WorldWideScience

Sample records for human blur perception

  1. Teleoperated Road Vehicles: A Novel Study on the Effect of Blur on Speed Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Tang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The future mobility of urban areas is changing constantly; ideally, vehicles should be able to drive autonomously through traffic. Unfortunately, autonomous vehicles are not yet fully capable of matching human performance. Therefore, the teleoperation of vehicles presents a solution for this task. During teleoperation, a human driver is responsible for driving the vehicle using information transmitted from the vehicle to a working station. Unfortunately, because of the artificial environment in which the operator is located, it is very difficult to achieve high telepresence and accurate speed estimation. It is known that in order to safely drive a vehicle, it is very important to be able to correctly estimate the vehicle’s speed. This paper presents a study conducted to quantify the speed perception tendency of a human operator at the working station. Additionally, it is shown that a training process can at least temporarily improve speed perception. Furthermore, the implementation of zoom blur to increase optical flow is shown to positively influence speed perception. Four hypotheses are defined and analysed to study speed perception at an operator’s working station. The results are presented and discussed.

  2. The effects of blurred vision on auditory-visual speech perception in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Isabelle; Gagné, Jean-Pierre; Rhoualem, Wafaa; Anderson-Gosselin, Penny

    2010-12-01

    Speech understanding is improved when the observer can both see and hear the talker. This study compared the effects of reduced visual acuity on auditory-visual (AV) speech-recognition in noise among younger and older adults. Two groups of participants performed a closed-set sentence-recognition task in one auditory-alone (A-alone) condition and under three AV conditions: normal visual acuity (6/6), and with blurred vision to simulate a 6/30 and 6/60 visual impairment. The results showed that (1) the addition of visual speech cues improved speech-perception relative to the A-alone condition, (2) under the AV conditions, performance declined as the amount of blurring increased, (3) even under the AV condition that simulated a visual acuity of 6/60, the speech recognition scores were significantly higher than those obtained under the A-alone condition, and (4) generally, younger adults obtained higher scores than older adults under all conditions. Our results demonstrate the benefits of visual cues to enhance speech understanding even when visual acuity is not optimal.

  3. Blur Clarified: A review and Synthesis of Blur Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J.

    2011-01-01

    Blur is an important attribute of human spatial vision, and sensitivity to blur has been the subject of considerable experimental research and theoretical modeling. Often these models have invoked specialized concepts or mechanisms, such as intrinsic blur, multiple channels, or blur estimation units. In this paper we review the several experimental studies of blur discrimination and find they are in broad empirical agreement. But contrary to previous modeling efforts, we find that the essential features of blur discrimination are fully accounted for by a visible contrast energy model (ViCE), in which two spatial patterns are distinguished when the integrated difference between their masked local contrast energy responses reaches a threshold value.

  4. The natural statistics of blur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, William W; Cooper, Emily A; Reissier, Sylvain; Yellapragada, Baladitya; Banks, Martin S

    2016-08-01

    Blur from defocus can be both useful and detrimental for visual perception: It can be useful as a source of depth information and detrimental because it degrades image quality. We examined these aspects of blur by measuring the natural statistics of defocus blur across the visual field. Participants wore an eye-and-scene tracker that measured gaze direction, pupil diameter, and scene distances as they performed everyday tasks. We found that blur magnitude increases with increasing eccentricity. There is a vertical gradient in the distances that generate defocus blur: Blur below the fovea is generally due to scene points nearer than fixation; blur above the fovea is mostly due to points farther than fixation. There is no systematic horizontal gradient. Large blurs are generally caused by points farther rather than nearer than fixation. Consistent with the statistics, participants in a perceptual experiment perceived vertical blur gradients as slanted top-back whereas horizontal gradients were perceived equally as left-back and right-back. The tendency for people to see sharp as near and blurred as far is also consistent with the observed statistics. We calculated how many observations will be perceived as unsharp and found that perceptible blur is rare. Finally, we found that eye shape in ground-dwelling animals conforms to that required to put likely distances in best focus.

  5. Ambient Intelligence and Persuasive Technology: The Blurring Boundaries Between Human and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Peter-Paul

    2009-12-01

    The currently developing fields of Ambient Intelligence and Persuasive Technology bring about a convergence of information technology and cognitive science. Smart environments that are able to respond intelligently to what we do and that even aim to influence our behaviour challenge the basic frameworks we commonly use for understanding the relations and role divisions between human beings and technological artifacts. After discussing the promises and threats of these technologies, this article develops alternative conceptions of agency, freedom, and responsibility that make it possible to better understand and assess the social roles of Ambient Intelligence and Persuasive Technology. The central claim of the article is that these new technologies urge us to blur the boundaries between humans and technologies also at the level of our conceptual and moral frameworks.

  6. Blurring Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    ; and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...... of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services; 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law aspects...... and distributive justice at national level....

  7. Blurring Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    ; and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...... of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services; 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law aspects...... and distributive justice at national level....

  8. Blurring Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    This article builds on the results obtained in the so-called Blurring Boundaries project which was undertaken at the Law Department, Copenhagen Business School, in the period from 2007 to 2009. It looks at the sustainability of the Danish welfare state in an EU law context and on the integration ...

  9. Perceived Blur in Naturally-Contoured Images Depends on Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Murray

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Perceived blur is an important measure of image quality and clinical visual function. The magnitude of image blur varies across space and time under natural viewing conditions owing to changes in pupil size and accommodation. Blur is frequently studied in the laboratory with a variety of digital filters, without comparing how the choice of filter affects blur perception. We examine the perception of image blur in synthetic images composed of contours whose orientation and curvature spatial properties matched those of natural images but whose blur could be directly controlled. The images were blurred by manipulating the slope of the amplitude spectrum, Gaussian low-pass filtering or filtering with a Sinc function, which, unlike slope or Gaussian filtering, introduces periodic phase reversals similar to those in optically blurred images. For slope-filtered images, blur discrimination thresholds for over-sharpened images were extremely high and perceived blur could not be matched with either Gaussian or Sinc filtered images, suggesting that directly manipulating image slope does not simulate the perception of blur. For Gaussian and Sinc blurred images, blur discrimination thresholds were dipper-shaped and were well-fit with a simple variance discrimination model and with a contrast detection threshold model, but the latter required different contrast sensitivity functions for different types of blur. Blur matches between Gaussian and Sinc blurred images were used to test several models of blur perception and were in good agreement with models based on luminance slope, but not with spatial frequency based models. Collectively, these results show that the relative phases of image components, in addition to their relative amplitudes, determines perceived blur.

  10. Blurred world view: A study on the relationship between television viewing and the perception of the justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Benedikt; Truong, Florence; Mar, Raymond A; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies suggest that distorted representations of reality on television can lead to distorted perceptions of reality among viewers. In this study, 322 individuals in Austria reported their weekly television consumption and whether they believe that there is active practice of capital punishment in Austria, which has been abolished since 1968. The more television participants watched, the more likely they mistakenly believed that there is, or recently was, capital punishment in Austria, even when controlling for participants' age and education. It seems that television has the potential to influence viewers' perception and knowledge of core aspects of society.

  11. Neural networks for perception human and machine perception

    CERN Document Server

    Wechsler, Harry

    1991-01-01

    Neural Networks for Perception, Volume 1: Human and Machine Perception focuses on models for understanding human perception in terms of distributed computation and examples of PDP models for machine perception. This book addresses both theoretical and practical issues related to the feasibility of both explaining human perception and implementing machine perception in terms of neural network models. The book is organized into two parts. The first part focuses on human perception. Topics on network model ofobject recognition in human vision, the self-organization of functional architecture in t

  12. LCD motion blur: modeling, analysis, and algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stanley H; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2011-08-01

    Liquid crystal display (LCD) devices are well known for their slow responses due to the physical limitations of liquid crystals. Therefore, fast moving objects in a scene are often perceived as blurred. This effect is known as the LCD motion blur. In order to reduce LCD motion blur, an accurate LCD model and an efficient deblurring algorithm are needed. However, existing LCD motion blur models are insufficient to reflect the limitation of human-eye-tracking system. Also, the spatiotemporal equivalence in LCD motion blur models has not been proven directly in the discrete 2-D spatial domain, although it is widely used. There are three main contributions of this paper: modeling, analysis, and algorithm. First, a comprehensive LCD motion blur model is presented, in which human-eye-tracking limits are taken into consideration. Second, a complete analysis of spatiotemporal equivalence is provided and verified using real video sequences. Third, an LCD motion blur reduction algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm solves an l(1)-norm regularized least-squares minimization problem using a subgradient projection method. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm gives higher peak SNR, lower temporal error, and lower spatial error than motion-compensated inverse filtering and Lucy-Richardson deconvolution algorithm, which are two state-of-the-art LCD deblurring algorithms.

  13. LBP-Based Segmentation of Defocus Blur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin Yi; Eramian, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Defocus blur is extremely common in images captured using optical imaging systems. It may be undesirable, but may also be an intentional artistic effect, thus it can either enhance or inhibit our visual perception of the image scene. For tasks, such as image restoration and object recognition, one might want to segment a partially blurred image into blurred and non-blurred regions. In this paper, we propose a sharpness metric based on local binary patterns and a robust segmentation algorithm to separate in- and out-of-focus image regions. The proposed sharpness metric exploits the observation that most local image patches in blurry regions have significantly fewer of certain local binary patterns compared with those in sharp regions. Using this metric together with image matting and multi-scale inference, we obtained high-quality sharpness maps. Tests on hundreds of partially blurred images were used to evaluate our blur segmentation algorithm and six comparator methods. The results show that our algorithm achieves comparative segmentation results with the state of the art and have big speed advantage over the others.

  14. Accelerating defocus blur magnification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriener, Florian; Binder, Thomas; Wille, Manuel

    2013-03-01

    A shallow depth-of-field is often used as a creative element in photographs. This, however, comes at the cost of expensive and heavy camera equipment, such as large sensor DSLR bodies and fast lenses. In contrast, cheap small-sensor cameras with fixed lenses usually exhibit a larger depth-of-field than desirable. In this case a computational solution is suggesting, since a shallow depth-of-field cannot be achieved by optical means. One possibility is to algorithmically increase the defocus blur already present in the image. Yet, existing algorithmic solutions tackling this problem suffer from poor performance due to the ill-posedness of the problem: The amount of defocus blur can be estimated at edges only; homogeneous areas do not contain such information. However, to magnify the defocus blur we need to know the amount of blur at every pixel position. Estimating it requires solving an optimization problem with many unknowns. We propose a faster way to propagate the amount of blur from the edges to the entire image by solving the optimization problem on a small scale, followed by edge-aware upsampling using the original image as guide. The resulting approximate defocus map can be used to synthesize images with shallow depth-of-field with quality comparable to the original approach. This is demonstrated by experimental results.

  15. Deblured Gaussian Blurred Images

    CERN Document Server

    Al-amri, Salem Saleh; D, Khamitkar S

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to undertake the study of Restored Gaussian Blurred Images. by using four types of techniques of deblurring image as Wiener filter, Regularized filter, Lucy Richardson deconvlutin algorithm and Blind deconvlution algorithm with an information of the Point Spread Function (PSF) corrupted blurred image with Different values of Size and Alfa and then corrupted by Gaussian noise. The same is applied to the remote sensing image and they are compared with one another, So as to choose the base technique for restored or deblurring image.This paper also attempts to undertake the study of restored Gaussian blurred image with no any information about the Point Spread Function (PSF) by using same four techniques after execute the guess of the PSF, the number of iterations and the weight threshold of it. To choose the base guesses for restored or deblurring image of this techniques.

  16. Quasi-Convolution Pyramidal Blurring

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Efficient image blurring techniques based on the pyramid algorithm can be implemented on modern graphics hardware; thus, image blurring with arbitrary blur width is possible in real time even for large images. However, pyramidal blurring methods do not achieve the image quality provided by convolution filters; in particular, the shape of the corresponding filter kernel varies locally, which potentially results in objectionable rendering artifacts. In this work, a new analysis filter is design...

  17. Blurred image restoration using the type of blur and blur parameter identification on the neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenberg, Igor N.; Butakoff, Constantine; Karnaukhov, Viktor N.; Merzlyakov, Nikolay S.; Milukova, Olga

    2002-05-01

    As a rule, blur is a form of bandwidth reduction of an ideal image owing to the imperfect image formation process. It can be caused by relative motion between the camera and the original scene, or by an optical system that is out of focus. Today there are different techniques available for solving of the restoration problem including Fourier domain techniques, regularization methods, recursive and iterative filters to name a few. But without knowing at least approximate parameters of the blur, these filters show poor results. If incorrect blur model is chosen then the image will be rather distorted much more than restored. The original solution of the blur and blur parameters identification problem is presented in this paper. A neural network based on multi-valued neurons is used for the blur and blur parameters identification. It is shown that using simple single-layered neural network it is possible to identify the type of the distorting operator. Four types of blur are considered: defocus, rectangular, motion and Gaussian ones. The parameters of the corresponding operator are identified using a similar neural network. After a type of blur and its parameters identification the image can be restored using several kinds of methods. Some fundamentals of image restoration are also considered.

  18. Understanding human perception by human-made illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2014-01-01

    IT MAY BE FUN TO PERCEIVE ILLUSIONS, BUT THE UNDERSTANDING OF HOW THEY WORK IS EVEN MORE STIMULATING AND SUSTAINABLE: They can tell us where the limits and capacity of our perceptual apparatus are found-they can specify how the constraints of perception are set. Furthermore, they let us analyze the cognitive sub-processes underlying our perception. Illusions in a scientific context are not mainly created to reveal the failures of our perception or the dysfunctions of our apparatus, but instead point to the specific power of human perception. The main task of human perception is to amplify and strengthen sensory inputs to be able to perceive, orientate and act very quickly, specifically and efficiently. The present paper strengthens this line of argument, strongly put forth by perceptual pioneer Richard L. Gregory (e.g., Gregory, 2009), by discussing specific visual illusions and how they can help us to understand the magic of perception.

  19. Preliminary Validation of the Work-Family Integration-Blurring Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, Stephan; Hilton, Jeanne M.; Larwood, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    Several studies of telecommuting and working at home have alluded to the blurring line between work and family that can result from such highly integrated work-family arrangements. However, little is known about working parents' perceptions of the integration and blurring of their work and family roles. In this study, the authors created and…

  20. Rate-distortion theory and human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Chris R

    2016-07-01

    The fundamental goal of perception is to aid in the achievement of behavioral objectives. This requires extracting and communicating useful information from noisy and uncertain sensory signals. At the same time, given the complexity of sensory information and the limitations of biological information processing, it is necessary that some information must be lost or discarded in the act of perception. Under these circumstances, what constitutes an 'optimal' perceptual system? This paper describes the mathematical framework of rate-distortion theory as the optimal solution to the problem of minimizing the costs of perceptual error subject to strong constraints on the ability to communicate or transmit information. Rate-distortion theory offers a general and principled theoretical framework for developing computational-level models of human perception (Marr, 1982). Models developed in this framework are capable of producing quantitatively precise explanations for human perceptual performance, while yielding new insights regarding the nature and goals of perception. This paper demonstrates the application of rate-distortion theory to two benchmark domains where capacity limits are especially salient in human perception: discrete categorization of stimuli (also known as absolute identification) and visual working memory. A software package written for the R statistical programming language is described that aids in the development of models based on rate-distortion theory.

  1. Public Perceptions of Human Trafficking in Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Robinson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is a widely studied phenomenon. Comparing public perceptions of trafficking to institutional (i.e. the academy, governmental and non-governmental organizations perceptions gives a richer understanding of the problem. The data for this study were collected in and around Chisinau, Moldova in the summer of 2004. Public discourse provides a more intimate "portraiture" of the issue, but the public also demonstrated a complex level of understanding of this social problem in this study. Its view is juxtaposed against an institutional view of human trafficking as explored through a literature review. Combining institutional and public perceptions and knowledge of a social problem is helpful in not only establishing a more thorough understanding of the social problem and guiding policy decisions, but in exploring the experiences victims may face at the community level.

  2. 'Regime shopping' across (blurring) boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwerzijl, M.S.; Evju, Stein

    2014-01-01

    This book chapter identifies and explores the (blurring) boundaries between the legal regimes for labour mobility across the EU. In the context of - what is sometimes called - 'regime shopping' a close look is taken into the law on freedom of movement within the EU. Several categories of transnation

  3. 'Regime shopping' across (blurring) boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwerzijl, M.S.; Evju, Stein

    2014-01-01

    This book chapter identifies and explores the (blurring) boundaries between the legal regimes for labour mobility across the EU. In the context of - what is sometimes called - 'regime shopping' a close look is taken into the law on freedom of movement within the EU. Several categories of

  4. Simulator of human visual perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzubik, Vitalii V.; Belashenkov, Nickolai R.

    2016-04-01

    Difference of Circs (DoC) model allowing to simulate the response of neurons - ganglion cells as a reaction to stimuli is represented and studied in relation with representation of receptive fields of human retina. According to this model the response of neurons is reduced to execution of simple arithmetic operations and the results of these calculations well correlate with experimental data in wide range of stimuli parameters. The simplicity of the model and reliability of reproducing of responses allow to propose the conception of a device which can simulate the signals generated by ganglion cells as a reaction to presented stimuli. The signals produced according to DoC model are considered as a result of primary processing of information received from receptors independently of their type and may be sent to higher levels of nervous system of living creatures for subsequent processing. Such device may be used as a prosthesis for disabled organ.

  5. ENVIRONMENT IN THE HUMAN PERCEPTION: GEOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Dushkova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work highlights the different aspects of human perception of environment, specific characteristics of the subjective estimation of its state and attitudes to environmental quality. The authors claim more scientific awareness for the understanding of the motivations determining human behavior during interaction with the environment and knowledge about the objective functional system “perception—action” as part of complex geoecological analyses. Furthermore the populations view on the further development of the landscape to improve its living conditions etc. is a crucial part of this concept.

  6. Effects of playing video games on perceptions of one's humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    According to self-perception theory, individuals infer their characteristics by observing their own behavior. In the present research, the hypothesis is examined whether helping behavior increases perceptions of one's own humanity even when help is given that does not benefit a real person. In fact, two studies revealed that playing a prosocial video game (where the goal is to help and care for other game characters) led to increased perceptions of the player's own humanity (in particular, for positive humanity traits). Results also revealed that playing a violent, relative to a neutral, video game decreased perceptions of humanity on positive humanity traits and increased perceptions of humanity on negative humanity traits. Taken together, it appears that being helpful while playing video games leads to the perception of being more human, whereas being harmful while playing video games leads players to perceive themselves negatively.

  7. Parameter Estimation for Blur Image Combining Defocus and Motion Blur using Cepstrum Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The degraded parameters recognition is very important for the restoration of blurred images. There are two common types of blurs for most camera systems. One is the defocus blur due to the optical system's defocus phenomenon and the other is the motion blur due to the relative movement between the objectives and the camera.Compared with the recognition for the blurred image with only one blur model, the parameter estimation for the picture combining defocus and motion blur models is a more complicated mission. A method was proposed for computer to estimate the parameters of defocus blur and motion blur in cepstrum area simultaneously. According to characters of both blur models in the frequency domain, an adjustment approach was suggested in the frequency area and then convert to the cepstrum field to increase the accuracy of measurement.

  8. Uncertainty principle in human visual perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, Mikhael I.; Ugolev, Dmitry A.

    1994-05-01

    The orthodox data concerning the contrast sensitivity estimation for sine-wave gratings were formally analyzed. The result of our analysis made feasible a threshold energy value (Delta) E -- energetic equivalent to quantum of perception -- as (Delta) E equals (alpha) (Delta) L(Delta) X2, where (alpha) is a proportionality coefficient, (Delta) L is a threshold luminance, and (Delta) X is a half-period of grating. The value of (Delta) E is a constant for a given value of mean luminance L of the grating and for a middle spatial frequency region. So the `exchange' between luminance threshold (Delta) L and spatial resolution (Delta) X2 values takes place; the increasing of one is followed by the decreasing of the other. We treated this phenomenon as a principle of uncertainty in human visual perception and proved its correctness for other spatial frequencies. Taking into account threshold wavelength ((Delta) (lambda) ) and time ((Delta) t) the uncertainty principle may be extended to a wider class of visual perception problems, including color and flicker objects recognition. So, we suggest the uncertainty principle proposed above is to be one of the cornerstones of the evolution of cognitive systems.

  9. Philosophies of Human Nature and Perception of Physical Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Leonard

    1987-01-01

    Examined effects of social perceptions of differential perception of beauty. Men and women (N=62) rated 10 passport pictures on five-point scale from very ugly to very beautiful. Subjects also completed Philosophies of Human Nature Scale. Positive correlations with perception of beauty were obtained for four of the six subscales. (Author)

  10. Blurred face recognition by fusing blur-invariant texture and structure features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengyu; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Xie, Xiaokang

    2015-10-01

    Blurred face recognition is still remaining as a challenge task, but with wide applications. Image blur can largely affect recognition performance. The local phase quantization (LPQ) was proposed to extract the blur-invariant texture information. It was used for blurred face recognition and achieved good performance. However, LPQ considers only the phase blur-invariant texture information, which is not sufficient. In addition, LPQ is extracted holistically, which cannot fully explore its discriminative power on local spatial properties. In this paper, we propose a novel method for blurred face recognition. The texture and structure blur-invariant features are extracted and fused to generate a more complete description on blurred image. For texture blur-invariant feature, LPQ is extracted in a densely sampled way and vector of locally aggregated descriptors (VLAD) is employed to enhance its performance. For structure blur-invariant feature, the histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) is used. To further enhance its blur invariance, we improve HOG by eliminating weak gradient magnitude which is more sensitive to image blur than the strong gradient. The improved HOG is then fused with the original HOG by canonical correlation analysis (CCA). At last, we fuse them together by CCA to form the final blur-invariant representation of the face image. The experiments are performed on three face datasets. The results demonstrate that our improvements and our proposition can have a good performance in blurred face recognition.

  11. Auditory perception of a human walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, David; Campbell, Megan E J

    2014-01-01

    When one hears footsteps in the hall, one is able to instantly recognise it as a person: this is an everyday example of auditory biological motion perception. Despite the familiarity of this experience, research into this phenomenon is in its infancy compared with visual biological motion perception. Here, two experiments explored sensitivity to, and recognition of, auditory stimuli of biological and nonbiological origin. We hypothesised that the cadence of a walker gives rise to a temporal pattern of impact sounds that facilitates the recognition of human motion from auditory stimuli alone. First a series of detection tasks compared sensitivity with three carefully matched impact sounds: footsteps, a ball bouncing, and drumbeats. Unexpectedly, participants were no more sensitive to footsteps than to impact sounds of nonbiological origin. In the second experiment participants made discriminations between pairs of the same stimuli, in a series of recognition tasks in which the temporal pattern of impact sounds was manipulated to be either that of a walker or the pattern more typical of the source event (a ball bouncing or a drumbeat). Under these conditions, there was evidence that both temporal and nontemporal cues were important in recognising theses stimuli. It is proposed that the interval between footsteps, which reflects a walker's cadence, is a cue for the recognition of the sounds of a human walking.

  12. Neural correlates of human body perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleong, Rosanne; Paus, Tomás

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate potential sex differences in the neural response to human bodies using fMRI carried out in healthy young adults. We presented human bodies in a block-design experiment to identify body-responsive regions of the brain, namely, extrastriate body area (EBA) and fusiform body area (FBA). In a separate event-related "adaptation" experiment, carried out in the same group of subjects, we presented sets of four human bodies of varying body size and shape. Varying levels of body morphing were introduced to assess the degree of morphing required for adaptation release. Analysis of BOLD signal in the block-design experiment revealed significant Sex x Hemisphere interactions in the EBA and the FBA responses to human bodies. Only women showed greater BOLD response to bodies in the right hemisphere compared with the left hemisphere for both EBA and FBA. The BOLD response in right EBA was higher in women compared with men. In the adaptation experiment, greater right versus left hemisphere response for EBA and FBA was also identified among women but not men. These findings are particularly novel in that they address potential sex differences in the lateralization of EBA and FBA responses to human body images. Although previous studies have found some degree of right hemisphere dominance in body perception, our results suggest that such a functional lateralization may differ between men and women.

  13. Wavelet Based Intentional Blurring Variance Scheme for Blur Detection in Barcode Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamik Tiwari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Blur is an undesirable phenomenon which appears as one of the most frequent causes of image degradation. Automatic blur detection is extremely enviable to restore barcode image or simply utilize them. That is to assess whether a given image is blurred or not. To detect blur, many algorithms have been proposed. These algorithms are different in their performance, time complexity, precision, and robustness in noisy environments. In this paper, we present an efficient method blur detection in barcode images, with no reference perceptual blur metric using wavelets.

  14. Human Perception of Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guan-Lu

    2010-01-01

    Human daily activities on Earth involve motions that elicit both tilt and translation components of the head (i.e. gazing and locomotion). With otolith cues alone, tilt and translation can be ambiguous since both motions can potentially displace the otolithic membrane by the same magnitude and direction. Transitions between gravity environments (i.e. Earth, microgravity and lunar) have demonstrated to alter the functions of the vestibular system and exacerbate the ambiguity between tilt and translational motion cues. Symptoms of motion sickness and spatial disorientation can impair human performances during critical mission phases. Specifically, Space Shuttle landing records show that particular cases of tilt-translation illusions have impaired the performance of seasoned commanders. This sensorimotor condition is one of many operational risks that may have dire implications on future human space exploration missions. The neural strategy with which the human central nervous system distinguishes ambiguous inertial motion cues remains the subject of intense research. A prevailing theory in the neuroscience field proposes that the human brain is able to formulate a neural internal model of ambiguous motion cues such that tilt and translation components can be perceptually decomposed in order to elicit the appropriate bodily response. The present work uses this theory, known as the GIF resolution hypothesis, as the framework for experimental hypothesis. Specifically, two novel motion paradigms are employed to validate the neural capacity of ambiguous inertial motion decomposition in ground-based human subjects. The experimental setup involves the Tilt-Translation Sled at Neuroscience Laboratory of NASA JSC. This two degree-of-freedom motion system is able to tilt subjects in the pitch plane and translate the subject along the fore-aft axis. Perception data will be gathered through subject verbal reports. Preliminary analysis of perceptual data does not indicate that

  15. Modeling learned categorical perception in human vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Matthew C; Sowden, Paul T

    2012-09-01

    A long standing debate in cognitive neuroscience has been the extent to which perceptual processing is influenced by prior knowledge and experience with a task. A converging body of evidence now supports the view that a task does influence perceptual processing, leaving us with the challenge of understanding the locus of, and mechanisms underpinning, these influences. An exemplar of this influence is learned categorical perception (CP), in which there is superior perceptual discrimination of stimuli that are placed in different categories. Psychophysical experiments on humans have attempted to determine whether early cortical stages of visual analysis change as a result of learning a categorization task. However, while some results indicate that changes in visual analysis occur, the extent to which earlier stages of processing are changed is still unclear. To explore this issue, we develop a biologically motivated neural model of hierarchical vision processes consisting of a number of interconnected modules representing key stages of visual analysis, with each module learning to exhibit desired local properties through competition. With this system level model, we evaluate whether a CP effect can be generated with task influence to only the later stages of visual analysis. Our model demonstrates that task learning in just the later stages is sufficient for the model to exhibit the CP effect, demonstrating the existence of a mechanism that requires only a high-level of task influence. However, the effect generalizes more widely than is found with human participants, suggesting that changes to earlier stages of analysis may also be involved in the human CP effect, even if these are not fundamental to the development of CP. The model prompts a hybrid account of task-based influences on perception that involves both modifications to the use of the outputs from early perceptual analysis along with the possibility of changes to the nature of that early analysis itself

  16. Automatic detection of blurred images in UAV image sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieberth, Till; Wackrow, Rene; Chandler, Jim H.

    2016-12-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have become an interesting and active research topic for photogrammetry. Current research is based on images acquired by an UAV, which have a high ground resolution and good spectral and radiometrical resolution, due to the low flight altitudes combined with a high resolution camera. UAV image flights are also cost effective and have become attractive for many applications including, change detection in small scale areas. One of the main problems preventing full automation of data processing of UAV imagery is the degradation effect of blur caused by camera movement during image acquisition. This can be caused by the normal flight movement of the UAV as well as strong winds, turbulence or sudden operator inputs. This blur disturbs the visual analysis and interpretation of the data, causes errors and can degrade the accuracy in automatic photogrammetric processing algorithms. The detection and removal of these images is currently achieved manually, which is both time consuming and prone to error, particularly for large image-sets. To increase the quality of data processing an automated process is necessary, which must be both reliable and quick. This paper describes the development of an automatic filtering process, which is based upon the quantification of blur in an image. Images with known blur are processed digitally to determine a quantifiable measure of image blur. The algorithm is required to process UAV images fast and reliably to relieve the operator from detecting blurred images manually. The newly developed method makes it possible to detect blur caused by linear camera displacement and is based on human detection of blur. Humans detect blurred images best by comparing it to other images in order to establish whether an image is blurred or not. The developed algorithm simulates this procedure by creating an image for comparison using image processing. Creating internally a comparable image makes the method independent of

  17. Simulating Human Visual Perception in Nighttime Illumination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ning; DONG Weiming; WANG Jiaxin; Paul Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an image-based algorithm for simulating the visual adaptation of the human visual system to various illuminations,especially in dark nighttime conditions.The human visual system exhibits different characteristics depending on the illumination intensity,with photopic vision in bright conditions,scotopic vision in dark conditions,and mesopic vision between these two.A computational model is designed to simulate multiple features of mesopic vision and scotopic vision,including the chromaticity change,luminance change,and visual acuity loss.The system uses a source image under bright illumination as input.Then assuming that the viewer has already adapted to the new conditions,the color spectrum of the input image is reconstructed to replace the source with modifications of the chromaticity and the luminance of the relighted scene.A bilateral filter is used to simulate the visual acuity loss.The model parameters have clear physical meanings and can be obtained from experimental data to achieve realistic results.The algorithm can be used not only for visual perception simulation,but also as a day-for-night tool to produce realistic nighttime images from daytime images.

  18. Visual storytelling in 2D and stereoscopic 3D video: effect of blur on visual attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh-Thu, Quan; Vienne, Cyril; Blondé, Laurent

    2013-03-01

    Visual attention is an inherent mechanism that plays an important role in the human visual perception. As our visual system has limited capacity and cannot efficiently process the information from the entire visual field, we focus our attention on specific areas of interest in the image for detailed analysis of these areas. In the context of media entertainment, the viewers' visual attention deployment is also influenced by the art of visual storytelling. To this date, visual editing and composition of scenes in stereoscopic 3D content creation still mostly follows those used in 2D. In particular, out-of-focus blur is often used in 2D motion pictures and photography to drive the viewer's attention towards a sharp area of the image. In this paper, we study specifically the impact of defocused foreground objects on visual attention deployment in stereoscopic 3D content. For that purpose, we conducted a subjective experiment using an eyetracker. Our results bring more insights on the deployment of visual attention in stereoscopic 3D content viewing, and provide further understanding on visual attention behavior differences between 2D and 3D. Our results show that a traditional 2D scene compositing approach such as the use of foreground blur does not necessarily produce the same effect on visual attention deployment in 2D and 3D. Implications for stereoscopic content creation and visual fatigue are discussed.

  19. Human motion perception: Higher-order organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of higher-order motion perception and organization. It is argued that motion is sufficient to fully specify a number of environmental properties, including: depth order, three-dimensional form, object displacement, and dynamics. A grammar of motion perception is proposed; applications of this work for display design are discussed.

  20. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people's perception of a person's age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people's response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty.

  1. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people’s perception of a person’s age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people’s response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty. PMID:28066276

  2. Universal and uniquely human factors in spontaneous number perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Stephen; Jara-Ettinger, Julian; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Cantlon, Jessica F.

    2017-01-01

    A capacity for nonverbal numerical estimation is widespread among humans and animals. However, it is currently unclear whether numerical percepts are spontaneously extracted from the environment and whether nonverbal perception is influenced by human exposure to formal mathematics. We tested US adults and children, non-human primates, and numerate and innumerate Tsimane' adults on a quantity task in which they could choose to categorize sets of dots on the basis of number alone, surface area alone or a combination of the two. Despite differences in age, species and education, subjects are universally biased to base their judgments on number as opposed to the alternatives. Numerical biases are uniquely enhanced in humans compared to non-human primates, and correlated with degree of mathematics experience in both the US and Tsimane' groups. We conclude that humans universally and spontaneously extract numerical information, and that human nonverbal numerical perception is enhanced by symbolic numeracy. PMID:28091519

  3. Altered Ecological Flows Blur Boundaries in Urbanizing Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd R. Lookingbill

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the boundary concept to ecological processes has been recently questioned. Humans in the post-industrial era have created novel lateral transport fluxes that have not been sufficiently considered in watershed studies. We describe patterns of land-use change within the Potomac River basin and demonstrate how these changes have blurred traditional ecosystem boundaries by increasing the movement of people, materials, and energy into and within the basin. We argue that this expansion of ecological commerce requires new science, monitoring, and management strategies focused on large rivers and suggest that traditional geopolitical and economic boundaries for environmental decision making be appropriately revised. Effective mitigation of the consequences of blurred boundaries will benefit from a broad-scale, interdisciplinary framework that can track and explicitly account for ecological fluxes of water, energy, materials, and organisms across human-dominated landscapes.

  4. From humans to computers cognition through visual perception

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Viktor Vasilievitch

    1991-01-01

    This book considers computer vision to be an integral part of the artificial intelligence system. The core of the book is an analysis of possible approaches to the creation of artificial vision systems, which simulate human visual perception. Much attention is paid to the latest achievements in visual psychology and physiology, the description of the functional and structural organization of the human perception mechanism, the peculiarities of artistic perception and the expression of reality. Computer vision models based on these data are investigated. They include the processes of external d

  5. IDENTIFIKASI DISTORSI BLUR PADA GAMBAR DIGITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Prasetya Gunawan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu masalah yang sering muncul dalam dunia fotografi adalah efek blur yang dapat diakibatkan baik oleh objek yang bergerak maupun gerakan kamera yang berhubungan dengan kecepatan rana (shutter speed ketika gambar akan diambil. Paper ini menyajikan sebuah metode baru yang sederhana untuk mendeteksi kemunculan distorsi blur yang tidak diinginkan pada gambar digital. Metode yang diusulkan menggunakan transformasi discrete cosine transform (DCT pada gambar yang telah mengalami distorsi dengan ukuran blok DCT yang bervariasi. Hasil dari pendeteksian ini kemudian digunakan untuk meningkatkan kualitas gambar melalui metode debluring berdasarkan korelasi pixel yang diterapkan pada area tertentu pada gambar yang mengandung distorsi blur ini. Hasil eksperimen menunjukkan bahwa kualitas gambar yang disempurnakan dihasilkan oleh metode debluring secara selektif menggunakan deteksi distorsi blur lokal akan lebih baik daripada yang tidak melalui proses seleksi. Dari berbagai ukuran blok yang digunakan dalam percobaan, blok berukuran 32×32 piksel menghasilkan kualitas gambar yang secara umum lebih baik. One of the problems that often arise in photography is a blurring effect that can be caused either by a moving object or camera movements that associated with the shutter speed when the picture is taken. This paper presents a simple new method for detecting the appearance of unwanted blur distortion in digital images. The proposed method uses the transformation of Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT on the image that has been distorted with varying DCT block size. The results of the detection used to improve image quality through debluring method based on pixel correlation that applied to certain areas of the image that contains this blur distortion. The experimental results show that the enhanced picture quality produced by the method of selectively debluring using a local blur distortion detection is better than not through the selection process

  6. Near-infrared spectroscopy of image clarity perception in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, J. E.; Habak, C.; Doti, Rafael; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2014-09-01

    The perception of blur in humans is intrinsic to our visual system, and dioptric power can improve clarity in many cases. This was evaluated experimentally to establish the best correction with dioptric power shifts. We used Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure Oxy-, Deoxy- and Total-hemoglobin concentration changes in the brain while viewing images and reading a Snellen chart. Participants were tested with their usual correction (no diopter power shift (0 D)), with a 0.25 diopter power shift (0.25 D), and with a 0.5 diopter power shift (0.5 D). The concept of Approximate Entropy (AE) was applied to quantify the regularity of these hemoglobin time series of finite length. AE computations are based on the likelihood that similar templates in a time series remain similar on the next incremental comparison, so that time series with large AE have high irregular fluctuation. We found that the dioptric power shift eliciting the highest AE indicates the clearest visual condition for subjects. This technique may impact the current way in which ophthalmic lenses are prescribed.

  7. Single neural code for blur in subjects with different interocular optical blur orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Aiswaryah; Sawides, Lucie; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Peli, Eli; Marcos, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the visual system to compensate for differences in blur orientation between eyes is not well understood. We measured the orientation of the internal blur code in both eyes of the same subject monocularly by presenting pairs of images blurred with real ocular point spread functions (PSFs) of similar blur magnitude but varying in orientations. Subjects assigned a level of confidence to their selection of the best perceived image in each pair. Using a classification-images-inspired paradigm and applying a reverse correlation technique, a classification map was obtained from the weighted averages of the PSFs, representing the internal blur code. Positive and negative neural PSFs were obtained from the classification map, representing the neural blur for best and worse perceived blur, respectively. The neural PSF was found to be highly correlated in both eyes, even for eyes with different ocular PSF orientations (rPos = 0.95; rNeg = 0.99; p neural PSF was closer to the orientation of the ocular PSF of the eye with the better optical quality (average difference was ∼10°), while the orientation of the positive and negative neural PSFs tended to be orthogonal. These results suggest a single internal code for blur with orientation driven by the orientation of the optical blur of the eye with better optical quality.

  8. Human and machine perception communication, interaction, and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Cantoni, Virginio; Setti, Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    The theme of this book on human and machine perception is communication, interaction, and integration. For each basic topic there are invited lectures, corresponding to approaches in nature and machines, and a panel discussion. The lectures present the state of the art, outlining open questions and stressing synergies among the disciplines related to perception. The panel discussions are forums for open debate. The wide spectrum of topics allows comparison and synergy and can stimulate new approaches.

  9. Predictive dynamics of human pain perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A Cecchi

    Full Text Available While the static magnitude of thermal pain perception has been shown to follow a power-law function of the temperature, its dynamical features have been largely overlooked. Due to the slow temporal experience of pain, multiple studies now show that the time evolution of its magnitude can be captured with continuous online ratings. Here we use such ratings to model quantitatively the temporal dynamics of thermal pain perception. We show that a differential equation captures the details of the temporal evolution in pain ratings in individual subjects for different stimulus pattern complexities, and also demonstrates strong predictive power to infer pain ratings, including readouts based only on brain functional images.

