-3 was strongly detected in the GC of antral follicles. An in vitro assay revealed that BMP-6 or BMP-7 induced GDF-3 mRNA in GC. Also, GDF-3 increased LH receptor mRNA expression and inhibited the effect of BMP-7, which suppressed the LH receptor mRNA expression in GC. GDF-3, induced with BMP-6 and BMP-7, might play a role in folliculogenesis by inhibiting the effect of BMP cytokines. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bases teóricas y aplicación clínica de las proteínas morfogenéticas óseas en cirugía maxilofacial Base theories and the clinical application of bone morphogenetic proteins in maxillofacial surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Ardila Medina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los grandes avances en la neoformación ósea ha sido la identificación de factores de crecimiento importantes para ella como son las proteinas morfogenéticas óseas (PMO que regulan la diferenciación ósea y cartilaginosa in vivo. La depuración, clonación genética y expresión de las PMO han establecido las bases para el análisis celular y molecular del desarrollo y la regeneración ósea. El estudio genético de las PMO señala que son esenciales para la función normal animal y en la osteogénesis postfetal es importante en el desarrollo embrionario orgánico, esquelético y de los tejidos dentales y craneofaciales. La disponibilidad de las PMO proporciona retos y oportunidades para mejorar los conocimientos que regulan la regeneración ósea con el fin de optimizar los resultados en el paciente.One of the fundamental advances in bone neoformation has been the identification of important growth factors like the bone morphogenetic proteins that regulate live cartilage and bone differentiation. The cleansing, genetic cloning and expression of recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP have laid the basis for cellular and molecular analysis of bone development and regeneration. The genetic study of the BMPs indicates that they are essential to the normal development and function of animals. BMP post-natal bone development is also very important in embryonic organic, skeletal, craniofacial and dental tissue development. The availability of BMPs provides several challenges and opportunities to improve insights into the mechanisms that regulate the regeneration of bone for optimal outcome in the patient.

  1. Regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins in early embryonic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a large subgroup of the TGF-β family of secreted growth factors, control fundamental events in early embryonic development, organogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. The plethora of dose-dependent cellular processes regulated by BMP signalling demand a tight regulation of BMP activity. Over the last decade, a number of proteins have been identified that bind BMPs in the extracellular space and regulate the interaction of BMPs with their cognate receptors, including the secreted BMP antagonist Chordin. In the early vertebrate embryo, the localized secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip establishes a functional BMP signalling gradient that is required for the determination of the dorsoventral or back to belly body axis. In particular, inhibition of BMP activity is essential for the formation of neural tissue in the development of vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. Here we review recent studies that have provided new insight into the regulation of BMP signalling in the extracellular space. In particular, we discuss the recently identified Twisted gastrulation protein that modulates, in concert with metalloproteinases of the Tolloid family, the interaction of Chordin with BMP and a family of proteins that share structural similarities with Chordin in the respective BMP binding domains. In addition, genetic and functional studies in zebrafish and frog provide compelling evidence that the secreted protein Sizzled functionally interacts with the Chd BMP pathway, despite being expressed ventrally in the early gastrula-stage embryo. These intriguing discoveries may have important implications, not only for our current concept of early embryonic patterning, but also for the regulation of BMP activity at later developmental stages and tissue homeostasis in the adult.

  2. Effect of autoclave devitalization on autograft incorporation and bone morphogenetic protein of tibia in Sprague-Dawley rats

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    Anak A.G.Y. Asmara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heating process with autoclave is one of limb salvage modalities that are widely used. but the results are not satisfying, due to mechanical bone fragility. However, considering this treatment modality is widely accepted in terms of financial, religion and sociocultural aspects, we conducted a on study rats treated with resection and reconstruction with autoclave heating method to assess bone healing by sequential radiology, histopathologic osteoblasts count, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP.Methods: Thirty six Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups with one group being the autoclave group and others served as control group. In both groups, the tibial diaphysis was extracted en bloc for 7 mm. All groups were kept for 8 weeks and treated under the same condition except the autoclave group, where the extracted bones were put into autoclave at 134°C for 15 minutes and refixed again with k-wire. We performed radiological examination at 5th and 8th week using Lane and Sandhu radiological score. After extraction, the tibial bones were inspected for histological pattern using Salked modified score, osteoblast quantity counting and BMP-2 values.Results: There were statistically significant diffences between control and autoclave group on radiological score at 5th (5.12 ± 1.6 g vs 3.21 ± 2.42, p = 0.023 and 8th week (6.06 ± 1.71 vs 4.29 ± 2.53, p = 0.040, histological score between groups (6.06 ± 1.14 vs 4.14 ± 1.99, p = 0.005, osteoblast count (p < 0.001, and BMP-2 expression,  respectively.Conclusion: Autoclave recycling autograft lowered the speed of graft incorporation and BMP-2 expression. Therefore, autoclave recycling autograft as a method of limb salvage surgery must be reevaluated and not considered to be applied for treatment in bone malignancy.  

  3. Bone morphogenetic proteins regulate osteoprotegerin and its ligands in human vascular smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kirsten Quyen Nguyen; Olesen, Ping; Ledet, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The bone-related protein osteoprotegerin (OPG) may be involved in the development of vascular calcifications, especially in diabetes, where it has been found in increased amounts in the arterial wall. Experimental studies suggest that members of the TGF-superfamily are involved in the transformat......The bone-related protein osteoprotegerin (OPG) may be involved in the development of vascular calcifications, especially in diabetes, where it has been found in increased amounts in the arterial wall. Experimental studies suggest that members of the TGF-superfamily are involved...... in the transformation of human vascular smooth muscle cells (HVSMC) to osteoblast-like cells. In this study, we evaluated the effect of BMP-2, BMP-7 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta1) on the secretion and mRNA expression of OPG and its ligands receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappabeta ligand (RANKL......) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in HVSMC. All three growth factors decreased OPG protein production significantly; these results were paralleled by reduced OPG mRNA expression. TRAIL mRNA levels were also decreased. RANKL mRNA expression declined when treated with TGF-beta1 but were...

  4. Osteoinductivity of gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate sponges loaded with different concentrations of mesenchymal stem cells and bone morphogenetic protein-2 in an equine bone defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jong-Pil; Tsuzuki, Nao; Haneda, Shingo; Yamada, Kazutaka; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Naoki

    2014-03-01

    Fracture is one of the most life-threatening injuries in horses. Fracture repair is often associated with unsatisfactory outcomes and is associated with a high incidence of complications. This study aimed to evaluate the osteogenic effects of gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate (GT) sponges loaded with different concentrations/ratios of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in an equine bone defect model. Seven thoroughbred horses were used in this study. Eight bone defects were created in the third metatarsal bones of each horse. Then, eight treatments, namely control, GT, GT/M-5, GT/M-6, GT/M-5/B-1, GT/M-5/B-3, GT/M-6/B-1, and GT/M-6/B-3 were applied to the eight different sites in a randomized manner (M-5: 2 × 10(5) MSCs; M-6: 2 × 10(6) MSCs; B-1: 1 μg of BMP-2; B-3: 3 μg of BMP-2). Repair of bone defects was assessed by radiography, quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and histopathological evaluation. Radiographic scores and CT values were significantly lower in the control group than in the other groups, while they were significantly higher in the GT/M-5/B-3 and GT/M-6/B-3 groups than in the other groups. The amount of mature compact bone filling the defects was greater in the GT/M-5/B-3 and GT/M-6/B-3 groups than in the other groups. The present study demonstrated that the GT sponge loaded with MSCs and BMP-2 promoted bone regeneration in an equine bone defect model. The GT/MSC/BMP-2 described here may be useful for treating horses with bone injuries.

  5. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 9 Reduces Cardiac Fibrosis and Improves Cardiac Function in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morine, Kevin J; Qiao, Xiaoying; York, Sam; Natov, Peter S; Paruchuri, Vikram; Zhang, Yali; Aronovitz, Mark J; Karas, Richard H; Kapur, Navin K

    2018-02-27

    Background -Heart failure is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) promotes cardiac fibrosis, but also activates counter-regulatory pathways that serve to regulate TGF-β1 activity in heart failure. Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) is a member of the TGFβ family of cytokines and signals via the downstream effector protein Smad1. Endoglin is a TGFβ co-receptor that promotes TGF-β1 signaling via Smad3 and binds BMP9 with high affinity. We hypothesized that BMP9 limits cardiac fibrosis by activating Smad1 and attenuating Smad3 and further that neutralizing endoglin activity promotes BMP9 activity. Methods -We examined BMP9 expression and signaling in human cardiac fibroblasts and human subjects with heart failure. We utilized the thoracic aortic constriction (TAC) induced model of heart failure to evaluate the functional effect of BMP9 signaling on cardiac remodeling. Results -BMP9 expression is increased in the circulation and left ventricle (LV) of human subjects with heart failure and is expressed by cardiac fibroblasts. Next, we observed that BMP9 attenuates Type I collagen synthesis in human cardiac fibroblasts using recombinant human BMP9 and an siRNA approach. In BMP9 -/- mice subjected to TAC, loss of BMP9 activity promotes cardiac fibrosis, impairs LV function, and increases LV levels of phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3), not pSmad1. In contrast, treatment of wild-type mice subjected to TAC with recombinant BMP9 limits progression of cardiac fibrosis, improves LV function, enhances myocardial capillary density, and increases LV levels of pSmad1, not pSmad3 compared to vehicle treated controls. Since endoglin binds BMP9 with high affinity, we explored the effect of reduced endoglin activity on BMP9 activity. Neutralizing endoglin activity in human cardiac fibroblasts or in wild-type mice subjected to TAC induced heart failure limits collagen production, increases BMP9 protein levels, and increases

  6. Effects of atomic-level nano-structured hydroxyapatite on adsorption of bone morphogenetic protein-7 and its derived peptide by computer simulation.

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    Wang, Qun; Wang, Menghao; Lu, Xiong; Wang, Kefeng; Fang, Liming; Ren, Fuzeng; Lu, Guoming

    2017-11-09

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the principal inorganic component of bones and teeth and has been widely used as a bone repair material because of its good biocompatibility and bioactivity. Understanding the interactions between proteins and HA is crucial for designing biomaterials for bone regeneration. In this study, we evaluated the effects of atomic-level nano-structured HA (110) surfaces on the adsorption of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) and its derived peptide (KQLNALSVLYFDD) using molecular dynamics and density functional theory methods. The results indicated that the atomic-level morphology of HA significantly affected the interaction strength between proteins and HA substrates. The interactions of BMP-7 and its derived peptide with nano-concave and nano-pillar HA surfaces were stronger than those with flat or nano-groove HA surfaces. The results also revealed that if the groove size of nano-structured HA surfaces matched that of residues in the protein or peptide, these residues were likely to spread into the grooves of the nano-groove, nano-concave, and nano-pillar HA, further strengthening the interactions. These results are helpful in better understanding the adsorption behaviors of proteins onto nano-structured HA surfaces, and provide theoretical guidance for designing novel bioceramic materials for bone regeneration and tissue engineering.

  7. Repair of rat cranial bone defect by using bone morphogenetic protein-2-related peptide combined with microspheres composed of polylactic acid/polyglycolic acid copolymer and chitosan

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    Li, Jingfeng; Jin, Lin; Zhu, Shaobo; Wang, Mingbo; Xu, Shuyun

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the transplanted bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) -related peptide P24 and rhBMP 2 combined with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/chitosan (CS) microspheres were investigated in promoting the repair of rat cranial bone defect. Forty white rats were selected and equally divided into four groups (group A: 1 μg of rhBMP 2 /PLGA/CS composite; group B: 3 mg of P24/PLGA/CS composite; group C: 0.5 μg of rhBMP 2 + 1.5 mg of P24/PLGA/CS composite; group D: blank PLGA/CS material), and rat cranial bone defect models with a diameter of 5 mm were established. The materials were transplanted to the cranial bone defects. The animals were sacrificed on weeks 6 and 12 post-operation. Radiographic examinations (x-ray imaging and 3D CT scanning) and histological evaluations were performed. The repaired areas of cranial bone defects were measured, and the osteogenetic abilities of various materials were compared. Cranial histology, imaging, and repaired area measurements showed that the osteogenetic effects at two time points (weeks 6 and 12) in group C were better than those in groups A and B. The effects in groups A and B were similar. Group D achieved the worst repair effect of cranial bone defects, where a large number of fibrous connective tissues were observed. The PLGA/CS composite microspheres loaded with rhBMP 2 and P24 had optimal concrescence and could mutually increase their osteogenesis capability. rhBMP 2 + P24/PLGA/CS composite is a novel material for bone defect repair with stable activity to induce bone formation. (paper)

  8. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide microspheres enhance osteogenic potential of gelatin/hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate cryogel composite for alveolar ridge augmentation

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    Hao-Chieh Chang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Sufficient bony support is essential to ensure the success of dental implant osseointegration. However, the reconstruction of vertical ridge deficiencies is still a major challenge for dental implants. This study introduced a novel treatment strategy by infusing poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA microspheres encapsulating bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 within a gelatin/hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (gelatin/HA/β-TCP cryogel composite to facilitate supra-alveolar ridge augmentation. Methods: The gelatin scaffold was crosslinked using cryogel technique, and HA/β-TCP particles were mechanically entrapped to form the gelatin/HA/β-TCP composite. Co-axial electrohydrodynamic atomization technology was used to fabricate PLGA microspheres encapsulating BMP-2. The composites of gelatin/HA/β-TCP alone, with infusion of BMP-2 solution (BMPi or microspheres (BMPm, were fixed on rat mandibles using a titanium mini-implant for 4 weeks, and the therapeutic efficiency was evaluated by micro-computed tomography, bone fluorochrome, and histology. Results: The gelatin/HA/β-TCP composite was homogenously porous, and BMP-2 was sustained release from the microspheres without initial burst release. Ridge augmentation was noted in all specimens treated with the gelatin/HA/β-TCP composite, and greater bone deposition ratio were noted in Groups BMPi and BMPm. Compared with Group BMPi, specimens in Group BMPm showed significantly greater early osteogenesis and evident osseointegration in the supra-alveolar level. Conclusion: BMP-2 loaded PLGA microspheres effectively promoted osteogenic potential of the gelatin/HA/β-TCP composite and facilitated supra-alveolar ridge augmentation in vivo. Keywords: bone morphogenetic protein-2, bone regeneration, dental implant, tissue engineering, tissue scaffolds

  9. Nanofibrous yet injectable polycaprolactone-collagen bone tissue scaffold with osteoprogenitor cells and controlled release of bone morphogenetic protein-2

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    Subramanian, Gayathri; Bialorucki, Callan [Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Yildirim-Ayan, Eda, E-mail: eda.yildirimayan@utoledo.edu [Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we developed a nanofibrous, yet injectable orthobiologic tissue scaffold that is capable of hosting osteoprogenitor cells and controlling kinetic release profile of the encapsulated pro-osteogenic factor without diminishing its bioactivity over 21 days. This innovative injectable scaffold was synthesized by incorporating electrospun and subsequently O{sub 2} plasma-functionalized polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers within the collagen type-I solution along with MC3T3-E1 cells (pre-osteoblasts) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2). Through changing the PCL nanofiber concentration within the injectable scaffolds, we were able to tailor the mechanical strength, protein retention capacity, bioactivity preservation, and osteoinductive potential of the scaffolds. The nanofibrous internal structure of the scaffold allowed us to use a low dose of BMP2 (200 ng/ml) to achieve osteoblastic differentiation in in vitro culture. The osteogenesis capacity of the injectable scaffolds were evaluated though measuring MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation, ALP activity, matrix mineralization, and early- and late-osteoblast specific gene expression profiles over 21 days. The results demonstrated that the nanofibrous injectable scaffold provides not only an osteoinductive environment for osteoprogenitor cells to differentiate, but also a suitable biomechanical and biochemical environment to act as a reservoir for osteogenic factors with controlled release profile. - Highlights: • Injectable nanofibrous scaffold with osteoprogenitor cells and BMP2 was synthesized. • PCL nanofiber concentration within collagen scaffold affected the BMP2 retention and bioactivity. • Optimal PCL concentration was identified for mechanical stability, injectability, and osteogenic activity. • Scaffolds exhibited long-term osteoinductive capacity for bone repair and regeneration.

  10. Heterologous Secretory Expression and Characterization of Dimerized Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 in Bacillus subtilis

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    Muhammad Umair Hanif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (rhBMP2 has important applications in the spine fusion and ortho/maxillofacial surgeries. Here we first report the secretory expression of biological active dimerized rhBMP2 from Bacillus subtilis system. The mature domain of BMP2 gene was amplified from pTz57R/BMP2 plasmid. By using pHT43 expression vector two constructs, pHT43-BMP2-M (single BMP2 gene and pHT43-BMP2-D (two BMP2 genes coupled with a linker to produce a dimer, were designed. After primary cloning (DH5α strain and sequence analysis, constructs were transformed into Bacillus subtilis for secretory expression. Expression conditions like media (2xYT and temperature (30°C were optimized. Maximum 35% and 25% secretory expression of monomer (~13 kDa and dimer (~25 kDa, respectively, were observed on SDS-PAGE in SCK6 strain. The expression and dimeric nature of rhBMP2 were confirmed by western blot and native PAGE analysis. For rhBMP2 purification, 200 ml culture supernatant was freeze dried to 10 ml and dialyzed (Tris-Cl, pH 8.5 and Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (6 ml, Resource Q column was performed. The rhBMP2 monomer and dimer were eluted at 0.9 M and 0.6 M NaCl, respectively. The alkaline phosphatase assay of rhBMP2 (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 ng/ml was analyzed on C2C12 cells and maximum 200 ng/ml activity was observed in dose dependent manner.

  11. Cathepsin H indirectly regulates morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) in various human cell lines

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    Rojnik, Matija; Jevnikar, Zala; Mirkovic, Bojana; Janes, Damjan; Zidar, Nace; Kikelj, Danijel; Kos, Janko

    2011-01-01

    Background Cathepsin H is a cysteine protease considered to play a major role in tumor progression, however, its precise function in tumorigenesis is unclear. Cathepsin H was recently proposed to be involved in processing of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) in mice. In order to clarify whether cathepsin H also regulates BMP-4 in humans, its impact on BMP-4 expression, processing and degradation was investigated in prostate cancer (PC-3), osteosarcoma (HOS) and pro-monocytic (U937) human cell lines. Materials and methods BMP-4 expression was founded to be regulated by cathepsin H using PCR array technology and confirmed by real time PCR. Immunoassays including Western blot and confocal microscopy were used to evaluate the influence of cathepsin H on BMP-4 processing. Results In contrast to HOS, the expression of BMP-4 mRNA in U937 and PC3 cells was significantly decreased by cathepsin H. The different regulation of BMP-4 synthesis could be associated with the absence of the mature 28 kDa cathepsin H form in HOS cells, where only the intermediate 30 kDa form was observed. No co-localization of BMP-4 and cathepsin H was observed in human cell lines and the multistep processing of BMP-4 was not altered in the presence of specific cathepsin H inhibitor. Isolated cathepsin H does not cleave mature recombinant BMP-4, neither with its amino- nor its endopeptidase activity. Conclusions Our results exclude direct proteolytic processing of BMP-4 by cathepsin H, however, they provide support for its involvement in the regulation of BMP-4 expression. PMID:22933963

  12. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins 2/4 Are Upregulated during the Early Development of Vascular Calcification in Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Xiao Wei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is a main cause of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. This study aimed to investigate the role of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling pathway in the early development of vascular calcification in CKD. A CKD vascular calcification rat model was established by providing rats with a 1.8% high-phosphorus diet and an intragastric administration of 2.5% adenine suspension. The kidney and aortic pathologies were analyzed. Blood biochemical indicators, serum BMP-2 and BMP-4 levels, and aortic calcium content were determined. The expression levels of BMP-2, BMP-4, bone morphogenetic protein receptor-IA (BMPR-IA, and matrix Gla protein (MGP in aorta were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Compared with the normal control (Nor rats, the CKD rats exhibited a significantly decreased body weight and an increased kidney weight as well as abnormal renal function and calcium-phosphorus metabolism. Aortic von Kossa and Alizarin red staining showed massive granular deposition and formation of calcified nodules in aorta at 8 weeks. The aortic calcium content was significantly increased, which was positively correlated with the serum BMP-2 (r=0.929; P<0.01 and serum BMP-4 (r=0.702; P<0.01 levels in CKD rats. The rat aortic BMP-2 mRNA level in the CKD rats was persistently increased, and the BMP-4 mRNA level was prominently increased at the 4th week, declining thereafter. Strong staining of BMP-2, BMP-4, BMPR-IA, and MGP proteins was observed in the tunica media of the aorta from the 4th week after model induction. In conclusion, activation of the BMP signaling pathway is involved in the early development of vascular calcification in CKD. Therefore, elevated serum BMP-2 and BMP-4 levels may serve as serum markers for CKD vascular calcification.

  13. Endoglin-mediated suppression of prostate cancer invasion is regulated by activin and bone morphogenetic protein type II receptors.

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    Michael J Breen

    Full Text Available Mortality from prostate cancer (PCa is due to the formation of metastatic disease. Understanding how that process is regulated is therefore critical. We previously demonstrated that endoglin, a type III transforming growth factor β (TGFβ superfamily receptor, suppresses human PCa cell invasion and metastasis. Endoglin-mediated suppression of invasion was also shown by us to be dependent upon the type I TGFβ receptor, activin receptor-like kinase 2 (ALK2, and the downstream effector, Smad1. In this study we demonstrate for the first time that two type II TGFβ receptors are required for endoglin-mediated suppression of invasion: activin A receptor type IIA (ActRIIA and bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPRII. Downstream signaling through these receptors is predominantly mediated by Smad1. ActRIIA stimulates Smad1 activation in a kinase-dependent manner, and this is required for suppression of invasion. In contrast BMPRII regulates Smad1 in a biphasic manner, promoting Smad1 signaling through its kinase domain but suppressing it through its cytoplasmic tail. BMPRII's Smad1-regulatory effects are dependent upon its expression level. Further, its ability to suppress invasion is independent of either kinase function or tail domain. We demonstrate that ActRIIA and BMPRII physically interact, and that each also interacts with endoglin. The current findings demonstrate that both BMPRII and ActRIIA are necessary for endoglin-mediated suppression of human PCa cell invasion, that they have differential effects on Smad1 signaling, that they make separate contributions to regulation of invasion, and that they functionally and physically interact.

  14. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP15) Acts as a BMP and Wnt Inhibitor during Early Embryogenesis*

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    Di Pasquale, Elisa; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) belongs to an unusual subgroup of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily of signaling ligands as it lacks a key cysteine residue in the mature region required for proper intermolecular dimerization. Naturally occurring BMP15 mutation leads to early ovarian failure in humans, and BMP15 has been shown to activate the Smad1/5/8 pathway in that context. Despite its important role in germ cell specification, the embryological function of BMP15 remains unknown. Surprisingly, we find that during early Xenopus embryogenesis BMP15 acts solely as an inhibitor of the Smad1/5/8 pathway and the Wnt pathway. BMP15 gain-of-function leads to embryos with secondary ectopic heads and to direct neural induction in intact explants. BMP15 inhibits BMP4-mediated epidermal induction in dissociated explants. BMP15 strongly inhibits BRE response induced by BMP4 and blocks phosphorylation and activation of Smad1/5/8 MH2-domain. Mechanistically, BMP15 protein specifically interacts with BMP4 protein, suggesting inhibition upstream of receptor binding. Loss-of-function experiments using morpholinos or a naturally occurring human BMP15 dominant-negative mutant (BMP15-Y235C) leads to embryos lacking head. BMP15-Y235C also eliminates the inhibitory activity of BMP15 on BRE (BMP-responsive element). Finally, we show that BMP15 inhibits the canonical branch of the Wnt pathway, upstream of β-catenin. We, thus, demonstrate that BMP15 is necessary and sufficient for the specification of dorso-anterior structures and highlight novel mechanisms of BMP15 function that strongly suggest a reinterpretation of its function in ovaries specially for ovarian failure. PMID:19553676

  15. Regulation of Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Maturation by PPARδ: Effects on Bone Morphogenetic Proteins

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    Maria Vittoria Simonini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In EAE (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, agonists of PPARs (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors provide clinical benefit and reduce damage. In contrast with PPARγ, agonists of PPARδ are more effective when given at later stages of EAE and increase myelin gene expression, suggesting effects on OL (oligodendrocyte maturation. In the present study we examined effects of the PPARδ agonist GW0742 on OPCs (OL progenitor cells, and tested whether the effects involve modulation of BMPs (bone morphogenetic proteins. We show that effects of GW0742 are mediated through PPARδ since no amelioration of EAE clinical scores was observed in PPARδ-null mice. In OPCs derived from E13 mice (where E is embryonic day, GW0742, but not the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone, increased the number of myelin-producing OLs. This was due to activation of PPARδ since process formation was reduced in PPARδ-null compared with wild-type OPCs. In both OPCs and enriched astrocyte cultures, GW0742 increased noggin protein expression; however, noggin mRNA was only increased in astrocytes. In contrast, GW0742 reduced BMP2 and BMP4 mRNA levels in OPCs, with lesser effects in astrocytes. These findings demonstrate that PPARδ plays a role in OPC maturation, mediated, in part, by regulation of BMP and BMP antagonists.

  16. Effect of boron on osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiaozhou; Cheng, Shaowen; Wang, Wei; Lin, Zhongqin; Chen, Qingyu; Zhang, Wei; Kou, Dongquan; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiaojie; Rompis, Ferdinand An; Peng, Lei; Zhu Lu, Chuan

    2011-12-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been well established as an ideal source of cell-based therapy for bone tissue engineering applications. Boron (B) is a notable trace element in humans; so far, the effects of boron on the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs have not been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of boron (0, 1, 10,100, and 1,000 ng/ml) on osteogenic differentiation of human BMSCs. In this study, BMSCs proliferation was analyzed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay, and cell osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, Von Kossa staining, and real-time PCR. The results indicated that the proliferation of BMSCs was no different from the control group when added with B at the concentration of 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml respectively (P > 0.05); in contrast, 1,000 ng/ml B inhibited the proliferation of BMSCs at days 4, 7, and 14 (P < 0.05). By ALP staining, we discovered that BMSCs treated with 10 and 100 ng/ml B presented a higher ALP activity compared with control (P < 0.05). By real-time PCR, we detected the messenger RNA expression of ALP, osteocalcin, collagen type I, and bone morphogenetic proteins 7 were also increased in 10 and 100 ng/ml B treatment groups (P < 0.05). The calcium depositions were increased in 1 and 10 ng/ml B treatment groups (P < 0.05). Taken all together, it was the first time to report that B could increase osteogenic effect by stimulating osteogenic differentiation-related marker gene synthesis during the proliferation and differentiation phase in human BMSCs and could be a promising approach for enhancing osteogenic capacity of cell-based construction in bone tissue engineering.

  17. Hyaline cartilage regeneration by combined therapy of microfracture and long-term bone morphogenetic protein-2 delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hee Seok; La, Wan-Geun; Bhang, Suk Ho; Kim, Hak-Jun; Im, Gun-Il; Lee, Haeshin; Park, Jung-Ho; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2011-07-01

    Microfracture of cartilage induces migration of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. However, this treatment often results in fibrocartilage regeneration. Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 induce the differentiation of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes, which can be used for hyaline cartilage regeneration. Here, we tested the hypothesis that long-term delivery of BMP-2 to cartilage defects subjected to microfracture results in regeneration of high-quality hyaline-like cartilage, as opposed to short-term delivery of BMP-2 or no BMP-2 delivery. Heparin-conjugated fibrin (HCF) and normal fibrin were used as carriers for the long- and short-term delivery of BMP-2, respectively. Rabbit articular cartilage defects were treated with microfracture combined with one of the following: no treatment, fibrin, short-term delivery of BMP-2, HCF, or long-term delivery of BMP-2. Eight weeks after treatment, histological analysis revealed that the long-term delivery of BMP-2 group (microfracture + HCF + BMP-2) showed the most staining with alcian blue. A biochemical assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction assay and Western blot analysis all revealed that the long-term delivery of BMP-2 group had the highest glucosaminoglycan content as well as the highest expression level of collagen type II. Taken together, the long-term delivery of BMP-2 to cartilage defects subjected to microfracture resulted in regeneration of hyaline-like cartilage, as opposed to short-term delivery or no BMP-2 delivery. Therefore, this method could be more convenient for hyaline cartilage regeneration than autologous chondrocyte implantation due to its less invasive nature and lack of cell implantation.

  18. Site-Directed Immobilization of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 to Solid Surfaces by Click Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siverino, Claudia; Tabisz, Barbara; Lühmann, Tessa; Meinel, Lorenz; Müller, Thomas; Walles, Heike; Nickel, Joachim

    2018-03-29

    Different therapeutic strategies for the treatment of non-healing long bone defects have been intensively investigated. Currently used treatments present several limitations that have led to the use of biomaterials in combination with osteogenic growth factors, such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Commonly used absorption or encapsulation methods require supra-physiological amounts of BMP2, typically resulting in a so-called initial burst release effect that provokes several severe adverse side effects. A possible strategy to overcome these problems would be to covalently couple the protein to the scaffold. Moreover, coupling should be performed in a site-specific manner in order to guarantee a reproducible product outcome. Therefore, we created a BMP2 variant, in which an artificial amino acid (propargyl-L-lysine) was introduced into the mature part of the BMP2 protein by codon usage expansion (BMP2-K3Plk). BMP2-K3Plk was coupled to functionalized beads through copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). The biological activity of the coupled BMP2-K3Plk was proven in vitro and the osteogenic activity of the BMP2-K3Plk-functionalized beads was proven in cell based assays. The functionalized beads in contact with C2C12 cells were able to induce alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression in locally restricted proximity of the bead. Thus, by this technique, functionalized scaffolds can be produced that can trigger cell differentiation towards an osteogenic lineage. Additionally, lower BMP2 doses are sufficient due to the controlled orientation of site-directed coupled BMP2. With this method, BMPs are always exposed to their receptors on the cell surface in the appropriate orientation, which is not the case if the factors are coupled via non-site-directed coupling techniques. The product outcome is highly controllable and, thus, results in materials with homogeneous properties, improving their applicability for the repair of critical size bone defects.

  19. Randomised controlled clinical trial of augmentation of the alveolar ridge using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 with hydroxyapatite and bovine-derived xenografts: comparison of changes in volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, J W; Khureltogtokh, S; Choi, H M; Lee, A R; Park, Y B; Kim, H J

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this randomised controlled clinical trial was to assess the early efficacy of bone morphogenetic protein-2 with hydroxyapatite granules (BMP-2/hydroxyapatite) on augmentation of the alveolar ridge, by comparing changes in volume with those associated with the use of an inorganic bovine-derived xenograft (BDX). We studied 20 patients who were divided into two groups using a table of random numbers, and BMP-2/hydroxyapatite and BDX were applied accordingly. Computed tomographic (CT) images and panoramic radiographs were obtained immediately after operation and four months later. CT images were reconstructed in three dimensions to measure volumetric changes, and linear measurements were made on panoramic images. The mean (SD) absorption rates for BMP-2/hydroxyapatite and BDX were 13.2 (8.8)% and 13.8 (20.5)%, respectively. While the mean value did not differ significantly between the two materials, the SD was higher in the BDX group than in the BMP-2/hydroxyapatite group. No clinically important complications occurred in either group. We conclude that both BMP-2/hydroxyapatite and BDX were effective in augmenting the alveolar ridge, but BMP-2/hydroxyapatite seemed to be more useful in complicated bone defects. Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Combined Effects of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 on Odonto/Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksel, Hacer; Huang, George T-J

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether combined and concerted delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) enhances odonto/osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in vitro. Various concentrations of VEGF and/or BMP-2 with or without the presence of odonto/osteogenic medium (OM) were added into DPSC cultures for 21 days. The mineral formation in cultures was evaluated using alizarin red stain (ARS). Optimal concentrations of VEGF and BMP-2 were codelivered to DPSCs for total of 21 days with the following experimental groups: (1) group 1: OM only, (2) group 2: OM + VEGF, (3) group 3: OM + BMP-2, and (4) group 4: OM + VEGF + BMP-2 (subgroup 4a: VEGF present the first 7 days, 4b: BMP-2 present the last 14 days, and 4c, both present for 21 days). Cultures were then subjected to quantitative ARS analysis or harvested for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis for the expression of core-binding factor alpha 1 (CBFA1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP-1). No mineral formation was detected by ARS when VEGF and/or BMP-2 were used without OM. OM + VEGF, but not OM + BMP-2, formed more mineralization than OM (P  .05) in the expression of the 3 genes. VEGF addition in the early phase rather than a continuous presence of both VEGF and BMP-2 enhances odonto/osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP-4 and BMP-7 regulate differentially Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-β1 in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF

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    Lloyd Clare M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway remodelling is thought to be under the control of a complex group of molecules belonging to the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-superfamily. The Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs belong to this family and have been shown to regulate fibrosis in kidney and liver diseases. However, the role of BMPs in lung remodelling remains unclear. BMPs may regulate tissue remodelling in asthma by controlling TGF-β-induced profibrotic functions in lung fibroblasts. Methods Cell cultures were exposed to TGF-β1 alone or in the presence of BMP-4 or BMP-7; control cultures were exposed to medium only. Cell proliferation was assessed by quantification of the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine. The expression of the mRNA encoding collagen type I and IV, tenascin C and fibronectin in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF was determined by real-time quantitative PCR and the main results were confirmed by ELISA. Cell differentiation was determined by the analysis of the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The effect on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity was assessed by zymography. Results We have demonstrated TGF-β1 induced upregulation of mRNAs encoding the extracellular matrix proteins, tenascin C, fibronectin and collagen type I and IV when compared to unstimulated NHLF, and confirmed these results at the protein level. BMP-4, but not BMP-7, reduced TGF-β1-induced extracellular matrix protein production. TGF-β1 induced an increase in the activity of the pro-form of MMP-2 which was inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4. Both BMP-4 and BMP-7 downregulated TGF-β1-induced MMP-13 release compared to untreated and TGF-β1-treated cells. TGF-β1 also induced a myofibroblast-like transformation which was partially inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4. Conclusions Our study suggests that some regulatory properties of BMP-7 may be tissue or cell type specific and unveil a potential regulatory role for

  2. Downregulation of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 promotes the development of neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Ximao; Yang, Yili; Jia, Deshui; Jing, Ying; Zhang, Shouhua; Zheng, Shan; Cui, Long; Dong, Rui; Dong, Kuiran

    2017-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood. In this study, we examined the expression of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) in primary NB and adjacent non-tumor samples (adrenal gland). BMPR2 expression was significantly downregulated in NB tissues, particularly in high-grade NB, and was inversely related to the expression of the NB differentiation markers ferritin and enolase. The significance of the downregulation was further explored in cultured NB cells. While enforced expression of BMPR2 decreased cell proliferation and colony-forming activity, shRNA-mediated knockdown of BMPR2 led to increased cell growth and clonogenicity. In mice, NB cells harboring BMPR2 shRNA showed significantly increased tumorigenicity compared with control cells. We also performed a retrospective analysis of NB patients and identified a significant positive correlation between tumor BMPR2 expression and overall survival. These findings suggest that BMPR2 may play an important role in the development of NB. - Highlights: • BMPR2 expression was downregulated in primary NB and was more signifcant in high grade NB. • BMPR2 expression was accompanied by the decrease of NB markers ferritin and enolase. • Enforced expression of BMPR2 decreased proliferation and colony formation ability of cultured NB cells. • Knockdown of BMPR2 led to increased cell growth, clonality and tumorigenicity in mice. • Patients with NB expressing higher level of BMPR2 had significant better overall survival than those with low level.

  3. Effective Inhibition of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Function by Highly Specific Llama-Derived Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calpe, Silvia; Wagner, Koen; El Khattabi, Mohamed; Rutten, Lucy; Zimberlin, Cheryl; Dolk, Edward; Verrips, C Theo; Medema, Jan Paul; Spits, Hergen; Krishnadath, Kausilia K

    2015-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) have important but distinct roles in tissue homeostasis and disease, including carcinogenesis and tumor progression. A large number of BMP inhibitors are available to study BMP function; however, as most of these antagonists are promiscuous, evaluating specific effects of individual BMPs is not feasible. Because the oncogenic role of the different BMPs varies for each neoplasm, highly selective BMP inhibitors are required. Here, we describe the generation of three types of llama-derived heavy chain variable domains (VHH) that selectively bind to either BMP4, to BMP2 and 4, or to BMP2, 4, 5, and 6. These generated VHHs have high affinity to their targets and are able to inhibit BMP signaling. Epitope binning and docking modeling have shed light into the basis for their BMP specificity. As opposed to the wide structural reach of natural inhibitors, these small molecules target the grooves and pockets of BMPs involved in receptor binding. In organoid experiments, specific inhibition of BMP4 does not affect the activation of normal stem cells. Furthermore, in vitro inhibition of cancer-derived BMP4 noncanonical signals results in an increase of chemosensitivity in a colorectal cancer cell line. Therefore, because of their high specificity and low off-target effects, these VHHs could represent a therapeutic alternative for BMP4(+) malignancies. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Alveolar wound healing after implantation with a pool of commercially available bovine bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs): a histometric study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Romeu Felipe Elias; Teófilo, Juliana Mazzonetto; Brentegani, Luiz Guilherme; Lamano-Carvalho, Teresa Lúcia

    2007-01-01

    The capacity of a commercially available pool of bovine bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) to stimulate osteogenesis in the rat alveolar healing was investigated by histometric analysis. Male rats were anesthetized and had their upper incisor extracted. A pool of purified bovine BMPs adsorbed to microgranular resorbable hydroxyapatite was agglutinated with bovine collagen and saline before implantation into the alveolar socket. The implanted and control rats (n=30 per group) were sacrificed 1 to 9 weeks postoperatively, the hemi-maxillae were decalcified, processed for paraffin embedding and semi-serial longitudinal sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The volume fraction of alveolar healing components was estimated by a differential point-counting method in histologic images. The results showed that in both, control and implanted rats, the alveolar healing followed the histologic pattern usually described in the literature. Quantitative data confirmed that the BMPs mixture did not stimulate new bone formation in the alveolar socket of implanted rats. These results suggest that the pool of BMPs adsorbed to hydroxyapatite and agglutinated with bovine collagen did not warrant incorporation of the osteoinductive proteins to a slow-absorption system that would allow a BMPs release rate compatible to that of new bone formation, and thus more adequate to osteoinduction.

  5. Digital subtraction radiographic analysis of the combination of bioabsorbable membrane and bovine morphogenetic protein pool in human periodontal infrabony defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Machado Guimarães

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the bone density gain and its relationship with the periodontal clinical parameters in a case series of a regenerative therapy procedure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using a split-mouth study design, 10 pairs of infrabony defects from 15 patients were treated with a pool of bovine bone morphogenetic proteins associated with collagen membrane (test sites or collagen membrane only (control sites. The periodontal healing was clinically and radiographically monitored for six months. Standardized pre-surgical and 6-month postoperative radiographs were digitized for digital subtraction analysis, which showed relative bone density gain in both groups of 0.034 ± 0.423 and 0.105 ± 0.423 in the test and control group, respectively (p>0.05. RESULTS: As regards the area size of bone density change, the influence of the therapy was detected in 2.5 mm² in the test group and 2 mm² in the control group (p>0.05. Additionally, no correlation was observed between the favorable clinical results and the bone density gain measured by digital subtraction radiography (p>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that the clinical benefit of the regenerative therapy observed did not come with significant bone density gains. Long-term evaluation may lead to a different conclusions.

  6. Thyroid hormone-induced hypertrophy in mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis is mediated by bone morphogenetic protein-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Alexandra; Olbrich, Norman; Pfeifer, Christian; Berner, Arne; Zellner, Johannes; Kujat, Richard; Angele, Peter; Nerlich, Michael; Mueller, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Chondrogenic differentiating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) express markers of hypertrophic growth plate chondrocytes. As hypertrophic cartilage undergoes ossification, this is a concern for the application of MSCs in articular cartilage tissue engineering. To identify mechanisms that elicit this phenomenon, we used an in vitro hypertrophy model of chondrifying MSCs for differential gene expression analysis and functional experiments with the focus on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Hypertrophy was induced in chondrogenic MSC pellet cultures by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and dexamethasone withdrawal and addition of triiodothyronine. Differential gene expression analysis of BMPs and their receptors was performed. Based on these results, the in vitro hypertrophy model was used to investigate the effect of recombinant BMP4 and the BMP inhibitor Noggin. The enhancement of hypertrophy could be shown clearly by an increased cell size, alkaline phosphatase activity, and collagen type X deposition. Upon induction of hypertrophy, BMP4 and the BMP receptor 1B were upregulated. Addition of BMP4 further enhanced hypertrophy in the absence, but not in the presence of TGFβ and dexamethasone. Thyroid hormone induced hypertrophy by upregulation of BMP4 and this induced enhancement of hypertrophy could be blocked by the BMP antagonist Noggin. BMP signaling is an important modulator of the late differentiation stages in MSC chondrogenesis and the thyroid hormone induces this pathway. As cartilage tissue engineering constructs will be exposed to this factor in vivo, this study provides important insight into the biology of MSC-based cartilage. Furthermore, the possibility to engineer hypertrophic cartilage may be helpful for critical bone defect repair.

  7. Immunohistochemical characterization of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite silica gel (NanoBone(r)) osteogenesis: a study on biopsies from human jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Werner; Gerber, Thomas; Michel, Barbara; Lossdörfer, Stefan; Henkel, Kai-Olaf; Heinemann, Friedhelm

    2008-10-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials may be osteogenic, osteoconductive or osteoinductive. To test for these probable characteristics in a new nanoporous grafting material consisting of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite embedded in a porous silica gel matrix (NanoBone(s)), applied in humans, we studied biopsies from 12 patients before dental implantation following various orofacial augmentation techniques with healing times of between 3.5 and 12 months. Sections from decalcified specimens were investigated using histology, histochemistry [periodic acid Schiff, alcian blue staining and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)] and immunohistochemistry, with markers for osteogenesis, bone remodelling, resorption and vessel walls (alkaline phosphatase, bone morphogenetic protein-2, collagen type I, ED1, osteocalcin, osteopontin, runx2 and Von-Willebrand factor). Histologically, four specific stages of graft transformation into lamellar bone could be characterized. During early stages of healing, bone matrix proteins were absorbed by NanoBone(s) granules, forming a proteinaceous matrix, which was invaded by small vessels and cells. We assume that the deposition of these molecules promotes early osteogenesis in and around NanoBone(s) and supports the concomitant degradation probably by osteoclast-like cells. TRAP-positive osteoclast-like cells were localized directly on the granular surfaces. Runx2-immunoreactive pre-osteoblasts, which are probably involved in direct osteogenesis forming woven bone that is later transformed into lamellar bone, were attracted. Graft resorption and bone apposition around the graft granules appear concomitantly. We postulate that NanoBone(s) has osteoconductive and biomimetic properties and is integrated into the host's physiological bone turnover at a very early stage.

  8. Bone morphogenetic protein-induced MSX1 and MSX2 inhibit myocardin-dependent smooth muscle gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken'ichiro; Nakamura, Seiji; Nishida, Wataru; Sobue, Kenji

    2006-12-01

    During the onset and progression of atherosclerosis, the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype changes from differentiated to dedifferentiated, and in some cases, this change is accompanied by osteogenic transition, resulting in vascular calcification. One characteristic of dedifferentiated VSMCs is the down-regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) marker gene expression. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are involved in the induction of osteogenic gene expression, are detected in calcified vasculature. In this study, we found that the BMP2-, BMP4-, and BMP6-induced expression of Msx transcription factors (Msx1 and Msx2) preceded the down-regulation of SMC marker expression in cultured differentiated VSMCs. Either Msx1 or Msx2 markedly reduced the myocardin-dependent promoter activities of SMC marker genes (SM22alpha and caldesmon). We further investigated interactions between Msx1 and myocardin/serum response factor (SRF)/CArG-box motif (cis element for SRF) using coimmunoprecipitation, gel-shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Our results showed that Msx1 or Msx2 formed a ternary complex with SRF and myocardin and inhibited the binding of SRF or SRF/myocardin to the CArG-box motif, resulting in inhibition of their transcription.

  9. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Induced Msx1 and Msx2 Inhibit Myocardin-Dependent Smooth Muscle Gene Transcription▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken'ichiro; Nakamura, Seiji; Nishida, Wataru; Sobue, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    During the onset and progression of atherosclerosis, the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype changes from differentiated to dedifferentiated, and in some cases, this change is accompanied by osteogenic transition, resulting in vascular calcification. One characteristic of dedifferentiated VSMCs is the down-regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) marker gene expression. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are involved in the induction of osteogenic gene expression, are detected in calcified vasculature. In this study, we found that the BMP2-, BMP4-, and BMP6-induced expression of Msx transcription factors (Msx1 and Msx2) preceded the down-regulation of SMC marker expression in cultured differentiated VSMCs. Either Msx1 or Msx2 markedly reduced the myocardin-dependent promoter activities of SMC marker genes (SM22α and caldesmon). We further investigated interactions between Msx1 and myocardin/serum response factor (SRF)/CArG-box motif (cis element for SRF) using coimmunoprecipitation, gel-shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Our results showed that Msx1 or Msx2 formed a ternary complex with SRF and myocardin and inhibited the binding of SRF or SRF/myocardin to the CArG-box motif, resulting in inhibition of their transcription. PMID:17030628

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphism of bone morphogenetic protein 4 gene: A risk factor of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyaprasad Savitha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signalling pathway is crucial in a number of developmental processes and is critical in the formation of variety of craniofacial elements including cranial neural crest, facial primordium, tooth, lip and palate. It is an important mediator in regulation of lip and palate fusion, cartilage and bone formation. Aim: To study the role of mutation of BMP4 genes in the aetiology of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without palate (NSCL ± P and identify it directly from human analyses. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was done to evaluate whether BMP4T538C polymorphism, resulting in an amino acid change of Val=Ala (V152A in the polypeptide, is associated with NSCL ± P in an Indian paediatric population. Genotypes of 100 patients with NSCL ± P and 100 controls (in whom absence of CL ± P was confirmed in three generations were detected using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism strategy. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate allele and genotype association with NSCLP. Results: Results showed significant association between homozygous CC genotype with CL ± P (odds ratio [OR]-5.59 and 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.85-10.99. The 538C allele carriers showed an increased risk of NSCL ± P as compared with 538 T allele (OR - 4.2% CI = 2.75-6.41. Conclusion: This study suggests an association between SNP of BMP4 gene among carriers of the C allele and increased risk for NSCLP in an Indian Population. Further studies on this aspect can scale large heights in preventive strategies for NSCLP that may soon become a reality.

  11. Case Study: Organotypic human in vitro models of embryonic morphogenetic fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphogenetic fusion of tissues is a common event in embryonic development and disruption of fusion is associated with birth defects of the eye, heart, neural tube, phallus, palate, and other organ systems. Embryonic tissue fusion requires precise regulation of cell-cell and cell...

  12. The Marine Sponge-Derived Inorganic Polymers, Biosilica and Polyphosphate, as Morphogenetically Active Matrices/Scaffolds for the Differentiation of Human Multipotent Stromal Cells: Potential Application in 3D Printing and Distraction Osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The two marine inorganic polymers, biosilica (BS, enzymatically synthesized from ortho-silicate, and polyphosphate (polyP, a likewise enzymatically synthesized polymer consisting of 10 to >100 phosphate residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds, have previously been shown to display a morphogenetic effect on osteoblasts. In the present study, the effect of these polymers on the differential differentiation of human multipotent stromal cells (hMSC, mesenchymal stem cells, that had been encapsulated into beads of the biocompatible plant polymer alginate, was studied. The differentiation of the hMSCs in the alginate beads was directed either to the osteogenic cell lineage by exposure to an osteogenic medium (mineralization activation cocktail; differentiation into osteoblasts or to the chondrogenic cell lineage by incubating in chondrocyte differentiation medium (triggering chondrocyte maturation. Both biosilica and polyP, applied as Ca2+ salts, were found to induce an increased mineralization in osteogenic cells; these inorganic polymers display also morphogenetic potential. The effects were substantiated by gene expression studies, which revealed that biosilica and polyP strongly and significantly increase the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in osteogenic cells, which was significantly more pronounced in osteogenic versus chondrogenic cells. A differential effect of the two polymers was seen on the expression of the two collagen types, I and II. While collagen Type I is highly expressed in osteogenic cells, but not in chondrogenic cells after exposure to biosilica or polyP, the upregulation of the steady-state level of collagen Type II transcripts in chondrogenic cells is comparably stronger than in osteogenic cells. It is concluded that the two polymers, biosilica and polyP, are morphogenetically active additives for the otherwise biologically inert alginate polymer. It is proposed that

  13. The marine sponge-derived inorganic polymers, biosilica and polyphosphate, as morphogenetically active matrices/scaffolds for the differentiation of human multipotent stromal cells: potential application in 3D printing and distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Grebenjuk, Vladislav; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Mailänder, Volker; Steffen, Renate; Schloßmacher, Ute; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-02-21

    The two marine inorganic polymers, biosilica (BS), enzymatically synthesized from ortho-silicate, and polyphosphate (polyP), a likewise enzymatically synthesized polymer consisting of 10 to >100 phosphate residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds, have previously been shown to display a morphogenetic effect on osteoblasts. In the present study, the effect of these polymers on the differential differentiation of human multipotent stromal cells (hMSC), mesenchymal stem cells, that had been encapsulated into beads of the biocompatible plant polymer alginate, was studied. The differentiation of the hMSCs in the alginate beads was directed either to the osteogenic cell lineage by exposure to an osteogenic medium (mineralization activation cocktail; differentiation into osteoblasts) or to the chondrogenic cell lineage by incubating in chondrocyte differentiation medium (triggering chondrocyte maturation). Both biosilica and polyP, applied as Ca²⁺ salts, were found to induce an increased mineralization in osteogenic cells; these inorganic polymers display also morphogenetic potential. The effects were substantiated by gene expression studies, which revealed that biosilica and polyP strongly and significantly increase the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in osteogenic cells, which was significantly more pronounced in osteogenic versus chondrogenic cells. A differential effect of the two polymers was seen on the expression of the two collagen types, I and II. While collagen Type I is highly expressed in osteogenic cells, but not in chondrogenic cells after exposure to biosilica or polyP, the upregulation of the steady-state level of collagen Type II transcripts in chondrogenic cells is comparably stronger than in osteogenic cells. It is concluded that the two polymers, biosilica and polyP, are morphogenetically active additives for the otherwise biologically inert alginate polymer. It is proposed that alginate

  14. Sintered porous hydroxyapatites with intrinsic osteoinductive activity: geometric induction of bone formation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ripamonti, U

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Sintered hydroxyapatites induce bone formation in adult baboons via intrinsic osteoinductivity regulated by the geometry of the substratum. Bone is thereby formed without exogenous bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), well-characterized inducers...

  15. Lead induces chondrogenesis and alters transforming growth factor-beta and bone morphogenetic protein signaling in mesenchymal cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuscik, Michael J; Ma, Lin; Buckley, Taylor; Puzas, J Edward; Drissi, Hicham; Schwarz, Edward M; O'Keefe, Regis J

    2007-09-01

    It has been established that skeletal growth is stunted in lead-exposed children. Because chondrogenesis is a seminal step during skeletal development, elucidating the impact of Pb on this process is the first step toward understanding the mechanism of Pb toxicity in the skeleton. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that Pb alters chondrogenic commitment of mesenchymal cells and to assess the effects of Pb on various signaling pathways. We assessed the influence of Pb on chondrogenesis in murine limb bud mesenchymal cells (MSCs) using nodule formation assays and gene analyses. The effects of Pb on transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling was studied using luciferase-based reporters and Western analyses, and luciferase-based assays were used to study cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB), beta-catenin, AP-1, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) signaling. We also used an ectopic bone formation assay to determine how Pb affects chondrogenesis in vivo. Pb-exposed MSCs showed enhanced basal and TGF-beta/BMP induction of chondrogenesis, evidenced by enhanced nodule formation and up-regulation of Sox-9, type 2 collagen, and aggrecan, all key markers of chondrogenesis. We observed enhanced chondrogenesis during ectopic bone formation in mice preexposed to Pb via drinking water. In MSCs, Pb enhanced TGF-beta but inhibited BMP-2 signaling, as measured by luciferase reporter assays and Western analyses of Smad phosphorylation. Although Pb had no effect on basal CREB or Wnt/beta-catenin pathway activity, it induced NFkappaB signaling and inhibited AP-1 signaling. The in vitro and in vivo induction of chondrogenesis by Pb likely involves modulation and integration of multiple signaling pathways including TGF-beta, BMP, AP-1, and NFkappaB.

  16. Calcium citrate: a new biomaterial that can enhance bone formation in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Li-ming

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To investigate the effect of a new biomaterial combining calcium citrate and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 on bone regeneration in a bone defect rabbit model. Methods: Totally 30 male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly and equally divided into calcium citrate-rhBMP-2 (CC-rhBMP-2 group and rhBMP-2 only group. Two 10 mm-long and 5 mm-deep bone defects were respec-tively created in the left and right femoral condyles of the rabbits. Subsequently 5 pellets of calcium citrate (10 mg combined with rhBMP-2 (2 mg or rhBMP-2 alone were im-planted into the bone defects and compressed with cotton swab. Bone granules were obtained at 2, 4 and 6 weeks after procedure and received histological analysis. LSD t-test and a subsequent t-test were adopted for statistical analysis. Results: Histomorphometric analysis revealed newly formed bones, and calcium citrate has been absorbed in the treatment group. The percent of newly formed bone area in femoral condyle in control group and CC-rhBMP-2 group was respectively 31.73%±1.26% vs 48.21%±2.37% at 2 weeks; 43.40%±1.65% vs 57.32%±1.47% at 4 weeks, and 51.32%±7.80% vs 66.74%±4.05% at 6 weeks (P<0.05 for all. At 2 weeks, mature cancellous bone was observed to be already formed in the treatment group. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that calcium citrate combined with rhBMP-2 signifcantly en-hances bone regeneration in bone defects. This synthetic gelatin matrix stimulates formation of new bone and bone marrow in the defect areas by releasing calcium ions. Key words: Bone morphogenetic protein-2; Biocompatible materials; Calcium citrate; Gelatin

  17. A tissue engineering solution for segmental defect regeneration in load-bearing long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Johannes C; Cipitria, Amaia; Epari, Devakara R; Saifzadeh, Siamak; Krishnakanth, Pushpanjali; Berner, Arne; Woodruff, Maria A; Schell, Hanna; Mehta, Manav; Schuetz, Michael A; Duda, Georg N; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2012-07-04

    The reconstruction of large defects (>10 mm) in humans usually relies on bone graft transplantation. Limiting factors include availability of graft material, comorbidity, and insufficient integration into the damaged bone. We compare the gold standard autograft with biodegradable composite scaffolds consisting of medical-grade polycaprolactone and tricalcium phosphate combined with autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 7 (rhBMP-7). Critical-sized defects in sheep--a model closely resembling human bone formation and structure--were treated with autograft, rhBMP-7, or MSCs. Bridging was observed within 3 months for both the autograft and the rhBMP-7 treatment. After 12 months, biomechanical analysis and microcomputed tomography imaging showed significantly greater bone formation and superior strength for the biomaterial scaffolds loaded with rhBMP-7 compared to the autograft. Axial bone distribution was greater at the interfaces. With rhBMP-7, at 3 months, the radial bone distribution within the scaffolds was homogeneous. At 12 months, however, significantly more bone was found in the scaffold architecture, indicating bone remodeling. Scaffolds alone or with MSC inclusion did not induce levels of bone formation comparable to those of the autograft and rhBMP-7 groups. Applied clinically, this approach using rhBMP-7 could overcome autograft-associated limitations.

  18. Radiographic Assessment of Bone Formation Using rhBMP2 at Maxillary Periapical Surgical Defects: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M Siva; Kumar, M Hari; Vishalakshi, K; Sabitha, H

    2016-04-01

    Periapical cysts are the most common inflammatory odontogenic cysts arising from untreated dental caries with pulp necrosis and periapical infection. The choice of treatment is often influenced by various factors like size, extension of the lesion, proximity to vital structures, systemic condition and compliance of the patient too. The treatment protocol for management of periapical cysts is still under discussion and options vary from conservative treatment by means of endodontic technique to surgical treatment like decompression or a marsupialisation or even to enucleation. Large bony defect secondary to periapical surgery compromising the tooth integrity often requires bone graft to enhance bone formation and thus restoring function at the earliest. The present case series included 10 patients who had established periapical pathology secondary to history of trauma on upper anterior teeth as well patients with history of carious teeth with an apparent failure in root canal therapy. All ten patients were treated with cyst enucleation and apiceotomy along with 1.4cc Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 soaked Absorbable Collagen Sponge implantation at surgical defect. Radiographs and clinical examinations were done upto 3 months to evaluate healing. Radiographic and clinical assessments revealed bone regeneration and restoration of the maxillary surgical defects in all 10 patients. No evidence of graft failure was noted. The Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 soaked Absorbable Collagen Sponge carrier is thus proved to be a viable option for the treatment of maxillary periapical surgical defects.

  19. Genetic variation in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and colon and rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Martha L.; Lundgreen, Abbie; Herrick, Jennifer S.; Kadlubar, Susan; Caan, Bette J.; Potter, John D.; Wolff, Roger K.

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are part of the TGF-β-signaling pathway; genetic variation in these genes may be involved in colorectal cancer. In this study we evaluated the association between genetic variation in BMP1 (11 tagSNPs), BMP2 (5 tagSNPs), BMP4 (3 tagSNPs), BMPR1A (9 tagSNPs), BMPR1B (21 tagSNPs), BMPR2 (11 tagSNPs), and GDF10 (7 tagSNPs) with risk of colon and rectal cancer and tumor molecular phenotype. We used data from population-based case-control studies (colon cancer n=1574 cases, 1970 controls; rectal cancer n=791 cases, 999 controls). We observed that genetic variation in BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2, BMP2, and BMP4 was associated with risk of developing colon cancer, with 20 to 30% increased risk for most high-risk genotypes. A summary of high-risk genotypes showed over a twofold increase in colon cancer risk at the upper risk category (OR 2.49 95% CI 1.95, 3.18). BMPR2, BMPR1B, BMP2, and GDF10 were associated with rectal cancer. BMPR2 rs2228545 was associated with an almost twofold increased risk of rectal cancer. The risk associated with the highest category of the summary score for rectal cancer was 2.97 (95% CI 1.87, 4.72). Genes in the BMP-signaling pathway were consistently associated with CIMP+ status in combination with both KRAS-mutated and MSI tumors. BMP genes interacted statistically significantly with other genes in the TGF-β-signaling pathway, including TGFβ1, TGFβR1, Smad 3, Smad 4, and Smad 7. Our data support a role for genetic variation in BMP-related genes in the etiology of colon and rectal cancer. One possible mechanism is via the TGF-β-signaling pathway. PMID:21387313

  20. Experimental study of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 modified tissue engineered bone in reconstruction of orbital fracture%重组人骨形态发生蛋白2修饰的组织工程化骨修复眼眶骨折的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田妮; 郑永欣; 王静; 李玲; 王明睿; 王安民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the efficiency of tissue engineered bone modified by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) in reconstruction of orbital fracture.Methods Tissue engineered bone was established in vitro by using antologous bone marrow stromal cells as daughter cells,degradable absorbable biomaterial PLGA as vector and rhBMP-2 as growth factor.The laboratory animals were divided into control group (implanted with PLGA/rhBMP-2) and experimental group (implanted with tissue engineered bone).Wound healing,complications,orbit appearance,CT imaging and histological changes were observed at one,three and six months later after the surgery.Results All the animals were with well healed wounds.Neither complications nor enophthalmus was observed.The 3-D CT scan showed that orbital floor defect scope was smaller [ (25.1±6.8)mm2 vs (55.3±7.7)mm2] and CT values was higher in experiment group at 3 months later than in controls.Six months later after operation,the bone defect disappeared in experimental group but still existed in the controls.Marginal absorption of implanted bone with a small number of osteoblasts penetrating along the stent into the biomaterial was noted in the experimental group as early as one month later after operation,but not in the controls.At 3 months later,the experimental group showed strips of newly formed bone growing into or encapsulating the biomaterial,intersecting with each other and grew,with greater level of biomaterial degradation as compared with controls.At 6 months later,the implanted materials in experimental group were totally absorbed,replaced by newly formed osseous tissues,or fused perfectly with.inherent bone tissue.In contrast,the implants in controls showed only partial degradation and absorbance.Conclusions The tissue engineered bone modified by human bone morphogenetic protein 2 may well conduct and induce the activity of bone formation.Good biocompatibility and total degradability indicate that the implant is

  1. Comparative cortical bone thickness between the long bones of humans and five common non-human mammal taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Sarah L; Reed, Warren; Donlon, Denise

    2016-03-01

    The task of identifying fragments of long bone shafts as human or non-human is difficult but necessary, for both forensic and archaeological cases, and a fast simple method is particularly useful. Previous literature suggests there may be differences in the thickness of the cortical bone between these two groups, but this has not been tested thoroughly. The aim of this study was not only to test this suggestion, but also to provide data that could be of practical assistance for future comparisons. The major limb bones (humerus, radius, femur and tibia) of 50 Caucasoid adult skeletons of known age and sex were radiographed, along with corresponding skeletal elements from sheep, pigs, cattle, large dogs and kangaroos. Measurements were taken from the radiographs at five points along the bone shaft, of shaft diameter, cortical bone thickness, and a cortical thickness index (sum of cortices divided by shaft diameter) in both anteroposterior and mediolateral orientations. Each variable for actual cortical bone thickness as well as cortical thickness indices were compared between the human group (split by sex) and each of the non-human groups in turn, using Student's t-tests. Results showed that while significant differences did exist between the human groups and many of the non-human groups, these were not all in the same direction. That is, some variables in the human groups were significantly greater than, and others were significantly less than, the corresponding variable in the non-human groups, depending on the particular non-human group, sex of the human group, or variable under comparison. This was the case for measurements of both actual cortical bone thickness and cortical thickness index. Therefore, for bone shaft fragments for which the skeletal element is unknown, the overlap in cortical bone thickness between different areas of different bones is too great to allow identification using this method alone. However, by providing extensive cortical bone

  2. Intraoperative engineering of osteogenic grafts combining freshly harvested, human adipose-derived cells and physiological doses of bone morphogenetic protein-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mehrkens

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Engineered osteogenic constructs for bone repair typically involve complex and costly processes for cell expansion. Adipose tissue includes mesenchymal precursors in large amounts, in principle allowing for an intraoperative production of osteogenic grafts and their immediate implantation. However, stromal vascular fraction (SVF cells from adipose tissue were reported to require a molecular trigger to differentiate into functional osteoblasts. The present study tested whether physiological doses of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2 could induce freshly harvested human SVF cells to generate ectopic bone tissue. Enzymatically dissociated SVF cells from 7 healthy donors (1 x 106 or 4 x 106 were immediately embedded in a fibrin gel with or without 250 ng rhBMP-2, mixed with porous silicated calcium-phosphate granules (Actifuse®, Apatech (final construct size: 0.1 cm3 and implanted ectopically for eight weeks in nude mice. In the presence of rhBMP-2, SVF cells not only supported but directly contributed to the formation of bone ossicles, which were not observed in control cell-free, rhBMP-2 loaded implants. In vitro analysis indicated that rhBMP-2 did not involve an increase in the percentage of SVF cells recruited to the osteogenic lineage, but rather induced a stimulation of the osteoblastic differentiation of the committed progenitors. These findings confirm the feasibility of generating fully osteogenic grafts using an easily accessible autologous cell source and low amounts of rhBMP-2, in a timing compatible with an intraoperative schedule. The study warrants further investigation at an orthotopic site of implantation, where the delivery of rhBMP-2 could be bypassed thanks to the properties of the local milieu.

  3. Comparison of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2-infused absorbable collagen sponge, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2-coated tricalcium phosphate, and platelet-rich fibrin-mixed tricalcium phosphate for sinus augmentation in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Hun Kim

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Our histological evaluation demonstrates that Type I ACS can be used as a carrier of rhBMP-2, and rhBMP-2+ACS showed rapid bone formation, remodeling, and calcification at Week 2 in rabbit.

  4. Perfluoroalkyl substances in human bone: concentrations in bones and effects on bone cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, A; Koponen, J; Lehenkari, P; Viluksela, M; Korkalainen, M; Tuukkanen, J

    2017-07-28

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including two most commonly studied compounds perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are widely distributed environmental pollutants, used extensively earlier. Due to their toxicological effects the use of PFAS is now regulated. Based on earlier studies on PFOA's distribution in bone and bone marrow in mice, we investigated PFAS levels and their possible link to bone microarchitecture of human femoral bone samples (n = 18). Soft tissue and bone biopsies were also taken from a 49-year old female cadaver for PFAS analyses. We also studied how PFOA exposure affects differentiation of human osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PFAS were detectable from all dry bone and bone marrow samples, PFOS and PFOA being the most prominent. In cadaver biopsies, lungs and liver contained the highest concentrations of PFAS, whereas PFAS were absent in bone marrow. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was present in the bones, PFOA and PFOS were absent. In vitro results showed no disturbance in osteogenic differentiation after PFOA exposure, but in osteoclasts, lower concentrations led to increased resorption, which eventually dropped to zero after increase in PFOA concentration. In conclusion, PFAS are present in bone and have the potential to affect human bone cells partly at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  5. Autologous serum improves bone formation in a primary stable silica-embedded nanohydroxyapatite bone substitute in combination with mesenchymal stem cells and rhBMP-2 in the sheep model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boos AM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Anja M Boos,1,* Annika Weigand,1,* Gloria Deschler,1 Thomas Gerber,2 Andreas Arkudas,1 Ulrich Kneser,1 Raymund E Horch,1 Justus P Beier11Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University Hospital of Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg FAU, Erlangen, 2Institute of Physics, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: New therapeutic strategies are required for critical size bone defects, because the gold standard of transplanting autologous bone from an unharmed area of the body often leads to several severe side effects and disadvantages for the patient. For years, tissue engineering approaches have been seeking a stable, axially vascularized transplantable bone replacement suitable for transplantation into the recipient bed with pre-existing insufficient conditions. For this reason, the arteriovenous loop model was developed and various bone substitutes have been vascularized. However, it has not been possible thus far to engineer a primary stable and axially vascularized transplantable bone substitute. For that purpose, a primary stable silica-embedded nanohydroxyapatite (HA bone substitute in combination with blood, bone marrow, expanded, or directly retransplanted mesenchymal stem cells, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2, and different carrier materials (fibrin, cell culture medium, autologous serum was tested subcutaneously for 4 or 12 weeks in the sheep model. Autologous serum lead to an early matrix change during degradation of the bone substitute and formation of new bone tissue. The best results were achieved in the group combining mesenchymal stem cells expanded with 60 µg/mL rhBMP-2 in autologous serum. Better ingrowth of fibrovascular tissue could be detected in the autologous serum group compared with the control (fibrin. Osteoclastic activity indicating an active bone remodeling process was observed after 4 weeks, particularly

  6. Colloid, adhesive and release properties of nanoparticular ternary complexes between cationic and anionic polysaccharides and basic proteins like bone morphogenetic protein BMP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, R; Vehlow, D; Urban, B; Grab, A L; Cavalcanti-Adam, E A; Alt, V; Müller, M

    2017-03-01

    Herein we describe an interfacial local drug delivery system for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) based on coatings of polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) nanoparticles (NP). The application horizon is the functionalization of bone substituting materials (BSM) used for the therapy of systemic bone diseases. Nanoparticular ternary complexes of cationic and anionic polysaccharides and BMP-2 or two further model proteins, respectively, were prepared in dependence of the molar mixing ratio, pH value and of the cationic polysaccharide. As further proteins chymotrypsin (CHY) and papain (PAP) were selected, which served as model proteins for BMP-2 due to similar isoelectric points and molecular weights. As charged polysaccharides ethylenediamine modified cellulose (EDAC) and trimethylammonium modified cellulose (PQ10) were combined with cellulose sulphatesulfate (CS). Mixing diluted cationic and anionic polysaccharide and protein solutions according to a slight either anionic or cationic excess charge colloidal ternary dispersions formed, which were cast onto germanium model substrates by water evaporation. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) demonstrated, that these dispersions were colloidally stable for at least one week. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) showed, that the cast protein loaded PEC NP coatings were irreversibly adhesive at the model substrate in contact to HEPES buffer and solely CHY, PAP and BMP-2 were released within long-term time scale. Advantageously, out of the three proteins BMP-2 showed the smallest initial burst and the slowest release kinetics and around 25% of the initial BMP-2 content were released within 14days. Released BMP-2 showed significant activity in the myoblast cells indicating the ability to regulate the formation of new bone. Therefore, BMP-2 loaded PEC NP are suggested as novel promising tool for the functionalization of BSM used for the therapy of systemic bone diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bone marrow stromal cells with a combined expression of BMP-2 and VEGF-165 enhanced bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Caiwen; Zhou Huifang; Fu Yao; Gu Ping; Fan Xianqun; Liu Guangpeng; Zhang Peng; Hou Hongliang; Tang Tingting

    2011-01-01

    Bone graft substitutes with osteogenic factors alone often exhibit poor bone regeneration due to inadequate vascularization. Combined delivery of osteogenic and angiogenic factors from biodegradable scaffolds may enhance bone regeneration. We evaluated the effects of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), combined with natural coral scaffolds, on the repair of critical-sized bone defects in rabbit orbits. In vitro expanded rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were transfected with human BMP2 and VEGF165 genes. Target protein expression and osteogenic differentiation were confirmed after gene transduction. Rabbit orbital defects were treated with a coral scaffold loaded with BMP2-transduced and VEGF-transduced BMSCs, BMP2-expressing BMSCs, VEGF-expressing BMSCs, or BMSCs without gene transduction. Volume and density of regenerated bone were determined by micro-computed tomography at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after implantation. Neovascularity, new bone deposition rate, and new bone formation were measured by immunostaining, tetracycline and calcein labelling, and histomorphometric analysis at different time points. The results showed that VEGF increased blood vessel formation relative to groups without VEGF. Combined delivery of BMP2 and VEGF increased new bone deposition and formation, compared with any single factor. These findings indicate that mimicking the natural bone development process by combined BMP2 and VEGF delivery improves healing of critical-sized orbital defects in rabbits.

  8. Protective effect of bone morphogenetic protein 6 on RPE cells injury caused by H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of bone morphogenetic protein 6(BMP-6on cellular morphology, proliferation and apoptosis of retinal pigment epithelial cells(ARPE-19incubated in hydrogen peroxide(H2O2. METHODS:ARPE-19 cells were cultured conventionally and divided into four groups. One group was untreated as blank group, the other three groups were incubated in 75μm/L H2O2, 150ng/mLBMP-6 or75μm/L H2O2+150ng/mL BMP-6. All the groups were incubated for 3h, 6h, 9h and 12h. We tested the cell viabilitity by MTT. We used flow cytometry to test the cell cycle and cell apoptosis.RESULTS:H2O2 significantly decreased the cell activity in time-dependent manner. The activity of cells with BMP-6+H2O2 was higher H2O2 group, and the differences between the two groups at 3h and 6h were significant(P2O2, while the cells with BMP-6 were less cell detachment and apoptosis. CONCLUSION:BMP-6 has protective effects on RPE cells from oxidative stress in certain extent.

  9. In vitro study of manganese-doped bioactive glasses for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miola, Marta; Brovarone, Chiara Vitale; Maina, Giovanni; Rossi, Federica; Bergandi, Loredana; Ghigo, Dario; Saracino, Silvia; Maggiora, Marina; Canuto, Rosa Angela; Muzio, Giuliana; Vernè, Enrica

    2014-01-01

    A glass belonging to the system SiO 2 –P 2 O 5 –CaO–MgO–Na 2 O–K 2 O was modified by introducing two different amounts of manganese oxide (MnO). Mn-doped glasses were prepared by melt and quenching technique and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation and energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS) analysis. In vitro bioactivity test in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed a slight decrease in the reactivity kinetics of Mn-doped glasses compared to the glass used as control; however the glasses maintained a good degree of bioactivity. Mn-leaching test in SBF and minimum essential medium (MEM) revealed fluctuating trends probably due to a re-precipitation of Mn compounds during the bioactivity process. Cellular tests showed that all the Mn-doped glasses, up to a concentration of 50 μg/cm 2 (μg of glass powders/cm 2 of cell monolayer), did not produce cytotoxic effects on human MG-63 osteoblasts cultured for up to 5 days. Finally, biocompatibility tests demonstrated a good osteoblast proliferation and spreading on Mn-doped glasses and most of all that the Mn-doping can promote the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and some bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). - Highlights: • Novel bioactive glasses doped with manganese were prepared. • Mn-doped bioactive glasses were not cytotoxic towards human MG-63 osteoblasts. • The Mn introduction promotes the expression of ALP and bone morphogenetic proteins. • Mn-doped glass may be a promising material for bone regeneration procedures

  10. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 functions as a negative regulator in the differentiation of myoblasts, but not as an inducer for the formations of cartilage and bone in mouse embryonic tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Erika

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vitro studies using the myogenic cell line C2C12 demonstrate that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 converts the developmental pathway of C2C12 from a myogenic cell lineage to an osteoblastic cell lineage. Further, in vivo studies using null mutation mice demonstrate that BMPs inhibit the specification of the developmental fate of myogenic progenitor cells. However, the roles of BMPs in the phases of differentiation and maturation in skeletal muscles have yet to be determined. The present study attempts to define the function of BMP-2 in the final stage of differentiation of mouse tongue myoblast. Results Recombinant BMP-2 inhibited the expressions of markers for the differentiation of skeletal muscle cells, such as myogenin, muscle creatine kinase (MCK, and fast myosin heavy chain (fMyHC, whereas BMP-2 siRNA stimulated such markers. Neither the recombinant BMP-2 nor BMP-2 siRNA altered the expressions of markers for the formation of cartilage and bone, such as osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, collagen II, and collagen X. Further, no formation of cartilage and bone was observed in the recombinant BMP-2-treated tongues based on Alizarin red and Alcian blue stainings. Neither recombinant BMP-2 nor BMP-2 siRNA affected the expression of inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation 1 (Id1. The ratios of chondrogenic and osteogenic markers relative to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, a house keeping gene were approximately 1000-fold lower than those of myogenic markers in the cultured tongue. Conclusions BMP-2 functions as a negative regulator for the final differentiation of tongue myoblasts, but not as an inducer for the formation of cartilage and bone in cultured tongue, probably because the genes related to myogenesis are in an activation mode, while the genes related to chondrogenesis and osteogenesis are in a silencing mode.

  11. Development and Assessment of a 3D-Printed Scaffold with rhBMP-2 for an Implant Surgical Guide Stent and Bone Graft Material: A Pilot Animal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Ji Cheol; Lee, Jin-Ju; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Park, Keun-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Seok; Bae, Eun-Bin; Choi, Jae-Won; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a new concept of a 3D-printed scaffold was introduced for the accurate placement of an implant and the application of a recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)-loaded bone graft. This preliminary study was conducted using two adult beagles to evaluate the 3D-printed polycaprolactone (PCL)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)/bone decellularized extracellular matrix (bdECM) scaffold conjugated with rhBMP-2 for the simultaneous use as an implant surgical guide stent an...

  12. Cellular Therapy to Obtain Rapid Endochondral Bone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    length from the tibial fusion site, and then stop which would be consistent with the resorption being associated with the lack of weight bearing load. In...Defect in the Rat Femur with Use of a Vascularized Periosteal Flap, a Biodegradable Matric, and Bone Morphogenetic Protein. J Bone Joint Surg 87-A(6

  13. Osteogenic medium is superior to growth factors in differentiation of human adipose stem cells towards bone-forming cells in 3D culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Tirkkonen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human adipose stem cells (hASCs have been recently used to treat bone defects in clinical practice. Yet there is a need for more optimal scaffolds and cost-effective approaches to induce osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. Therefore, we compared the efficiency of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2 and BMP-7, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and osteogenic medium (OM for the osteo-induction of hASCs in 3D culture. In addition, growth factors were tested in combination with OM. Commercially available bioactive glass scaffolds (BioRestore and biphasic calcium phosphate granules (BoneCeramic were evaluated as prospective carriers for hASCs. Both biomaterials supported hASC-viability, but BioRestore resulted in higher cell number than BoneCeramic, whereas BoneCeramic supported more significant collagen production. The most efficient osteo-induction was achieved with plain OM, promoting higher alkaline phosphatase activity and collagen production than growth factors. In fact, treatment with BMP-2 or VEGF did not increase osteogenic differentiation or cell number significantly more than maintenance medium with either biomaterial. Moreover, BMP-7 treatment consistently inhibited proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. Interestingly, there was no benefit from growth factors added to OM. This is the first study to demonstrate that OM enhances hASC-differentiation towards bone-forming cells significantly more than growth factors in 3D culture.

  14. Distribution of BMP6 in the alveolar bone during mouse mandibular molar eruption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oralová, Veronika; Chlastáková, I.; Radlanski, R.J.; Matalová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 55, 5-6 (2014), s. 357-366 ISSN 0300-8207 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP302/12/J059 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : bone morphogenetic protein * bone resorption * bone apposition Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.607, year: 2014

  15. Bisphosphonate-adsorbed ceramic nanoparticles increase bone formation in an injectable carrier for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegan L Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB is a sugar-based carrier. We have previously applied SAIB as a minimally invasive system for the co-delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 and found synergy when co-delivering zoledronic acid (ZA and hydroxyapatite (HA nanoparticles. Alternative bioceramics were investigated in a murine SAIB/rhBMP-2 injection model. Neither beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP nor Bioglass (BG 45S5 had a significant effect on bone volume (BV alone or in combination with the ZA. 14C-labelled ZA binding assays showed particle size and ceramic composition affected binding with nano-HA > micro-HA > TCP > BG. Micro-HA and nano-HA increased BV in a rat model of rhBMP-2/SAIB injection (+278% and +337%, and BV was further increased with ZA–adsorbed micro-HA and nano-HA (+530% and +889%. These data support the use of ZA–adsorbed nanoparticle-sized HA as an optimal additive for the SAIB/rhBMP-2 injectable system for bone tissue engineering.

  16. Use of bone morphogenetic proteins in traumatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, R. J.; van Bezooijen, R. L.; Kloen, P.

    2005-01-01

    An estimated 5-10% of all fractures show impaired heating, leading to delayed union, or non-union. Chemical, or physical methods to accelerate bone heating are of great interest to the orthopaedic and trauma community. Research over the last 20 years has established that successful fracture heating

  17. Bone marrow concentrate promotes bone regeneration with a suboptimal-dose of rhBMP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egashira, Kazuhiro; Sumita, Yoshinori; Zhong, Weijian; I, Takashi; Ohba, Seigo; Nagai, Kazuhiro; Asahina, Izumi

    2018-01-01

    Bone marrow concentrate (BMC), which is enriched in mononuclear cells (MNCs) and platelets, has recently attracted the attention of clinicians as a new optional means for bone engineering. We previously reported that the osteoinductive effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) could be enhanced synergistically by co-transplantation of peripheral blood (PB)-derived platelet-rich plasma (PRP). This study aims to investigate whether BMC can effectively promote bone formation induced by low-dose BMP-2, thereby reducing the undesirable side-effects of BMP-2, compared to PRP. Human BMC was obtained from bone marrow aspirates using an automated blood separator. The BMC was then seeded onto β-TCP granules pre-adsorbed with a suboptimal-dose (minimum concentration to induce bone formation at 2 weeks in mice) of recombinant human (rh) BMP-2. These specimens were transplanted subcutaneously to the dorsal skin of immunodeficient-mice and the induction of ectopic bone formation was assessed 2 and 4 weeks post-transplantation. Transplantations of five other groups [PB, PRP, platelet-poor plasma (PPP), bone marrow aspirate (BM), and BM-PPP] were employed as experimental controls. Then, to clarify the effects on vertical bone augmentation, specimens from the six groups were transplanted for on-lay placement on the craniums of mice. The results indicated that BMC, which contained an approximately 2.5-fold increase in the number of MNCs compared to PRP, could accelerate ectopic bone formation until 2 weeks post-transplantation. On the cranium, the BMC group promoted bone augmentation with a suboptimal-dose of rhBMP-2 compared to other groups. Particularly in the BMC specimens harvested at 4 weeks, we observed newly formed bone surrounding the TCP granules at sites far from the calvarial bone. In conclusion, the addition of BMC could reduce the amount of rhBMP-2 by one-half via its synergistic effect on early-phase osteoinduction. We propose here that BMC transplantation

  18. Human alveolar bone cell proliferation, expression of osteoblastic phenotype, and matrix mineralization on porous titanium produced by powder metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Adalberto Luiz; Crippa, Grasiele Edilaine; de Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco; Taba, Mario; Lefebvre, Louis-Philippe; Beloti, Marcio Mateus

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the influence of the porous titanium (Ti) structure on the osteogenic cell behaviour. Porous Ti discs were fabricated by the powder metallurgy process with the pore size typically between 50 and 400 microm and a porosity of 60%. Osteogenic cells obtained from human alveolar bone were cultured until subconfluence and subcultured on dense Ti (control) and porous Ti for periods of up to 17 days. Cultures grown on porous Ti exhibited increased cell proliferation and total protein content, and lower levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity than on dense Ti. In general, gene expression of osteoblastic markers-runt-related transcription factor 2, collagen type I, alkaline phosphatase, bone morphogenetic protein-7, and osteocalcin was lower at day 7 and higher at day 17 in cultures grown on porous Ti compared with dense Ti, a finding consistent with the enhanced growth rate for such cultures. The amount of mineralized matrix was greater on porous Ti compared with the dense one. These results indicate that the porous Ti is an appropriate substrate for osteogenic cell adhesion, proliferation, and production of a mineralized matrix. Because of the three-dimensional environment it provides, porous Ti should be considered an advantageous substrate for promoting desirable implant surface-bone interactions.

  19. 3D printed hyperelastic "bone" scaffolds and regional gene therapy: A novel approach to bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alluri, Ram; Jakus, Adam; Bougioukli, Sofia; Pannell, William; Sugiyama, Osamu; Tang, Amy; Shah, Ramille; Lieberman, Jay R

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viability of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) transduced with a lentiviral (LV) vector to overexpress bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) loaded onto a novel 3D printed scaffold. Human ADSCs were transduced with a LV vector carrying the cDNA for BMP-2. The transduced cells were loaded onto a 3D printed Hyperelastic "Bone" (HB) scaffold. In vitro BMP-2 production was assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. The ability of ADSCs loaded on the HB scaffold to induce in vivo bone formation in a hind limb muscle pouch model was assessed in the following groups: ADSCs transduced with LV-BMP-2, LV-green fluorescent protein, ADSCs alone, and empty HB scaffolds. Bone formation was assessed using radiographs, histology and histomorphometry. Transduced ADSCs BMP-2 production on the HB scaffold at 24 hours was similar on 3D printed HB scaffolds versus control wells with transduced cells alone, and continued to increase after 1 and 2 weeks of culture. Bone formation was noted in LV-BMP-2 animals on plain radiographs at 2 and 4 weeks after implantation; no bone formation was noted in the other groups. Histology demonstrated that the LV-BMP-2 group was the only group that formed woven bone and the mean bone area/tissue area was significantly greater when compared with the other groups. 3D printed HB scaffolds are effective carriers for transduced ADSCs to promote bone repair. The combination of gene therapy and tissue engineered scaffolds is a promising multidisciplinary approach to bone repair with significant clinical potential. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 1104-1110, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Comparison of newly developed anti-bone morphogenetic protein 4 llama-derived antibodies with commercially available BMP4 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calpe, Silvia; Correia, Ana C P; Sancho-Serra, Maria Del Carmen; Krishnadath, Kausilia K

    2016-01-01

    Due to improved understanding of the role of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in an increasing number of diseases, the development of selective inhibitors of BMP4 is an attractive therapeutic option. The currently available BMP4 inhibitors are not suitable as therapeutics because of their low specificity and low effectiveness. Here, we compared newly generated anti-BMP4 llama-derived antibodies (VHHs) with 3 different types of commercially available BMP4 inhibitors, natural antagonists, small molecule BMPR inhibitors and conventional anti-BMP4 monoclonal antibodies. We found that the anti-BMP4 VHHs were as effective as the natural antagonist or small molecule inhibitors, but had higher specificity. We also showed that commercial anti-BMP4 antibodies were inferior in terms of both specificity and effectiveness. These findings might result from the fact that the VHHs C4C4 and C8C8 target a small region within the BMPR1 epitope of BMP4, whereas the commercial antibodies target other areas of the BMP4 molecule. Our results show that the newly developed anti-BMP4 VHHs are promising antibodies with better specificity and effectivity for inhibition of BMP4, making them an attractive tool for research and for therapeutic applications.

  1. Atomic scale chemical tomography of human bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langelier, Brian; Wang, Xiaoyue; Grandfield, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Human bone is a complex hierarchical material. Understanding bone structure and its corresponding composition at the nanometer scale is critical for elucidating mechanisms of biomineralization under healthy and pathological states. However, the three-dimensional structure and chemical nature of bone remains largely unexplored at the nanometer scale due to the challenges associated with characterizing both the structural and chemical integrity of bone simultaneously. Here, we use correlative transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography for the first time, to our knowledge, to reveal structures in human bone at the atomic level. This approach provides an overlaying chemical map of the organic and inorganic constituents of bone on its structure. This first use of atom probe tomography on human bone reveals local gradients, trace element detection of Mg, and the co-localization of Na with the inorganic-organic interface of bone mineral and collagen fibrils, suggesting the important role of Na-rich organics in the structural connection between mineral and collagen. Our findings provide the first insights into the hierarchical organization and chemical heterogeneity in human bone in three-dimensions at its smallest length scale - the atomic level. We demonstrate that atom probe tomography shows potential for new insights in biomineralization research on bone.

  2. Chitosan-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microsphere-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: in vitro degradation and in vivo bone regeneration studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Nukavarapu, Syam P; Deng, Meng; Jabbarzadeh, Ehsan; Kofron, Michelle D; Doty, Stephen B; Abdel-Fattah, Wafa I; Laurencin, Cato T

    2010-09-01

    Natural polymer chitosan and synthetic polymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA) have been investigated for a variety of tissue engineering applications. We have previously reported the fabrication and in vitro evaluation of a novel chitosan/PLAGA sintered microsphere scaffold for load-bearing bone tissue engineering applications. In this study, the in vitro degradation characteristics of the chitosan/PLAGA scaffold and the in vivo bone formation capacity of the chitosan/PLAGA-based scaffolds in a rabbit ulnar critical-sized-defect model were investigated. The chitosan/PLAGA scaffold showed slower degradation than the PLAGA scaffold in vitro. Although chitosan/PLAGA scaffold showed a gradual decrease in compressive properties during the 12-week degradation period, the compressive strength and compressive modulus remained in the range of human trabecular bone. Chitosan/PLAGA-based scaffolds were able to guide bone formation in a rabbit ulnar critical-sized-defect model. Microcomputed tomography analysis demonstrated that successful bridging of the critical-sized defect on the sides both adjacent to and away from the radius occurred using chitosan/PLAGA-based scaffolds. Immobilization of heparin and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 on the chitosan/PLAGA scaffold surface promoted early bone formation as evidenced by complete bridging of the defect along the radius and significantly enhanced mechanical properties when compared to the chitosan/PLAGA scaffold. Furthermore, histological analysis suggested that chitosan/PLAGA-based scaffolds supported normal bone formation via intramembranous formation. 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transdifferentiation of myoblasts into osteoblasts - possible use for bone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Daphne P L; Carnagarin, Revathy; Dharmarajan, Arun; Dass, Crispin R

    2017-12-01

    Transdifferentiation is defined as the conversion of one cell type to another and is an ever-expanding field with a growing number of cells found to be capable of such a process. To date, the fact remains that there are limited treatment options for fracture healing, osteoporosis and bone repair post-destruction by bone tumours. Hence, this review focuses on the transdifferentiation of myoblast to osteoblast as a means to further understand the transdifferentiation process and to investigate a potential therapeutic option if successful. The potent osteoinductive effects of the bone morphogenetic protein-2 are largely implicated in the transdifferentiation of myoblast to osteoblast. Bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced activation of the Smad1 protein ultimately results in JunB synthesis, the first transcriptional step in myoblast dedifferentiation. The upregulation of the activating protein-1 binding activity triggers the transcription of the runt-related transcription factor 2 gene, a transcription factor that plays a major role in osteoblast differentiation. This potential transdifferentiation treatment may be utilised for dental implants, fracture healing, osteoporosis and bone repair post-destruction by bone tumours. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Spatial regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in postnatal articular and growth plate cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Presley; Yue, Shanna; Hanson, Jeffrey; Baron, Jeffrey; Lui, Julian C.

    2017-01-01

    Articular and growth plate cartilage both arise from condensations of mesenchymal cells, but ultimately develop important histological and functional differences. Each is composed of three layers—the superficial, mid and deep zones of articular cartilage and the resting, proliferative and hypertrophic zones of growth plate cartilage. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) system plays an important role in cartilage development. A gradient in expression of BMP-related genes has been observed across growth plate cartilage, likely playing a role in zonal differentiation. To investigate the presence of a similar expression gradient in articular cartilage, we used laser capture microdissection (LCM) to separate murine growth plate and articular cartilage from the proximal tibia into their six constituent zones, and used a solution hybridization assay with color-coded probes (nCounter) to quantify mRNAs for 30 different BMP-related genes in each zone. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were then used to confirm spatial expression patterns. Expression gradients for Bmp2 and 6 were observed across growth plate cartilage with highest expression in hypertrophic zone. However, intracellular BMP signaling, assessed by phospho-Smad1/5/8 immunohistochemical staining, appeared to be higher in the proliferative zone and prehypertrophic area than in hypertrophic zone, possibly due to high expression of Smad7, an inhibitory Smad, in the hypertrophic zone. We also found BMP expression gradients across the articular cartilage with BMP agonists primarily expressed in the superficial zone and BMP functional antagonists primarily expressed in the deep zone. Phospho-Smad1/5/8 immunohistochemical staining showed a similar gradient. In combination with previous evidence that BMPs regulate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, the current findings suggest that BMP signaling gradients exist across both growth plate and articular cartilage and that these gradients may

  5. Comparative expression analyses of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) expressions in muscles of tilapia and common carp indicate that BMP4 plays a role in the intermuscular bone distribution in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shengyan; Dong, Zaijie

    2018-01-01

    Intermuscular bones in fish negatively influence both meet processing and attractiveness to consumers. Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are both major farmed fish species globally, but whereas the former does not possess intermuscular bones, the latter does. Therefore, these two species might present a good model to study the genetic control of distribution of intermuscular bones in fish. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) gene is associated with tissue ossification and bone regeneration in mammals, but in fish its role in ossification remains understudied. To study the relationship between BMP4 and bone distribution in fish, we determined the expression of BMP4 in muscle tissues of common carp and tilapia on transcriptional and translational levels. As the gene has been merely predicted in silico from the genome of common carp, we have cloned and characterized it. The gene (GenBank: HQ446455) contains one intron and two exons, which encode a 400-amino acid protein with high homology to other known BMP4 protein sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that common carp clustered within the Cypriniformes clade (zebrafish was the closest ortholog) and tilapia within the Percomorpha clade. Using microCT scanning, we confirmed that intermuscular bones could be observed only in common carp (none in tilapia), but only in dorsal and caudal muscles (none in the ventral muscle). Expression levels of BMP4 in the muscles of common carp were in agreement with this observation both on transcriptional (qPCR) and translational (immunohistochemistry) level: higher in dorsal and caudal muscles, and lower in the ventral muscle. In tilapia, expression of BMP4 gene was also detectable in all three muscles, but expression levels in all three muscles were comparable to the one observed in the ventral muscle of carp, i.e., very low. Therefore, among the six studied muscles, the expression of BMP4 was high only in the two that possess intermuscular bones

  6. Pathogenesis of age-related bone loss in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Sundeep

    2013-10-01

    Although data from rodent systems are extremely useful in providing insights into possible mechanisms of age-related bone loss, concepts evolving from animal models need to ultimately be tested in humans. This review provides an update on mechanisms of age-related bone loss in humans based on the author's knowledge of the field and focused literature reviews. Novel imaging, experimental models, biomarkers, and analytic techniques applied directly to human studies are providing new insights into the patterns of bone mass acquisition and loss as well as the role of sex steroids, in particular estrogen, on bone metabolism and bone loss with aging in women and men. These studies have identified the onset of trabecular bone loss at multiple sites that begins in young adulthood and remains unexplained, at least based on current paradigms of the mechanisms of bone loss. In addition, estrogen appears to be a major regulator of bone metabolism not only in women but also in men. Studies assessing mechanisms of estrogen action on bone in humans have identified effects of estrogen on RANKL expression by several different cell types in the bone microenvironment, a role for TNF-α and IL-1β in mediating effects of estrogen deficiency on bone, and possible regulation of the Wnt inhibitor, sclerostin, by estrogen. There have been considerable advances in our understanding of age-related bone loss in humans. However, there are also significant gaps in knowledge, particularly in defining cell autonomous changes in bone in human studies to test or validate concepts emerging from studies in rodents. Decision Editor: Luigi Ferrucci, MD, PhD.

  7. Convergence of bone morphogenetic protein and laminin-1 signaling pathways promotes proliferation and colony formation by fetal mouse pancreatic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Fangxu; Harrison, Leonard C.

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the transforming growth factor superfamily, together with the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin-1 (Ln-1), promote proliferation of fetal pancreatic cells and formation of colonies containing peripheral insulin-positive cells. Here, we further investigate the cross-talk between BMP and Ln-1 signals. By RT-PCR, receptors for BMP (BMPR) (excepting BMPR-1B) and Ln-1 were expressed in the fetal pancreas between E13.5 and E17.5. Specific blocking antibodies to BMP-4 and -6 and selective BMP antagonists partially inhibited colony formation by fetal pancreas cells. Colony formation induced by BMP-6 and Ln-1 was completely abolished in a dose-dependent manner by blocking Ln-1 binding to its α 6 integrin and α-dystroglycan receptors or by blocking the Ln-1 signaling molecules, phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (P13K) and MAP kinase kinase-1. These results demonstrate a convergence of BMP and Ln-1 signaling through P13K and MAP kinase pathways to induce proliferation and colony formation in E15.5 fetal mouse pancreatic cells

  8. Role of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP7 in the Modulation of Corneal Stromal and Epithelial Cell Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavani S. Kowtharapu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the cornea, healing of the wounded avascular surface is an intricate process comprising the involvement of epithelial, stromal and neuronal cell interactions. These interactions result to the release of various growth factors that play prominent roles during corneal wound healing response. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are unique multi-functional potent growth factors of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β superfamily. Treatment of corneal epithelial cells with substance P and nerve growth factor resulted to an increase in the expression of BMP7 mRNA. Since BMP7 is known to modulate the process of corneal wound healing, in this present study, we investigated the influence of exogenous rhBMP7 on human corneal epithelial cell and stromal cell (SFs function. To obtain a high-fidelity expression profiling of activated biomarkers and pathways, transcriptome-wide gene-level expression profiling of epithelial cells in the presence of BMP7 was performed. Gene ontology analysis shows BMP7 stimulation activated TGF-β signaling and cell cycle pathways, whereas biological processes related to cell cycle, microtubule and intermediate filament cytoskeleton organization were significantly impacted in corneal epithelial cells. Scratch wound healing assay showed increased motility and migration of BMP7 treated epithelial cells. BMP7 stimulation studies show activation of MAPK cascade proteins in epithelial cells and SFs. Similarly, a difference in the expression of claudin, Zink finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 was observed along with phosphorylation levels of cofilin in epithelial cells. Stimulation of SFs with BMP7 activated them with increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin. In addition, an elevated phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor following BMP7 stimulation was also observed both in corneal epithelial cells and SFs. Based on our transcriptome analysis data on epithelial cells and the results obtained in SFs, we

  9. Osteoblast recruitment routes in human cancellous bone remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Helene Bjørg; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Marcussen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly proposed that bone forming osteoblasts recruited during bone remodeling originate from bone marrow perivascular cells, bone remodeling compartment canopy cells, or bone lining cells. However, an assessment of osteoblast recruitment during adult human cancellous bone remodeling...... is lacking. We addressed this question by quantifying cell densities, cell proliferation, osteoblast differentiation markers, and capillaries in human iliac crest biopsy specimens. We found that recruitment occurs on both reversal and bone-forming surfaces, as shown by the cell density and osterix levels...