  10. Pain perception and its genesis in the human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew CN CHEN

    2008-01-01

    In the past two decades, pain perception in the human brain has been studied with EEG/MEG brain topography and PET/ fMRI neuroimaging techniques. A host of cortical and subeortical loci can be activated by various nociceptive conditions. The activation in pain perception can be induced by physical (electrical, thermal, mechanical), chemical (capsacin, ascoric acid), psychological (anxiety, stress, nocebo) means, and pathological (e.g. migraine, neuropathic) diseases. This article deals mainly on the activation, but not modulation, of human pain in the brain. The brain areas identified are named pain representation, matrix, neuraxis, or signature. The sites are not uniformly isolated across various studies, but largely include a set of cores sites: thalamus and primary somatic area (SI), second somatic area (SII), insular cortex (IC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), cingnlate, and parietal cortices. Other areas less reported and considered important in pain perception include brainstem, hippocampus, amygdala and supplementary motor area (SMA). The issues of pain perception basically encompass both the site and the mode of brain function. Although the site issue is delineared to a large degree, the mode issue has been much less explored. From the temporal dynamics, IC can be considered as the initial stage in genesis of pain perception as conscious suffering, the unique aversion in the human brain.

  11. Pain perception and its genesis in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C N Chen, Andrew

    2008-10-25

    In the past two decades, pain perception in the human brain has been studied with EEG/MEG brain topography and PET/fMRI neuroimaging techniques. A host of cortical and subcortical loci can be activated by various nociceptive conditions. The activation in pain perception can be induced by physical (electrical, thermal, mechanical), chemical (capsacin, ascoric acid), psychological (anxiety, stress, nocebo) means, and pathological (e.g. migraine, neuropathic) diseases. This article deals mainly on the activation, but not modulation, of human pain in the brain. The brain areas identified are named pain representation, matrix, neuraxis, or signature. The sites are not uniformly isolated across various studies, but largely include a set of cores sites: thalamus and primary somatic area (SI), second somatic area (SII), insular cortex (IC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), cingulate, and parietal cortices. Other areas less reported and considered important in pain perception include brainstem, hippocampus, amygdala and supplementary motor area (SMA). The issues of pain perception basically encompass both the site and the mode of brain function. Although the site issue is delineared to a large degree, the mode issue has been much less explored. From the temporal dynamics, IC can be considered as the initial stage in genesis of pain perception as conscious suffering, the unique aversion in the human brain.

  12. Blurred edges to population policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, H P

    1992-05-01

    politics. Often written in ambiguous language and intended to affect society as a whole, they still depend for their outcome on microlevel changes in a couple's perceptions of the costs and benefits of having children. In theory, they can be carried out in many ways but in practice such policies are severely limited by administrative, political, technological, economic, and ethical constraints. One difficulty is that governments is rarely enunciate precise goals. Their approach may range from noninterference in private reproductive behavior to total coercion using controls ranging from traditional cultural influences to imposition of fertility regulations. In some countries, fertility rates have increased briefly (in terms of period rates) following introduction of pronatalist policies. However, it is not clear how the rates were influenced, particularly in the case of parities 1, 2, and 3. A forthcoming report will describe experiences in Bulgaria, France, Germany, Sweden, and Norway. full text

  13. Perceptual assignment of opacity to translucent surfaces: the role of image blur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manish; Anderson, Barton L

    2002-01-01

    In constructing the percept of transparency, the visual system must decompose the light intensity at each image location into two components one for the partially transmissivc surface, the other for the underlying surface seen through it. Theories of perceptual transparency have typically assumed that this decomposition is defined quantitatively in terms of the inverse of some physical model (typically, Metelli's 'episcotister model'). In previous work, we demonstrated that the visual system uses Michelson contrast as a critical image variable in assigning transmittance to transparent surfaces not luminance differences as predicted by Metelli's model [F Metelli, 1974 Scientific American 230(4) 90 98]. In this paper, we study the contribution of another variable in determining perceived transmittance, namely, the image blur introduced by the light-scattering properties of translucent surfaces and materials. Experiment 1 demonstrates that increasing the degree of blur in the region of transparency leads to a lowering in perceived transmittance, even if Michelson contrast remains constant in this region. Experiment 2 tests how this addition of blur affects apparent contrast in the absence of perceived transparency. The results demonstrate that, although introducing blur leads to a lowering in apparent contrast, the magnitude of this decrease is relatively small, and not sufficient to explain the decrease in perceived transmittance observed in experiment 1. The visual system thus takes the presence of blur in the region of transparency as an additional image cue in assigning transmittance to partially transmissive surfaces.

  14. Perception and Action Selection Dissociate Human Ventral and Dorsal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikkai, Akiko; Jerde, Trenton A.; Curtis, Clayton E.

    2011-01-01

    We test theories about the functional organization of the human cortex by correlating brain activity with demands on perception versus action selection. Subjects covertly searched for a target among an array of 4, 8, or 12 items (perceptual manipulation) and then, depending on the color of the array, made a saccade toward, away from, or at a right…

  15. The perception of humanness from the movements of synthetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James C; Trafton, J Gregory; McKnight, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    As technology develops, social robots and synthetic avatars might begin to play more of a role in our lives. An influential theory of the perception of synthetic agents states that as they begin to look and move in a more human-like way, they elicit profound discomfort in the observer--an effect known as the Uncanny Valley. Previous attempts to examine the existence of the Uncanny Valley have not adequately manipulated movement parameters that contribute to perceptions of the humanness or eeriness. Here we parametrically manipulated three different kinematic features of two walking avatars and found that, contrary to the Uncanny Valley hypothesis, ratings of the humanness, familiarity, and eeriness of these avatars changed monotonically. Our results indicate that, when a full gradient of motion parameter changes is examined, ratings of synthetic agents by human observers do not show an Uncanny Valley.

  16. Human Brain Activity Related to the Tactile Perception of Stickiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Jiwon; Kim, Junsuk; Ryu, Jaekyun; Park, Jang-Yeon; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2017-01-01

    While the perception of stickiness serves as one of the fundamental dimensions for tactile sensation, little has been elucidated about the stickiness sensation and its neural correlates. The present study investigated how the human brain responds to perceived tactile sticky stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To evoke tactile perception of stickiness with multiple intensities, we generated silicone stimuli with varying catalyst ratios. Also, an acrylic sham stimulus was prepared to present a condition with no sticky sensation. From the two psychophysics experiments-the methods of constant stimuli and the magnitude estimation-we could classify the silicone stimuli into two groups according to whether a sticky perception was evoked: the Supra-threshold group that evoked sticky perception and the Infra-threshold group that did not. In the Supra-threshold vs. Sham contrast analysis of the fMRI data using the general linear model (GLM), the contralateral primary somatosensory area (S1) and ipsilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed significant activations in subjects, whereas no significant result was found in the Infra-threshold vs. Sham contrast. This result indicates that the perception of stickiness not only activates the somatosensory cortex, but also possibly induces higher cognitive processes. Also, the Supra- vs. Infra-threshold contrast analysis revealed significant activations in several subcortical regions, including the pallidum, putamen, caudate and thalamus, as well as in another region spanning the insula and temporal cortices. These brain regions, previously known to be related to tactile discrimination, may subserve the discrimination of different intensities of tactile stickiness. The present study unveils the human neural correlates of the tactile perception of stickiness and may contribute to broadening the understanding of neural mechanisms associated with tactile perception.

  17. Human Brain Activity Related to the Tactile Perception of Stickiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Jiwon; Kim, Junsuk; Ryu, Jaekyun; Park, Jang-Yeon; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2017-01-01

    While the perception of stickiness serves as one of the fundamental dimensions for tactile sensation, little has been elucidated about the stickiness sensation and its neural correlates. The present study investigated how the human brain responds to perceived tactile sticky stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To evoke tactile perception of stickiness with multiple intensities, we generated silicone stimuli with varying catalyst ratios. Also, an acrylic sham stimulus was prepared to present a condition with no sticky sensation. From the two psychophysics experiments–the methods of constant stimuli and the magnitude estimation—we could classify the silicone stimuli into two groups according to whether a sticky perception was evoked: the Supra-threshold group that evoked sticky perception and the Infra-threshold group that did not. In the Supra-threshold vs. Sham contrast analysis of the fMRI data using the general linear model (GLM), the contralateral primary somatosensory area (S1) and ipsilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed significant activations in subjects, whereas no significant result was found in the Infra-threshold vs. Sham contrast. This result indicates that the perception of stickiness not only activates the somatosensory cortex, but also possibly induces higher cognitive processes. Also, the Supra- vs. Infra-threshold contrast analysis revealed significant activations in several subcortical regions, including the pallidum, putamen, caudate and thalamus, as well as in another region spanning the insula and temporal cortices. These brain regions, previously known to be related to tactile discrimination, may subserve the discrimination of different intensities of tactile stickiness. The present study unveils the human neural correlates of the tactile perception of stickiness and may contribute to broadening the understanding of neural mechanisms associated with tactile perception. PMID:28163677

  18. On the Morphology of Uncertainty in Human Perception and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madan M.; Solo, Ashu M. G.

    Human cognitive and perception processes have a great tolerance for imprecision or uncertainty. For this reason, the notions of perception and cognition have great importance in solving many decision making problems in engineering, medicine, science, and social science as there are innumerable uncertainties in real-world phenomena. These uncertainties can be broadly classified as either uncertainties arising from the random behavior of physical processes or uncertainties arising from human perception and cognition processes. Statistical theory can be used to model the former, but lacks the sophistication to process the latter. The theory of fuzzy logic has proven to be very effective in processing the latter. The methodology of computing with words and the computational theory of perceptions are branches of fuzzy logic that deal with the manipulation of words that act as labels for perceptions expressed in natural language propositions. New computing methods based on fuzzy logic can lead to greater adaptability, tractability, robustness, a lower cost solution, and better rapport with reality in the development of intelligent systems.

  19. Human capital measures, strategy and performance: HR managers' perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Stephen; Langevin, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a survey and interviews with human resource (HR) professionals to identify and better understand their perceptions and expectations of human capital measures' (HCM) content, links to strategy, and impact on performance. This paper relies on a quantitative analysis of survey questionnaires collected from 104 HR executives, as well as on a qualitative investigation using six interviews. Two types of HCM are derived using principal component ...

  20. Modeling Human Visual Perception for Target Detection in Military Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Human Visual Perception, Visual Attention, Eye Movements, Eye Tracking , Human Behavior Modeling, Target Detection, Visual Search, Semantic Relevance...pertaining my eye - tracking experiment, and also for understand- ing that I considered their eye-tracker to be mine, Tim Chung for the excellent...is through the target, and top-down processing is solely engaged through pre-specifying the target features. Eye - tracking data captured in previous

  1. Human walking in virtual environments perception, technology, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Visell, Yon; Campos, Jennifer; Lécuyer, Anatole

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a survey of past and recent developments on human walking in virtual environments with an emphasis on human self-motion perception, the multisensory nature of experiences of walking, conceptual design approaches, current technologies, and applications. The use of virtual reality and movement simulation systems is becoming increasingly popular and more accessible to a wide variety of research fields and applications. While, in the past, simulation technologies have focused on developing realistic, interactive visual environments, it is becoming increasingly obvious that our everyday interactions are highly multisensory. Therefore, investigators are beginning to understand the critical importance of developing and validating locomotor interfaces that can allow for realistic, natural behaviours. The book aims to present an overview of what is currently understood about human perception and performance when moving in virtual environments and to situate it relative to the broader scientific and ...

  2. UNLIMITED, Blurred limits in a borderless world

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Adolfo Viltard

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study explores the difficulties of the unlimited, a world which everyday is more connected to imprecise limits, instability and unclear visibility. The unlimited is the realm of the vague and blurred. The objective of this paper is to analyze the driving forces that are dramatically transforming the business environment and proposing consequences on how value is created, and show their huge impact on actual firm’s industrial sectors, business models, and products/services....

  3. Robot perception errors and human resolution strategies in situated human-robot dialogue

    OpenAIRE

    Schutte, Niels; Kelleher, John; MacNamee, Brian

    2017-01-01

    We performed an experiment in which human participants interacted through a natural language dialogue interface with a simulated robot to fulfil a series of object manipulation tasks. We introduced errors into the robot’s perception, and observed the resulting problems in the dialogues and their resolutions. We then introduced different methods for the user to request information about the robot’s understanding of the environment. We quantify the impact of perception errors on the dialogues, ...

  4. IMAGE DE-BLURRING USING WIENER DE-CONVOLUTION AND WAVELET FOR DIFFERENT BLURRING KERNEL

    OpenAIRE

    M.Tech Research Scholar Shuchi Singh*, Asst Professor Vipul Awasthi, Asst Professor NitinSahu

    2016-01-01

    Image de-convolution is an active research area of recovering a sharp image after blurring by a convolution. One of the problems in image de-convolution is how to preserve the texture structures while removing blur in presence of noise. Various methods have been used for such as gradient based methods, sparsity based methods, and nonlocal self-similarity methods. In this thesis, we have used the conventional non-blind method of Wiener de-convolution. Further Wavelet denoising has been used to...

  5. Mobile camera motion blur: not just a drunkard's walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ted J.; Hubel, Paul M.

    2008-02-01

    Mobile imagers now possess multi-megapixel sensors. Blur caused by camera motion during the exposure is becoming more pronounced because the exposure time for the smaller pixel sizes has been increased to attain the same photon statistics. We present a method of measuring human hand-eye coordination for mobile imagers. When trying to hold a steady position, the results indicate that there is a distinct linear-walk motion and a distinct random-walk motion while no panning motion is intended. By using the video capture mode, we find that the frame to frame variation is typically less than 2.5 pixels (0.149 degrees). An algorithm has been devised which permits the camera to determine in real-time when is the optimum moment to for the exposure to begin to best minimize motion blur. We also observed the edge differences in fully populated "direct" image sensors and Bayer pattern sensors. Because dominant horizontal and vertical linear motions are present, chromatic shifts are observed in the Bayer sensor in the direction of motion for certain color transitions.

  6. Comparing biological motion perception in two distinct human societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Pica

    Full Text Available Cross cultural studies have played a pivotal role in elucidating the extent to which behavioral and mental characteristics depend on specific environmental influences. Surprisingly, little field research has been carried out on a fundamentally important perceptual ability, namely the perception of biological motion. In this report, we present details of studies carried out with the help of volunteers from the Mundurucu indigene, a group of people native to Amazonian territories in Brazil. We employed standard biological motion perception tasks inspired by over 30 years of laboratory research, in which observers attempt to decipher the walking direction of point-light (PL humans and animals. Do our effortless skills at perceiving biological activity from PL animations, as revealed in laboratory settings, generalize to people who have never before seen representational depictions of human and animal activity? The results of our studies provide a clear answer to this important, previously unanswered question. Mundurucu observers readily perceived the coherent, global shape depicted in PL walkers, and experienced the classic inversion effects that are typically found when such stimuli are turned upside down. In addition, their performance was in accord with important recent findings in the literature, in the abundant ease with which they extracted direction information from local motion invariants alone. We conclude that the effortless, veridical perception of PL biological motion is a spontaneous and universal perceptual ability, occurring both inside and outside traditional laboratory environments.

  7. Modeling and percept of transcorneal electrical stimulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, John; Wang, Gene-Jack; Yow, Lindy; J Cela, Carlos; Humayun, Mark S; Weiland, James D; Lazzi, Gianluca; Jadvar, Hossein

    2011-07-01

    Retinal activation via transcorneal electrical stimulation (TcES) in normal humans was investigated by comparing subject perception, model predictions, and brain activation patterns. The preferential location of retinal stimulation was predicted from 3-D admittance modeling. Visual cortex activation was measured using positron emission tomography (PET) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Two different corneal electrodes were investigated: DTL-Plus and ERG-Jet. Modeling results predicted preferential stimulation of the peripheral, inferior, nasal retina during right eye TcES using DTL-Plus, but more extensive activation of peripheral, nasal hemiretina using ERG-Jet. The results from human FDG PET study using both corneal electrodes showed areas of visual cortex activation that consistently corresponded with the reported phosphene percept and modeling predictions. ERG-Jet was able to generate brighter phosphene percept than DTL-Plus and elicited retinotopically mapped primary visual cortex activation. This study demonstrates that admittance modeling and PET imaging consistently predict the perceived location of electrically elicited phosphenes produced during TcES.

  8. Monocular blur alters the tuning characteristics of stereopsis for spatial frequency and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Roger W; So, Kayee; Wu, Thomas H; Craven, Ashley P; Tran, Truyet T; Gustafson, Kevin M; Levi, Dennis M

    2016-09-01

    Our sense of depth perception is mediated by spatial filters at different scales in the visual brain; low spatial frequency channels provide the basis for coarse stereopsis, whereas high spatial frequency channels provide for fine stereopsis. It is well established that monocular blurring of vision results in decreased stereoacuity. However, previous studies have used tests that are broadband in their spatial frequency content. It is not yet entirely clear how the processing of stereopsis in different spatial frequency channels is altered in response to binocular input imbalance. Here, we applied a new stereoacuity test based on narrow-band Gabor stimuli. By manipulating the carrier spatial frequency, we were able to reveal the spatial frequency tuning of stereopsis, spanning from coarse to fine, under blurred conditions. Our findings show that increasing monocular blur elevates stereoacuity thresholds 'selectively' at high spatial frequencies, gradually shifting the optimum frequency to lower spatial frequencies. Surprisingly, stereopsis for low frequency targets was only mildly affected even with an acuity difference of eight lines on a standard letter chart. Furthermore, we examined the effect of monocular blur on the size tuning function of stereopsis. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. DE-BLURRING SINGLE PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IMAGES USING WAVELET DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu M. Sasi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Single photon emission computed tomography imaging is a popular nuclear medicine imaging technique which generates images by detecting radiations emitted by radioactive isotopes injected in the human body. Scattering of these emitted radiations introduces blur in this type of images. This paper proposes an image processing technique to enhance cardiac single photon emission computed tomography images by reducing the blur in the image. The algorithm works in two main stages. In the first stage a maximum likelihood estimate of the point spread function and the true image is obtained. In the second stage Lucy Richardson algorithm is applied on the selected wavelet coefficients of the true image estimate. The significant contribution of this paper is that processing of images is done in the wavelet domain. Pre-filtering is also done as a sub stage to avoid unwanted ringing effects. Real cardiac images are used for the quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the algorithm. Blur metric, peak signal to noise ratio and Tenengrad criterion are used as quantitative measures. Comparison against other existing de-blurring algorithms is also done. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method effectively reduces blur present in the image.

  10. Human Action Perception is Consistent, Flexible, and Orientation Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Jeff; Pechey, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has found that observers of object-directed human action pay more attention to information regarding hand contact over information regarding spatial trajectories in action, and that processing of trajectory information is disrupted by inversion. However, observers can also flexibly modulate their attention to spatial trajectory depending on the goal or context of the actor. In Experiments 1(a) and 1b of the current research, we directly compared attention with hand and trajectory information across placing and dropping actions in order to determine whether the hand bias is always present or whether flexibility in action perception can attenuate this bias. Results demonstrated that observers attend more to hand information for placing, but attend equally to hand and trajectory information for dropping. Experiment 2 explored the role of the actor's goal in processing spatial trajectory for mimed dropping actions and non-human control stimuli, and the role of goals in the inversion effect. Results indicated that goal relevance increases processing of trajectory information, and that processing of all spatial trajectories in human action is disrupted by inversion, regardless of the actor's goal. The present findings highlight the role of prediction in action perception, and suggest that human action is processed with expertise.

  11. Neurolinguistic Relativity: How Language Flexes Human Perception and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Guillaume

    2016-09-01

    The time has come, perhaps, to go beyond merely acknowledging that language is a core manifestation of the workings of the human mind and that it relates interactively to all aspects of thinking. The issue, thus, is not to decide whether language and human thought may be ineluctably linked (they just are), but rather to determine what the characteristics of this relationship may be and to understand how language influences-and may be influenced by-nonverbal information processing. In an attempt to demystify linguistic relativity, I review neurolinguistic studies from our research group showing a link between linguistic distinctions and perceptual or conceptual processing. On the basis of empirical evidence showing effects of terminology on perception, language-idiosyncratic relationships in semantic memory, grammatical skewing of event conceptualization, and unconscious modulation of executive functioning by verbal input, I advocate a neurofunctional approach through which we can systematically explore how languages shape human thought.

  12. Perception of mind and dehumanization: Human, animal, or machine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera, María D; Quiles, María N; Correa, Ana D; Delgado, Naira; Leyens, Jacques-Philippe

    2016-08-02

    Dehumanization is reached through several approaches, including the attribute-based model of mind perception and the metaphor-based model of dehumanization. We performed two studies to find different (de)humanized images for three targets: Professional people, Evil people, and Lowest of the low. In Study 1, we examined dimensions of mind, expecting the last two categories to be dehumanized through denial of agency (Lowest of the low) or experience (Evil people), compared with humanized targets (Professional people). Study 2 aimed to distinguish these targets using metaphors. We predicted that Evil and Lowest of the low targets would suffer mechanistic and animalistic dehumanization, respectively; our predictions were confirmed, but the metaphor-based model nuanced these results: animalistic and mechanistic dehumanization were shown as overlapping rather than independent. Evil persons were perceived as "killing machines" and "predators." Finally, Lowest of the low were not animalized but considered human beings. We discuss possible interpretations.

  13. Quantum theory and human perception of the macro-world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the question of 'why customary macroscopic entities appear to us humans as they do, i.e., as bounded entities occupying space and persisting through time', starting from our knowledge of quantum theory, how it affects the behavior of such customary macroscopic entities, and how it influences our perception of them. For this purpose, we approach the question from three perspectives. Firstly, we look at the situation from the standard quantum angle, more specifically the de Broglie wavelength analysis of the behavior of macroscopic entities, indicate how a problem with spin and identity arises, and illustrate how both play a fundamental role in well-established experimental quantum-macroscopical phenomena, such as Bose-Einstein condensates. Secondly, we analyze how the question is influenced by our result in axiomatic quantum theory, which proves that standard quantum theory is structurally incapable of describing separated entities. Thirdly, we put forward our new 'conceptual quantum interpretation', including a highly detailed reformulation of the question to confront the new insights and views that arise with the foregoing analysis. At the end of the final section, a nuanced answer is given that can be summarized as follows. The specific and very classical perception of human seeing-light as a geometric theory-and human touching-only ruled by Pauli's exclusion principle-plays a role in our perception of macroscopic entities as ontologically stable entities in space. To ascertain quantum behavior in such macroscopic entities, we will need measuring apparatuses capable of its detection. Future experimental research will have to show if sharp quantum effects-as they occur in smaller entities-appear to be ontological aspects of customary macroscopic entities. It remains a possibility that standard quantum theory is an incomplete theory, and hence incapable of coping ultimately with separated entities, meaning that a more general theory will be needed.

  14. Quantum Theory and Human Perception of the Macro-World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik eAerts

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the question of 'why customary macroscopic entities appear to us humans as they do, i.e. as bounded entities occupying space and persisting through time', starting from our knowledge of quantum theory, how it affects the behavior of such customary macroscopic entities, and how it influences our perception of them. For this purpose, we approach the question from three perspectives. Firstly, we look at the situation from the standard quantum angle, more specifically the de Broglie wavelength analysis of the behavior of macroscopic entities, indicate how a problem with spin and identity arises, and illustrate how both play a fundamental role in well-established experimental quantum-macroscopical phenomena, such as Bose-Einstein condensates. Secondly, we analyze how the question is influenced by our result in axiomatic quantum theory, which proves that standard quantum theory is structurally incapable of describing separated entities. Thirdly, we put forward our new `conceptual quantum interpretation', including a highly detailed reformulation of the question to confront the new insights and views that arise with the foregoing analysis. At the end of the final section, a nuanced answer is given that can be summarized as follows. The specific and very classical perception of human seeing -- light as a geometric theory -- and human touching -- only ruled by Pauli's exclusion principle -- plays a role in our perception of macroscopic entities as ontologically stable objects in space. To ascertain quantum behavior in such macroscopic entities, we will need measuring apparatuses capable of its detection. Future experimental research will have to show if sharp quantum effects -- as they occur in smaller entities -- appear to be ontological aspects of customary macroscopic entities. It remains a possibility that standard quantum theory is an incomplete theory, and hence incapable of coping with separated entities, meaning that a more general

  15. A biologically plausible model of human shape symmetry perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Frédéric J A M; Wilson, Hugh R

    2010-01-19

    Symmetry is usually computationally expensive to encode reliably, and yet it is relatively effortless to perceive. Here, we extend F. J. A. M. Poirier and H. R. Wilson's (2006) model for shape perception to account for H. R. Wilson and F. Wilkinson's (2002) data on shape symmetry. Because the model already accounts for shape perception, only minimal neural circuitry is required to enable it to encode shape symmetry as well. The model is composed of three main parts: (1) recovery of object position using large-scale non-Fourier V4-like concentric units that respond at the center of concentric contour segments across orientations, (2) around that recovered object center, curvature mechanisms combine multiplicatively the responses of oriented filters to encode object-centric local shape information, with a preference for convexities, and (3) object-centric symmetry mechanisms. Model and human performances are comparable for symmetry perception of shapes. Moreover, with some improvement of edge recovery, the model can encode symmetry axes in natural images such as faces.

  16. Linking person perception and person knowledge in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, Inez M; Downing, Paul E; Ramsey, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Neuroscience research has examined separately how we detect human agents on the basis of their face and body (person perception) and how we reason about their thoughts, traits or intentions (person knowledge). Neuroanatomically distinct networks have been associated with person perception and person knowledge, but it remains unknown how multiple features of a person (e.g. thin and kind) are linked to form a holistic identity representation. In this fMRI experiment, we investigated the hypothesis that when encountering another person specialised person perception circuits would be functionally coupled with circuits involved in person knowledge. In a factorial design, we paired bodies or names with trait-based or neutral statements, and independent localiser scans identified body-selective and mentalising networks. When observing a body paired with a trait-implying statement, functional connectivity analyses demonstrated that body-selective patches in bilateral fusiform gyri were functionally coupled with nodes of the mentalising network. We demonstrate that when forming a representation of a person circuits for representing another person's physical appearance are linked to circuits that are engaged when reasoning about trait-based character. These data support the view that a 'who' system for social cognition involves communication between perceptual and inferential mechanisms when forming a representation of another's identity.

  17. Binding 3-D object perception in the human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Boehler, C N; Nönnig, Nina; Düzel, Emrah; Hopf, Jens-Max; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel

    2008-04-01

    How do visual luminance, shape, motion, and depth bind together in the brain to represent the coherent percept of a 3-D object within hundreds of milliseconds (msec)? We provide evidence from simultaneous magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and electroencephalographic (EEG) data that perception of 3-D objects defined by luminance or motion elicits sequential activity in human visual cortices within 500 msec. Following activation of the primary visual cortex around 100 msec, 3-D objects elicited sequential activity with only little overlap (dynamic 3-D shapes: MT-LO-Temp; stationary 3-D shapes: LO-Temp). A delay of 80 msec, both in MEG/EEG responses and in reaction times (RTs), was found when additional motion information was processed. We also found significant positive correlations between RT, and MEG and EEG responses in the right temporal location. After about 400 msec, long-lasting activity was observed in the parietal cortex and concurrently in previously activated regions. Novel time-frequency analyses indicate that the activity in the lateral occipital (LO) complex is associated with an increase of induced power in the gamma band, a hallmark of binding. The close correspondence of an induced gamma response with concurrent sources located in the LO in both experimental conditions at different points in time ( approximately 200 msec for luminance and approximately 300 msec for dynamic cues) strongly suggests that the LO is the key region for the assembly of object features. The assembly is fed forward to achieve coherent perception of a 3-D object within 500 msec.

  18. Shape perception in human and computer vision an interdisciplinary perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, Sven J

    2013-01-01

    This comprehensive and authoritative text/reference presents a unique, multidisciplinary perspective on Shape Perception in Human and Computer Vision. Rather than focusing purely on the state of the art, the book provides viewpoints from world-class researchers reflecting broadly on the issues that have shaped the field. Drawing upon many years of experience, each contributor discusses the trends followed and the progress made, in addition to identifying the major challenges that still lie ahead. Topics and features: examines each topic from a range of viewpoints, rather than promoting a speci

  19. A computational model of human auditory signal processing and perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Morten Løve; Ewert, Stephan D.; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    A model of computational auditory signal-processing and perception that accounts for various aspects of simultaneous and nonsimultaneous masking in human listeners is presented. The model is based on the modulation filterbank model described by Dau et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 2892 (1997......)] but includes major changes at the peripheral and more central stages of processing. The model contains outer- and middle-ear transformations, a nonlinear basilar-membrane processing stage, a hair-cell transduction stage, a squaring expansion, an adaptation stage, a 150-Hz lowpass modulation filter, a bandpass...

  20. Moving in a crowd: human perception as a multiscale process

    CERN Document Server

    Colombi, Annachiara; Tosin, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The strategic behavior of pedestrians is largely determined by how they perceive and consequently react to neighboring people. Such interpersonal interactions may be dictated by the emotional state of the individuals, the purpose of their trip, the local crowding, the quality of the environment to mention but a few common examples. This issue is addressed in this paper by a mathematical model which combines, in an evolutionary time- and space-dependent way, discrete and continuous effects of pedestrian interactions. Numerical simulations and qualitative analysis suggest that human perception, and its impact on crowd dynamics, can be effectively modeled as a multiscale process based on such a dual representation of groups of agents.

  1. Parameter recognition for defocus blur image using cepstrum analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Qu; Yan Guozheng; Wang Wenxing

    2008-01-01

    Successful restoration of blurred images depends primarily on the knowledge about the degradation parameter.Defocus blur model in the frequency domain is characterized by concentric rings and the blur radius of the point spread function (PSF) can be identified conveniently in the frequency field for people by manual means rather than for computer.This paper introduces a practical method for computer to estimate the defocus blur parameter in cepstrum area.Fourier transform plays an intermediate role in the path to cepstrum domain.We suggest a weighted adjustment operation in the frequency domain and then convert it to the cepstrum field to increase the accuracy of recognition.

  2. Eye Movements and Road Hazard Detection: Effects of Blur and Distractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Samantha Sze-Yee; Black, Alex A; Lacherez, Philippe; Wood, Joanne M

    2016-09-01

    To examine the effects of optical blur, auditory distractors, and age on eye movement patterns while performing a driving hazard perception test (HPT). Twenty young (mean age 27.1 ± 4.6 years) and 20 older (73.3 ± 5.7 years) drivers with normal vision completed a HPT in a repeated-measures counterbalanced design while their eye movements were recorded. Testing was performed under two visual (best-corrected vision and with +2.00DS blur) and two distractor (with and without auditory distraction) conditions. Participants were required to respond to road hazards appearing in the HPT videos of real-world driving scenes and their hazard response times were recorded. Blur and distractors each significantly delayed hazard response time by 0.42 and 0.76 s, respectively (p < 0.05). A significant interaction between age and distractors indicated that older drivers were more affected by distractors than young drivers (response with distractors delayed by 0.96 and 0.60 s, respectively). There were no other two- or three-way interaction effects on response time. With blur, for example, both groups fixated significantly longer on hazards before responding compared to best-corrected vision. In the presence of distractors, both groups exhibited delayed first fixation on the hazards and spent less time fixating on the hazards. There were also significant differences in eye movement characteristics between groups, where older drivers exhibited smaller saccades, delayed first fixation on hazards, and shorter fixation duration on hazards compared to the young drivers. Collectively, the findings of delayed hazard response times and alterations in eye movement patterns with blur and distractors provide further evidence that visual impairment and distractors are independently detrimental to driving safety given that delayed hazard response times are linked to increased crash risk.

  3. AN ELDERLY LADY WITH BLURRING OF VISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Azhany

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A 64-year-old Malay lady presented to outpatient clinic withcomplaint of progressive painless blurring of vision in botheyes for two years duration. The eye condition currently isnot improving with new glasses. There was presence ofmetamorphopsia (distorted image, but no history of floaters.She is a known case of hypertension and hyperlipidaemiawith good compliance to treatment. Her blood pressure (BPwas 140/80 mmHg at presentation and her random bloodsugar (RBS was 7.0 mmol/l.On examination, her visual acuity was 6/60 in the right eyeand 6/45 in the left eye. The conjunctiva and cornea werenormal with presence of red reflex in both eyes. Funduscopyexamination for both eyes showed similar findings

  4. Visible skin condition and perception of human facial appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, N; Fink, B; Matts, P J

    2010-06-01

    Evolutionary psychology suggests that certain human beauty standards have evolved to provide reliable cues of fertility and health. Hence, preferences for some physical characteristics of the face and body are thought to reflect adaptations for the promotion of mate choice. Studies that have investigated facial attractiveness have concentrated mainly on features such as symmetry, averageness and sex-typical traits, which are developed under the influence of sex steroids. Few studies, however, have addressed the effect of human skin condition on perception of facial appearance in this context, and possible implications for sexual selection. There is now accumulating evidence that skin pigmentation and skin surface topography cues, particularly in women, have a significant influence on attractiveness judgements, as they seem primarily to signal aspects of age and health. This article (i) reviews briefly some of the main determinants of visible skin condition, (ii) presents recent evidence on its signalling value in face perception and (iii) suggests areas for future research with reference to an evolutionary psychology framework.

  5. The neurocognitive bases of human multimodal food perception: consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Justus V

    2007-02-01

    This review explores how we become aware of the (integrated) flavor of food. In recent years, progress has been made understanding the neural correlates of consciousness. Experimental and computational data have been largely based on the visual system. Contemporary neurobiological frameworks of consciousness are reviewed, concluding that neural reverberation among forward- and back-projecting neural ensembles across brain areas is a common theme. In an attempt to extrapolate these concepts to the oral-sensory and olfactory systems involved with multimodal flavor perception, the integration of the sensory information of which into a flavor gestalt has been reviewed elsewhere (Verhagen, J.V., Engelen, L., 2006. The neurocognitive bases of human multimodal food perception: Sensory integration. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 30(5): 613_650), I reconceptualize the flavor-sensory system by integrating it into a larger neural system termed the Homeostatic Interoceptive System (HIS). This system consists of an oral (taste, oral touch, etc.) and non-oral part (non oral-thermosensation, pain, etc.) which are anatomically and functionally highly similar. Consistent with this new concept and with a large volume of experimental data, I propose that awareness of intraoral food is related to the concomitant reverberant self-sustained activation of a coalition of neuronal subsets in agranular insula and orbitofrontal cortex (affect, hedonics) and agranular insula and perirhinal cortex (food identity), as well as the amygdala (affect and identity) in humans. I further discuss the functional anatomy in relation essential nodes. These formulations are by necessity to some extent speculative.

  6. Perception of complex motion in humans and pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankoo, Jean-François; Madan, Christopher R; Spetch, Marcia L; Wylie, Douglas R

    2014-06-01

    In the primate visual system, local motion signals are pooled to create a global motion percept. Like primates, many birds are highly dependent on vision for their survival, yet relatively little is known about motion perception in birds. We used random-dot stimuli to investigate pigeons' ability to detect complex motion (radial, rotation, and spiral) compared to humans. Our human participants had a significantly lower threshold for rotational and radial motion when compared to spiral motion. The data from the pigeons, however, showed that the pigeons were most sensitive to rotational motion and least sensitive to radial motion, while sensitivity for spiral motion was intermediate. We followed up the pigeon results with an investigation of the effect of display aperture shape for rotational motion and velocity gradient for radial motion. We found no effect of shape of the aperture on thresholds, but did observe that radial motion containing accelerating dots improved thresholds. However, this improvement did not reach the thresholds levels observed for rotational motion. In sum, our experiments demonstrate that the pooling mechanism in the pigeon motion system is most efficient for rotation.

  7. Rural-Urban Blurring and the Subjectivity Within

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirek Dymitrow

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Realizing that a changing society is in constant need of redefinition, the rural-urban distinction is especially important to look systematically into. One reason is that although the outdatedness of the rural-urban dichotomy is widely acknowledged, it is still largely sustained, not least in ‘rural’ and ‘urban’ development endeavors, which are often conducted separately. Such practice may seem questionable in the face of the progressive blurring of these concepts, which makes them increasingly subjective. Acknowledging the continued need for categorization on the one hand and admitting to its flawed nature on the other, we submit there is a pressing need to capture the changing logic of rural-urban subjectivity in order to better handle it in practice. By combining humanistic and materiality-based perspectives, we discuss the concepts of ‘rural’ and ‘urban’ with emphasis on perception and experiential space as one possible way forward. In that vein, we also tentatively explore the potential of the concept of ‘landscape’ to serve as a bridge between physical and subject-centered tenets of rural-urban awareness. We argue it could become a useful conceptual tool for creating context from the divergent theoretical currents in regard to how rural-urban should be understood today.

  8. Quantifying the perceived interest of objects in images: effects of size, location, blur, and contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, Vamsi; Pinneli, Srivani; Larson, Eric C.; Chandler, Damon M.

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents the results of two psychophysical experiments designed to investigate the effects of size, location, blur, and contrast on the perceived visual interest of objects within images. In the first experiment, digital composting was used to create images containing objects (humans, animals, and non-living objects) which varied in controlled increments of size, location, blur, and contrast. Ratings of perceived interest were then measured for each object. We found that: (1) As object size increases, perceived interest increases but exhibits diminished gains for larger sizes; (2) As an object moves from the center of the image toward the image's edge, perceived interest decreases nearly linearly with distance; (3) Blurring imposes a substantial initial decrease in perceived interest, but this drop is relatively lessened for highly blurred objects; (4) As an object's RMS contrast is increased, perceived interest increases nearly linearly. Furthermore, these trends were quite similar for all three categories (human, animal, non-living object). To determine whether these data can predict the perceived interest of objects in real, non-composited images, a second experiment was performed in which subjects rated the visual interest of each of 562 objects in 150 images. Based on these results, an algorithm is presented which, given a segmented image, attempts to generate an object-level interest map.

  9. Robust Image Restoration for Motion Blur of Image Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fasheng; Huang, Yongmei; Luo, Yihan; Li, Lixing; Li, Hongwei

    2016-06-09

    Blind image restoration algorithms for motion blur have been deeply researched in the past years. Although great progress has been made, blurred images containing large blur and rich, small details still cannot be restored perfectly. To deal with these problems, we present a robust image restoration algorithm for motion blur of general image sensors in this paper. Firstly, we propose a self-adaptive structure extraction method based on the total variation (TV) to separate the reliable structures from textures and small details of a blurred image which may damage the kernel estimation and interim latent image restoration. Secondly, we combine the reliable structures with priors of the blur kernel, such as sparsity and continuity, by a two-step method with which noise can be removed during iterations of the estimation to improve the precision of the estimated blur kernel. Finally, we use a MR-based Wiener filter as the non-blind deconvolution algorithm to restore the final latent image. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm can restore large blur images with rich, small details effectively.

  10. Human Capital Questionnaire: Assessment of European nurses' perceptions as indicators of human capital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Romeo, Marina; Berger, Rita

    2013-06-01

    Healthcare accreditation models generally include indicators related to healthcare employees' perceptions (e.g. satisfaction, career development, and health safety). During the accreditation process, organizations are asked to demonstrate the methods with which assessments are made. However, none of the models provide standardized systems for the assessment of employees. In this study, we analyzed the psychometric properties of an instrument for the assessment of nurses' perceptions as indicators of human capital quality in healthcare organizations. The Human Capital Questionnaire was applied to a sample of 902 nurses in four European countries (Spain, Portugal, Poland, and the UK). Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: satisfaction with leadership, identification and commitment, satisfaction with participation, staff well-being, career development opportunities, and motivation. The results showed the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, which when applied to healthcare organizations, provide a better understanding of nurses' perceptions, and is a parsimonious instrument for assessment and organizational accreditation. From a practical point of view, improving the quality of human capital, by analyzing nurses and other healthcare employees' perceptions, is related to workforce empowerment.

  11. Neural correlates of induced motion perception in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Hiromasa; Ashida, Hiroshi; Amano, Kaoru; Kitaoka, Akiyoshi; Murakami, Ikuya

    2012-10-10

    A physically stationary stimulus surrounded by a moving stimulus appears to move in the opposite direction. There are similarities between the characteristics of this phenomenon of induced motion and surround suppression of directionally selective neurons in the brain. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate the link between the subjective perception of induced motion and cortical activity. The visual stimuli consisted of a central drifting sinusoid surrounded by a moving random-dot pattern. The change in cortical activity in response to changes in speed and direction of the central stimulus was measured. The human cortical area hMT+ showed the greatest activation when the central stimulus moved at a fast speed in the direction opposite to that of the surround. More importantly, the activity in this area was the lowest when the central stimulus moved in the same direction as the surround and at a speed such that the central stimulus appeared to be stationary. The results indicate that the activity in hMT+ is related to perceived speed modulated by induced motion rather than to physical speed or a kinetic boundary. Early visual areas (V1, V2, V3, and V3A) showed a similar pattern; however, the relationship to perceived speed was not as clear as that in hMT+. These results suggest that hMT+ may be a neural correlate of induced motion perception and play an important role in contrasting motion signals in relation to their surrounding context and adaptively modulating our motion perception depending on the spatial context.

  12. Humanly space objects-Perception and connection with the observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Hall, Ashley

    2015-05-01

    Expanding humanity into space is an inevitable step in our quest to explore our world. Yet space exploration is costly, and the awaiting environment challenges us with extreme cold, heat, vacuum and radiation, unlike anything encountered on Earth. Thus, the few pioneers who experience it needed to be well protected throughout their spaceflight. The resulting isolation heightens the senses and increases the desire to make humanly connections with any other perceived manifestation of life. Such connections may occur via sensory inputs, namely vision, touch, sound, smell, and taste. This then follows the process of sensing, interpreting, and recognizing familiar patterns, or learning from new experiences. The desire to connect could even transfer to observed objects, if their movements and characteristics trigger the appropriate desires from the observer. When ordered in a familiar way, for example visual stimuli from lights and movements of an object, it may create a perceived real bond with an observer, and evoke the feeling of surprise when the expected behavior changes to something no longer predictable or recognizable. These behavior patterns can be designed into an object and performed autonomously in front of an observer, in our case an astronaut. The experience may introduce multiple responses, including communication, connection, empathy, order, and disorder. While emotions are clearly evoked in the observer and may seem one sided, in effect the object itself provides a decoupled bond, connectivity and communication between the observer and the artist-designer of the object. In this paper we will discuss examples from the field of arts and other domains, including robotics, where human perception through object interaction was explored, and investigate the starting point for new innovative design concepts and future prototype designs, that extend these experiences beyond the boundaries of Earth, while taking advantage of remoteness and the zero gravity

  13. Human roughness perception and possible factors effecting roughness sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Tugba; Chen, Jianshe; Ettelaie, Rammile; Holmes, Melvin; Henson, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Surface texture sensation is significant for business success, in particular for solid surfaces for most of the materials; including foods. Mechanisms of roughness perception are still unknown, especially under different conditions such as lubricants with varying viscosities, different temperatures, or under different force loads during the observation of the surface. This work aims to determine the effect of those unknown factors, with applied sensory tests on 62 healthy participants. Roughness sensation of fingertip was tested under different lubricants including water and diluted syrup solutions at room temperature (25C) and body temperature (37C) by using simple pair-wise comparison to observe the just noticeable difference threshold and perception levels. Additionally, in this research applied force load during roughness observation was tested with pair-wise ranking method to illustrate its possible effect on human sensation. Obtained results showed that human's capability of roughness discrimination reduces with increased viscosity of the lubricant, where the influence of the temperature was not found to be significant. Moreover, the increase in the applied force load showed an increase in the sensitivity of roughness discrimination. Observed effects of the applied factors were also used for estimating the oral sensation of texture during eating. These findings are significant for our fundamental understanding to texture perception, and for the development of new food products with controlled textural features. Texture discrimination ability, more specifically roughness discrimination capability, is a significant factor for preference and appreciation for a wide range of materials, including food, furniture, or fabric. To explore the mechanism of sensation capability through tactile senses, it is necessary to identify the relevant factors and define characteristics that dominate the process involved. The results that will be obtained under these principles

  14. Theory of reflectivity blurring in seismic depth imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, C. J.; Kitchenside, P. W.; Fletcher, R. P.

    2016-05-01

    A subsurface extended image gather obtained during controlled-source depth imaging yields a blurred kernel of an interface reflection operator. This reflectivity kernel or reflection function is comprised of the interface plane-wave reflection coefficients and so, in principle, the gather contains amplitude versus offset or angle information. We present a modelling theory for extended image gathers that accounts for variable illumination and blurring, under the assumption of a good migration-velocity model. The method involves forward modelling as well as migration or back propagation so as to define a receiver-side blurring function, which contains the effects of the detector array for a given shot. Composition with the modelled incident wave and summation over shots then yields an overall blurring function that relates the reflectivity to the extended image gather obtained from field data. The spatial evolution or instability of blurring functions is a key concept and there is generally not just spatial blurring in the apparent reflectivity, but also slowness or angle blurring. Gridded blurring functions can be estimated with, for example, a reverse-time migration modelling engine. A calibration step is required to account for ad hoc band limitedness in the modelling and the method also exploits blurring-function reciprocity. To demonstrate the concepts, we show numerical examples of various quantities using the well-known SIGSBEE test model and a simple salt-body overburden model, both for 2-D. The moderately strong slowness/angle blurring in the latter model suggests that the effect on amplitude versus offset or angle analysis should be considered in more realistic structures. Although the description and examples are for 2-D, the extension to 3-D is conceptually straightforward. The computational cost of overall blurring functions implies their targeted use for the foreseeable future, for example, in reservoir characterization. The description is for scalar

  15. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of human MT+ reduces apparent motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyoshi, Daisuke; Hirose, Nobuyuki; Mima, Tatsuya; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2007-12-18

    We investigated the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the human cerebral cortex on apparent motion perception. Previous studies have shown that human extrastriate visual area MT+ (V5) processes not only real but also apparent motion. However, the functional relevance of MT+ on long-range apparent motion perception remains unclear. Here, we show direct evidence for the involvement of MT+ in apparent motion perception using rTMS, which is known to temporarily inhibit a localized region in the cerebral cortex. The results showed that apparent motion perception decreased after applying rTMS over MT+, but not after applying rTMS over the control region (inferior temporal gyrus). The decrease in performance caused by applying rTMS to MT+ suggests that MT+ is a causally responsible region for apparent motion perception, and thus, further supports the idea that MT+ plays a major role in the perception of motion.

  16. Age Estimation-Based Soft Biometrics Considering Optical Blurring Based on Symmetrical Sub-Blocks for MLBP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dat Tien Nguyen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Because of its many useful applications, human age estimation has been considered in many previous studies as a soft biometrics. However, most existing methods of age estimation require a clear and focused facial image as input in order to obtain a trustworthy estimation result; otherwise, the methods might produce increased estimation error when an image of poor quality is used as input. Image blurring is one of major factors that affect estimation accuracies because it can cause a face to appear younger (i.e., reduce the age feature in the face region. Therefore, we propose a new human age estimation method that is robust even with an image that has the optical blurring effect by using symmetrical focus mask and sub-blocks for multi-level local binary pattern (MLBP. Experiment results show that the proposed method can enhance age estimation accuracy compared with the conventional system, which does not consider the effects of blurring.

  17. Limits of spherical blur determined with an adaptive optics mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, David A; Guo, Huanqing; Fisher, Scott W

    2009-05-01

    We extended an earlier study (Vision Research, 45, 1967-1974, 2005) in which we investigated limits at which induced blur of letter targets becomes noticeable, troublesome and objectionable. Here we used a deformable adaptive optics mirror to vary spherical defocus for conditions of a white background with correction of astigmatism; a white background with reduction of all aberrations other than defocus; and a monochromatic background with reduction of all aberrations other than defocus. We used seven cyclopleged subjects, lines of three high-contrast letters as targets, 3-6 mm artificial pupils, and 0.1-0.6 logMAR letter sizes. Subjects used a method of adjustment to control the defocus component of the mirror to set the 'just noticeable', 'just troublesome' and 'just objectionable' defocus levels. For the white-no adaptive optics condition combined with 0.1 logMAR letter size, mean 'noticeable' blur limits were +/-0.30, +/-0.24 and +/-0.23 D at 3, 4 and 6 mm pupils, respectively. White-adaptive optics and monochromatic-adaptive optics conditions reduced blur limits by 8% and 20%, respectively. Increasing pupil size from 3-6 mm decreased blur limits by 29%, and increasing letter size increased blur limits by 79%. Ratios of troublesome to noticeable, and of objectionable to noticeable, blur limits were 1.9 and 2.7 times, respectively. The study shows that the deformable mirror can be used to vary defocus in vision experiments. Overall, the results of noticeable, troublesome and objectionable blur agreed well with those of the previous study. Attempting to reduce higher-order aberrations or chromatic aberrations, reduced blur limits to only a small extent.

  18. Simulated disparity and peripheral blur interact during binocular fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiello, Guido; Chessa, Manuela; Solari, Fabio; Bex, Peter J

    2014-07-17

    We have developed a low-cost, practical gaze-contingent display in which natural images are presented to the observer with dioptric blur and stereoscopic disparity that are dependent on the three-dimensional structure of natural scenes. Our system simulates a distribution of retinal blur and depth similar to that experienced in real-world viewing conditions by emmetropic observers. We implemented the system using light-field photographs taken with a plenoptic camera which supports digital refocusing anywhere in the images. We coupled this capability with an eye-tracking system and stereoscopic rendering. With this display, we examine how the time course of binocular fusion depends on depth cues from blur and stereoscopic disparity in naturalistic images. Our results show that disparity and peripheral blur interact to modify eye-movement behavior and facilitate binocular fusion, and the greatest benefit was gained by observers who struggled most to achieve fusion. Even though plenoptic images do not replicate an individual’s aberrations, the results demonstrate that a naturalistic distribution of depth-dependent blur may improve 3-D virtual reality, and that interruptions of this pattern (e.g., with intraocular lenses) which flatten the distribution of retinal blur may adversely affect binocular fusion. © 2014 ARVO.

  19. The role of human ventral visual cortex in motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Saygin, Ayse P; Lorenzi, Lauren J; Egan, Ryan; Rees, Geraint; Behrmann, Marlene

    2013-09-01

    Visual motion perception is fundamental to many aspects of visual perception. Visual motion perception has long been associated with the dorsal (parietal) pathway and the involvement of the ventral 'form' (temporal) visual pathway has not been considered critical for normal motion perception. Here, we evaluated this view by examining whether circumscribed damage to ventral visual cortex impaired motion perception. The perception of motion in basic, non-form tasks (motion coherence and motion detection) and complex structure-from-motion, for a wide range of motion speeds, all centrally displayed, was assessed in five patients with a circumscribed lesion to either the right or left ventral visual pathway. Patients with a right, but not with a left, ventral visual lesion displayed widespread impairments in central motion perception even for non-form motion, for both slow and for fast speeds, and this held true independent of the integrity of areas MT/V5, V3A or parietal regions. In contrast with the traditional view in which only the dorsal visual stream is critical for motion perception, these novel findings implicate a more distributed circuit in which the integrity of the right ventral visual pathway is also necessary even for the perception of non-form motion.

  20. Enrolment Purposes, Instructional Activities, and Perceptions of Attitudinal Learning in a Human Trafficking MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sunnie Lee; Kim, Woori

    2016-01-01

    This study examines learner enrolment purposes, perceptions on instructional activities and their relationship to learning gains in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for attitudinal change regarding human trafficking. Using an author-developed survey, learners reported their perceptions on instructional activities and learning gains within the…

  1. Examining Social Perceptions between Arab and Jewish Children through Human Figure Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedidia, Tova; Lipschitz-Elchawi, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined social perceptions among 191 Arab and Jewish children who live in mixed neighborhoods in Israel. Human Figure Drawing assessment was used to examine the children's social perceptions. The drawings that the Jewish Israeli children created portrayed Arabs as the enemy, whereas the Arab Israeli children expressed a more positive…

  2. Men's Perceptions and Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, Tara S.; Weaver, Bethany A.; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Koutsky, Laura A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors assessed young men's knowledge and perceptions of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to identify factors that predict intention to make positive behavioral changes. Male university students aged 18 to 25 years completed a self-report instrument to assess knowledge and perceptions of genital HPV infection. If diagnosed with…

  3. Men's Perceptions and Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, Tara S.; Weaver, Bethany A.; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Koutsky, Laura A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors assessed young men's knowledge and perceptions of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to identify factors that predict intention to make positive behavioral changes. Male university students aged 18 to 25 years completed a self-report instrument to assess knowledge and perceptions of genital HPV infection. If diagnosed with…

  4. Lecture classes in human anatomy: the students' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Maitreyee; Roy, Hironmoy; Ghosh, Anasuya; Tapadar, Arunabha; Chowdhury, Subhramoy; Mukherjee, Pranab; Jana, Tapan Kumar

    2013-06-01

    The human anatomy, or in brief, the body structure has fascinated man for ages. Due to the information explosion and the increase in specializations, this knowledge is available in a very sketchy manner in high school biology courses. The first comprehensive course on the human anatomy is taught to the first year medical students in medical colleges. This is in keeping with the regulations of the Medical Council of India. The anatomy lecture classes occupy a considerable time of the course, to provide the students with an effective knowledge of the gross anatomy, histology, embryology and the clinical anatomy. On the other hand, the students' feedback regarding the lecture methods and the teaching environment is crucial in judging the efficacy of the present curriculum. To obtain the students' feedback about the environment of the lecture classes, as regards the venue, the teaching and learning aids which are used, the lecture class schedule of the university (the number of classes per week, the durations of the lecture classes, etc.) and the existing departmental practices (display of the class routine in advance, synchronization between the lecture and the practical classes), so that their suggestions could help the faculty in planning the most effective teaching procedures. A semi structured questionnaire was supplied to the students to get their feedback. Most of the students found the air conditioned seminar room's environment to be more comfortable and they supported the existing durations of the lecture hours with the combined use of chalk and a board and overhead projectors (OHPs). The perceptions of the learners helped in modifying the departmental practice in the desired way.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of impedance perception characteristics of humans in the man-machine interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onish, Keiichi [Yamaha Motor Co., Shizuoka (Japan); Kim, Young Woo [Daegu Techno Park R and D Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Obinata, Goro [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Hase, Kazunori [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-05-15

    We investigated impedance perception characteristics of humans in the man-machine interface. Sensibility or operational feel about physical properties of machine dynamics is obtained through perception process. We evaluated the impedance perception characteristics of humans who are operating a mechanical system, based on extended Scheffe's subjective evaluation method in full consideration of the influence of impedance level, impedance difference, experiment order, individual difference and so on. Constant method based quantitative evaluation was adopted to investigate the influence of motion frequency and change of the impedance on human impedance perception characteristics. Experimental results indicate that humans perceive impedance of mechanical systems based on comparison process of the dynamical characteristics of the systems. The proposed method can be applied to quantify the design requirement of man-machine interface. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through experimental results.

  6. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  7. Numerical simulation of human orientation perception during lunar landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Torin K.; Young, Laurence R.; Stimpson, Alexander J.; Duda, Kevin R.; Oman, Charles M.

    2011-09-01

    In lunar landing it is necessary to select a suitable landing point and then control a stable descent to the surface. In manned landings, astronauts will play a critical role in monitoring systems and adjusting the descent trajectory through either supervisory control and landing point designations, or by direct manual control. For the astronauts to ensure vehicle performance and safety, they will have to accurately perceive vehicle orientation. A numerical model for human spatial orientation perception was simulated using input motions from lunar landing trajectories to predict the potential for misperceptions. Three representative trajectories were studied: an automated trajectory, a landing point designation trajectory, and a challenging manual control trajectory. These trajectories were studied under three cases with different cues activated in the model to study the importance of vestibular cues, visual cues, and the effect of the descent engine thruster creating dust blowback. The model predicts that spatial misperceptions are likely to occur as a result of the lunar landing motions, particularly with limited or incomplete visual cues. The powered descent acceleration profile creates a somatogravic illusion causing the astronauts to falsely perceive themselves and the vehicle as upright, even when the vehicle has a large pitch or roll angle. When visual pathways were activated within the model these illusions were mostly suppressed. Dust blowback, obscuring the visual scene out the window, was also found to create disorientation. These orientation illusions are likely to interfere with the astronauts' ability to effectively control the vehicle, potentially degrading performance and safety. Therefore suitable countermeasures, including disorientation training and advanced displays, are recommended.

  8. Hierarchical organization of speech perception in human auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin eHumphries

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Human speech consists of a variety of articulated sounds that vary dynamically in spectral composition. We investigated the neural activity associated with the perception of two types of speech segments: (a the period of rapid spectral transition occurring at the beginning of a stop-consonant vowel (CV syllable and (b the subsequent spectral steady-state period occurring during the vowel segment of the syllable. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was recorded while subjects listened to series of synthesized CV syllables and non-phonemic control sounds. Adaptation to specific sound features was measured by varying either the transition or steady-state periods of the synthesized sounds. Two spatially distinct brain areas in the superior temporal cortex were found that were sensitive to either the type of adaptation or the type of stimulus. In a relatively large section of the bilateral dorsal superior temporal gyrus (STG, activity varied as a function of adaptation type regardless of whether the stimuli were phonemic or non-phonemic. Immediately adjacent to this region in a more limited area of the ventral STG, increased activity was observed for phonemic trials compared to non-phonemic trials, however, no adaptation effects were found. In addition, a third area in the bilateral medial superior temporal plane showed increased activity to non-phonemic compared to phonemic sounds. The results suggest a multi-stage hierarchical stream for speech sound processing extending ventrolaterally from the superior temporal plane to the superior temporal sulcus. At successive stages in this hierarchy, neurons code for increasingly more complex spectrotemporal features. At the same time, these representations become more abstracted from the original acoustic form of the sound.

  9. The effect of refractive blur on postural stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Vijay; Buckley, John; Scally, Andy; Elliott, David B

    2002-11-01

    The effect of refractive blur upon postural stability was investigated under three conditions: normal standing, standing with input from the somatosensory system disrupted and standing with input from the somatosensory and vestibular systems disrupted. Standing stability was assessed using the centre of pressure (COP) signal from force plate data in four young subjects (mean 23.9+/-3.1 years) and five repeated sets of measurements were taken. The subjects looked straight ahead at a horizontal and vertical square wave pattern of 2.5 cycles (degree)(-1). Under each of the three test conditions, standing stability was measured with the optimal refractive correction and under binocular blur levels of 0, + 1, + 2, + 4, and + 8 D and with eyes closed. In the normal standing condition, dioptric blur had only a mild effect on postural stability. However refractive blur produced large increases in postural instability when input from one or both of the other two sensory systems were disrupted. We hypothesized that dioptric blur would have an even great effect on postural stability if the visual target used was of higher spatial frequency. This was confirmed by repeated measurements on one subject using a target of 8 cycles (degree)(-1). The study highlights the possible importance of an optimal correction to postural stability, particular in situations (or people) where input from the somatosensory and/or vestibular systems are disrupted, and where the visual surrounds are of high spatial frequency.

  10. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people’s perception of a person’s age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating app...

  11. Modeling Human Perception of Orientation in Altered Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torin K. Clark

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Altered gravity environments, such as those experienced by astronauts, impact spatial orientation perception and can lead to spatial disorientation and sensorimotor impairment. To more fully understand and quantify the impact of altered gravity on orientation perception, several mathematical models have been proposed. The utricular shear, tangent, and the idiotropic vector models aim to predict static perception of tilt in hyper-gravity. Predictions from these prior models are compared to the available data, but are found to systematically err from the perceptions experimentally observed. Alternatively, we propose a modified utricular shear model for static tilt perception in hyper-gravity. Previous dynamic models of vestibular function and orientation perception are limited to 1 G. Specifically, they fail to predict the characteristic overestimation of roll tilt observed in hyper-gravity environments. To address this, we have proposed a modification to a previous observer-type canal otolith interaction model based upon the hypothesis that the central nervous system treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. Here we evaluate our modified utricular shear and modified observer models in four altered gravity motion paradigms: a static roll tilt in hyper-gravity, b static pitch tilt in hyper-gravity, c static roll tilt in hypo-gravity, and d static pitch tilt in hypo-gravity. The modified models match available data in each of the conditions considered. Our static modified utricular shear model and dynamic modified observer model may be used to help quantitatively predict astronaut perception of orientation in altered gravity environments.

  12. A new vision for the science of human flavor perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon M Shepherd

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The conference was organized and welcomed by Lisa Sasson, representing the NYU Steinhardt School and its Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Public Health in cooperation with the NYU School of Dentistry. As a co-organizer, I added my welcome, and explained how the many disciplines brought together in the conference constituted a new vision for the science of human flavor perception, which can be summarized by the term “neurogastronomy” (1. The speakers and the disciplines they represent were bound together by several principles. First, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." This is understood to apply to most research in biology; here we wished to show that it applies especially to the human behavior of choosing foods to eat, a view put forward most prominently by Richard Wrangham based on his book "Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human". We also wished to show that the sensory and motor apparatus of the mouth and nose need to be understood as adaptations through human evolution, as carefully documented by Daniel Lieberman, based on his recent "Evolution of the Human Head". Many of the speakers picked up this theme in their presentations. It is clear that an evolutionary framework must be part of understanding flavor and healthy eating. A second principle was that "Flavor is not in the food; it is created by the brain". Just as color is created out of different wavelengths of light by neural processing mechanisms in our brains, so is flavor created by neural processing mechanisms out of different molecules emitted by the food and drink in our mouths. This requires understanding neural mechanisms at all levels of organization of the brain, a vast field that our conference only began to address, starting with the sensory receptors and sensory systems as discussed by Gary Beauchamp for taste and Stuart Firestein for olfaction. Current research reported by Ivan De Araujo on sugars is dissociating their sweet

  13. Blurring and Deblurring Digital Images Using the Dihedral Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husein Hadi Abbas Jassim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method of blurring and deblurring digital images is presented. The approach is based on using new filters generating from average filter and H-filters using the action of the dihedral group. These filters are called HB-filters; used to cause a motion blur and then deblurring affected images. Also, enhancing images using HB-filters is presented as compared to other methods like Average, Gaussian, and Motion. Results and analysis show that the HB-filters are better in peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR and RMSE.

  14. Blurring of the public/private divide: the Canadian chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Colleen M; Thomas, Bryan

    2010-06-01

    Blurring of public/private divide is occurring in different ways around the world, with differential effects in terms of access and equity. In Canada, one pathway towards privatization has received particular attention: duplicative private insurance, allowing those with the financial means to bypass queues in the public system. We assess recent legal and policy developments on this front, but also describe other trends towards the blurring of public and private in Canada: the reliance on mandated private insurance for pharmaceutical coverage; provincial governments' reliance on public-private partnerships to finance hospitals; and the incorporation of for-profit clinics within the public health care system.

  15. Efficient Image Blur in Web-Based Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    be implemented using a subimage copy function, and evaluate its performance with various web browsers in comparison to an infinite impulse response filter. While this pyramid algorithm was first proposed for GPU-based image processing, its applicability to web-based applications indicates that some GPU......Scripting languages require the use of high-level library functions to implement efficient image processing; thus, real-time image blur in web-based applications is a challenging task unless specific library functions are available for this purpose. We present a pyramid blur algorithm, which can...

  16. Blurring and Deblurring Digital Images Using the Dihedral Group

    OpenAIRE

    Husein Hadi Abbas Jassim; Zahir M. Hussain; Hind R.M Shaaban; Kawther B.R. Al-dbag

    2015-01-01

    A new method of blurring and deblurring digital images is presented. The approach is based on using new filters generating from average filter and H-filters using the action of the dihedral group. These filters are called HB-filters; used to cause a motion blur and then deblurring affected images. Also, enhancing images using HB-filters is presented as compared to other methods like Average, Gaussian, and Motion. Results and analysis show that the HB-filters are better in peak signal to noise...

  17. Human perception of the conservation and biodiversity state of forest remnants under different levels of urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thallita Oliveira de Grande

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human perception of local environmental biodiversity and conservation may provide another dimension to understanding the ecology of urban ecosystems. This perception can vary according to the environmental urbanization level and may contribute towards its conservation. We investigated the relationship between the human perception of the conservation and state of animal richness in urban remnants and level of landscape urbanization, and between the human perception of animal richness and the remnants’ area. In addition, we tested the effectiveness of interviews as the means for evaluating animal richness. The subjects' perception of the conservation of remnants did not correlate with the level of urbanization. Richness was reported as high and varied with the remnant’s area - indicating maintenance of a possible species-area relationship in the studied landscape - but did not correlate with the level of urbanization. Urbanization can standardize the popular knowledge about conservation. Interviews with local residents proved to bring efficient insights into urban animal richness, especially for primates, and can be supplemented by camera-trapping. Human perception, obtained through interviews, is relevant and useful for the description of ecological aspects of urban regions and supports environmental awareness, actions, research projects, and management for conservation purposes.

  18. Using Opaque Image Blur for Real-Time Depth-of-Field Rendering and Image-Based Motion Blur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2013-01-01

    While depth of field is an important cinematographic means, its use in real-time computer graphics is still limited by the computational costs that are necessary to achieve a sufficient image quality. Specifically, color bleeding artifacts between objects at different depths are most effectively...... avoided by a decomposition into sub-images and the independent blurring of each sub-image. This decomposition, however, can result in rendering artifacts at silhouettes of objects. We propose a new blur filter that increases the opacity of all pixels to avoid these artifacts at the cost of physically less...... accurate but still plausible rendering results. The proposed filter is named "opaque image blur" and is based on a glowfilter that is applied to the alpha channel. We present a highly efficient GPU-based pyramid algorithm that implements this filter for depth-of-field rendering. Moreover, we demonstrate...

  19. Blurred Boundaries in Wildlife Management Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonman-Berson, S.H.

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts have been increasing at alarming rates over the last few decades. Wildlife management practices deal with preventing and disentangling these conflicts. However, which approach should be taken is widely disputed in research, policy, in-the-field-wildlife management and local

  20. Blurred Boundaries in Wildlife Management Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonman-Berson, S.H.

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts have been increasing at alarming rates over the last few decades. Wildlife management practices deal with preventing and disentangling these conflicts. However, which approach should be taken is widely disputed in research, policy, in-the-field-wildlife management and local

  1. Neural coding and perception of pitch in the normal and impaired human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Pitch is an important attribute of hearing that allows us to perceive the musical quality of sounds. Besides music perception, pitch contributes to speech communication, auditory grouping, and perceptual segregation of sound sources. In this work, several aspects of pitch perception in humans were...... investigated using psychophysical methods. First, hearing loss was found to affect the perception of binaural pitch, a pitch sensation created by the binaural interaction of noise stimuli. Specifically, listeners without binaural pitch sensation showed signs of retrocochlear disorders. Despite adverse effects...

  2. Modeling human perceptual thresholds in self-motion perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente Pais, A.R.; Mulder, M.; Paassen, M.M. van; Wentink, M.; Groen, E.L.

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of thresholds for perception of inertial motion is needed for the design of simulator motion filters. Experiments have generally been done to measure these thresholds in isolation, one motion at the time. In vehicle simulation however, several motions occur concurrently. In a flight

  3. A Blur track on Mars: how do you top that?

    CERN Multimedia

    Cooke, Rachel

    2003-01-01

    "On the eve of the landing of the Beagle 2 space probe on Mars, one of its instigators, Blur bassist Alex James, talks exclusively about his new-found passion for space 'Talking with scientists makes me feel giddy with excitement. Life on Mars, I mean, come on! How dead do you have to be not to find that interesting?' (1 page).

  4. Prestimulus functional connectivity determines pain perception in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploner, Markus; Lee, Michael C; Wiech, Katja; Bingel, Ulrike; Tracey, Irene

    2010-01-05

    Pain is a highly subjective experience that can be substantially influenced by differences in individual susceptibility as well as personality. How susceptibility to pain and personality translate to brain activity is largely unknown. Here, we report that the functional connectivity of two key brain areas before a sensory event reflects the susceptibility to a subsequent noxious stimulus being perceived as painful. Specifically, the prestimulus connectivity among brain areas related to the subjective perception of the body and to the modulation of pain (anterior insular cortex and brainstem, respectively) determines whether a noxious event is perceived as painful. Further, these effects of prestimulus connectivity on pain perception covary with pain-relevant personality traits. More anxious and pain-attentive individuals display weaker descending connectivity to pain modulatory brain areas. We conclude that variations in functional connectivity underlie personality-related differences in individual susceptibility to pain.

  5. Human flavor perception: Application of information integration theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Lawrence E.; Elgart, Benjamin Z.; Burger, Kelly; Chakwin, Emily M.

    2008-01-01

    The perception of flavor arises from the combination of inputs from several sensory modalities, especially gustation (taste proper) and olfaction (the primary source of flavor qualities). Both the perception of intensity of suprathreshold flavorants and, notably, the detection of weak flavorants are consistent with a rule of additivity. Thus, the detectability, d′, of mixtures of the gustatory flavorant sucrose and the olfactory flavorant vanillin approximates the additive sum of detectabilities of the two components, within a model that assumes pooled noise in the flavor system that derives from both modalities. When gustatory and olfactory flavorants are presented in isolation, however, under conditions that encourage or permit selective attention to one modality or the other, it may be possible to filter out the noise associated with the unattended modality, and leading thereby to a rule of vector summation. PMID:19079746

  6. Changes in health perceptions after exposure to human suffering: using discrete emotions to understand underlying processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia A Paschali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine whether exposure to human suffering is associated with negative changes in perceptions about personal health. We further examined the relation of possible health perception changes, to changes in five discrete emotions (i.e., fear, guilt, hostility/anger, and joviality, as a guide to understand the processes underlying health perception changes, provided that each emotion conveys information regarding triggering conditions. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: An experimental group (N = 47 was exposed to images of human affliction, whereas a control group (N = 47 was exposed to relaxing images. Participants in the experimental group reported more health anxiety and health value, as well as lower health-related optimism and internal health locus of control, in comparison to participants exposed to relaxing images. They also reported more fear, guilt, hostility and sadness, as well as less joviality. Changes in each health perception were related to changes in particular emotions. CONCLUSION: These findings imply that health perceptions are shaped in a constant dialogue with the representations about the broader world. Furthermore, it seems that the core of health perception changes lies in the acceptance that personal well-being is subject to several potential threats, as well as that people cannot fully control many of the factors the determine their own well-being.

  7. Influence of different types of trams on human perception of vibrations in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalska-Koczwara Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly urbanized areas transport vibration source are closer and closer to the receiver which is a building. At the same time residents requirements for comfort in rooms are higher. In this paper influence of transport vibrations from various types of trams on human perception was tested and analysed. Measurements were made in Cracow on 11 buildings located near tramway. Human perception were investigated according to ISO and Polish standard. Basic RMS method and additional VDV method were applied because of high crest factor of recorded signal. Results of both methods were compared.

  8. Brain response to a humanoid robot in areas implicated in the perception of human emotional gestures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Chaminade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents. METHODOLOGY: Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance. CONCLUSIONS: Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions. SIGNIFICANCE: Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions.

  9. Is it the real deal? Perception of virtual characters versus humans: an affective cognitive neuroscience perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline W. ede Borst

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in neuroimaging research support the increased use of naturalistic stimulus material such as film, animations, or androids. These stimuli allow for a better understanding of how the brain processes information in complex situations while maintaining experimental control. While avatars and androids are well suited to study human cognition, they should not be equated to human stimuli. For example, the Uncanny Valley hypothesis theorizes that artificial agents with high human-likeness may evoke feelings of eeriness in the human observer. Here we review if, when, and how the perception of human-like avatars and androids differs from the perception of humans and consider how this influences their utilization as stimulus material in social and affective neuroimaging studies. First, we discuss how the appearance of virtual characters affects perception. When stimuli are morphed across categories from non-human to human, the most ambiguous stimuli, rather than the most human-like stimuli, show prolonged classification times and increased eeriness. Human-like to human stimuli show a positive linear relationship with familiarity. Secondly, we show that expressions of emotions in human-like avatars can be perceived similarly to human emotions, with corresponding behavioral, physiological and neuronal activations, with exception of physical dissimilarities. Subsequently, we consider if and when one perceives differences in action representation by artificial agents versus humans. Motor resonance and predictive coding models may account for empirical findings, such as an interference effect on action for observed human-like, natural moving characters. However, the expansion of these models to explain more complex behavior, such as empathy, still needs to be investigated in more detail. Finally, we broaden our outlook to social interaction, where virtual reality stimuli can be utilized to imitate complex social situations.

  10. Is it the real deal? Perception of virtual characters versus humans: an affective cognitive neuroscience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Borst, Aline W; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in neuroimaging research support the increased use of naturalistic stimulus material such as film, avatars, or androids. These stimuli allow for a better understanding of how the brain processes information in complex situations while maintaining experimental control. While avatars and androids are well suited to study human cognition, they should not be equated to human stimuli. For example, the uncanny valley hypothesis theorizes that artificial agents with high human-likeness may evoke feelings of eeriness in the human observer. Here we review if, when, and how the perception of human-like avatars and androids differs from the perception of humans and consider how this influences their utilization as stimulus material in social and affective neuroimaging studies. First, we discuss how the appearance of virtual characters affects perception. When stimuli are morphed across categories from non-human to human, the most ambiguous stimuli, rather than the most human-like stimuli, show prolonged classification times and increased eeriness. Human-like to human stimuli show a positive linear relationship with familiarity. Secondly, we show that expressions of emotions in human-like avatars can be perceived similarly to human emotions, with corresponding behavioral, physiological and neuronal activations, with exception of physical dissimilarities. Subsequently, we consider if and when one perceives differences in action representation by artificial agents versus humans. Motor resonance and predictive coding models may account for empirical findings, such as an interference effect on action for observed human-like, natural moving characters. However, the expansion of these models to explain more complex behavior, such as empathy, still needs to be investigated in more detail. Finally, we broaden our outlook to social interaction, where virtual reality stimuli can be utilized to imitate complex social situations.

  11. Tracing the emergence of categorical speech perception in the human auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Moreno, Sylvain; Alain, Claude

    2013-10-01

    Speech perception requires the effortless mapping from smooth, seemingly continuous changes in sound features into discrete perceptual units, a conversion exemplified in the phenomenon of categorical perception. Explaining how/when the human brain performs this acoustic-phonetic transformation remains an elusive problem in current models and theories of speech perception. In previous attempts to decipher the neural basis of speech perception, it is often unclear whether the alleged brain correlates reflect an underlying percept or merely changes in neural activity that covary with parameters of the stimulus. Here, we recorded neuroelectric activity generated at both cortical and subcortical levels of the auditory pathway elicited by a speech vowel continuum whose percept varied categorically from /u/ to /a/. This integrative approach allows us to characterize how various auditory structures code, transform, and ultimately render the perception of speech material as well as dissociate brain responses reflecting changes in stimulus acoustics from those that index true internalized percepts. We find that activity from the brainstem mirrors properties of the speech waveform with remarkable fidelity, reflecting progressive changes in speech acoustics but not the discrete phonetic classes reported behaviorally. In comparison, patterns of late cortical evoked activity contain information reflecting distinct perceptual categories and predict the abstract phonetic speech boundaries heard by listeners. Our findings demonstrate a critical transformation in neural speech representations between brainstem and early auditory cortex analogous to an acoustic-phonetic mapping necessary to generate categorical speech percepts. Analytic modeling demonstrates that a simple nonlinearity accounts for the transformation between early (subcortical) brain activity and subsequent cortical/behavioral responses to speech (>150-200 ms) thereby describing a plausible mechanism by which the

  12. Reinforcement as a mediator of the perception of humans by horses (Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Carol; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Henry, Séverine; Fureix, Carole; Nassur, Fouad; Hausberger, Martine

    2010-09-01

    A central question in the interspecific human/animal relationship is how domestic animals perceive humans as a significant element of their environment. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the use of positive or negative reinforcement in horse training may have consequences on the animals' perception of humans, as a positive, negative or neutral element. Two groups of ponies were trained to walk backwards in response to a vocal order using either positive or negative reinforcement. Heart rate monitors and behavioural observations were used to assess the animals' perception of humans on the short (just after training) and long (5 months later) terms. The results showed that the type of reinforcement had a major effect on the subsequent animals' perception of familiar and unfamiliar humans. Negative reinforcement was rapidly associated with an increased emotional state, as revealed by heart rate measurements and behavioural observations (head movements and ears laid back position). Its use led the ponies to seek less contact with humans. On the contrary, ponies trained with positive reinforcement showed an increased interest in humans and sought contact after training. This is especially remarkable as it was reached in a maximum of 5 sessions of 1 to 3 min (i.e. 5 to 15 min) and had lasting effects (visible after 5 months). Even learning was positively influenced by positive reinforcement. Overall, horses seem capable of associating humans to particular experiences and display extended long-term memory abilities.

  13. Higher cortical modulation of pain perception in the human brain: Psychological determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew Cn

    2009-10-01

    Pain perception and its genesis in the human brain have been reviewed recently. In the current article, the reports on pain modulation in the human brain were reviewed from higher cortical regulation, i.e. top-down effect, particularly studied in psychological determinants. Pain modulation can be examined by gene therapy, physical modulation, pharmacological modulation, psychological modulation, and pathophysiological modulation. In psychological modulation, this article examined (a) willed determination, (b) distraction, (c) placebo, (d) hypnosis, (e) meditation, (f) qi-gong, (g) belief, and (h) emotions, respectively, in the brain function for pain modulation. In each, the operational definition, cortical processing, neuroimaging, and pain modulation were systematically deliberated. However, not all studies had featured the brain modulation processing but rather demonstrated potential effects on human pain. In our own studies on the emotional modulation on human pain, we observed that emotions could be induced from music melodies or pictures perception for reduction of tonic human pain, mainly in potentiation of the posterior alpha EEG fields, likely resulted from underneath activities of precuneous in regulation of consciousness, including pain perception. To sum, higher brain functions become the leading edge research in all sciences. How to solve the information bit of thinking and feeling in the brain can be the greatest challenge of human intelligence. Application of higher cortical modulation of human pain and suffering can lead to the progress of social humanity and civilization.