  10. Low-dose rhBMP2/7 heterodimer to reconstruct peri-implant bone defects: a micro-CT evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Zheng, Y.; Zhao, J.; Liu, T.; Gao, L.; Gu, Z.; Wu, G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To delineate the dynamic micro-architectures of bone induced by low-dose bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/7 heterodimer in peri-implant bone defects compared to BMP2 and BMP7 homodimer. Material and Methods Peri-implant bone defects (8 mm in diameter, 4 mm in depth) were created

  11. Does the Addition of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 to Platelet-Rich Fibrin Improve Healing After Treatment for Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Sun-Jong

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effect of the addition of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) to leukocyte-rich and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) on the treatment of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ), this study compared the healing outcome of combined use of BMP-2 and L-PRF with single use of L-PRF. Of 55 patients who were diagnosed with MRONJ, 25 were treated with L-PRF alone and 30 were treated with L-PRF and recombinant human BMP-2. For each patient, surgical sites were evaluated postoperatively at 4 and 16 weeks. Associations between the treatment method and the resolution of MRONJ were analyzed with the adjustment of patient-specific factors that may influence the treatment outcome. At 4 and 16 weeks postoperatively, patients with MRONJ who were treated with both L-PRF and BMP-2 showed favorable outcomes with complete resolution of the lesions, which was statistically significant compared with that of the therapy using L-PRF alone (P = .028). Therefore, the additional use of BMP-2 considerably improved MRONJ healing. Among patient-specific factors, the existence of a bacterial colony in the biopsy specimen was a significant factor that negatively affected disease resolution (P = .017). The combined use of BMP-2 and L-PRF leads to the early resolution of MRONJ; thus patients who need to continue antiresorptive therapy may benefit from the combined regimen. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrolysis and Sulfation Pattern Effects on Release of Bioactive Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 from Heparin-Based Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Liane E; Miller, Tobias; McDevitt, Todd C; Temenoff, Johnna S

    2015-10-28

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as heparin are promising materials for growth factor delivery due to their ability to efficiently bind positively charged growth factors including bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) through their negatively charged sulfate groups. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine BMP-2 release from heparin-based microparticles (MPs) after first, incorporating a hydrolytically degradable crosslinker and varying heparin content within MPs to alter MP degradation and second, altering the sulfation pattern of heparin within MPs to vary BMP-2 binding and release. Using varied MP formulations, it was found that the time course of MP degradation for 1 wt% heparin MPs was ~4 days slower than 10 wt% heparin MPs, indicating that MP degradation was dependent on heparin content. After incubating 100 ng BMP-2 with 0.1 mg MPs, most MP formulations loaded BMP-2 with ~50% efficiency and significantly more BMP-2 release (60% of loaded BMP-2) was observed from more sulfated heparin MPs (MPs with ~100% and 80% of native sulfation). Similarly, BMP-2 bioactivity in more sulfated heparin MP groups was at least four-fold higher than soluble BMP-2 and less sulfated heparin MP groups, as determined by an established C2C12 cell alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay. Ultimately, the two most sulfated 10 wt% heparin MP formulations were able to efficiently load and release BMP-2 while enhancing BMP-2 bioactivity, making them promising candidates for future growth factor delivery applications.

  13. Demineralized bone matrix fibers formable as general and custom 3D printed mold-based implants for promoting bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rudy U; Kemper, Nathan; Breathwaite, Erick; Dutta, Sucharita M; Hsu, Erin L; Hsu, Wellington K; Francis, Michael P

    2016-07-26

    Bone repair frequently requires time-consuming implant construction, particularly when using un-formed implants with poor handling properties. We therefore developed osteoinductive, micro-fibrous surface patterned demineralized bone matrix (DBM) fibers for engineering both defect-matched and general three-dimensional implants. Implant molds were filled with demineralized human cortical bone fibers there were compressed and lyophilized, forming mechanically strong shaped DBM scaffolds. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays and mass spectrometry confirmed that DBM fibers contained abundant osteogenic growth factors (bone morphogenetic proteins, insulin-like growth factor-I) and extracellular matrix proteins. Mercury porosimetry and mechanical testing showed interconnected pores within the mechanically stable, custom DBM fiber scaffolds. Mesenchymal stem cells readily attached to the DBM and showed increasing metabolic activity over time. DBM fibers further increased alkaline phosphatase activity in C2C12 cells. In vivo, DBM implants elicited osteoinductive potential in a mouse muscle pouch, and also promoted spine fusion in a rat arthrodesis model. DBM fibers can be engineered into custom-shaped, osteoinductive and osteoconductive implants with potential for repairing osseous defects with precise fitment, potentially reducing operating time. By providing pre-formed and custom implants, this regenerative allograft may improve patient outcomes following surgical bone repair, while further advancing personalized orthopedic and craniomaxillofacial medicine using three-dimensional-printed tissue molds.

  14. An in vitro 3D bone metastasis model by using a human bone tissue culture and human sex-related cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanna, Francesca; Borsari, Veronica; Brogini, Silvia; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Parrilli, Annapaola; Cepollaro, Simona; Cadossi, Matteo; Martini, Lucia; Mazzotti, Antonio; Fini, Milena

    2016-11-22

    One of the main limitations, when studying cancer-bone metastasis, is the complex nature of the native bone environment and the lack of reliable, simple, inexpensive models that closely mimic the biological processes occurring in patients and allowing the correct translation of results. To enhance the understanding of the mechanisms underlying human bone metastases and in order to find new therapies, we developed an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) cancer-bone metastasis model by culturing human breast or prostate cancer cells with human bone tissue isolated from female and male patients, respectively. Bone tissue discarded from total hip replacement surgery was cultured in a rolling apparatus system in a normoxic or hypoxic environment. Gene expression profile, protein levels, histological, immunohistochemical and four-dimensional (4D) micro-CT analyses showed a noticeable specificity of breast and prostate cancer cells for bone colonization and ingrowth, thus highlighting the species-specific and sex-specific osteotropism and the need to widen the current knowledge on cancer-bone metastasis spread in human bone tissues. The results of this study support the application of this model in preclinical studies on bone metastases and also follow the 3R principles, the guiding principles, aimed at replacing/reducing/refining (3R) animal use and their suffering for scientific purposes.

  15. Association of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 With Exocrine Gland Dysfunction in Patients With Sjögren’s Syndrome and in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongen; Cabrera-Perez, Javier; Lai, Zhenan; Michael, Drew; Weller, Melodie; Swaim, William D.; Liu, Xibao; Catalán, Marcelo A.; Rocha, Eduardo M.; Ismail, Nevien; Afione, Sandra; Rana, Noreen A.; Di Pasquale, Giovanni; Alevizos, Ilias; Ambudkar, Indu; Illei, Gabor G.; Chiorini, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is characterized by autoimmune activation and loss of function in secretory epithelia. The present study was undertaken to investigate and characterize changes in the epithelia associated with the loss of gland function in primary SS. Methods To identify changes in epithelial gene expression, custom microarrays were probed with complementary RNA (cRNA) isolated from minor salivary glands (MSGs) of female patients with primary SS who had low focus scores and low salivary flow rates, and the results were compared with those obtained using cRNA from the MSGs of sex-matched healthy volunteers. The effect of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) on salivary gland function was tested using adeno-associated virus–mediated gene transfer to the salivary glands of C57BL/6 mice. Results A significant increase in expression of BMP-6 was observed in RNA isolated from SS patients compared with healthy volunteers. Overexpression of BMP-6 locally in the salivary or lacrimal glands of mice resulted in the loss of fluid secretion as well as changes in the connective tissue of the salivary gland. Assessment of the fluid movement in either isolated acinar cells from mice overexpressing BMP-6 or a human salivary gland cell line cultured with BMP-6 revealed a loss in volume regulation in these cells. Lymphocytic infiltration in the submandibular gland of BMP-6 vector–treated mice was increased. No significant changes in the production of proinflammatory cytokines or autoantibodies associated with SS (anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB) were found after BMP-6 overexpression. Conclusion In addition to identifying BMP-6 expression in association with xerostomia and xerophthalmia in primary SS, the present results suggest that BMP-6–induced salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction in primary SS is independent of the autoantibodies and immune activation associated with the disease. PMID:23982860

  16. A nanoparticulate injectable hydrogel as a tissue engineering scaffold for multiple growth factor delivery for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyondi D

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Deepti Dyondi,1 Thomas J Webster,2 Rinti Banerjee11Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India; 2Nanomedicine Laboratories, Division of Engineering and Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Gellan xanthan gels have been shown to be excellent carriers for growth factors and as matrices for several tissue engineering applications. Gellan xanthan gels along with chitosan nanoparticles of 297 ± 61 nm diameter, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7 were employed in a dual growth factor delivery system to promote the differentiation of human fetal osteoblasts. An injectable system with ionic and temperature gelation was optimized and characterized. The nanoparticle loaded gels showed significantly improved cell proliferation and differentiation due to the sustained release of growth factors. A differentiation marker study was conducted, analyzed, and compared to understand the effect of single vs dual growth factors and free vs encapsulated growth factors. Dual growth factor loaded gels showed a higher alkaline phosphatase and calcium deposition compared to single growth factor loaded gels. The results suggest that encapsulation and stabilization of growth factors within nanoparticles and gels are promising for bone regeneration. Gellan xanthan gels also showed antibacterial effects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, the common pathogens in implant failure.Keywords: bone tissue engineering, bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, hydrogel, nanoparticles, osteoblasts

  17. Introduction to morphogenetic computing

    CERN Document Server

    Resconi, Germano; Xu, Guanglin

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a concise introduction to morphogenetic computing, showing that its use makes global and local relations, defects in crystal non-Euclidean geometry databases with source and sink, genetic algorithms, and neural networks more stable and efficient. It also presents applications to database, language, nanotechnology with defects, biological genetic structure, electrical circuit, and big data structure. In Turing machines, input and output states form a system – when the system is in one state, the input is transformed into output. This computation is always deterministic and without any possible contradiction or defects. In natural computation there are defects and contradictions that have to be solved to give a coherent and effective computation. The new computation generates the morphology of the system that assumes different forms in time. Genetic process is the prototype of the morphogenetic computing. At the Boolean logic truth value, we substitute a set of truth (active sets) values with...

  18. Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate: Increased burden of rare variants within Gremlin-1, a component of the bone morphogenetic protein 4 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Chawa, Taofik; Ludwig, Kerstin U; Fier, Heide; Pötzsch, Bernd; Reich, Rudolf H; Schmidt, Gül; Braumann, Bert; Daratsianos, Nikolaos; Böhmer, Anne C; Schuencke, Hannah; Alblas, Margrieta; Fricker, Nadine; Hoffmann, Per; Knapp, Michael; Lange, Christoph; Nöthen, Markus M; Mangold, Elisabeth

    2014-06-01

    The genes Gremlin-1 (GREM1) and Noggin (NOG) are components of the bone morphogenetic protein 4 pathway, which has been implicated in craniofacial development. Both genes map to recently identified susceptibility loci (chromosomal region 15q13, 17q22) for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (nsCL/P). The aim of the present study was to determine whether rare variants in either gene are implicated in nsCL/P etiology. The complete coding regions, untranslated regions, and splice sites of GREM1 and NOG were sequenced in 96 nsCL/P patients and 96 controls of Central European ethnicity. Three burden and four nonburden tests were performed. Statistically significant results were followed up in a second case-control sample (n = 96, respectively). For rare variants observed in cases, segregation analyses were performed. In NOG, four rare sequence variants (minor allele frequency elements. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Enhanced hyaline cartilage matrix synthesis in collagen sponge scaffolds by using siRNA to stabilize chondrocytes phenotype cultured with bone morphogenetic protein-2 under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Florence; Ollitrault, David; Hervieu, Magalie; Baugé, Catherine; Maneix, Laure; Goux, Didier; Chajra, Hanane; Mallein-Gerin, Frédéric; Boumediene, Karim; Galera, Philippe; Demoor, Magali

    2013-07-01

    Cartilage healing by tissue engineering is an alternative strategy to reconstitute functional tissue after trauma or age-related degeneration. However, chondrocytes, the major player in cartilage homeostasis, do not self-regenerate efficiently and lose their phenotype during osteoarthritis. This process is called dedifferentiation and also occurs during the first expansion step of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). To ensure successful ACI therapy, chondrocytes must be differentiated and capable of synthesizing hyaline cartilage matrix molecules. We therefore developed a safe procedure for redifferentiating human chondrocytes by combining appropriate physicochemical factors: hypoxic conditions, collagen scaffolds, chondrogenic factors (bone morphogenetic protein-2 [BMP-2], and insulin-like growth factor I [IGF-I]) and RNA interference targeting the COL1A1 gene. Redifferentiation of dedifferentiated chondrocytes was evaluated using gene/protein analyses to identify the chondrocyte phenotypic profile. In our conditions, under BMP-2 treatment, redifferentiated and metabolically active chondrocytes synthesized a hyaline-like cartilage matrix characterized by type IIB collagen and aggrecan molecules without any sign of hypertrophy or osteogenesis. In contrast, IGF-I increased both specific and noncharacteristic markers (collagens I and X) of chondrocytes. The specific increase in COL2A1 gene expression observed in the BMP-2 treatment was shown to involve the specific enhancer region of COL2A1 that binds the trans-activators Sox9/L-Sox5/Sox6 and Sp1, which are associated with a decrease in the trans-inhibitors of COL2A1, c-Krox, and p65 subunit of NF-kappaB. Our procedure in which BMP-2 treatment under hypoxia is associated with a COL1A1 siRNA, significantly increased the differentiation index of chondrocytes, and should offer the opportunity to develop new ACI-based therapies in humans.

  20. Electrostatics and N-glycan-mediated membrane tethering of SCUBE1 is critical for promoting bone morphogenetic protein signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Ju; Tsao, Ku-Chi; Yang, Ruey-Bing

    2016-03-01

    SCUBE1 (S1), a secreted and membrane-bound glycoprotein, has a modular protein structure composed of an N-terminal signal peptide sequence followed by nine epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats, a spacer region and three cysteine-rich (CR) motifs with multiple potential N-linked glycosylation sites, and one CUB domain at the C-terminus. Soluble S1 is a biomarker of platelet activation but an active participant of thrombosis via its adhesive EGF-like repeats, whereas its membrane-associated form acts as a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) co-receptor in promoting BMP signal activity. However, the mechanism responsible for the membrane tethering and the biological importance of N-glycosylation of S1 remain largely unknown. In the present study, molecular mapping analysis identified a polycationic segment (amino acids 501-550) in the spacer region required for its membrane tethering via electrostatic interactions possibly with the anionic heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Furthermore, deglycosylation by peptide N-glycosidase F treatment revealed that N-glycans within the CR motif are essential for membrane recruitment through lectin-mediated surface retention. Injection of mRNA encoding zebrafish wild-type but not N-glycan-deficient scube1 restores the expression of haematopoietic and erythroid markers (scl and gata1) in scube1-knockdown embryos. We describe novel mechanisms in targeting S1 to the plasma membrane and demonstrate that N-glycans are required for S1 functions during primitive haematopoiesis in zebrafish. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  1. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Antagonists and Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reddi, A

    2003-01-01

    ...? The predominant site of prostate cancer is bone. However, unlike the osteolytic lesions of breast cancer, prostate cancer causes osteoblastic osteosclerosis which leads ultimately to morbidity and mortality...

  2. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Antagonists and Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reddi, A. H

    2005-01-01

    .... Unfortunately over 40,000 patients succumbed to this horrendous cancer. Death is preceded by a characteristic triad of diffuse osteoblastic-osteosclerotic skeletal metastases, bone pain and pathologic fractures...

  3. A Novel Human TGF-β1 Fusion Protein in Combination with rhBMP-2 Increases Chondro-Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Claros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β is involved in processes related to the differentiation and maturation of osteoprogenitor cells into osteoblasts. Rat bone marrow (BM cells were cultured in a collagen-gel containing 0.5% fetal bovine serum (FBS for 10 days in the presence of rhTGF (recombinant human TGF-β1-F2, a fusion protein engineered to include a high-affinity collagen-binding decapeptide derived from von Willebrand factor. Subsequently, cells were moderately expanded in medium with 10% FBS for 4 days and treated with a short pulse of rhBMP (recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for 4 h. During the last 2 days, dexamethasone and β-glycerophosphate were added to potentiate osteoinduction. Concomitant with an up-regulation of cell proliferation, DNA synthesis levels were determined. Polymerase chain reaction was performed to reveal the possible stemness of these cells. Osteogenic differentiation was evaluated in terms of alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized matrix formation as well as by mRNA expression of osteogenic marker genes. Moreover, cells were placed inside diffusion chambers and implanted subcutaneously into the backs of adult rats for 4 weeks. Histological study provided evidence of cartilage and bone-like tissue formation. This experimental procedure is capable of selecting cell populations from BM that, in the presence of rhTGF-β1-F2 and rhBMP-2, achieve skeletogenic potential in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Homeobox protein MSX-1 inhibits expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2, bone morphogenetic protein 4, and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 via Wnt/β-catenin signaling to prevent differentiation of dental mesenchymal cells during the late bell stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Xiao-Shan; Wang, Jin-Song; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Song-Lin

    2018-02-01

    Homeobox protein MSX-1 (hereafter referred to as MSX-1) is essential for early tooth-germ development. Tooth-germ development is arrested at bud stage in Msx1 knockout mice, which prompted us to study the functions of MSX-1 beyond this stage. Here, we investigated the roles of MSX-1 during late bell stage. Mesenchymal cells of the mandibular first molar were isolated from mice at embryonic day (E)17.5 and cultured in vitro. We determined the expression levels of β-catenin, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2), Bmp4, and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (Lef1) after knockdown or overexpression of Msx1. Our findings suggest that knockdown of Msx1 promoted expression of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1, resulting in elevated differentiation of odontoblasts, which was rescued by blocking the expression of these genes. In contrast, overexpression of Msx1 decreased the expression of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1, leading to a reduction in odontoblast differentiation. The regulation of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1 by Msx1 was mediated by the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Additionally, knockdown of Msx1 impaired cell proliferation and slowed S-phase progression, while overexpression of Msx1 also impaired cell proliferation and prolonged G1-phase progression. We therefore conclude that MSX-1 maintains cell proliferation by regulating transition of cells from G1-phase to S-phase and prevents odontoblast differentiation by inhibiting expression of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1 at the late bell stage via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  5. Association of bone morphogenetic protein 6 with exocrine gland dysfunction in patients with Sjögren's syndrome and in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongen; Cabrera-Perez, Javier; Lai, Zhenan; Michael, Drew; Weller, Melodie; Swaim, William D; Liu, Xibao; Catalán, Marcelo A; Rocha, Eduardo M; Ismail, Nevien; Afione, Sandra; Rana, Noreen A; Di Pasquale, Giovanni; Alevizos, Ilias; Ambudkar, Indu; Illei, Gabor G; Chiorini, John A

    2013-12-01

    Primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is characterized by autoimmune activation and loss of function in secretory epithelia. The present study was undertaken to investigate and characterize changes in the epithelia associated with the loss of gland function in primary SS. To identify changes in epithelial gene expression, custom microarrays were probed with complementary RNA (cRNA) isolated from minor salivary glands (MSGs) of female patients with primary SS who had low focus scores and low salivary flow rates, and the results were compared with those obtained using cRNA from the MSGs of sex-matched healthy volunteers. The effect of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) on salivary gland function was tested using adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer to the salivary glands of C57BL/6 mice. A significant increase in expression of BMP-6 was observed in RNA isolated from SS patients compared with healthy volunteers. Overexpression of BMP-6 locally in the salivary or lacrimal glands of mice resulted in the loss of fluid secretion as well as changes in the connective tissue of the salivary gland. Assessment of the fluid movement in either isolated acinar cells from mice overexpressing BMP-6 or a human salivary gland cell line cultured with BMP-6 revealed a loss in volume regulation in these cells. Lymphocytic infiltration in the submandibular gland of BMP-6 vector-treated mice was increased. No significant changes in the production of proinflammatory cytokines or autoantibodies associated with SS (anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB) were found after BMP-6 overexpression. In addition to identifying BMP-6 expression in association with xerostomia and xerophthalmia in primary SS, the present results suggest that BMP-6-induced salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction in primary SS is independent of the autoantibodies and immune activation associated with the disease. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Bone marrow-derived osteoblast progenitor cells in circulating blood contribute to ectopic bone formation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuru, Satoru; Tamai, Katsuto; Yamazaki, Takehiko; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested the existence of osteoblastic cells in the circulation, but the origin and role of these cells in vivo are not clear. Here, we examined how these cells contribute to osteogenesis in a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced model of ectopic bone formation. Following lethal dose-irradiation and subsequent green fluorescent protein-transgenic bone marrow cell-transplantation (GFP-BMT) in mice, a BMP-2-containing collagen pellet was implanted into muscle. Three weeks later, a significant number of GFP-positive osteoblastic cells were present in the newly generated ectopic bone. Moreover, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) from the BMP-2-implanted mouse were then shown to include osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) in culture. Passive transfer of the PBMNCs isolated from the BMP-2-implanted GFP-mouse to the BMP-2-implanted nude mouse led to GFP-positive osteoblast accumulation in the ectopic bone. These data provide new insight into the mechanism of ectopic bone formation involving bone marrow-derived OPCs in circulating blood

  7. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F.

    2007-01-01

    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 OH 2 ], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 μm (±5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95 g.cm -3 and 1.92 g.cm -3 respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content in the samples was then

  8. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mails: lnogueira@con.ufrj.br; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2007-07-01

    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}OH{sub 2}], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 {mu}m ({+-}5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95 g.cm{sup -3} and 1.92 g.cm{sup -3} respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content

  9. [Comparation on Haversian system between human and animal bones by imaging analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui-Ling; Zheng, Jing; Yao, Ya-Nan; Chen, Sen; Wang, Hui-Pin; Chen, Li-Xian; Guo, Jing-Yuan

    2006-04-01

    To explore the differences in Haversian system between human and animal bones through imaging analysis and morphology description. Thirty-five slices grinding from human being as well as dog, pig, cow and sheep bones were observed to compare their structure, then were analysed with the researchful microscope. Plexiform bone or oeston band was not found in human bones; There were significant differences in the shape, size, location, density of Haversian system, between human and animal bones. The amount of Haversian lamella and diameter of central canal in human were the biggest; Significant differences in the central canal diameter and total area percentage between human and animal bones were shown by imaging analysis. (1) Plexiform bone and osteon band could be the exclusive index in human bone; (2) There were significant differences in the structure of Haversian system between human and animal bones; (3) The percentage of central canals total area was valuable in species identification through imaging analysis.

  10. Weak bones in diabetes mellitus - an update on pharmaceutical treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Daphne P L; Dass, Crispin R

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is often associated with a number of complications such as nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy and foot ulcers. However, weak bone is a diabetic complication that is often overlooked. Although the exact mechanism for weak bones within diabetes mellitus is unclear, studies have shown that the mechanism does differ in both type I (T1DM) and type II diabetes (T2DM). This review, however, investigates the application of mesenchymal stem cells, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2, teriparatide, insulin administration and the effectiveness of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-ϒ modulator, netoglitazone in the context of diabetic weak bones. In T1DM, weak bones may be the result of defective osteoblast activity, the absence of insulin's anabolic effects on bone, the deregulation of the bone-pancreas negative feedback loop and advanced glycation end product (AGE) aggregation within the bone matrix as a result of hyperglycaemia. Interestingly, T2DM patients placed on insulin administration, thiazolidinediones, SGLT2 inhibitors and sulfonylureas have an associated increased fracture risk. T2DM patients are also observed to have high sclerostin levels that impair osteoblast gene transcription, AGE aggregation within bone, which compromises bone strength and a decrease in esRAGE concentration resulting in a negative association with vertebral fractures. Effective treatment options for weak bones in the context of diabetes are currently lacking. There is certainly scope for discovery and development of novel agents that could alleviate this complication in diabetes patients. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Human bone ingrowth into a porous tantalum acetabular cup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N. Haidemenopoulos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Porous Tantalum is increasingly used as a structural scaffold in orthopaedic applications. Information on the mechanisms of human bone ingrowth into trabecular metal implants is rather limited. In this work we have studied, qualitatively, human bone ingrowth into a retrieved porous tantalum monoblock acetabular cup using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. According to the results and taking into account the short operational life (4 years of the implant, bone ingrowth on the acetabular cup took place in the first two-rows of porous tantalum cells to an estimated depth of 1.5 to 2 mm. The bone material, grown inside the first raw of cells, had almost identical composition with the attached bone on the cup surface, as verified by the same Ca:P ratio. Bone ingrowth has been a gradual process starting with Ca deposition on the tantalum struts, followed by bone formation into the tantalum cells, with gradual densification of the bone tissue into hydroxyapatite. A critical step in this process has been the attachment of bone material to the tantalum struts following the topology of the porous tantalum scaffold. These results provide insight to the human bone ingrowth process into porous tantalum implants.

  12. Validating in vivo Raman spectroscopy of bone in human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmonde-White, Francis W. L.; Morris, Michael D.

    2013-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy can non-destructively measure properties of bone related to mineral density, mineral composition, and collagen composition. Bone properties can be measured through the skin in animal and human subjects, but correlations between the transcutaneous and exposed bone measurements have only been reported for human cadavers. In this study, we examine human subjects to collect measurements transcutaneously, on surgically exposed bone, and on recovered bone fragments. This data will be used to demonstrate in vivo feasibility and to compare transcutaneous and exposed Raman spectroscopy of bone. A commercially available Raman spectrograph and optical probe operating at 785 nm excitation are used for the in vivo measurements. Requirements for applying Raman spectroscopy during a surgery are also discussed.

  13. Registration-based Bone Morphometry for Shape Analysis of the Bones of the Human Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anand A.; Leahy, Richard M.; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Chaudhari, Abhijit J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method that quantifies point-wise changes in surface morphology of the bones of the human wrist. The proposed method, referred to as Registration-based Bone Morphometry (RBM), consists of two steps: an atlas selection step and an atlas warping step. The atlas for individual wrist bones was selected based on the shortest l2 distance to the ensemble of wrist bones from a database of a healthy population of subjects. The selected atlas was then warped to the corresponding bones of individuals in the population using a non-linear registration method based on regularized l2 distance minimization. The displacement field thus calculated showed local differences in bone shape that then were used for the analysis of group differences. Our results indicate that RBM has potential to provide a standardized approach to shape analysis of bones of the human wrist. We demonstrate the performance of RBM for examining group differences in wrist bone shapes based on sex and between those of the right and left wrists in healthy individuals. We also present data to show the application of RBM for tracking bone erosion status in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:26353369

  14. Micro-computed tomography assessment of human alveolar bone: bone density and three-dimensional micro-architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Jeong; Henkin, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a valuable means to evaluate and secure information related to bone density and quality in human necropsy samples and small live animals. The aim of this study was to assess the bone density of the alveolar jaw bones in human cadaver, using micro-CT. The correlation between bone density and three-dimensional micro architecture of trabecular bone was evaluated. Thirty-four human cadaver jaw bone specimens were harvested. Each specimen was scanned with micro-CT at resolution of 10.5 μm. The bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and the bone mineral density (BMD) value within a volume of interest were measured. The three-dimensional micro architecture of trabecular bone was assessed. All the parameters in the maxilla and the mandible were subject to comparison. The variables for the bone density and the three-dimensional micro architecture were analyzed for nonparametric correlation using Spearman's rho at the significance level of p architecture parameters were consistently higher in the mandible, up to 3.3 times greater than those in the maxilla. The most linear correlation was observed between BV/TV and BMD, with Spearman's rho = 0.99 (p = .01). Both BV/TV and BMD were highly correlated with all micro architecture parameters with Spearman's rho above 0.74 (p = .01). Two aspects of bone density using micro-CT, the BV/TV and BMD, are highly correlated with three-dimensional micro architecture parameters, which represent the quality of trabecular bone. This noninvasive method may adequately enhance evaluation of the alveolar bone. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Space microgravity drives transdifferentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells from osteogenesis to adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui; Li, Liang; Jiang, Yuanda; Wang, Cuicui; Geng, Baoming; Wang, Yanqiu; Chen, Jianling; Liu, Fei; Qiu, Peng; Zhai, Guangjie; Chen, Ping; Quan, Renfu; Wang, Jinfu

    2018-03-13

    Bone formation is linked with osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the bone marrow. Microgravity in spaceflight is known to reduce bone formation. In this study, we used a real microgravity environment of the SJ-10 Recoverable Scientific Satellite to examine the effects of space microgravity on the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). hMSCs were induced toward osteogenic differentiation for 2 and 7 d in a cell culture device mounted on the SJ-10 Satellite. The satellite returned to Earth after going through space experiments in orbit for 12 d, and cell samples were harvested and analyzed for differentiation potentials. The results showed that space microgravity inhibited osteogenic differentiation and resulted in adipogenic differentiation, even under osteogenic induction conditions. Under space microgravity, the expression of 10 genes specific for osteogenesis decreased, including collagen family members, alkaline phosphatase ( ALP), and runt-related transcription factor 2 ( RUNX2), whereas the expression of 4 genes specific for adipogenesis increased, including adipsin ( CFD), leptin ( LEP), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β ( CEBPB), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ ( PPARG). In the analysis of signaling pathways specific for osteogenesis, we found that the expression and activity of RUNX2 was inhibited, expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 ( BMP2) and activity of SMAD1/5/9 were decreased, and activity of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and ERK-1/2 declined significantly under space microgravity. These data indicate that space microgravity plays a dual role by decreasing RUNX2 expression and activity through the BMP2/SMAD and integrin/FAK/ERK pathways. In addition, we found that space microgravity increased p38 MAPK and protein kinase B (AKT) activities, which are important for the promotion of adipogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Space microgravity significantly

  16. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 alter connexin 43 phosphorylation in MC3T3-E1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudkin George H

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs and transforming growth factor-βs (TGF-βs are important regulators of bone repair and regeneration. BMP-2 and TGF-β1 have been shown to inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC in MC3T3-E1 cells. Connexin 43 (Cx43 has been shown to mediate GJIC in osteoblasts and it is the predominant gap junctional protein expressed in these murine osteoblast-like cells. We examined the expression, phosphorylation, and subcellular localization of Cx43 after treatment with BMP-2 or TGF-β1 to investigate a possible mechanism for the inhibition of GJIC. Results Northern blot analysis revealed no detectable change in the expression of Cx43 mRNA. Western blot analysis demonstrated no significant change in the expression of total Cx43 protein. However, significantly higher ratios of unphosphorylated vs. phosphorylated forms of Cx43 were detected after BMP-2 or TGF-β1 treatment. Immunofluorescence and cell protein fractionation revealed no detectable change in the localization of Cx43 between the cytosol and plasma membrane. Conclusions BMP-2 and TGF-β1 do not alter expression of Cx43 at the mRNA or protein level. BMP-2 and TGF-β1 may inhibit GJIC by decreasing the phosphorylated form of Cx43 in MC3T3-E1 cells.

  17. Differentiating human versus non-human bone by exploring the nutrient foramen: implications for forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vail; Beckett, Sophie; Márquez-Grant, Nicholas

    2017-11-01

    One of the roles of a forensic anthropologist is to assist medico-legal investigations in the identification of human skeletal remains. In some instances, only small fragments of bone may be present. In this study, a non-destructive novel technique is presented to distinguish between human and non-human long bones. This technique is based on the macroscopic and computed tomography (CT) analysis of nutrient foramina. The nutrient foramen of long bone diaphyses transmits the nutrient artery which provides much of the oxygen and nutrients to the bone. The nutrient foramen and its canal were analysed in six femora and humeri of human, sheep (Ovies aries) and pig (Sus scrofa) species. The location, position and direction of the nutrient foramina were measured macroscopically. The length of the canal, angle of the canal, circumference and area of the entrance of the foramen were measured from CT images. Macroscopic analysis revealed the femora nutrient foramina are more proximal, whereas humeri foramina are more distal. The human bones and sheep humerus conform to the perceived directionality, but the pig bones and sheep femur do not. Amongst the parameters measured in the CT analysis, the angle of the canal had a discriminatory power. This study shows the potential of this technique to be used independently or complementary to other methods in distinguishing between human and non-human bone in forensic anthropology.

  18. The effect of radiation sterilization on human transplantable bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantafyllou, N.; Karatzas, P.

    1974-11-01

    In order to study the effect of radiation sterilization on human transplantable bones, work was carried out on human and bovine bone tissue samples. Factors causing possible alterations in the mechanical structures of the preserved bone allografts were considered to be deep freezing (-35degC), lyophylization, irradiation, or a combination of lyophylization and irradiation. The latter could be shown to lower the mechanical strength of the bone. Crystal lattice of the bone did not show any alterations in x-ray diffraction pattern, following freeze drying and/or irradiation with doses up to 10 Mrad of gamma radiation. Deterioration in mechanical properties is probably due to damage to the organic phase of the bone matrix

  19. Morphogenetic Engineering Toward Programmable Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sayama, Hiroki; Michel, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Generally, spontaneous pattern formation phenomena are random and repetitive, whereas elaborate devices are the deterministic product of human design. Yet, biological organisms and collective insect constructions are exceptional examples of complex systems that are both self-organized and architectural.   This book is the first initiative of its kind toward establishing a new field of research, Morphogenetic Engineering, to explore the modeling and implementation of “self-architecturing” systems. Particular emphasis is placed on the programmability and computational abilities of self-organization, properties that are often underappreciated in complex systems science—while, conversely, the benefits of self-organization are often underappreciated in engineering methodologies.   Altogether, the aim of this work is to provide a framework for and examples of a larger class of “self-architecturing” systems, while addressing fundamental questions such as   > How do biological organisms carry out morphog...

  20. A murine model of human myeloma bone disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrett, I.R.; Dallas, S.; Radl, J.; Mundy, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    Myeloma causes a devastating and unique form of osteolytic bone disease. Although osteoclast activation is responsible for bone destruction, the precise mechanisms by which myeloma cells increase osteoclast activity have not been defined. An animal model of human myeloma bone disease mould help in

  1. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and myostatin pathways: key mediator of human sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimeca, Manuel; Piccirilli, Eleonora; Mastrangeli, Francesca; Rao, Cecilia; Feola, Maurizio; Orlandi, Augusto; Gasbarra, Elena; Bonanno, Elena; Tarantino, Umberto

    2017-02-15

    drugs able to prevent/treat the muscle impairment that occur in elderly. Results here reported, highlighting the role of BMPs and myostatin pathways in physio-pathogenesis of human sarcopenia, allow us to propose human recombinant BMP-2/7 and anti-myostatin antibodies as a possible therapeutic option for the sarcopenia.

  2. Physiological exercise loading suppresses post-traumatic osteoarthritis progression via an increase in bone morphogenetic proteins expression in an experimental rat knee model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, H; Ito, A; Nagai, M; Tajino, J; Yamaguchi, S; Kiyan, W; Nakahata, A; Zhang, J; Wang, T; Aoyama, T; Nishitani, K; Kuroki, H

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the dose-response relationship of exercise loading in the cartilage-subchondral bone (SB) unit in surgically-induced post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) of the knee. Destabilized medial meniscus (DMM) surgery was performed on the right knee of 12-week-old male Wistar rats, and sham surgery was performed on the contralateral knee. Four weeks after the surgery, the animals were subjected to moderate (12 m/min) or intense (21 m/min) treadmill exercises for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. PTOA development in articular cartilage and SB was examined using histological and immunohistochemical analyses, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis, and biomechanical testing at 8 weeks after surgery. Gremlin-1 was injected to determine the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling on PTOA development following moderate exercise. Moderate exercise increased BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-6, BMP receptor 2, pSmad-5, and inhibitor of DNA binding protein-1 expression in the superficial zone chondrocytes and suppressed cartilage degeneration, osteophyte growth, SB damage, and osteoclast-mediated SB resorption. However, intense exercise had little effect on BMP expression and even caused progression of these osteoarthritis (OA) changes. Gremlin-1 injection following moderate exercise caused progression of the PTOA development down to the level of the non-exercise DMM-operated knee. Exercise regulated cartilage-SB PTOA development in DMM-operated knees in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings shed light on the important role of BMP expression in superficial zone chondrocytes in attenuation of PTOA development following physiological exercise loading. Further studies to support a mechanism by which BMPs would be beneficial in preventing PTOA progression are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bone Scan in Detection of Biological Activity in Nonhypertrophic Fracture Nonunion

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Sunny J.; Rabadiya, Bhavdeep

    2017-01-01

    Biological activity of the fracture site is very important factor in treatment planning of fracture nonunion. If no biological activity is detected, then an autologous bone graft can be supplemented or osteogenic supplementations, such as bone morphogenetic protein is given. If biological activity is present, then secure fixation is sufficient to achieve bony union. Biological activity of nonunions is usually assessed by conventional radiographs. The presence of callus formation is usually as...

  4. Effects of Spaceflight on Bone: The Rat as an Animal Model for Human Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B.; Weider, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1999-01-01

    The loss of weight bearing during spaceflight results in osteopenia in humans. Decrements in bone mineral reach 3-10% after as little as 75-184 days in space. Loss of bone mineral during flight decreases bone strength and increases fracture risk. The mechanisms responsible for, and the factors contributing to, the changes in bone induced by spaceflight are poorly understood. The rat has been widely used as an animal model for human bone loss during spaceflight. Despite its potential usefulness, the results of bone studies performed in the rat in space have been inconsistent. In some flights bone formation is decreased and cancellous bone volume reduced, while in others no significant changes in bone occur. In June of 1996 Drs. T. Wronski, S. Miller and myself participated in a flight experiment (STS 78) to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on bone during weightlessness. Technically the 17 day flight experiment was flawless. The results, however, were surprising. Cancellous bone volume and osteoblast surface in the proximal tibial metaphysis were the same in flight and ground-based control rats. Normal levels of cancellous bone mass and bone formation were also detected in the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck of flight rats. Furthermore, periosteal bone formation rate was found to be identical in flight and ground-based control rats. Spaceflight had little or no effect on bone metabolism! These results prompted us to carefully review the changes in bone observed in, and the flight conditions of previous spaceflight missions.

  5. Multifunctional nano-hydroxyapatite and alginate/gelatin based sticky gel composites for potential bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yurong; Yu, Juhong; Kundu, Subhas C.; Yao, Juming

    2016-01-01

    To improve the fixations of the implant and implant-bone integration after joint arthroplasty from locally preventing inflammation and promoting the bone regeneration, we design a multifunctional biomaterial consisting of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) and antibiotic loaded nano-hydroxyapatite with an alginate/gelatin sticky gel. We investigate its role for the prevention of the inflammation and possibility of inducing a new bone growth along with its adhesive ability. The stickiness exists in the composite, which may help to fix itself on the bone fracture surface. The composite sustains the antibacterial effect and promotes the proliferation and differentiation of MG63 cells in vitro. In vivo experimentation also shows that the composite gel has a role for the reduction of inflammation. It enhances the formation of new bone and blood vessels compared to both the sole rhBMP-2 and non-rhBMP-2/antibiotic loaded composite gels. The multifunctional composite provides a promising material for the prosthetic and bone tissue regeneration. - Highlights: • Multifunctional nanohydroxyapatite composite is fabricated. • The composite consists of nHAP, growth factor, antibiotic and alginate/gelatin gel. • The composite shows antibacterial effect and good cytocompatibility. • No adverse effect to the cells tested in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Multifunctional nano-hydroxyapatite and alginate/gelatin based sticky gel composites for potential bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yurong; Yu, Juhong [The Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Lab of Textile Fiber Materials & Processing Technology, College of Materials and Textile, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Kundu, Subhas C. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yao, Juming, E-mail: yaoj@zstu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Lab of Textile Fiber Materials & Processing Technology, College of Materials and Textile, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2016-09-15

    To improve the fixations of the implant and implant-bone integration after joint arthroplasty from locally preventing inflammation and promoting the bone regeneration, we design a multifunctional biomaterial consisting of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) and antibiotic loaded nano-hydroxyapatite with an alginate/gelatin sticky gel. We investigate its role for the prevention of the inflammation and possibility of inducing a new bone growth along with its adhesive ability. The stickiness exists in the composite, which may help to fix itself on the bone fracture surface. The composite sustains the antibacterial effect and promotes the proliferation and differentiation of MG63 cells in vitro. In vivo experimentation also shows that the composite gel has a role for the reduction of inflammation. It enhances the formation of new bone and blood vessels compared to both the sole rhBMP-2 and non-rhBMP-2/antibiotic loaded composite gels. The multifunctional composite provides a promising material for the prosthetic and bone tissue regeneration. - Highlights: • Multifunctional nanohydroxyapatite composite is fabricated. • The composite consists of nHAP, growth factor, antibiotic and alginate/gelatin gel. • The composite shows antibacterial effect and good cytocompatibility. • No adverse effect to the cells tested in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Acemannan sponges stimulate alveolar bone, cementum and periodontal ligament regeneration in a canine class II furcation defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarawaratit, P; Sangvanich, P; Banlunara, W; Soontornvipart, K; Thunyakitpisal, P

    2014-04-01

    Periodontal disease is a common infectious disease, found worldwide, causing the destruction of the periodontium. The periodontium is a complex structure composed of both soft and hard tissues, thus an agent applied to regenerate the periodontium must be able to stimulate periodontal ligament, cementum and alveolar bone regeneration. Recent studies demonstrated that acemannan, a polysaccharide extracted from Aloe vera gel, stimulated both soft and hard tissue healing. This study investigated effect of acemannan as a bioactive molecule and scaffold for periodontal tissue regeneration. Primary human periodontal ligament cells were treated with acemannan in vitro. New DNA synthesis, expression of growth/differentiation factor 5 and runt-related transcription factor 2, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein-2 and type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralized nodule formation were determined using [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, biochemical assay and alizarin red staining, respectively. In our in vivo study, premolar class II furcation defects were made in four mongrel dogs. Acemannan sponges were applied into the defects. Untreated defects were used as a negative control group. The amount of new bone, cementum and periodontal ligament formation were evaluated 30 and 60 d after the operation. Acemannan significantly increased periodontal ligament cell proliferation, upregulation of growth/differentiation factor 5, runt-related transcription factor 2, vascular endothelial growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein 2, type I collagen and alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineral deposition as compared with the untreated control group in vitro. Moreover, acemannan significantly accelerated new alveolar bone, cementum and periodontal ligament formation in class II furcation defects. Our data suggest that acemannan could be a candidate

  8. Mesenchymal stem cells-seeded bio-ceramic construct for bone regeneration in large critical-size bone defect in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiti SK

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC represent an attractive cell population for tissue engineering purpose. The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 to a silica-coated calcium hydroxyapatite (HASi - rabbit bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell (rBMSC construct promoted bone healing in a large segmental bone defect beyond standard critical -size radial defects (15mm in rabbits. An extensively large 30mm long radial ostectomy was performed unilaterally in thirty rabbits divided equally in five groups. Defects were filled with a HASi scaffold only (group B; HASi scaffold seeded with rBMSC (group C; HASi scaffold seeded with rBMSC along with rhBMP-2 and IGF-1 in groups D and E respectively. The same number of rBMSC (five million cells and concentration of growth factors rhBMP-2 (50µg and IGF-1 (50µg was again injected at the site of bone defect after 15 days of surgery in their respective groups. An empty defect served as the control group (group A. Radiographically, bone healing was evaluated at 7, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days post implantation. Histological qualitative analysis with microCT (µ-CT, haematoxylin and eosin (H & E and Masson’s trichrome staining were performed 90 days after implantation. All rhBMP-2-added constructs induced the formation of well-differentiated mineralized woven bone surrounding the HASi scaffolds and bridging bone/implant interfaces as early as eight weeks after surgery. Bone regeneration appeared to develop earlier with the rhBMP-2 constructs than with the IGF-1 added construct. Constructs without any rhBMP-2 or IGF-1 showed osteoconductive properties limited to the bone junctions without bone ingrowths within the implantation site. In conclusion, the addition of rhBMP-2 to a HASi scaffold could promote bone generation in a large critical-size-defect.

  9. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Atul Kumar; Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Khan, Mohd Parvez; Singh, Chandan; Barbhuyan, Tarun; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Sinha, Neeraj; Kumar, Ashutosh; Bellare, Jayesh R.

    2016-01-01

    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS® (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  10. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Atul Kumar [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo [Tissue Bank, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400012 (India); Rai, Ratan Kumar [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Khan, Mohd Parvez [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Singh, Chandan [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Barbhuyan, Tarun [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Vijayalakshmi, S. [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Sinha, Neeraj, E-mail: neerajcbmr@gmail.com [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Kumar, Ashutosh, E-mail: ashutoshk@iitb.ac.in [Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Bellare, Jayesh R., E-mail: jb@iitb.ac.in [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-05-01

    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS® (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  11. Effects of Treatment with Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 and Co-culture on Expression of Piwil2 Gene in Mouse Differentiated Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Forouzandeh-Moghadam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Specific growth factors and feeder layers seem to have important roles in in vitroembryonic stem cells (ESCs differentiation. In this study,the effects of bone morphogenetic protein4 (BMP4 and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs co-culture system on germ cell differentiationfrom mouse ESCs were studied.Materials and Methods: Cell suspension was prepared from one-day-old embryoid body (EBand cultured for four days in DMEM medium containing 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS in thefollowing groups: simple culture (SC, simple culture with BMP4 (SCB, co-culture (CO-C andco-culture with BMP4 (CO-CB. Expression of piwi-like homolog 2 (Piwil2, the germ cell-specificgene, was evaluated in the different study groups by using quantitative real time polymerase chainreaction (RT-PCR. Testis was used as a positive control.Results: The maximum and minimum Piwil2 expression was observed in SC and SCB groups,respectively. A significant difference was observed in Piwil2 expression between SCB and otherstudy groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that neither the addition of BMP4 in culture mediumnor the use of MEFs as a feeder layer have a positive effect on late germ cell induction from mouseESCs.