  14. Consumer perception of beneficial effects of probiotics for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkers, G T; Bimmel, D; Grevers, D; den Haan, N; Hristova, Y

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, perception and buying behaviour of probiotics. 72 participants in Middelburg, the Netherlands, filled out a detailed questionnaire regarding probiotics and their customer and consumer behaviour. It can be concluded from this study that the concept of probiotics is generally poorly understood. Health-conscious consumers seem to be the group most aware of the correct meaning of the term probiotics. Almost 50% of the participants did not believe that probiotics had any health effect. Independent organisations and/or government agencies appeared to be the preferred source of information on the functionality of probiotics.

  15. The nature and perception of fluctuations in human musical rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Holger; Fleischmann, Ragnar; Fredebohm, Anneke; Hagmayer, York; Nagler, Jan; Witt, Annette; Theis, Fabian; Geisel, Theo

    2012-02-01

    Although human musical performances represent one of the most valuable achievements of mankind, the best musicians perform imperfectly. Musical rhythms are not entirely accurate and thus inevitably deviate from the ideal beat pattern. Nevertheless, computer generated perfect beat patterns are frequently devalued by listeners due to a perceived lack of human touch. Professional audio editing software therefore offers a humanizing feature which artificially generates rhythmic fluctuations. However, the built-in humanizing units are essentially random number generators producing only simple uncorrelated fluctuations. Here, for the first time, we establish long-range fluctuations as an inevitable natural companion of both simple and complex human rhythmic performances [1]. Moreover, we demonstrate that listeners strongly prefer long-range correlated fluctuations in musical rhythms. Thus, the favorable fluctuation type for humanizing interbeat intervals coincides with the one generically inherent in human musical performances. [1] HH et al., PLoS ONE,6,e26457 (2011)

  16. The nature and perception of fluctuations in human musical rhythms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Hennig

    Full Text Available Although human musical performances represent one of the most valuable achievements of mankind, the best musicians perform imperfectly. Musical rhythms are not entirely accurate and thus inevitably deviate from the ideal beat pattern. Nevertheless, computer generated perfect beat patterns are frequently devalued by listeners due to a perceived lack of human touch. Professional audio editing software therefore offers a humanizing feature which artificially generates rhythmic fluctuations. However, the built-in humanizing units are essentially random number generators producing only simple uncorrelated fluctuations. Here, for the first time, we establish long-range fluctuations as an inevitable natural companion of both simple and complex human rhythmic performances. Moreover, we demonstrate that listeners strongly prefer long-range correlated fluctuations in musical rhythms. Thus, the favorable fluctuation type for humanizing interbeat intervals coincides with the one generically inherent in human musical performances.

  17. Block randomization versus complete randomization of human perception stimuli: is there a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Steve; Uhl, Elizabeth R.

    2015-05-01

    For more than 50 years, the U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) has been studying and modeling the human visual discrimination process as it pertains to military imaging systems. In order to develop sensor performance models, human observers are trained to expert levels in the identification of military vehicles. From 1998 until 2006, the experimental stimuli were block randomized, meaning that stimuli with similar difficulty levels (for example, in terms of distance from target, blur, noise, etc.) were presented together in blocks of approximately 24 images but the order of images within the block was random. Starting in 2006, complete randomization came into vogue, meaning that difficulty could change image to image. It was thought that this would provide a more statistically robust result. In this study we investigated the impact of the two types of randomization on performance in two groups of observers matched for skill to create equivalent groups. It is hypothesized that Soldiers in the Complete Randomized condition will have to shift their decision criterion more frequently than Soldiers in the Block Randomization group and this shifting is expected to impede performance so that Soldiers in the Block Randomized group perform better.

  18. Filtering Based Adaptive Visual Odometry Sensor Framework Robust to Blurred Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiying Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual odometry (VO estimation from blurred image is a challenging problem in practical robot applications, and the blurred images will severely reduce the estimation accuracy of the VO. In this paper, we address the problem of visual odometry estimation from blurred images, and present an adaptive visual odometry estimation framework robust to blurred images. Our approach employs an objective measure of images, named small image gradient distribution (SIGD, to evaluate the blurring degree of the image, then an adaptive blurred image classification algorithm is proposed to recognize the blurred images, finally we propose an anti-blurred key-frame selection algorithm to enable the VO robust to blurred images. We also carried out varied comparable experiments to evaluate the performance of the VO algorithms with our anti-blur framework under varied blurred images, and the experimental results show that our approach can achieve superior performance comparing to the state-of-the-art methods under the condition with blurred images while not increasing too much computation cost to the original VO algorithms.

  19. Are nurses blurring their identity by extending or delegating roles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    Nursing may be going through an identity crisis. The Department of Health commissioned research identifying where nurses stand within society (Maben and Griffiths, 2008), 'with the stimulus for the report being the sense that nursing had lost its way' (Maben and Griffiths, 2008). The professional identity of nursing appears to be unclear and an area where confusion and conflicting opinions are invisible. This, combined with the extension of roles that many nurses have accepted in recent years, may have allowed a blurring of boundaries between healthcare professions, which has resulted in a blurring of the professional identity of the nurse. Perhaps, while nursing was busily extending, expanding or delegating more traditional nursing duties, it lost its way. To this end, this article concentrates on identifying what professional identity means, then investigates changing roles and role extension nurses are undertaking, referring to relevant literature.

  20. The Nature and Perception of Fluctuations in Human Musical Rhythms

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Hennig; Ragnar Fleischmann; Anneke Fredebohm; York Hagmayer; Jan Nagler; Annette Witt; Theis, Fabian J.; Theo Geisel

    2011-01-01

    Although human musical performances represent one of the most valuable achievements of mankind, the best musicians perform imperfectly. Musical rhythms are not entirely accurate and thus inevitably deviate from the ideal beat pattern. Nevertheless, computer generated perfect beat patterns are frequently devalued by listeners due to a perceived lack of human touch. Professional audio editing software therefore offers a humanizing feature which artificially generates rhythmic fluctuations. Howe...

  1. Real-time deblurring of handshake blurred images on smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourreza-Shahri, Reza; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser

    2015-02-01

    This paper discusses an Android app for the purpose of removing blur that is introduced as a result of handshakes when taking images via a smartphone. This algorithm utilizes two images to achieve deblurring in a computationally efficient manner without suffering from artifacts associated with deconvolution deblurring algorithms. The first image is the normal or auto-exposure image and the second image is a short-exposure image that is automatically captured immediately before or after the auto-exposure image is taken. A low rank approximation image is obtained by applying singular value decomposition to the auto-exposure image which may appear blurred due to handshakes. This approximation image does not suffer from blurring while incorporating the image brightness and contrast information. The eigenvalues extracted from the low rank approximation image are then combined with those from the shortexposure image. It is shown that this deblurring app is computationally more efficient than the adaptive tonal correction algorithm which was previously developed for the same purpose.

  2. Gamma oscillations in human primary somatosensory cortex reflect pain perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Gross

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Successful behavior requires selection and preferred processing of relevant sensory information. The cortical representation of relevant sensory information has been related to neuronal oscillations in the gamma frequency band. Pain is of invariably high behavioral relevance and, thus, nociceptive stimuli receive preferred processing. Here, by using magnetoencephalography, we show that selective nociceptive stimuli induce gamma oscillations between 60 and 95 Hz in primary somatosensory cortex. Amplitudes of pain-induced gamma oscillations vary with objective stimulus intensity and subjective pain intensity. However, around pain threshold, perceived stimuli yielded stronger gamma oscillations than unperceived stimuli of equal stimulus intensity. These results show that pain induces gamma oscillations in primary somatosensory cortex that are particularly related to the subjective perception of pain. Our findings support the hypothesis that gamma oscillations are related to the internal representation of behaviorally relevant stimuli that should receive preferred processing.

  3. The shaping of social perception by stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Emily S; Ramsey, Richard; Liepelt, Roman; Prinz, Wolfgang; de C Hamilton, Antonia F

    2016-01-19

    Although robots are becoming an ever-growing presence in society, we do not hold the same expectations for robots as we do for humans, nor do we treat them the same. As such, the ability to recognize cues to human animacy is fundamental for guiding social interactions. We review literature that demonstrates cortical networks associated with person perception, action observation and mentalizing are sensitive to human animacy information. In addition, we show that most prior research has explored stimulus properties of artificial agents (humanness of appearance or motion), with less investigation into knowledge cues (whether an agent is believed to have human or artificial origins). Therefore, currently little is known about the relationship between stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy in terms of cognitive and brain mechanisms. Using fMRI, an elaborate belief manipulation, and human and robot avatars, we found that knowledge cues to human animacy modulate engagement of person perception and mentalizing networks, while stimulus cues to human animacy had less impact on social brain networks. These findings demonstrate that self-other similarities are not only grounded in physical features but are also shaped by prior knowledge. More broadly, as artificial agents fulfil increasingly social roles, a challenge for roboticists will be to manage the impact of pre-conceived beliefs while optimizing human-like design.

  4. A Blind Blur Detection Scheme Using Statistical Features of Phase Congruency and Gradient Magnitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamik Tiwari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing uses of camera-based barcode readers have recently gained a lot of attention. This has boosted interest in no-reference blur detection algorithms. Blur is an undesirable phenomenon which appears as one of the most frequent causes of image degradation. In this paper we present a new no-reference blur detection scheme that is based on the statistical features of phase congruency and gradient magnitude maps. Blur detection is achieved by approximating the functional relationship between these features using a feed forward neural network. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme gives robust blur detection scheme.

  5. Age Estimation-Based Soft Biometrics Considering Optical Blurring Based on Symmetrical Sub-Blocks for MLBP

    OpenAIRE

    Dat Tien Nguyen; So Ra Cho; Kang Ryoung Park

    2015-01-01

    Because of its many useful applications, human age estimation has been considered in many previous studies as a soft biometrics. However, most existing methods of age estimation require a clear and focused facial image as input in order to obtain a trustworthy estimation result; otherwise, the methods might produce increased estimation error when an image of poor quality is used as input. Image blurring is one of major factors that affect estimation accuracies because it can cause a face to a...

  6. Lecture Classes in Human Anatomy: The Students’ Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Kar, Maitreyee; Roy, Hironmoy; Ghosh, Anasuya; Tapadar, Arunabha; Chowdhury, Subhramoy; Mukherjee, Pranab; Jana, Tapan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The human anatomy, or in brief, the body structure has fascinated man for ages. Due to the information explosion and the increase in specializations, this knowledge is available in a very sketchy manner in high school biology courses. The first comprehensive course on the human anatomy is taught to the first year medical students in medical colleges. This is in keeping with the regulations of the Medical Council of India. The anatomy lecture classes occupy a considerable time of...

  7. Explicit encoding of multimodal percepts by single neurons in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo; Kraskov, Alexander; Koch, Christof; Fried, Itzhak

    2009-08-11

    Different pictures of Marilyn Monroe can evoke the same percept, even if greatly modified as in Andy Warhol's famous portraits. But how does the brain recognize highly variable pictures as the same percept? Various studies have provided insights into how visual information is processed along the "ventral pathway," via both single-cell recordings in monkeys and functional imaging in humans. Interestingly, in humans, the same "concept" of Marilyn Monroe can be evoked with other stimulus modalities, for instance by hearing or reading her name. Brain imaging studies have identified cortical areas selective to voices and visual word forms. However, how visual, text, and sound information can elicit a unique percept is still largely unknown. By using presentations of pictures and of spoken and written names, we show that (1) single neurons in the human medial temporal lobe (MTL) respond selectively to representations of the same individual across different sensory modalities; (2) the degree of multimodal invariance increases along the hierarchical structure within the MTL; and (3) such neuronal representations can be generated within less than a day or two. These results demonstrate that single neurons can encode percepts in an explicit, selective, and invariant manner, even if evoked by different sensory modalities.

  8. Motion blur filtering: A statistical approach for extracting confinement forces and diffusivity from a single blurred trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Christopher P.

    2016-05-01

    Single particle tracking (SPT) can aid in understanding a variety of complex spatiotemporal processes. However, quantifying diffusivity and confinement forces from individual live cell trajectories is complicated by inter- and intratrajectory kinetic heterogeneity, thermal fluctuations, and (experimentally resolvable) statistical temporal dependence inherent to the underlying molecule's time correlated confined dynamics experienced in the cell. The problem is further complicated by experimental artifacts such as localization uncertainty and motion blur. The latter is caused by the tagged molecule emitting photons at different spatial positions during the exposure time of a single frame. The aforementioned experimental artifacts induce spurious time correlations in measured SPT time series that obscure the information of interest (e.g., confinement forces and diffusivity). We develop a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) technique that decouples the above noise sources and systematically treats temporal correlation via time series methods. This ultimately permits a reliable algorithm for extracting diffusivity and effective forces in confined or unconfined environments. We illustrate how our approach avoids complications inherent to mean square displacement or autocorrelation techniques. Our algorithm modifies the established Kalman filter (which does not handle motion blur artifacts) to provide a likelihood based time series estimation procedure. The result extends A. J. Berglund's motion blur model [Phys. Rev. E 82, 011917 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevE.82.011917] to handle confined dynamics. The approach can also systematically utilize (possibly time dependent) localization uncertainty estimates afforded by image analysis if available. This technique, which explicitly treats confinement and motion blur within a time domain MLE framework, uses an exact likelihood (time domain methods facilitate analyzing nonstationary signals). Our estimator is demonstrated to be

  9. Factors Associated With Body Image Perception Among Brazilian Students From Low Human Development Index Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Thábyta Silva; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; de Almeida, Paulo César; Martins, Mariana Cavalcante; Carvalho, Queliane Gomes da Silva; Costa, Ana Cristina Pereira de Jesus; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate sociodemographic, behavioral, and individual factors associated with body image perception in a sample of adolescents from schools in low Human Development Index areas in Brazil. This cross-sectional study included 609 boys and 573 girls (aged 11-17 years). Body image perception (nine-silhouettes scale) and sociodemographic, behavioral, and individual variables were included. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used. Most boys (76.9%) and girls (77.5%) were dissatisfied with their body image. Body mass index status and healthy body image evaluation were significantly associated with body image dissatisfaction in both boys and girls ( p body image dissatisfaction only in boys ( p = .035). Education and health care focused on body image can pay special attention to young people from vulnerable areas with unhealthy nutritional status and focus on strategies that enable improving the perception of a healthy body and a healthy diet.

  10. The extreme relativity of perception: A new contextual effect modulates human resolving power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdar, Gal; Ganel, Tzvi; Algom, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The authors report the discovery of a new effect of context that modulates human resolving power with respect to an individual stimulus. They show that the size of the difference threshold or the just noticeable difference around a standard stimulus depends on the range of the other standards tested simultaneously for resolution within the same experimental session. The larger this range, the poorer the resolving power for a given standard. The authors term this effect the range of standards effect (RSE). They establish this result both in the visual domain for the perception of linear extent, and in the somatosensory domain for the perception of weight. They discuss the contingent nature of stimulus resolution in perception and psychophysics and contrast it with the immunity to contextual influences of visually guided action. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Energy landscape and dynamics of brain activity during human bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Masuda, Naoki; Megumi, Fukuda; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2014-08-28

    Individual differences in the structure of parietal and prefrontal cortex predict the stability of bistable visual perception. However, the mechanisms linking such individual differences in brain structures to behaviour remain elusive. Here we demonstrate a systematic relationship between the dynamics of brain activity, cortical structure and behaviour underpinning bistable perception. Using fMRI in humans, we find that the activity dynamics during bistable perception are well described as fluctuating between three spatially distributed energy minimums: visual-area-dominant, frontal-area-dominant and intermediate states. Transitions between these energy minimums predicted behaviour, with participants whose brain activity tend to reflect the visual-area-dominant state exhibiting more stable perception and those whose activity transits to frontal-area-dominant states reporting more frequent perceptual switches. Critically, these brain activity dynamics are correlated with individual differences in grey matter volume of the corresponding brain areas. Thus, individual differences in the large-scale dynamics of brain activity link focal brain structure with bistable perception.

  12. Dorsal striatal dopamine, food preference and health perception in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallace, D.L.; Aarts, E.; Dang, L.C.; Greer, S.M.; Jagust, W.J.; D'Esposito, M.

    2014-01-01

    To date, few studies have explored the neurochemical mechanisms supporting individual differences in food preference in humans. Here we investigate how dorsal striatal dopamine, as measured by the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [(18)F]fluorometatyrosine (FMT), correlates with food-related

  13. Beginning Teachers' Perceptions of School Human Resource Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Human resource (HR) management is defined as the sum of activities employed by an organization to attract, develop, and retain people with the appropriate knowledge and skills for effectively and efficiently achieving organizational goals. An understanding of the HR practices in schools is important, as the assembly of a team of qualified and…

  14. Beginning Teachers' Perceptions of School Human Resource Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Human resource (HR) management is defined as the sum of activities employed by an organization to attract, develop, and retain people with the appropriate knowledge and skills for effectively and efficiently achieving organizational goals. An understanding of the HR practices in schools is important, as the assembly of a team of qualified and…

  15. Engineering Data Compendium. Human Perception and Performance. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Breitmeyer, B. G. (1975). Sim- cies to sinusoidal gratings. Vision human observers: A probabilistic pie reaction time as a measure of Research. 16...oscilloscope; viewed at optical infinity through a plano - convex lens (153 mm diameter, 340 mm focal length) one focal length from display • Patch wom

  16. An approach to integrate the human vision psychology and perception knowledge into image enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Huang, Xifeng; Ping, Jiang

    2009-07-01

    Image enhancement is very important image preprocessing technology especially when the image is captured in the poor imaging condition or dealing with the high bits image. The benefactor of image enhancement either may be a human observer or a computer vision process performing some kind of higher-level image analysis, such as target detection or scene understanding. One of the main objects of the image enhancement is getting a high dynamic range image and a high contrast degree image for human perception or interpretation. So, it is very necessary to integrate either empirical or statistical human vision psychology and perception knowledge into image enhancement. The human vision psychology and perception claims that humans' perception and response to the intensity fluctuation δu of visual signals are weighted by the background stimulus u, instead of being plainly uniform. There are three main laws: Weber's law, Weber- Fechner's law and Stevens's Law that describe this phenomenon in the psychology and psychophysics. This paper will integrate these three laws of the human vision psychology and perception into a very popular image enhancement algorithm named Adaptive Plateau Equalization (APE). The experiments were done on the high bits star image captured in night scene and the infrared-red image both the static image and the video stream. For the jitter problem in the video stream, this algorithm reduces this problem using the difference between the current frame's plateau value and the previous frame's plateau value to correct the current frame's plateau value. Considering the random noise impacts, the pixel value mapping process is not only depending on the current pixel but the pixels in the window surround the current pixel. The window size is usually 3×3. The process results of this improved algorithms is evaluated by the entropy analysis and visual perception analysis. The experiments' result showed the improved APE algorithms improved the quality of the

  17. A chamber-experiment investigation of the interaction between perceptions of noise and odor in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhiwei; Kjaergaard, Søren K; Mølhave, Lars

    2003-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate human comfort and health effects following exposure to noise and odor and to explore the interaction between perceptions of noise and odor in humans. Nine healthy subjects were randomly exposed to noise, odor, and their combination, in a 3 x 3 Latin square design for 80 min in an exposure chamber. Continuous noise was broadcast at an average level of 75 dBA by a loudspeaker, and odor was provided by furfurylmercaptan (a coffee-aroma constituent). A standardized 28-item questionnaire, together with mood-scale ratings, nasal dimensions by acoustic rhinometry, addition tests for distraction, and skin humidity, were performed before and at the end of exposure. In the questionnaire investigation, the perceived "sound level" was significantly affected by noise and the combined exposures, while "odor intensity", "air quality", and "need more ventilation" was significantly affected by odor and the combined exposures. Perceptions of symptoms became worse with increasing exposure time, such as perceived "dry nose" and "sleepiness" by odor and combined exposures, "headache" by noise, "concentration difficulty", "general well being", and "stressed by being in the chamber" by noise, odor and combined exposures. In addition, the occurrence of interactions was analyzed by comparison of the ratings of perceived "sound level", "odor intensity", "air quality", and "need more ventilation" during the combined exposure with two single exposures. Insignificant interaction was found but it indicated a decreased tendency to perceptions of discomfort from "odor intensity", "air quality", and "need for more ventilation" when noise was added to odor exposure. It may be concluded that noise and odor cause discomfort in humans. Moreover, the study might indicate that additions of noise reduce (mask) the perception of discomfort from odor, and additions of odor have no or little affect on the perception of noise.

  18. Comparison of two metrological approaches for the prediction of human haptic perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Annika; Frank, Daniel; Vondenhoff, Thomas; Schmitt, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Haptic perception is regarded as a key component of customer appreciation and acceptance for various products. The prediction of customers’ haptic perception is of interest both during product development and production phases. This paper presents the results of a multivariate analysis between perceived roughness and texture related surface measurements, to examine whether perceived roughness can be accurately predicted using technical measurements. Studies have shown that standardized measurement parameters, such as the roughness coefficients (e.g. Rz or Ra), do not show a one-dimensional linear correlation with the human perception (of roughness). Thus, an alternative measurement method was compared to standard measurements of roughness, in regard to its capability of predicting perceived roughness through technical measurements. To estimate perceived roughness, an experimental study was conducted in which 102 subjects evaluated four sets of 12 different geometrical surface structures regarding their relative perceived roughness. The two different metrological procedures were examined in relation to their capability to predict the perceived roughness of the subjects stated within the study. The standardized measurements of the surface roughness were made using a structured light 3D-scanner. As an alternative method, surface induced vibrations were measured by a finger-like sensor during robot-controlled traverse over a surface. The presented findings provide a better understanding of the predictability of human haptic perception using technical measurements.

  19. Human Perceptions Mirror Realities of Carnivore Attack Risk for Livestock: Implications for Mitigating Human-Carnivore Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer R B; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2016-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflict is challenging to quantify because it is shaped by both the realities and people's perceptions of carnivore threats. Whether perceptions align with realities can have implications for conflict mitigation: misalignments can lead to heightened and indiscriminant persecution of carnivores whereas alignments can offer deeper insights into human-carnivore interactions. We applied a landscape-scale spatial analysis of livestock killed by tigers and leopards in India to model and map observed attack risk, and surveyed owners of livestock killed by tigers and leopards for their rankings of threats across habitats to map perceived attack risk. Observed tiger risk to livestock was greatest near dense forests and at moderate distances from human activity while leopard risk was greatest near open vegetation. People accurately perceived spatial differences between tiger and leopard hunting patterns, expected greater threat in areas with high values of observed risk for both carnivores. Owners' perception of threats largely did not depend on environmental conditions surrounding their village (spatial location, dominant land-use or observed carnivore risk). Surveys revealed that owners who previously lost livestock to carnivores used more livestock protection methods than those who had no prior losses, and that owners who had recently lost livestock for the first time expressed greater interest in changing their protection methods than those who experienced prior losses. Our findings suggest that in systems where realities and perceptions of carnivore risk align, conservation programs and policies can optimize conservation outcomes by (1) improving the effectiveness of livestock protection methods and (2) working with owners who have recently lost livestock and are most willing to invest effort in adapting protection strategies to mitigate human-carnivore conflict.

  20. Science versus (?) Art: Human Perception of Other Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William K.

    1998-09-01

    At the time of the Renaissance, science and art were mixed together as a way to understand the human relation to the larger cosmos. Leonardo da Vinci exemplifies this approach. In modern times, the two have become separate, and even antagonistic, ``two cultures." Scientists have increasingly been satisfied to present quantitative measures of phenomena, without ever asking what the measures mean in human terms. Examples include the nature of the lunar surface, asteroid colors and brightness of the Io aurora, as will be discussed. However, in presenting the "big picture" to the public, and even to other working scientists, it is useful to revisit the Renaissance paradigm. Artists are increasingly working with scientists to translate the understanding of other worlds to the public, and this creates many opportunities for education projects in schools, and for careers in public outreach and science journalism.

  1. Tactile perception and working memory in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassihi, Arash; Akrami, Athena; Esmaeili, Vahid; Diamond, Mathew E

    2014-02-11

    Primates can store sensory stimulus parameters in working memory for subsequent manipulation, but until now, there has been no demonstration of this capacity in rodents. Here we report tactile working memory in rats. Each stimulus is a vibration, generated as a series of velocity values sampled from a normal distribution. To perform the task, the rat positions its whiskers to receive two such stimuli, "base" and "comparison," separated by a variable delay. It then judges which stimulus had greater velocity SD. In analogous experiments, humans compare two vibratory stimuli on the fingertip. We demonstrate that the ability of rats to hold base stimulus information (for up to 8 s) and their acuity in assessing stimulus differences overlap the performance demonstrated by humans. This experiment highlights the ability of rats to perceive the statistical structure of vibrations and reveals their previously unknown capacity to store sensory information in working memory.

  2. Tactile perception and working memory in rats and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassihi, Arash; Akrami, Athena; Esmaeili, Vahid; Diamond, Mathew E.

    2014-01-01

    Primates can store sensory stimulus parameters in working memory for subsequent manipulation, but until now, there has been no demonstration of this capacity in rodents. Here we report tactile working memory in rats. Each stimulus is a vibration, generated as a series of velocity values sampled from a normal distribution. To perform the task, the rat positions its whiskers to receive two such stimuli, “base” and “comparison,” separated by a variable delay. It then judges which stimulus had greater velocity SD. In analogous experiments, humans compare two vibratory stimuli on the fingertip. We demonstrate that the ability of rats to hold base stimulus information (for up to 8 s) and their acuity in assessing stimulus differences overlap the performance demonstrated by humans. This experiment highlights the ability of rats to perceive the statistical structure of vibrations and reveals their previously unknown capacity to store sensory information in working memory. PMID:24449850

  3. Brain imaging reveals neuronal circuitry underlying the crow's perception of human faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzluff, John M; Miyaoka, Robert; Minoshima, Satoshi; Cross, Donna J

    2012-09-25

    Crows pay close attention to people and can remember specific faces for several years after a single encounter. In mammals, including humans, faces are evaluated by an integrated neural system involving the sensory cortex, limbic system, and striatum. Here we test the hypothesis that birds use a similar system by providing an imaging analysis of an awake, wild animal's brain as it performs an adaptive, complex cognitive task. We show that in vivo imaging of crow brain activity during exposure to familiar human faces previously associated with either capture (threatening) or caretaking (caring) activated several brain regions that allow birds to discriminate, associate, and remember visual stimuli, including the rostral hyperpallium, nidopallium, mesopallium, and lateral striatum. Perception of threatening faces activated circuitry including amygdalar, thalamic, and brainstem regions, known in humans and other vertebrates to be related to emotion, motivation, and conditioned fear learning. In contrast, perception of caring faces activated motivation and striatal regions. In our experiments and in nature, when perceiving a threatening face, crows froze and fixed their gaze (decreased blink rate), which was associated with activation of brain regions known in birds to regulate perception, attention, fear, and escape behavior. These findings indicate that, similar to humans, crows use sophisticated visual sensory systems to recognize faces and modulate behavioral responses by integrating visual information with expectation and emotion. Our approach has wide applicability and potential to improve our understanding of the neural basis for animal behavior.

  4. Brain imaging reveals neuronal circuitry underlying the crow’s perception of human faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzluff, John M.; Miyaoka, Robert; Minoshima, Satoshi; Cross, Donna J.

    2012-01-01

    Crows pay close attention to people and can remember specific faces for several years after a single encounter. In mammals, including humans, faces are evaluated by an integrated neural system involving the sensory cortex, limbic system, and striatum. Here we test the hypothesis that birds use a similar system by providing an imaging analysis of an awake, wild animal’s brain as it performs an adaptive, complex cognitive task. We show that in vivo imaging of crow brain activity during exposure to familiar human faces previously associated with either capture (threatening) or caretaking (caring) activated several brain regions that allow birds to discriminate, associate, and remember visual stimuli, including the rostral hyperpallium, nidopallium, mesopallium, and lateral striatum. Perception of threatening faces activated circuitry including amygdalar, thalamic, and brainstem regions, known in humans and other vertebrates to be related to emotion, motivation, and conditioned fear learning. In contrast, perception of caring faces activated motivation and striatal regions. In our experiments and in nature, when perceiving a threatening face, crows froze and fixed their gaze (decreased blink rate), which was associated with activation of brain regions known in birds to regulate perception, attention, fear, and escape behavior. These findings indicate that, similar to humans, crows use sophisticated visual sensory systems to recognize faces and modulate behavioral responses by integrating visual information with expectation and emotion. Our approach has wide applicability and potential to improve our understanding of the neural basis for animal behavior. PMID:22984177

  5. Temporal sensitivity. [time dependent human perception of visual stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1986-01-01

    Human visual temporal sensitivity is examined. The stimuli used to measure temporal sensitivity are described and the linear systems theory is reviewed in terms of temporal sensitivity. A working model which represents temporal sensitivity is proposed. The visibility of a number of temporal wave forms, sinusoids, rectangular pulses, and pulse pairs, is analyzed. The relation between spatial and temporal effects is studied. Temporal variations induced by image motion and the effects of light adaptation on temporal sensitivity are considered.

  6. An improved robust blind motion de-blurring algorithm for remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yulong; Liu, Jin; Liang, Yonghui

    2016-10-01

    Shift-invariant motion blur can be modeled as a convolution of the true latent image and the blur kernel with additive noise. Blind motion de-blurring estimates a sharp image from a motion blurred image without the knowledge of the blur kernel. This paper proposes an improved edge-specific motion de-blurring algorithm which proved to be fit for processing remote sensing images. We find that an inaccurate blur kernel is the main factor to the low-quality restored images. To improve image quality, we do the following contributions. For the robust kernel estimation, first, we adapt the multi-scale scheme to make sure that the edge map could be constructed accurately; second, an effective salient edge selection method based on RTV (Relative Total Variation) is used to extract salient structure from texture; third, an alternative iterative method is introduced to perform kernel optimization, in this step, we adopt l1 and l0 norm as the priors to remove noise and ensure the continuity of blur kernel. For the final latent image reconstruction, an improved adaptive deconvolution algorithm based on TV-l2 model is used to recover the latent image; we control the regularization weight adaptively in different region according to the image local characteristics in order to preserve tiny details and eliminate noise and ringing artifacts. Some synthetic remote sensing images are used to test the proposed algorithm, and results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm obtains accurate blur kernel and achieves better de-blurring results.

  7. Integration of Image-Derived and Pos-Derived Features for Image Blur Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tee-Ann; Zhan, Kai-Zhi

    2016-06-01

    The image quality plays an important role for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)'s applications. The small fixed wings UAV is suffering from the image blur due to the crosswind and the turbulence. Position and Orientation System (POS), which provides the position and orientation information, is installed onto an UAV to enable acquisition of UAV trajectory. It can be used to calculate the positional and angular velocities when the camera shutter is open. This study proposes a POS-assisted method to detect the blur image. The major steps include feature extraction, blur image detection and verification. In feature extraction, this study extracts different features from images and POS. The image-derived features include mean and standard deviation of image gradient. For POS-derived features, we modify the traditional degree-of-linear-blur (blinear) method to degree-of-motion-blur (bmotion) based on the collinear condition equations and POS parameters. Besides, POS parameters such as positional and angular velocities are also adopted as POS-derived features. In blur detection, this study uses Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier and extracted features (i.e. image information, POS data, blinear and bmotion) to separate blur and sharp UAV images. The experiment utilizes SenseFly eBee UAV system. The number of image is 129. In blur image detection, we use the proposed degree-of-motion-blur and other image features to classify the blur image and sharp images. The classification result shows that the overall accuracy using image features is only 56%. The integration of image-derived and POS-derived features have improved the overall accuracy from 56% to 76% in blur detection. Besides, this study indicates that the performance of the proposed degree-of-motion-blur is better than the traditional degree-of-linear-blur.

  8. Understanding Human Perception of Building Categories in Virtual 3d Cities - a User Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutzauer, P.; Becker, S.; Niese, T.; Deussen, O.; Fritsch, D.

    2016-06-01

    Virtual 3D cities are becoming increasingly important as a means of visually communicating diverse urban-related information. To get a deeper understanding of a human's cognitive experience of virtual 3D cities, this paper presents a user study on the human ability to perceive building categories (e.g. residential home, office building, building with shops etc.) from geometric 3D building representations. The study reveals various dependencies between geometric properties of the 3D representations and the perceptibility of the building categories. Knowledge about which geometries are relevant, helpful or obstructive for perceiving a specific building category is derived. The importance and usability of such knowledge is demonstrated based on a perception-guided 3D building abstraction process.

  9. Characterizing noise in nonhuman vocalizations: Acoustic analysis and human perception of barks by coyotes and dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Mitchell, Brian R.; Tokuda, Isao; Owren, Michael J.

    2005-07-01

    Measuring noise as a component of mammalian vocalizations is of interest because of its potential relevance to the communicative function. However, methods for characterizing and quantifying noise are less well established than methods applicable to harmonically structured aspects of signals. Using barks of coyotes and domestic dogs, we compared six acoustic measures and studied how they are related to human perception of noisiness. Measures of harmonic-to-noise-ratio (HNR), percent voicing, and shimmer were found to be the best predictors of perceptual rating by human listeners. Both acoustics and perception indicated that noisiness was similar across coyote and dog barks, but within each species there was significant variation among the individual vocalizers. The advantages and disadvantages of the various measures are discussed.

  10. Community perceptions of human excreta as fertilizer in peri-urban agriculture in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariwah, Simon; Drangert, Jan-Olof

    2011-08-01

    Although human excreta contain the necessary nutrients for plant growth, local authorities in Ghana spend huge sums of money to dispose them as waste. Reusing excreta for agricultural purposes saves expenditure for chemical fertilizers, improves soil fertility, reduces poverty and ensures food security. People's attitudes and perceptions about excreta vary between cultures and even within specific cultures. This study aimed to explore attitudes and perceptions among a peri-urban agricultural community towards sanitized human excreta and its use. The study adopted an exploratory design and collected data from 154 randomly selected households using questionnaires and focus group discussions. It was found that there is a general negative attitude to fresh excreta and the handling of it. However, the residents accept that excreta can be used as fertilizer, but they are not willing to use it on their own crops or consume crops fertilized with excreta. The study recommends open discussions in the community for a successful implementation of ecological sanitation.

  11. Demonstration of brain noise on human EEG signals in perception of bistable images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubov, Vadim V.; Runnova, Anastasiya E.; Kurovskaya, Maria K.; Pavlov, Alexey N.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Hramov, Alexander E.

    2016-03-01

    In this report we studied human brain activity in the case of bistable visual perception. We proposed a new approach for quantitative characterization of this activity based on analysis of EEG oscillatory patterns and evoked potentials. Accordingly to theoretical background, obtained experimental EEG data and results of its analysis we studied a characteristics of brain activity during decision-making. Also we have shown that decisionmaking process has the special patterns on the EEG data.

  12. A New Variational Approach for Multiplicative Noise and Blur Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Asmat; Chen, Wen; Khan, Mushtaq Ahmad; Sun, HongGuang

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new variational model for joint multiplicative denoising and deblurring. It combines a total generalized variation filter (which has been proved to be able to reduce the blocky-effects by being aware of high-order smoothness) and shearlet transform (that effectively preserves anisotropic image features such as sharp edges, curves and so on). The new model takes the advantage of both regularizers since it is able to minimize the staircase effects while preserving sharp edges, textures and other fine image details. The existence and uniqueness of a solution to the proposed variational model is also discussed. The resulting energy functional is then solved by using alternating direction method of multipliers. Numerical experiments showing that the proposed model achieves satisfactory restoration results, both visually and quantitatively in handling the blur (motion, Gaussian, disk, and Moffat) and multiplicative noise (Gaussian, Gamma, or Rayleigh) reduction. A comparison with other recent methods in this field is provided as well. The proposed model can also be applied for restoring both single and multi-channel images contaminated with multiplicative noise, and permit cross-channel blurs when the underlying image has more than one channel. Numerical tests on color images are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  13. A New Variational Approach for Multiplicative Noise and Blur Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Asmat; Chen, Wen; Khan, Mushtaq Ahmad; Sun, HongGuang

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new variational model for joint multiplicative denoising and deblurring. It combines a total generalized variation filter (which has been proved to be able to reduce the blocky-effects by being aware of high-order smoothness) and shearlet transform (that effectively preserves anisotropic image features such as sharp edges, curves and so on). The new model takes the advantage of both regularizers since it is able to minimize the staircase effects while preserving sharp edges, textures and other fine image details. The existence and uniqueness of a solution to the proposed variational model is also discussed. The resulting energy functional is then solved by using alternating direction method of multipliers. Numerical experiments showing that the proposed model achieves satisfactory restoration results, both visually and quantitatively in handling the blur (motion, Gaussian, disk, and Moffat) and multiplicative noise (Gaussian, Gamma, or Rayleigh) reduction. A comparison with other recent methods in this field is provided as well. The proposed model can also be applied for restoring both single and multi-channel images contaminated with multiplicative noise, and permit cross-channel blurs when the underlying image has more than one channel. Numerical tests on color images are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. PMID:28141802

  14. Circular blurred shape model for multiclass symbol recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, Sergio; Fornés, Alicia; Pujol, Oriol; Lladós, Josep; Radeva, Petia

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a circular blurred shape model descriptor to deal with the problem of symbol detection and classification as a particular case of object recognition. The feature extraction is performed by capturing the spatial arrangement of significant object characteristics in a correlogram structure. The shape information from objects is shared among correlogram regions, where a prior blurring degree defines the level of distortion allowed in the symbol, making the descriptor tolerant to irregular deformations. Moreover, the descriptor is rotation invariant by definition. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed descriptor in both the multiclass symbol recognition and symbol detection domains. In order to perform the symbol detection, the descriptors are learned using a cascade of classifiers. In the case of multiclass categorization, the new feature space is learned using a set of binary classifiers which are embedded in an error-correcting output code design. The results over four symbol data sets show the significant improvements of the proposed descriptor compared to the state-of-the-art descriptors. In particular, the results are even more significant in those cases where the symbols suffer from elastic deformations.

  15. Parameter estimation method for blurred cell images from fluorescence microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fuyun; Zhang, Zhisheng; Luo, Xiaoshu; Zhao, Shulin

    2016-10-01

    Microscopic cell image analysis is indispensable to cell biology. Images of cells can easily degrade due to optical diffraction or focus shift, as this results in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and poor image quality, hence affecting the accuracy of cell analysis and identification. For a quantitative analysis of cell images, restoring blurred images to improve the SNR is the first step. A parameter estimation method for defocused microscopic cell images based on the power law properties of the power spectrum of cell images is proposed. The circular radon transform (CRT) is used to identify the zero-mode of the power spectrum. The parameter of the CRT curve is initially estimated by an improved differential evolution algorithm. Following this, the parameters are optimized through the gradient descent method. Using synthetic experiments, it was confirmed that the proposed method effectively increased the peak SNR (PSNR) of the recovered images with high accuracy. Furthermore, experimental results involving actual microscopic cell images verified that the superiority of the proposed parameter estimation method for blurred microscopic cell images other method in terms of qualitative visual sense as well as quantitative gradient and PSNR.

  16. Dorsal striatal dopamine, food preference and health perception in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Deanna L; Aarts, Esther; Dang, Linh C; Greer, Stephanie M; Jagust, William J; D'Esposito, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To date, few studies have explored the neurochemical mechanisms supporting individual differences in food preference in humans. Here we investigate how dorsal striatal dopamine, as measured by the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [(18)F]fluorometatyrosine (FMT), correlates with food-related decision-making, as well as body mass index (BMI) in 16 healthy-weight to moderately obese individuals. We find that lower PET FMT dopamine synthesis binding potential correlates with higher BMI, greater preference for perceived "healthy" foods, but also greater healthiness ratings for food items. These findings further substantiate the role of dorsal striatal dopamine in food-related behaviors and shed light on the complexity of individual differences in food preference.

  17. Neural Activity Patterns in the Human Brain Reflect Tactile Stickiness Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junsuk; Yeon, Jiwon; Ryu, Jaekyun; Park, Jang-Yeon; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2017-01-01

    Our previous human fMRI study found brain activations correlated with tactile stickiness perception using the uni-variate general linear model (GLM) (Yeon et al., 2017). Here, we conducted an in-depth investigation on neural correlates of sticky sensations by employing a multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) on the same dataset. In particular, we statistically compared multi-variate neural activities in response to the three groups of sticky stimuli: A supra-threshold group including a set of sticky stimuli that evoked vivid sticky perception; an infra-threshold group including another set of sticky stimuli that barely evoked sticky perception; and a sham group including acrylic stimuli with no physically sticky property. Searchlight MVPAs were performed to search for local activity patterns carrying neural information of stickiness perception. Similar to the uni-variate GLM results, significant multi-variate neural activity patterns were identified in postcentral gyrus, subcortical (basal ganglia and thalamus), and insula areas (insula and adjacent areas). Moreover, MVPAs revealed that activity patterns in posterior parietal cortex discriminated the perceptual intensities of stickiness, which was not present in the uni-variate analysis. Next, we applied a principal component analysis (PCA) to the voxel response patterns within identified clusters so as to find low-dimensional neural representations of stickiness intensities. Follow-up clustering analyses clearly showed separate neural grouping configurations between the Supra- and Infra-threshold groups. Interestingly, this neural categorization was in line with the perceptual grouping pattern obtained from the psychophysical data. Our findings thus suggest that different stickiness intensities would elicit distinct neural activity patterns in the human brain and may provide a neural basis for the perception and categorization of tactile stickiness. PMID:28936171

  18. Human reaction and risk perception to catastrophic events: a psycho-social and cultural perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthakur, M. [Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social Science and Technology Management, Trondheim (Norway)

    1998-07-01

    Catastrophes of various kinds occur worldwide inflicting major human suffering, more so in the less privileged regions of the world. Human beings react differently to different traumatic situations and to the threat of an event in spite of man common underlying factors. Psychological reactions to catastrophic natural events like flooding on the perception of risk of flooding across various communities thus becomes an interesting study. Economic situation, lack of knowledge and resources are assumed to give a totally different perspective to reactions and perception of risk and its interpretation specially in an underprivileged country like India, compared to other developed countries. For the proposed session, the results of a study carried out in India will be presented. This includes reactions and responses of individuals and general public affected by flooding and their perceptions of risk of flooding. The study also focuses on a comparison between the people affected and at risk of flooding. Socio-cultural values, religion and superstitions, common beliefs and expectations from authorities will be studied as underlying variables, to what extent they might have an impact on the behavioral pattern of an individual in a situation and the perception of oncoming risk. A sizeable number of the Indian population resides in areas, which are generally affected by flooding or highly prone to flooding. Could perceptions vary among individuals within the society or is it simply poverty and unaffordability that drive these people info such hazardous areas? Lack of consciousness may seem to be an important variable, but what really matters and needs to be looked into is how threatened they actually feel. (author)

  19. Brain regions involved in human movement perception: a quantitative voxel-based meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Beaton, Susan; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2012-02-01

    Face, hands, and body movements are powerful signals essential for social interactions. In the last 2 decades, a large number of brain imaging studies have explored the neural correlates of the perception of these signals. Formal synthesis is crucially needed, however, to extract the key circuits involved in human motion perception across the variety of paradigms and stimuli that have been used. Here, we used the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis approach with random effect analysis. We performed meta-analyses on three classes of biological motion: movement of the whole body, hands, and face. Additional analyses of studies of static faces or body stimuli and sub-analyses grouping experiments as a function of their control stimuli or task employed allowed us to identify main effects of movements and forms perception, as well as effects of task demand. In addition to specific features, all conditions showed convergence in occipito-temporal and fronto-parietal regions, but with different peak location and extent. The conjunction of the three ALE maps revealed convergence in all categories in a region of the right posterior superior temporal sulcus as well as in a bilateral region at the junction between middle temporal and lateral occipital gyri. Activation in these regions was not a function of attentional demand and was significant also when controlling for non-specific motion perception. This quantitative synthesis points towards a special role for posterior superior temporal sulcus for integrating human movement percept, and supports a specific representation for body parts in middle temporal, fusiform, precentral, and parietal areas.

  20. Activation of the prefrontal cortex in the human visual aesthetic perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela-Conde, Camilo J.; Marty, Gisèle; Maestú, Fernando; Ortiz, Tomás; Munar, Enric; Fernández, Alberto; Roca, Miquel; Rosselló, Jaume; Quesney, Felipe

    2004-01-01

    Visual aesthetic perception (“aesthetics”) or the capacity to visually perceive a particular attribute added to other features of objects, such as form, color, and movement, was fixed during human evolutionary lineage as a trait not shared with any great ape. Although prefrontal brain expansion is mentioned as responsible for the appearance of such human trait, no current knowledge exists on the role of prefrontal areas in the aesthetic perception. The visual brain consists of “several parallel multistage processing systems, each specialized in a given task such as, color or motion” [Bartels, A. & Zeki, S. (1999) Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 265, 2327–2332]. Here we report the results of an experiment carried out with magnetoencephalography which shows that the prefrontal area is selectively activated in humans during the perception of objects qualified as “beautiful” by the participants. Therefore, aesthetics can be hypothetically considered as an attribute perceived by means of a particular brain processing system, in which the prefrontal cortex seems to play a key role. PMID:15079079

  1. Are mirror neurons the basis of speech perception? Evidence from five cases with damage to the purported human mirror system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalsky, Corianne; Love, Tracy; Driscoll, David; Anderson, Steven W; Hickok, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons in macaque has led to a resurrection of motor theories of speech perception. Although the majority of lesion and functional imaging studies have associated perception with the temporal lobes, it has also been proposed that the 'human mirror system', which prominently includes Broca's area, is the neurophysiological substrate of speech perception. Although numerous studies have demonstrated a tight link between sensory and motor speech processes, few have directly assessed the critical prediction of mirror neuron theories of speech perception, namely that damage to the human mirror system should cause severe deficits in speech perception. The present study measured speech perception abilities of patients with lesions involving motor regions in the left posterior frontal lobe and/or inferior parietal lobule (i.e., the proposed human 'mirror system'). Performance was at or near ceiling in patients with fronto-parietal lesions. It is only when the lesion encroaches on auditory regions in the temporal lobe that perceptual deficits are evident. This suggests that 'mirror system' damage does not disrupt speech perception, but rather that auditory systems are the primary substrate for speech perception.

  2. Blurred digital mammography images: an analysis of technical recall and observer detection performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wang Kei; Borgen, Rita; Kelly, Judith; Millington, Sara; Hilton, Beverley; Aspin, Rob; Lança, Carla; Hogg, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Blurred images in full-field digital mammography are a problem in the UK Breast Screening Programme. Technical recalls may be due to blurring not being seen on lower resolution monitors used for review. This study assesses the visual detection of blurring on a 2.3-MP monitor and a 5-MP report grade monitor and proposes an observer standard for the visual detection of blurring on a 5-MP reporting grade monitor. 28 observers assessed 120 images for blurring; 20 images had no blurring present, whereas 100 images had blurring imposed through mathematical simulation at 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 mm levels of motion. Technical recall rate for both monitors and angular size at each level of motion were calculated. χ(2) tests were used to test whether significant differences in blurring detection existed between 2.3- and 5-MP monitors. The technical recall rate for 2.3- and 5-MP monitors are 20.3% and 9.1%, respectively. The angular size for 0.2- to 1-mm motion varied from 55 to 275 arc s. The minimum amount of motion for visual detection of blurring in this study is 0.4 mm. For 0.2-mm simulated motion, there was no significant difference [χ(2) (1, N = 1095) = 1.61, p = 0.20] in blurring detection between the 2.3- and 5-MP monitors. According to this study, monitors ≤2.3 MP are not suitable for technical review of full-field digital mammography images for the detection of blur. Advances in knowledge: This research proposes the first observer standard for the visual detection of blurring.

  3. Numericals for total variation-based reconstruction of motion blurred images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qiu-bin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper image with horizontal motion blur,vertical motion blur and angled motion blur are considered.We construct several difference schemes to the highly nonlinear nonlinear system is linearized by fixed point iteration method.An algebraic multigrid method with Krylov subspace acceleration is used to solve the corresponding linear equations as in [7].The algorithms can restore the image very well.We give some numerical experiments to demonstrate that our difference schemes are efficient and robust.

  4. Behind the Looking-Glass: A Review on Human Symmetry Perception

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    Matthias Sebastian Treder

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The human visual system is highly proficient in extracting bilateral symmetry from visual input. This paper reviews empirical and theoretical work on human symmetry perception with a focus on recent issues such as its neural underpinnings. Symmetry detection is shown to be a versatile, ongoing visual process that interacts with other visual processes. Evidence seems to converge towards the idea that  symmetry detection is subserved by a preprocessing stage involving spatial filters followed by information integration across the visual field in higher-tier cortical areas.

  5. Rhythmic Cognition in Humans and Animals: Distinguishing Meter and Pulse Perception

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    W Tecumseh eFitch

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a cognitive and comparative perspective on human rhythmic cognition that emphasizes a key distinction between pulse perception and meter perception. Pulse perception involves the extraction of a regular pulse or 'tactus' from a stream of events. Meter perception involves grouping of events into hierarchical trees with differing levels of 'strength', or perceptual prominence. I argue that metrically-structured rhythms are required to either perform or move appropriately to music (e.g. to dance. Rhythms, from this metrical perspective, constitute 'trees in time'. Rhythmic syntax represents a neglected form of musical syntax, and warrants more thorough neuroscientific investigation. The recent literature on animal entrainment clearly demonstrates the capacity to extract the pulse from rhythmic music, and to entrain periodic movements to this pulse, in several parrot species and a California sea lion, and a more limited ability to do so in one chimpanzee. However, the ability of these or other species to infer hierarchical rhythmic trees remains, for the most part, unexplored (with some apparent negative results from macaques. The results from this new animal comparative research, combined with new methods to explore rhythmic cognition neurally, provide exciting new routes for understanding not just rhythmic cognition, but hierarchical cognition more generally, from a biological and neural perspective.

  6. Human-biometeorological conditions and thermal perception in a Mediterranean coastal park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaroni, Hadas; Pearlmutter, David; Hatuka, Tali

    2015-10-01

    This study looks at the interrelation of human-biometeorological conditions, physiological thermal stress and subjective thermal perception in the design and use of a new waterfront park in Tel-Aviv, Israel. Our initial assumption was that the park's design would embody a comprehensive response to the area's ever-increasing heat stress and water shortage. However, almost half of it is covered by grass lawns, irrigated with fresh water, while the remaining area is mainly covered with concrete paving, with minimal shading and sparse trees. We hypothesized that stressful thermal conditions would prevail in the park in the summer season and would be expressed in a high discomfort perception of its users. Thermo-physiological stress conditions in a typical summer month were compared with the subjective comfort perceptions of pedestrians surveyed in the park. It was found that even during mid-day hours, the level of thermal stress tends to be relatively mild, owing largely to the strong sea breeze and despite the high intensity of solar radiation. Moreover, it appears that the largely favorable perception of comfort among individuals may also result from socio-cultural aspects related to their satisfaction with the park's aesthetic attractiveness and in fact its very existence. Adaptive planning is proposed for such vulnerable regions, which are expected to experience further aggravation in thermal comfort due to global as well as localized warming trends.

  7. Ageing effects on the diameter, nanomechanical properties and tactile perception of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W; Zhang, S G; Zhang, J K; Chen, S; Zhu, H; Ge, S R

    2016-04-01

    The typical changes to hair associated with ageing are greying, thinning, dryness and brittleness. Research on the influence of ageing on hair properties will enable a detailed understanding of the natural ageing process. The studies were carried out using an SEM (scanning electron microscope), a TriboIndenter and an artificial finger. Three characteristic features of tactile perception that could reflect the perceptual dimensions of the fineness, roughness and slipperiness of hair were extracted. The influences of ageing on the diameter, surface topography, nanomechanical properties and tactile perception of hair were determined. In the three age group hair samples, the children's group hair samples have the smallest diameter. The hair cuticles in the children and young adult groups were relatively complete and less damaged than in the elderly group. The hardness and elastic modulus of the young adult group's hair samples were higher than those in the elderly and children's groups. For all groups, loss modulus E" was smaller than storage modulus E'. Vertical deviations (R) and coefficient of friction (μ) increased, and spectral centroid (SC) decreased, with the increase in age. Ageing decreased the tactile perception of hair. Ageing influences the diameter, surface topography, hardness, loss modulus, storage modulus and tactile perception of human hair. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  8. Human haptic perception is interrupted by explorative stops of milliseconds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Martin; Muniyandi, Manivannan; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Jung; Krause, Frank; Mueller, Stephanie; Srinivasan, Mandayam A

    2014-01-01

    The explorative scanning movements of the hands have been compared to those of the eyes. The visual process is known to be composed of alternating phases of saccadic eye movements and fixation pauses. Descriptive results suggest that during the haptic exploration of objects short movement pauses occur as well. The goal of the present study was to detect these "explorative stops" (ES) during one-handed and two-handed haptic explorations of various objects and patterns, and to measure their duration. Additionally, the associations between the following variables were analyzed: (a) between mean exploration time and duration of ES, (b) between certain stimulus features and ES frequency, and (c) the duration of ES during the course of exploration. Five different Experiments were used. The first two Experiments were classical recognition tasks of unknown haptic stimuli (A) and of common objects (B). In Experiment C space-position information of angle legs had to be perceived and reproduced. For Experiments D and E the PHANToM haptic device was used for the exploration of virtual (D) and real (E) sunken reliefs. In each Experiment we observed explorative stops of different average durations. For Experiment A: 329.50 ms, Experiment B: 67.47 ms, Experiment C: 189.92 ms, Experiment D: 186.17 ms and Experiment E: 140.02 ms. Significant correlations were observed between exploration time and the duration of the ES. Also, ES occurred more frequently, but not exclusively, at defined stimulus features like corners, curves and the endpoints of lines. However, explorative stops do not occur every time a stimulus feature is explored. We assume that ES are a general aspect of human haptic exploration processes. We have tried to interpret the occurrence and duration of ES with respect to the Hypotheses-Rebuild-Model and the Limited Capacity Control System theory.

  9. Human haptic perception is interrupted by explorative stops of milliseconds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eGrunwald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The explorative scanning movements of the hands have been compared to those of the eyes. The visual process is known to be composed of alternating phases of saccadic eye movements and fixation pauses. Descriptive results suggest that during the haptic exploration of objects short movement pauses occur as well. The goal of the present study was to detect these explorative stops (ES during one-handed and two-handed haptic explorations of various objects and patterns, and to measure their duration. Additionally, the associations between the following variables were analyzed: a between mean exploration time and duration of ES, b between certain stimulus features and ES frequency, and c the duration of ES during the course of exploration. Methods: Five different experiments were used. The first two experiments were classical recognition tasks of unknown haptic stimuli (A and of common objects (B. In experiment C space-position information of angle legs had to be perceived and reproduced. For experiments D and E the PHANToM haptic device was used for the exploration of virtual (D and real (E sunken reliefs. Results: In each experiment we observed explorative stops of different average durations. For experiment A: 329.50 ms, experiment B: 67.47 ms, experiment C: 189.92 ms, experiment D: 186.17 ms and experiment E: 140.02 ms. Significant correlations were observed between exploration time and the duration of the ES. Also, ES occurred more frequently, but not exclusively, at defined stimulus features like corners, curves and the endpoints of lines. However, explorative stops do not occur every time a stimulus feature is explored. Conclusions: We assume that ES are a general aspect of human haptic exploration processes. We have tried to interpret the occurrence and duration of ES with respect to the Hypotheses-Rebuild-Model and the Limited Capacity Control System theory.

  10. Baby schema in human and animal faces induces cuteness perception and gaze allocation in children

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    Marta eBorgi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The baby schema concept was originally proposed as a set of infantile traits with high appeal for humans, subsequently shown to elicit caretaking behavior and to affect cuteness perception and attentional processes. However, it is unclear whether the response to the baby schema may be extended to the human-animal bond context. Moreover, questions remain as to whether the cute response is constant and persistent or whether it changes with development. In the present study we parametrically manipulated the baby schema in images of humans, dogs and cats. We analyzed responses of 3-6-year-old children, using both explicit (i.e. cuteness ratings and implicit (i.e. eye gaze patterns measures. By means of eye-tracking, we assessed children’s preferential attention to images varying only for the degree of baby schema and explored participants’ fixation patterns during a cuteness task. For comparative purposes, cuteness ratings were also obtained in a sample of adults. Overall our results show that the response to an infantile facial configuration emerges early during development. In children, the baby schema affects both cuteness perception and gaze allocation to infantile stimuli and to specific facial features, an effect not simply limited to human faces. In line with previous research, results confirm human positive appraisal towards animals and inform both educational and therapeutic interventions involving pets, helping to minimize risk factors (e.g. dog bites.

  11. How little do we need for 3-D shape perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, Chetan; Torralba, Antonio; Malik, Jitendra

    2011-01-01

    How little do we need to perceive 3-D shape in monocular natural images? The shape-from-texture and shape-from-shading perspectives would motivate that 3-D perception vanishes once low-level cues are disrupted. Is this the case in human vision? Or can top-down influences salvage the percept? In this study we probe this question by employing a gauge-figure paradigm similar to that used by Koenderink et al (1992, Perception & Psychophysics 52 487-496). Subjects were presented degraded natural images and instructed to make local assessments of slant and tilt at various locations thereby quantifying their internal 3-D percept. Analysis of subjects' responses reveals recognition to be a significant influence thereby allowing subjects to perceive 3-D shape at high levels of degradation. Specifically, we identify the 'medium-blur' condition, images approximately 32 pixels on a side, to be the limit for accurate 3-D shape perception. In addition, we find that degradation affects the perceived slant of point-estimates making images look flatter as degradation increases. A subsequent condition that eliminates texture and shading but preserves contour and recognition reveals how bottom-up and top-down cues can combine for accurate 3-D shape perception.

  12. Identification and localization of fovea on colour fundus images using blur scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Karthikeyan; Acharya, Rajendra U; Chua, Chua Kuang; Laude, Augustinus

    2014-09-01

    Identification of retinal landmarks is an important step in the extraction of anomalies in retinal fundus images. In the current study, we propose a technique to identify and localize the position of macula and hence the fovea avascular zone, in colour fundus images. The proposed method, based on varying blur scales in images, is independent of the location of other anatomical landmarks present in the fundus images. Experimental results have been provided using the open database MESSIDOR by validating our segmented regions using the dice coefficient, with ground truth segmentation provided by a human expert. Apart from testing the images on the entire MESSIDOR database, the proposed technique was also validated using 50 normal and 50 diabetic retinopathy chosen digital fundus images from the same database. A maximum overlap accuracy of 89.6%-93.8% and locational accuracy of 94.7%-98.9% was obtained for identification and localization of the fovea.

  13. An Efficient Method for Extracting Features from Blurred Fingerprints Using Modified Gabor Filter

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    R.Vinothkanna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is the science and technology of measuring and analyzing biological data. In information technology, biometrics refers to technologies that measure and analyze human body characteristics, such as DNA, fingerprints, eye retinas and irises, voice patterns, facial patterns and hand measurements for authentication purposes. Fingerprint is one of the most developed biometrics, with more history, research and design. Fingerprint recognition identifies people by using the impressions made by the minute ridge formations or patterns found on the fingertips. The extraction of features from blurred or unclear fingerprints becomes difficult. So instead of ridges we tried to extract valleys from same images, because fingerprints consist of both ridges and valleys as its features. We found some good results for valley extraction with different filters including Gabor filter. So in this paper we modified the Gabor filter to reduce the time consumption and also for extraction of more valleys than Gabor filter.

  14. Perceptions of Medical Students and Professors Regarding the Free Informed Consent Form and Humanization

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    Angela Maria Moreira Canuto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gather information on the perception of the free informed consent form (FICF and humanization among a population of medical students and professors of medicine. A total of 35 professors of medicine and 56 medical students took part in this study by answering an electronic survey. The collected data were subjected to content analysis using ALCESTE software. The analysis revealed the existence of three different classes: Class 1 designated the “FICF as a guarantee of rights in research”; Class 2 designated the “FICF as informative regarding research procedures”; and Class 3 designated “humanization as a necessary process.” The results show a preferential association of the FICF with research, rather than medical care. There was a consensus regarding the importance of humanization; however, a need to increase knowledge of and the possibilities for implementing both the FICF and humanization was also indicated

  15. Immigrants’ perception of business opportunities in Spain: the impact of general and specific human capital

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    Rocío Aliaga Isla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Perceiving business opportunities is an important part of entrepreneurship. This study analyzes how immigrants’ general and specific human capital influences their likelihood of perceiving business opportunities. Analysis focuses on comparison between a group of immigrants and a group of Spanish citizens. Data from the 2008 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM was used. Logistic regression was used to analyze data. Results revealed that both immigrants’ and Spanish citizens’ human capital such as education is not significant to perceiving opportunities. Much to the contrary: the impact of specific human capital on perceiving opportunities is in general significant to both groups. This research reveals which specific types of human capital are relevant in the process of perceiving opportunities amongst immigrants. This paper is a novelty because it introduces a theoretical approach to the perception of opportunities within the universe of new businesses established by immigrants in Spain.

  16. Effects of picture size reduction and blurring on emotional engagement.

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    Andrea De Cesarei

    Full Text Available The activity of basic motivational systems is reflected in emotional responses to arousing stimuli, such as natural pictures. The manipulation of picture properties such as size or detail allows for investigation into the extent to which separate emotional reactions are similarly modulated by perceptual changes, or, rather, may subserve different functions. Pursuing this line of research, the present study examined the effects of two types of perceptual degradation, namely picture size reduction and blurring, on emotional responses. Both manipulations reduced picture relevance and dampened affective modulation of skin conductance, possibly because of a reduced action preparation in response to degraded or remote pictures. However, the affective modulation of the startle reflex did not vary with picture degradation, suggesting that the identification of these degraded affective cues activated the neural circuits mediating appetitive or defensive motivation.

  17. Assessment of human thermal perception in the hot-humid climate of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndetto, Emmanuel L.; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, is a typical African city along the Indian Ocean coast, and therefore an important urban area to examine human thermal perception in the hot-humid tropical climate. Earlier research on human bioclimate at Dar es Salaam indicated that heat stress prevails during the hot season from October to March, peaking between December and February, particularly the early afternoons. In order to assess the human thermal perception and adaptation, two popular places, one at an urban park and another at a beach environment, were selected and questionnaire surveys were conducted in August-September 2013 and January 2014, concurrently with local micro-meteorological measurements at survey locations. The thermal conditions were quantified in terms of the thermal index of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the micro-scale climate model RayMan. The thermal comfort range of human thermal comfort and the local thermal adaptive capacity were determined in respect to the thermal index by binning thermal sensation votes. The thermal comfort range was found to be well above that in temperate climates at about 23-31 °C of PET. The study could significantly contribute to urban planning in Dar es Salaam and other coastal cities in the tropics.

  18. Differential effects of refractive blur on day and nighttime driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne M; Collins, Michael J; Chaparro, Alex; Marszalek, Ralph; Carberry, Trent; Lacherez, Philippe; Chu, Byoung Sun

    2014-04-09

    To investigate the effect of different levels of refractive blur on real-world driving performance measured under day and nighttime conditions. Participants included 12 visually normal, young adults (mean age = 25.8 ± 5.2 years) who drove an instrumented research vehicle around a 4 km closed road circuit with three different levels of binocular spherical refractive blur (+0.50 diopter sphere [DS], +1.00 DS, +2.00 DS) compared with a baseline condition. The subjects wore optimal spherocylinder correction and the additional blur lenses were mounted in modified full-field goggles; the order of testing of the blur conditions was randomized. Driving performance was assessed in two different sessions under day and nighttime conditions and included measures of road signs recognized, hazard detection and avoidance, gap detection, lane-keeping, sign recognition distance, speed, and time to complete the course. Refractive blur and time of day had significant effects on driving performance (P < 0.05), where increasing blur and nighttime driving reduced performance on all driving tasks except gap judgment and lane keeping. There was also a significant interaction between blur and time of day (P < 0.05), such that the effects of blur were exacerbated under nighttime driving conditions; performance differences were evident even for +0.50 DS blur relative to baseline for some measures. The effects of blur were greatest under nighttime conditions, even for levels of binocular refractive blur as low as +0.50 DS. These results emphasize the importance of accurate and up-to-date refractive correction of even low levels of refractive error when driving at night.

  19. Complexity in Human Perception of Brightness: A Historical Review on the Evolution of the Philosophy of Visual Perception

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    Kuntal Ghosh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The “eye-brain” complex, which contributes maximally to visual perception, is no doubt a very interesting object for complexity study. In this review we shall try to present some of its aspects in perceiving brightness. It is a well-known fact that the perceived brightness of any surface depends on the brightness of the surfaces that surround it, a phenomenon termed as brightness induction. Several studies reveal that brightness contrast and brightness assimilation are two opposite phenomena in brightness induction. The former can be explained through the microscopic neural circuits that emanate from the retinal ganglion cells and converge on to primary visual cortex i.e. through a bottom-up approach, something which however fails till date to account for the later. In search of a unified theory of brightness induction, a top-down approach has often been suggested. However, the mechanism of brightness induction evident in several optical illusions, is not yet understood even after 200 years of intense research that saw George Berkeley, Maxwell, Helmholtz and the modern Gestalt school, that include both the intrinsic image theorists as well as the anchoring model theorists, following the “top-down” approach on one hand and Weber, Fechner, Mach, succeeded by the modern contrast theorists following the “bottom-up” approach on the other. Approach: In this review, we presented a historical perspective of the evolution of human concepts about the perception of brightness. We tried to capture the two essential philosophical trends among the scientists in understanding the phenomenon of brightness induction. The problems with idealist approach as well as the limitations of the mechanical materialist approach, have been pointed out in the light of the facts that, nature in general and complex systems in particular, are intrinsically dialectic in nature. Results: A proposal had been put forward that the path of dialectical

  20. Revisiting vocal perception in non-human animals: a review of vowel discrimination, speaker voice recognition, and speaker normalization

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    Buddhamas eKriengwatana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which human speech perception evolved by taking advantage of predispositions and pre-existing features of vertebrate auditory and cognitive systems remains a central question in the evolution of speech. This paper reviews asymmetries in vowel perception, speaker voice recognition, and speaker normalization in non-human animals – topics that have not been thoroughly discussed in relation to the abilities of non-human animals, but are nonetheless important aspects of vocal perception. Throughout this paper we demonstrate that addressing these issues in non-human animals is relevant and worthwhile because many non-human animals must deal with similar issues in their natural environment. That is, they must also discriminate between similar-sounding vocalizations, determine signaler identity from vocalizations, and resolve signaler-dependent variation in vocalizations from conspecifics. Overall, we find that, although plausible, the current evidence is insufficiently strong to conclude that directional asymmetries in vowel perception are specific to humans, or that non-human animals can use voice characteristics to recognize human individuals. However, we do find some indication that non-human animals can normalize speaker differences. Accordingly, we identify avenues for future research that would greatly improve and advance our understanding of these topics.

  1. VISUAL PERCEPTION BASED AUTOMATIC RECOGNITION OF CELL MOSAICS IN HUMAN CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUMMICROSCOPY IMAGES

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    Yann Gavet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The human corneal endothelium can be observed with two types of microscopes: classical optical microscope for ex-vivo imaging, and specular optical microscope for in-vivo imaging. The quality of the cornea is correlated to the endothelial cell density and morphometry. Automatic methods to analyze the human corneal endothelium images are still not totally efficient. Image analysis methods that focus only on cell contours do not give good results in presence of noise and of bad conditions of acquisition. More elaborated methods introduce regional informations in order to performthe cell contours completion, thus implementing the duality contour-region. Their good performance can be explained by their connections with several basic principles of human visual perception (Gestalt Theory and Marr's computational theory.

  2. Precise local blur estimation based on the first-order derivative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Dijk, J.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Blur estimation is an important technique for super resolution, image restoration, turbulence mitigation, deblurring and autofocus. Low-cost methods have been proposed for blur estimation. However, they can have large stochastic errors when computed close to the edge location and biased estimates at

  3. Sensor performance as a function of sampling (d) and optical blur (Fλ)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, P.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Detector sampling and optical blur are two major factors affecting Target Acquisition (TA) performance with modern EO and IR systems. In order to quantify their relative significance, we simulated five realistic LWIR and MWIR sensors from very under-sampled (detector pitch d >> diffraction blur Fλ)

  4. Blur and illumination robust face recognition via set-theoretic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vageeswaran, Priyanka; Mitra, Kaushik; Chellappa, Rama

    2013-04-01

    We address the problem of unconstrained face recognition from remotely acquired images. The main factors that make this problem challenging are image degradation due to blur, and appearance variations due to illumination and pose. In this paper, we address the problems of blur and illumination. We show that the set of all images obtained by blurring a given image forms a convex set. Based on this set-theoretic characterization, we propose a blur-robust algorithm whose main step involves solving simple convex optimization problems. We do not assume any parametric form for the blur kernels, however, if this information is available it can be easily incorporated into our algorithm. Furthermore, using the low-dimensional model for illumination variations, we show that the set of all images obtained from a face image by blurring it and by changing the illumination conditions forms a bi-convex set. Based on this characterization, we propose a blur and illumination-robust algorithm. Our experiments on a challenging real dataset obtained in uncontrolled settings illustrate the importance of jointly modeling blur and illumination.

  5. Human perception of fear in dogs varies according to experience with dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Michele; Bolger, Niall; Champagne, Frances A

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of experience in humans' perception of emotion using canine visual signals, we asked adults with various levels of dog experience to interpret the emotions of dogs displayed in videos. The video stimuli had been pre-categorized by an expert panel of dog behavior professionals as showing examples of happy or fearful dog behavior. In a sample of 2,163 participants, the level of dog experience strongly predicted identification of fearful, but not of happy, emotional examples. The probability of selecting the "fearful" category to describe fearful examples increased with experience and ranged from.30 among those who had never lived with a dog to greater than.70 among dog professionals. In contrast, the probability of selecting the "happy" category to describe happy emotional examples varied little by experience, ranging from.90 to.93. In addition, the number of physical features of the dog that participants reported using for emotional interpretations increased with experience, and in particular, more-experienced respondents were more likely to attend to the ears. Lastly, more-experienced respondents provided lower difficulty and higher accuracy self-ratings than less-experienced respondents when interpreting both happy and fearful emotional examples. The human perception of emotion in other humans has previously been shown to be sensitive to individual differences in social experience, and the results of the current study extend the notion of experience-dependent processes from the intraspecific to the interspecific domain.

  6. Human perception of fear in dogs varies according to experience with dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Wan

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of experience in humans' perception of emotion using canine visual signals, we asked adults with various levels of dog experience to interpret the emotions of dogs displayed in videos. The video stimuli had been pre-categorized by an expert panel of dog behavior professionals as showing examples of happy or fearful dog behavior. In a sample of 2,163 participants, the level of dog experience strongly predicted identification of fearful, but not of happy, emotional examples. The probability of selecting the "fearful" category to describe fearful examples increased with experience and ranged from.30 among those who had never lived with a dog to greater than.70 among dog professionals. In contrast, the probability of selecting the "happy" category to describe happy emotional examples varied little by experience, ranging from.90 to.93. In addition, the number of physical features of the dog that participants reported using for emotional interpretations increased with experience, and in particular, more-experienced respondents were more likely to attend to the ears. Lastly, more-experienced respondents provided lower difficulty and higher accuracy self-ratings than less-experienced respondents when interpreting both happy and fearful emotional examples. The human perception of emotion in other humans has previously been shown to be sensitive to individual differences in social experience, and the results of the current study extend the notion of experience-dependent processes from the intraspecific to the interspecific domain.

  7. Methodology for estimating human perception to tremors in high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wenqi; Goh, Key Seng; Pan, Tso-Chien

    2016-12-01

    Human perception to tremors during earthquakes in high-rise buildings is usually associated with psychological discomfort such as fear and anxiety. This paper presents a methodology for estimating the level of perception to tremors for occupants living in high-rise buildings subjected to ground motion excitations. Unlike other approaches based on empirical or historical data, the proposed methodology performs a regression analysis using the analytical results of two generic models of 15 and 30 stories. The recorded ground motions in Singapore are collected and modified for structural response analyses. Simple predictive models are then developed to estimate the perception level to tremors based on a proposed ground motion intensity parameter—the average response spectrum intensity in the period range between 0.1 and 2.0 s. These models can be used to predict the percentage of occupants in high-rise buildings who may perceive the tremors at a given ground motion intensity. Furthermore, the models are validated with two recent tremor events reportedly felt in Singapore. It is found that the estimated results match reasonably well with the reports in the local newspapers and from the authorities. The proposed methodology is applicable to urban regions where people living in high-rise buildings might feel tremors during earthquakes.

  8. Methodology for estimating human perception to tremors in high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wenqi; Goh, Key Seng; Pan, Tso-Chien

    2017-07-01

    Human perception to tremors during earthquakes in high-rise buildings is usually associated with psychological discomfort such as fear and anxiety. This paper presents a methodology for estimating the level of perception to tremors for occupants living in high-rise buildings subjected to ground motion excitations. Unlike other approaches based on empirical or historical data, the proposed methodology performs a regression analysis using the analytical results of two generic models of 15 and 30 stories. The recorded ground motions in Singapore are collected and modified for structural response analyses. Simple predictive models are then developed to estimate the perception level to tremors based on a proposed ground motion intensity parameter—the average response spectrum intensity in the period range between 0.1 and 2.0 s. These models can be used to predict the percentage of occupants in high-rise buildings who may perceive the tremors at a given ground motion intensity. Furthermore, the models are validated with two recent tremor events reportedly felt in Singapore. It is found that the estimated results match reasonably well with the reports in the local newspapers and from the authorities. The proposed methodology is applicable to urban regions where people living in high-rise buildings might feel tremors during earthquakes.

  9. Real-time multiple human perception with color-depth cameras on a mobile robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Reardon, Christopher; Parker, Lynne E

    2013-10-01

    The ability to perceive humans is an essential requirement for safe and efficient human-robot interaction. In real-world applications, the need for a robot to interact in real time with multiple humans in a dynamic, 3-D environment presents a significant challenge. The recent availability of commercial color-depth cameras allow for the creation of a system that makes use of the depth dimension, thus enabling a robot to observe its environment and perceive in the 3-D space. Here we present a system for 3-D multiple human perception in real time from a moving robot equipped with a color-depth camera and a consumer-grade computer. Our approach reduces computation time to achieve real-time performance through a unique combination of new ideas and established techniques. We remove the ground and ceiling planes from the 3-D point cloud input to separate candidate point clusters. We introduce the novel information concept, depth of interest, which we use to identify candidates for detection, and that avoids the computationally expensive scanning-window methods of other approaches. We utilize a cascade of detectors to distinguish humans from objects, in which we make intelligent reuse of intermediary features in successive detectors to improve computation. Because of the high computational cost of some methods, we represent our candidate tracking algorithm with a decision directed acyclic graph, which allows us to use the most computationally intense techniques only where necessary. We detail the successful implementation of our novel approach on a mobile robot and examine its performance in scenarios with real-world challenges, including occlusion, robot motion, nonupright humans, humans leaving and reentering the field of view (i.e., the reidentification challenge), human-object and human-human interaction. We conclude with the observation that the incorporation of the depth information, together with the use of modern techniques in new ways, we are able to create an

  10. Effects of exposure to noise and indoor air pollution on human perception and symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witterseh, Thomas; Wargocki, Pawel; Fang, Lei

    1999-01-01

    was modified by playing a recording of ventilation noise. Thirty female subjects, six at a time, occupied the office for 4.4 hours. The subjects assessed the air quality, the noise, and the indoor environment upon entering the office and on six occasions during occupation. Furthermore, SBS symptoms......The objective of the present study was to investigate human perception and SBS symptoms when people are exposed simultaneously to different levels of air pollution and ventilation noise. The air quality in an office was modified by placing or removing a carpet and the background noise level...

  11. Human perception of the measurement of a network attack taxonomy in near real-time

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    van Heerden, R

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available , Pretoria, South Africa malan747@gmail.com 3 University of Rhodes, Computer Science Department, Grahamstown, South Africa b.irwin@ru.ac.za Abstract. This paper investigates how the measurement of a network attack taxonomy can be related to human... perception. Network attacks do not have a time limitation, but the earlier its detected, the more damage can be prevented and the more preventative actions can be taken. This paper evaluate how ele- ments of network attacks can be measured in near real...

  12. Influence of educational status and other variables on human immunodeficiency virus risk perception among military personnel: a large cohort finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essien, E James; Ogungbade, Gbadebo O; Ward, Doriel; Ekong, Ernest; Ross, Michael W; Meshack, Angela; Holmes, Laurens

    2007-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk perception remains an effective determinant of HIV transmission. Although higher educational attainment has been associated with increased HIV risk perception, this predictor remains to be assessed among Nigerian military personnel (NMP). In a prospective cohort of 2,213 NMP, the effects of education and other factors on HIV risk perception were assessed at baseline by using the X2 statistic and unconditional logistic regression. There was an inverse correlation between higher educational attainment and HIV risk perception in the univariate model (prevalence odds ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.79). This association persisted after adjustment for relevant covariates in the multivariate model (prevalence odds ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.88). Similarly, there was a direct correlation between use of alcohol and marijuana and HIV risk perception (p 0.05). This study indicates an inverse correlation between educational attainment and HIV risk perception, as well as a direct correlation between alcohol and marijuana use and HIV risk perception, among NMP. Therefore, HIV prevention interventions targeted at NMP need to include multiple factors that may affect risk perception regardless of the educational status of the participants.