  12. Application of human induced pluripotent stem cells to model fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barruet, Emilie; Hsiao, Edward C

    2018-04-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a genetic condition characterized by massive heterotopic ossification. FOP patients have mutations in the Activin A type I receptor (ACVR1), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor. FOP is a progressive and debilitating disease characterized by bone formation flares that often occur after trauma. Since it is often difficult or impossible to obtain large amounts of tissue from human donors due to the risks of inciting more heterotopic bone formation, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) provide an attractive source for establishing in vitro disease models and for applications in drug screening. hiPSCs have the ability to self-renew, allowing researchers to obtain large amounts of starting material. hiPSCs also have the potential to differentiate into any cell type in the body. In this review, we discuss how the application of hiPSC technology to studying FOP has changed our perspectives on FOP disease pathogenesis. We also consider ongoing challenges and emerging opportunities for the use of human iPSCs in drug discovery and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bone marrow blood vessel ossification and "microvascular dead space" in rat and human long bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisby, Rhonda D

    2014-07-01

    Severe calcification of the bone microvascular network was observed in rats, whereby the bone marrow blood vessels appeared ossified. This study sought to characterize the magnitude of ossification in relation to patent blood vessels and adipocyte content in femoral diaphyses. Additionally, this study confirmed the presence of ossified vessels in patients with arteriosclerotic vascular disease and peripheral vascular disease and cellulitis. Young (4-6 month; n=8) and old (22-24 month; n=8) male Fischer-344 rats were perfused with barium sulfate to visualize patent bone marrow blood vessels. Femoral shafts were processed for bone histomorphometry to quantify ossified (Goldner's Trichrome) and calcified (Alizarin Red) vessels. Adipocyte content was also determined. Additional femora (n=5/age group) were scanned via μCT to quantify microvascular ossification. Bone marrow blood vessels from the rats and the human patients were also isolated and examined via microscopy. Ossified vessels (rats and humans) had osteocyte lacunae on the vessel surfaces and "normal" vessels were transitioning into bone. The volume of ossified vessels was 4800% higher (pnecrosis. Progression of bone microvascular ossification may provide the common link associated with age-related changes in bone and bone marrow. The clinical implications may be evident in the difficulties treating bone disease in the elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inca - interparietal bones in neurocranium of human skulls in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Rr; Yogesh, As; Pandit, Sv; Joshi, M; Trivedi, Gn

    2010-01-01

    Inca bones are accessory bones found in neurocranium of human skulls. Occurrence of Inca bones is rare as compared to other inter sutural bones such as wormian bones. These Inca ossicles are regarded as variants of the normal. The reporting of such occurrences is inadequate from Central India. To find the incidence of Inca variants in Central India. In the present study, 380 dried adult human skulls were examined. All specimen samples were procured from various Medical colleges of Central India. They were analyzed for gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones. Gross incidence of Inca bones was found to be 1.315 %. Incidence rate was higher in male skulls than female skulls (male: 1.428%; female: 1.176%). The Inca bones frequently occurred signally. Out of the five observed Inca ossicles, two were fragmented. This data gives idea regarding gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones in neurocranium of human skulls from Central India. The knowledge of this variable is useful for neurosurgeons, anthropologists and radiologists.

  15. Bone morphogenetic protein 9 as a key regulator of liver progenitor cells in DDC-induced cholestatic liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addante, Annalisa; Roncero, Cesáreo; Almalé, Laura; Lazcanoiturburu, Nerea; García-Álvaro, María; Fernández, Margarita; Sanz, Julián; Hammad, Seddik; Nwosu, Zeribe C; Lee, Se-Jin; Fabregat, Isabel; Dooley, Steven; Ten Dijke, Peter; Herrera, Blanca; Sánchez, Aránzazu

    2018-05-11

    Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) interferes with liver regeneration upon acute injury, while promoting fibrosis upon carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic injury. We have now addressed the role of BMP9 in 3,5 diethoxicarbonyl-1,4 dihydrocollidine (DDC)-induced cholestatic liver injury, a model of liver regeneration mediated by hepatic progenitor cell (known as oval cell), exemplified as ductular reaction and oval cell expansion. WT and BMP9KO mice were submitted to DDC diet. Livers were examined for liver injury, fibrosis, inflammation and oval cell expansion by serum biochemistry, histology, RT-qPCR and western blot. BMP9 signalling and effects in oval cells were studied in vitro using western blot and transcriptional assays, plus functional assays of DNA synthesis, cell viability and apoptosis. Crosslinking assays and short hairpin RNA approaches were used to identify the receptors mediating BMP9 effects. Deletion of BMP9 reduces liver damage and fibrosis, but enhances inflammation upon DDC feeding. Molecularly, absence of BMP9 results in overactivation of PI3K/AKT, ERK-MAPKs and c-Met signalling pathways, which together with an enhanced ductular reaction and oval cell expansion evidence an improved regenerative response and decreased damage in response to DDC feeding. Importantly, BMP9 directly targets oval cells, it activates SMAD1,5,8, decreases cell growth and promotes apoptosis, effects that are mediated by Activin Receptor-Like Kinase 2 (ALK2) type I receptor. We identify BMP9 as a negative regulator of oval cell expansion in cholestatic injury, its deletion enhancing liver regeneration. Likewise, our work further supports BMP9 as an attractive therapeutic target for chronic liver diseases. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Rapid and reliable healing of critical size bone defects with genetically modified sheep muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Ferreira, E; Porter, R M; Glatt, V; Schinhan, M; Shen, Z; Randolph, M A; Kirker-Head, C A; Wehling, C; Vrahas, M S; Evans, C H; Wells, J W

    2015-09-21

    Large segmental defects in bone fail to heal and remain a clinical problem. Muscle is highly osteogenic, and preliminary data suggest that autologous muscle tissue expressing bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) efficiently heals critical size defects in rats. Translation into possible human clinical trials requires, inter alia, demonstration of efficacy in a large animal, such as the sheep. Scale-up is fraught with numerous biological, anatomical, mechanical and structural variables, which cannot be addressed systematically because of cost and other practical issues. For this reason, we developed a translational model enabling us to isolate the biological question of whether sheep muscle, transduced with adenovirus expressing BMP-2, could heal critical size defects in vivo. Initial experiments in athymic rats noted strong healing in only about one-third of animals because of unexpected immune responses to sheep antigens. For this reason, subsequent experiments were performed with Fischer rats under transient immunosuppression. Such experiments confirmed remarkably rapid and reliable healing of the defects in all rats, with bridging by 2 weeks and remodelling as early as 3-4 weeks, despite BMP-2 production only in nanogram quantities and persisting for only 1-3 weeks. By 8 weeks the healed defects contained well-organised new bone with advanced neo-cortication and abundant marrow. Bone mineral content and mechanical strength were close to normal values. These data demonstrate the utility of this model when adapting this technology for bone healing in sheep, as a prelude to human clinical trials.

  17. Three-Dimensional Cone Beam Computed Tomography Volumetric Outcomes of rhBMP-2/Demineralized Bone Matrix versus Iliac Crest Bone Graft for Alveolar Cleft Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fan; Yen, Stephen L-K; Imahiyerobo, Thomas; Sanborn, Luke; Yen, Leia; Yen, Daniel; Nazarian, Sheila; Jedrzejewski, Breanna; Urata, Mark; Hammoudeh, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in a demineralized bone matrix scaffold is a comparable alternative to iliac bone autograft in the setting of secondary alveolar cleft repair. Postreconstruction occlusal radiographs demonstrate improved bone stock when rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix (DBM) scaffold is used but lack the capacity to evaluate bone growth in three dimensions. This study uses cone beam computed tomography to provide the first clinical evaluation of volumetric and density comparisons between these two treatment modalities. A prospective study was conducted with 31 patients and 36 repairs of the alveolar cleft over a 2-year period. Twenty-one repairs used rhBMP-2/DBM scaffold and 14 repairs used iliac bone grafting. Postoperatively, occlusal radiographs were obtained at 3 months to evaluate bone fill; cone beam computed tomographic images were obtained at 6 to 9 months to compare volumetric and density data. At 3 months, postoperative occlusal radiographs demonstrated that 67 percent of patients receiving rhBMP-2/DBM scaffold had complete bone fill of the alveolus, versus 56 percent of patients in the autologous group. In contrast, cone beam computed tomographic data showed 31.6 percent (95 percent CI, 24.2 to 38.5 percent) fill in the rhBMP-2 group compared with 32.5 percent (95 percent CI, 22.1 to 42.9 percent) in the autologous population. Density analysis demonstrated identical average values between the groups (1.38 g/cc). These data demonstrate comparable bone regrowth and density values following secondary alveolar cleft repair using rhBMP-2/DBM scaffold versus autologous iliac bone graft. Cone beam computed tomography provides a more nuanced understanding of true bone regeneration within the alveolar cleft that may contribute to the information provided by occlusal radiographs alone. Therapeutic, II.

  18. Ontogeny of the maxilla in Neanderthals and their ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Bromage, Timothy G; O'Higgins, Paul; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Stringer, Chris; Godinho, Ricardo Miguel; Warshaw, Johanna; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia-Tellez, Ana; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-12-07

    Neanderthals had large and projecting (prognathic) faces similar to those of their putative ancestors from Sima de los Huesos (SH) and different from the retracted modern human face. When such differences arose during development and the morphogenetic modifications involved are unknown. We show that maxillary growth remodelling (bone formation and resorption) of the Devil's Tower (Gibraltar 2) and La Quina 18 Neanderthals and four SH hominins, all sub-adults, show extensive bone deposition, whereas in modern humans extensive osteoclastic bone resorption is found in the same regions. This morphogenetic difference is evident by ∼5 years of age. Modern human faces are distinct from those of the Neanderthal and SH fossils in part because their postnatal growth processes differ markedly. The growth remodelling identified in these fossil hominins is shared with Australopithecus and early Homo but not with modern humans suggesting that the modern human face is developmentally derived.

  19. Early reversal cells in adult human bone remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelgawad, Mohamed Essameldin; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Hinge, Maja

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism coupling bone resorption and formation is a burning question that remains incompletely answered through the current investigations on osteoclasts and osteoblasts. An attractive hypothesis is that the reversal cells are likely mediators of this coupling. Their nature is a big matter...... of debate. The present study performed on human cancellous bone is the first one combining in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to demonstrate their osteoblastic nature. It shows that the Runx2 and CD56 immunoreactive reversal cells appear to take up TRAcP released by neighboring osteoclasts....... Earlier preclinical studies indicate that reversal cells degrade the organic matrix left behind by the osteoclasts and that this degradation is crucial for the initiation of the subsequent bone formation. To our knowledge, this study is the first addressing these catabolic activities in adult human bone...

  20. Engineering bone tissue from human embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Marolt, Darja; Campos, Iván Marcos; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Koren, Ana; Petridis, Petros; Zhang, Geping; Spitalnik, Patrice F.; Grayson, Warren L.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    In extensive bone defects, tissue damage and hypoxia lead to cell death, resulting in slow and incomplete healing. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can give rise to all specialized lineages found in healthy bone and are therefore uniquely suited to aid regeneration of damaged bone. We show that the cultivation of hESC-derived mesenchymal progenitors on 3D osteoconductive scaffolds in bioreactors with medium perfusion leads to the formation of large and compact bone constructs. Notably, the i...

  1. Bone Marrow Blood Vessel Ossification and “Microvascular Dead Space” in Rat and Human Long Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisby, Rhonda D.

    2014-01-01

    Severe calcification of the bone microvascular network was observed in rats, whereby the bone marrow blood vessels appeared ossified. This study sought to characterize the magnitude of ossification in relation to patent blood vessels and adipocyte content in femoral diaphyses. Additionally, this study confirmed the presence of ossified vessels in patients with arteriosclerotic vascular disease and peripheral vascular disease and cellulitis. Young (4–6 mon; n=8) and old (22–24 mon; n=8) male Fischer-344 rats were perfused with barium sulfate to visualize patent bone marrow blood vessels. Femoral shafts were processed for bone histomorphometry to quantify ossified (Goldner’s Trichrome) and calcified (Alizarin Red) vessels. Adipocyte content was also determined. Additional femora (n=5/age group) were scanned via µCT to quantify microvascular ossification. Bone marrow blood vessels from rats and the human patients were also isolated and examined via microscopy. Ossified vessels (rats and humans) had osteocyte lacunae on the vessel surfaces and “normal” vessels were transitioning into bone. The volume of ossified vessels was 4800% higher (p necrosis. The progression of bone microvascular ossification may provide the common link associated with age-related changes in bone and bone marrow. The clinical implications may be evident in the difficulties treating bone disease in the elderly. PMID:24680721

  2. Development of implants composed of bioactive materials for bone repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei

    The purpose of this Ph.D. research was to address the clinical need for synthetic bioactive materials to heal defects in non-loaded and loaded bone. Hollow hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres created in a previous study were evaluated as a carrier for controlled release of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) in bone regeneration. New bone formation in rat calvarial defects implanted with BMP2-loaded microspheres (43%) was significantly higher than microspheres without BMP2 (17%) at 6 weeks postimplantation. Then hollow HA microspheres with a carbonate-substituted composition were prepared to improve their resorption rate. Hollow HA microspheres with 12 wt. % of carbonate showed significantly higher new bone formation (73 +/- 8%) and lower residual HA (7 +/- 2%) than stoichiometric HA microspheres (59 +/- 2% new bone formation; 21 +/- 3% residual HA). The combination of carbonate-substituted hollow HA microspheres and clinically-safe doses of BMP2 could provide promising implants for healing non-loaded bone defects. Strong porous scaffolds of bioactive silicate (13-93) glass were designed with the aid of finite-element modeling, created by robocasting and evaluated for loaded bone repair. Scaffolds with a porosity gradient to mimic human cortical bone showed a compressive strength of 88 +/- 20 MPa, a flexural strength of 34 +/- 5 MPa and the ability to support bone infiltration in vivo. The addition of a biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) layer to the external surface of these scaffolds increased their load-bearing capacity in four-point bending by 50% and dramatically enhanced their work of fracture, resulting in a "ductile" mechanical response. These bioactive glass-PLA composites, combining bioactivity, high strength, high work of fracture and an internal architecture conducive to bone infiltration, could provide optimal implants for structural bone repair.

  3. The rebirth of the morphogenetic field as an explanatory tool in biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perović Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I discuss two uses of the concept of the morphogenetic field, a tool of the 19th century biology motivated by particular ontological views of the time, which has been re-emerging and increasingly relevant in explaining microbiological phenomena. I also consider the relation of these uses to the Central Dogma of modern biology as well as Modern Synthesis of Darwinism and genetics. An induced morphogenetic field is determined by a physical (e.g., gravitational field, or it acquires a physical (e.g., visco-elastic field’s characteristics. Such a morphogenetic field presents only a weak challenge to the Central Dogma of Modern Synthesis by indirectly, albeit severely, constraining variability at the molecular level. I discuss explanations that introduce structural inheritance in ciliate protozoa, as well as the experimental evidence on which these arguments are based. The global cellular morphogenetic field is a unit of such inheritance. I discuss relevant cases of structural inheritance in ciliates that bring about internal cellular as well as functional changes and point out that DNA is absent in the cortex and that RNA controls neither intermediary nor the global level of the field. I go on to argue that utilizing knowledge of known physical fields may advance explanations and understanding of the morphogenetic field in ciliates as the unit of both development and inheritance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179041: Dynamic Systems in nature and society: Philosophical and empirical aspects

  4. Freeze-Dried Platelet-Rich Plasma Accelerates Bone Union with Adequate Rigidity in Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion Surgery Model in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Yasuhiro; Orita, Sumihisa; Kubota, Go; Kamoda, Hiroto; Yamashita, Masaomi; Matsuura, Yusuke; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Suzuki, Miyako; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Abe, Koki; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Inoue, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Toyone, Tomoaki; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji

    2016-11-01

    Fresh platelet-rich plasma (PRP) accelerates bone union in rat model. However, fresh PRP has a short half-life. We suggested freeze-dried PRP (FD-PRP) prepared in advance and investigated its efficacy in vivo. Spinal posterolateral fusion was performed on 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into six groups based on the graft materials (n = 10 per group): sham control, artificial bone (A hydroxyapatite-collagen composite) -alone, autologous bone, artificial bone + fresh-PRP, artificial bone + FD-PRP preserved 8 weeks, and artificial bone + human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP) as a positive control. At 4 and 8 weeks after the surgery, we investigated their bone union-related characteristics including amount of bone formation, histological characteristics of trabecular bone at remodeling site, and biomechanical strength on 3-point bending. Comparable radiological bone union was confirmed at 4 weeks after surgery in 80% of the FD-PRP groups, which was earlier than in other groups (p < 0.05). Histologically, the trabecular bone had thinner and more branches in the FD-PRP. Moreover, the biomechanical strength was comparable to that of autologous bone. FD-PRP accelerated bone union at a rate comparable to that of fresh PRP and BMP by remodeling the bone with thinner, more tangled, and rigid trabecular bone.

  5. Effects of strontium ranelate on bone formation in the mid-palatal suture after rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao SY

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shuya Zhao,1,* Xuxia Wang,2,* Na Li,3 Yun Chen,1 Yuran Su,1 Jun Zhang1 1Department of Orthodontics, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Stomatology, Shandong University; 3Department of Orthodontics, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of strontium ranelate on bone regeneration in the mid-palatal suture in response to rapid maxillary expansion (RME.Methods: Thirty-six male 6-week-old Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, ie, an expansion only (EO group, an expansion plus strontium ranelate (SE group, and a control group. An orthodontic appliance was set between the right and left upper molars of rats with an initial expansive force of 0.98 N. Rats in the SE group were administered strontium ranelate (600 mg/kg body weight and then euthanized in batches on days 4, 7, and 10. Morphological changes in the mid-palatal suture were investigated using micro-computed tomography and hematoxylin and eosin staining after RME. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression in the suture was also examined to evaluate bone formation in the mid-palatal suture. Image-Pro Plus software was then used to determine the mean optical density of the immunohistochemical images. Analysis of variance was used for statistical evaluation at the P<0.05 level.Results: With expansive force, the mid-palatal suture was expanded, but there was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05 between the SE and EO groups. The bone volume of the suture decreased after RME, but was higher in the SE group than in the EO group on days 7 and 10. Further, expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 in the SE group was higher than in the other two groups (P<0.05.Conclusion: Strontium ranelate may hasten new bone formation in the expanded mid-palatal suture, which may be therapeutically

  6. 3D printing of hybrid biomaterials for bone tissue engineering: Calcium-polyphosphate microparticles encapsulated by polycaprolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufurth, Meik; Wang, Xiaohong; Wang, Shunfeng; Steffen, Renate; Ackermann, Maximilian; Haep, Natalie D; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2017-12-01

    Here we describe the formulation of a morphogenetically active bio-ink consisting of amorphous microparticles (MP) prepared from Ca 2+ and the physiological inorganic polymer, polyphosphate (polyP). Those MP had been fortified by mixing with poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) to allow 3D-bioprinting. The resulting granular PCL/Ca-polyP-MP hybrid material, liquefied by short-time heating to 100 °C, was used for the 3D-printing of tissue-like scaffolds formed by strands with a thickness of 400 µm and a stacked architecture leaving ≈0.5 mm 2 -sized open holes enabling cell migration. The printed composite scaffold turned out to combine suitable biomechanical properties (Young's modulus of 1.60 ± 0.1 GPa; Martens hardness of 153 ± 28 MPa), matching those of cortical and trabecular bone, with morphogenetic activity. This scaffold was capable of attracting and promoting the growth of human bone-related SaOS-2 cells as demonstrated by staining for cell viability (Calcein AM), cell density (DRAQ5) and SEM studies. Furthermore, the hybrid material was demonstrated to upregulate the steady-state-expression of the cell migration-inducing chemokine SDF-1α. EDX analysis and FTIR measurements revealed the presence of hydroxyapatite in the mineral deposits formed on the scaffold surface. Based on the results we conclude that granular PCL/Ca-polyP-MP hybrid material is suitable for the fabrication of bioprintable scaffold which comprises not only biomechanical stability but also morphogenetic potential. In present-day regenerative engineering efforts, biomaterial- and cell-based strategies are proposed that meet the required functional and spatial characteristics and variations, especially in the transition regions between soft (cartilage, tendon or ligament) and hard (bone) tissues. In a biomimetic approach we succeeded to fabricate amorphous Ca-polyP nanoparticles/microparticles which are highly biocompatible. Together with polycaprolactone (PCL), polyP can be

  7. Inca - interparietal bones in neurocranium of human skulls in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Marathe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inca bones are accessory bones found in neurocranium of human skulls. Occurrence of Inca bones is rare as compared to other inter sutural bones such as wormian bones. These Inca ossicles are regarded as variants of the normal. The reporting of such occurrences is inadequate from Central India. Objectives: To find the incidence of Inca variants in Central India. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 380 dried adult human skulls were examined. All specimen samples were procured from various Medical colleges of Central India. They were analyzed for gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones. Results: Gross incidence of Inca bones was found to be 1.315 %. Incidence rate was higher in male skulls than female skulls (male: 1.428%; female: 1.176%. The Inca bones frequently occurred signally. Out of the five observed Inca ossicles, two were fragmented. Conclusions: This data gives idea regarding gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones in neurocranium of human skulls from Central India. The knowledge of this variable is useful for neurosurgeons, anthropologists and radiologists.

  8. Effects of amlodipine on bone metabolism in male albino Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Gradošová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amlodipine (dihydropyridine-type calcium channel blocker is a widely used agent for the treatment of hypertension in human and veterinary medicine but detailed information about its effects on bone metabolism are missing. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of amlodipine on bone metabolism in male albino Wistar rats. Amlodipine (0.3 mg/100 g body weight; gavage was administered to 8 rats for 8 weeks. Control group (n = 8 received aqua pro inj. (0.2 ml/100 g body weight; gavage. Bone marker concentrations of carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I and aminoterminal propeptide of procollagen type I in serum, and of bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP in both serum and bone homogenate were measured by enzyme immunoassay. We investigated the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 in proximal tibia using Western blotting, and bone mineral density was measured by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry in lumbar and caudal vertebrae and in femoral areas. Mechanical properties of the femurs were measured by three-point bending of the shaft and compression testing of the femoral neck. After 8 weeks of amlodipine administration there was a significant decrease in serum concentrations of BALP (p = 0.0009 and CTX-I (p = 0.003, and the content of BALP in bone homogenate (p = 0.026 compared to the control. In addition, Western blot analysis indicated increased BMP-2 protein concentration after amlodipine administration. Our findings suggest that amlodipine has a retarding influence on bone metabolism in rats by decreasing bone turnover, which probably in consequence increases expression of BMP-2.

  9. Effect of heat treatment at 600 degree C for 10 hours on human BMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izawa, H.; Hachiya, Y.; Muramatsu, K.; Narita, Y.; Kawai, T.

    1999-01-01

    Viral infection are an extremely serious in allogeneic bone transplantations. While it is essential to kill viruses such as HIV in allogeneic bone graft, the osteoinductive activity must be preserved. Heat treatment of allogeneic bone graft at 60 degree C for 10 hours is effective in killing viruses such as HIV, but it is unclear to what extent the activity of human bone morphogenetic protein (hBMP) is preserved. In this experiment crude hBMP was extracted from both heated and non-heated human bones which were decalcified by the Urist method. Gelatin capsules containing 5mg of crude hBMP were transplanted into the thigh muscles of 5 week old mice. Human bone samples heated in a water bath at 60 degree C for 10 hours and non-heated samples were each transplanted into 5 mice. At 20 days after transplantation, the heterotopic bone formation was compared by evaluation of X-ray and histologicic analysis. X-rays showed heterotopic bone formation in both heated and non-heated samples. Further, histologic analysis showed that peripheral osteoid tissue had developed into laminar bone formation and interlaminar bone marrow was observed. Heterotopic bone formation was induced by crude hBMP from heated bones in a similar way to crude hBMP from non-heated bones observed in X-ray. There was no significant difference in histologic analysis. The crude hBMP, extracted from bones which were heat-treated at 60 degree C for 10 hours induced heterotopic bone formation similar to that in non-heated bone observed by X-ray and histologic analysis at 20 days after transplantation. This demostrates that the heat-treated bone preserved osteoinduction

  10. Osteoinductive peptide-functionalized nanofibers with highly ordered structure as biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Song, Jinlin; Xu, Xiao; Xu, Anxiu; Wang, Mengke; Xie, Bingwu; Huang, Enyi; Deng, Feng; Wei, Shicheng

    2015-01-01

    The construction of functional biomimetic scaffolds that recapitulate the topographical and biochemical features of bone tissue extracellular matrix is now of topical interest in bone tissue engineering. In this study, a novel surface-functionalized electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber scaffold with highly ordered structure was developed to simulate the critical features of native bone tissue via a single step of catechol chemistry. Specially, under slightly alkaline aqueous solution, polydopamine (pDA) was coated on the surface of aligned PCL nanofibers after electrospinning, followed by covalent immobilization of bone morphogenetic protein-7-derived peptides onto the pDA-coated nanofiber surface. Contact angle measurement, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of pDA and peptides on PCL nanofiber surface. Our results demonstrated that surface modification with osteoinductive peptides could improve cytocompatibility of nanofibers in terms of cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation. Most importantly, Alizarin Red S staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunostaining, and Western blot revealed that human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on aligned nanofibers with osteoinductive peptides exhibited enhanced osteogenic differentiation potential than cells on randomly oriented nanofibers. Furthermore, the aligned nanofibers with osteoinductive peptides could direct osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells even in the absence of osteoinducting factors, suggesting superior osteogenic efficacy of biomimetic design that combines the advantages of osteoinductive peptide signal and highly ordered nanofibers on cell fate decision. The presented peptide-decorated bone-mimic nanofiber scaffolds hold a promising potential in the context of bone tissue engineering.

  11. [Progress of Masquelet technique to repair bone defect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qudong; Sun, Zhenzhong; Gu, Sanjun

    2013-10-01

    To summarize the progress of Masquelet technique to repair bone defect. The recent literature concerning the application of Masquelet technique to repair bone defect was extensively reviewed and summarized. Masquelet technique involves a two-step procedure. First, bone cement is used to fill the bone defect after a thorough debridement, and an induced membrane structure surrounding the spacer formed; then the bone cement is removed after 6-8 weeks, and rich cancellous bone is implanted into the induced membrane. Massive cortical bone defect is repaired by new bone forming and consolidation. Experiments show that the induced membrane has vascular system and is also rich in vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor beta1, bone morphogenetic protein 2, and bone progenitor cells, so it has osteoinductive property; satisfactory results have been achieved in clinical application of almost all parts of defects, various types of bone defect and massive defect up to 25 cm long. Compared with other repair methods, Masquelet technique has the advantages of reliable effect, easy to operate, few complications, low requirements for recipient site, and wide application. Masquelet technique is an effective method to repair bone defect and is suitable for various types of bone defect, especially for bone defects caused by infection and tumor resection.

  12. Normal human bone marrow and its variations in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahlensieck, M.; Schmidt, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    Physiology and age dependant changes of human bone marrow are described. The resulting normal distribution patterns of active and inactive bone marrow including the various contrasts on different MR-sequences are discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres exhibit enhanced osteoinduction and osteogenicity in large bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Long; Zeng, Jianhua; Yao, Aihua; Tu, Qiquan; Li, Jingtang; Yan, Liang; Tang, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    The regeneration of large bone defects is an osteoinductive, osteoconductive, and osteogenic process that often requires a bone graft for support. Limitations associated with naturally autogenic or allogenic bone grafts have demonstrated the need for synthetic substitutes. The present study investigates the feasibility of using novel hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres as an osteoconductive matrix and a carrier for controlled local delivery of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), a potent osteogenic inducer of bone regeneration. Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres (100±25 μm) with a core (60±18 μm) and a mesoporous shell (180±42 m(2)/g surface area) were prepared by a glass conversion technique and loaded with recombinant human BMP2 (1 μg/mg). There was a gentle burst release of BMP2 from microspheres into the surrounding phosphate-buffered saline in vitro within the initial 48 hours, and continued at a low rate for over 40 days. In comparison with hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres without BMP2 or soluble BMP2 without a carrier, BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres had a significantly enhanced capacity to reconstitute radial bone defects in rabbit, as shown by increased serum alkaline phosphatase; quick and complete new bone formation within 12 weeks; and great biomechanical flexural strength. These results indicate that BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres could be a potential new option for bone graft substitutes in bone regeneration.

  14. Potential role of centrioles in determining the morphogenetic status of animal somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkemaladze, J; Chichinadze, K

    2005-05-01

    Irreversible differentiation (change of morphogenetic status) and programmed death (apoptosis) are observed only in somatic cells. Cell division is the only way by which the morphogenetic status of the offspring cells may be modified. It is known that there is a fixed limit to the number of possible cell divisions, the so-called 'Hayflick limit'. Existing links between cell division, differentiation and apoptosis make it possible to conclude that all these processes could be controlled by a single self-reproducing structure. Potential candidates for this replicable structure in a somatic cell are chromosomes, mitochondria (both contain DNA), and centrioles. Centrioles (diplosome) are the most likely unit that can fully regulate the processes of irreversible differentiation, determination and modification of the morphogenetic status. It may contain differently encoded RNA molecules stacked in a definite order. During mitosis, these RNA molecules are released one by one into the cytoplasm. In the presence of reverse transcriptase and endonuclease, RNA can be embedded in nuclear DNA. This process presumably changes the status of repressed and potentially active genes and, subsequently, the morphogenetic status of a cell.

  15. Bone dosimetry using synthetic images to represent trabecular bones of five regions of the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Filho, Jose de M. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose W. [Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco (POLI). Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Vanildo J. de M., E-mail: vjr@ufpe.br [Departamento de Anatomia. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Lindeval F., E-mail: lindeval@dmat.ufrr.br [Departamento de Matematica (DMAT). Universidade Federal de Roraima (UFRR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil); Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/NE-CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Wagner E. de [Departamento de Energia Nuclear (DEN). Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    One of the greatest challenges in numerical dosimetry of ionizing radiation is to estimate the absorbed dose by bone tissue in the human body. The bone tissues of greater radiosensitivity are the red bone marrow (RBM), that consist of the hematopoietic cells, located within the trabecular bones, and the bone surface cells (BSC), called osteogenic cells. The report 70 of the ICRP lists five spongiosa regions with their respective volume percent of trabecular bone: ribs (also contemplating the clavicles and sternum), spine, long bones, pelvis and skull (also contemplating mandible). The Grupo de Pesquisa em Dosimetria Numerica (GDN/CNPq) has been built exposure computational models (ECMs) based on voxel phantoms and EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. To estimate the energy deposited in the RBM and in the BSC of a phantom, the GDN/CNPq has used a method based on micro-CT images of the five trabecular regions mentioned above. These images were provided by other research institutes and were obtained from scan of bone samples of adult. Here is the greatest difficulty in reproducing this method: besides the need for bone images of real people with micrometer resolution, the distribution of bone marrow in the human body, according to ICRP 70, varies with age. This article presents some proposals of the GDN/CNPQ for replacing in the ECMs the micro-CT images by images synthesized by the computer, based on Monte Carlo sampling. (author)

  16. Bone dosimetry using synthetic images to represent trabecular bones of five regions of the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Filho, Jose de M.; Vieira, Jose W.; Lima, Vanildo J. de M.; Lima, Lindeval F.; Lima, Fernando R.A.; Vasconcelos, Wagner E. de

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in numerical dosimetry of ionizing radiation is to estimate the absorbed dose by bone tissue in the human body. The bone tissues of greater radiosensitivity are the red bone marrow (RBM), that consist of the hematopoietic cells, located within the trabecular bones, and the bone surface cells (BSC), called osteogenic cells. The report 70 of the ICRP lists five spongiosa regions with their respective volume percent of trabecular bone: ribs (also contemplating the clavicles and sternum), spine, long bones, pelvis and skull (also contemplating mandible). The Grupo de Pesquisa em Dosimetria Numerica (GDN/CNPq) has been built exposure computational models (ECMs) based on voxel phantoms and EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. To estimate the energy deposited in the RBM and in the BSC of a phantom, the GDN/CNPq has used a method based on micro-CT images of the five trabecular regions mentioned above. These images were provided by other research institutes and were obtained from scan of bone samples of adult. Here is the greatest difficulty in reproducing this method: besides the need for bone images of real people with micrometer resolution, the distribution of bone marrow in the human body, according to ICRP 70, varies with age. This article presents some proposals of the GDN/CNPQ for replacing in the ECMs the micro-CT images by images synthesized by the computer, based on Monte Carlo sampling. (author)

  17. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 induces differentiation of colorectal cancer stem cells and increases their response to chemotherapy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Ylenia; Scopelliti, Alessandro; Cammareri, Patrizia; Todaro, Matilde; Iovino, Flora; Ricci-Vitiani, Lucia; Gulotta, Gaspare; Dieli, Francesco; de Maria, Ruggero; Stassi, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The limited clinical response observed in many patients with colorectal cancer may be related to the presence of chemoresistant colorectal cancer stem cells (CRC-SCs). Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) promotes the differentiation of normal colonic stem cells. We investigated whether BMP4 might be used to induce differentiation of CRC-SCs and for therapeutic purposes. CRC-SCs were isolated from 25 tumor samples based on expression of CD133 or using a selection culture medium. BMP4 expression and activity on CRC-SCs were evaluated in vitro; progeny of the stem cells were evaluated by immunofluorescence, immunoblot, and flow cytometry analyses. The potential therapeutic effect of BMP4 was assessed in immunocompromised mice after injection of CRC-SCs that responded to chemotherapy (n = 4) or that did not (n = 2). CRC-SCs did not express BMP4 whereas differentiated cells did. Recombinant BMP4 promoted differentiation and apoptosis of CRC-SCs in 12 of 15 independent experiments; this effect did not depend on Small Mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad)4 expression level or microsatellite stability. BMP4 activated the canonical and noncanonical BMP signaling pathways, including phosphoInositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and PKB (protein kinase B)/AKT. Mutations in PI3K or loss of Phosphatase and Tensin homolog (PTEN) in Smad4-defective tumors made CRC-SCs unresponsive to BMP4. Administration of BMP4 to immunocompromised mice with tumors that arose from CRC-SCs increased the antitumor effects of 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin. BMP4 promotes terminal differentiation, apoptosis, and chemosensitization of CRC-SCs in tumors that do not have simultaneous mutations in Smad4 and constitutive activation of PI3K. BMP4 might be developed as a therapeutic agent against cancer stem cells in advanced colorectal tumors. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bone blood flow and metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kaskinoro, Kimmo

    2012-01-01

    Human bone blood flow and metabolism during physical exercise remains poorly characterised. In the present study we measured femoral bone blood flow and glucose uptake in young healthy subjects by positron emission tomography in three separate protocols. In six women, blood flow was measured...... in femoral bone at rest and during one leg intermittent isometric exercise with increasing exercise intensities. In nine men, blood flow in femur was determined at rest and during dynamic one leg exercise, and two other physiological perturbations: moderate systemic hypoxia (14 O(2) ) at rest and during...... exercise, and during intra-femoral infusion of high-dose adenosine. Bone glucose uptake was measured at rest and during dynamic one leg exercise in five men. The results indicate that isometric exercise increased femoral bone blood flow from rest (1.8 ± 0.6 ml/100g/min) to low intensity exercise (4.1 ± 1...

  19. Influence of Simultaneous Targeting of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Pathway and RANK-RANKL Axis in Osteolytic Prostate Cancer Lesion in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Mandeep S.; Petrigliano, Frank A.; Liu, Nancy Q.; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; Stout, David; Kang, Christine O.; Dougall, William C.; Lieberman, Jay R.

    2009-01-01

    Metastasis to bone is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in advanced prostate cancer patients. Considering the complex reciprocal interactions between the tumor cells and the bone microenvironment, there is increasing interest in developing combination therapies targeting both the tumor growth and the bone microenvironment. In this study, we investigated the effect of simultaneous blockade of BMP pathway and RANK-RANKL axis in an osteolytic prostate cancer lesion in bone. We used a retroviral vector encoding noggin (Retronoggin) to antagonize the effect of BMPs and RANK: Fc, which is a recombinant RANKL antagonist was used to inhibit RANK-RANKL axis. The tumor growth and bone loss were evaluated using plain radiographs, hind limb tumor measurements, micro PET-CT (18F- fluorodeoxyglucose [FDG] and 18F-fluoride tracer), and histology. Tibias implanted with PC-3 cells developed pure osteolytic lesions at 2 weeks with progressive increase in cortical bone destruction at successive time points. Tibias implanted with PC-3 cells over expressing noggin (Retronoggin) resulted in reduced tumor size and decreased bone loss compared to the implanted tibias in untreated control animals. RANK: Fc administration inhibited the formation of osteoclasts, delayed the development of osteolytic lesions, decreased bone loss and reduced tumor size in tibias implanted with PC-3 cells. The combination therapy with RANK: Fc and noggin over expression effectively delayed the radiographic development of osteolytic lesions, and decreased the bone loss and tumor burden compared to implanted tibias treated with noggin over expression alone. Furthermore, the animals treated with the combination strategy exhibited decreased bone loss (micro CT) and lower tumor burden (FDG micro PET) compared to animals treated with RANK: Fc alone. Combined blockade of RANK-RANKL axis and BMP pathway resulted in reduced tumor burden and decreased bone loss compared to inhibition of either individual

  20. Autologous implantation of BMP2-expressing dermal fibroblasts to improve bone mineral density and architecture in rabbit long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Akikazu; Weisbrode, Steve E; Bertone, Alicia L

    2015-10-01

    Cell-mediated gene therapy may treat bone fragility disorders. Dermal fibroblasts (DFb) may be an alternative cell source to stem cells for orthopedic gene therapy because of their rapid cell yield and excellent plasticity with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) gene transduction. Autologous DFb or BMP2-expressing autologous DFb were administered in twelve rabbits by two delivery routes; a transcortical intra-medullar infusion into tibiae and delayed intra-osseous injection into femoral drill defects. Both delivery methods of DFb-BMP2 resulted in a successful cell engraftment, increased bone volume, bone mineral density, improved trabecular bone microarchitecture, greater bone defect filling, external callus formation, and trabecular surface area, compared to non-transduced DFb or no cells. Cell engraftment within trabecular bone and bone marrow tissue was most efficiently achieved by intra-osseous injection of DFb-BMP2. Our results suggested that BMP2-expressing autologous DFb have enhanced efficiency of engraftment in target bones resulting in a measurable biologic response by the bone of improved bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. These results support that autologous implantation of DFb-BMP2 warrants further study on animal models of bone fragility disorders, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and osteoporosis to potentially enhance bone quality, particularly along with other gene modification of these diseases. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Alk2/ACVR1 and Alk3/BMPR1A Provide Essential Function for Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Induced Retinal Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heon-Woo; Chong, Diana C; Ola, Roxana; Dunworth, William P; Meadows, Stryder; Ka, Jun; Kaartinen, Vesa M; Qyang, Yibing; Cleaver, Ondine; Bautch, Victoria L; Eichmann, Anne; Jin, Suk-Won

    2017-04-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling regulates angiogenesis. Here, we aimed to define the function of BMP receptors in regulating early postnatal angiogenesis by analysis of inducible, endothelial-specific deletion of the BMP receptor components Bmpr2 (BMP type 2 receptor), Alk1 (activin receptor-like kinase 1), Alk2 , and Alk3 in mouse retinal vessels. Expression analysis of several BMP ligands showed that proangiogenic BMP ligands are highly expressed in postnatal retinas. Consistently, BMP receptors are also strongly expressed in retina with a distinct pattern. To assess the function of BMP signaling in retinal angiogenesis, we first generated mice carrying an endothelial-specific inducible deletion of Bmpr2 . Postnatal deletion of Bmpr2 in endothelial cells substantially decreased the number of angiogenic sprouts at the vascular front and branch points behind the front, leading to attenuated radial expansion. To identify critical BMPR1s (BMP type 1 receptors) associated with BMPR2 in retinal angiogenesis, we generated endothelial-specific inducible deletion of 3 BMPR1s abundantly expressed in endothelial cells and analyzed the respective phenotypes. Among these, endothelial-specific deletion of either Alk2 / acvr1 or Alk3 / Bmpr1a caused a delay in radial expansion, reminiscent of vascular defects associated with postnatal endothelial-specific deletion of BMPR2, suggesting that ALK2/ACVR1 and ALK3/BMPR1A are likely to be the critical BMPR1s necessary for proangiogenic BMP signaling in retinal vessels. Our data identify BMP signaling mediated by coordination of ALK2/ACVR1, ALK3/BMPR1A, and BMPR2 as an essential proangiogenic cue for retinal vessels. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. Alk2/ACVR1 and Alk3/BMPR1A Provide Essential Function for Bone Morphogenetic Protein Induced Retinal Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heon-Woo; Chong, Diana C.; Ola, Roxana; Dunworth, William P.; Meadows, Stryder; Ka, Jun; Kaartinen, Vesa M.; Qyang, Yibing; Cleaver, Ondine; Bautch, Victoria L.; Eichmann, Anne; Jin, Suk-Won

    2017-01-01

    Objective Increasing evidence suggests that Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling regulates angiogenesis. Here, we aimed to define the function of BMP receptors in regulating early post-natal angiogenesis by analysis of inducible, endothelial specific deletion of the BMP receptor components Bmpr2, Alk1, Alk2 and Alk3 in mouse retinal vessels. Approach and Results Expression analysis of several BMP ligands showed that pro-angiogenic BMP ligands are highly expressed in postnatal retinas. Consistently, BMP receptors are also strongly expressed in retina with a distinct pattern. To assess the function of BMP signaling in retinal angiogenesis, we first generated mice carrying an endothelial-specific inducible deletion of BMP Type 2 receptor (Bmpr2). Postnatal deletion of Bmpr2 in endothelial cells substantially decreased the number of angiogenic sprouts at the vascular front and branchpoints behind the front, leading to attenuated radial expansion. To identify critical BMPR1s associated with BMPR2 in retinal angiogenesis, we generated endothelial-specific inducible deletion of three BMPR1s abundantly expressed in endothelial cells and analyzed the respective phenotypes. Among these, endothelial specific deletion of either Alk2/acvr1 or Alk3/Bmpr1a caused a delay in radial expansion, reminiscent of vascular defects associated with postnatal endothelial specific deletion of BMPR2, suggesting that ALK2/ACVR1 and ALK3/BMPR1A are likely to be the critical BMPR1s necessary for pro-angiogenic BMP signaling in retinal vessels. Conclusions Our data identify BMP signaling mediated by coordination of ALK2/ACVR1, ALK3/BMPR1A, and BMPR2 as an essential pro-angiogenic cue for retinal vessels. PMID:28232325

  3. Synthetic scaffold coating with adeno-associated virus encoding BMP2 to promote endogenous bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Kenneth M; Boerckel, Joel D; Stevens, Hazel Y; Diab, Tamim; Kolambkar, Yash M; Takahata, Masahiko; Schwarz, Edward M; Guldberg, Robert E

    2012-03-01

    Biomaterial scaffolds functionalized to stimulate endogenous repair mechanisms via the incorporation of osteogenic cues offer a potential alternative to bone grafting for the treatment of large bone defects. We first quantified the ability of a self-complementary adeno-associated viral vector encoding bone morphogenetic protein 2 (scAAV2.5-BMP2) to enhance human stem cell osteogenic differentiation in vitro. In two-dimensional culture, scAAV2.5-BMP2-transduced human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) displayed significant increases in BMP2 production and alkaline phosphatase activity compared with controls. hMSCs and human amniotic-fluid-derived stem cells (hAFS cells) seeded on scAAV2.5-BMP2-coated three-dimensional porous polymer Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds also displayed significant increases in BMP2 production compared with controls during 12 weeks of culture, although only hMSC-seeded scaffolds displayed significantly increased mineral formation. PCL scaffolds coated with scAAV2.5-BMP2 were implanted into critically sized immunocompromised rat femoral defects, both with or without pre-seeding of hMSCs, representing ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy treatments, respectively. After 12 weeks, defects treated with acellular scAAV2.5-BMP2-coated scaffolds displayed increased bony bridging and had significantly higher bone ingrowth and mechanical properties compared with controls, whereas defects treated with scAAV2.5-BMP2 scaffolds pre-seeded with hMSCs failed to display significant differences relative to controls. When pooled, defect treatment with scAAV2.5-BMP2-coated scaffolds, both with or without inclusion of pre-seeded hMSCs, led to significant increases in defect mineral formation at all time points and increased mechanical properties compared with controls. This study thus presents a novel acellular bone-graft-free endogenous repair therapy for orthotopic tissue-engineered bone regeneration.

  4. Methods and theory in bone modeling drift: comparing spatial analyses of primary bone distributions in the human humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiano, Corey M; Maggiano, Isabel S; Tiesler, Vera G; Chi-Keb, Julio R; Stout, Sam D

    2016-01-01

    This study compares two novel methods quantifying bone shaft tissue distributions, and relates observations on human humeral growth patterns for applications in anthropological and anatomical research. Microstructural variation in compact bone occurs due to developmental and mechanically adaptive circumstances that are 'recorded' by forming bone and are important for interpretations of growth, health, physical activity, adaptation, and identity in the past and present. Those interpretations hinge on a detailed understanding of the modeling process by which bones achieve their diametric shape, diaphyseal curvature, and general position relative to other elements. Bone modeling is a complex aspect of growth, potentially causing the shaft to drift transversely through formation and resorption on opposing cortices. Unfortunately, the specifics of modeling drift are largely unknown for most skeletal elements. Moreover, bone modeling has seen little quantitative methodological development compared with secondary bone processes, such as intracortical remodeling. The techniques proposed here, starburst point-count and 45° cross-polarization hand-drawn histomorphometry, permit the statistical and populational analysis of human primary tissue distributions and provide similar results despite being suitable for different applications. This analysis of a pooled archaeological and modern skeletal sample confirms the importance of extreme asymmetry in bone modeling as a major determinant of microstructural variation in diaphyses. Specifically, humeral drift is posteromedial in the human humerus, accompanied by a significant rotational trend. In general, results encourage the usage of endocortical primary bone distributions as an indicator and summary of bone modeling drift, enabling quantitative analysis by direction and proportion in other elements and populations. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  5. DNA and bone structure preservation in medieval human skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Norton, Andrew L; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Ali, Nadir; Elmrghni, Samir; Gil, Cristiane D; Sasso, Gisela R S; Dixon, Ronald A; Nader, Helena B

    2015-06-01

    Morphological and ultrastructural data from archaeological human bones are scarce, particularly data that have been correlated with information on the preservation of molecules such as DNA. Here we examine the bone structure of macroscopically well-preserved medieval human skeletons by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, and the quantity and quality of DNA extracted from these skeletons. DNA technology has been increasingly used for analyzing physical evidence in archaeological forensics; however, the isolation of ancient DNA is difficult since it is highly degraded, extraction yields are low and the co-extraction of PCR inhibitors is a problem. We adapted and optimised a method that is frequently used for isolating DNA from modern samples, Chelex(®) 100 (Bio-Rad) extraction, for isolating DNA from archaeological human bones and teeth. The isolated DNA was analysed by real-time PCR using primers targeting the sex determining region on the Y chromosome (SRY) and STR typing using the AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler PCR Amplification kit. Our results clearly show the preservation of bone matrix in medieval bones and the presence of intact osteocytes with well preserved encapsulated nuclei. In addition, we show how effective Chelex(®) 100 is for isolating ancient DNA from archaeological bones and teeth. This optimised method is suitable for STR typing using kits aimed specifically at degraded and difficult DNA templates since amplicons of up to 250bp were successfully amplified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Age variations in the properties of human tibial trabecular bone and cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2000-01-01

    , such as apparent, apparent ash and collagen densities of human tibial trabecular bone have significant relationships with age. Tissue density and mineral concentration remain constant throughout life. Trabecular bone is tougher in the younger age, i.e. fracture requires more energy. Collagen density was the single......Initiated and motivated by clinical and scientific problems such as age-related bone fracture, prosthetic loosening, bone remodeling, and degenerative bone diseases, much significant research on the properties of trabecular bone has been carried out over the last two decades. This work has mainly...... focused on the central vertebral trabecular bone, while little is known about age-related changes in the properties of human peripheral (tibial) trabecular bone. Knowledge of the properties of peripheral (tibial) trabecular bone is of major importance for the understanding of degenerative diseases...