  13. Perception of human-derived risk influences choice at top of the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, Bogdan; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Boyce, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    On human-used landscapes, animal behavior is a trade-off between maximizing fitness and minimizing human-derived risk. Understanding risk perception in wildlife can allow mitigation of anthropogenic risk, with benefits to long-term animal fitness. Areas where animals choose to rest should minimize risk from predators, which for large carnivores typically equate to humans. We hypothesize that high human activity leads to selection for habitat security, whereas low activity enables trading security for forage. We investigated selection of resting (bedding) sites by GPS radiocollared adult grizzly bears (n = 10) in a low density population on a multiple-use landscape in Canada. We compared security and foods at resting and random locations while accounting for land use, season, and time of day. On reclaimed mines with low human access, bears selected high horizontal cover far from trails, but did not avoid open (herbaceous) areas, resting primarily at night. In protected areas bears also bedded at night, in areas with berry shrubs and Hedysarum spp., with horizontal cover selected in the summer, during high human access. On public lands with substantial human recreation, bears bedded at day, selected resting sites with high horizontal cover in the summer and habitat edges, with bedding associated with herbaceous foods. These spatial and temporal patterns of selection suggest that bears perceive human-related risk differentially in relation to human activity level, season and time of day, and employ a security-food trade-off strategy. Although grizzly bears are presently not hunted in Alberta, their perceived risks associated with humans influence resting-site selection.

  14. Perception of human-derived risk influences choice at top of the food chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cristescu

    Full Text Available On human-used landscapes, animal behavior is a trade-off between maximizing fitness and minimizing human-derived risk. Understanding risk perception in wildlife can allow mitigation of anthropogenic risk, with benefits to long-term animal fitness. Areas where animals choose to rest should minimize risk from predators, which for large carnivores typically equate to humans. We hypothesize that high human activity leads to selection for habitat security, whereas low activity enables trading security for forage. We investigated selection of resting (bedding sites by GPS radiocollared adult grizzly bears (n = 10 in a low density population on a multiple-use landscape in Canada. We compared security and foods at resting and random locations while accounting for land use, season, and time of day. On reclaimed mines with low human access, bears selected high horizontal cover far from trails, but did not avoid open (herbaceous areas, resting primarily at night. In protected areas bears also bedded at night, in areas with berry shrubs and Hedysarum spp., with horizontal cover selected in the summer, during high human access. On public lands with substantial human recreation, bears bedded at day, selected resting sites with high horizontal cover in the summer and habitat edges, with bedding associated with herbaceous foods. These spatial and temporal patterns of selection suggest that bears perceive human-related risk differentially in relation to human activity level, season and time of day, and employ a security-food trade-off strategy. Although grizzly bears are presently not hunted in Alberta, their perceived risks associated with humans influence resting-site selection.

  15. Blurred path-spin entanglement in Stern-Gerlach apparatus: interplay between magnetic inhomogeneity and Larmor precession

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Nirupam

    2014-01-01

    We argue that the non-adiabatic evolution of spin states in Stern-Gerlach apparatus can blur the manifestation of path spin entanglement. This fact introduces a contradiction to the usual perception of spin measurement even in a formally ideal situation. Through quantitative calculation, we have pointed out the specific reason behind the breakdown of adiabatic evolution to be the spatial inhomogeneity of applied magnetic field. The angle $\\theta$ between the $z$ component of magnetic moment of the particle and applied magnetic field is also a determining factor for the category of evolution of spin states. Adiabaticity always can be restored by choosing a sufficiently small value of $\\theta$. Considering azimuthal inhomogeneity, we have examined the nature of path spin entanglement in the context of Stern-Gerlach experiment.

  16. Model-based iterative reconstruction for flat-panel cone-beam CT with focal spot blur, detector blur, and correlated noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Steven, II; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Webster Stayman, J.

    2016-01-01

    While model-based reconstruction methods have been successfully applied to flat-panel cone-beam CT (FP-CBCT) systems, typical implementations ignore both spatial correlations in the projection data as well as system blurs due to the detector and focal spot in the x-ray source. In this work, we develop a forward model for flat-panel-based systems that includes blur and noise correlation associated with finite focal spot size and an indirect detector (e.g. scintillator). This forward model is used to develop a staged reconstruction framework where projection data are deconvolved and log-transformed, followed by a generalized least-squares reconstruction that utilizes a non-diagonal statistical weighting to account for the correlation that arises from the acquisition and data processing chain. We investigate the performance of this novel reconstruction approach in both simulated data and in CBCT test-bench data. In comparison to traditional filtered backprojection and model-based methods that ignore noise correlation, the proposed approach yields a superior noise-resolution tradeoff. For example, for a system with 0.34 mm FWHM scintillator blur and 0.70 FWHM focal spot blur, using the correlated noise model instead of an uncorrelated noise model increased resolution by 42% (with variance matched at 6.9  ×  10-8 mm-2). While this advantage holds across a wide range of systems with differing blur characteristics, the improvements are greatest for systems where source blur is larger than detector blur.

  17. Immersive Environments: Using Flow and Sound to Blur Inhabitant and Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Luke

    Following in the footsteps of motif-reviving, aesthetically-focused Postmodern and deconstructivist architecture, purely computer-generated formalist contemporary architecture (i.e. blobitecture) has been reduced to vast, empty sculptural, and therefore, purely ocularcentric gestures for their own sake. Taking precedent over the deliberate relation to the people inhabiting them beyond scaleless visual stimulation, the forms become separated from and hostile toward their inhabitants; a boundary appears. This thesis calls for a reintroduction of human-centered design beyond Modern functionalism and ergonomics and Postmodern form and metaphor into architecture by exploring ecological psychology (specifically how one becomes attached to objects) and phenomenology (specifically sound) in an attempt to reach a contemporary human scale using the technology of today: the physiological mind. Psychologist Dr. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's concept of flow---when one becomes so mentally immersed within the current activity and immediate surroundings that the boundary between inhabitant and environment becomes transparent through a form of trance---is the embodiment of this thesis' goal, but it is limited to only specific moments throughout the day and typically studied without regard to the environment. Physiologically, the area within the brain---the medial prefrontal cortex---stimulated during flow experiences is also stimulated by the synthesis of sound, memory, and emotion. By exploiting sound (a sense not typically focused on within phenomenology) as a form of constant nuance within the everyday productive dissonance, the engagement and complete concentration on one's own interpretation of this sensory input affords flow experiences and, therefore, a blurred boundary with one's environment. This thesis aims to answer the question: How does the built environment embody flow? The above concept will be illustrated within a ubiquitous building type---the everyday housing tower

  18. Humanization in the Intensive Care: perception of family and healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Flavia Feron; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino; Costa, Márcia Rosa da

    2017-01-01

    Understanding perceptions of family members and healthcare professionals about humanization at the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) to direct it to an educational action. Exploratory descriptive and qualitative study conducted in an ICU level 3 of a public hospital in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, with fourteen subjects, eight family members and six healthcare professionals. Data collection carried out through semi-structured interviews and focus group. Content Analysis was used. Emerged categories were: welcoming; communication; ethical and sensible professionalism; unfavorable aspects; perception on humanization; and religiosity/spirituality. Although the subjects have expressed their perceptions about humanization in different ways, both groups pointed out the same needs and priorities to improve humanization in Intensive Care. From the results, we created a reflective manual of humanizing assistance practices for professionals, a board to facilitate communication of these professionals with patients and a guideline book for family members. Compreender as percepções de familiares e profissionais de saúde sobre humanização na Unidade Terapia Intensiva (UTI) para direcionar a uma ação educativa. Estudo exploratório-descritivo qualitativo, realizado em uma UTI nível III de um hospital público de Porto Alegre/RS com 14 sujeitos, sendo oito familiares e seis profissionais de saúde. Coleta de dados realizada por meio de: entrevistas semiestruturadas e grupo focal. Utilizou-se Análise de Conteúdo. As categorias emergidas foram: acolhida; comunicação; profissionalismo ético e sensível; aspectos desfavoráveis; percepção sobre humanização; e religiosidade/espiritualidade. Apesar dos sujeitos expressarem de maneiras distintas suas percepções sobre humanização, os dois grupos comparados elencaram iguais necessidades e prioridades para o aprimoramento da humanização na Terapia Intensiva. A partir dos resultados, criou-se um Manual Reflexivo de pr

  19. [Short-term memory characteristics of vibration intensity tactile perception on human wrist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fei; Chen, Li-Juan; Lu, Wei; Song, Ai-Guo

    2014-12-25

    In this study, a recall experiment and a recognition experiment were designed to assess the human wrist's short-term memory characteristics of tactile perception on vibration intensity, by using a novel homemade vibrotactile display device based on the spatiotemporal combination vibration of multiple micro vibration motors as a test device. Based on the obtained experimental data, the short-term memory span, recognition accuracy and reaction time of vibration intensity were analyzed. From the experimental results, some important conclusions can be made: (1) The average short-term memory span of tactile perception on vibration intensity is 3 ± 1 items; (2) The greater difference between two adjacent discrete intensities of vibrotactile stimulation is defined, the better average short-term memory span human wrist gets; (3) There is an obvious difference of the average short-term memory span on vibration intensity between the male and female; (4) The mechanism of information extraction in short-term memory of vibrotactile display is to traverse the scanning process by comparison; (5) The recognition accuracy and reaction time performance of vibrotactile display compares unfavourably with that of visual and auditory. The results from this study are important for designing vibrotactile display coding scheme.

  20. The use of interval ratios in consonance perception by rats (Rattus norvegicus) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Bojorque, Paola; Toro, Juan M

    2015-02-01

    Traditionally, physical features in musical chords have been proposed to be at the root of consonance perception. Alternatively, recent studies suggest that different types of experience modulate some perceptual foundations for musical sounds. The present study tested whether the mechanisms involved in the perception of consonance are present in an animal with no extensive experience with harmonic stimuli and a relatively limited vocal repertoire. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to discriminate consonant from dissonant chords and tested to explore whether they could generalize such discrimination to novel chords. In Experiment 2, we tested if rats could discriminate between chords differing only in their interval ratios and generalize them to different octaves. To contrast the observed pattern of results, human adults were tested with the same stimuli in Experiment 3. Rats successfully discriminated across chords in both experiments, but they did not generalize to novel items in either Experiment 1 or Experiment 2. On the contrary, humans not only discriminated among both consonance-dissonance categories, and among sets of interval ratios, they also generalized their responses to novel items. These results suggest that experience with harmonic sounds may be required for the construction of categories among stimuli varying in frequency ratios. However, the discriminative capacity observed in rats suggests that at least some components of auditory processing needed to distinguish chords based on their interval ratios are shared across species.

  1. Social Media Blurred the Distinction Between Author and Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambiotte, Renaud

    The last few years have seen the emergence of the sharing economy. As social media blurred the distinction between author and reader, everyone can now offer or receive services thanks to the networking tools provided by new technological companies. Take Uber, and its billion of journeys in 2015 alone, with tens of thousands of vehicles crawling every moment in the globe's biggest cities. As often, when confronted with a technological change, we observe a polarization of society, and the search for an equilibrium characterized by new norms, rights, and obligations. Understanding the mechanisms behind this re-organization requires an integrated, interdisciplinary approach, covering an intricate web of legal, societal, economical, and computational issues which, we believe, could benefit from a complex systems perspective. As a first step, we are currently studying the dynamics of pricing in Uber. In this new de-regulated world, journey prices fluctuate in time depending on traffic but also on the service's perceived balance of passenger demand and driver supply...

  2. Human Perception of Physical Experiments and the Simplex Interpretation of Quantum Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaeva E. A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is argued that knowledge dividing the usual, unusual, transient and transcendental depends on human perception of the world (macro or micro and depends too on the inclusion of human consciousness in the system. For the analysis of this problem the idea of "Schrodinger’s cat" is employed. Transient and transcendental knowledge of the state of Schrodinger’s cat corresponds to the case when the observer’s consciousness is included in the system. Here it is possible to speak about the latent parameters of the sub quantum world of which Einstein was convinced. Knowledge of the unusual state of Schrodinger’s cat, simultaneously alive and dead, corresponds to a case of the open micro world. The usual knowledge of the state of Schrodinger’s cat (alive or dead corresponds to a case of the open macrocosm. Each world separately divides the objective and illusory.

  3. Human contact imagined during the production process increases food naturalness perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouab, Nathalie; Gomez, Pierrick

    2015-08-01

    It is well established that food processing and naturalness are not good friends, but is food processing always detrimental to naturalness? Building on the contagion principle, this research examines how production mode (handmade vs. machine-made) influences naturalness perceptions. In a pilot study (n = 69) and an experiment (n = 133), we found that compared with both a baseline condition and a condition in which the mode of production process was portrayed as machine-made, a handmade production mode increases naturalness ratings of a grape juice. A mediation analysis demonstrates that these effects result from higher perceived human contact suggesting that the production process may preserve food naturalness when humanized.

  4. The human factor: behavioral and neural correlates of humanized perception in moral decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Majdandžić

    Full Text Available The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states ("humanization" seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim's perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional conflict during decision making. Using fMRI, we assessed neural activity underlying moral decisions that affected fictitious persons that had or had not been experimentally humanized. In implicit priming trials, participants either engaged in mentalizing about these persons (Humanized condition or not (Neutral condition. In subsequent moral dilemmas, participants had to decide about sacrificing these persons' lives in order to save the lives of numerous others. Humanized persons were sacrificed less often, and the activation pattern during decisions about them indicated increased negative affect, emotional conflict, vicarious emotions, and behavioral control (pgACC/mOFC, anterior insula/IFG, aMCC and precuneus/PCC. Besides, we found enhanced effective connectivity between aMCC and anterior insula, which suggests increased emotion regulation during decisions affecting humanized victims. These findings highlight the importance of others' perceived humanness for prosocial behavior - with aversive affect and other-related concern when imagining harming more "human-like" persons acting against purely utilitarian decisions.

  5. Face recognition across non-uniform motion blur, illumination, and pose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punnappurath, Abhijith; Rajagopalan, Ambasamudram Narayanan; Taheri, Sima; Chellappa, Rama; Seetharaman, Guna

    2015-07-01

    Existing methods for performing face recognition in the presence of blur are based on the convolution model and cannot handle non-uniform blurring situations that frequently arise from tilts and rotations in hand-held cameras. In this paper, we propose a methodology for face recognition in the presence of space-varying motion blur comprising of arbitrarily-shaped kernels. We model the blurred face as a convex combination of geometrically transformed instances of the focused gallery face, and show that the set of all images obtained by non-uniformly blurring a given image forms a convex set. We first propose a non-uniform blur-robust algorithm by making use of the assumption of a sparse camera trajectory in the camera motion space to build an energy function with l1 -norm constraint on the camera motion. The framework is then extended to handle illumination variations by exploiting the fact that the set of all images obtained from a face image by non-uniform blurring and changing the illumination forms a bi-convex set. Finally, we propose an elegant extension to also account for variations in pose.

  6. UAV IMAGE BLUR – ITS INFLUENCE AND WAYS TO CORRECT IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sieberth

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs have become an interesting and active research topic in photogrammetry. Current research is based on image sequences acquired by UAVs which have a high ground resolution and good spectral resolution due to low flight altitudes combined with a high-resolution camera. One of the main problems preventing full automation of data processing of UAV imagery is the unknown degradation effect of blur caused by camera movement during image acquisition. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the influence of blur on photogrammetric image processing, the correction of blur and finally, the use of corrected images for coordinate measurements. It was found that blur influences image processing significantly and even prevents automatic photogrammetric analysis, hence the desire to exclude blurred images from the sequence using a novel filtering technique. If necessary, essential blurred images can be restored using information of overlapping images of the sequence or a blur kernel with the developed edge shifting technique. The corrected images can be then used for target identification, measurements and automated photogrammetric processing.

  7. Rural Dwellers’ Perception of Human Trafficking and its Implication for Agricultural Production in Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofuoku, A. U.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to ascertain the perception of rural dwellers on human trafficking in relation to its effect on agricultural production in the three Senatorial Districts of Edo State, Nigeria. A sample size of 120 household heads was used for the study. Structured questionnaire and interview schedule were used to collect data for the study. The data were analyzed using frequency counts, means and percentage while Chi-Square statistical model and Tobit regression analytical model were used to test the hypotheses. It was discovered that the household members were trafficked as a result of push and pull factors. The trafficked members of household were actively involved in farming practices before being trafficked. There is significant relationship between human trafficking and agriculture production. Shortage of farm labor, decreased farm size, reduced farm income, reduced farm output, extra expenditure on hired labor and storage of food supply by the community were perceived as effect of human trafficking on agriculture. Age of the household head and the household size had significant effect on the number of household member trafficked. Human trafficking has an adverse effect on agricultural production. Extension department should therefore integrate anti-human trafficking campaigns with their services to the farming population.

  8. Human tactile perception as a standard for artificial tactile sensing--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargahi, J; Najarian, S

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, we examine the most important features of human skin tactile properties with special emphasis on the characteristics which are vital in the design of artificial systems. Contrary to the visual and auditory senses, the touch signal is not a well-defined quantity. As a result, the researchers of this field are still dealing with the basics of collecting the most relevant data. Following this, mimicking the sense of touch by producing artificial tactile skin is a challenging process. Although the sense of touch is widely distributed all over the human body, the tactile perception in the human hand is of great importance in terms of surgical and medical robotics applications. In this study, the role of various mechanoreceptors in the human hand, such as, RA, SA I, SA II, and PC units are discussed in relation to the stimuli like force, position, softness, and surface texture. Taking human hand as a suitable tactile model, the necessary engineering features of an artificial tactile sensor, such as, spatial and temporal resolutions, force sensitivity, and linearity, are being reviewed. In this work, we also report on the current and possible future applications of tactile sensors in various surgical procedures.

  9. Evaluating methods for controlling depth perception in stereoscopic cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Geng; Holliman, Nick

    2009-02-01

    Existing stereoscopic imaging algorithms can create static stereoscopic images with perceived depth control function to ensure a compelling 3D viewing experience without visual discomfort. However, current algorithms do not normally support standard Cinematic Storytelling techniques. These techniques, such as object movement, camera motion, and zooming, can result in dynamic scene depth change within and between a series of frames (shots) in stereoscopic cinematography. In this study, we empirically evaluate the following three types of stereoscopic imaging approaches that aim to address this problem. (1) Real-Eye Configuration: set camera separation equal to the nominal human eye interpupillary distance. The perceived depth on the display is identical to the scene depth without any distortion. (2) Mapping Algorithm: map the scene depth to a predefined range on the display to avoid excessive perceived depth. A new method that dynamically adjusts the depth mapping from scene space to display space is presented in addition to an existing fixed depth mapping method. (3) Depth of Field Simulation: apply Depth of Field (DOF) blur effect to stereoscopic images. Only objects that are inside the DOF are viewed in full sharpness. Objects that are far away from the focus plane are blurred. We performed a human-based trial using the ITU-R BT.500-11 Recommendation to compare the depth quality of stereoscopic video sequences generated by the above-mentioned imaging methods. Our results indicate that viewers' practical 3D viewing volumes are different for individual stereoscopic displays and viewers can cope with much larger perceived depth range in viewing stereoscopic cinematography in comparison to static stereoscopic images. Our new dynamic depth mapping method does have an advantage over the fixed depth mapping method in controlling stereo depth perception. The DOF blur effect does not provide the expected improvement for perceived depth quality control in 3D cinematography

  10. Human Perception, SBS Sympsoms and Performance of Office Work during Exposure to Air Polluted by Building Materials and Personal Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bako-Biro, Zsolt

    The present thesis deals with the impact of polluted air from building materials and personal computers on human perception, Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms and performance of office work. These effects have been studies in a series of experiments that are described in two different chapter......, each of them with one type of pollution source.......The present thesis deals with the impact of polluted air from building materials and personal computers on human perception, Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms and performance of office work. These effects have been studies in a series of experiments that are described in two different chapters...

  11. Consequences of a human TRPA1 genetic variant on the perception of nociceptive and olfactory stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schütz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: TRPA1 ion channels are involved in nociception and are also excited by pungent odorous substances. Based on reported associations of TRPA1 genetics with increased sensitivity to thermal pain stimuli, we therefore hypothesized that this association also exists for increased olfactory sensitivity. METHODS: Olfactory function and nociception was compared between carriers (n = 38 and non-carriers (n = 43 of TRPA1 variant rs11988795 G>A, a variant known to enhance cold pain perception. Olfactory function was quantified by assessing the odor threshold, odor discrimination and odor identification, and by applying 200-ms pulses of H2S intranasal. Nociception was assessed by measuring pain thresholds to experimental nociceptive stimuli (blunt pressure, electrical stimuli, cold and heat stimuli, and 200-ms intranasal pulses of CO2. RESULTS: Among the 11 subjects with moderate hyposmia, carriers of the minor A allele (n = 2 were underrepresented (34 carriers among the 70 normosmic subjects; p = 0.049. Moreover, carriers of the A allele discriminated odors significantly better than non-carriers (13.1±1.5 versus 12.3±1.6 correct discriminations and indicated a higher intensity of the H2S stimuli (29.2±13.2 versus 21±12.8 mm VAS, p = 0.006, which, however, could not be excluded to have involved a trigeminal component during stimulation. Finally, the increased sensitivity to thermal pain could be reproduced. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are in line with a previous association of a human TRPA1 variant with nociceptive parameters and extend the association to the perception of odorants. However, this addresses mainly those stimulants that involve a trigeminal component whereas a pure olfactory effect may remain disputable. Nevertheless, findings suggest that future TRPA1 modulating drugs may modify the perception of odorants.

  12. The effect of induced monocular blur on measures of stereoacuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, Naomi V; Hatt, Sarah R; Leske, David A; Adams, Wendy E; Holmes, Jonathan M

    2009-04-01

    To determine the effect of induced monocular blur on stereoacuity measured with real depth and random dot tests. Monocular visual acuity deficits (range, 20/15 to 20/1600) were induced with 7 different Bangerter filters (depth tests and Preschool Randot (PSR) and Distance Randot (DR) random dot tests. Stereoacuity results were grouped as either "fine" (60 and 200 arcsec to nil) stereo. Across visual acuity deficits, stereoacuity was more severely degraded with random dot (PSR, DR) than with real depth (Frisby, FD2) tests. Degradation to worse-than-fine stereoacuity consistently occurred at 0.7 logMAR (20/100) or worse for Frisby, 0.1 logMAR (20/25) or worse for PSR, and 0.1 logMAR (20/25) or worse for FD2. There was no meaningful threshold for the DR because worse-than-fine stereoacuity was associated with -0.1 logMAR (20/15). Course/nil stereoacuity was consistently associated with 1.2 logMAR (20/320) or worse for Frisby, 0.8 logMAR (20/125) or worse for PSR, 1.1 logMAR (20/250) or worse for FD2, and 0.5 logMAR (20/63) or worse for DR. Stereoacuity thresholds are more easily degraded by reduced monocular visual acuity with the use of random dot tests (PSR and DR) than real depth tests (Frisby and FD2). We have defined levels of monocular visual acuity degradation associated with fine and nil stereoacuity. These findings have important implications for testing stereoacuity in clinical populations.

  13. Revisiting the importance of common body motion in human action perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Steven M; Lu, Hongjing

    2016-01-01

    Human actions are complex dynamic stimuli comprised of two principle motion components: 1) common body motion, which represents the translation of the body when a person moves through space, and 2) relative limb movements, resulting from articulation of limbs after factoring out common body motion. Historically, most research in biological motion has focused primarily on relative limb movements while discounting the role of common body motion in human action perception. The current study examined the relative contribution of posture change resulting from relative limb movements and translation of body position resulting from common body motion in discriminating human walking versus running actions. We found that faster translation speeds of common body motion evoked significantly more responses consistent with running when discriminating ambiguous actions morphed between walking and running. Furthermore, this influence was systematically modulated by the uncertainty associated with intrinsic cues as determined by the degree of limited-lifetime spatial sampling. The contribution of common body motion increased monotonically as the reliability of inferring posture changes on the basis of intrinsic cues decreased. These results highlight the importance of translational body movements and their interaction with posture change as a result of relative limb movements in discriminating human actions when visual input information is sparse and noisy.

  14. Human Resources Practitioners’ Perceptions Of Their Role And Responsibility In Managing HIV/Aids In Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. DE W. van Wyk

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The central question to be examined revolved around an analysis of the perceptions of Human Resources Practitioners regarding their role and responsibility in the management of HIV/AIDS in industry. A convenience sample of HR Practitioners was used in a cross-sectional design. A questionnaire measuring the constructs of managing HIV/AIDS in industry, as well as a biographical questionnaire was administered. The questionnaire proved to be reliable. A Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0,82 and 0,71 was obtained. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Results indicated that HR Practitioners experienced and perceived significant differences with regard to the implementation of their companies’ policy formation and -implementation, training needs of managers and employees, mentoring/ coaching -approaches and other AIDS-related issues in terms of their perceptions regarding the management of HIV/AIDS. The findings revealed a gap of knowledge on managing HIV/AIDS existing among HR Practitioners at all levels. While some HR Practitioners had a detailed knowledge of the disease and its prevention, others were ignorant about it, but agreed that the management of HIV/AIDS can be seen as an integral part of their daily role and responsibility in industry. Recommendations were proposed for future research, policy making and practice in the area of HIV/AIDS and the management thereof.

  15. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Assess Social Work Students' Perceptions, Knowledge, and Attitudes about Human Trafficking Questionnaire (PKA-HTQ): An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsonwu, Maura Busch; Welch-Brewer, Chiquitia; Heffron, Laurie Cook; Lemke, Melinda A.; Busch-Armendariz, Noel; Sulley, Caitlin; Cook, Sharon Warren; Lewis, Mary; Watson, Elizabeth; Moore, Wayne; Li, Jilan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a tool designed to assess social work students' knowledge of and perceptions and attitudes toward human trafficking. To achieve this aim, the Perceptions, Knowledge, and Attitudes toward Human Trafficking Questionnaire (PKA-HTQ) was developed and its psychometric…

  16. D(max) for stereoscopic depth perception with simulated monovision correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Adeseye, Samuel A; Stevenson, Scott B; Patel, Saumil S; Bedell, Harold E

    2012-01-01

    Persons who wear monovision correction typically receive a clear image in one eye and a blurred image in the other eye. Although monovision is known to elevate the minimum stereoscopic threshold (Dmin), it is uncertain how it influences the largest binocular disparity for which the direction of depth can reliably be perceived (Dmax). In this study, we compared Dmax for stereo when one eye's image is blurred to Dmax when both eyes' images are either clear or blurred. The stimulus was a pair of vertically oriented, random-line patterns. To simulate monovision correction with +1.5 or +2.5 D defocus, the images of the line patterns presented to one eye were spatially low-pass filtered while the patterns presented to the other eye remained unfiltered. Compared to binocular viewing without blur, Dmin is elevated substantially more in the presence of monocular than binocular simulated blur. Dmax is reduced in the presence of simulated monocular blur by between 13 and 44%, compared to when the images in both eyes are clear. In contrast, when the targets presented to both eyes are blurred equally, Dmax either is unchanged or increases slightly, compared to the values measured with no blur. In conjunction with the elevation of Dmin, the reduction of Dmax with monocular blur indicates that the range of useful stereoscopic depth perception is likely to be compressed in patients who wear monovision corrections.

  17. Connecting Language with Perception and Action for Human-robot Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Pin-gui; YANG Yi-ping

    2006-01-01

    To build robots that engage in intuitive communication with people by natural language, we are developing a new knowledge representation called conceptual network model.The conceptual network connects natural language concepts with visual perception including color perception, shape perception, size perception, and spatial perception. In the implementation of spatial perception, we present a computational model based on spatial template theory to interpret qualitative spatial expressions. Based on the conceptual network model, our mobile robot can understand user's instructions and recognize the object referred to by the user and perform appropriate action. Experimental results show our approach promising.

  18. Households' perception of climate change and human health risks: A community perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque Md Aminul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh has been identified as one of the most vulnerable countries in the world concerning the adverse effects of climate change (CC. However, little is known about the perception of CC from the community, which is important for developing adaptation strategies. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey of respondents from two villages--one from the northern part and the other from the southern part of Bangladesh. A total of 450 households were selected randomly through multistage sampling completed a semi-structure questionnaire. This was supplemented with 12 focus group discussions (FGDs and 15 key informant interviews (KIIs. Results Over 95 percent of the respondents reported that the heat during the summers had increased and 80.2 percent reported that rainfall had decreased, compared to their previous experiences. Approximately 65 percent reported that winters were warmer than in previous years but they still experienced very erratic and severe cold during the winter for about 5-7 days, which restricted their activities with very destructive effect on agricultural production, everyday life and the health of people. FGDs and KIIs also reported that overall winters were warmer. Eighty point two percent, 72.5 percent and 54.7 percent survey respondents perceived that the frequency of water, heat and cold related diseases/health problems, respectively, had increased compared to five to ten years ago. FGDs and KIIs respondents were also reported the same. Conclusions Respondents had clear perceptions about changes in heat, cold and rainfall that had occurred over the last five to ten years. Local perceptions of climate variability (CV included increased heat, overall warmer winters, reduced rainfall and fewer floods. The effects of CV were mostly negative in terms of means of living, human health, agriculture and overall livelihoods. Most local perceptions on CV are consistent with the evidence regarding the

  19. EEG Theta and Mu Oscillations during Perception of Human and Robot Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu A. Urgen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Perception of others’ actions supports important social skills, such as communication, intention understanding, and empathy. Are mechanisms of action processing in human brain specifically tuned to process biological agents? Humanoid robots can perform recognizable actions, but can look and move differently from humans so they can be used as stimuli to address such questions. Here, we recorded EEG during the observation of human and robot actions. Sensorimotor mu (8-13 Hz rhythm has been linked to the motor simulation aspect of action processing (and to human mirror neuron system, MNS and frontal theta (4-8 Hz rhythm to semantic and memory-related aspects. We explored whether these measures exhibit selectivity for biological entities: for whether the motion and/or the visual appearance of the observed agent is biological. Participants watched videos of three agents performing the same actions. The first was a Human, and had biological motion and appearance. The other two were a state-of-the-art robot in two different appearances: Android, which had biological appearance but mechanical motion, and Robot, which had mechanical motion and appearance. Observation of all agents induced significant attenuation in the power of mu oscillations that was equivalent for all agents. Thus, mu suppression, considered an index of the activity of the MNS, did not appear to be selective for biological agents. Observation of the Robot resulted in greater frontal theta activity compared to the Android and the Human, whereas the latter two did not differ from each other. Frontal theta activity thus appears to be sensitive to visual appearance, suggesting artificial agents that are not sufficiently biological in appearance may result in greater memory processing demands for the observer. Studies combining robotics and neuroscience thus can allow us to explore functional properties of action processing on the one hand, and help inform the design of social robots on

  20. Thermal blurring of event-by-event fluctuations provoked by rapidity conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Ohnishi, Yutaro; Asakawa, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    We study the effect of thermal blurring caused by the use of (momentum-space) rapidity as a proxy of coordinate-space rapidity in experimental measurements of conserved charge fluctuations in relativistic heavy ion collisions. In theoretical studies assuming statistical mechanics, calculated fluctuations are those in a spatial volume. Experiments, on the other hand, can measure fluctuations only in a momentum-space in the final state. In a standard argument to compare experimental results for a momentum space with theoretical studies for a coordinate space, rapidities of particles are implicitly regarded as equivalent to their coordinate-space rapidity. We show that the relation of two fluctuations is significantly altered by the existence of the thermal motion, i.e. thermal blurring. We discuss that the thermal blurring can be regarded as a part of the diffusion process, and the effect can be understood by studying the rapidity window dependences of fluctuations. Centrality dependence of the thermal blurring...

  1. Human perception of air movement. Impact of frequency and airflow direction on draught sensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genhong Zhou

    1999-08-01

    Draught is defined as an unwanted local cooling of the human body caused by air movement. Air velocity and temperature are the main characteristics of air movement in rooms. Characteristics of instantaneous air velocity and temperature records previously measured in ventilated indoor spaces were analyzed. Air velocity and temperature fluctuated randomly. The amplitude and frequency of the fluctuations changed over time. Air movements around the human body were measured with a three-dimensional laser Doppler amemometer. A new parameter, equivalent frequency, was defined as an integral single parameter for describing the frequency characteristics of air velocity. The equivalent frequency of a randomly fluctuating velocity is defined as the frequency of sinusoidal velocity fluctuations with the same ratio of the standard deviation of acceleration to the standard deviation of air velocity as in the random velocity fluctuations. The equivalent frequencies of numerous instantaneous air-velocity records measured in ventilated space were analysed. The equivalent frequency of an airflow in an indoor space was found to be 0.1 to 2 Hz. The equivalent frequencies of most of the airflows were between 0.2 and 0.6 Hz. The relation between equivalent frequency and mean air velocity and standard deviation was established. Experiments were performed to identify the impact of the equivalent frequency on the human perception of draught. Forty subjects (20 women and 20 men) were subjected to airflows from behind with mean air velocities of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/s, with equivalent frequencies from 0 to 1 Hz at an air temperature of 20 deg. C. In this human-subject experimental study the frequency was found to have a significant impact on draught sensation. Subjects were more sensitive to airflow at an equivalent frequency between 0.2 and 0.6 Hz. A mathematical model for the simulation of draught was established and a computer program was developed for simulating the draught. The program

  2. Using analogy to learn about phenomena at scales outside human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Ilyse; Davatzes, Alexandra; Newcombe, Nora S; Shipley, Thomas F

    2017-01-01

    Understanding and reasoning about phenomena at scales outside human perception (for example, geologic time) is critical across science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Thus, devising strong methods to support acquisition of reasoning at such scales is an important goal in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education. In two experiments, we examine the use of analogical principles in learning about geologic time. Across both experiments we find that using a spatial analogy (for example, a time line) to make multiple alignments, and keeping all unrelated components of the analogy held constant (for example, keep the time line the same length), leads to better understanding of the magnitude of geologic time. Effective approaches also include hierarchically and progressively aligning scale information (Experiment 1) and active prediction in making alignments paired with immediate feedback (Experiments 1 and 2).

  3. Parenthetical Windows: A Project on How Artificial Light and Sound Architecture Affect Human Perception on Norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemi, Esther; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    and darkness (activity and rest) are being measured. With the use of gesture recognition devices (e.g. Myo), visual and audio parameters are triggered in order for a chart of a “movement choreography”/ vocabulary to be analysed. The first draft of the research evaluates whether the user can distinguish...... (where artificial is in fashion) what we mostly attempt to value and evaluate within this research and installation is the enantiomorpous pattern of natural to artificial, aiming from the initial stage/ level to organize and manifest what the body perceives as real, and where it measures fatigue......Parenthetical Window is a project that engages scientific research in human perception providing a platform for users to experience their own limits and needs in their individual circadian rhythm. The presentation focuses on a case study in a community of dancers where the individual needs in light...

  4. Effects of exposure to noise and indoor air pollution on human perception and symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witterseh, Thomas; Wargocki, Pawel; Fang, Lei

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate human perception and SBS symptoms when people are exposed simultaneously to different levels of air pollution and ventilation noise. The air quality in an office was modified by placing or removing a carpet and the background noise level...... was modified by playing a recording of ventilation noise. Thirty female subjects, six at a time, occupied the office for 4.4 hours. The subjects assessed the air quality, the noise, and the indoor environment upon entering the office and on six occasions during occupation. Furthermore, SBS symptoms...... of the occupants were recorded throughout the exposure period. During occupation, the subjects performed simulated office work. The results show that elevated air pollution and noise in an office can interact and negatively affect office workers by increasing the prevalence of SBS symptoms. A moderate increase...

  5. The "Human Colour" Crayon: Investigating the Attitudes and Perceptions of Learners regarding Race and Skin Colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeske Alexander

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Some coloured and black learners in South Africa use a light orange or pink crayon to represent themselves in art. Many learners name this colour “human colour” or “skin colour”. This is troublesome, because it could reflect exclusionary ways of representing race in images and language. This case study, conducted with two schools in the Western Cape, investigated Grade 3 learners’ attitudes and perceptions regarding race and skin colour through art processes and discussion. The aim was to promote critical engagement with race in Foundation Phase educational contexts. Suggestions include changing the language used to describe skin colour, just recognition and representation of races in educational resources and the promotion of critical citizenship education. This research indicates the need to create practical curriculum guidelines to discuss race issues in the South African classroom.

  6. Extending human perception of electromagnetic radiation to the UV region through biologically inspired photochromic fuzzy logic (BIPFUL) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Pier Luigi; Rightler, Amanda L; Heron, B Mark; Gabbutt, Christopher D

    2016-01-25

    Photochromic fuzzy logic systems have been designed that extend human visual perception into the UV region. The systems are founded on a detailed knowledge of the activation wavelengths and quantum yields of a series of thermally reversible photochromic compounds. By appropriate matching of the photochromic behaviour unique colour signatures are generated in response differing UV activation frequencies.

  7. Interteaching within a Human Physiology Course: A Comparison of First- and Second-Year Students' Learning Skills and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Bruce; Guy, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This article describes student perceptions and outcomes in relation to the use of a novel interteaching approach. The study sample (n = 260) was taken from a large human physiology class, which included both first- and second-year students. However, unlike the first-year students, the second-year students had significant prior knowledge, having…

  8. Interteaching within a Human Physiology Course: A Comparison of First- and Second-Year Students' Learning Skills and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Bruce; Guy, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This article describes student perceptions and outcomes in relation to the use of a novel interteaching approach. The study sample (n = 260) was taken from a large human physiology class, which included both first- and second-year students. However, unlike the first-year students, the second-year students had significant prior knowledge, having…

  9. Hyperspectral Imagery Super-Resolution by Adaptive POCS and Blur Metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaoxing; Zhang, Shuyu; Zhang, Aiwu; Chai, Shatuo

    2017-01-01

    The spatial resolution of a hyperspectral image is often coarse as the limitations on the imaging hardware. A novel super-resolution reconstruction algorithm for hyperspectral imagery (HSI) via adaptive projection onto convex sets and image blur metric (APOCS-BM) is proposed in this paper to solve these problems. Firstly, a no-reference image blur metric assessment method based on Gabor wavelet transform is utilized to obtain the blur metric of the low-resolution (LR) image. Then, the bound used in the APOCS is automatically calculated via LR image blur metric. Finally, the high-resolution (HR) image is reconstructed by the APOCS method. With the contribution of APOCS and image blur metric, the fixed bound problem in POCS is solved, and the image blur information is utilized during the reconstruction of HR image, which effectively enhances the spatial-spectral information and improves the reconstruction accuracy. The experimental results for the PaviaU, PaviaC and Jinyin Tan datasets indicate that the proposed method not only enhances the spatial resolution, but also preserves HSI spectral information well. PMID:28054947

  10. A Dynamic Feature-Based Method for Hybrid Blurred/Multiple Object Detection in Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsun-Kuo Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based inspection has been applied for quality control and product sorting in manufacturing processes. Blurred or multiple objects are common causes of poor performance in conventional vision-based inspection systems. Detecting hybrid blurred/multiple objects has long been a challenge in manufacturing. For example, single-feature-based algorithms might fail to exactly extract features when concurrently detecting hybrid blurred/multiple objects. Therefore, to resolve this problem, this study proposes a novel vision-based inspection algorithm that entails selecting a dynamic feature-based method on the basis of a multiclassifier of support vector machines (SVMs for inspecting hybrid blurred/multiple object images. The proposed algorithm dynamically selects suitable inspection schemes for classifying the hybrid images. The inspection schemes include discrete wavelet transform, spherical wavelet transform, moment invariants, and edge-feature-descriptor-based classification methods. The classification methods for single and multiple objects are adaptive region growing- (ARG- based and local adaptive region growing- (LARG- based learning approaches, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can dynamically select suitable inspection schemes by applying a selection algorithm, which uses SVMs for classifying hybrid blurred/multiple object samples. Moreover, the method applies suitable feature-based schemes on the basis of the classification results for employing the ARG/LARG-based method to inspect the hybrid objects. The method improves conventional methods for inspecting hybrid blurred/multiple objects and achieves high recognition rates for that in manufacturing processes.

  11. The effects of diffusion blur on Snellen and grating acuity and foveal function in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S H; Kim, S K; Lee, J B; Lee, M S

    1998-08-01

    In order to verify that the effects of diffusion blur on Snellen and grating acuity in amblyopic eyes resemble those obtained from the peripheral or central retina in normal controls, we conducted the following experiment using a liquid crystal window (Edmund Scientific Co.) to produce diffusion blur on Snellen and grating acuity. Spatial frequencies used for a Snellen chart and Teller acuity card were 3.2, 6.5, 13.0, 26.0 cyc/cm at a working distance of 55 cm. The values of diffusive blur on central and peripheral visual acuity obtained from 20 normal healthy control eyes were compared with those values of central visual acuity in 26 amblyopic eyes. The diffusion blur had a strong negative effect on both Snellen and grating acuity in amblyopic eyes, but it had more potent effects on grating acuity (p 0.05). Snellen acuity obtained from diffusion blur overestimated grating acuity in the normal central acuity group and amblyopic central acuity group. The result of this investigation demonstrated that the liquid crystal diffusion blur had a strong negative effect on both Snellen and grating acuity and suggested that the visual function of an amblyopic retina resembled that of a normal central retina.

  12. A Stochastic Approach for Blurred Image Restoration and Optical Flow Computation on Field Image Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文; 陈熙霖

    1997-01-01

    The blur in target images caused by camera vibration due to robot motion or hand shaking and by object(s) moving in the background scene is different to deal with in the computer vision system.In this paper,the authors study the relation model between motion and blur in the case of object motion existing in video image sequence,and work on a practical computation algorithm for both motion analysis and blut image restoration.Combining the general optical flow and stochastic process,the paper presents and approach by which the motion velocity can be calculated from blurred images.On the other hand,the blurred image can also be restored using the obtained motion information.For solving a problem with small motion limitation on the general optical flow computation,a multiresolution optical flow algoritm based on MAP estimation is proposed. For restoring the blurred image ,an iteration algorithm and the obtained motion velocity are used.The experiment shows that the proposed approach for both motion velocity computation and blurred image restoration works well.

  13. EEG theta and Mu oscillations during perception of human and robot actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgen, Burcu A; Plank, Markus; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Poizner, Howard; Saygin, Ayse P

    2013-01-01

    The perception of others' actions supports important skills such as communication, intention understanding, and empathy. Are mechanisms of action processing in the human brain specifically tuned to process biological agents? Humanoid robots can perform recognizable actions, but can look and move differently from humans, and as such, can be used in experiments to address such questions. Here, we recorded EEG as participants viewed actions performed by three agents. In the Human condition, the agent had biological appearance and motion. The other two conditions featured a state-of-the-art robot in two different appearances: Android, which had biological appearance but mechanical motion, and Robot, which had mechanical appearance and motion. We explored whether sensorimotor mu (8-13 Hz) and frontal theta (4-8 Hz) activity exhibited selectivity for biological entities, in particular for whether the visual appearance and/or the motion of the observed agent was biological. Sensorimotor mu suppression has been linked to the motor simulation aspect of action processing (and the human mirror neuron system, MNS), and frontal theta to semantic and memory-related aspects. For all three agents, action observation induced significant attenuation in the power of mu oscillations, with no difference between agents. Thus, mu suppression, considered an index of MNS activity, does not appear to be selective for biological agents. Observation of the Robot resulted in greater frontal theta activity compared to the Android and the Human, whereas the latter two did not differ from each other. Frontal theta thus appears to be sensitive to visual appearance, suggesting agents that are not sufficiently biological in appearance may result in greater memory processing demands for the observer. Studies combining robotics and neuroscience such as this one can allow us to explore neural basis of action processing on the one hand, and inform the design of social robots on the other.

  14. Racial and Ethnic Group Knowledge, Perceptions and Behaviors about Human Papillomavirus, Human Papillomavirus Vaccination, and Cervical Cancer among Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Sharon M; Cartmell, Kathleen B; Lopez, Cristina M; Ford, Marvella E; Brandt, Heather M; Gore, Elena I; Zapka, Jane G; Alberg, Anthony J

    2016-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provide an opportunity to greatly reduce the burden of cervical cancer. Although there has been improvement in uptake, there are notable ethnic/racial disparities. This qualitative study was conducted to better understand factors related to vaccine uptake among female adolescents from 3 racial/ethnic groups: African American (AA), Hispanic, and Caucasian. Findings can inform the development of optimal messages and strategies for clinical and population-based interventions. This mixed-methods descriptive study included completion of a brief structured survey and focus group discussion. Six focus groups were conducted with female adolescents, 2 each in the AA, Hispanic, and Caucasian groups. Brief structured survey questions and the focus group protocol addressed knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors related to HPV, HPV vaccination, and cervical cancer. Participants were 60 female adolescents (ages 13-19, mean age = 16.6 years) recruited from high schools, public health clinics, and churches. Themes across questions were remarkably similar among AA, Hispanic, and Caucasian participants. Each group had high awareness of the terms HPV, HPV vaccination, and cervical cancer, but with little in-depth knowledge about these topics. There was a high acceptance of HPV vaccination. Misperceptions about optimal cervical cancer prevention strategies such as simply knowing one's partner and good hygiene were most common among Hispanic adolescents. Awareness about Pap testing was most common among Caucasian adolescents. Predominantly uniform perceptions of HPV vaccines across racial/ethnic groups suggest a "one size fits all" approach will likely have greater reach with cervical cancer prevention messaging than culturally tailored interventions. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Organelles in Blastocystis that blur the distinction between mitochondria and hydrogenosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stechmann, Alexandra; Hamblin, Karleigh; Pérez-Brocal, Vicente; Gaston, Daniel; Richmond, Gregory S; van der Giezen, Mark; Clark, C Graham; Roger, Andrew J

    2008-04-22

    Blastocystis is a unicellular stramenopile of controversial pathogenicity in humans. Although it is a strict anaerobe, Blastocystis has mitochondrion-like organelles with cristae, a transmembrane potential and DNA. An apparent lack of several typical mitochondrial pathways has led some to suggest that these organelles might be hydrogenosomes, anaerobic organelles related to mitochondria. We generated 12,767 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Blastocystis and identified 115 clusters that encode putative mitochondrial and hydrogenosomal proteins. Among these is the canonical hydrogenosomal protein iron-only [FeFe] hydrogenase that we show localizes to the organelles. The organelles also have mitochondrial characteristics, including pathways for amino acid metabolism, iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, and an incomplete tricarboxylic acid cycle as well as a mitochondrial genome. Although complexes I and II of the electron transport chain (ETC) are present, we found no evidence for complexes III and IV or F1Fo ATPases. The Blastocystis organelles have metabolic properties of aerobic and anaerobic mitochondria and of hydrogenosomes. They are convergently similar to organelles recently described in the unrelated ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis. These findings blur the boundaries between mitochondria, hydrogenosomes, and mitosomes, as currently defined, underscoring the disparate selective forces that shape these organelles in eukaryotes.

  16. 感知媒体--机器感知与人机交互%Perceptive Media: Machine Perception and Human Computer Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Computer hardware has always changed rapidly, but input/output devices, interaction techniques, and software for human-computer interaction have not experienced similar growth and improvement. The GUI-based style of interaction has made computers simpler and easier to use, especially for office productivity applications where computers are used as tools to accomplish specific tasks. However, as the way we use computers changes and computing becomes more pervasive and ubiquitous, largely due to advances in bandwidth and mobility, GUIs will not easily support the range of interactions necessary to meet users' needs. In order to accommodate a wider range of scenarios, tasks, users, and preferences, we need to move toward interfaces that are natural, intuitive, adaptive, and unobtrusive. "Perceptive media" is an interdisciplinary initiative to combine multimedia display and machine perception to create useful, adaptive, responsive interfaces between people and technology. This article describes and investigates aspects of perceptive media and gives examples of work in one particular sub-area, Vision Based Interfaces.

  17. How the unique configuration of the human head may enhance flavor perception capabilities: an evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Lieberman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since flavor derives from the synthesis of taste, somatosensation and smell, one of the most important factors in the ability to perceive flavor is retronasal olfaction in which volatile compounds pass from the oral cavity through the pharynx to the olfactory epithelium. Retronasal olfaction has been documented in both humans and rodents, but appears less effective in rodents than orthonasal olfaction because expired air does not come into as much contact with the sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium as inspired air [1,2]. Detailed comparisons of retronasal airflow patterns among different species have not been conducted, but several lines of evidence lead to the hypothesis that retronasal airflow may be specially enhanced in humans because of four derived features of the human head and neck that evolved at different stages because of selection for functions other than olfaction [3]. If so, then human flavor perception capabilities may be more derived than is commonly appreciated, and perhaps played a role in selecting for the evolution of cooking. The first derived adaptation that aids human retronasal olfaction is the absence of the transverse lamina, a horizontal shelf of bone that partitions the olfactory chamber of the nasal fossa from the more inferior respiratory passage. This lamina, which is present in most mammals, was lost during the evolution of monkeys (haplorhines from more primitive primates (strepsirhines as part of a reorganization of the nasal cavity. The function of the transverse lamina has not been tested but it probably aids orthonasal olfaction by trapping inspired air in the olfactory region. Loss of the transverse lamina is commonly interpreted to be one of several trade-offs in primate evolution that favored vision over olfaction [4], but it likely benefits retronasal olfaction by permitting a direct pathway for expired air to flow towards the olfactory epithelium. A second derived adaptation present in humans is

  18. Perception and Processing of Faces in the Human Brain Is Tuned to Typical Feature Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, D. Samuel; Alvarez, Ivan; Lawson, Rebecca P.; Henriksson, Linda; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Faces are salient social stimuli whose features attract a stereotypical pattern of fixations. The implications of this gaze behavior for perception and brain activity are largely unknown. Here, we characterize and quantify a retinotopic bias implied by typical gaze behavior toward faces, which leads to eyes and mouth appearing most often in the upper and lower visual field, respectively. We found that the adult human visual system is tuned to these contingencies. In two recognition experiments, recognition performance for isolated face parts was better when they were presented at typical, rather than reversed, visual field locations. The recognition cost of reversed locations was equal to ∼60% of that for whole face inversion in the same sample. Similarly, an fMRI experiment showed that patterns of activity evoked by eye and mouth stimuli in the right inferior occipital gyrus could be separated with significantly higher accuracy when these features were presented at typical, rather than reversed, visual field locations. Our findings demonstrate that human face perception is determined not only by the local position of features within a face context, but by whether features appear at the typical retinotopic location given normal gaze behavior. Such location sensitivity may reflect fine-tuning of category-specific visual processing to retinal input statistics. Our findings further suggest that retinotopic heterogeneity might play a role for face inversion effects and for the understanding of conditions affecting gaze behavior toward faces, such as autism spectrum disorders and congenital prosopagnosia. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Faces attract our attention and trigger stereotypical patterns of visual fixations, concentrating on inner features, like eyes and mouth. Here we show that the visual system represents face features better when they are shown at retinal positions where they typically fall during natural vision. When facial features were shown at typical (rather

  19. Our Faces in the Dog's Brain: Functional Imaging Reveals Temporal Cortex Activation during Perception of Human Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuaya, Laura V; Hernández-Pérez, Raúl; Concha, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Dogs have a rich social relationship with humans. One fundamental aspect of it is how dogs pay close attention to human faces in order to guide their behavior, for example, by recognizing their owner and his/her emotional state using visual cues. It is well known that humans have specific brain regions for the processing of other human faces, yet it is unclear how dogs' brains process human faces. For this reason, our study focuses on describing the brain correlates of perception of human faces in dogs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We trained seven domestic dogs to remain awake, still and unrestrained inside an MRI scanner. We used a visual stimulation paradigm with block design to compare activity elicited by human faces against everyday objects. Brain activity related to the perception of faces changed significantly in several brain regions, but mainly in the bilateral temporal cortex. The opposite contrast (i.e., everyday objects against human faces) showed no significant brain activity change. The temporal cortex is part of the ventral visual pathway, and our results are consistent with reports in other species like primates and sheep, that suggest a high degree of evolutionary conservation of this pathway for face processing. This study introduces the temporal cortex as candidate to process human faces, a pillar of social cognition in dogs.

  20. Assessing human-dog conflicts in Todos Santos, Guatemala: bite incidences and public perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunney, Meg; Jones, Andria; Stiles, Enid; Waltner-Toews, David

    2011-12-15

    The issues surrounding dog bites are a major public health concern, particularly in areas of low income where accessibility to adequate health care, veterinary medicine and sufficient management of canine population control is low. An understanding of the risk factors associated with human-dog conflicts may be important when establishing dog bite and disease prevention strategies. In May 2008, a census of 12 consociated neighbourhoods in Todos Santos, Guatemala was conducted to investigate dog bite incidences and the public perception of free-roaming dog populations. Approximately 16.5% (78/472) of households reported at least one dog bite between May 2006 and May 2008. In total, 85 incidents occurred: 49.4% (42/85) with adults (≥18 years) and 50.6% (43/85) children (dog bites by victim gender or among age categories, there was a non-significant trend of higher cumulative incidence of dog bites in children aged six to 17 years compared to other age categories. The anatomical location of the bite varied, but bites to the legs were the most common (73/85; 85.9%). Of the 85 reported dog bites, 5.9% (5/85) were from dogs from the victims' own households, 48.2% (41/85) were from a neighbour's dog, 9.4% (8/85) were from dogs regularly seen in the community, and 15.3% (13/85) were from dogs not regularly seen in the community; the ownership status of the latter two categories of dogs could not be determined. Approximately 21% (18/85) of respondents did not know the type of dog that bit. Residents were asked for their opinions on potential problems associated with dogs in the community. The majority of respondents strongly agreed that dogs posed physical risks (78.8%; 372/472), could transmit infections to people (88.6%; 418/472), scared the family (82.4%; 389/472) and were too high in number (82.6%; 390/472). There were significant but weak correlations between owning a dog and expressing negative perceptions of community dogs (Spearman rhodog bite was not significantly

  1. Involvement of the calcium-sensing receptor in human taste perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsu, Takeaki; Amino, Yusuke; Nagasaki, Hiroaki; Yamanaka, Tomohiko; Takeshita, Sen; Hatanaka, Toshihiro; Maruyama, Yutaka; Miyamura, Naohiro; Eto, Yuzuru

    2010-01-08

    By human sensory analyses, we found that various extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) agonists enhance sweet, salty, and umami tastes, although they have no taste themselves. These characteristics are known as "kokumi taste" and often appear in traditional Japanese cuisine. Although GSH is a typical kokumi taste substance (taste enhancer), its mode of action is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate how the kokumi taste is enhanced by the CaSR, a close relative of the class C G-protein-coupled receptors T1R1, T1R2, and T1R3 (sweet and umami receptors). We identified a large number of CaSR agonist gamma-glutamyl peptides, including GSH (gamma-Glu-Cys-Gly) and gamma-Glu-Val-Gly, and showed that these peptides elicit the kokumi taste. Further analyses revealed that some known CaSR agonists such as Ca(2+), protamine, polylysine, L-histidine, and cinacalcet (a calcium-mimetic drug) also elicit the kokumi taste and that the CaSR-specific antagonist, NPS-2143, significantly suppresses the kokumi taste. This is the first report indicating a distinct function of the CaSR in human taste perception.

  2. Human Perception of Physical Experiments and the Simplex Interpretation of Quantum Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaeva E. A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is argued that knowledge dividing the usual, unusual, transient and transcendental depends on human perception of the world (macro or micro and depends too on the inclusion of human consciousness in the system. For the analysis of this problem the idea of “Schrödinger’s cat” is employed. Transient and transcendental knowledge of the state of Schrödinger’s cat corresponds to the case when the observer’s consciousness is included in the system. Here it is possible to speak about the latent parameters of the sub quantum world of which Einstein was convinced. Knowledge of the unusual state of Schrödinger’s cat, simultaneously alive and dead, corresponds to a case of the open micro world. The usual knowledge of the state of Schrödinger’s cat (alive or dead corresponds to a case of the open macrocosm. Each world separately divides the objective and illusory.

  3. The First Appearance of Symmetry in the Human Lineage: Where Perception Meets Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Hodgson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although symmetry may be important for understanding the selection of form in art over the historical period, this preference may have originally stemmed from certain basic perceptual mechanism that initially arose during prehistory. The first signs of an awareness to symmetry can be found in the archaeological record with the arrival of Acheulean handaxes, especially those dating from 500,000 years ago onwards, which are typified by a prodigious bilateral symmetry. As handaxes represent the earliest material record of an interest in symmetry by the human lineage, they provide a privileged means of understanding why this kind of form came to be valued by later human groups, particularly in relation to “art”. Although still controversial, the preference for symmetry at such an early date has been linked to various aspects of perception relating to enduring evolutionary factors. In this regard, it will be demonstrated how the preference for symmetrical Acheulean tools arose out of long standing perceptual correlates relating to ecological factors that predated the arrival of hominins.

  4. Perceptions and Experiences of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Testing among Low-Income Mexican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Maldonado, Leith; Wentzell, Emily; Brown, Brandon; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Torres-Ibarra, Leticia; Salmerón, Jorge; Billings, Deborah L; Thrasher, James F; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    HPV infection causes cervical cancer, a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among low-income Mexican women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing is now a primary screening strategy in Mexico's early cervical cancer detection program (ECDP). Research on Mexican women's perceptions of HPV and testing is necessary for establishing culturally appropriate protocols and educational materials. Here, we explore perceptions about HPV and HPV-related risk factors among low-income Mexican ECDP participants. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 ECDP participants from two primary care health clinics in Michoacán state, Mexico. Interviews addressed women's understandings of and experiences with HPV and HPV testing. Analysis was inductive and guided by the Health Belief Model with a focus on gender. Women's confusion about HPV and HPV screening caused emotional distress. They understood HPV to be a serious disease that would always cause severe symptoms, often characterizing it as analogous to HIV or inevitably carcinogenic. Women also attributed it to men's sexual behaviors, specifically infidelity and poor hygiene. Women described both sexes' desire for sex as natural but understood men's negative practices of masculinity, like infidelity, as the causes of women's HPV infection. Some women believed dirty public bathrooms or heredity could also cause HPV transmission. These results are consistent with prior findings that geographically and economically diverse populations lack clear understandings of the nature, causes, or symptoms of HPV, even among those receiving HPV testing. Our findings also reveal that local cultural discourse relating to masculinity, along with failure to provide sufficient education to low-income and indigenous-language speaking patients, exacerbate women's negative emotions surrounding HPV testing. While negative emotions did not deter women from seeking testing, they could be ameliorated with better health education and

  5. Perceptions and Experiences of Human Papillomavirus (HPV Infection and Testing among Low-Income Mexican Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leith León-Maldonado

    Full Text Available HPV infection causes cervical cancer, a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among low-income Mexican women. Human papillomavirus (HPV DNA testing is now a primary screening strategy in Mexico's early cervical cancer detection program (ECDP. Research on Mexican women's perceptions of HPV and testing is necessary for establishing culturally appropriate protocols and educational materials. Here, we explore perceptions about HPV and HPV-related risk factors among low-income Mexican ECDP participants.We conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 ECDP participants from two primary care health clinics in Michoacán state, Mexico. Interviews addressed women's understandings of and experiences with HPV and HPV testing. Analysis was inductive and guided by the Health Belief Model with a focus on gender.Women's confusion about HPV and HPV screening caused emotional distress. They understood HPV to be a serious disease that would always cause severe symptoms, often characterizing it as analogous to HIV or inevitably carcinogenic. Women also attributed it to men's sexual behaviors, specifically infidelity and poor hygiene. Women described both sexes' desire for sex as natural but understood men's negative practices of masculinity, like infidelity, as the causes of women's HPV infection. Some women believed dirty public bathrooms or heredity could also cause HPV transmission.These results are consistent with prior findings that geographically and economically diverse populations lack clear understandings of the nature, causes, or symptoms of HPV, even among those receiving HPV testing. Our findings also reveal that local cultural discourse relating to masculinity, along with failure to provide sufficient education to low-income and indigenous-language speaking patients, exacerbate women's negative emotions surrounding HPV testing. While negative emotions did not deter women from seeking testing, they could be ameliorated with better health

  6. No-reference multiscale blur detection tool for content based image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Stocker, Russell; Harrity, Kyle; Alford, Mark; Ferris, David; Blasch, Erik; Gorniak, Mark

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, digital cameras have been widely used for image capturing. These devices are equipped in cell phones, laptops, tablets, webcams, etc. Image quality is an important component of digital image analysis. To assess image quality for these mobile products, a standard image is required as a reference image. In this case, Root Mean Square Error and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio can be used to measure the quality of the images. However, these methods are not possible if there is no reference image. In our approach, a discrete-wavelet transformation is applied to the blurred image, which decomposes into the approximate image and three detail sub-images, namely horizontal, vertical, and diagonal images. We then focus on noise-measuring the detail images and blur-measuring the approximate image to assess the image quality. We then compute noise mean and noise ratio from the detail images, and blur mean and blur ratio from the approximate image. The Multi-scale Blur Detection (MBD) metric provides both an assessment of the noise and blur content. These values are weighted based on a linear regression against full-reference y values. From these statistics, we can compare to normal useful image statistics for image quality without needing a reference image. We then test the validity of our obtained weights by R2 analysis as well as using them to estimate image quality of an image with a known quality measure. The result shows that our method provides acceptable results for images containing low to mid noise levels and blur content.

  7. Sleep deprivation influences diurnal variation of human time perception with prefrontal activity change: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Soshi

    Full Text Available Human short-time perception shows diurnal variation. In general, short-time perception fluctuates in parallel with circadian clock parameters, while diurnal variation seems to be modulated by sleep deprivation per se. Functional imaging studies have reported that short-time perception recruits a neural network that includes subcortical structures, as well as cortical areas involving the prefrontal cortex (PFC. It has also been reported that the PFC is vulnerable to sleep deprivation, which has an influence on various cognitive functions. The present study is aimed at elucidating the influence of PFC vulnerability to sleep deprivation on short-time perception, using the optical imaging technique of functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Eighteen participants performed 10-s time production tasks before (at 21:00 and after (at 09:00 experimental nights both in sleep-controlled and sleep-deprived conditions in a 4-day laboratory-based crossover study. Compared to the sleep-controlled condition, one-night sleep deprivation induced a significant reduction in the produced time simultaneous with an increased hemodynamic response in the left PFC at 09:00. These results suggest that activation of the left PFC, which possibly reflects functional compensation under a sleep-deprived condition, is associated with alteration of short-time perception.

  8. Blur, eye movements and performance on a driving visual recognition slide test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Samantha Sze-Yee; Wood, Joanne M; Black, Alexander A

    2015-09-01

    Optical blur and ageing are known to affect driving performance but their effects on drivers' eye movements are poorly understood. This study examined the effects of optical blur and age on eye movement patterns and performance on the DriveSafe slide recognition test which is purported to predict fitness to drive. Twenty young (27.1 ± 4.6 years) and 20 older (73.3 ± 5.7 years) visually normal drivers performed the DriveSafe under two visual conditions: best-corrected vision and with +2.00 DS blur. The DriveSafe is a Visual Recognition Slide Test that consists of brief presentations of static, real-world driving scenes containing different road users (pedestrians, bicycles and vehicles). Participants reported the types, relative positions and direction of travel of the road users in each image; the score was the number of correctly reported items (maximum score of 128). Eye movements were recorded while participants performed the DriveSafe test using a Tobii TX300 eye tracking system. There was a significant main effect of blur on DriveSafe scores (best-corrected: 114.9 vs blur: 93.2; p < 0.001). There was also a significant age and blur interaction on the DriveSafe scores (p < 0.001) such that the young drivers were more negatively affected by blur than the older drivers (reductions of 22% and 13% respectively; p < 0.001): with best-corrected vision, the young drivers performed better than the older drivers (DriveSafe scores: 118.4 vs 111.5; p = 0.001), while with blur, the young drivers performed worse than the older drivers (88.6 vs 95.9; p = 0.009). For the eye movement patterns, blur significantly reduced the number of fixations on road users (best-corrected: 5.1 vs blur: 4.5; p < 0.001), fixation duration on road users (2.0 s vs 1.8 s; p < 0.001) and saccade amplitudes (7.4° vs 6.7°; p < 0.001). A main effect of age on eye movements was also found where older drivers made smaller saccades than the young drivers (6.7° vs 7.4°; p < 0.001). Blur reduced

  9. Quantifying how the combination of blur and disparity affects the perceived depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junle; Barkowsky, Marcus; Ricordel, Vincent; Le Callet, Patrick

    2011-03-01

    The influence of a monocular depth cue, blur, on the apparent depth of stereoscopic scenes will be studied in this paper. When 3D images are shown on a planar stereoscopic display, binocular disparity becomes a pre-eminent depth cue. But it induces simultaneously the conflict between accommodation and vergence, which is often considered as a main reason for visual discomfort. If we limit this visual discomfort by decreasing the disparity, the apparent depth also decreases. We propose to decrease the (binocular) disparity of 3D presentations, and to reinforce (monocular) cues to compensate the loss of perceived depth and keep an unaltered apparent depth. We conducted a subjective experiment using a twoalternative forced choice task. Observers were required to identify the larger perceived depth in a pair of 3D images with/without blur. By fitting the result to a psychometric function, we obtained points of subjective equality in terms of disparity. We found that when blur is added to the background of the image, the viewer can perceive larger depth comparing to the images without any blur in the background. The increase of perceived depth can be considered as a function of the relative distance between the foreground and background, while it is insensitive to the distance between the viewer and the depth plane at which the blur is added.

  10. Correction of spatially varying image and video motion blur using a hybrid camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Wing; Du, Hao; Brown, Michael S; Lin, Stephen

    2010-06-01

    We describe a novel approach to reduce spatially varying motion blur in video and images using a hybrid camera system. A hybrid camera is a standard video camera that is coupled with an auxiliary low-resolution camera sharing the same optical path but capturing at a significantly higher frame rate. The auxiliary video is temporally sharper but at a lower resolution, while the lower frame-rate video has higher spatial resolution but is susceptible to motion blur. Our deblurring approach uses the data from these two video streams to reduce spatially varying motion blur in the high-resolution camera with a technique that combines both deconvolution and super-resolution. Our algorithm also incorporates a refinement of the spatially varying blur kernels to further improve results. Our approach can reduce motion blur from the high-resolution video as well as estimate new high-resolution frames at a higher frame rate. Experimental results on a variety of inputs demonstrate notable improvement over current state-of-the-art methods in image/video deblurring.

  11. School Nurses' Knowledge, Attitudes, Perceptions of Role as Opinion Leader, and Professional Practice Regarding Human Papillomavirus Vaccine for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brittany L.; Goodson, Patricia; Thompson, Bruce; Wilson, Kelly L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine rates remain low, we evaluated US school nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of their role as opinion leaders, and professional practice regarding HPV vaccine, and assessed whether knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of being an opinion leader influenced their professional…

  12. Biomimetic MEMS to assist, enhance, and expand human sensory perceptions: a survey on state-of-the-art developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarczuk, Teresa; Matin, Tina R.; Karman, Salmah B.; Diah, S. Zaleha M.; Davaji, Benyamin; Macqueen, Mark O.; Mueller, Jeanette; Schmid, Ulrich; Gebeshuber, Ille C.

    2011-06-01

    The human senses are of extraordinary value but we cannot change them even if this proves to be a disadvantage in modern times. However, we can assist, enhance and expand these senses via MEMS. Current MEMS cover the range of the human sensory system, and additionally provide data about signals that are too weak for the human sensory system (in terms of signal strength) and signal types that are not covered by the human sensory system. Biomimetics deals with knowledge transfer from biology to technology. In our interdisciplinary approach existing MEMS sensor designs shall be modified and adapted (to keep costs at bay), via biomimetic knowledge transfer of outstanding sensory perception in 'best practice' organisms (e.g. thermoreception, UV sensing, electromagnetic sense). The MEMS shall then be linked to the human body (mainly ex corpore to avoid ethics conflicts), to assist, enhance and expand human sensory perception. This paper gives an overview of senses in humans and animals, respective MEMS sensors that are already on the market and gives a list of possible applications of such devices including sensors that vibrate when a blind person approaches a kerb stone edge and devices that allow divers better orientation under water (echolocation, ultrasound).

  13. Getting the point across: exploring the effects of dynamic virtual humans in an interactive museum exhibit on user perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Gutierrez, Diego; Ferdig, Rick; Li, Jian; Lok, Benjamin

    2014-04-01

    We have created “You, M.D.”, an interactive museum exhibit in which users learn about topics in public health literacy while interacting with virtual humans. You, M.D. is equipped with a weight sensor, a height sensor and a Microsoft Kinect that gather basic user information. Conceptually, You, M.D. could use this user information to dynamically select the appearance of the virtual humans in the interaction attempting to improve learning outcomes and user perception for each particular user. For this concept to be possible, a better understanding of how different elements of the visual appearance of a virtual human affects user perceptions is required. In this paper, we present the results of an initial user study with a large sample size (n =333) ran using You, M.D. The study measured users’ reactions based on the user’s gender and body-mass index (BMI) when facing virtual humans with BMI either concordant or discordant from the user’s BMI. The results of the study indicate that concordance between the users’ BMI and the virtual human’s BMI affects male and female users differently. The results also show that female users rate virtual humans as more knowledgeable than male users rate the same virtual humans.

  14. Dental and Medical Students' Use and Perceptions of Learning Resources in a Human Physiology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, Monica; Schwartzstein, Richard; Friedland, Bernard; Park, Sang E

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the use and perceived utility of various learning resources available during the first-year Integrated Human Physiology course at the dental and medical schools at Harvard University. Dental and medical students of the Class of 2018 were surveyed anonymously online in 2015 regarding their use of 29 learning resources in this combined course. The learning resources had been grouped into four categories to discern frequency of use and perceived usefulness among the categories. The survey was distributed to 169 students, and 73 responded for a response rate of 43.2%. There was no significant difference among the learning resource categories in frequency of use; however, there was a statistically significant difference among categories in students' perceptions of usefulness. No correlation was found between frequency of use and perceived usefulness of each category. Students seemingly were not choosing the most useful resources for them. These results suggest that, in the current educational environment, where new technologies and self-directed learning are highly sought after, there remains a need for instructor-guided learning.

  15. A Very Liquid Heaven: An exhibit exploring the human perception of stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, M. M.

    2004-12-01

    This year the Tang Teaching Museum and Art Gallery at Skidmore College is showing an exhibit about the human perception of stars, accompanied by a catalog, a speaker series, and an outreach program. The exhibit includes historical documents and atlases as well as work by a variety of artists and scientists. A Very Liquid Heaven opened with a performance of George Crumb's musical piece Makrokosmos III surrounded by original dance, theater, and video art. The title of the exhibit is inspired by Rene Descartes' 1644 text Principles of Philosophy, where he describes the earth as "surrounded on all sides by a very liquid heaven." Although Isaac Newton's laws of mechanics and gravity later discredited his specific hypothesis, in a sense Descartes was correct: astronomy has indeed revealed stars not as hard, fixed objects, but as pulsing plasmas, and interstellar space not as a pure void, but as diffuse clouds of atoms and molecules. This exhibit is made possible with support from Beverly P. and R. Lawrence St. Clair, the Nathalie Potter Voorhees '45 Memorial fund, and the Friends of the Tang.

  16. Perceptions of Nigerian Women about Human Papilloma Virus, Cervical Cancer, and HPV Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanbi, Olusola Anuoluwapo; Iyanda, Abiodun; Osundare, Folakemi; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) though preventable has claimed the lives of many women worldwide. This study was embarked upon to evaluate the general knowledge and perceptions of Nigerian women on HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine. Methods. Structured questionnaires were administered to a cross section of 737 women randomly selected from the general population in two southwestern States of Nigeria. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 16. A P value >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. One hundred and seventy-six (23.9%) of the respondents had knowledge of HPV; 474 (64.3%) are aware of cervical cancer but only 136 (18.5%) know that HPV causes cervical cancer. 200 (27.1%) are aware that there is an HPV vaccine while 300 (40.7%) had knowledge of Pap smear test. Two hundred and sixty (35.3%) of the respondents know that early detection of HPV can prevent cervical cancer and in spite of this, only 110 (14.9%) have taken the Pap smear test before while 151 (20.5%) are not willing to go for the test at all. Conclusions. There is therefore the need to create proper awareness on the HPV and its possible consequence of cervical carcinoma.

  17. Categorical vowel perception enhances the effectiveness and generalization of auditory feedback in human-machine-interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Larson

    Full Text Available Human-machine interface (HMI designs offer the possibility of improving quality of life for patient populations as well as augmenting normal user function. Despite pragmatic benefits, utilizing auditory feedback for HMI control remains underutilized, in part due to observed limitations in effectiveness. The goal of this study was to determine the extent to which categorical speech perception could be used to improve an auditory HMI. Using surface electromyography, 24 healthy speakers of American English participated in 4 sessions to learn to control an HMI using auditory feedback (provided via vowel synthesis. Participants trained on 3 targets in sessions 1-3 and were tested on 3 novel targets in session 4. An "established categories with text cues" group of eight participants were trained and tested on auditory targets corresponding to standard American English vowels using auditory and text target cues. An "established categories without text cues" group of eight participants were trained and tested on the same targets using only auditory cuing of target vowel identity. A "new categories" group of eight participants were trained and tested on targets that corresponded to vowel-like sounds not part of American English. Analyses of user performance revealed significant effects of session and group (established categories groups and the new categories group, and a trend for an interaction between session and group. Results suggest that auditory feedback can be effectively used for HMI operation when paired with established categorical (native vowel targets with an unambiguous cue.

  18. Perceptions of Nigerian Women about Human Papilloma Virus, Cervical Cancer, and HPV Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Anuoluwapo Akanbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV though preventable has claimed the lives of many women worldwide. This study was embarked upon to evaluate the general knowledge and perceptions of Nigerian women on HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine. Methods. Structured questionnaires were administered to a cross section of 737 women randomly selected from the general population in two southwestern States of Nigeria. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 16. A P value >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. One hundred and seventy-six (23.9% of the respondents had knowledge of HPV; 474 (64.3% are aware of cervical cancer but only 136 (18.5% know that HPV causes cervical cancer. 200 (27.1% are aware that there is an HPV vaccine while 300 (40.7% had knowledge of Pap smear test. Two hundred and sixty (35.3% of the respondents know that early detection of HPV can prevent cervical cancer and in spite of this, only 110 (14.9% have taken the Pap smear test before while 151 (20.5% are not willing to go for the test at all. Conclusions. There is therefore the need to create proper awareness on the HPV and its possible consequence of cervical carcinoma.

  19. Promoting women's human rights: A qualitative analysis of midwives' perceptions about virginity control and hymen 'reconstruction'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Monica; Eriksson, Carola

    2015-06-01

    To explore midwives' perceptions regarding virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions', and how these practices can be debated from a gender perspective. An international group of 266 midwives answered an open-ended question in a Web survey. The great majority came from the Western world, among them, the majority were from Europe. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Three themes emerged: misogynistic practices that cement the gender order, which revealed how the respondents viewed virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions'; raising public awareness and combatting practices that demean women, which were suggested as strategies by which to combat these practices; and promoting agency in women and providing culturally sensitive care, which were considered to improve health care encounters. Virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions' are elements of patriarchy, whereby violence and control are employed to subordinate women. To counter these practices, macro and micro-level activities are needed to expand women's human rights in the private and the public spheres. Political activism, international debates, collaboration between sectors such as health care and law-makers may lead to increased gender equality. A women-centred approach whereby women are empowered with agency will make women more capable of combatting virginity control and hymen 'reconstruction'.

  20. Reduction of image blurring in an autostereoscopic multilayer liquid crystal display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoda, Hironobu

    2011-03-01

    A multilayer liquid crystal display (LCD) is a display device constructed by stacking multiple liquid crystal layers on top of a light source. As shown in a previous study, a multilayer LCD can deliver varying images depending on the viewers'eye positions, and can be used for auto-stereoscopic 3D viewing. However, undesirable blurring is sometimes observed in the images that a viewer receives from the display. Such blurring is notable especially around objects in the scene that are far away from the viewer. To address this problem, we propose to put a convex lens in front of the layers of liquid crystal. The lens refracts the beams of light, thus bringing the effects of moving the objects to nearer positions. Through a simulation-based study, we show that an optimal choice exists for the focal length of the lens, which reduces the local image blurring while not compromising the overall image quality.

  1. Photographic simulation of off-axis blurring due to chromatic aberration in spectacle lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroslovački, Pavle; Guyton, David L

    2015-02-01

    Spectacle lens materials of high refractive index (nd) tend to have high chromatic dispersion (low Abbé number [V]), which may contribute to visual blurring with oblique viewing. A patient who noted off-axis blurring with new high-refractive-index spectacle lenses prompted us to do a photographic simulation of the off-axis aberrations in 3 readily available spectacle lens materials, CR-39 (nd = 1.50), polyurethane (nd = 1.60), and polycarbonate (nd = 1.59). Both chromatic and monochromatic aberrations were found to cause off-axis image degradation. Chromatic aberration was more prominent in the higher-index materials (especially polycarbonate), whereas the lower-index CR-39 had more astigmatism of oblique incidence. It is important to consider off-axis aberrations when a patient complains of otherwise unexplained blurred vision with a new pair of spectacle lenses, especially given the increasing promotion of high-refractive-index materials with high chromatic dispersion.