  7. Elastin-like-polypeptide based fusion proteins for osteogenic factor delivery in bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Bryce; Yuan, Yuan; Koria, Piyush

    2016-07-08

    Modern treatments of bone injuries and diseases are becoming increasingly dependent on the usage of growth factors to stimulate bone growth. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), a potent osteogenic inductive protein, exhibits promising results in treatment models, but recently has had its practical efficacy questioned due to the lack of local retention, ectopic bone formation, and potentially lethal inflammation. Where a new delivery technique of the BMP-2 is necessary, here we demonstrate the viability of an elastin-like peptide (ELP) fusion protein containing BMP-2 for delivery of the BMP-2. This fusion protein retains the performance characteristics of both the BMP-2 and ELP. The fusion protein was found to induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as evidenced by the production of alkaline phosphatase and extracellular calcium deposits in response to treatment by the fusion protein. Retention of the ELPs inverse phase transition property has allowed for expression of the fusion protein within a bacterial host (such as Escherichia coli) and easy and rapid purification using inverse transition cycling. The fusion protein formed self-aggregating nanoparticles at human-body temperature. The data collected suggests the viability of these fusion protein nanoparticles as a dosage-efficient and location-precise noncytotoxic delivery vehicle for BMP-2 in bone treatment. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1029-1037, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  8. First forensic records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Queiroz

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the first records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil. The cases reported in this study resulted from forensic analysis of six human skeletons found in northeastern Brazil between 2012 and 2014. Traces of tunnels and nests commonly produced by termites were found on several human bone surfaces as well as the specimens and characteristic signs of osteophagic activity. In four cases, the species were identified: Amitermes amifer Silvestri, 1901, Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855 (on two skeletons, and Microcerotermes indistinctus Mathews, 1977. In two other cases, the activity of termites on bone surfaces was evidenced by remains of nests and tunnels produced by these insects. At least in the samples of human remains available for this report, the number of termites collected was greater on bones found during autumn, the rainy season in the Northeast of Brazil. The human bones examined showed termites like insects with lots of strength at bone degradation, capable of continuing the process of decomposition of human remains even in completely skeletonized bodies.

  9. Combination of BMP-2-releasing gelatin/β-TCP sponges with autologous bone marrow for bone regeneration of X-ray-irradiated rabbit ulnar defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masaya; Hokugo, Akishige; Takahashi, Yoshitake; Nakano, Takayoshi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of gelatin sponges incorporating β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules (gelatin/β-TCP sponges) to enhance bone regeneration at a segmental ulnar defect of rabbits with X-ray irradiation. After X-ray irradiation of the ulnar bone, segmental critical-sized defects of 20-mm length were created, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-releasing gelatin/β-TCP sponges with or without autologous bone marrow were applied to the defects to evaluate bone regeneration. Both gelatin/β-TCP sponges containing autologous bone marrow and BMP-2-releasing sponges enhanced bone regeneration at the ulna defect to a significantly greater extent than the empty sponges (control). However, in the X-ray-irradiated bone, the bone regeneration either by autologous bone marrow or BMP-2 was inhibited. When combined with autologous bone marrow, the BMP-2 exhibited significantly high osteoinductivity, irrespective of the X-ray irradiation. The bone mineral content at the ulna defect was similar to that of the intact bone. It is concluded that the combination of bone marrow with the BMP-2-releasing gelatin/β-TCP sponge is a promising technique to induce bone regeneration at segmental bone defects after X-ray irradiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chitosan-Graphene Oxide 3D scaffolds as Promising Tools for Bone Regeneration in Critical-Size Mouse Calvarial Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermenean, Anca; Codreanu, Ada; Herman, Hildegard; Balta, Cornel; Rosu, Marcel; Mihali, Ciprian Valentin; Ivan, Alexandra; Dinescu, Sorina; Ionita, Mariana; Costache, Marieta

    2017-11-30

    Limited self-regenerating capacity of human skeleton makes the reconstruction of critical size bone defect a significant challenge for clinical practice. Aimed for regenerating bone tissues, this study was designed to investigate osteogenic differentiation, along with bone repair capacity of 3D chitosan (CHT) scaffolds enriched with graphene oxide (GO) in critical-sized mouse calvarial defect. Histopathological/histomorphometry and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) analysis of the implants revealed larger amount of new bone in the CHT/GO-filled defects compared with CHT alone (p < 0.001). When combined with GO, CHT scaffolds synergistically promoted the increase of alkaline phosphatase activity both in vitro and in vivo experiments. This enhanced osteogenesis was corroborated with increased expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Runx-2 up to week 4 post-implantation, which showed that GO facilitates the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. Meanwhile, osteogenesis was promoted by GO at the late stage as well, as indicated by the up-regulation of osteopontin and osteocalcin at week 8 and overexpressed at week 18, for both markers. Our data suggest that CHT/GO biomaterial could represent a promising tool for the reconstruction of large bone defects, without using exogenous living cells or growth factors.

  11. Micro-CT characterization of human trabecular bone in osteogenesis imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, John; Albert, Carolyne; Smith, Peter; Molthen, Robert; Harris, Gerald

    2011-03-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic syndrome affecting collagen synthesis and assembly. Its symptoms vary widely but commonly include bone fragility, reduced stature, and bone deformity. Because of the small size and paucity of human specimens, there is a lack of biomechanical data for OI bone. Most literature has focused on histomorphometric analyses, which rely on assumptions to extrapolate 3-D properties. In this study, a micro-computed tomography (μCT) system was used to directly measure structural and mineral properties in pediatric OI bone collected during routine surgical procedures. Surface renderings suggested a poorly organized, plate-like orientation. Patients with a history of bone-augmenting drugs exhibited increased bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and connectivity density (Eu.Conn.D). The latter two parameters appeared to be related to OI severity. Structural results were consistently higher than those reported in a previous histomorphometric study, but these differences can be attributed to factors such as specimen collection site, drug therapy, and assumptions associated with histomorphometry. Mineral testing revealed strong correlations with several structural parameters, highlighting the importance of a dual approach in trabecular bone testing. This study reports some of the first quantitative μCT data of human OI bone, and it suggests compelling possibilities for the future of OI bone assessment.

  12. Bone graft extenders and substitutes in the thoracolumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arner, Justin W; Daffner, Scott D

    2012-05-01

    Autologous iliac crest bone graft remains the gold standard for lumbar fusion. The potential for complications has led to the development of alternative bone graft materials and enhancers, including autologous growth factors, demineralized bone matrix products, osteoinductive agents, and ceramic products. The current literature centers mainly on preclinical studies, which, further complicating the situation, evaluate these products in different clinical scenarios or surgical techniques. Autologous growth factors and demineralized bone matrix products have had promising results in preclinical studies, but few strong clinical studies have been conducted. Ceramic extenders were evaluated with other substances and had good but often inconsistent results. Bone morphogenetic proteins have been extensively studied and may have benefits as osteoinductive agents. Category comparisons are difficult to make, and there are differences even between products within the same category. The surgeon must be knowledgeable about products and their advantages, disadvantages, indications, contraindications, and possible applications so that they can make the best choice for each patient.

  13. Is fatty acid composition of human bone marrow significant to bone health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Ana María; Rodríguez, J Pablo

    2017-12-16

    The bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is a conserved component of the marrow microenvironment, providing storage and release of energy and stabilizing the marrow extent. Also, it is recognized both the amount and quality of BMAT are relevant to preserve the functional relationships between BMAT, bone, and blood cell production. In this article we ponder the information supporting the tenet that the quality of BMAT is relevant to bone health. In the human adult the distribution of BMAT is heterogeneous over the entire skeleton, and both BMAT accumulation and bone loss come about with aging in healthy populations. But some pathological conditions which increase BMAT formation lead to bone impairment and fragility. Analysis in vivo of the relative content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in BMAT indicates site-related bone marrow fat composition and an association between increased unsaturation index (UI) and bone health. With aging some impairment ensues in the regulation of bone marrow cells and systemic signals leading to local chronic inflammation. Most of the bone loss diseases which evolve altered BMAT composition have as common factors aging and/or chronic inflammation. Both saturated and unsaturated FAs originate lipid species which are active mediators in the inflammation process. Increased free saturated FAs may lead to lipotoxicity of bone marrow cells. The pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory or resolving actions of compounds derived from long chain poly unsaturated FAs (PUFA) on bone cells is varied, and depending on the metabolism of the parent n:3 or n:6 PUFAs series. Taking together the evidence substantiate that marrow adipocyte function is fundamental for an efficient link between systemic and marrow fatty acids to accomplish specific energy or regulatory needs of skeletal and marrow cells. Further, they reveal marrow requirements of PUFAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Hedgehog Signal Induced Modulation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling: An Essential Signaling Relay for Urinary Tract Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagata, Naomi; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Suzuki, Kentaro; Kitazawa, Sohei; Yamada, Gen

    2012-01-01

    Background Congenital diseases of the urinary tract are frequently observed in infants. Such diseases present a number of developmental anomalies such as hydroureter and hydronephrosis. Although some genetically-modified mouse models of growth factor signaling genes reproduce urinary phenotypes, the pathogenic mechanisms remain obscure. Previous studies suggest that a portion of the cells in the external genitalia and bladder are derived from peri-cloacal mesenchymal cells that receive Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in the early developmental stages. We hypothesized that defects in such progenitor cells, which give rise to urinary tract tissues, may be a cause of such diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings To elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of upper urinary tract malformations, we analyzed a series of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) deficient mice. Shh−/− displayed hydroureter and hydronephrosis phenotypes and reduced expression of several developmental markers. In addition, we suggested that Shh modulation at an early embryonic stage is responsible for such phenotypes by analyzing the Shh conditional mutants. Tissue contribution assays of Hh-responsive cells revealed that peri-cloacal mesenchymal cells, which received Hh signal secreted from cloacal epithelium, could contribute to the ureteral mesenchyme. Gain- and loss-of-functional mutants for Hh signaling revealed a correlation between Hh signaling and Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling. Finally, a conditional ablation of Bmp receptor type IA (BmprIA) gene was examined in Hh-responsive cell lineages. This system thus made it possible to analyze the primary functions of the growth factor signaling relay. The defective Hh-to-Bmp signaling relay resulted in severe urinary tract phenotypes with a decrease in the number of Hh-responsive cells. Conclusions/Significance This study identified the essential embryonic stages for the pathogenesis of urinary tract phenotypes. These results suggested that Hh

  15. Calcium isotope ratios in animal and human bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, L. M.; Henderson, G. M.; Hedges, R. E. M.

    2010-07-01

    Calcium isotopes in tissues are thought to be influenced by an individual's diet, reflecting parameters such as trophic level and dairy consumption, but this has not been carefully assessed. We report the calcium isotope ratios (δ 44/42Ca) of modern and archaeological animal and human bone ( n = 216). Modern sheep raised at the same location show 0.14 ± 0.08‰ higher δ 44/42Ca in females than in males, which we attribute to lactation by the ewes. In the archaeological bone samples the calcium isotope ratios of the herbivorous fauna vary by location. At a single site, the archaeological fauna do not show a trophic level effect. Humans have lower δ 44/42Ca than the mean site fauna by 0.22 ± 0.22‰, and the humans have a greater δ 44/42Ca range than the animals. No effect of sex or age on the calcium isotope ratios was found, and intra-individual skeletal δ 44/42Ca variability is negligible. We rule out dairy consumption as the main cause of the lower human δ 44/42Ca, based on results from sites pre-dating animal domestication and dairy availability, and suggest instead that individual physiology and calcium intake may be important in determining bone calcium isotope ratios.

  16. In vitro model of vascularized bone: synergizing vascular development and osteogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Correia

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering provides unique opportunities for regenerating diseased or damaged tissues using cells obtained from tissue biopsies. Tissue engineered grafts can also be used as high fidelity models to probe cellular and molecular interactions underlying developmental processes. In this study, we co-cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs under various environmental conditions to elicit synergistic interactions leading to the colocalized development of capillary-like and bone-like tissues. Cells were encapsulated at the 1:1 ratio in fibrin gel to screen compositions of endothelial growth medium (EGM and osteogenic medium (OM. It was determined that, to form both tissues, co-cultures should first be supplied with EGM followed by a 1:1 cocktail of the two media types containing bone morphogenetic protein-2. Subsequent studies of HUVECs and MSCs cultured in decellularized, trabecular bone scaffolds for 6 weeks assessed the effects on tissue construct of both temporal variations in growth-factor availability and addition of fresh cells. The resulting grafts were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice to determine the phenotype stability and functionality of engineered vessels. Two important findings resulted from these studies: (i vascular development needs to be induced prior to osteogenesis, and (ii the addition of additional hMSCs at the osteogenic induction stage improves both tissue outcomes, as shown by increased bone volume fraction, osteoid deposition, close proximity of bone proteins to vascular networks, and anastomosis of vascular networks with the host vasculature. Interestingly, these observations compare well with what has been described for native development. We propose that our cultivation system can mimic various aspects of endothelial cell-osteogenic precursor interactions in vivo, and could find utility as a model for studies of heterotypic cellular interactions that

  17. Effects of Phlomis umbrosa Root on Longitudinal Bone Growth Rate in Adolescent Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghun Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of Phlomis umbrosa root on bone growth and growth mediators in rats. Female adolescent rats were administered P. umbrosa extract, recombinant human growth hormone or vehicle for 10 days. Tetracycline was injected intraperitoneally to produce a glowing fluorescence band on the newly formed bone on day 8, and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine was injected to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 8–10. To assess possible endocrine or autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, we evaluated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 in response to P. umbrosa administration in either growth plate or serum. Oral administration of P. umbrosa significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate, height of hypertrophic zone and chondrocyte proliferation of the proximal tibial growth plate. P. umbrosa also increased serum IGFBP-3 levels and upregulated the expressions of IGF-1 and BMP-2 in growth plate. In conclusion, P. umbrosa increases longitudinal bone growth rate by stimulating proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocyte with the increment of circulating IGFBP-3. Regarding the immunohistochemical study, the effect of P. umbrosa may also be attributable to upregulation of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expressions in the growth plate, which can be considered as a GH dependent autocrine/paracrine pathway.

  18. Cryogenic 3D printing for producing hierarchical porous and rhBMP-2-loaded Ca-P/PLLA nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Zhao, Qilong; Wang, Min

    2017-06-07

    The performance of bone tissue engineering scaffolds can be assessed through cell responses to scaffolds, including cell attachment, infiltration, morphogenesis, proliferation, differentiation, etc, which are determined or heavily influenced by the composition, structure, mechanical properties, and biological properties (e.g. osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity) of scaffolds. Although some promising 3D printing techniques such as fused deposition modeling and selective laser sintering could be employed to produce biodegradable bone tissue engineering scaffolds with customized shapes and tailored interconnected pores, effective methods for fabricating scaffolds with well-designed hierarchical porous structure (both interconnected macropores and surface micropores) and tunable osteoconductivity/osteoinductivity still need to be developed. In this investigation, a novel cryogenic 3D printing technique was investigated and developed for producing hierarchical porous and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)-loaded calcium phosphate (Ca-P) nanoparticle/poly(L-lactic acid) nanocomposite scaffolds, in which the Ca-P nanoparticle-incorporated scaffold layer and rhBMP-2-encapsulated scaffold layer were deposited alternatingly using different types of emulsions as printing inks. The mechanical properties of the as-printed scaffolds were comparable to those of human cancellous bone. Sustained releases of Ca 2+ ions and rhBMP-2 were achieved and the biological activity of rhBMP-2 was well-preserved. Scaffolds with a desirable hierarchical porous structure and dual delivery of Ca 2+ ions and rhBMP-2 exhibited superior performance in directing the behaviors of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and caused improved cell viability, attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation, which has suggested their great potential for bone tissue engineering.

  19. Msx-1 is suppressed in bisphosphonate-exposed jaw bone analysis of bone turnover-related cell signalling after bisphosphonate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrhan, F; Hyckel, P; Amann, K; Ries, J; Stockmann, P; Schlegel, Ka; Neukam, Fw; Nkenke, E

    2011-05-01

    Bone-destructive disease treatments include bisphosphonates and antibodies against receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand (aRANKL). Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a side-effect. Aetiopathology models failed to explain their restriction to the jaw. The osteoproliferative transcription factor Msx-1 is expressed constitutively only in mature jaw bone. Msx-1 expression might be impaired in bisphosphonate-related ONJ. This study compared the expression of Msx-1, Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)-2 and RANKL, in ONJ-affected and healthy jaw bone. An automated immunohistochemistry-based alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method was used on ONJ-affected and healthy jaw bone samples (n = 20 each): cell-number ratio (labelling index, Bonferroni adjustment). Real-time RT-PCR was performed to quantitatively compare Msx-1, BMP-2, RANKL and GAPDH mRNA levels. Labelling indices were significantly lower for Msx-1 (P Msx-1, 22-fold lower (P Msx-1, RANKL suppression and BMP-2 induction were consistent with the bisphosphonate-associated osteopetrosis and impaired bone remodelling in BP- and aRANKL-induced ONJ. Msx-1 suppression suggested a possible explanation of the exclusivity of ONJ in jaw bone. Functional analyses of Msx-1- RANKL interaction during bone remodelling should be performed in the future. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Peptide-laden mesoporous silica nanoparticles with promoted bioactivity and osteo-differentiation ability for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zuyuan; Deng, Yi; Zhang, Ranran; Wang, Mengke; Bai, Yanjie; Zhao, Qiang; Lyu, Yalin; Wei, Jie; Wei, Shicheng

    2015-07-01

    Combination of mesoporous silica materials and bioactive factors is a promising niche-mimetic solution as a hybrid bone substitution for bone tissue engineering. In this work, we have synthesized biocompatible silica-based nanoparticles with abundant mesoporous structure, and incorporated bone-forming peptide (BFP) derived from bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) into the mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) to obtain a slow-release system for osteogenic factor delivery. The chemical characterization demonstrates that the small osteogenic peptide is encapsulated in the mesoporous successfully, and the nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms suggest that the peptide encapsulation has no influence on mesoporous structure of MSNs. In the cell experiment, the peptide-laden MSNs (p-MSNs) show higher MG-63 cell proliferation, spreading and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity than the bare MSNs, indicating good in vitro cytocompatibility. Simultaneously, the osteogenesis-related proteins expression and calcium mineral deposition disclose enhanced osteo-differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) under the stimulation of the p-MSNs, confirming that BFP released from MSNs could significantly promote the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, especially at 500μg/mL of p-MSNs concentration. The peptide-modified MSNs with better bioactivity and osteogenic differentiation make it a potential candidate as bioactive material for bone repairing, bone regeneration, and bio-implant coating applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. T3 Regulates a Human Macrophage-Derived TSH-β Splice Variant: Implications for Human Bone Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliram, R; Latif, R; Morshed, S A; Zaidi, M; Davies, T F

    2016-09-01

    TSH and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) are intimately involved in bone biology. We have previously reported the presence of a murine TSH-β splice variant (TSH-βv) expressed specifically in bone marrow-derived macrophages and that exerted an osteoprotective effect by inducing osteoblastogenesis. To extend this observation and its relevance to human bone biology, we set out to identify and characterize a TSH-β variant in human macrophages. Real-time PCR analyses using human TSH-β-specific primers identified a 364-bp product in macrophages, bone marrow, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells that was sequence verified and was homologous to a human TSH-βv previously reported. We then examined TSH-βv regulation using the THP-1 human monocyte cell line matured into macrophages. After 4 days, 46.1% of the THP-1 cells expressed the macrophage markers CD-14 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor and exhibited typical morphological characteristics of macrophages. Real-time PCR analyses of these cells treated in a dose-dependent manner with T3 showed a 14-fold induction of human TSH-βv mRNA and variant protein. Furthermore, these human TSH-βv-positive cells, induced by T3 exposure, had categorized into both M1 and M2 macrophage phenotypes as evidenced by the expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor for M1 and CCL-22 for M2. These data indicate that in hyperthyroidism, bone marrow resident macrophages have the potential to exert enhanced osteoprotective effects by oversecreting human TSH-βv, which may exert its local osteoprotective role via osteoblast and osteoclast TSH receptors.

  2. Time-sequential changes of differentially expressed miRNAs during the process of anterior lumbar interbody fusion using equine bone protein extract, rhBMP-2 and autograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da-Fu; Zhou, Zhi-Yu; Dai, Xue-Jun; Gao, Man-Man; Huang, Bao-Ding; Liang, Tang-Zhao; Shi, Rui; Zou, Li-Jin; Li, Hai-Sheng; Bünger, Cody; Tian, Wei; Zou, Xue-Nong

    2014-03-01

    The precise mechanism of bone regeneration in different bone graft substitutes has been well studied in recent researches. However, miRNAs regulation of the bone formation has been always mysterious. We developed the anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) model in pigs using equine bone protein extract (BPE), recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS), and autograft as bone graft substitute, respectively. The miRNA and gene expression profiles of different bone graft materials were examined using microarray technology and data analysis, including self-organizing maps, KEGG pathway and Biological process GO analyses. We then jointly analyzed miRNA and mRNA profiles of the bone fusion tissue at different time points respectively. Results showed that miRNAs, including let-7, miR-129, miR-21, miR-133, miR-140, miR-146, miR-184, and miR-224, were involved in the regulation of the immune and inflammation response, which provided suitable inflammatory microenvironment for bone formation. At late stage, several miRNAs directly regulate SMAD4, Estrogen receptor 1 and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2C for bone formation. It can be concluded that miRNAs play important roles in balancing the inflammation and bone formation.

  3. Overexpression of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Laurel; Malone, Christine, C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Pichiapastoris expression system was utilized to produce functionally active human bone alkaline phosphatase in gram quantities. Bone alkaline phosphatase is a key enzyme in bone formation and biomineralization, yet important questions about its structural chemistry and interactions with other cellular enzymes in mineralizing tissues remain unanswered. A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase was constructed by deletion of the 25 amino acid hydrophobic C-terminal region of the encoding cDNA and inserted into the X-33 Pichiapastoris strain. An overexpression system was developed in shake flasks and converted to large-scale fermentation. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mgAL when cultured in shake flasks. Enzyme activity was 12U/mg measured by a spectrophotometric assay. Fermentation yielded 880mgAL with enzymatic activity of 968U/mg. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation is alkaline phosphatase. A purification scheme has been developed using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. We are currently screening crystallization conditions of the purified recombinant protein for subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  4. Glycation Contributes to Interaction Between Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase and Collagen Type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling Linder, Cecilia; Enander, Karin; Magnusson, Per

    2016-03-01

    Bone is a biological composite material comprised primarily of collagen type I and mineral crystals of calcium and phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite (HA), which together provide its mechanical properties. Bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP), produced by osteoblasts, plays a pivotal role in the mineralization process. Affinity contacts between collagen, mainly type II, and the crown domain of various ALP isozymes were reported in a few in vitro studies in the 1980s and 1990s, but have not attracted much attention since, although such interactions may have important implications for the bone mineralization process. The objective of this study was to investigate the binding properties of human collagen type I to human bone ALP, including the two bone ALP isoforms B1 and B2. ALP from human liver, human placenta and E. coli were also studied. A surface plasmon resonance-based analysis, supported by electrophoresis and blotting, showed that bone ALP binds stronger to collagen type I in comparison with ALPs expressed in non-mineralizing tissues. Further, the B2 isoform binds significantly stronger to collagen type I in comparison with the B1 isoform. Human bone and liver ALP (with identical amino acid composition) displayed pronounced differences in binding, revealing that post-translational glycosylation properties govern these interactions to a large extent. In conclusion, this study presents the first evidence that glycosylation differences in human ALPs are of crucial importance for protein-protein interactions with collagen type I, although the presence of the ALP crown domain may also be necessary. Different binding affinities among the bone ALP isoforms may influence the mineral-collagen interface, mineralization kinetics, and degree of bone matrix mineralization, which are important factors determining the material properties of bone.

  5. Human bone hardness seems to depend on tissue type but not on anatomical site in the long bones of an old subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Caroline; Zwierzak, Iwona; Baleani, Massimiliano; Viceconti, Marco

    2013-02-01

    It has been hypothesised that among different human subjects, the bone tissue quality varies as a function of the bone segment morphology. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the quality, evaluated in terms of hardness of packages of lamellae, of cortical and trabecular bones, at different anatomical sites within the human skeleton. The contralateral six long bones of an old human subject were indented at different levels along the diaphysis and at both epiphyses of each bone. Hardness value, which is correlated to the degree of mineralisation, of both cortical and trabecular bone tissues was calculated for each indentation location. It was found that the cortical bone tissue was harder (+18%) than the trabecular one. In general, the bone hardness was found to be locally highly heterogeneous. In fact, considering one single slice obtained for a bone segment, the coefficient of variation of the hardness values was up to 12% for cortical bone and up to 17% for trabecular bone. However, the tissue hardness was on average quite homogeneous within and among the long bones of the studied donor, although differences up to 9% among levels and up to 7% among bone segments were found. These findings seem not to support the mentioned hypothesis, at least not for the long bones of an old subject.

  6. Bone Disease in Axial Spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mechelen, Margot; Gulino, Giulia Rossana; de Vlam, Kurt; Lories, Rik

    2018-05-01

    Axial spondyloarthritis is a chronic inflammatory skeletal disorder with an important burden of disease, affecting the spine and sacroiliac joints and typically presenting in young adults. Ankylosing spondylitis, diagnosed by the presence of structural changes to the skeleton, is the prototype of this disease group. Bone disease in axial spondyloarthritis is a complex phenomenon with the coexistence of bone loss and new bone formation, both contributing to the morbidity of the disease, in addition to pain caused by inflammation. The skeletal structural changes respectively lead to increased fracture risk and to permanent disability caused by ankylosis of the sacroiliac joints and the spine. The mechanism of this new bone formation leading to ankylosis is insufficiently known. The process appears to originate from entheses, specialized structures that provide a transition zone in which tendon and ligaments insert into the underlying bone. Growth factor signaling pathways such as bone morphogenetic proteins, Wnts, and Hedgehogs have been identified as molecular drivers of new bone formation, but the relationship between inflammation and activation of these pathways remains debated. Long-standing control of inflammation appears necessary to avoid ankylosis. Recent evidence and concepts suggest an important role for biomechanical factors in both the onset and progression of the disease. With regard to new bone formation, these processes can be understood as ectopic repair responses secondary to inflammation-induced bone loss and instability. In this review, we discuss the clinical implications of the skeletal changes as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms, the relation between inflammation and new bone formation, and the potential role of biomechanical stress.

  7. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling and olig1/2 interact to regulate the differentiation and maturation of adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoxin; Wang, Yaping; He, Qian; Qiu, Mengsheng; Whittemore, Scott R; Cao, Qilin

    2007-12-01

    Promotion of remyelination is an important therapeutic strategy for the treatment of the demyelinating neurological disorders. Adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), which normally reside quiescently in the adult central nervous system (CNS), become activated and proliferative after demyelinating lesions. However, the extent of endogenous remyelination is limited because of the failure of adult OPCs to mature into myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs) in the demyelinated CNS. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate the differentiation of adult OPCs could lead to new therapeutic strategies to treat these disorders. In this study, we established a stable culture of adult spinal cord OPCs and developed a reliable in vitro protocol to induce their sequential differentiation. Adult OPCs expressed bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type Ia, Ib, and II receptor subunits, which are required for BMP signal transduction. BMP2 and 4 promoted dose-dependent astrocyte differentiation of adult OPCs with concurrent suppression of OL differentiation. Treatment of OPCs with BMP2 and 4 increased ID4 expression and decreased the expression of olig1 and olig2. Overexpression of olig1 or olig2 blocked the astrocyte differentiation of adult OPCs induced by BMP2 and 4. Furthermore, overexpression of both olig1 and olig2, but not olig1 or olig2 alone, rescued OL differentiation from inhibition by BMP2 and 4. Our results demonstrated that downregulation of olig1 and olig2 is an important mechanism by which BMP2 and 4 inhibit OL differentiation of adult OPCs. These data suggest that blocking BMP signaling combined with olig1/2 overexpression could be a useful therapeutic strategy to enhance endogenous remyelination and facilitate functional recovery in CNS demyelinated disorders. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  8. Radiation dosimetry in human bone using electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate measurements of dose in bone are required in order to improve the dosimetry of systemic radiotherapy for osseous metastases. Bone is an integrating dosimeter which records the radiation history of the skeleton. During irradiation, electrons become trapped in the crystalline component of bone mineral (hydroxyapatite). The traps are very stable; at room temperature, emptying of the traps occurs with a half-life of many years. The population of trapped unpaired electrons is proportional to the radiation dose administered to the bone and can be measured in excised bone samples using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). EPR spectra of synthetic hydroxyapatite, irradiated with Co-60, were obtained at room temperature and at 77 K. At room temperature, the radiation-induced signal, with a g-value of 2.001 ± 0.001 increased linearly with absorbed dose above a lower threshold of 3 Gy, up to doses of 200 Gy. In contrast with pure hydroxyapatite, EPR spectra of excised human bone showed a broad 'native' signal, due to the organic component of bone, which masks the dosimetrically important signal. This native signal is highly variable from sample to sample and precludes the use of EPR as an absolute dosimetry technique. However, after subtraction of the background signal, irradiated human bone showed a linear response with a lower limit of measurement similar to that of synthetic hydroxyapatite. Bone is an in vivo linear dosimeter which can be exploited to develop accurate estimates of the radiation dose delivered during systemic radiotherapy and teletherapy. However, improved sensitivity of the EPR dosimetry technique is necessary before it can be applied reliably in clinical situations. (author)

  9. Age changes in human bone: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, W.D.

    1977-12-03

    The human skeleton steadily changes structure and mass during life because of a variety of internal and external factors. Extracellular substance and bone cells get old, characteristic structural remodeling occurs with age and these age-related changes are important in the discrimination between pathological and physiological changes. Perhaps 20 percent of the bone mass is lost between the fourth and the ninth decades, osteoblasts function less efficiently and gradual loss of bone substance is enhanced by delayed mineralization of an increased surface area of thin and relatively less active osteoid seams. After the fifth decade, osteoclasia and the number of Howship's lacunae increase, and with age, the number of large osteolytic osteocytes increases as the number of small osteocytes declines and empty osteocyte lacunae become more common. The result is greater liability to fracture and diminished healing or replacement of injured bone.

  10. Demineralized bone matrix and human cancellous bone enhance fixation of titanium implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babiker, Hassan; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    Best Poster 5Demineralized bone matrix and human cancellous bone enhance fixation of titanium implants AuthorsBabiker , H.; Ding M.; Overgaard S.InstitutionOrthopaedic Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Odense University Hospital, Clinical Institute, University of Southern...... from human tissue were included (IsoTis OrthoBiologics, Inc. USA). Both materials are commercially available. Titanium alloy implants (Biomet Inc.) of 10 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter were inserted bilaterally into the femoral condyles of 8 skeletally mature sheep. Thus four implants...... with a concentric gap of 2 mm were implanted in each sheep. The gap was filled with: DBM; DBM/CB with ratio of 1/3; DBM/allograft with ratio of 1/3; or allograft (Gold standard), respectively. Standardised surgical procedure was used1. At sacrifice, 6 weeks after surgery, both distal femurs were harvested...

  11. Bone regeneration by implantation of adipose-derived stromal cells expressing BMP-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huiwu; Dai Kerong; Tang Tingting; Zhang Xiaoling; Yan Mengning; Lou Jueren

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we reported that the adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) genetically modified by bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) healed critical-sized canine ulnar bone defects. First, the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of the ADSCs derived from canine adipose tissue were demonstrated. And then the cells were modified by the BMP-2 gene and the expression and bone-induction ability of BMP-2 were identified. Finally, the cells modified by BMP-2 gene were applied to a β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) carrier and implanted into ulnar bone defects in the canine model. After 16 weeks, radiographic, histological, and histomorphometry analysis showed that ADSCs modified by BMP-2 gene produced a significant increase of newly formed bone area and healed or partly healed all of the bone defects. We conclude that ADSCs modified by the BMP-2 gene can enhance the repair of critical-sized bone defects in large animals

  12. Latexin is involved in bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced chondrocyte differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadouchi, Ichiro; Sakamoto, Kei; Tangjiao, Liu; Murakami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Hoshino, Yuichi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Latexin is the only known carboxypeptidase A inhibitor in mammals. We previously demonstrated that BMP-2 significantly induced latexin expression in Runx2-deficient mesenchymal cells (RD-C6 cells), during chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we investigated latexin expression in the skeleton and its role in chondrocyte differentiation. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that proliferating and prehypertrophic chondrocytes expressed latexin during skeletogenesis and bone fracture repair. In the early phase of bone fracture, latexin mRNA expression was dramatically upregulated. BMP-2 upregulated the expression of the mRNAs of latexin, Col2a1, and the gene encoding aggrecan (Agc1) in a micromass culture of C3H10T1/2 cells. Overexpression of latexin additively stimulated the BMP-2-induced expression of the mRNAs of Col2a, Agc1, and Col10a1. BMP-2 treatment upregulated Sox9 expression, and Sox9 stimulated the promoter activity of latexin. These results indicate that latexin is involved in BMP-2-induced chondrocyte differentiation and plays an important role in skeletogenesis and skeletal regeneration.

  13. Bone Marrow Regeneration Promoted by Biophysically Sorted Osteoprogenitors From Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Zhiyong; Lee, Wong Cheng; Guan, Guofeng; Nyan, Lin Myint; Lim, Chwee Teck; Han, Jongyoon

    2015-01-01

    Human tissue repair deficiencies can be supplemented through strategies to isolate, expand in vitro, and reimplant regenerative cells that supplant damaged cells or stimulate endogenous repair mechanisms. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), a subset of which is described as mesenchymal stem cells, are leading candidates for cell-mediated bone repair and wound healing, with hundreds of ongoing clinical trials worldwide. An outstanding key challenge for successful clinical translation of MSCs is the capacity to produce large quantities of cells in vitro with uniform and relevant therapeutic properties. By leveraging biophysical traits of MSC subpopulations and label-free microfluidic cell sorting, we hypothesized and experimentally verified that MSCs of large diameter within expanded MSC cultures were osteoprogenitors that exhibited significantly greater efficacy over other MSC subpopulations in bone marrow repair. Systemic administration of osteoprogenitor MSCs significantly improved survival rates (>80%) as compared with other MSC subpopulations (0%) for preclinical murine bone marrow injury models. Osteoprogenitor MSCs also exerted potent therapeutic effects as “cell factories” that secreted high levels of regenerative factors such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), vascular endothelial growth factor A, bone morphogenetic protein 2, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 1, and angiopoietin-1; this resulted in increased cell proliferation, vessel formation, and reduced apoptosis in bone marrow. This MSC subpopulation mediated rescue of damaged marrow tissue via restoration of the hematopoiesis-supporting stroma, as well as subsequent hematopoiesis. Together, the capabilities described herein for label-freeisolation of regenerative osteoprogenitor MSCs can markedly improve the efficacy of MSC-based therapies. PMID:25411477

  14. Influence of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on the extracellular matrix, material properties, and gene expression of long-term articular chondrocyte cultures: loss of chondrocyte stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczak, David A; Westendorf, Jennifer J; Carlson, Cathy S; Lewis, Jack L

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) on articular chondrocyte tissues grown as monolayers in vitro for up to 8 weeks. Articular chondrocytes were isolated from New Zealand White rabbits and plated in monolayer cultures. The cultures were supplemented with 100 ng/mL of BMP-2 for up to 8 weeks and the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, material properties, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were analyzed. mRNA expression of cartilage-specific genes, type II collagen, and aggrecan showed that BMP-2 enhanced chondrocyte stability for up to 3 weeks. After 3 weeks in culture, there was substantially more type I collagen expression and more osteopontin and runt-related transcription factor 2 expression in 5- and 8-week cultures treated with BMP-2 than in controls. Additionally, matrix metalloproteinase-13 and ADAMTS-5 (A disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin 5) were upregulated in 5- and 8-week cultures treated with BMP-2, coinciding with a loss of ECM density, collagen, and proteoglycan. Eight-week tissue stimulated with BMP-2 was more fragile and tore more easily when removed from the culture dish as compared to controls, suggesting temporal limitations to the effectiveness of BMP-2 in monolayer systems and perhaps other models to enhance the generation of a cartilage-like tissue for tissue engineering purposes.

  15. Modified Titanium Surface-Mediated Effects on Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Chaudhari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification of titanium implants is used to enhance osseointegration. The study objective was to evaluate five modified titanium surfaces in terms of cytocompatibility and pro-osteogenic/pro-angiogenic properties for human mesenchymal stromal cells: amorphous microporous silica (AMS, bone morphogenetic protein-2 immobilized on AMS (AMS + BMP, bio-active glass (BAG and two titanium coatings with different porosity (T1; T2. Four surfaces served as controls: uncoated Ti (Ti, Ti functionalized with BMP-2 (Ti + BMP, Ti surface with a thickened titanium oxide layer (TiO2 and a tissue culture polystyrene surface (TCPS. The proliferation of eGFP-fLuc (enhanced green fluorescence protein-firefly luciferase transfected cells was tracked non-invasively by fluorescence microscopy and bio-luminescence imaging. The implant surface-mediated effects on cell differentiation potential was tracked by determination of osteogenic and angiogenic parameters [alkaline phosphatase (ALP; osteocalcin (OC; osteoprotegerin (OPG; vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A]. Unrestrained cell proliferation was observed on (unfunctionalized Ti and AMS surfaces, whereas BAG and porous titanium coatings T1 and T2 did not support cell proliferation. An important pro-osteogenic and pro-angiogenic potential of the AMS + BMP surface was observed. In contrast, coating the Ti surface with BMP did not affect the osteogenic differentiation of the progenitor cells. A significantly slower BMP-2 release from AMS compared to Ti supports these findings. In the unfunctionalized state, Ti was found to be superior to AMS in terms of OPG and VEGF-A production. AMS is suggested to be a promising implant coating material for bioactive agents delivery.

  16. In vivo bone regeneration using a novel porous bioactive composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie En [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Hu Yunyu [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)], E-mail: orth1@fmmn.edu.cn; Chen Xiaofeng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology University, Guangzhou (China); Bai Xuedong; Li Dan [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Ren Li [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang Ziru [Foreign Languages School, Northwest University Xi' an (China)

    2008-11-15

    Many commercial bone graft substitutes (BGS) and experimental bone tissue engineering scaffolds have been developed for bone repair and regeneration. This study reports the in vivo bone regeneration using a newly developed porous bioactive and resorbable composite that is composed of bioactive glass (BG), collagen (COL), hyaluronic acid (HYA) and phosphatidylserine (PS), BG-COL-HYA-PS. The composite was prepared by a combination of sol-gel and freeze-drying methods. A rabbit radius defect model was used to evaluate bone regeneration at time points of 2, 4 and 8 weeks. Techniques including radiography, histology, and micro-CT were applied to characterize the new bone formation. 8 weeks results showed that (1) nearly complete bone regeneration was achieved for the BG-COL-HYA-PS composite that was combined with a bovine bone morphogenetic protein (BMP); (2) partial bone regeneration was achieved for the BG-COL-HYA-PS composites alone; and (3) control remained empty. This study demonstrated that the novel BG-COL-HYA-PS, with or without the grafting of BMP incorporation, is a promising BGS or a tissue engineering scaffold for non-load bearing orthopaedic applications.

  17. In vivo bone regeneration using a novel porous bioactive composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie En; Hu Yunyu; Chen Xiaofeng; Bai Xuedong; Li Dan; Ren Li; Zhang Ziru

    2008-01-01

    Many commercial bone graft substitutes (BGS) and experimental bone tissue engineering scaffolds have been developed for bone repair and regeneration. This study reports the in vivo bone regeneration using a newly developed porous bioactive and resorbable composite that is composed of bioactive glass (BG), collagen (COL), hyaluronic acid (HYA) and phosphatidylserine (PS), BG-COL-HYA-PS. The composite was prepared by a combination of sol-gel and freeze-drying methods. A rabbit radius defect model was used to evaluate bone regeneration at time points of 2, 4 and 8 weeks. Techniques including radiography, histology, and micro-CT were applied to characterize the new bone formation. 8 weeks results showed that (1) nearly complete bone regeneration was achieved for the BG-COL-HYA-PS composite that was combined with a bovine bone morphogenetic protein (BMP); (2) partial bone regeneration was achieved for the BG-COL-HYA-PS composites alone; and (3) control remained empty. This study demonstrated that the novel BG-COL-HYA-PS, with or without the grafting of BMP incorporation, is a promising BGS or a tissue engineering scaffold for non-load bearing orthopaedic applications

  18. In Vivo Determination of Vitamin D Function Using Transgenic Mice Carrying a Human Osteocalcin Luciferase Reporter Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Nakanishi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is an essential factor for ossification, and its deficiency causes rickets. Osteocalcin, which is a noncollagenous protein found in bone matrix and involved in mineralization and calcium ion homeostasis, is one of the major bone morphogenetic markers and is used in the evaluation of osteoblast maturation and osteogenic activation. We established transgenic mouse line expressing luciferase under the control of a 10-kb osteocalcin enhancer/promoter sequence. Using these transgenic mice, we evaluated the active forms of vitamins D2 and D3 for their bone morphogenetic function by in vivo bioluminescence. As the result, strong activity for ossification was observed with 1α,25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Our mouse system can offer a feasible detection method for assessment of osteogenic activity in the development of functional foods and medicines by noninvasive screening.

  19. Antibody-Mediated Osseous Regeneration for Bone Tissue Engineering in Canine Segmental Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khojasteh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Among many applications of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, a unique approach for regenerative medicine has entailed antibody-mediated osseous regeneration (AMOR. In an effort to identify a clinically relevant model of craniofacial defect, the present study investigated the efficacy of mAb specific for bone morphogenetic protein- (BMP- 2 to repair canine segmental mandibular continuity defect model. Accordingly, a 15 mm unilateral segmental defect was created in mandible and fixated with a titanium plate. Anorganic bovine bone mineral with 10% collagen (ABBM-C was functionalized with 25 μg/mL of either chimeric anti-BMP-2 mAb or isotype-matched mAb (negative control. Recombinant human (rh BMP-2 served as positive control. Morphometric analyses were performed on computed tomography (CT and histologic images. Bone densities within healed defect sites at 12 weeks after surgery were 1360.81 ± 10.52 Hounsfield Unit (HU, 1044.27 ± 141.16 HU, and 839.45 ± 179.41 HU, in sites with implanted anti-BMP-2 mAb, rhBMP-2, and isotype mAb groups, respectively. Osteoid bone formation in anti-BMP-2 mAb (42.99% ± 8.67 and rhBMP-2 (48.97% ± 2.96 groups was not significantly different but was higher (p<0.05 than in sites with isotype control mAb (26.8% ± 5.35. In view of the long-term objective of translational application of AMOR in humans, the results of the present study demonstrated the feasibility of AMOR in a large clinically relevant animal model.

  20. Role of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Ovarian Function and Their Importance in Mammalian Female Fertility — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cavallari de Castro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors play an important role during early ovarian development and folliculogenesis, since they regulate the migration of germ cells to the gonadal ridge. They also act on follicle recruitment, proliferation/atresia of granulosa cells and theca, steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, ovulation and luteinization. Among the growth factors, the growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 and the bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15, belong to the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β superfamily, have been implicated as essential for follicular development. The GDF9 and BMP15 participate in the evolution of the primordial follicle to primary follicle and play an important role in the later stages of follicular development and maturation, increasing the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression, plasminogen activator and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR. These factors are also involved in the interconnections between the oocyte and surrounding cumulus cells, where they regulate absorption of amino acids, glycolysis and biosynthesis of cholesterol cumulus cells. Even though the mode of action has not been fully established, in vitro observations indicate that the factors GDF9 and BMP15 stimulate the growth of ovarian follicles and proliferation of cumulus cells through the induction of mitosis in cells and granulosa and theca expression of genes linked to follicular maturation. Thus, seeking greater understanding of the action of these growth factors on the development of oocytes, the role of GDF9 and BMP15 in ovarian function is summarized in this brief review.

  1. Sorption behavior of human bone powder towards 60 Co and 65 Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.T.; Essa, M.W.A.; Mohamed, S.A.; Molokhia, M.K.

    1990-01-01

    Human bone powder 30-40 Μ in diameter was prepared from human bone femurs as fat-free (FFB), protein-free (PFB) or left untreated as raw bone powder (RB). The sorption behavior of human bone powder towards 60 Co and 65 Zn was studied. The uptake changed with the type of bone powder to be : PFB>FFB>RB. The increase in the concentration of cobalt(from 10 -6 to 10 -1 Mole/litre)and of zinc (from 10 -7 to 10 -4 M/1) increased the uptake of 60 Co and 65 Zn. Freunclich-type isotherm was successfully applied on the uptake data of both ions and the slopes of these isotherms were, nearly, directly proportional to their uptake values. The uptake was found to be less influenced by the PH. In case of cobalt the uptake increased till PH 4, followed by a plateau till PH 8 while in case of zinc the PH effect is much less pronounced

  2. Creep of trabecular bone from the human proximal tibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novitskaya, Ekaterina, E-mail: eevdokim@ucsd.edu [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Zin, Carolyn [Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chang, Neil; Cory, Esther; Chen, Peter [Departments of Bioengineering and Orthopaedic Surgery, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); D’Lima, Darryl [Shiley Center for Orthopaedic Research and Education, Scripps Health, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Sah, Robert L. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Departments of Bioengineering and Orthopaedic Surgery, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); McKittrick, Joanna [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Creep is the deformation that occurs under a prolonged, sustained load and can lead to permanent damage in bone. Creep in bone is a complex phenomenon and varies with type of loading and local mechanical properties. Human trabecular bone samples from proximal tibia were harvested from a 71-year old female cadaver with osteoporosis. The samples were initially subjected to one cycle load up to 1% strain to determine the creep load. Samples were then loaded in compression under a constant stress for 2 h and immediately unloaded. All tests were conducted with the specimens soaked in phosphate buffered saline with proteinase inhibitors at 37 °C. Steady state creep rate and final creep strain were estimated from mechanical testing and compared with published data. The steady state creep rate correlated well with values obtained from bovine tibial and human vertebral trabecular bone, and was higher for lower density samples. Tissue architecture was analyzed by micro-computed tomography (μCT) both before and after creep testing to assess creep deformation and damage accumulated. Quantitative morphometric analysis indicated that creep induced changes in trabecular separation and the structural model index. A main mode of deformation was bending of trabeculae. - Highlights: • Compressive creep tests of human trabecular bone across the tibia were performed. • The creep rate was found to be inversely proportional to the density of the samples. • μ-computed tomography before and after testing identified regions of deformation. • Bending of the trabeculae was found to be the main deformation mode.

  3. Characterization of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Christine C.; Ciszak, Eva; Karr, Laurel J.

    1999-01-01

    A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase has been expressed in a recombinant strain of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. We constructed a plasmid containing cDNA encoding for human bone alkaline phosphatase, with the hydrophobic carboxyl terminal portion deleted. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mg/L when cultured in shake flasks, and enzyme activity was 12U/mg, as measured by a spectrophotometric assay. By conversion to a fermentation system, a yield of 880mg/L has been achieved with an enzyme activity of 968U/mg. By gel electrophoresis analysis, it appears that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation media is alkaline phosphatase. Although purification procedures are not yet completely optimized, they are expected to include filtration, ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Our presentation will focus on the purification and crystallization results up to the time of the conference. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  4. The identification of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in archaeological human bones and teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Norton, Andrew L; Gesteira, Tarsis F; Cavalheiro, Renan P; Meneghetti, Maria Cecília Z; Martins, João R; Dixon, Ronald A; Nader, Helena B

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue is mineralized dense connective tissue consisting mainly of a mineral component (hydroxyapatite) and an organic matrix comprised of collagens, non-collagenous proteins and proteoglycans (PGs). Extracellular matrix proteins and PGs bind tightly to hydroxyapatite which would protect these molecules from the destructive effects of temperature and chemical agents after death. DNA and proteins have been successfully extracted from archaeological skeletons from which valuable information has been obtained; however, to date neither PGs nor glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains have been studied in archaeological skeletons. PGs and GAGs play a major role in bone morphogenesis, homeostasis and degenerative bone disease. The ability to isolate and characterize PG and GAG content from archaeological skeletons would unveil valuable paleontological information. We therefore optimized methods for the extraction of both PGs and GAGs from archaeological human skeletons. PGs and GAGs were successfully extracted from both archaeological human bones and teeth, and characterized by their electrophoretic mobility in agarose gel, degradation by specific enzymes and HPLC. The GAG populations isolated were chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA). In addition, a CSPG was detected. The localization of CS, HA, three small leucine rich PGs (biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin) and glypican was analyzed in archaeological human bone slices. Staining patterns were different for juvenile and adult bones, whilst adolescent bones had a similar staining pattern to adult bones. The finding that significant quantities of PGs and GAGs persist in archaeological bones and teeth opens novel venues for the field of Paleontology.

  5. Spatial distribution of the trace elements zinc, strontium and lead in human bone tissue☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemmer, B.; Roschger, A.; Wastl, A.; Hofstaetter, J.G.; Wobrauschek, P.; Simon, R.; Thaler, H.W.; Roschger, P.; Klaushofer, K.; Streli, C.

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements in minute quantities, which are known to accumulate in the bone. Cortical and trabecular bones consist of bone structural units (BSUs) such as osteons and bone packets of different mineral content and are separated by cement lines. Previous studies investigating trace elements in bone lacked resolution and therefore very little is known about the local concentration of zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) in BSUs of human bone. We used synchrotron radiation induced micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR μ-XRF) in combination with quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) to determine the distribution and accumulation of Zn, Sr, and Pb in human bone tissue. Fourteen human bone samples (10 femoral necks and 4 femoral heads) from individuals with osteoporotic femoral neck fractures as well as from healthy individuals were analyzed. Fluorescence intensity maps were matched with BE images and correlated with calcium (Ca) content. We found that Zn and Pb had significantly increased levels in the cement lines of all samples compared to the surrounding mineralized bone matrix. Pb and Sr levels were found to be correlated with the degree of mineralization. Interestingly, Zn intensities had no correlation with Ca levels. We have shown for the first time that there is a differential accumulation of the trace elements Zn, Pb and Sr in BSUs of human bone indicating different mechanisms of accumulation. PMID:23932972

  6. Bone morphogenetic protein-15 in follicle fluid combined with age may differentiate between successful and unsuccessful poor ovarian responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yan-Ting

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The counselling of poor ovarian responders about the probability of pregnancy remains a puzzle for gynaecologists. The aim of this study was to optimise the management of poor responders by investigating the role of the oocyte-derived factor bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP-15 combined with chronological age in the prediction of the outcome of in-vitro fertilisation-embryo transfer (IVF-ET in poor responders. Methods A retrospective study conducted in a university hospital. A total of 207 poor ovarian responders who reached the ovum pick-up stage undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI with three or fewer follicles no less than 14 mm on the day of oocyte retrieval were recruited from July 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009. Another 215 coinstantaneous cycles with normal responses were selected as controls. The BMP-15 levels in the follicular fluid (FF of the 207 poor responders were analysed by western blot. Based on the FF BMP-15 level and age, poor responders were sub-divided into four groups. The main outcome measures were the FF BMP-15 level, implantation rate, pregnancy rate, and live birth rate. Results The implantation rate (24.2% vs. 15.3%, chemical pregnancy rate (40% vs. 23.7%, clinical pregnancy rate (36.5% vs. 20.4% and live birth rate (29.4% vs. 15.1% in the high BMP-15 group were significantly higher than those in the low BMP-15 group. Furthermore, poor responders aged less than or equal to 35 years with a higher FF BMP-15 level had the best implantation, pregnancy and live birth rates, which were comparable with those of normal responders. Conclusions Our study suggests a potential role of BMP-15 in the prediction of the IVF outcome. A high FF BMP-15 combined with an age less than or equal to 35 years may be used as a potential indicator for repeating IVF cycles in poor ovarian responders.

  7. Role of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins-7 (BMP-7 in the Renal Improvement Effect of DangGui (Angelica sinensis in Type-1 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hua Yeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia induced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation is believed as major factors leading to diabetic nephropathy (DN. DangGui (Angelica sinensis is mentioned to show renal protective effect in combination with other herbs. Bone morphogenetic proteins-7 (BMP-7 is produced merit in protection of DN. The role of BMP-7 in DangGui-induced renal improvement is not clear. The present study investigated the effects of DangGui on renal functions, BMP-7 expression and the levels of ROS in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats and high glucose-exposed rat mesangial cells (RMCs. After 1- or 4-week treatment, DangGui improved renal functions and increased renal BMP-7 expression in diabetic rats. The BMP-7 expression in RMCs was reduced by high glucose treatment and this could be reversed by DangGui. Moreover, RMCs exposed to high glucose were expired by BMP-7 RNAi transfection but those cells remained alive by scramble transfection. Thus, we employed regular RMCs to knock down BMP-7 with RNAi and we found that DangGui increased BMP-7 expression in these RMCs. Direct activation of BMP-7 expression by DangGui could be considered. The results of DPPH assay, DHE stain and lucigenin assay indicated that DangGui could inhibit high glucose-induced ROS in RMCs. These results suggest that DangGui has an ability to improve renal functions in STZ-diabetic rats through increasing endogenous BMP-7 expression and decreasing oxidative stress in kidney. The present study suggest that DangGui could be applied to improve renal functions in diabetic disorders.

  8. Determination of Sr90 activity in human bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, Anamelia Habib

    1970-01-01

    Several studies have been published in the literature on the extent and levels of radioactive contamination of food chains caused by fallout from nuclear weapon tests. According to UNSCEAR, these studies cover a great number of:-areas of the developed world, though large, areas of Asia, Africa and South-America are left aside with only, unsatisfactory information about the levels, of radioactive contamination. In 1968, UNSCEAR recommended that a survey on the contamination of biological materials such as human - bone by fission products and particularly Sr 90 should be encouraged on those areas where only fragmentary information was available. UNSCEAR recommendations call upon the fact that many individuals on such areas of the world have been exposed to Sr 90 contamination from birth to their adult area. Therefore, that group have an Sr 90 skeletal burden very much different from people exposed only at adult age. Based on these considerations, UNSCEAR recommendations called for Sr 90 analysis on human bones from different age groups. In Brazil, studies on the of Sr 90 in human bone are practically non-existent, except for the year of 1959. Following UNSCEAR recommendations, we decided to perform such a survey on Sr 90 levels in human bones. Samples were collected from individuals that died in Rio de Janeiro from accidents. These samples were firstly classified according to social level in very poor and poor groups. Samples were then classified in three age groups ranging 0-18, 18-30 and 30-40 years of age. Results show that levels found in the Brazilian age groups are close to the ones observed in Chile (1969), Argentina and Australia (1966-1968) and slightly, higher than -those observed in Venezuela, Senegal and Jamaica (1969). If one compares the results obtained for the North and South hemispheres respectively, one sees that there was a more pronounced decrease in the levels of Sr 90 content of the of some regions of South America. Our results show no

  9. Comparison of bioengineered human bone construct from four sources of osteogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Angela Min-Hwei; Saim, Aminuddin Bin; Tan, Kok-Keong; Tan, G H; Mokhtar, Sabarul Afian; Rose, Isa Mohamed; Othman, Fauziah; Idrus, Ruszymah Binti Haji

    2005-01-01

    Osteoprogenitor cells have been reported to be present in periosteum, cancellous and cortical bone, and bone marrow; but no attempt to identify the best cell source for bone tissue engineering has yet been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the growth and differentiation pattern of cells derived from these four sources in terms of cell doubling time and expression of osteoblast-specific markers in both monolayer cells and three-dimensional cell constructs in vitro. In parallel, human plasma derived-fibrin was evaluated for use as biomaterial when forming three-dimensional bone constructs. Our findings showed osteoprogenitor cells derived from periosteum to be most proliferative followed by cortical bone, cancellous bone, and then bone marrow aspirate. Bone-forming activity was observed in constructs formed with cells derived from periosteum, whereas calcium deposition was seen throughout the constructs formed with cells derived from cancellous and cortical bones. Although no mineralization activity was seen in constructs formed with osteoprogenitor cells derived from bone marrow, well-organized lacunae as would appear in the early phase of bone reconstruction were noted. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation showed cell proliferation throughout the fibrin matrix, suggesting the possible application of human fibrin as the bioengineered tissue scaffold at non-load-bearing sites.

  10. Enhancement of bone formation in rabbits by recombinant human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrnberg, A.; Brosjoe, O.; Laaftman, P.; Nilsson, O.; Stroemberg, L.

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect of human recombinant growth hormone on diaphyseal bone in 40 adult rabbits. The diaphyseal periosteum of one femur in each animal was mechanically stimulated by a nylon cerclage band. The bands induced an increase in bone formation, bone mineral content, and maximum torque capacity of the diaphyseal bone at 1 and 2 months. Growth hormone enhanced the anabolic effect of the cerclage bands on bone metabolism, evidenced by a further increase in torsional strength of the femurs. (au) (32 refs.)

  11. Inhibition of radio cobalt uptake by human bone powder using Mg and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Fattah, A.T.A.; Mohamed, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Human bone powder samples of 30 - 40 Μ in diameter were prepared from human bone femurs as fat free (FFB), protein free (PEB) or left untreated as a raw bone powder (RB). The uptake of 60 Co by these types of bone powder took the sequence : PFB > FFB> RB. Stable ions of magnesium and nickel exhibit an inhibition or competing effect on the uptake process of 60 Co. The competing effect did not disturb the uptake sequence. The competing effect of nickel was higher than magnesium

  12. Effects of simulated weightlessness on the kinase activity of MEK1 induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2 in rat osteosarcoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Wang, B.; Cao, X. S.; Yang, Z.

    Objective The mRNA expression of alpha 1 chain of type I collagen COL-I alpha 1 in rat osteosarcoma ROS17 2 8 cells induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2 BMP-2 was reduced under simulated microgravity The protein kinase MEK1 of MAPK signal pathway plays an important role in the expression of COL-I alpha 1 mRNA The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of simulated weightlessness on the activity of MEK1 induced by BMP-2 in ROS17 2 8 cells Methods ROS17 2 8 cells were cultured in 1G control and rotating clinostat simulated weightlessness for 24 h 48 h and 72 h BMP-2 500 ng ml was added into the medium 1 h before the culture ended There was a control group in which ROS17 2 8 cells were cultured in 1G condition without BMP-2 Then the total protein of cells was extracted and the expression of phosphated-ERK1 2 p-ERK1 2 protein was detected by means of Western Blotting to show the kinase activity of MEK1 Results There were no significant differences in the expression of total ERK1 2 among all groups The expression of p-ERK1 2 was unconspicuous in the control group without BMP-2 but increased significantly when BMP-2 was added P 0 01 The level of p-ERK1 2 in simulated weightlessness group was much more lower than that in 1G group in every time point P 0 01 The expression of p-ERK1 2 gradually decreased along with the time of weightlessness simulation P 0 01 Conclusions The kinase activity of MEK1 induced by BMP-2 in rat osteosarcoma cells was reduced under simulated weightlessness

  13. Oxygen-glucose deprivation preconditioning protects neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion induced injury via bone morphogenetic protein-7 mediated ERK, p38 and Smad signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Junhong; Du, Shaonan; Lv, Tao; Qu, Shengtao; Fu, Qiang; Yuan, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7 mediated neuroprotective effect of cerebral ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been studied in an ischemic animal model, but the underlying cellular mechanisms have not been clearly clarified. In this study, primary cortical neurons and the SH-SY5Y cell line were used to investigate the role of BMP-7 and its downstream signals in the neuroprotective effects of oxygen-glucose deprivation preconditioning (OGDPC). Immunocytochemistry was used to detect the expression of neurofilament in neurons. MTT and lactate dehydrogenase activity assays were used to measure the cytotoxicity. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of BMP-7 and downstream signals. BMP inhibitor, mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, Smad inhibitor and siRNA of Smad 1 were used to investigate the role of corresponding signalling pathways in the OGDPC. Results showed that OGDPC-induced overexpression of BMP-7 in primary cortical neurons and SH-SY5Y cells. Both of endogenous and exogenous BMP-7 could replicate the neuroprotective effects seen in OGDPC pretreatment. In addition, extracellular regulated protein kinases, p38 and Smad signalling pathway were found to be involved in the neuroprotective effects mediated by OGDPC via BMP-7. This study primarily reveals the cellular mechanisms of the neuroprotection mediated by OGDPC, and provides evidence for better understanding of this intrinsic factor against ischemia. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmour, Peter S.; O'Shea, Patrick J.; Fagura, Malbinder; Pilling, James E.; Sanganee, Hitesh; Wada, Hiroki; Courtney, Paul F.; Kavanagh, Stefan; Hall, Peter A.; Escott, K. Jane

    2013-01-01

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/μCT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused β-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH 1–34 or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/μCT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: • Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. • Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis and

  15. Tyrosine-derived polycarbonate scaffolds for bone regeneration in a rabbit radius critical-size defect model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinku; McBride, Sean; Donovan, Amy; Hollinger, Jeffrey O; Darr, Aniq; Magno, Maria Hanshella R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine bone regeneration in a rabbit radius critical-size defect (CSD) model using a specific polymer composition (E1001(1k)) from a library of tyrosine-derived polycarbonate scaffolds coated with a calcium phosphate (CP) formulation (E1001(1k) + CP) supplemented with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). Specific doses of rhBMP-2 (0, 17, and 35 μg/scaffold) were used. E1001(1k) + CP scaffolds were implanted in unilateral segmental defects (15 mm length) in the radial diaphyses of New Zealand White rabbits. At 4 and 8 weeks post-implantation, bone regeneration was determined using micro-computed tomography (µCT), histology, and histomorphometry. The quantitative outcome data suggest that E1001(1k) + CP scaffolds with rhBMP-2 were biocompatible and promoted bone regeneration in segmental bone defects. Histological examination of the implant sites showed that scaffolds made of E1001(1k) + CP did not elicit adverse cellular or tissue responses throughout test periods up to 8 weeks. Noteworthy is that the incorporation of a very small amount of rhBMP-2 into the scaffolds (as low as 17 μg/defect site) promoted significant bone regeneration compared to scaffolds consisting of E1001(1k) + CP alone. This finding indicates that E1001(1k) + CP may be an effective platform for bone regeneration in a critical size rabbit radius segmental defect model, requiring only a minimal dose of rhBMP-2. (paper)

  16. The chondrocytic journey in endochondral bone growth and skeletal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung Tsang, Kwok; Wa Tsang, Shun; Chan, Danny; Cheah, Kathryn S E

    2014-03-01

    The endochondral bones of the skeleton develop from a cartilage template and grow via a process involving a cascade of chondrocyte differentiation steps culminating in formation of a growth plate and the replacement of cartilage by bone. This process of endochondral ossification, driven by the generation of chondrocytes and their subsequent proliferation, differentiation, and production of extracellular matrix constitute a journey, deviation from which inevitably disrupts bone growth and development, and is the basis of human skeletal dysplasias with a wide range of phenotypic severity, from perinatal lethality to progressively deforming. This highly coordinated journey of chondrocyte specification and fate determination is controlled by a myriad of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. SOX9 is the master transcription factor that, in concert with varying partners along the way, directs the different phases of the journey from mesenchymal condensation, chondrogenesis, differentiation, proliferation, and maturation. Extracellular signals, including bone morphogenetic proteins, wingless-related MMTV integration site (WNT), fibroblast growth factor, Indian hedgehog, and parathyroid hormone-related peptide, are all indispensable for growth plate chondrocytes to align and organize into the appropriate columnar architecture and controls their maturation and transition to hypertrophy. Chondrocyte hypertrophy, marked by dramatic volume increase in phases, is controlled by transcription factors SOX9, Runt-related transcription factor, and FOXA2. Hypertrophic chondrocytes mediate the cartilage to bone transition and concomitantly face a live-or-die situation, a subject of much debate. We review recent insights into the coordination of the phases of the chondrocyte journey, and highlight the need for a systems level understanding of the regulatory networks that will facilitate the development of therapeutic approaches for skeletal dysplasia. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals

  17. Spatial distribution of the trace elements zinc, strontium and lead in human bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemmer, B; Roschger, A; Wastl, A; Hofstaetter, J G; Wobrauschek, P; Simon, R; Thaler, H W; Roschger, P; Klaushofer, K; Streli, C

    2013-11-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements in minute quantities, which are known to accumulate in the bone. Cortical and trabecular bones consist of bone structural units (BSUs) such as osteons and bone packets of different mineral content and are separated by cement lines. Previous studies investigating trace elements in bone lacked resolution and therefore very little is known about the local concentration of zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) in BSUs of human bone. We used synchrotron radiation induced micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR μ-XRF) in combination with quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) to determine the distribution and accumulation of Zn, Sr, and Pb in human bone tissue. Fourteen human bone samples (10 femoral necks and 4 femoral heads) from individuals with osteoporotic femoral neck fractures as well as from healthy individuals were analyzed. Fluorescence intensity maps were matched with BE images and correlated with calcium (Ca) content. We found that Zn and Pb had significantly increased levels in the cement lines of all samples compared to the surrounding mineralized bone matrix. Pb and Sr levels were found to be correlated with the degree of mineralization. Interestingly, Zn intensities had no correlation with Ca levels. We have shown for the first time that there is a differential accumulation of the trace elements Zn, Pb and Sr in BSUs of human bone indicating different mechanisms of accumulation. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Age-related variations in the microstructure of human tibial cancellous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, M.; Odgaard, A.; Linde, F.

    2002-01-01

    -related changes in the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of human tibial cancellous bone. One hundred and sixty cylindrical cancellous bone specimens were produced from 40 normal proximal tibiae from 40 donors, aged 16-85 years. These specimens were micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanned......, and microstructural properties were determined. The specimens were then tested in compression to obtain Young's modulus. The degree of anisotropy, mean marrow space volume, and bone surface-to-volume ratio increased significantly with age. Bone volume fraction, mean trabecular volume, and bone surface density...

  19. Multi-scale osteointegration and neovascularization of biphasic calcium phosphate bone scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Sheeny K.

    Bone grafts are utilized clinically to guide tissue regeneration. Autologous bone and allogeneic bone are the current clinical standards. However, there are significant limitations to their use. To address the need for alternatives to autograft and allograft, researchers have worked to develop synthetic grafts, also referred to as scaffolds. Despite extensive efforts in this area, a gap persists between basic research and clinical application. In particular, solutions for repairing critical size and/or load-bearing defects are lacking. The aim of this thesis work was to address two critical barriers preventing design of successful tissue engineering constructs for bone regeneration within critical size and/or load-bearing defects. Those barriers are insufficient osteointegration and slow neovascularization. In this work, the effects of scaffold microporosity, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 delivery and endothelial colony forming cell vasculogenesis were evaluated in the context of bone formation in vivo. This was accomplished to better understand the role of these factors in bone regeneration, which may translate to improvements in tissue engineering construct design. Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds with controlled macro- and microporosity were implanted in porcine mandibular defects. Evaluation of the BCP scaffolds after in vivo implantation showed, for the first time, osteocytes embedded in bone within scaffold micropores (macro and micro length scales, leaving no "dead space" or discontinuities of bone in the defect site. The scaffold forms a living composite upon integration with regenerating bone and this has significant implications with regard to improved scaffold mechanical properties. The presence of osteocytes within scaffold micropores is an indication of scaffold osteoinductivity because a chemotactic factor must be present to induce cell migration into pores on the order of the cell diameter. It is likely that the scaffold

  20. Distribution of radium and plutonium in human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This review covers studies of the microdistribution of radium and plutonium in human bone, conducted at Argonne with emphasis on the alpha-spectrometric method of measurement. Alpha spectrometry offers high spatial resolution and is well suited to the measurement of radionuclide concentrations near bone surfaces. With these techniques surface deposit thicknesses have been measured to be about 1 μm thick for isotopes of lead, radium and the actinides, and volume deposits of 226 Ra have been found to be quite nonuniform near bone surfaces, leading to endosteal tissue dose rates that are higher than expected under the assumption of uniform volume concentration normally used in radiation protection calculations. With autoradiography, the bony septa of the mastoid air cell system have been found to be depleted in radium relative to the bone tissue surrounding them; this is expected to have a significant influence on the dosimetry of the mastoid epithelia. A combination of autoradiographic and morphometric measurements indicates that specific activities in the axial skeleton are higher than in the appendicular skeleton, primarily because the former has higher bone surface-to-volume ratios and higher bone surface concentrations of plutonium. 19 references, 14 figures, 6 tables

  1. The identification of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in archaeological human bones and teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette M Coulson-Thomas

    Full Text Available Bone tissue is mineralized dense connective tissue consisting mainly of a mineral component (hydroxyapatite and an organic matrix comprised of collagens, non-collagenous proteins and proteoglycans (PGs. Extracellular matrix proteins and PGs bind tightly to hydroxyapatite which would protect these molecules from the destructive effects of temperature and chemical agents after death. DNA and proteins have been successfully extracted from archaeological skeletons from which valuable information has been obtained; however, to date neither PGs nor glycosaminoglycan (GAG chains have been studied in archaeological skeletons. PGs and GAGs play a major role in bone morphogenesis, homeostasis and degenerative bone disease. The ability to isolate and characterize PG and GAG content from archaeological skeletons would unveil valuable paleontological information. We therefore optimized methods for the extraction of both PGs and GAGs from archaeological human skeletons. PGs and GAGs were successfully extracted from both archaeological human bones and teeth, and characterized by their electrophoretic mobility in agarose gel, degradation by specific enzymes and HPLC. The GAG populations isolated were chondroitin sulfate (CS and hyaluronic acid (HA. In addition, a CSPG was detected. The localization of CS, HA, three small leucine rich PGs (biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin and glypican was analyzed in archaeological human bone slices. Staining patterns were different for juvenile and adult bones, whilst adolescent bones had a similar staining pattern to adult bones. The finding that significant quantities of PGs and GAGs persist in archaeological bones and teeth opens novel venues for the field of Paleontology.

  2. Aging and Fracture of Human Cortical Bone and Tooth Dentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ager, Joel; Koester, Kurt J.; Ager III, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-05-07

    Mineralized tissues, such as bone and tooth dentin, serve as structural materials in the human body and, as such, have evolved to resist fracture. In assessing their quantitative fracture resistance or toughness, it is important to distinguish between intrinsic toughening mechanisms which function ahead of the crack tip, such as plasticity in metals, and extrinsic mechanisms which function primarily behind the tip, such as crack bridging in ceramics. Bone and dentin derive their resistance to fracture principally from extrinsic toughening mechanisms which have their origins in the hierarchical microstructure of these mineralized tissues. Experimentally, quantification of these toughening mechanisms requires a crack-growth resistance approach, which can be achieved by measuring the crack-driving force, e.g., the stress intensity, as a function of crack extension ("R-curve approach"). Here this methodology is used to study of the effect of aging on the fracture properties of human cortical bone and human dentin in order to discern the microstructural origins of toughness in these materials.

  3. Bisphosphonate-coated BSA nanoparticles lack bone targeting after systemic administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guilin; Kucharski, Cezary; Lin, Xiaoyue; Uludağ, Hasan

    2010-09-01

    A polymeric conjugate of polyethyleneimine-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) and 2-(3-mercaptopropylsulfanyl)-ethyl-1,1-bisphosphonic acid (PEI-PEG-thiolBP) was prepared and used for surface coating of bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles (NPs) designed for bone-specific delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). The NP coating was achieved with a dialysis and an evaporation method, and the obtained NPs were characterized by particle size, zeta-potential, morphology, and cytotoxicity in vitro. The particle size and surface charge of the NPs could be effectively tuned by the PEG and thiolBP substitution ratios of the conjugate, the coating method, and the polymer concentration used for coating. The PEG modification on PEI reduced the toxicity of PEI and the coated NPs, based on in vitro assessment with human C2C12 cells and rat bone marrow stromal cells. On the basis of an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) induction assay, the NP-encapsulated BMP-2 displayed full retention of its bioactivity, except for BMP-2 in PEI-coated NPs. By encapsulating (125)I-labeled BMP-2, the polymer-coated NPs were assessed for hydroxyapatite (HA) affinity; all NP-encapsulated BMP-2 showed significant affinity to HA as compared with free BMP-2 in vitro, and the PEI-PEG-thiolBP coated NPs improved the in vivo retention of BMP-2 compared with uncoated NPs. However, the biodistribution of NPs after intravenous injection in a rat model indicated no beneficial effects of thiolBP-coated NPs for bone targeting. Our results suggested that the BP-conjugated NPs are useful for localized delivery of BMP-2 in bone repair and regeneration, but they are not effective for bone targeting after intravenous administration.

  4. Drug: D03779 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) [HSA:650] [KO:K04662] Osteoinductive agent for use in orthopaedic surgery..., dental/craniofacial surgery, or spine surgery, as an adjunc

  5. BMP9-Induced Osteogenetic Differentiation and Bone Formation of Muscle-Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient osteogenetic differentiation and bone formation from muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs should have potential clinical applications in treating nonunion fracture healing or bone defects. Here, we investigate osteogenetic differentiation ability of MDSCs induced by bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9 in vitro and bone formation ability in rabbit radius defects repairing model. Rabbit's MDSCs were extracted by type I collagenase and trypsin methods, and BMP9 was introduced into MDSCs by infection with recombinant adenovirus. Effects of BMP9-induced osteogenetic differentiation of MDSCs were identified with alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and expression of later marker. In stem-cell implantation assay, MDSCs have also shown valuable potential bone formation ability induced by BMP9 in rabbit radius defects repairing test. Taken together, our findings suggest that MDSCs are potentiated osteogenetic stem cells which can be induced by BMP9 to treat large segmental bone defects, nonunion fracture, and/or osteoporotic fracture.

  6. Bone Regeneration from PLGA Micro-Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Oller, Inmaculada; Padial-Molina, Miguel; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; O'Valle, Francisco; Jódar-Reyes, Ana Belén; Peula-García, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) is one of the most widely used synthetic polymers for development of delivery systems for drugs and therapeutic biomolecules and as component of tissue engineering applications. Its properties and versatility allow it to be a reference polymer in manufacturing of nano- and microparticles to encapsulate and deliver a wide variety of hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules. It additionally facilitates and extends its use to encapsulate biomolecules such as proteins or nucleic acids that can be released in a controlled way. This review focuses on the use of nano/microparticles of PLGA as a delivery system of one of the most commonly used growth factors in bone tissue engineering, the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2). Thus, all the needed requirements to reach a controlled delivery of BMP2 using PLGA particles as a main component have been examined. The problems and solutions for the adequate development of this system with a great potential in cell differentiation and proliferation processes under a bone regenerative point of view are discussed.

  7. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) enhances the osteogenic activity of bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) in vitro and in vivo, and together have a stronger osteogenic effect than when IGF-1 is combined with BMP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Llanos, Gustavo A; Becerra, Jose; Visser, Rick

    2017-07-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is widely used in orthopedic surgery and bone tissue engineering because of its strong osteogenic activity. However, BMP-2 treatments have several drawbacks and many groups are actively exploring alternatives. Since BMP-6 has been demonstrated to be more osteoinductive, its use, either alone or together with other growth factors, might be an interesting option. In this work, we have compared the effect of BMP-2, BMP-6, or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), either alone or in combination. Murine preosteoblasts were treated with 15 nM IGF-1 and/or 6 nM BMP-2 or -6 and the expression of osteogenic marker genes, proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in vitro were analyzed. The results showed that IGF-1 greatly enhanced the BMP-induced osteogenic differentiation of these cells in general and that the ALP activity in the cultures was higher when the combination was made with BMP-6 than with BMP-2. Furthermore, we tested the osteogenic potential of these treatments in vivo by loading 25 pmoles of IGF-1 and/or 10 pmoles of BMP-2 or -6 onto absorbable collagen sponges and implanting them into an ectopic bone formation model in rats. This study revealed that only BMP-6 was able to induce bone formation at the used dose and that the addition of IGF-1 contributed to an increase of the mineralization in the implants. Hence, the combination of BMP-6 with IGF-1 might be a better alternative than BMP-2 for orthopedic surgery or bone tissue engineering approaches. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1867-1875, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Smad1/5/8 are myogenic regulators of murine and human mesoangioblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costamagna, D. (Domiziana); Quattrocelli, M. (Mattia); F.H.J. van Tienen; L. Umans (Lieve); De Coo, I.F.M. (Irineus F.M.); A. Zwijsen (An); D. Huylebroeck (Danny); Sampaolesi, M. (Maurilio)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMesoangioblasts (MABs) are vessel-associated stem cells that express pericyte marker genes and participate in skeletal muscle regeneration. Molecular circuits that regulate the myogenic commitment of MABs are still poorly characterized. The critical role of bone morphogenetic protein

  9. Engineering a morphogenetically active hydrogel for bioprinting of bioartificial tissue derived from human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufurth, Meik; Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Ziebart, Thomas; Steffen, Renate; Wang, Shunfeng; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-10-01

    Sodium alginate hydrogel, stabilized with gelatin, is a suitable, biologically inert matrix that can be used for encapsulating and 3D bioprinting of bone-related SaOS-2 cells. However, the cells, embedded in this matrix, remain in a non-proliferating state. Here we show that addition of an overlay onto the bioprinted alginate/gelatine/SaOS-2 cell scaffold, consisting of agarose and the calcium salt of polyphosphate [polyP·Ca(2+)-complex], resulted in a marked increase in cell proliferation. In the presence of 100 μm polyP·Ca(2+)-complex, the cells proliferate with a generation time of approximately 47-55 h. In addition, the hardness of the alginate/gelatin hydrogel substantially increases in the presence of the polymer. The reduced Young's modulus for the alginate/gelatin hydrogel is approximately 13-14 kPa, and this value drops to approximately 0.5 kPa after incubation of the cell containing scaffolds for 5 d. In the presence of 100 μm polyP·Ca(2+)-complex, the reduced Young's modulus increases to about 22 kPa. The hardness of the polyP·Ca(2+)-complex containing hydrogel remains essentially constant if cells are absent in the matrix, but it drops to 3.2 kPa after a 5 d incubation period in the presence of SaOS-2 cells, indicating that polyP·Ca(2+)-complex becomes metabolized, degraded, by the cells. The alginate/gelatine-agarose system with polyP·Ca(2+)-complex cause a significant increase in the mineralization of the cells. SEM analyses revealed that the morphology of the mineral nodules formed on the surface of the cells embedded in the alginate/gelatin hydrogel do not significantly differ from the nodules on cells growing in monolayer cultures. The newly developed technique, using cells encapsulated into an alginate/gelatin hydrogel and a secondary layer containing the morphogenetically active, growth promoting polymer polyP·Ca(2+)-complex opens new possibilities for the application of 3D bioprinting in bone tissue engineering. Copyright

  10. Immune Humanization of Immunodeficient Mice Using Diagnostic Bone Marrow Aspirates from Carcinoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Klein, Melanie; Proske, Judith; Werno, Christian; Schneider, Katharina; Hofmann, Hans-Stefan; Rack, Brigitte; Buchholz, Stefan; Ganzer, Roman; Blana, Andreas; Seelbach-Göbel, Birgit; Nitsche, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice, while routinely used in cancer research, preclude studying interactions of immune and cancer cells or, if humanized by allogeneic immune cells, are of limited use for tumor-immunological questions. Here, we explore a novel way to generate cancer models with an autologous humanized immune system. We demonstrate that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from bone marrow aspirates of non-metastasized carcinoma patients, which are taken at specialized centers for diagnostic purposes, can be used to generate a human immune system in NOD-scid IL2rγ(null) (NSG) and HLA-I expressing NSG mice (NSG-HLA-A2/HHD) comprising both, lymphoid and myeloid cell lineages. Using NSG-HLA-A2/HHD mice, we show that responsive and self-tolerant human T cells develop and human antigen presenting cells can activate human T cells. As critical factors we identified the low potential of bone marrow HSPCs to engraft, generally low HSPC numbers in patient-derived bone marrow samples, cryopreservation and routes of cell administration. We provide here an optimized protocol that uses a minimum number of HSPCs, preselects high-quality bone marrow samples defined by the number of initially isolated leukocytes and intra-femoral or intra-venous injection. In conclusion, the use of diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from non-metastasized carcinoma patients for the immunological humanization of immunodeficient mice is feasible and opens the chance for individualized analyses of anti-tumoral T cell responses. PMID:24830425

  11. Immune humanization of immunodeficient mice using diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from carcinoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Werner-Klein

    Full Text Available Tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice, while routinely used in cancer research, preclude studying interactions of immune and cancer cells or, if humanized by allogeneic immune cells, are of limited use for tumor-immunological questions. Here, we explore a novel way to generate cancer models with an autologous humanized immune system. We demonstrate that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs from bone marrow aspirates of non-metastasized carcinoma patients, which are taken at specialized centers for diagnostic purposes, can be used to generate a human immune system in NOD-scid IL2rγ(null (NSG and HLA-I expressing NSG mice (NSG-HLA-A2/HHD comprising both, lymphoid and myeloid cell lineages. Using NSG-HLA-A2/HHD mice, we show that responsive and self-tolerant human T cells develop and human antigen presenting cells can activate human T cells. As critical factors we identified the low potential of bone marrow HSPCs to engraft, generally low HSPC numbers in patient-derived bone marrow samples, cryopreservation and routes of cell administration. We provide here an optimized protocol that uses a minimum number of HSPCs, preselects high-quality bone marrow samples defined by the number of initially isolated leukocytes and intra-femoral or intra-venous injection. In conclusion, the use of diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from non-metastasized carcinoma patients for the immunological humanization of immunodeficient mice is feasible and opens the chance for individualized analyses of anti-tumoral T cell responses.

  12. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, Peter S., E-mail: Peter.Gilmour@astrazeneca.com [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); O' Shea, Patrick J.; Fagura, Malbinder [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Pilling, James E. [Discovery Sciences, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Sanganee, Hitesh [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Wada, Hiroki [R and I IMed, AstraZeneca R and D, Molndal (Sweden); Courtney, Paul F. [DMPK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Kavanagh, Stefan; Hall, Peter A. [Safety Assessment, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Escott, K. Jane [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/μCT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused β-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH{sub 1–34} or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/μCT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: • Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. • Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis

  13. Plasma Treated High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE Medpor Implant Immobilized with rhBMP-2 for Improving the Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Su Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the bone generation capacity of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 immobilized Medpor surface through acrylic acid plasma-polymerization. Plasma-polymerization was carried out at a 20 W at an acrylic acid flow rate of 7 sccm for 5 min. The plasma-polymerized Medpor surface showed hydrophilic properties and possessed a high density of carboxyl groups. The rhBMP-2 was immobilized with covalently attached carboxyl groups using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide. Carboxyl groups and rhBMP-2 immobilization on the Medpor surface were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The activity of Medpor with rhBMP-2 immobilized was examined using an alkaline phosphatase assay on MC3T3-E1 cultured Medpor. These results showed that the rhBMP-2 immobilized Medpor increased the level of MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation. These results demonstrated that plasma surface modification has the potential to immobilize rhBMP-2 on polymer implant such as Medpor and can be used for the binding of bioactive nanomolecules in bone tissue engineering.

  14. Interconnected porous hydroxyapatite ceramics for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hideki; Tamai, Noriyuki; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Myoui, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Several porous calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics have been used clinically as bone substitutes, but most of them possessed few interpore connections, resulting in pathological fracture probably due to poor bone formation within the substitute. We recently developed a fully interconnected porous HA ceramic (IP-CHA) by adopting the ‘foam-gel’ technique. The IP-CHA had a three-dimensional structure with spherical pores of uniform size (average 150 μm, porosity 75%), which were interconnected by window-like holes (average diameter 40 μm), and also demonstrated adequate compression strength (10–12 MPa). In animal experiments, the IP-CHA showed superior osteoconduction, with the majority of pores filled with newly formed bone. The interconnected porous structure facilitates bone tissue engineering by allowing the introduction of mesenchymal cells, osteotropic agents such as bone morphogenetic protein or vasculature into the pores. Clinically, we have applied the IP-CHA to treat various bony defects in orthopaedic surgery, and radiographic examinations demonstrated that grafted IP-CHA gained radiopacity more quickly than the synthetic HA in clinical use previously. We review the accumulated data on bone tissue engineering using the novel scaffold and on clinical application in the orthopaedic field. PMID:19106069

  15. Quantitative analysis of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15 and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 gene expression in calf and adult bovine ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Ken-go

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that calf oocytes are less developmentally competent than oocytes obtained from adult cows. Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15 and growth and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 play critical roles in folliculogenesis, follicular development and ovulation in mammalian ovaries. In the present study, we attempted to compare the expression patterns of BMP15 and GDF9 in the cells of calf and cow ovaries to determine a relationship between the level of these genes and the low developmental competence of calf oocytes. Methods Bovine tissues were collected from 9-11 months-old calves and from 4-6 years-old cows. We characterized the gene expression of BMP15 and GDF9 in calf and adult bovine oocytes and cumulus cells using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (QPCR and in situ hybridization. Immunohistochemical analysis was also performed. Results The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 in cumulus cells of adult ovaries was significantly higher than that in calf ovaries, as revealed by QPCR. GDF9 expression in the oocytes of calf ovaries was significantly higher than in those of the adult ovaries. In contrast, BMP15 expression in the oocytes of calf and adult ovaries was not significantly different. The localization of gene expression and protein were ascertained by histochemistry. Conclusions Our result showed for the first time BMP15 and GDF9 expression in bovine cumulus cells. BMP15 and GDF9 mRNA expression in oocytes and cumulus cells was different in calves and cows.

  16. Improving Bone Formation in a Rat Femur Segmental Defect by Controlling Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    of rhBMP-2 in patients.8 Both the physical properties and pharmacokinetics of the FR +BMP scaffold are believed to contribute to its superior...scaffolds investigated in this study exhibit these key physical properties.28 Further, the observation of re- generated bone grown in direct contact with...Amit, Y., Arbel, R., Aro, H., Atar , D., Bishay, M., Borner, M.G., Chiron, P., Choong, P., Cinats, J., Courtenay, B., Fei- bel, R., Geulette, B., Gravel

  17. Demineralized bone matrix and human cancellous bone enhance fixation of porous-coated titanium implants in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babiker, Hassan; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    matrix (DBM), alone or in combination with allograft or commercially available human cancellous bone (CB), may replace allografts, as they have the capability of inducing new bone and improving implant fixation through enhancing bone ongrowth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect...... of DBM alone, DBM with CB, or allograft on the fixation of porous-coated titanium implants. DBM100 and CB produced from human tissue were included. Both materials are commercially available. DBM granules are placed in pure DBM and do not contain any other carrier. Titanium alloy implants, 10 mm long × 10...... mm diameter, were inserted bilaterally into the femoral condyles of eight skeletally mature sheep. Thus, four implants with a concentric gap of 2 mm were implanted in each sheep. The gap was filled with: (a) DBM; (b) DBM:CB at a ratio of 1:3; (c) DBM:allograft at a ratio of 1:3; or (d) allograft...

  18. Animal Models and Bone Histomorphometry: Translational Research for the Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of animal models to research and inform bone morphology, in particular relating to human research in bone loss as a result of low gravity environments. Reasons for use of animal models as tools for human research programs include: time-efficient, cost-effective, invasive measures, and predictability as some model are predictive for drug effects.

  19. Mutual associations among microstructural, physical and mechanical properties of human cancellous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Odgaard, A; Danielsen, CC

    2002-01-01

    structure and mechanical properties. In this study, 160 cancellous bone specimens were produced from 40 normal human tibiae aged from 16 to 85 years at post-mortem. The specimens underwent micro-CT and the microstructural properties were calculated using unbiased three-dimensional methods. The specimens...... were tested to determine the mechanical properties and the physical/compositional properties were evaluated. The type of structure together with anisotropy correlated well with Young's modulus of human tibial cancellous bone. The plate-like structure reflected high mechanical stress and the rod......-like structure low mechanical stress. There was a strong correlation between the type of trabecular structure and the bone-volume fraction. The most effective microstructural properties for predicting the mechanical properties of cancellous bone seem to differ with age....

  20. [Association of the genetic variations of bone morphogenetic protein 7 gene with diabetes and insulin resistance in Xinjiang Uygur population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi-tao; Li, Nan-fang; Guo, Yan-ying; Yao, Xiao-guang; Wang, Hong-mei; Hu, Jun-li

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the association between the genetic variations of the functional region in bone morphogenetic protein gene (BMP7) with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese Uygur individuals. A case-control study was conducted based on epidemiological investigation. A total of 717 Uygur subjects (276 males and 441 females) were selected and divided into two groups: diabetes mellitus group (n = 502, 191 males and 311 females) and control group (n = 215, 85 males and 130 females). All exons, flanking introns and the promoter regions of (BMP7) gene were sequenced in 48 Uygur diabetics. Representative variations were selected according to the minor allele frequency (MAF) and linkage disequilibrium and genotyped using the TaqMan polymerase chain reaction method in 717 Uygur individuals, a relatively isolated general population in a relatively homogeneous environment and a case-control study was conducted to test the association between the genetic variations of (BMP7) gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Five novel and 8 known variations in the (BMP7) gene were identified. All genotype distributions were tested for deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P> 0.05). There was significant difference of genotype distribution of rs6025422 between type 2 diabetes mellitus and control groups in the male population (P 0.05), but there was no difference in total and female population (P> 0.05). And the means of fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin and HOMA-index significantly decreased in individuals with AA, AG and GG genotypes of rs6025422 in male population (Ppopulation (P> 0.05). The logistic regression analysis showed that GG genotype of rs6025422 variation might be a protective factor for diabetes in male (OR= 0.637, 95% confidence interval 0.439-0.923, P< 0.05). The present study suggests that the rs6025422 polymorphism in (BMP7) gene may be associated with diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance in Uygur men.

  1. Efficacy of rhBMP-2 Loaded PCL/β-TCP/bdECM Scaffold Fabricated by 3D Printing Technology on Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Bin Bae

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of 3D printed polycaprolactone (PCL/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP scaffold containing bone demineralized and decellularized extracellular matrix (bdECM and human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 on bone regeneration. Scaffolds were divided into PCL/β-TCP, PCL/β-TCP/bdECM, and PCL/β-TCP/bdECM/BMP groups. In vitro release kinetics of rhBMP-2 were determined with respect to cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. These three reconstructive materials were implanted into 8 mm diameter calvarial bone defect in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were sacrificed four weeks after implantation for micro-CT, histologic, and histomorphometric analyses. The findings obtained were used to calculate new bone volumes (mm3 and new bone areas (%. Excellent cell bioactivity was observed in the PCL/β-TCP/bdECM and PCL/β-TCP/bdECM/BMP groups, and new bone volume and area were significantly higher in the PCL/β-TCP/bdECM/BMP group than in the other groups (p<.05. Within the limitations of this study, bdECM printed PCL/β-TCP scaffolds can reproduce microenvironment for cells and promote adhering and proliferating the cells onto scaffolds. Furthermore, in the rat calvarial defect model, the scaffold which printed rhBMP-2 loaded bdECM stably carries rhBMP-2 and enhances bone regeneration confirming the possibility of bdECM as rhBMP-2 carrier.

  2. Comparison of Cell Viability and Embryoid Body Size of Two Embryonic Stem Cell Lines After Different Exposure Times to Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehleh Zarei Fard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Activation of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 signaling pathway in embryonic stem (ES cells plays an important role in controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Adverse effects of BMP4 occur in a time dependent manner; however, little is known about the effect of different time exposure of this growth factor on cell number in culture media. In this study, we investigated the role of two different exposure times to BMP4 in cell viability, embryoid body (EB, size, and cavitation of ES cells. Methods: Embryonic stem cells (R1 and B1 lines were released from the feeder cell layers and were cultured using EBs protocol by using the hanging drop method and monolayer culture system. The cells were cultured for 5 days with 100 ng/mL BMP4 from the beginning (++BMP4 or after 48 h (+BMP4 of culture and their cell number were counted by trypan blue staining. The data were analyzed using non-parametric two-tailed Mann-Whitney test. P<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: In EB culture protocol, cell number significantly decreased in +BMP4 culture condition with greater cavity size compared to the ++BMP4 condition at day 5 (P=0.009. In contrast, in monolayer culture system, there was no significant difference in the cell number between all groups (P=0.91. Conclusion: The results suggest that short-term exposure of BMP4 is required to promote cavitation in EBs according to lower cell number in +BMP4 condition. Different cell lines showed different behavior in cavitation formation.

  3. Generation of an rhBMP-2-loaded beta-tricalcium phosphate/hydrogel composite and evaluation of its efficacy on peri-implant bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Baek, Hae-Ri; Lee, Ji-Ho; Ryu, Mi Young; Seo, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung-Mee

    2014-01-01

    Dental implant insertion on a site with low bone quality or bone defect should be preceded by a bone graft or artificial bone graft insertion to heal the defect. We generated a beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and poloxamer 407-based hydrogel composite and penetration of the β-TCP/hydrogel composite into the peri-implant area of bone was evaluated by porous bone block experiments. The maximum penetration depth for porous bone blocks and dense bone blocks were 524 μm and 464 μm, respectively. We report the in-vivo performance of a composite of β-TCP/hydrogel composite as a carrier of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2), implanted into a rabbit tibial defect model. Three holes drilled into each tibia of eight male rabbits were (1) grafted with dental implant fixtures; (2) filled with β-TCP/hydrogel composite (containing 5 μg of rhBMP-2), followed by grafting of the dental implant fixtures. Four weeks later, bone-implant contact ratio and peri-implant bone formation were analyzed by radiography, micro-CT and histology of undecalcified specimens. The micro-CT results showed a significantly higher level of trabecular thickness and new bone and peri-implant new bone formation in the experimental treatment compared to the control treatment. Histomorphometry revealed a significantly higher bone-implant contact ratio and peri-implant bone formation with the experimental treatment. The use of β-TCP/poloxamer 407 hydrogel composite as a carrier of rhBMP-2 significantly promoted new bone formation around the dental implant fixture and it also improved the quality of the new bone formed in the tibial marrow space. (paper)

  4. Spatial control of bone formation using a porous polymer scaffold co-delivering anabolic rhBMP-2 and anti-resorptive agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NYC Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current clinical delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMPs utilises freeze-dried collagen. Despite effective new bone generation, rhBMP via collagen can be limited by significant complications due to inflammation and uncontrolled bone formation. This study aimed to produce an alternative rhBMP local delivery system to permit more controllable and superior rhBMP-induced bone formation. Cylindrical porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA scaffolds were manufactured by thermally-induced phase separation. Scaffolds were encapsulated with anabolic rhBMP-2 (20 µg ± anti-resorptive agents: zoledronic acid (5 µg ZA, ZA pre-adsorbed onto hydroxyapatite microparticles, (5 µg ZA/2 % HA or IkappaB kinase (IKK inhibitor (10 µg PS-1145. Scaffolds were inserted in a 6-mm critical-sized femoral defect in Wistar rats, and compared against rhBMP-2 via collagen. The regenerate region was examined at 6 weeks by 3D microCT and descriptive histology. MicroCT and histology revealed rhBMP-induced bone was more restricted in the PLGA scaffolds than collagen scaffolds (-92.3 % TV, p < 0.01. The regenerate formed by PLGA + rhBMP-2/ZA/HA showed comparable bone volume to rhBMP-2 via collagen, and bone mineral density was +9.1 % higher (p < 0.01. Local adjunct ZA/HA or PS-1145 significantly enhanced PLGA + rhBMP-induced bone formation by +78.2 % and +52.0 %, respectively (p ≤ 0.01. Mechanistically, MG-63 human osteoblast-like cells showed cellular invasion and proliferation within PLGA scaffolds. In conclusion, PLGA scaffolds enabled superior spatial control of rhBMP-induced bone formation over clinically-used collagen. The PLGA scaffold has the potential to avoid uncontrollable bone formation-related safety issues and to customise bone shape by scaffold design. Moreover, local treatment with anti-resorptive agents incorporated within the scaffold further augmented rhBMP-induced bone formation.

  5. An evaluation of the effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was progressive filling of osseous defects in group 1, which was total at the 16th week post-surgical (PS); group 2 dogs had radiographic non-union at the 16th PS week. It was concluded that BMP implanted with a hydroxyapatite carrier significantly enhanced the rate of cortical restoration of massive bone defects in ...

  6. Biomaterials with Antibacterial and Osteoinductive Properties to Repair Infected Bone Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haiping; Liu, Yi; Guo, Jing; Wu, Huiling; Wang, Jingxiao; Wu, Gang

    2016-03-03

    The repair of infected bone defects is still challenging in the fields of orthopedics, oral implantology and maxillofacial surgery. In these cases, the self-healing capacity of bone tissue can be significantly compromised by the large size of bone defects and the potential/active bacterial activity. Infected bone defects are conventionally treated by a systemic/local administration of antibiotics to control infection and a subsequent implantation of bone grafts, such as autografts and allografts. However, these treatment options are time-consuming and usually yield less optimal efficacy. To approach these problems, novel biomaterials with both antibacterial and osteoinductive properties have been developed. The antibacterial property can be conferred by antibiotics and other novel antibacterial biomaterials, such as silver nanoparticles. Bone morphogenetic proteins are used to functionalize the biomaterials with a potent osteoinductive property. By manipulating the carrying modes and release kinetics, these biomaterials are optimized to maximize their antibacterial and osteoinductive functions with minimized cytotoxicity. The findings, in the past decade, have shown a very promising application potential of the novel biomaterials with the dual functions in treating infected bone defects. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of novel biomaterials with both antibacterial and osteoinductive properties.

  7. Creep of trabecular bone from the human proximal tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Zin, Carolyn; Chang, Neil; Cory, Esther; Chen, Peter; D'Lima, Darryl; Sah, Robert L; McKittrick, Joanna

    2014-07-01

    Creep is the deformation that occurs under a prolonged, sustained load and can lead to permanent damage in bone. Creep in bone is a complex phenomenon and varies with type of loading and local mechanical properties. Human trabecular bone samples from proximal tibia were harvested from a 71-year old female cadaver with osteoporosis. The samples were initially subjected to one cycle load up to 1% strain to determine the creep load. Samples were then loaded in compression under a constant stress for 2h and immediately unloaded. All tests were conducted with the specimens soaked in phosphate buffered saline with proteinase inhibitors at 37 °C. Steady state creep rate and final creep strain were estimated from mechanical testing and compared with published data. The steady state creep rate correlated well with values obtained from bovine tibial and human vertebral trabecular bone, and was higher for lower density samples. Tissue architecture was analyzed by micro-computed tomography (μCT) both before and after creep testing to assess creep deformation and damage accumulated. Quantitative morphometric analysis indicated that creep induced changes in trabecular separation and the structural model index. A main mode of deformation was bending of trabeculae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Restoration of a Critical Mandibular Bone Defect Using Human Alveolar Bone-Derived Stem Cells and Porous Nano-HA/Collagen/PLA Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal bone defects occur in a wide variety of clinical situations. Adult stem cell- and biomaterial-based bone tissue regeneration are a promising alternative to natural bone grafts. Recent evidence has demonstrated that two populations of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs can be distinguished based on their embryonic origins. These BMSCs are not interchangeable, as bones preferentially heal using cells that share the same embryonic origin. However, the feasibility of tissue engineering using human craniofacial BMSCs was unclear. The goal of this study was to explore human craniofacial BMSC-based therapy for the treatment of localized mandibular defects using a standardized, minimally invasive procedure. The BMSCs’ identity was confirmed. Scanning electron microscopy, a cell proliferation assay, and supernatant detection indicated that the nHAC/PLA provided a suitable environment for aBMSCs. Real-time PCR and electrochemiluminescence immunoassays demonstrated that osteogenic markers were upregulated by osteogenic preinduction. Moreover, in a rabbit critical-size mandibular bone defect model, total bone formation in the nHAC/PLA + aBMSCs group was significantly higher than in the nHAC/PLA group but significantly lower than in the nHAC/PLA + preinduced aBMSCs. These findings demonstrate that this engineered bone is a valid alternative for the correction of mandibular bone defects.

  9. Restoration of a Critical Mandibular Bone Defect Using Human Alveolar Bone-Derived Stem Cells and Porous Nano-HA/Collagen/PLA Scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Xing, Helin; Zhang, Guilan; Wu, Xia; Zou, Xuan; Feng, Lin; Wang, Dongsheng; Li, Meng; Zhao, Jing; Du, Jianwei; Lv, Yan; E, Lingling; Liu, Hongchen

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal bone defects occur in a wide variety of clinical situations. Adult stem cell- and biomaterial-based bone tissue regeneration are a promising alternative to natural bone grafts. Recent evidence has demonstrated that two populations of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) can be distinguished based on their embryonic origins. These BMSCs are not interchangeable, as bones preferentially heal using cells that share the same embryonic origin. However, the feasibility of tissue engineering using human craniofacial BMSCs was unclear. The goal of this study was to explore human craniofacial BMSC-based therapy for the treatment of localized mandibular defects using a standardized, minimally invasive procedure. The BMSCs' identity was confirmed. Scanning electron microscopy, a cell proliferation assay, and supernatant detection indicated that the nHAC/PLA provided a suitable environment for aBMSCs. Real-time PCR and electrochemiluminescence immunoassays demonstrated that osteogenic markers were upregulated by osteogenic preinduction. Moreover, in a rabbit critical-size mandibular bone defect model, total bone formation in the nHAC/PLA + aBMSCs group was significantly higher than in the nHAC/PLA group but significantly lower than in the nHAC/PLA + preinduced aBMSCs. These findings demonstrate that this engineered bone is a valid alternative for the correction of mandibular bone defects. PMID:27118977

  10. Gene Expression Changes in Femoral Head Necrosis of Human Bone Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadett Balla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH is the result of an interruption of the local circulation and the injury of vascular supply of bone. Multiple factors have been implicated in the development of the disease. However the mechanism of ischemia and necrosis in non-traumatic ONFH is not clear. The aim of our investigation was to identify genes that are differently expressed in ONFH vs. non-ONFH human bone and to describe the relationships between these genes using multivariate data analysis. Six bone tissue samples from ONFH male patients and 8 bone tissue samples from non-ONFH men were examined. The expression differences of selected 117 genes were analyzed by TaqMan probe-based quantitative real-time RT-PCR system. The significance test indicated marked differences in the expression of nine genes between ONFH and non-ONFH individuals. These altered genes code for collagen molecules, an extracellular matrix digesting metalloproteinase, a transcription factor, an adhesion molecule, and a growth factor. Canonical variates analysis demonstrated that ONFH and non-ONFH bone tissues can be distinguished by the multiple expression profile analysis of numerous genes controlled via canonical TGFB pathway as well as genes coding for extracellular matrix composing collagen type molecules. The markedly altered gene expression profile observed in the ONFH of human bone tissue may provide further insight into the pathogenetic process of osteonecrotic degeneration of bone.

  11. Bone regeneration of critical calvarial defect in goat model by PLGA/TCP/rhBMP-2 scaffolds prepared by low-temperature rapid-prototyping technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, D; Li, Q; Mu, X; Chang, T; Xiong, Z

    2008-10-01

    Active artificial bone composed of poly lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA)/ tricalcium phosphate (TCP) was prefabricated using low-temperature rapid-prototyping technology so that the process of osteogenesis could be observed in it. PLGA and TCP were the primary materials, they were molded at low temperature, then recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) was added to form an active artificial bone. Goats with standard cranial defects were randomly divided into experimental (implants with rhBMP-2 added) and control (implants without rhBMP-2) groups, and osteogenesis was observed and evaluated by imaging and biomechanical and histological examinations. The PLGA-TCP artificial bone scaffold (90% porosity) had large and small pores of approximately 360microm and 3-5microm diameter. Preliminary and complete repair of the cranial defect in the goats occurred 12 and 24 weeks after surgery, respectively. The three-point bending strength of the repaired defects attained that of the normal cranium. In conclusion, low-temperature rapid-prototyping technology can preserve the biological activity of this scaffold material. The scaffold has a good three-dimensional structure and it becomes an active artificial bone after loading with rhBMP-2 with a modest degradation rate and excellent osteogenesis in the goat.

  12. Breast Cancer Cell Colonization of the Human Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Zach S; Lie, Wen-Rong; Wang, Weiqi; Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Alluri, Rajiv V; Tamaresis, John S; Bachmann, Michael H; Lee, Kitty; Maloney, William J; Contag, Christopher H; King, Bonnie L

    2015-12-01

    Bone is a preferred site of breast cancer metastasis, suggesting the presence of tissue-specific features that attract and promote the outgrowth of breast cancer cells. We sought to identify parameters of human bone tissue associated with breast cancer cell osteotropism and colonization in the metastatic niche. Migration and colonization patterns of MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP (luciferase-enhanced green fluorescence protein) and MCF-7-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cells were studied in co-culture with cancellous bone tissue fragments isolated from 14 hip arthroplasties. Breast cancer cell migration into tissues and toward tissue-conditioned medium was measured in Transwell migration chambers using bioluminescence imaging and analyzed as a function of secreted factors measured by multiplex immunoassay. Patterns of breast cancer cell colonization were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Enhanced MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cell migration to bone-conditioned versus control medium was observed in 12/14 specimens (P = .0014) and correlated significantly with increasing levels of the adipokines/cytokines leptin (P = .006) and IL-1β (P = .001) in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry of fragments underscored the extreme adiposity of adult human bone tissues and revealed extensive breast cancer cell colonization within the marrow adipose tissue compartment. Our results show that breast cancer cells migrate to human bone tissue-conditioned medium in association with increasing levels of leptin and IL-1β, and colonize the bone marrow adipose tissue compartment of cultured fragments. Bone marrow adipose tissue and its molecular signals may be important but understudied components of the breast cancer metastatic niche. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Is the corticomedullary index valid to distinguish human from nonhuman bones: a multislice computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rérolle, Camille; Saint-Martin, Pauline; Dedouit, Fabrice; Rousseau, Hervé; Telmon, Norbert

    2013-09-10

    The first step in the identification process of bone remains is to determine whether they are of human or nonhuman origin. This issue may arise when only a fragment of bone is available, as the species of origin is usually easily determined on a complete bone. The present study aims to assess the validity of a morphometric method used by French forensic anthropologists to determine the species of origin: the corticomedullary index (CMI), defined by the ratio of the diameter of the medullary cavity to the total diameter of the bone. We studied the constancy of the CMI from measurements made on computed tomography images (CT scans) of different human bones, and compared our measurements with reference values selected in the literature. The measurements obtained on CT scans at three different sites of 30 human femurs, 24 tibias, and 24 fibulas were compared between themselves and with the CMI reference values for humans, pigs, dogs and sheep. Our results differed significantly from these reference values, with three exceptions: the proximal quarter of the femur and mid-fibular measurements for the human CMI, and the proximal quarter of the tibia for the sheep CMI. Mid-tibial, mid-femoral, and mid-fibular measurements also differed significantly between themselves. Only 22.6% of CT scans of human bones were correctly identified as human. We concluded that the CMI is not an effective method for determining the human origin of bone remains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a Human Cranial Bone Surrogate for Impact Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Jack C.; Merkle, Andrew C.; Carneal, Catherine M.; Voo, Liming M.; Johannes, Matthew S.; Paulson, Jeff M.; Tankard, Sara; Uy, O. Manny

    2013-01-01

    In order to replicate the fracture behavior of the intact human skull under impact it becomes necessary to develop a material having the mechanical properties of cranial bone. The most important properties to replicate in a surrogate human skull were found to be the fracture toughness and tensile strength of the cranial tables as well as the bending strength of the three-layer (inner table-diplöe-outer table) architecture of the human skull. The materials selected to represent the surrogate cranial tables consisted of two different epoxy resins systems with random milled glass fiber to enhance the strength and stiffness and the materials to represent the surrogate diplöe consisted of three low density foams. Forty-one three-point bending fracture toughness tests were performed on nine material combinations. The materials that best represented the fracture toughness of cranial tables were then selected and formed into tensile samples and tested. These materials were then used with the two surrogate diplöe foam materials to create the three-layer surrogate cranial bone samples for three-point bending tests. Drop tower tests were performed on flat samples created from these materials and the fracture patterns were very similar to the linear fractures in pendulum impacts of intact human skulls, previously reported in the literature. The surrogate cranial tables had the quasi-static fracture toughness and tensile strength of 2.5 MPa√ m and 53 ± 4.9 MPa, respectively, while the same properties of human compact bone were 3.1 ± 1.8 MPa√ m and 68 ± 18 MPa, respectively. The cranial surrogate had a quasi-static bending strength of 68 ± 5.7 MPa, while that of cranial bone was 82 ± 26 MPa. This material/design is currently being used to construct spherical shell samples for drop tower and ballistic tests.

  15. Technical Report: Correlation Between the Repair of Cartilage and Subchondral Bone in an Osteochondral Defect Using Bilayered, Biodegradable Hydrogel Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Steven; Lam, Johnny; Trachtenberg, Jordan E; Lee, Esther J; Seyednejad, Hajar; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Kasper, F Kurtis; Scott, David W; Wong, Mark E; Jansen, John A; Mikos, Antonios G

    2015-12-01

    The present work investigated correlations between cartilage and subchondral bone repair, facilitated by a growth factor-delivering scaffold, in a rabbit osteochondral defect model. Histological scoring indices and microcomputed tomography morphological parameters were used to evaluate cartilage and bone repair, respectively, at 6 and 12 weeks. Correlation analysis revealed significant associations between specific cartilage indices and subchondral bone parameters that varied with location in the defect (cortical vs. trabecular region), time point (6 vs. 12 weeks), and experimental group (insulin-like growth factor-1 only, bone morphogenetic protein-2 only, or both growth factors). In particular, significant correlations consistently existed between cartilage surface regularity and bone quantity parameters. Overall, correlation analysis between cartilage and bone repair provided a fuller understanding of osteochondral repair and can help drive informed studies for future osteochondral regeneration strategies.

  16. The Korean herbal formulation Yukmijihwangtang stimulates longitudinal bone growth in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Min; Lee, Sun Haeng; Lee, Donghun; Lee, Ji Hong; Chang, Gyu Tae; Kim, Hocheol; Lee, Jin Yong

    2017-05-02

    Yukmijihwangtang (YJT) is a traditional Korean medicine that has been used to treat kidney-yin deficiency symptoms such as dizziness and tinnitus. In addition, because it is also thought to nourish kidney-yin, it has been used to treat short stature from congenital deficiency. This study evaluated the effects of YJT on longitudinal bone growth in rats. Female adolescent rats were randomly assigned to groups that received distilled water (per os [p.o.] twice a day; control), recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH; 20 μg/kg, subcutaneous [s.c.] once a day), or two different doses of YJT (100 or 300 mg/kg, p.o. twice a day). In each group, treatment was maintained for 4 days. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU; 50 mg/kg) to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 2 - 4. Tetracycline hydrochloride (20 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally to form fluorescent bands on the growth plates on day 3 for measuring the longitudinal bone growth rate. Expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in the growth plate was identified using immunohistochemistry. There was a significant increase in the rate of bone growth in the 300 mg/kg YJT group (523.8 ± 23.7 μm/day; P growth plate in the 300 mg/kg YJT and rhGH groups. YJT increased the longitudinal bone growth rate by stimulating chondrocyte proliferation with increasing increments of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expression. Based on these findings, YJT may be a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of growth retardation during adolescence.

  17. Human Cementum Protein 1 induces expression of bone and cementum proteins by human gingival fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona-Rodriguez, Bruno; Alvarez-Perez, Marco Antonio; Narayanan, A. Sampath; Zeichner-David, Margarita; Reyes-Gasga, Jose; Molina-Guarneros, Juan; Garcia-Hernandez, Ana Lilia; Suarez-Franco, Jose Luis; Chavarria, Ivet Gil; Villarreal-Ramirez, Eduardo; Arzate, Higinio

    2007-01-01

    We recently presented evidence showing that a human cementoblastoma-derived protein, named Cementum Protein 1 (CEMP1) may play a role as a local regulator of cementoblast differentiation and cementum-matrix mineralization. This protein was shown to be expressed by cementoblasts and progenitor cells localized in the periodontal ligament. In this study we demonstrate that transfection of CEMP1 into human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) induces mineralization and expression of bone and cementum-matrix proteins. The transfected HGF cells had higher alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferation rate and they expressed genes for alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin, the transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1, and cementum attachment protein (CAP). They also produced biological-type hydroxyapatite. These findings indicate that the CEMP1 might participate in differentiation and mineralization of nonosteogenic cells, and that it might have a potential function in cementum and bone formation

  18. Human bone marrow stem cell-encapsulating calcium phosphate scaffolds for bone repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Michael D.; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2010-01-01

    Due to its injectability and excellent osteoconductivity, calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is highly promising for orthopedic applications. However, a literature search revealed no report on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hBMSC) encapsulation in CPC for bone tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to encapsulate hBMSCs in alginate hydrogel beads and then incorporate them into CPC, CPC–chitosan and CPC–chitosan–fiber scaffolds. Chitosan and degradable fibers were used to mechanically reinforce the scaffolds. After 21 days, that the percentage of live cells and the cell density of hBMSCs inside CPC-based constructs matched those in alginate without CPC, indicating that the CPC setting reaction did not harm the hBMSCs. Alkaline phosphate activity increased by 8-fold after 14 days. Mineral staining, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed that apatitic mineral was deposited by the cells. The amount of hBMSC-synthesized mineral in CPC–chitosan–fiber matched that in CPC without chitosan and fibers. Hence, adding chitosan and fibers, which reinforced the CPC, did not compromise hBMSC osteodifferentiation and mineral synthesis. In conclusion, hBMSCs were encapsulated in CPC and CPC–chitosan–fiber scaffolds for the first time. The encapsulated cells remained viable, osteodifferentiated and synthesized bone minerals. These self-setting, hBMSC-encapsulating CPC-based constructs may be promising for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:20451676

  19. Bioactive Molecule-loaded Drug Delivery Systems to Optimize Bone Tissue Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Joao Augusto; Sato, Mariana Rillo; Scardueli, Cassio Rocha; Lopes de Oliveira, Guilherme Jose Pimentel; Abucafy, Marina Paiva; Chorilli, Marlus

    2017-01-01

    Bioactive molecules such as peptides and proteins can optimize the repair of bone tissue; however, the results are often unpredictable when administered alone, owing to their short biological half-life and instability. Thus, the development of bioactive molecule-loaded drug delivery systems (DDS) to repair bone tissue has been the subject of intense research. DDS can optimize the repair of bone tissue owing to their physicochemical properties, which improve cellular interactions and enable the incorporation and prolonged release of bioactive molecules. These characteristics are fundamental to favor bone tissue homeostasis, since the biological activity of these factors depends on how accessible they are to the cell. Considering the importance of these DDS, this review aims to present relevant information on DDS when loaded with osteogenic growth peptide and bone morphogenetic protein. These are bioactive molecules that are capable of modulating the differentiation and proliferation of mesenchymal cells in bone tissue cells. Moreover, we will present different approaches using these peptide and protein-loaded DDS, such as synthetic membranes and scaffolds for bone regeneration, synthetic grafts, bone cements, liposomes, and micelles, which aim at improving the therapeutic effectiveness, and we will compare their advantages with commercial systems. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Association between in vivo bone formation and ex vivo migratory capacity of human bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke K.; Zaher, Walid; Larsen, Kenneth Hauberg

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is a clinical need for developing systemic transplantation protocols for use of human skeletal stem cells (also known bone marrow stromal stem cells) (hBMSC) in tissue regeneration. In systemic transplantation studies, only a limited number of hBMSC home to injured tissues...... populations derived from telomerized hBMSC (hBMSC-TERT) with variable ability to form heterotopic bone when implanted subcutaneously in immune deficient mice. In vitro transwell migration assay was used and the in vivo homing ability of transplanted hBMSC to bone fractures in mice was visualized...... suggesting that only a subpopulation of hBMSC possesses "homing" capacity. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that a subpopulation of hBMSC defined by ability to form heterotopic bone in vivo, is capable of homing to injured bone. METHODS: We tested ex vivo and in vivo homing capacity of a number of clonal cell...

  1. Human decellularized bone scaffolds from aged donors show improved osteoinductive capacity compared to young donor bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Smith

    Full Text Available To improve the safe use of allograft bone, decellularization techniques may be utilized to produce acellular scaffolds. Such scaffolds should retain their innate biological and biomechanical capacity and support mesenchymal stem cell (MSC osteogenic differentiation. However, as allograft bone is derived from a wide age-range, this study aimed to determine whether donor age impacts on the ability an osteoinductive, acellular scaffold produced from human bone to promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSC. BM-MSCs from young and old donors were seeded on acellular bone cubes from young and old donors undergoing osteoarthritis related hip surgery. All combinations resulted in increased osteogenic gene expression, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzyme activity, however BM-MSCs cultured on old donor bone displayed the largest increases. BM-MSCs cultured in old donor bone conditioned media also displayed higher osteogenic gene expression and ALP activity than those exposed to young donor bone conditioned media. ELISA and Luminex analysis of conditioned media demonstrated similar levels of bioactive factors between age groups; however, IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP1 concentration was significantly higher in young donor samples. Additionally, structural analysis of old donor bone indicated an increased porosity compared to young donor bone. These results demonstrate the ability of a decellularized scaffold produced from young and old donors to support osteogenic differentiation of cells from young and old donors. Significantly, the older donor bone produced greater osteogenic differentiation which may be related to reduced IGFBP1 bioavailability and increased porosity, potentially explaining the excellent clinical results seen with the use of allograft from aged donors.

  2. Regulation of Gastric Lgr5+ve Cell Homeostasis by Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP Signaling and Inflammatory StimuliSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ye

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Gastric Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5 cells exert important functions during injury and homeostasis. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling regulates gastric inflammation and epithelial homeostasis. We investigated if BMP signaling controls the fate of Lgr5+ve cells during inflammation. Methods: The H+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase β-subunit promoter was used to express the BMP inhibitor noggin (Nog in the stomach (H+/K+-Nog mice. Inhibition of BMP signaling in Lgr5 cells was achieved by crossing Lgr5-EGFP-ires-CreERT2 (Lgr5-Cre mice to mice with floxed alleles of BMP receptor 1A (Lgr5-Cre;Bmpr1aflox/flox mice. Lgr5/GFP+ve cells were isolated using flow cytometry. Lineage tracing studies were conducted by crossing Lgr5-Cre mice to mice that express Nog and tdTomato (Lgr5-Cre;H+/K+-Nog;Rosa26-tdTom. Infection with Helicobacter felis was used to induce inflammation. Morphology of the mucosa was analyzed by H&E staining. Distribution of H+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase-, IF-, Ki67-, CD44-, CD44v9-, and bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells was analyzed by immunostaining. Expression of neck and pit cell mucins was determined by staining with the lectins Griffonia (Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin II and Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1, respectively. Id1, Bmpr1a, Lgr5, c-Myc, and Cd44 messenger RNAs were measured by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: Lgr5-Cre;Bmpr1aflox/flox mice showed diminished expression of Bmpr1a in Lgr5/GFP+ve cells. Infection of Lgr5-Cre;Bmpr1aflox/flox mice with H felis led to enhanced inflammation, increased cell proliferation, parietal cell loss, and to the development of metaplasia and dysplasia. Infected Lgr5-Cre;H+/K+-Nog;Rosa26-tdTom mice, but not control mice, showed the presence of tomato+ve glands lining the lesser curvature that stained positively with Griffonia (Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin II and Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1, and

  3. The bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin 1 is overexpressed in human cancers and interacts with YWHAH protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namkoong, Hong; Shin, Seung Min; Kim, Hyun Kee; Ha, Seon-Ah; Cho, Goang Won; Hur, Soo Young; Kim, Tae Eung; Kim, Jin Woo

    2006-01-01

    Basic studies of oncogenesis have demonstrated that either the elevated production of particular oncogene proteins or the occurrence of qualitative abnormalities in oncogenes can contribute to neoplastic cellular transformation. The purpose of our study was to identify an unique gene that shows cancer-associated expression, and characterizes its function related to human carcinogenesis. We used the differential display (DD) RT-PCR method using normal cervical, cervical cancer, metastatic cervical tissues, and cervical cancer cell lines to identify genes overexpressed in cervical cancers and identified gremlin 1 which was overexpressed in cervical cancers. We determined expression levels of gremlin 1 using Northern blot analysis and immunohistochemical study in various types of human normal and cancer tissues. To understand the tumorigenesis pathway of identified gremlin 1 protein, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen, GST pull down assay, and immunoprecipitation to identify gremlin 1 interacting proteins. DDRT-PCR analysis revealed that gremlin 1 was overexpressed in uterine cervical cancer. We also identified a human gremlin 1 that was overexpressed in various human tumors including carcinomas of the lung, ovary, kidney, breast, colon, pancreas, and sarcoma. PIG-2-transfected HEK 293 cells exhibited growth stimulation and increased telomerase activity. Gremlin 1 interacted with homo sapiens tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, eta polypeptide (14-3-3 eta; YWHAH). YWHAH protein binding site for gremlin 1 was located between residues 61–80 and gremlin 1 binding site for YWHAH was found to be located between residues 1 to 67. Gremlin 1 may play an oncogenic role especially in carcinomas of the uterine cervix, lung, ovary, kidney, breast, colon, pancreas, and sarcoma. Over-expressed gremlin 1 functions by interaction with YWHAH. Therefore, Gremlin 1 and its binding protein YWHAH could be good targets for developing diagnostic and

  4. Effect of autoclave devitalization on autograft incorporation and bone morphogenetic protein of tibia in Sprague-Dawley rats

    OpenAIRE

    Anak A.G.Y. Asmara; Achmad F. Kamal; Nurjati C. Siregar; Marcel Prasetyo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Heating process with autoclave is one of limb salvage modalities that are widely used. but the results are not satisfying, due to mechanical bone fragility. However, considering this treatment modality is widely accepted in terms of financial, religion and sociocultural aspects, we conducted a on study rats treated with resection and reconstruction with autoclave heating method to assess bone healing by sequential radiology, histopathologic osteoblasts count, and bone morphogeneti...

  5. [EFFECT OF RECOMBINANT ADENOVIRUS-BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN 12 TRANSFECTION ON DIFFERENTIATION OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS INTO TENDON/LIGAMENT CELLS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weili; Chen, Gang; Tang, Xin; Li, Qi; Ll, Jian

    2015-04-01

    To research the effect of recombinant adenovirus-bone morphogenetic protein 12 (Ad-BMP-12) transfection on the differentiation of peripheral blood mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into tendon/ligament cells. Peripheral blood MSCs were isolated from New Zealand rabbits (3-4 months old) and cultured in vitro until passage 3. The recombinant adenoviral vector system was prepared using AdEasy system, then transfected into MSCs at passage 3 (transfected group); untransfected MSCs served as control (untransfected group). The morphological characteristics and growth of transfected cells were observed under inverted phase contrast microscope. The transfection efficiency and green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression were detected by flow cytometry (FCM) and fluorescence microscopy. After cultured for 14 days in vitro, the expressions of tendon/ligament-specific markers were determined by immunohistochemistry and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. GFP expression could be observed in peripheral blood MSCs at 8 hours after transfection. At 24 hours after transfection, the cells had clear morphology and grew slowly under inverted phase contrast microscope and almost all expressed GFP at the same field under fluorescence microscopy. FCM analysis showed that the transfection efficiency of the transfected group was 99.57%, while it was 2.46% in the untransfected group. The immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of collagen type I gradually increased with culture time in vitro. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR results showed that the mRNA expressions of the tendon/ligament-specific genes (Tenomodulin, Tenascin-C, and Decorin) in the transfected group were significantly higher than those in untransfected group (0.061+/- 0.013 vs. 0.004 +/- 0.002, t = -7.700, P=0.031; 0.029 +/- 0.008 vs. 0.003 +/- 0.001, t = -5.741, P=0.020; 0.679 +/- 0.067 vs. 0.142 +/- 0.024, t = -12.998, P=0.000). Ad-BMP-12 can significantly promote differentiation of peripheral blood MSCs into

  6. CD146/MCAM defines functionality of human bone marrow stromal stem cell populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Zaher, Walid; Ditzel, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of surface markers for prospective isolation of functionally homogenous populations of human skeletal (stromal, mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSCs) is highly relevant for cell therapy protocols. Thus, we examined the possible use of CD146 to subtype a heterogeneous hMSC...... population. METHODS: Using flow cytometry and cell sorting, we isolated two distinct hMSC-CD146(+) and hMSC-CD146(-) cell populations from the telomerized human bone marrow-derived stromal cell line (hMSC-TERT). Cells were examined for differences in their size, shape and texture by using high...... and adipocytes on the basis of gene expression and protein production of lineage-specific markers. In vivo, hMSC-CD146(+) and hMSC-CD146(-) cells formed bone and bone marrow organ when implanted subcutaneously in immune-deficient mice. Bone was enriched in hMSC-CD146(-) cells (12.6 % versus 8.1 %) and bone...

  7. Heterozygous Null Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type 2 Mutations Promote SRC Kinase-dependent Caveolar Trafficking Defects and Endothelial Dysfunction in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt, Allison R.; Ghose, Sampa; Frump, Andrea L.; Datta, Arumima; Austin, Eric D.; Kenworthy, Anne K.; de Caestecker, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) is a rare, fatal disease of the pulmonary vasculature. The majority of HPAH patients inherit mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein type 2 receptor gene (BMPR2), but how these promote pulmonary vascular disease is unclear. HPAH patients have features of pulmonary endothelial cell (PEC) dysfunction including increased vascular permeability and perivascular inflammation associated with decreased PEC barrier function. Recently, frameshift mutations in the caveolar structural protein gene Caveolin-1 (CAV-1) were identified in two patients with non-BMPR2-associated HPAH. Because caveolae regulate endothelial function and vascular permeability, we hypothesized that defects in caveolar function might be a common mechanism by which BMPR2 mutations promote pulmonary vascular disease. To explore this, we isolated PECs from mice carrying heterozygous null Bmpr2 mutations (Bmpr2+/−) similar to those found in the majority of HPAH patients. We show that Bmpr2+/− PECs have increased numbers and intracellular localization of caveolae and caveolar structural proteins CAV-1 and Cavin-1 and that these defects are reversed after blocking endocytosis with dynasore. SRC kinase is also constitutively activated in Bmpr2+/− PECs, and localization of CAV-1 to the plasma membrane is restored after treating Bmpr2+/− PECs with the SRC kinase inhibitor 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-amine (PP2). Late outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells isolated from HPAH patients show similar increased activation of SRC kinase. Moreover, Bmpr2+/− PECs have impaired endothelial barrier function, and barrier function is restored after treatment with PP2. These data suggest that heterozygous null BMPR2 mutations promote SRC-dependent caveolar trafficking defects in PECs and that this may contribute to pulmonary endothelial barrier dysfunction in HPAH patients. PMID:25411245

  8. Development and Assessment of a 3D-Printed Scaffold with rhBMP-2 for an Implant Surgical Guide Stent and Bone Graft Material: A Pilot Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheol Bae

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new concept of a 3D-printed scaffold was introduced for the accurate placement of an implant and the application of a recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2-loaded bone graft. This preliminary study was conducted using two adult beagles to evaluate the 3D-printed polycaprolactone (PCL/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP/bone decellularized extracellular matrix (bdECM scaffold conjugated with rhBMP-2 for the simultaneous use as an implant surgical guide stent and bone graft material that promotes new bone growth. Teeth were extracted from the mandible of the beagle model and scanned by computed tomography (CT to fabricate a customized scaffold that would fit the bone defect. After positioning the implant guide scaffold, the implant was placed and rhBMP-2 was injected into the scaffold of the experimental group. The two beagles were sacrificed after three months. The specimen block was obtained and scanned by micro-CT. Histological analysis showed that the control and experimental groups had similar new bone volume (NBV, % but the experimental group with BMP exhibited a significantly higher bone-to-implant contact ratio (BIC, %. Within the limitations of this preliminary study, a 3D-printed scaffold conjugated with rhBMP-2 can be used simultaneously as an implant surgical guide and a bone graft in a large bone defect site. Further large-scale studies will be needed to confirm these results.

  9. Development and Assessment of a 3D-Printed Scaffold with rhBMP-2 for an Implant Surgical Guide Stent and Bone Graft Material: A Pilot Animal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Ji Cheol; Lee, Jin-Ju; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Park, Keun-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Seok; Bae, Eun-Bin; Choi, Jae-Won; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a new concept of a 3D-printed scaffold was introduced for the accurate placement of an implant and the application of a recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)-loaded bone graft. This preliminary study was conducted using two adult beagles to evaluate the 3D-printed polycaprolactone (PCL)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)/bone decellularized extracellular matrix (bdECM) scaffold conjugated with rhBMP-2 for the simultaneous use as an implant surgical guide stent and bone graft material that promotes new bone growth. Teeth were extracted from the mandible of the beagle model and scanned by computed tomography (CT) to fabricate a customized scaffold that would fit the bone defect. After positioning the implant guide scaffold, the implant was placed and rhBMP-2 was injected into the scaffold of the experimental group. The two beagles were sacrificed after three months. The specimen block was obtained and scanned by micro-CT. Histological analysis showed that the control and experimental groups had similar new bone volume (NBV, %) but the experimental group with BMP exhibited a significantly higher bone-to-implant contact ratio (BIC, %). Within the limitations of this preliminary study, a 3D-printed scaffold conjugated with rhBMP-2 can be used simultaneously as an implant surgical guide and a bone graft in a large bone defect site. Further large-scale studies will be needed to confirm these results. PMID:29258172

  10. No effect of Osteoset, a bone graft substitute, on bone healing in humans: a prospective randomized double-blind study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petruskevicius, Juozas; Nielsen, Mette Strange; Kaalund, Søren

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of a newly marketed bone substitute, Osteoset, on bone healing in a tibial defect in humans. 20 patients undergoing an ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction with bone-patella tendon-bone graft were block-randomized into 2 groups of 10 each. In the treatment group......, the tibial defect was filled manually with Osteoset pellets, in the control group the defect was left empty. CTs of the defect were taken on the first day after the operation, 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. We found about the same amount of bone in the defect in the Osteoset and control groups...... after 6 weeks, 3, and 6 months. In the control group, but not in the Osteoset group, the bone volume increased from 6 weeks to 3 months. The Osteoset pellets were almost resorbed after 6 weeks....

  11. Decision tree analysis as a supplementary tool to enhance histomorphological differentiation when distinguishing human from non-human cranial bone in both burnt and unburnt states: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, T; Goodburn, B; Singhrao, S K

    2016-01-01

    This feasibility study was undertaken to describe and record the histological characteristics of burnt and unburnt cranial bone fragments from human and non-human bones. Reference series of fully mineralized, transverse sections of cranial bone, from all variables and specimen states, were prepared by manual cutting and semi-automated grinding and polishing methods. A photomicrograph catalogue reflecting differences in burnt and unburnt bone from human and non-humans was recorded and qualitative analysis was performed using an established classification system based on primary bone characteristics. The histomorphology associated with human and non-human samples was, for the main part, preserved following burning at high temperature. Clearly, fibro-lamellar complex tissue subtypes, such as plexiform or laminar primary bone, were only present in non-human bones. A decision tree analysis based on histological features provided a definitive identification key for distinguishing human from non-human bone, with an accuracy of 100%. The decision tree for samples where burning was unknown was 96% accurate, and multi-step classification to taxon was possible with 100% accuracy. The results of this feasibility study strongly suggest that histology remains a viable alternative technique if fragments of cranial bone require forensic examination in both burnt and unburnt states. The decision tree analysis may provide an additional but vital tool to enhance data interpretation. Further studies are needed to assess variation in histomorphology taking into account other cranial bones, ontogeny, species and burning conditions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Histomorphometric quantification of human pathological bones from synchrotron radiation 3D computed microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson

    2011-01-01

    Conventional bone histomorphometry is an important method for quantitative evaluation of bone microstructure. X-ray computed microtomography is a noninvasive technique, which can be used to evaluate histomorphometric indices in trabecular bones (BV/TV, BS/BV, Tb.N, Tb.Th, Tb.Sp). In this technique, the output 3D images are used to quantify the whole sample, differently from the conventional one, in which the quantification is performed in 2D slices and extrapolated for 3D case. In this work, histomorphometric quantification using synchrotron 3D X-ray computed microtomography was performed to quantify pathological samples of human bone. Samples of human bones were cut into small blocks (8 mm x 8 mm x 10 mm) with a precision saw and then imaged. The computed microtomographies were obtained at SYRMEP (Synchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) beamline, at ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility (Italy). The obtained 3D images yielded excellent resolution and details of intra-trabecular bone structures, including marrow present inside trabeculae. Histomorphometric quantification was compared to literature as well. (author)

  13. Radiographic Comparison of Bovine Bone Substitute Alone versus Bovine Bone Substitute and Simvastatin for Human Maxillary Sinus Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Reza Rasouli Ghahroudi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of bovine bone substitute (Compact Bone B. ® alone versus bovine bone substitute and simvastatin for human maxillary sinus augmentation.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 16 sinuses in eight patients. Radiographic assessments were done preoperatively (T0, immediately (T1 and at nine months after sinus grafting (T2. Alveolar bone height and density were assessed on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT scans using Planmeca Romexis™ Imaging Software 2.2.Results: The change in alveolar bone height and density between T0, T1 and T2 was significant in both groups. Alveolar bone height (h0, h1, h2 and vertical height of the grafted bone (g1, g2 in three lines (anterior, middle and posterior were not significantly different between groups. The grafted bone height shrinkage (% in the anterior, middle and posterior limits of the augmented area were not significantly different between groups. The existing alveolar and grafted bone density increased significantly in both groups between T1 and T2, except for the existing alveolar bone density in the control group. There were no statistically significant differences between the alveolar bone density values obtained in TI and T2 between groups, except for the existing alveolar bone density at T1.Conclusions: This study did not show any significant positive effect for simvastatin in maxillary sinus augmentation based on radiographic examination.

  14. Development and optimization of a cell-based assay for the selection of synthetic compounds that potentiate bone morphogenetic protein-2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Motohiro; Sangadala, Sreedhara; Liu, Yunshan; Yoshida, Munehito; Reddy, Boojala Vijay B; Titus, Louisa; Boden, Scott D

    2009-12-01

    The requirement of large amounts of the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) produces a huge translational barrier for its routine clinical use due to high cost. This leads to an urgent need to develop alternative methods to lower costs and/or increase efficacies for using BMP-2. In this study, we describe the development and optimization of a cell-based assay that is sensitive, reproducible, and reliable in identifying reagents that potentiate the effects of BMP-2 in inducing transdifferentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into the osteoblastic phenotype. The assay is based on a BMP-responsive Smad1-driven luciferase reporter gene. LIM mineralization protein-1 (LMP-1) is a novel intracellular LIM domain protein that has been shown by our group to enhance cellular responsiveness to BMP-2. Our previous report elucidated that the binding of LMP-1 with the WW2 domain in Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor-1 (Smurf1) rescues the osteogenic Smads from degradation. Here, using the optimized cell-based assay, we first evaluated the activity of the recombinantly prepared proteins, LMP-1, and its mutant (LMP-1DeltaSmurf1) that lacks the Smurf1-WW2 domain-binding motif. Both the wild type and the mutant proteins were engineered to contain an 11-amino acid HIV-TAT protein derived membrane transduction domain to aid the cellular delivery of recombinant proteins. The cell-based reporter assay confirmed that LMP-1 potentiates the BMP-induced stimulation of C2C12 cells towards the osteoblastic phenotype. The potentiating effect of LMP-1 was significantly reduced when a specific-motif known to interact with Smurf1 was mutated. We validated the results obtained in the reporter assay by also monitoring the expression of mRNA for osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) which is widely accepted osteoblast differentiation marker genes. Finally, we provide further confirmation of our results by measuring the activity of alkaline phosphatase in support of the accuracy and

  15. Down-regulation of mTOR leads to up-regulation of osteoprotegerin in bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogi, Makio; Kondo, Ayami

    2009-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG)/osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor regulates bone mass by inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. mTOR, which is the mammalian target of rapamycin, is a kinase and central regulator of cell growth, proliferation, and survival. By using Rapamycin, we studied whether mTOR pathway is associated with OPG protein production in the mouse bone marrow-derived stromal cell line ST2. Rapamycin markedly increased the level of soluble OPG in ST2 cells. This antibiotic treatment resulted in the suppression of phosphorylation of mTOR. Rapamycin had no effects on the proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis of the cells. Treatment with bone morphogenetic protein-4, which can induce OPG protein in ST2 cells, also resulted in a decrease in the density of the phospho-mTOR-band, suggesting that the suppression of the phospho-mTOR pathway is necessary for OPG production in ST2 cells. Thus, suitable suppression of mTOR phosphorylation is a necessary requirement for OPG production in bone marrow stromal cells.

  16. Biomaterials with Antibacterial and Osteoinductive Properties to Repair Infected Bone Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Lu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The repair of infected bone defects is still challenging in the fields of orthopedics, oral implantology and maxillofacial surgery. In these cases, the self-healing capacity of bone tissue can be significantly compromised by the large size of bone defects and the potential/active bacterial activity. Infected bone defects are conventionally treated by a systemic/local administration of antibiotics to control infection and a subsequent implantation of bone grafts, such as autografts and allografts. However, these treatment options are time-consuming and usually yield less optimal efficacy. To approach these problems, novel biomaterials with both antibacterial and osteoinductive properties have been developed. The antibacterial property can be conferred by antibiotics and other novel antibacterial biomaterials, such as silver nanoparticles. Bone morphogenetic proteins are used to functionalize the biomaterials with a potent osteoinductive property. By manipulating the carrying modes and release kinetics, these biomaterials are optimized to maximize their antibacterial and osteoinductive functions with minimized cytotoxicity. The findings, in the past decade, have shown a very promising application potential of the novel biomaterials with the dual functions in treating infected bone defects. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of novel biomaterials with both antibacterial and osteoinductive properties.

  17. Requirement of alveolar bone formation for eruption of rat molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Gary E.; He, Hongzhi; Gutierrez, Dina L.; Ring, Sherry; Yao, Shaomian

    2011-01-01

    Tooth eruption is a localized event that requires a dental follicle (DF) to regulate the resorption of alveolar bone to form an eruption pathway. During the intra-osseous phase of eruption, the tooth moves through this pathway. The mechanism or motive force that propels the tooth through this pathway is controversial but many studies have shown that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt occurs during eruption. To determine if this bone growth (osteogenesis) was causal, experiments were designed in which the expression of an osteogenic gene in the DF, bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP6), was inhibited by injection of the 1st mandibular molar of the rat with an siRNA targeted against BMP6. The injection was followed by electroporation to promote uptake of the siRNA. In 45 first molars injected, eruption either was delayed or completely inhibited (7 molars). In the impacted molars, an eruption pathway formed but bone growth at the base of the crypt was greatly reduced as compared to the erupted first molar controls. These studies show that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt is required for tooth eruption and that BMP6 may be an essential gene for promoting this growth. PMID:21896048

  18. Human Dental Pulp-Derived Cells Produce Bone-Like Tissue and Exhibit Bone Cell-Like Responsiveness to Mechanical Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, David Christian Evar; Melsen, Birte; Bindslev, Dorthe Arenholt

    2010-01-01

    and characterize cell lines from human 3rd molar dental pulp tissue to determine whether human dental pulp-derived cells (DPCs) are osteogenic and responsive to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) in vitro. Methods: Human DPCs used for this study were characterized by measuring proliferation....... We also assessed bone formation by DPCs on hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate granules after subcutaneous implantation in mice. Results: We found that DPCs are intrinsically mechanosensitive and, like osteogenic cells, respond to PFF-induced fluid shear stress. Implantation of DPCs resulted...... remodeling in vivo, and therefore provide a promising new tool for regenerative dentistry, for example mineralized tissue engineering to restore bone defects in relation to periodontitis, periimplantatis and orofacial surgery. Experiments in progress have proven that DPCSs are also useful for assessing...

  19. Titanium phosphate glass microcarriers induce enhanced osteogenic cell proliferation and human mesenchymal stem cell protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay J Lakhkar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have developed 50- to 100-µm-sized titanium phosphate glass microcarriers (denoted as Ti5 that show enhanced proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells and MG63 osteosarcoma cells, as well as enhanced human mesenchymal stem cell expression of bone differentiation markers, in comparison with commercially available glass microspheres at all time points. We also demonstrate that these microcarriers provide superior human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation with conventional Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle medium than with a specially developed commercial stem cell medium. The microcarrier proliferative capacity is revealed by a 24-fold increase in MG63 cell numbers in spinner flask bioreactor studies performed over a 7-day period, versus only a 6-fold increase in control microspheres under the same conditions; the corresponding values of Ti5 and control microspheres under static culture are 8-fold and 7-fold, respectively. The capability of guided osteogenic differentiation is confirmed by ELISAs for bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin, which reveal significantly greater expression of these markers, especially osteopontin, by human mesenchymal stem cells on the Ti5 microspheres than on the control. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy images reveal favorable MG63 and human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion on the Ti5 microsphere surfaces. Thus, the results demonstrate the suitability of the developed microspheres for use as microcarriers in bone tissue engineering applications.

  20. Controlled Retention of BMP-2-Derived Peptide on Nanofibers Based on Mussel-Inspired Adhesion for Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinkyu; Perikamana, Sajeesh Kumar Madhurakkat; Ahmad, Taufiq; Lee, Min Suk; Yang, Hee Seok; Kim, Do-Gyoon; Kim, Kyobum; Kwon, Bosun; Shin, Heungsoo

    2017-04-01

    Although bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) has been frequently used to stimulate bone formation, it has several side effects to be addressed, including the difficulty in optimization of clinically relevant doses and unwanted induction of cancerous signaling processes. In this study, an osteogenic peptide (OP) derived from BMP-2 was investigated as a substitute for BMP-2. In vitro studies showed that OP was able to enhance the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The peptides were then conjugated onto biocompatible poly-ι-lactide electrospun nanofibers through polydopamine chemistry. Surface chemical analysis proved that more than 80% of the peptides were stably retained on the nanofiber surface after 8 h of polydopamine coating during at least 28 days, and the amount of peptides that was retained increased depending on the polydopamine coating time. For instance, about 65% of the peptides were retained on nanofibers after 4 h of polydopamine coating. Also, a relatively small dose of peptides could effectively induce bone formation in in vivo critical-sized defects on the calvarial bones of mice. More than 50.4% ± 16.9% of newly formed bone was filled within the defect after treatment with only 10.5 ± 0.6 μg of peptides. Moreover, these groups had similar elastic moduli and contact hardnesses with host bone. Taken together, our results suggest that polydopamine-mediated OP immobilized on nanofibers can modulate the retention of relatively short lengths of peptides, which might make this an effective therapeutic remedy to guide bone regeneration using a relatively small amount of peptides.

  1. Can experimental data in humans verify the finite element-based bone remodeling algorithm?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, C.; Gehrchen, P.M.; Kiaer, T.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A finite element analysis-based bone remodeling study in human was conducted in the lumbar spine operated on with pedicle screws. Bone remodeling results were compared to prospective experimental bone mineral content data of patients operated on with pedicle screws. OBJECTIVE......: The validity of 2 bone remodeling algorithms was evaluated by comparing against prospective bone mineral content measurements. Also, the potential stress shielding effect was examined using the 2 bone remodeling algorithms and the experimental bone mineral data. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In previous studies...... operated on with pedicle screws between L4 and L5. The stress shielding effect was also examined. The bone remodeling results were compared with prospective bone mineral content measurements of 4 patients. They were measured after surgery, 3-, 6- and 12-months postoperatively. RESULTS: After 1 year...

  2. Differential gene expression in human granulosa cells from recombinant FSH versus human menopausal gonadotropin ovarian stimulation protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bietz Mandi G

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was designed to test the hypothesis that granulosa cell (GC gene expression response differs between recombinant FSH and human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG stimulation regimens. Methods Females Results After exclusions, 1736 genes exhibited differential expression between groups. Over 400 were categorized as signal transduction genes, ~180 as transcriptional regulators, and ~175 as enzymes/metabolic genes. Expression of selected genes was confirmed by RT-PCR. Differentially expressed genes included A kinase anchor protein 11 (AKAP11, bone morphogenetic protein receptor II (BMPR2, epidermal growth factor (EGF, insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-4, IGFBP-5, and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1 alpha. Conclusions Results suggest that major differences exist in the mechanism by which pure FSH alone versus FSH/LH regulate gene expression in preovulatory GC that could impact oocyte maturity and developmental competence.

  3. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 and transforming growth factor-beta1 mechanisms in acute valvular response to supra-physiologic hemodynamic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Sucosky, Philippe

    2015-06-26

    To explore ex vivo the role of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) in acute valvular response to fluid shear stress (FSS) abnormalities. Porcine valve leaflets were subjected ex vivo to physiologic FSS, supra-physiologic FSS magnitude at normal frequency and supra-physiologic FSS frequency at normal magnitude for 48 h in a double-sided cone-and-plate bioreactor filled with standard culture medium. The role of BMP-4 and TGF-β1 in the valvular response was investigated by promoting or inhibiting the downstream action of those cytokines via culture medium supplementation with BMP-4 or the BMP antagonist noggin, and TGF-β1 or the TGF-β1 inhibitor SB-431542, respectively. Fresh porcine leaflets were used as controls. Each experimental group consisted of six leaflet samples. Immunostaining and immunoblotting were performed to assess endothelial activation in terms of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expressions, paracrine signaling in terms of BMP-4 and TGF-β1 expressions and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in terms of cathepsin L, cathepsin S, metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expressions. Immunostained images were quantified by normalizing the intensities of positively stained regions by the number of cells in each image while immunoblots were quantified by densitometry. Regardless of the culture medium, physiologic FSS maintained valvular homeostasis. Tissue exposure to supra-physiologic FSS magnitude in standard medium stimulated paracrine signaling (TGF-β1: 467% ± 22% vs 100% ± 6% in fresh controls, BMP-4: 258% ± 22% vs 100% ± 4% in fresh controls; P 0.05). Supra-physiologic FSS frequency had no effect on endothelial activation and paracrine signaling regardless of the culture medium but TGF-β1 silencing attenuated FSS-induced ECM degradation via MMP-9 downregulation (MMP-9: 302% ± 182% vs 100% ± 42% in fresh controls; P > 0.05). Valvular tissue is sensitive

  4. MESOLITHIC HUMAN BONES FROM THE UPPER VOLGA BASIN : RADIOCARBON AND TRACE ELEMENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexandrovskiy, A. L.; Alexandrovskaya, E. I.; Zhilin, M. I.; van der Plicht, J.

    2009-01-01

    Human bones from 3 Mesolithic sites in the Upper Volga basin were analyzed for trace elements, and dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The radiocarbon dates of the bones correspond to the Mesolithic era. However, some dates differ from those obtained for the enclosing deposits and for the

  5. MEPE, a new gene expressed in bone marrow and tumors causing osteomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, P S; de Zoysa, P A; Dong, R; Wang, H R; White, K E; Econs, M J; Oudet, C L

    2000-07-01

    Oncogenic hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (OHO) is characterized by a renal phosphate leak, hypophosphatemia, low-serum calcitriol (1,25-vitamin-D3), and abnormalities in skeletal mineralization. Resection of OHO tumors results in remission of the symptoms, and there is evidence that a circulating phosphaturic factor plays a role in the bone disease. This paper describes the characterization and cloning of a gene that is a candidate for the tumor-secreted phosphaturic factor. This new gene has been named MEPE (matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein) and has major similarities to a group of bone-tooth mineral matrix phospho-glycoproteins (osteopontin (OPN; HGMW-approved symbol SPP1), dentin sialo phosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), bone sialoprotein II (IBSP), and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP). All the proteins including MEPE contain RGD sequence motifs that are proposed to be essential for integrin-receptor interactions. Of further interest is the finding that MEPE, OPN, DSPP, DMP1, IBSP, and BMP3 all map to a defined region in chromosome 4q. Refined mapping localizes MEPE to 4q21.1 between ESTs D4S2785 (WI-6336) and D4S2844 (WI-3770). MEPE is 525 residues in length with a short N-terminal signal peptide. High-level expression of MEPE mRNA occurred in all four OHO tumors screened. Three of 11 non-OHO tumors screened contained trace levels of MEPE expression (detected only after RT-PCR and Southern 32P analysis). Normal tissue expression was found in bone marrow and brain with very-low-level expression found in lung, kidney, and human placenta. Evidence is also presented for the tumor secretion of clusterin (HGMW-approved symbol CLU) and its possible role as a cytotoxic factor in one of the OHO patients described.

  6. Pulmonary artery hypertension in childhood: The transforming growth factor-β superfamily-related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH is very rare in childhood, and it can be divided into heritable, idiopathic drug- and toxin-induced and other disease (connective tissue disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, portal hypertension, congenital heart disease, or schistosomiasis-associated types. PAH could not be interpreted solely by pathophysiological theories. The impact of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily-related genes on the development of PAH in children remains to be clarified. Pertinent literature on the transforming growth factor-β superfamily-related genes in relation to PAH in children published after the year 2000 was reviewed and analyzed. Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II gene mutation promotes cell division or prevents cell death, resulting in an overgrowth of cells in small arteries throughout the lungs. About 20% of individuals with a bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II gene mutation develop symptomatic PAH. In heritable PAH, bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II mutations may be absent; while mutations of other genes, such as type I receptor activin receptor-like kinase 1 and the type III receptor endoglin (both associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, caveolin-1 and KCNK3, the gene encoding potassium channel subfamily K, member 3, can be detected, instead. Gene mutations, environmental changes and acquired adjustment, etc. may explain the development of PAH. The researches on PAH rat model and familial PAH members may facilitate the elucidations of the mechanisms and further provide theories for prophylaxis and treatment of PAH. Key Words: bone morphogenetic proteins, mutation, pulmonary hypertension

  7. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers’ oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris. PMID:26928288

  8. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Abadjieva

    Full Text Available Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers' oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris.

  9. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Kistanova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers' oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris.

  10. Aging, human immunodeficiency virus, and bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim C Mansky

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Kim C ManskyDivision of Orthodontics, Department of Developmental and Surgical Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has had a profound impact on improving the long-term prognosis for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. HAART has been available for close to two decades, and now a significant number of patients with access to HAART are over the age of 50 years. Many clinical studies have indicated that HIV infection, as well as components of HAART, can increase the risk in these individuals to a variety of noninfectious complications, including a risk to bone health. There is a significant need for detailed mechanistic analysis of the aging, HIV-infected population regarding the risk of HIV infection and therapy in order to maintain bone health. Insights from basic mechanistic studies will help to shed light on the role of HIV infection and the components of HAART that impact bone health, and will help in identifying preventative countermeasures, particularly for individuals 50 years of age and older.Keywords: osteopenia, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, bisphosphonates, tenofovir, osteoimmunology

  11. The use of total human bone marrow fraction in a direct three-dimensional expansion approach for bone tissue engineering applications: focus on angiogenesis and osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Julien; Oliveira, Hugo; Catros, Sylvain; Siadous, Robin; Derkaoui, Sidi-Mohammed; Bareille, Reine; Letourneur, Didier; Amédée, Joëlle

    2015-03-01

    Current approaches in bone tissue engineering have shown limited success, mostly owing to insufficient vascularization of the construct. A common approach consists of co-culture of endothelial cells and osteoblastic cells. This strategy uses cells from different sources and differentiation states, thus increasing the complexity upstream of a clinical application. The source of reparative cells is paramount for the success of bone tissue engineering applications. In this context, stem cells obtained from human bone marrow hold much promise. Here, we analyzed the potential of human whole bone marrow cells directly expanded in a three-dimensional (3D) polymer matrix and focused on the further characterization of this heterogeneous population and on their ability to promote angiogenesis and osteogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo, in a subcutaneous model. Cellular aggregates were formed within 24 h and over the 12-day culture period expressed endothelial and bone-specific markers and a specific junctional protein. Ectopic implantation of the tissue-engineered constructs revealed osteoid tissue and vessel formation both at the periphery and within the implant. This work sheds light on the potential clinical use of human whole bone marrow for bone regeneration strategies, focusing on a simplified approach to develop a direct 3D culture without two-dimensional isolation or expansion.

  12. BMP9 inhibits the bone metastasis of breast cancer cells by downregulating CCN2 (connective tissue growth factor, CTGF) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Ke; Feng, Honglei; Liu, Yuehong; Fei, Chang; Wan, Shaoheng; Wang, Wei; Luo, Jinyong; Shi, Qiong; Tang, Min; Zuo, Guowei; Weng, Yaguang; He, Tongchuan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-03-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which belong to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, regulate a wide range of cellular responses including cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration, and apoptosis. BMP9, the latest BMP to be discovered, is reportedly expressed in a variety of human carcinoma cell lines, but the role of BMP9 in breast cancer has not been fully clarified. In a previous study, BMP9 was found to inhibit the growth, migration, and invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. In the current study, the effect of BMP9 on the bone metastasis of breast cancer cells was investigated. After absent or low expression of BMP9 was detected in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and breast non-tumor adjacent tissues using Western blot and immunohistochemistry, In our previous study, BMP9 could inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 in vitro and in vivo. This paper shows that BMP9 inhibit the bone metastasis of breast cancer cells by activating the BMP/Smad signaling pathway and downregulating connective tissue growth factor (CTGF); however, when CTGF expression was maintained, the inhibitory effect of BMP9 on the MDA-MB-231 cells was abolished. Together, these observations indicate that BMP9 is an important mediator of breast cancer bone metastasis and a potential therapeutic target for treating this deadly disease.

  13. Mechanical properties of the normal human cartilage-bone complex in relation to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M; Linde, F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the age-related variations in the mechanical properties of the normal human tibial cartilage-bone complex and the relationships between cartilage and bone. DESIGN: A novel technique was applied to assess the mechanical properties of the cartilage and bone by mea...... that are of importance for the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of degenerative joint diseases, such as arthrosis....

  14. Combination of calcium sulfate and simvastatin-controlled release microspheres enhances bone repair in critical-sized rat calvarial bone defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu YC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yin-Chih Fu,1–4 Yan-Hsiung Wang,1,5 Chung-Hwan Chen,1,3,4 Chih-Kuang Wang,1,6 Gwo-Jaw Wang,1,3,4 Mei-Ling Ho1,3,7,8 1Orthopaedic Research Center, 2Graduate Institute of Medicine, 3Department of Orthopaedics, 4Department of Orthopaedics, College of Medicine, 5School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, 6Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, 7Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 8Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, TaiwanAbstract: Most allogenic bone graft substitutes have only osteoconductive properties. Developing new strategies to improve the osteoinductive activity of bone graft substitutes is both critical and practical for clinical application. Previously, we developed novel simvastatin-encapsulating poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres (SIM/PLGA that slowly release simvastatin and enhance fracture healing. In this study, we combined SIM/PLGA with a rapidly absorbable calcium sulfate (CS bone substitute and studied the effect on bone healing in critical-sized calvarial bone defects in a rat model. The cytotoxicity and cytocompatibility of this combination was tested in vitro using lactate dehydrogenase leakage and a cell attachment assay, respectively. Combination treatment with SIM/PLGA and the CS bone substitute had no cytotoxic effect on bone marrow stem cells. Compared with the control, cell adhesion was substantially enhanced following combination treatment with SIM/PLGA and the CS bone substitute. In vivo, implantation of the combination bone substitute promoted healing of critical-sized calvarial bone defects in rats; furthermore, production of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and neovascularization were enhanced in the area of the defect. In summary, the combination of SIM/PLGA and a CS bone substitute has osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties, indicating that it could be used for regeneration

  15. Multi-protein delivery by nanodiamonds promotes bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, L; Gatica, M; Kim, H; Osawa, E; Ho, D

    2013-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are well-studied regulators of cartilage and bone development that have been Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for the promotion of bone formation in certain procedures. BMPs are seeing more use in oral and maxillofacial surgeries because of recent FDA approval of InFUSE(®) for sinus augmentation and localized alveolar ridge augmentation. However, the utility of BMPs in medical and dental applications is limited by the delivery method. Currently, BMPs are delivered to the surgical site by the implantation of bulky collagen sponges. Here we evaluate the potential of detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) as a delivery vehicle for BMP-2 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Nanodiamonds are biocompatible, 4- to 5-nm carbon nanoparticles that have previously been used to deliver a wide variety of molecules, including proteins and peptides. We find that both BMP-2 and bFGF are readily loaded onto NDs by physisorption, forming a stable colloidal solution, and are triggered to release in slightly acidic conditions. Simultaneous delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF by ND induces differentiation and proliferation in osteoblast progenitor cells. Overall, we find that NDs provide an effective injectable alternative for the delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF to promote bone formation.

  16. Thermal Conductivity of Human Bone in Cryoprobe Freezing as Related to Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kyle E; Baldini, Todd; Lindeque, Bennie G

    2017-03-01

    Cryoprobes create localized cell destruction through freezing. Bone is resistant to temperature flow but is susceptible to freezing necrosis at warmer temperatures than tumor cells. Few studies have determined the thermal conductivity of human bone. No studies have examined conductivity as related to density. The study goal was to examine thermal conductivity in human bone while comparing differences between cancellous and cortical bone. An additional goal was to establish a relationship between bone density and thermal conductivity. Six knee joints from 5 cadavers were obtained. The epiphyseal region was sliced in half coronally prior to inserting an argon-circulating cryoprobe directed away from the joint line. Thermistor thermometers were placed perpendicularly at measured increments, and the freezing cycle was recorded until steady-state conditions were achieved. For 2 cortical samples, the probe was placed intramedullary in metaphyseal samples and measurements were performed radially from the central axis of each sample. Conductivity was calculated using Fournier's Law and then plotted against measured density of each sample. Across samples, density of cancellous bone ranged from 0.86 to 1.38 g/mL and average thermal conductivity ranged between 0.404 and 0.55 W/mK. Comparatively, cortical bone had a density of 1.70 to 1.86 g/mL and thermal conductivity of 0.0742 to 0.109 W/mK. A strong 2-degree polynomial correlation was seen (R 2 =0.8226, P<.001). Bone is highly resistant to temperature flow. This resistance varies and inversely correlates strongly with density. This information is clinically relevant to maximize tumor ablation while minimizing morbidity through unnecessary bone loss and damage to surrounding structures. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):90-94.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Gelatin Tight-Coated Poly(lactide-co-glycolide Scaffold Incorporating rhBMP-2 for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface coating is the simplest surface modification. However, bioactive molecules can not spread well on the commonly used polylactone-type skeletons; thus, the surface coatings of biomolecules are typically unstable due to the weak interaction between the polymer and the bioactive molecules. In this study, a special type of poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA-based scaffold with a loosened skeleton was fabricated by phase separation, which allowed gelatin molecules to more readily diffuse throughout the structure. In this application, gelatin modified both the internal substrate and external surface. After cross-linking with glutaraldehyde, the surface layer gelatin was tightly bound to the diffused gelatin, thereby preventing the surface layer gelatin coating from falling off within 14 days. After gelatin modification, PLGA scaffold demonstrated enhanced hydrophilicity and improved mechanical properties (i.e., increased compression strength and elastic modulus in dry and wet states. Furthermore, a sustained release profile of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 was achieved in the coated scaffold. The coated scaffold also supported the in vitro attachment, proliferation, and osteogenesis of rabbit bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs, indicating the bioactivity of rhBMP-2. These results collectively demonstrate that the cross-linked-gelatin-coated porous PLGA scaffold incorporating bioactive molecules is a promising candidate for bone tissue regeneration.

  18. [Progesterone Promotes Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Synthesize Fibronectin via ERK Pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Yong; Chen, Jing-Li; Huang, Shu; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Fang; Wang, Yan; Bi, Xiao-Yun; Guo, Zi-Kuan

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether the progesterone can promote fibronection (FN) synthesis by human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and to explore the potential underlying mechanism. The human bone marrow MSCs were cultured in a serum-free medium with progesterone for 72 hours, the MTT test was performed to observe the proliferation status and adhension ability of the treated cells. Western blot was used to detect the content of FN in MSDs with GAPDH as the internal reference, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, as well as the FN content in MSC treated by PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK1/2. The progesterone at a range of certain doses not effect on the proliferation of human bone marrow MSCs. Progesterone (25 µg/L) treatment enhanced the FN expression and adherent ability of marrow MSCs. Progesterone could induce prompt phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and its promoting effects on FN synthesis was reversed by PD98059. The progesterone can promote FN synthesis by human bone marrow MSCs via ERK 1/2 pathway, and it might be used to culture MSCs in serum-free medium.

  19. The effect of magnesium ion implantation into alumina upon the adhesion of human bone derived cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlett, C.R.; Zreiqat, H.; O'Dell, R.; Noorman, J.; Evans, P.; Dalton, B.A.; McFarland, C.; Steele, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Our group is investigating the potential of modifying the surface atomic layers of biomaterials by ion beam implantation in order to stimulate adhesion of bone cells to these treated biomaterials. In this study alumina that had been implanted with magnesium ions (Mg)-(Al 2 O 3 ), was compared to unmodified alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) for the adhesion of cells cultured from explanted human bone. The attachment and spreading of cultured human bone derived cells onto (Mg)-(Al 2 O 3 ) was significantly enhanced as compared to Al 2 O 3 . The role of adsorption of serum adhesive glycoproteins firbronectin (Fn) and vitronectin (Vn) in the adhesion of human bone derived cells to (Mg)-(Al 2 O 3 ) was determined. (Author)

  20. Osteoinductive peptide-functionalized nanofibers with highly ordered structure as biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao X

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Xiang Gao,1,2,* Xiaohong Zhang,3,* Jinlin Song,1,2 Xiao Xu,4 Anxiu Xu,1 Mengke Wang,4 Bingwu Xie,1 Enyi Huang,2 Feng Deng,1,2 Shicheng Wei2–41College of Stomatology, 2Chongqing Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 3Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, 4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The construction of functional biomimetic scaffolds that recapitulate the topographical and biochemical features of bone tissue extracellular matrix is now of topical interest in bone tissue engineering. In this study, a novel surface-functionalized electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL nanofiber scaffold with highly ordered structure was developed to simulate the critical features of native bone tissue via a single step of catechol chemistry. Specially, under slightly alkaline aqueous solution, polydopamine (pDA was coated on the surface of aligned PCL nanofibers after electrospinning, followed by covalent immobilization of bone morphogenetic protein-7-derived peptides onto the pDA-coated nanofiber surface. Contact angle measurement, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of pDA and peptides on PCL nanofiber surface. Our results demonstrated that surface modification with osteoinductive peptides could improve cytocompatibility of nanofibers in terms of cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation. Most importantly, Alizarin Red S staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunostaining, and Western blot revealed that human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on aligned nanofibers with osteoinductive peptides exhibited enhanced osteogenic differentiation potential than

  1. Stem cell property of postmigratory cranial neural crest cells and their utility in alveolar bone regeneration and tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Il-Hyuk; Yamaza, Takayoshi; Zhao, Hu; Choung, Pill-Hoon; Shi, Songtao; Chai, Yang

    2009-04-01

    The vertebrate neural crest is a multipotent cell population that gives rise to a variety of different cell types. We have discovered that postmigratory cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs) maintain mesenchymal stem cell characteristics and show potential utility for the regeneration of craniofacial structures. We are able to induce the osteogenic differentiation of postmigratory CNCCs, and this differentiation is regulated by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathways. After transplantation into a host animal, postmigratory CNCCs form bone matrix. CNCC-formed bones are distinct from bones regenerated by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, CNCCs support tooth germ survival via BMP signaling in our CNCC-tooth germ cotransplantation system. Thus, we conclude that postmigratory CNCCs preserve stem cell features, contribute to craniofacial bone formation, and play a fundamental role in supporting tooth organ development. These findings reveal a novel function for postmigratory CNCCs in organ development, and demonstrate the utility of these CNCCs in regenerating craniofacial structures.

  2. Optimizing viral and non-viral gene transfer methods for genetic modification of porcine mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stiehler, Maik; Duch, Mogens R.; Mygind, Tina

    2006-01-01

    -old Danish landrace pigs by Ficoll step gradient separation and polystyrene adherence technique. Vectors expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were transferred to the cells by different non-viral methods and by use of recombinant adeno...

  3. Chinese red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus-fermented rice promotes bone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabie Bakr

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statin can induce the gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2. Red yeast rice (RYR, Hongqu, i.e. rice fermented with Monascus purpureus, contains a natural form of statin. This study demonstrates the effects of RYR extract on bone formation. Methods Bone defects were created in the parietal bones of two New Zealand white rabbits. In the test animal, two defects were grafted with collagen matrix mixed with RYR extract. In the control animal, two defects were grafted with collagen matrix alone. UMR 106 cell line was used to test RYR extract in vitro. In the control group, cells were cultured for three durations (24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours without any intervention. In the RYR group, cells were cultured for the same durations with various concentrations of RYR extract (0.001 g/ml, 0.005 g/ml and 0.01 g/ml. Bicinchoninic acid (BCA assay, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase (ALP assay were performed to measure total protein, mitochondrial activity and bone cell formation respectively. Results The test animal showed more formation of new bone in the defects than the control animal. RYR significantly increased the optical density in the MTT assay and ALP activity in vitro. Conclusion RYR extract stimulated new bone formation in bone defects in vivo and increased bone cell formation in vitro.

  4. Off-label use of rhBMP-2 as bone regeneration strategies in mandibular ameloblastoma unicystic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Henrique Celestino Lima E; Cheim, Adonai Peixoto; Moreno, Roberto; Miranda, Sérgio Luis de

    2017-01-01

    Jawbone reconstruction after tumor resection is one of the most challenging clinical tasks for maxillofacial surgeons. Osteogenic, osteoinductive, osteoconductive and non-antigenic properties of autogenous bone place this bone as the gold standard for solving problems of bone availability. However, the need for a second surgical site to harvest the bone graft increases significantly both the cost and the morbidity associated with the reconstructive procedures. Bone grafting gained an important tool with the discovery of bone morphogenetic proteins in 1960. Benefit of obtaining functional and real bone matrix without need of second surgical site seems to be the great advantage of use bone morphogenetic proteins. This study analyzed the use of rhBMP-2 in unicystic ameloblastoma of the mandible, detailing its structure, mechanisms of cell signaling and biological efficacy, in addition to present possible advantages and disadvantages of clinical use of rhBMP-2 as bone regeneration strategy. RESUMO A reconstrução óssea dos maxilares após ressecções tumorais é uma das tarefas mais difíceis para o cirurgião maxilofacial. As propriedades osteogênicas, osteoindutoras, osteocondutoras e não antigênicas do osso autógeno o colocam como o padrão-ouro para a solução de problemas de disponibilidade óssea. Entretanto a coleta do enxerto ósseo necessita de um segundo sítio cirúrgico, aumentando significativamente o custo e a morbidade associados ao procedimento reconstrutivo. A enxertia óssea ganhou uma excelente ferramenta com a descoberta das proteínas ósseas morfogenéticas na década de 1960. O benefício da obtenção de matriz óssea verdadeira e funcional, sem a necessidade de um segundo sítio cirúrgico, parece ser a grande vantagem do uso das proteínas ósseas morfogenéticas. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a utilização da rhBMP-2 na regeneração óssea de ameloblastoma mandibular unicístico, detalhando sua estrutura, seus

  5. Deproteinized bovine bone functionalized with the slow delivery of BMP-2 for the repair of critical-sized bone defects in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Wu, Gang; Wismeijer, Daniel; Gu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yuelian

    2013-09-01

    As an alternative to an autologous bone graft, deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) is widely used in the clinical dentistry. Although DBB provides an osteoconductive scaffold, it is not capable of enhancing bone regeneration because it is not osteoinductive. In order to render DBB osteoinductive, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) has previously been incorporated into a three dimensional reservoir (a biomimetic calcium phosphate coating) on DBB, which effectively promoted the osteogenic response by the slow delivery of BMP-2. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of such coating on the DBB granules in repairing a large cylindrical bone defect (8 mm diameter, 13 mm depth) in sheep. Eight groups were randomly assigned to the bone defects: (i) no graft material; (ii) autologous bone; (iii) DBB only; (iv) DBB mixed with autologous bone; (v) DBB bearing adsorbed BMP-2; (vi) DBB bearing a coating but no BMP-2; (vii) DBB bearing a coating with adsorbed BMP-2; and (viii) DBB bearing a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2. 4 and 8 weeks after implantation, samples were withdrawn for a histological and a histomorphometric analysis. Histological results confirmed the excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity of all the grafts tested. At 4 weeks, DBB mixed with autologous bone or functionalized with coating-incorporated BMP-2 showed more newly-formed bone than the other groups with DBB. At 8 weeks, the volume of newly-formed bone around DBB that bore a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2 was greatest among the groups with DBB, and was comparable to the autologous bone group. The use of autologous bone and BMP-2 resulted in more bone marrow formation. Multinucleated giant cells were observed in the resorption process around DBB, whereas histomorphometric analysis revealed no significant degradation of DBB. In conclusion, it was shown that incorporating BMP-2 into the calcium phosphate coating of DBB induced strong bone formation around DBB

  6. Tissue-engineered bone formation using human bone marrow stromal cells and novel β-tricalcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guangpeng; Zhao Li; Cui Lei; Liu Wei; Cao Yilin

    2007-01-01

    In this study we investigated not only the cellular proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) on the novel β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds in vitro but also bone formation by ectopic implantation in athymic mice in vivo. The interconnected porous β-TCP scaffolds with pores of 300-500 μm in size were prepared by the polymeric sponge method. β-TCP scaffolds with the dimension of 3 mm x 3 mm x 3 mm were combined with hBMSCs, and incubated with (+) or without (-) osteogenic medium in vitro. Cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation on the scaffolds were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, MTT assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin (OCN) content measurement. SEM observation showed that hBMSCs attached well on the scaffolds and proliferated rapidly. No significant difference in the MTT assay could be detected between the two groups, but the ALP activity and OCN content of scaffolds (+) were much higher than those of the scaffolds (-) (p < 0.05). These results indicated that the novel porous β-TCP scaffolds can support the proliferation and subsequent osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs in vitro. After being cultured in vitro for 14 days, the scaffolds (+) and (-) were implanted into subcutaneous sites of athymic mice. In β-TCP scaffolds (+), woven bone formed after 4 weeks of implantation and osteogenesis progressed with time. Furthermore, tissue-engineered bone could be found at 8 weeks, and remodeled lamellar bone was also observed at 12 weeks. However, no bone formation could be found in β-TCP scaffolds (-) at each time point checked. The above findings illustrate that the novel porous β-TCP scaffolds developed in this work have prominent osteoconductive activity and the potential for applications in bone tissue engineering

  7. Tissue-engineered bone formation using human bone marrow stromal cells and novel {beta}-tricalcium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Guangpeng [National Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center, Shanghai 200235 (China); Zhao Li [National Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center, Shanghai 200235 (China); Cui Lei [National Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center, Shanghai 200235 (China); Liu Wei [National Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center, Shanghai 200235 (China); Cao Yilin [National Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center, Shanghai 200235 (China)

    2007-06-01

    In this study we investigated not only the cellular proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) on the novel {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) scaffolds in vitro but also bone formation by ectopic implantation in athymic mice in vivo. The interconnected porous {beta}-TCP scaffolds with pores of 300-500 {mu}m in size were prepared by the polymeric sponge method. {beta}-TCP scaffolds with the dimension of 3 mm x 3 mm x 3 mm were combined with hBMSCs, and incubated with (+) or without (-) osteogenic medium in vitro. Cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation on the scaffolds were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, MTT assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin (OCN) content measurement. SEM observation showed that hBMSCs attached well on the scaffolds and proliferated rapidly. No significant difference in the MTT assay could be detected between the two groups, but the ALP activity and OCN content of scaffolds (+) were much higher than those of the scaffolds (-) (p < 0.05). These results indicated that the novel porous {beta}-TCP scaffolds can support the proliferation and subsequent osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs in vitro. After being cultured in vitro for 14 days, the scaffolds (+) and (-) were implanted into subcutaneous sites of athymic mice. In {beta}-TCP scaffolds (+), woven bone formed after 4 weeks of implantation and osteogenesis progressed with time. Furthermore, tissue-engineered bone could be found at 8 weeks, and remodeled lamellar bone was also observed at 12 weeks. However, no bone formation could be found in {beta}-TCP scaffolds (-) at each time point checked. The above findings illustrate that the novel porous {beta}-TCP scaffolds developed in this work have prominent osteoconductive activity and the potential for applications in bone tissue engineering.

  8. Safety of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in Augment® Bone Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Solchaga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses nonclinical and clinical data regarding the safety of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB as a component of the Augment® Bone Graft (Augment. Augment is a bone graft substitute intended to be used as an alternative to autologous bone graft in the fusion of hindfoot and ankle joints. Nonclinical studies included assessment of the pharmacokinetic profile of intravenously administered recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in rat and dog, effects of intravenous administration of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in a reproductive and development toxicity study in rats, and chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of Augment in a 12-month implantation model. These studies showed that systemic exposure was brief and clearance was rapid. No signs of toxicity, carcinogenicity, or tumor promotion were observed even with doses far exceeding the maximum clinical dose. Results of clinical trials (605 participants and commercial use of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB containing products indicate that these products are not associated with increased incidence of adverse events or cancer. The safety data presented provide evidence that recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB is a safe therapeutic when used in combination products as a single administration during surgical procedures for bone repair and fusion. There is no evidence associating use of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in Augment with chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, or tumor promotion.

  9. Design, synthesis, and initial evaluation of D-glyceraldehyde crosslinked gelatin-hydroxyapatite as a potential bone graft substitute material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florschutz, Anthony Vatroslav

    Utilization of bone grafts for the treatment of skeletal pathology is a common practice in orthopaedic, craniomaxillofacial, dental, and plastic surgery. Autogenous bone graft is the established archetype but has disadvantages including donor site morbidity, limited supply, and prolonging operative time. In order to avoid these and other issues, bone graft substitute materials are becoming increasingly prevalent among surgeons for reconstructing skeletal defects and arthrodesis applications. Bone graft substitutes are biomaterials, biologics, and guided tissue/bone regenerative devices that can be used alone or in combinations as supplements or alternatives to autogenous bone graft. There is a growing interest and trend to specialize graft substitutes for specific indications and although there is good rationale for this indication-specific approach, the development and utility of a more universal bone graft substitute may provide a better answer for patients and surgeons. The aim of the present research focuses on the design, synthesis, and initial evaluation of D-glyceraldehyde crosslinked gelatin-hydroxyapatite composites for potential use as a bone graft substitutes. After initial establishment of rational material design, gelatinhydroxyapatite scaffolds were fabricated with different gelatin:hydroxyapatite ratios and crosslinking concentrations. The synthesized scaffolds were subsequently evaluated on the basis of their swelling behavior, porosity, density, percent composition, mechanical properties, and morphology and further assessed with respect to cell-biomaterial interaction and biomineralization in vitro. Although none of the materials achieved mechanical properties suitable for structural graft applications, a reproducible material design and synthesis was achieved with properties recognized to facilitate bone formation. Select scaffold formulations as well as a subset of scaffolds loaded with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 were

  10. Quantification of manganese in human hand bones: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslam; Pejovic-Milic, A; Chettle, D R; McNeill, F E [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada)], E-mail: aslamib@mcmaster.ca

    2008-08-07

    Manganese is both an essential element to human health and also toxic when humans are exposed to excessive levels, particularly by means of inhalation. Biological monitoring of manganese exposure is problematic. It is subject to homeostasis; levels in blood (or serum/plasma) reflect only the most recent exposure and rapidly return to within normal ranges, even when there has been a temporary excursion in response to exposure. In this context, we have been developing a non-invasive technique for measurement of manganese stored in bone, using in vivo neutron activation analysis. Following preliminary feasibility studies, the technique has been enhanced by two significant infrastructure advances. A specially designed irradiation facility serves to maximize the activation of manganese with respect to the dose of ionizing radiation. Secondly, an array of eight NaI(Tl) crystals provides a detection system with very close to 4{pi} geometry. This feasibility study, using neutron activation analysis to measure manganese in the bones of the hand, takes two features into account. Firstly, there is considerable magnesium present in the bone and this produces a spectral interference with the manganese. The {sup 26}Mg(n,{gamma}){sup 27}Mg reaction produces {gamma}-rays of 0.843 MeV from the decay of {sup 27}Mg, which interfere with the 0.847 MeV {gamma}-rays from the decay of {sup 56}Mn, produced by the {sup 55}Mn(n,{gamma}){sup 56}Mn reaction. Secondly, this work provides estimates of the levels of manganese to be expected in referent subjects. A revised estimate has been made from the most recent literature to explore the potential of the technique as a suitable means of screening patients and people exposed to excessive amounts of Mn who could develop many-fold increased levels of Mn in bones as demonstrated through various animal studies. This report presents the enhancements to the neutron activation system, by which manganese can be measured, which resulted in a detection

  11. Quantification of manganese in human hand bones: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam; Pejovic-Milic, A; Chettle, D R; McNeill, F E

    2008-01-01

    Manganese is both an essential element to human health and also toxic when humans are exposed to excessive levels, particularly by means of inhalation. Biological monitoring of manganese exposure is problematic. It is subject to homeostasis; levels in blood (or serum/plasma) reflect only the most recent exposure and rapidly return to within normal ranges, even when there has been a temporary excursion in response to exposure. In this context, we have been developing a non-invasive technique for measurement of manganese stored in bone, using in vivo neutron activation analysis. Following preliminary feasibility studies, the technique has been enhanced by two significant infrastructure advances. A specially designed irradiation facility serves to maximize the activation of manganese with respect to the dose of ionizing radiation. Secondly, an array of eight NaI(Tl) crystals provides a detection system with very close to 4π geometry. This feasibility study, using neutron activation analysis to measure manganese in the bones of the hand, takes two features into account. Firstly, there is considerable magnesium present in the bone and this produces a spectral interference with the manganese. The 26 Mg(n,γ) 27 Mg reaction produces γ-rays of 0.843 MeV from the decay of 27 Mg, which interfere with the 0.847 MeV γ-rays from the decay of 56 Mn, produced by the 55 Mn(n,γ) 56 Mn reaction. Secondly, this work provides estimates of the levels of manganese to be expected in referent subjects. A revised estimate has been made from the most recent literature to explore the potential of the technique as a suitable means of screening patients and people exposed to excessive amounts of Mn who could develop many-fold increased levels of Mn in bones as demonstrated through various animal studies. This report presents the enhancements to the neutron activation system, by which manganese can be measured, which resulted in a detection limit in the hand of human subjects of 1.6

  12. Establishment of an experimental human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A-1BM with high bone metastases potency by 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shunfang; Dong Qianggang; Yao Ming; Shi Meiping; Ye Jianding; Zhao Langxiang; Su Jianzhong; Gu Weiyong; Xie Wenhui; Wang Kankan; Du Yanzhi; Li Yao; Huang Yan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Bone metastasis is one of the most common clinical phenomena of late stage lung cancer. A major impediment to understanding the pathogenesis of bone metastasis has been the lack of an appropriate animal and cell model. This study aims to establish human lung adenocarcinoma cell line with highly bone metastases potency with 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Methods: The human lung adenocarcinoma cancer cells SPC-A-1 were injected into the left cardiac ventricle of NIH-Beige-Nude-XID (NIH-BNX) immunodeficient mice. The metastatic lesions of tumor-bearing mice were imaged with 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy on a Siemens multi-single photon emission computed tomography. Pinhole images were acquired on a GZ-B conventional gamma camera with a self-designed pinhole collimator. The mice with bone metastasis were sacrificed under deep anesthesia, and the lesions were resected. Bone metastatic cancer cells in the resected lesions were subjected for culture and then reinoculated into the NIH-BNX mice through left cardiac ventricle. The process was repeated for eight cycles to obtain a novel cell subline SPC-A-1BM. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to compare the gene expression differences in the parental and SPC-A-1BM cells. Results: The bone metastasis sites were successfully revealed by bone scintigraphy. The established bone metastasis cell line SPC-A-1BM had a high potential to metastasize in bone, including mandible, humerus, thoracic vertebra, lumbar, femur, patella, ilium and cartilage rib. The expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor gene family, Bcl-2 and cell adhesion-related genes ECM1, ESM1, AF1Q, SERPINE2 and FN1 were examined. Gene expression difference was found between parental and bone-seeking metastasis cell SPC-A-1BM, which indicates SPC-A-1BM has metastatic capacity vs. its parental cells. Conclusion: SPC-A-1BM is a bone-seeking metastasis human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Bone scintigraphy may be used as an

  13. Multi-element determination in cancellous bone of human femoral head by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuanxun Zhang; Yongping Zhang; Yongpeng Tong; Shijing Qiu; Xiaotao Wu; Kerong Dai

    1996-01-01

    Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) method is used for the determination of elemental concentrations in cancellous bone of human femoral head from five autopsies and seven patients with femoral neck broken. The specimen preparation and experimental procedure are described in detail. Using the t test, the results show that the concentrations of P, Ca, Fe, Cu, Sr in control group are higher than those in patient group, but the concentrations of S, K, Zn, Mn are not significantly different. The physiological functions of metallic elements in human bone are also discussed. (author). 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  14. Human dental pulp cells exhibit bone cell-like responsiveness to fluid shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, David Christian Evar; Bindslev, Dorth Arenholt; Melsen, Birte; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2011-02-01

    For engineering bone tissue to restore, for example, maxillofacial defects, mechanosensitive cells are needed that are able to conduct bone cell-specific functions, such as bone remodelling. Mechanical loading affects local bone mass and architecture in vivo by initiating a cellular response via loading-induced flow of interstitial fluid. After surgical removal of ectopically impacted third molars, human dental pulp tissue is an easily accessible and interesting source of cells for mineralized tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to determine whether human dental pulp-derived cells (DPC) are responsive to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) upon stimulation of mineralization in vitro. Human DPC were incubated with or without mineralization medium containing differentiation factors for 3 weeks. Cells were subjected to 1-h PFF (0.7 ± 0.3 Pa, 5 Hz) and the response was quantified by measuring nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) production, and gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2. We found that DPC are intrinsically mechanosensitive and, like osteogenic cells, respond to PFF-induced fluid shear stress. PFF stimulated NO and PGE₂ production, and up-regulated COX-2 but not COX-1 gene expression. In DPC cultured under mineralizing conditions, the PFF-induced NO, but not PGE₂, production was significantly enhanced. These data suggest that human DPC, like osteogenic cells, acquire responsiveness to pulsating fluid shear stress in mineralizing conditions. Thus DPC might be able to perform bone-like functions during mineralized tissue remodeling in vivo, and therefore provide a promising new tool for mineralized tissue engineering to restore, for example, maxillofacial defects.

  15. Adenoviral Mediated Expression of BMP2 by Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Cultured in 3D Copolymer Scaffolds Enhances Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunita; Sapkota, Dipak; Xue, Ying; Sun, Yang; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Bruland, Ove; Mustafa, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Selection of appropriate osteoinductive growth factors, suitable delivery method and proper supportive scaffold are critical for a successful outcome in bone tissue engineering using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). This study examined the molecular and functional effect of a combination of adenoviral mediated expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) in BMSC and recently developed and characterized, biodegradable Poly(L-lactide-co-є-caprolactone){poly(LLA-co-CL)}scaffolds in osteogenic molecular changes and ectopic bone formation by using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Pathway-focused custom PCR array, validation using TaqMan based quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and ALP staining showed significant up-regulation of several osteogenic and angiogenic molecules, including ALPL and RUNX2 in ad-BMP2 BMSC group grown in poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds both at 3 and 14 days. Micro CT and histological analyses of the subcutaneously implanted scaffolds in NOD/SCID mice revealed significantly increased radiopaque areas, percentage bone volume and formation of vital bone in ad-BMP2 scaffolds as compared to the control groups both at 2 and 8 weeks. The increased bone formation in the ad-BMP2 group in vivo was paralleled at the molecular level with concomitant over-expression of a number of osteogenic and angiogenic genes including ALPL, RUNX2, SPP1, ANGPT1. The increased bone formation in ad-BMP2 explants was not found to be associated with enhanced endochondral activity as evidenced by qRT-PCR (SOX9 and FGF2) and Safranin O staining. Taken together, combination of adenoviral mediated BMP-2 expression in BMSC grown in the newly developed poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds induced expression of osteogenic markers and enhanced bone formation in vivo.

  16. Additively manufactured 3D porous Ti-6Al-4V constructs mimic trabecular bone structure and regulate osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and local factor production in a porosity and surface roughness dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Alice; Boyan, Barbara D; Humayun, Aiza; Cohen, David J; Schwartz, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing by laser sintering is able to produce high resolution metal constructs for orthopedic and dental implants. In this study, we used a human trabecular bone template to design and manufacture Ti-6Al-4V constructs with varying porosity via laser sintering. Characterization of constructs revealed interconnected porosities ranging from 15–70% with compressive moduli of 2579–3693 MPa. These constructs with macro porosity were further surface-treated to create a desirable multi-scale micro-/nano-roughness, which has been shown to enhance the osseointegration process. Osteoblasts (MG63 cells) exhibited high viability when grown on the constructs. Proliferation (DNA) and alkaline phosphatase specific activity, an early differentiation marker, decreased as porosity increased, while osteocalcin, a late differentiation marker, as well as osteoprotegerin, vascular endothelial growth factor and bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4 increased with increasing porosity. Three-dimensional (3D) constructs with the highest porosity and surface modification supported the greatest osteoblast differentiation and local factor production. These results indicate that additively manufactured 3D porous constructs mimicking human trabecular bone and produced with additional surface treatment can be customized for increased osteoblast response. Increased factors for osteoblast maturation and differentiation on high porosity constructs suggest the enhanced performance of these surfaces for increasing osseointegration in vivo. (paper)

  17. Additively manufactured 3D porous Ti-6Al-4V constructs mimic trabecular bone structure and regulate osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and local factor production in a porosity and surface roughness dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice; Humayun, Aiza; Cohen, David J; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi

    2014-10-07

    Additive manufacturing by laser sintering is able to produce high resolution metal constructs for orthopedic and dental implants. In this study, we used a human trabecular bone template to design and manufacture Ti-6Al-4V constructs with varying porosity via laser sintering. Characterization of constructs revealed interconnected porosities ranging from 15-70% with compressive moduli of 2579-3693 MPa. These constructs with macro porosity were further surface-treated to create a desirable multi-scale micro-/nano-roughness, which has been shown to enhance the osseointegration process. Osteoblasts (MG63 cells) exhibited high viability when grown on the constructs. Proliferation (DNA) and alkaline phosphatase specific activity, an early differentiation marker, decreased as porosity increased, while osteocalcin, a late differentiation marker, as well as osteoprotegerin, vascular endothelial growth factor and bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4 increased with increasing porosity. Three-dimensional (3D) constructs with the highest porosity and surface modification supported the greatest osteoblast differentiation and local factor production. These results indicate that additively manufactured 3D porous constructs mimicking human trabecular bone and produced with additional surface treatment can be customized for increased osteoblast response. Increased factors for osteoblast maturation and differentiation on high porosity constructs suggest the enhanced performance of these surfaces for increasing osseointegration in vivo.

  18. Extension of the culture period for the in vitro growth of bovine oocytes in the presence of bone morphogenetic protein-4 increases oocyte diameter, but impairs subsequent developmental competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yinghua; Kanno, Chihiro; Sakaguchi, Kenichiro; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Katagiri, Seiji; Nagano, Masashi

    2017-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) inhibits luteinization of granulosa cells during in vitro growth (IVG) culture of bovine oocytes; however, oocytes derived from a 12 day IVG were less competent for development than in vivo-grown oocytes. We herein investigated whether an extended IVG culture with BMP-4 improves oocyte growth and development to blastocysts after in vitro fertilization. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) were cultured for 14 or 16 days with BMP-4 (10 ng/mL), while a 12 day culture with BMP-4 served as the in vitro control. OGC viability was maintained for the 16 day culture with BMP-4 (83.2%), but was significantly lower without BMP-4 (58.9%) than the control (83.0%). Prolong-cultured oocytes at 16 days had statistically greater diameter (114.6 μm) than the control (111.7 μm). IVG oocytes with BMP-4 for the 16 day culture had a similar nuclear maturation rate to the control (approximately 67%); however, blastocyst rates in BMP-4 treated oocytes of 14 (1.8%) and 16 day (0%) IVG were statistically lower than that of 12 day IVG (9.0%). In conclusion, BMP-4 maintained OGC viability and promoted oocyte growth in a prolonged culture, but impaired the developmental competence of oocytes. Prolonged culture may not be an appropriate strategy for enhancing the developmental competence of IVG oocytes. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Ancient pathogen DNA in human teeth and petrous bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margaryan, Ashot; Hansen, Henrik B.; Rasmussen, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Recent ancient DNA (aDNA) studies of human pathogens have provided invaluable insights into their evolutionary history and prevalence in space and time. Most of these studies were based on DNA extracted from teeth or postcranial bones. In contrast, no pathogen DNA has been reported from the petro...

  20. Tridax procumbens flavonoids promote osteoblast differentiation and bone formation

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    Md. Abdullah Al Mamun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tridaxprocumbens flavonoids (TPFs are well known for their medicinal properties among local natives. Besides traditionally used for dropsy, anemia, arthritis, gout, asthma, ulcer, piles, and urinary problems, it is also used in treating gastric problems, body pain, and rheumatic pains of joints. TPFs have been reported to increase osteogenic functioning in mesenchymal stem cells. Our previous study showed that TPFs were significantly suppressed the RANKL-induced differentiation of osteoclasts and bone resorption. However, the effects of TPFs to promote osteoblasts differentiation and bone formation remain unclear. TPFs were isolated from Tridax procumbens and investigated for their effects on osteoblasts differentiation and bone formation by using primary mouse calvarial osteoblasts RESULTS: TPFs promoted osteoblast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner demonstrated by up-regulation of alkaline phosphatase and os