  2. Blurring Boundaries: From the Danish Welfare State to the European Social Model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    aspects, and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level......Abstract: This paper builds on the results obtained in the so-called Blurring Boundaries project which was undertaken at the Law Department, Copenhagen Business School, in the period from 2007 to 2009. It looks at the sustainability of the Danish welfare state in an EU law context...... and on the integration of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services, 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law...

  3. A Model of the Perception of Facial Expressions of Emotion by Humans: Research Overview and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Aleix; Du, Shichuan

    2012-05-01

    aid in studies of human perception, social interactions and disorders.

  4. A model observer based on human perception to quantify the detectability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharian, Georges; Guyader, Nathalie; Vignolle, Jean-Michel; Jutten, Christian

    2014-03-01

    In medical imaging, model observers such as the "Hotelling observer" and the "Non Prewhitening Matched Filter" have been proposed to detect objects in X-ray images. These models, based on decision theory, are applied over the entire image. In this paper, we developed a model that mimics some processes of human visual perception. The proposed model is locally applied on some particular areas that correspond to the salient areas of the object. By doing this, the model mimics the sequence of eye fixations that we make when we explore an image for example in order to detect an object. The study is divided into three parts: a psychophysical experiment to obtain human's performance to detect various objects in noises, a theoretical part to develop the proposed model, and finally, a result part. During the experiment, several participants were asked to detect objects in noisy images using a free search task. The luminance contrast of objects was adaptively adjusted according to their responses to obtain a percentage of correct detection for each object of 50 %. The proposed model, based on decision theory, was applied locally on some areas of the image that has a size corresponding to the high visual acuity of foveal vision. Areas were chosen according to their high saliency values computed through a bio-inspired model of visual attention. For each area, our model returned a detectability index. By supposing statistical independence between areas, the local indexes are combined into a global detectability index. Results show that the proposed model fits the results of the psychophysical experiment and outperforms classical models of the literature.

  5. The impact of human perception of simultaneous exposure to thermal load, low-frequency ventilation noise and indoor air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, Ole; Witterseh, Thomas; Clausen, Geo

    1999-01-01

    Human perception of simultaneous exposure to combinations of three different levels of operative temperature, low-frequency ventilation noise and indoor air pollution (27 combinations) was studied in climate chambers. The operative temperatures studied were: 26.0 deg.C, 27.6 deg.C and 29.6 deg.......C, and the sound pressure levels were: 45 dB(A), 48 dB(A) and 51 dB(A). The air pollution corresponding to these three levels of perceived air quality (at 26 deg.C) was: 1.1 decipol (dp), 2.4 dp and 4.5 dp. A 1 deg.C change in operative temperature had the same impact on the human perception of the overall...... conditions as a change of 3.8 dB(A) in sound pressure level or a change of 7 dp in air pollution (at 26 deg.C). The percentage of dissatisfied with the perceived air quality increased with increasing temperature. An elevated temperature had a dominant impact on the human perception of the indoor environment...

  6. The impact of human perception of simultaneous exposure to thermal load, low-frequency ventilation noise and indoor air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, Ole; Witterseh, Thomas; Clausen, Geo

    1999-01-01

    Human perception of simultaneous exposure to combinations of three different levels of operative temperature, low-frequency ventilation noise and indoor air pollution (27 combinations) was studied in climate chambers. The operative temperatures studied were: 26.0 deg.C, 27.6 deg.C and 29.6 deg.......C, and the sound pressure levels were: 45 dB(A), 48 dB(A) and 51 dB(A). The air pollution corresponding to these three levels of perceived air quality (at 26 deg.C) was: 1.1 decipol (dp), 2.4 dp and 4.5 dp. A 1 deg.C change in operative temperature had the same impact on the human perception of the overall...... conditions as a change of 3.8 dB(A) in sound pressure level or a change of 7 dp in air pollution (at 26 deg.C). The percentage of dissatisfied with the perceived air quality increased with increasing temperature. An elevated temperature had a dominant impact on the human perception of the indoor environment...

  7. Image blur in a flat-panel detector due to Compton scattering at its internal mountings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bub, A.; Gondrom, S.; Maisl, M.; Uhlmann, N.; Arnold, W.

    2007-05-01

    An image-blurring effect observable in digital x-ray flat-panel pixel detectors, used for x-ray computed tomography or radioscopy, has been studied. Our study indicates that the origin of this blurring effect is the Compton scattered radiation within the entrance window, the mounting of the detector scintillator and other parts of the detector. This effect becomes, in particular, noticeable in the presence of a sharp edge of a metallic component being tested, making the scattering in the detector asymmetric.

  8. Farmers' perceptions of the impacts of human- wildlife conflict on their livelihood and natural resource management efforts in Cheha Woreda of Guraghe Zone, Ethiopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dagne Mojo; Jessica Rothschuh; Mehari Alebachew

    2014-01-01

    ... sustainable land management practices among resident agrarian families. In 2011, a household survey was conducted to assess farmers' perceptions of human-wildlife conflicts and the effects of these conflicts on land management in Cheha Woreda...

  9. Tactile orientation perception: an ideal observer analysis of human psychophysical performance in relation to macaque area 3b receptive fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ryan M; Staibano, Phillip; Goldreich, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The ability to resolve the orientation of edges is crucial to daily tactile and sensorimotor function, yet the means by which edge perception occurs is not well understood. Primate cortical area 3b neurons have diverse receptive field (RF) spatial structures that may participate in edge orientation perception. We evaluated five candidate RF models for macaque area 3b neurons, previously recorded while an oriented bar contacted the monkey's fingertip. We used a Bayesian classifier to assign each neuron a best-fit RF structure. We generated predictions for human performance by implementing an ideal observer that optimally decoded stimulus-evoked spike counts in the model neurons. The ideal observer predicted a saturating reduction in bar orientation discrimination threshold with increasing bar length. We tested 24 humans on an automated, precision-controlled bar orientation discrimination task and observed performance consistent with that predicted. We next queried the ideal observer to discover the RF structure and number of cortical neurons that best matched each participant's performance. Human perception was matched with a median of 24 model neurons firing throughout a 1-s period. The 10 lowest-performing participants were fit with RFs lacking inhibitory sidebands, whereas 12 of the 14 higher-performing participants were fit with RFs containing inhibitory sidebands. Participants whose discrimination improved as bar length increased to 10 mm were fit with longer RFs; those who performed well on the 2-mm bar, with narrower RFs. These results suggest plausible RF features and computational strategies underlying tactile spatial perception and may have implications for perceptual learning.

  10. Perception of Fish Sentience, Welfare and Humane Slaughter by Highly Educated Citizens of Bogotá, Colombia and Curitiba, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Discussions on farm animal welfare have become frequent, especially in developed countries. The aim of this research was to study the perception of fish sentience, welfare and slaughter by highly educated citizens from Bogotá, Colombia, and Curitiba, Brazil. An online survey with 12 questions presented as open-ended, multiple choice and 5-point Likert-type scale formats was available to respondents. Answers from 395 participants in Bogotá and 387 in Curitiba were analyzed, and results are presented in the order Bogotá followed by Curitiba. The percentage of participants who perceived fish as sentient animals was 79.7% and 71.8%. The classification of sentience perception among taxonomic groups seems in accordance with the phylogenetic proximity to humans, suggesting participants were more likely to perceive sentience in mammals than in other animals. The descending order related to the highest perception of fish suffering in different scenarios was fishing with hook and line (75.6%, 70.6%); municipal live fish fair (68.7%—only in Curitiba); fish-and-pay ponds (59.7%, 54.4%); fish kept as laboratory animals (58.0, 48.1%); fish farming (35.7, 36.8%); fish in pet stores (35.5%, 26.1%); production of ornamental fish (19.3%, 21.8%); fish in aquarium exhibits (18.8%,16.9%); and fish kept as pets (12.4%,12.3%). Lack of knowledge about the conditions of capture, handling, transport and sale of ornamental fish may justify the perception of low level of suffering in the last scenarios. Regarding humane slaughter, 57.0% and 55.0% of respondents were unaware of the issue. After reflection induced by the questionnaire, 76.0% and 72% of participants believed that fish should be included in humane slaughter regulations. This study presents original data suggesting that respondents from Bogotá and Curitiba consider fish as sentient beings. The perception of suffering in specific scenarios challenges common activities. Recognition of suffering also endorses humane slaughter

  11. Perception of Fish Sentience, Welfare and Humane Slaughter by Highly Educated Citizens of Bogotá, Colombia and Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucinque, Daniel Santiago; Souza, Ana Paula Oliveira; Molento, Carla Forte Maiolino

    2017-01-01

    Discussions on farm animal welfare have become frequent, especially in developed countries. The aim of this research was to study the perception of fish sentience, welfare and slaughter by highly educated citizens from Bogotá, Colombia, and Curitiba, Brazil. An online survey with 12 questions presented as open-ended, multiple choice and 5-point Likert-type scale formats was available to respondents. Answers from 395 participants in Bogotá and 387 in Curitiba were analyzed, and results are presented in the order Bogotá followed by Curitiba. The percentage of participants who perceived fish as sentient animals was 79.7% and 71.8%. The classification of sentience perception among taxonomic groups seems in accordance with the phylogenetic proximity to humans, suggesting participants were more likely to perceive sentience in mammals than in other animals. The descending order related to the highest perception of fish suffering in different scenarios was fishing with hook and line (75.6%, 70.6%); municipal live fish fair (68.7%-only in Curitiba); fish-and-pay ponds (59.7%, 54.4%); fish kept as laboratory animals (58.0, 48.1%); fish farming (35.7, 36.8%); fish in pet stores (35.5%, 26.1%); production of ornamental fish (19.3%, 21.8%); fish in aquarium exhibits (18.8%,16.9%); and fish kept as pets (12.4%,12.3%). Lack of knowledge about the conditions of capture, handling, transport and sale of ornamental fish may justify the perception of low level of suffering in the last scenarios. Regarding humane slaughter, 57.0% and 55.0% of respondents were unaware of the issue. After reflection induced by the questionnaire, 76.0% and 72% of participants believed that fish should be included in humane slaughter regulations. This study presents original data suggesting that respondents from Bogotá and Curitiba consider fish as sentient beings. The perception of suffering in specific scenarios challenges common activities. Recognition of suffering also endorses humane slaughter

  12. Putative sex-specific human pheromones do not affect gender perception, attractiveness ratings or unfaithfulness judgements of opposite sex faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Robin M.; Schlatter, Sophie; Rhodes, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    Debate continues over the existence of human sex pheromones. Two substances, androstadienone (AND) and estratetraenol (EST), were recently reported to signal male and female gender, respectively, potentially qualifying them as human sex pheromones. If AND and EST truly signal gender, then they should affect reproductively relevant behaviours such as mate perception. To test this hypothesis, heterosexual, Caucasian human participants completed two computer-based tasks twice, on two consecutive days, exposed to a control scent on one day and a putative pheromone (AND or EST) on the other. In the first task, 46 participants (24 male, 22 female) indicated the gender (male or female) of five gender-neutral facial morphs. Exposure to AND or EST had no effect on gender perception. In the second task, 94 participants (43 male, 51 female) rated photographs of opposite-sex faces for attractiveness and probable sexual unfaithfulness. Exposure to the putative pheromones had no effect on either attractiveness or unfaithfulness ratings. These results are consistent with those of other experimental studies and reviews that suggest AND and EST are unlikely to be human pheromones. The double-blind nature of the current study lends increased support to this conclusion. If human sex pheromones affect our judgements of gender, attractiveness or unfaithfulness from faces, they are unlikely to be AND or EST.

  13. Human factors research applied: the development of a personal touch screen insulin pump and users' perceptions of actual use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Noel E

    2013-10-01

    A brief history of the field of human factors research is covered, along with how this discipline is leveraged within medical device companies, to eliminate design flaws in products, in order to make them safe and effective for human use. The way in which human factors research was used to develop the t:slim(®) insulin delivery system (Tandem Diabetes Care(®) Inc., San Diego, CA) is also discussed. Following the development of the t:slim pump, a product evaluation study was conducted to assess users' perceptions of the t:slim pump under actual use conditions versus their current pump system. A 30-day, within-subjects study with a total of 74 participants was conducted at four different investigator sites across the United States. Study participants used the t:slim insulin pump in their normal environment for 30 days. Participants were given the Insulin Delivery System Rating Questionnaire during their first visit to assess their current insulin pump and then at the end of the study to measure their perceptions of the t:slim pump. A paired-samples t test was completed to analyze the data. The results indicated that 16 of the questionnaire variables showed statistically significant differences in scores. It was found that the utilization of a systematic human factors process resulted in an insulin pump that was proved to be safe and effective for human use and was cleared by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States. In addition, the results of the product evaluation study showed that, after use of the t:slim pump for 30 days, participants' perceptions of several variables improved.

  14. Human fMRI reveals that delayed action re-recruits visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Anthony; Monaco, Simona; Kaufman, Liam D; Culham, Jody C

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral and neuropsychological research suggests that delayed actions rely on different neural substrates than immediate actions; however, the specific brain areas implicated in the two types of actions remain unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure human brain activation during delayed grasping and reaching. Specifically, we examined activation during visual stimulation and action execution separated by a 18-s delay interval in which subjects had to remember an intended action toward the remembered object. The long delay interval enabled us to unambiguously distinguish visual, memory-related, and action responses. Most strikingly, we observed reactivation of the lateral occipital complex (LOC), a ventral-stream area implicated in visual object recognition, and early visual cortex (EVC) at the time of action. Importantly this reactivation was observed even though participants remained in complete darkness with no visual stimulation at the time of the action. Moreover, within EVC, higher activation was observed for grasping than reaching during both vision and action execution. Areas in the dorsal visual stream were activated during action execution as expected and, for some, also during vision. Several areas, including the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), primary motor cortex (M1) and the supplementary motor area (SMA), showed sustained activation during the delay phase. We propose that during delayed actions, dorsal-stream areas plan and maintain coarse action goals; however, at the time of execution, motor programming requires re-recruitment of detailed visual information about the object through reactivation of (1) ventral-stream areas involved in object perception and (2) early visual areas that contain richly detailed visual representations, particularly for grasping.

  15. Human fMRI reveals that delayed action re-recruits visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Singhal

    Full Text Available Behavioral and neuropsychological research suggests that delayed actions rely on different neural substrates than immediate actions; however, the specific brain areas implicated in the two types of actions remain unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to measure human brain activation during delayed grasping and reaching. Specifically, we examined activation during visual stimulation and action execution separated by a 18-s delay interval in which subjects had to remember an intended action toward the remembered object. The long delay interval enabled us to unambiguously distinguish visual, memory-related, and action responses. Most strikingly, we observed reactivation of the lateral occipital complex (LOC, a ventral-stream area implicated in visual object recognition, and early visual cortex (EVC at the time of action. Importantly this reactivation was observed even though participants remained in complete darkness with no visual stimulation at the time of the action. Moreover, within EVC, higher activation was observed for grasping than reaching during both vision and action execution. Areas in the dorsal visual stream were activated during action execution as expected and, for some, also during vision. Several areas, including the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS, dorsal premotor cortex (PMd, primary motor cortex (M1 and the supplementary motor area (SMA, showed sustained activation during the delay phase. We propose that during delayed actions, dorsal-stream areas plan and maintain coarse action goals; however, at the time of execution, motor programming requires re-recruitment of detailed visual information about the object through reactivation of (1 ventral-stream areas involved in object perception and (2 early visual areas that contain richly detailed visual representations, particularly for grasping.

  16. Different Signal Enhancement Pathways of Attention and Consciousness Underlie Perception in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Jeroen J A

    2017-06-14

    It is not yet known whether attention and consciousness operate through similar or largely different mechanisms. Visual processing mechanisms are routinely characterized by measuring contrast response functions (CRFs). In this report, behavioral CRFs were obtained in humans (both males and females) by measuring afterimage durations over the entire range of inducer stimulus contrasts to reveal visual mechanisms behind attention and consciousness. Deviations relative to the standard CRF, i.e., gain functions, describe the strength of signal enhancement, which were assessed for both changes due to attentional task and conscious perception. It was found that attention displayed a response-gain function, whereas consciousness displayed a contrast-gain function. Through model comparisons, which only included contrast-gain modulations, both contrast-gain and response-gain effects can be explained with a two-level normalization model, in which consciousness affects only the first level and attention affects only the second level. These results demonstrate that attention and consciousness can effectively show different gain functions because they operate through different signal enhancement mechanisms.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The relationship between attention and consciousness is still debated. Mapping contrast response functions (CRFs) has allowed (neuro)scientists to gain important insights into the mechanistic underpinnings of visual processing. Here, the influence of both attention and consciousness on these functions were measured and they displayed a strong dissociation. First, attention lowered CRFs, whereas consciousness raised them. Second, attention manifests itself as a response-gain function, whereas consciousness manifests itself as a contrast-gain function. Extensive model comparisons show that these results are best explained in a two-level normalization model in which consciousness affects only the first level, whereas attention affects only the second level

  17. Human papillomavirus vaccines and cervical cancer: awareness, knowledge, and risk perception among Turkish undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathfisch, Gülay; Güngör, İlkay; Uzun, Ece; Keskin, Özlem; Tencere, Zeliha

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate awareness, knowledge, and risk perception about human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical cancer, and HPV vaccines among undergraduate students in Turkey. The convenience sample of this descriptive cross-sectional study consisted of 605 undergraduate students in Istanbul University during a semester. Demographic characteristics of students, their reproductive health and lifestyle behaviors, and knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine were questioned using self-administered forms. The overall proportion of students who had heard about HPV infection was 48.8%, while the proportion of students who had heard of the HPV vaccine was 44.5%. Forty eight percent of females and 60% of males reported never having heard of the HPV. Only 45.7% of females had knowledge about HPV as a cause of genital warts, and 58.1% correctly indicated that HPV caused cervical cancer. The majority of students in both genders (>80%) knew that the infection is primarily transmitted through sexual intercourse. Females were more concerned than males about having cervical/penile cancer associated with HPV in the future. Only 46.4% of females and 39% of males reported having heard of the HPV vaccine. The majority of the female and male students did not know who should get the HPV vaccine and when to get vaccinated. Among males, 25.8% reported that they would consider getting vaccinated (if available) and 38.4% intended to vaccinate their children. Turkish undergraduate students had a low to moderate level of knowledge regarding HPV infection and HPV vaccine. In order to increase awareness about HPV and develop positive behaviors, young people should be provided with accurate information through educational activities in the community and health care services.

  18. The influence of head and body tilt on human fore-aft translation perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Benjamin T.

    2016-01-01

    The tilt-translation ambiguity occurs because acceleration due to translation cannot be differentiated from gravitational acceleration. Head tilt can occur independent of body tilt which further complicates the problem. The tilt-translation ambiguity is examined for fore-aft (surge) translation with head and/or body orientations that are tilted in pitch 10° forward or backward. Eleven human subjects (6 female), mean age 40 years participated. Conditions included no tilt (NT), head and body tilt (HBT), head only tilt (HOT), and body only tilt (BOT). The fore-aft stimulus consisted of a 2s (0.5 Hz) sine wave in acceleration which a maximum peak velocity of 10 cm/s. After each stimulus the subject reported the direction of motion as forward or backward. Subsequent stimuli were adjusted to determine the point at which subjects were equally likely to report motion in either direction. During the HBT responses were biased such that upward pitch caused a neutral stimulus to be more likely to be perceived as forward and downward pitch caused the stimulus to be more likely to be perceived as backward. The difference in the point of subjective equality based on the direction of tilt was 3.3 cm/s. During the BOT condition the bias with respect to the direction of body tilt was in a similar direction with a difference in PSE 1.6 cm/s. During HOT and NT there was no significant bias on fore-aft perception. These findings demonstrate that body tilt shifts the PSE of fore-aft direction discrimination while head tilt has no influence. PMID:25160866

  19. Effects of psilocybin on time perception and temporal control of behaviour in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Carter, Olivia; Hasler, Felix; Cahn, B Rael; Grimberg, Ulrike; Spring, Philipp; Hell, Daniel; Flohr, Hans; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2007-01-01

    Hallucinogenic psilocybin is known to alter the subjective experience of time. However, there is no study that systematically investigated objective measures of time perception under psilocybin. Therefore, we studied dose-dependent effects of the serotonin (5-HT)2A/1A receptor agonist psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine) on temporal processing, employing tasks of temporal reproduction, sensorimotor synchronization and tapping tempo. To control for cognitive and subjective changes, we assessed spatial working memory and conscious experience. Twelve healthy human volunteers were tested under placebo, medium (115 microg/kg), and high (250 microg/kg) dose conditions, in a double-blind experimental design. Psilocybin was found to significantly impair subjects' ability to (1) reproduce interval durations longer than 2.5 sec, (2) to synchronize to inter-beat intervals longer than 2 sec and (3) caused subjects to be slower in their preferred tapping rate. These objective effects on timing performance were accompanied by working-memory deficits and subjective changes in conscious state, namely increased reports of 'depersonalization' and 'derealization' phenomena including disturbances in subjective 'time sense.' Our study is the first to systematically assess the impact of psilocybin on timing performance on standardized measures of temporal processing. Results indicate that the serotonin system is selectively involved in duration processing of intervals longer than 2 to 3 seconds and in the voluntary control of the speed of movement. We speculate that psilocybin's selective disruption of longer intervals is likely to be a product of interactions with cognitive dimensions of temporal processing -presumably via 5-HT2A receptor stimulation.

  20. A Convex Variational Model for Restoring Blurred Images with Multiplicative Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yiqiu; Tieyong Zeng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a new variational model for restoring blurred images with multiplicative noise is proposed. Based on the statistical property of the noise, a quadratic penalty function technique is utilized in order to obtain a strictly convex model under a mild condition, which guarantees...... to multiplicative noise. A comparison with other methods is provided as well....

  1. Thermal blurring of event-by-event fluctuations generated by rapidity conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Yutaro; Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Asakawa, Masayuki

    2016-10-01

    We study the effect of thermal blurring caused by the use of (momentum-space) rapidity as a proxy of coordinate-space rapidity in experimental measurements of conserved-charge fluctuations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. In theoretical studies assuming statistical mechanics, calculated fluctuations are those in a spatial volume. Experiments, on the other hand, can measure fluctuations only in a momentum space in the final state. In a standard argument to compare experimental results for a momentum space with theoretical studies for a coordinate space, rapidities of particles are implicitly regarded as equivalent to their coordinate-space rapidity. We show that the relation of two fluctuations is significantly altered by the existence of the thermal motion, i.e., thermal blurring. We discuss that the thermal blurring can be regarded as a part of the diffusion process, and the effect can be understood by studying the rapidity window dependences of fluctuations. Centrality dependence of the thermal blurring effect is also discussed.

  2. Positron range in PET imaging: an alternative approach for assessing and correcting the blurring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars; Le Loirec, Cindy; Champion, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    of positron emission is relevant for assessing statistical noise. Aims: The paper aims to determine positron range distribution relevant for blurring for seven medically relevant PET isotopes, 18F, 11C, 13N, 15O, 68Ga, 62Cu, and 82Rb, and derive empirical formulas for the distributions. The paper focuses...

  3. Blurring of emotional and non-emotional memories by taxing working memory during recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, Marcel A.; Eidhof, Marloes B.; Verboom, Jesse; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Memories that are recalled while working memory (WM) is taxed, e.g., by making eye movements (EM), become blurred during the recall + EM and later recall, without EM. This may help to explain the effects of Eye Movement and Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic

  4. Nanotech, blur and tragedy in recent artworks by Gerhard Richter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    2008-01-01

    The author considers Gerhard Richter's work on nanotechnology, highlighting how these pieces continue the artist's ontology on photographic blur and, as such, raise questions about truth and reality with respect to the mass media's visual presentation of nanotechnology. The four works discussed i...... and terrorism, and contrasts Richter's artworks with utopian visions of nano-science in the mass media....

  5. Result Analysis of Blur and Noise on Image Denoising based on PDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenal Jain

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of noise on image is still a challenging problem for researchers. Image Denoising has remained a fundamental problem in the field of image processing. Wavelets give a superior performance in image denoising due to properties such as sparsity and multi resolution structure. Many of the previous research use the basic noise reduction through image blurring. Blurring can be done locally, as in the Gaussian smoothing model or in anisotropic filtering; by calculus of variations; or in the frequency domain, such as Weiner filters. In this paper we proposed an image denoising method using partial differential equation. In our proposed approach we proposed three different approaches first is for blur, second is for noise and finally for blur and noise. These approaches are compared by Average absolute difference, signal to noise ratio (SNR, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR, Image Fidelity and Mean square error. So we can achieve better result on different scenario. We also compare our result on the basis of the above five parameters and the result is better in comparison to the traditional technique.

  6. A Co-Prime Blur Scheme for Data Security in Video Surveillance

    CERN Document Server

    Thorpe, Christopher; Li, Zijia; Yu, Zhan; Saunders, David; Yu, Jingyi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel Coprime Blurred Pair (CBP) model for visual data-hiding for security in camera surveillance. While most previous approaches have focused on completely encrypting the video stream, we introduce a spatial encryption scheme by blurring the image/video contents to create a CBP. Our goal is to obscure detail in public video streams by blurring while allowing behavior to be recognized and to quickly deblur the stream so that details are available if behavior is recognized as suspicious. We create a CBP by blurring the same latent image with two unknown kernels. The two kernels are coprime when mapped to bivariate polynomials in the z domain. To deblur the CBP we first use the coprime constraint to approximate the kernels and sample the bivariate CBP polynomials in one dimension on the unit circle. At each sample point, we factor the 1D polynomial pair and compose the results into a 2D kernel matrix. Finally, we compute the inverse Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the kernel matrices to re...

  7. Shape Reconstruction Based on a New Blurring Model at the Micro/Nanometer Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangjie Wei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Real-time observation of three-dimensional (3D information has great significance in nanotechnology. However, normal nanometer scale observation techniques, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and scanning probe microscopy (SPM, have some problems to obtain 3D information because they lack non-destructive, intuitive, and fast imaging ability under normal conditions, and optical methods have not widely used in micro/nanometer shape reconstruction due to the practical requirements and the imaging limitations in micro/nano manipulation. In this paper, a high resolution shape reconstruction method based on a new optical blurring model is proposed. Firstly, the heat diffusion physics equation is analyzed and the optical diffraction model is modified to directly explain the basic principles of image blurring resulting from depth variation. Secondly, a blurring imaging model is proposed based on curve fitting of a 4th order polynomial curve. The heat diffusion equations combined with the blurring imaging are introduced, and their solution is transformed into a dynamic optimization problem. Finally, the experiments with a standard nanogrid, an atomic force microscopy (AFM cantilever and a microlens have been conducted. The experiments prove that the proposed method can reconstruct 3D shapes at the micro/nanometer scale, and the minimal reconstruction error is 3 nm.

  8. Dark channel prior based blurred image restoration method using total variation and morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yibing Li; Qiang Fu; Fang Ye; Hayaru Shouno

    2015-01-01

    The blurred image restoration method can dramatical y highlight the image details and enhance the global contrast, which is of benefit to improvement of the visual effect during practical ap-plications. This paper is based on the dark channel prior principle and aims at the prior information absent blurred image degradation situation. A lot of improvements have been made to estimate the transmission map of blurred images. Since the dark channel prior principle can effectively restore the blurred image at the cost of a large amount of computation, the total variation (TV) and image morphology transform (specifical y top-hat transform and bottom-hat transform) have been introduced into the improved method. Compared with original transmission map estimation methods, the proposed method features both simplicity and accuracy. The es-timated transmission map together with the element can restore the image. Simulation results show that this method could inhibit the il-posed problem during image restoration, meanwhile it can greatly improve the image quality and definition.

  9. Effects of detector blur and correlated noise on digital breast tomosynthesis reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiabei; Fessler, Jeffrey A.; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2017-03-01

    To improve digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) image quality, we are developing model-based iterative reconstruction methods. We developed the SQS-DBCN algorithm, which incorporated detector blur into the system model and correlation into the noise model under some simplifying assumptions. In this paper, we further improved the regularization in the SQS-DBCN method by incorporating neighbors along the diagonal directions. To further understand the role of the different components in the system model of the SQS-DBCN method, we reconstructed DBT images without modeling either the detector blur or noise correlation for comparison. Visual comparison of the reconstructed images showed that regularizing with diagonal directions reduced artifacts and the noise level. The SQS-DBCN reconstructed images had better image quality than reconstructions without models for detector blur or correlated noise, as indicated by the contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) of MCs and textural artifacts. These results indicated that regularized DBT reconstruction with detector blur and correlated noise modeling, even with simplifying assumptions, can improve DBT image quality compared to that without system modeling.

  10. On the Danger of Blurring Methods, Methodologies and Ideologies in Environmental Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Justin; Wals, Arjen E. J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors caution against blurring methods, methodologies and ideologies in research. They do this by drawing on two earlier articles in "Environmental Education Research" that focused on this issue as well but from quite different vantage points: Hart's (2000) paper in which he problematizes the generating of generic guidelines…

  11. Iterative PSF Estimation and Its Application to Shift Invariant and Variant Blur Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Won Jung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Among image restoration approaches, image deconvolution has been considered a powerful solution. In image deconvolution, a point spread function (PSF, which describes the blur of the image, needs to be determined. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an iterative PSF estimation algorithm which is able to estimate an accurate PSF. In real-world motion-blurred images, a simple parametric model of the PSF fails when a camera moves in an arbitrary direction with an inconsistent speed during an exposure time. Moreover, the PSF normally changes with spatial location. In order to accurately estimate the complex PSF of a real motion blurred image, we iteratively update the PSF by using a directional spreading operator. The directional spreading is applied to the PSF when it reduces the amount of the blur and the restoration artifacts. Then, to generalize the proposed technique to the linear shift variant (LSV model, a piecewise invariant approach is adopted by the proposed image segmentation method. Experimental results show that the proposed method effectively estimates the PSF and restores the degraded images.

  12. Blurring Boundaries: From the Danish Welfare State to the European Social Model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    aspects, and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...... and distributive justice at national level.  ...

  13. Category Selectivity of Human Visual Cortex in Perception of Rubin Face–Vase Illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When viewing the Rubin face–vase illusion, our conscious perception spontaneously alternates between the face and the vase; this illusion has been widely used to explore bistable perception. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have studied the neural mechanisms underlying bistable perception through univariate and multivariate pattern analyses; however, no studies have investigated the issue of category selectivity. Here, we used fMRI to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the Rubin face–vase illusion by introducing univariate amplitude and multivariate pattern analyses. The results from the amplitude analysis suggested that the activity in the fusiform face area was likely related to the subjective face perception. Furthermore, the pattern analysis results showed that the early visual cortex (EVC and the face-selective cortex could discriminate the activity patterns of the face and vase perceptions. However, further analysis of the activity patterns showed that only the face-selective cortex contains the face information. These findings indicated that although the EVC and face-selective cortex activities could discriminate the visual information, only the activity and activity pattern in the face-selective areas contained the category information of face perception in the Rubin face–vase illusion.

  14. Public perceptions of snakes and snakebite management: implications for conservation and human health in southern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Deb Prasad; Subedi Pandey, Gita; Devkota, Kamal; Goode, Matt

    2016-06-02

    Venomous snakebite and its effects are a source of fear for people living in southern Nepal. As a result, people have developed a negative attitude towards snakes, which can lead to human-snake conflicts that result in killing of snakes. Attempting to kill snakes increases the risk of snakebite, and actual killing of snakes contributes to loss of biodiversity. Currently, snake populations in southern Nepal are thought to be declining, but more research is needed to evaluate the conservation status of snakes. Therefore, we assessed attitudes, knowledge, and awareness of snakes and snakebite by Chitwan National Park's (CNP) buffer zone (BZ) inhabitants in an effort to better understand challenges to snake conservation and snakebite management. The results of this study have the potential to promote biodiversity conservation and increase human health in southern Nepal and beyond. We carried out face-to-face interviews of 150 randomly selected CNP BZ inhabitants, adopting a cross-sectional mixed research design and structured and semi-structured questionnaires from January-February 2013. Results indicated that 43 % of respondents disliked snakes, 49 % would exterminate all venomous snakes, and 86 % feared snakes. Farmers were the most negative and teachers were the most ambivalent towards snakes. Respondents were generally unable to identify different snake species, and were almost completely unaware of the need of conserve snakes and how to prevent snakebites. Belief in a snake god, and the ability of snakes to absorb poisonous gases from the atmosphere were among many superstitions that appeared to predispose negativity towards snakes of BZ residents. People with predisposed negativity towards snakes were not proponents of snake conservation. Fear, negativity, ambivalence towards, and ignorance about, snakes and the need for snake conservation were strong indicators of the propensity to harm or kill snakes. It seems that if wanton killing of snakes continues

  15. Human Perception Test of Discontinuous Force and a Trial of Skill Transfer Using a Five-Fingered Haptic Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Endo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the transferring of expert skills, it takes a great deal of time and effort for beginners to obtain new skills, and it is difficult to teach the skills by using only words. For those reasons, a skill transfer system that uses virtual reality (VR and a haptic interface technique is very attractive. In this study, we investigated the human perception of fingertip force with respect to the following changes: (1 the spatial change of the presented force, and (2 the change of the time to present the force. Based on the results of the perception experiments, we considered the skill transfer to a person's five fingers by using a five-fingered haptic interface robot.

  16. Survey of attitudes and perceptions of urine-diverting toilets and human waste recycling in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamichhane, Krishna M., E-mail: lamichha@hawaii.edu [University of Hawaii, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 2540 Dole Street, Holmes Hall 283, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States); Babcock, Roger W., E-mail: rbabcock@hawaii.edu [University of Hawaii, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Holmes Hall 383, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Urine constitutes only about 1% of domestic sewage but contains 50% or more of the excreted nutrients and chemicals like hormones and pharmaceutical residues. Urine diverting toilet (UDT) systems can be considered a more sustainable alternative to wastewater management because they allow nutrient recycling, reduce water use, and allow source-separation of hormones and chemicals that can harm the environment. An online survey was conducted to determine whether UDTs are acceptable to the general public in Hawaii and if attitudes and perceptions towards it and human waste (HW) recycling vary with age, sex, level of education, religious affiliation, ethnicity, and employment status. The survey was also intended to detect possible drivers and barriers for the UDTs. Variations on variables were tested at 5% significance (p = 0.05) level (Chi-squared test or ANOVA) and considered significantly different if the p-value was less than 0.05. The results were encouraging as more than 60% are willing to pay extra for the UDT, while only 22% knew that such systems existed. No statistically significant difference was found between males and females on all survey questions at the 5% level. However, females had higher willingness to pay (WTP) than males and WTP increased with age and income. The WTP of Caucasians was higher than Asians and differed significantly. Some respondents expressed concern about the legal provisions for recycling of HW. The survey results indicate that with a public education program, it is possible that most people would be willing to adopt UDTs and HW recycling with incurred societal benefits of reduced water and fertilizer use, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and collection of micropollutants at the source to prevent their entry into waterways. Because of the small sample size (N = 132, 13% response rate) the survey is not representative but may be indicative of the general attitude of Hawaiian people. - Highlights: ► Urine diverting toilets (UDTs

  17. Blurred Boundaries: The Therapeutics and Politics of Medical Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    For 5 millennia, Cannabis sativa has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally, and spiritually. From the mid-19th century to the 1930s, American physicians prescribed it for a plethora of indications, until the federal government started imposing restrictions on its use, culminating in 1970 with the US Congress classifying it as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Simultaneous with this prohibition, marijuana became the United States' most widely used illicit recreational drug, a substance generally regarded as pleasurable and relaxing without the addictive dangers of opioids or stimulants. Meanwhile, cannabis never lost its cachet in alternative medicine circles, going mainstream in 1995 when California became the first of 16 states to date to legalize its medical use, despite the federal ban. Little about cannabis is straightforward. Its main active ingredient, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, was not isolated until 1964, and not until the 1990s were the far-reaching modulatory activities of the endocannabinoid system in the human body appreciated. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as draconian federal restrictions that hamstring research show no signs of softening. Recreational use continues unabated, despite growing evidence of marijuana's addictive potential, particularly in the young, and its propensity for inducing and exacerbating psychotic illness in the susceptible. Public approval drives medical marijuana legalization efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction. This article explores each of these controversies, with the intent of educating physicians to decide for themselves whether marijuana is panacea, scourge, or both. PubMed searches were conducted using the following keywords: medical marijuana, medical cannabis, endocannabinoid system, CB1 receptors, CB2 receptors, THC, cannabidiol, nabilone

  18. Blurred boundaries: the therapeutics and politics of medical marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, J Michael

    2012-02-01

    For 5 millennia, Cannabis sativa has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally, and spiritually. From the mid-19th century to the 1930s, American physicians prescribed it for a plethora of indications, until the federal government started imposing restrictions on its use, culminating in 1970 with the US Congress classifying it as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Simultaneous with this prohibition, marijuana became the United States' most widely used illicit recreational drug, a substance generally regarded as pleasurable and relaxing without the addictive dangers of opioids or stimulants. Meanwhile, cannabis never lost its cachet in alternative medicine circles, going mainstream in 1995 when California became the first of 16 states to date to legalize its medical use, despite the federal ban. Little about cannabis is straightforward. Its main active ingredient, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, was not isolated until 1964, and not until the 1990s were the far-reaching modulatory activities of the endocannabinoid system in the human body appreciated. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as draconian federal restrictions that hamstring research show no signs of softening. Recreational use continues unabated, despite growing evidence of marijuana's addictive potential, particularly in the young, and its propensity for inducing and exacerbating psychotic illness in the susceptible. Public approval drives medical marijuana legalization efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction. This article explores each of these controversies, with the intent of educating physicians to decide for themselves whether marijuana is panacea, scourge, or both. PubMed searches were conducted using the following keywords: medical marijuana, medical cannabis, endocannabinoid system, CB1 receptors, CB2 receptors, THC, cannabidiol, nabilone

  19. Does human perception of wetland aesthetics and healthiness relate to ecological functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, Marylise; Piégay, Hervé; Bornette, Gudrun

    2013-10-15

    Wetland management usually aims at preserving or restoring desirable ecological characteristics or functions. It is now well-recognized that some social criteria should also be included. Involving lay-people in wetland preservation or restoration projects may mean broadening project objectives to fit various and potentially competing requirements that relate to ecology, aesthetics, recreation, etc. In addition, perceived value depends both upon expertise and objectives, both of which vary from one stakeholder population to another. Perceived value and ecological functioning have to be reconciled in order to make a project successful. Understanding the perceptions of lay-people as well as their opinions about ecological value is a critical part of the development of sustainable management plans. Characterizing the environment in a way that adequately describes ecological function while also being consistent with lay perception may help reach such objectives. This goal has been addressed in a case study relating to wetlands of the Ain River (France). A photo-questionnaire presenting a sample of photographs of riverine wetlands distributed along the Ain River was submitted to 403 lay-people and self-identified experts. Two objectives were defined: (1) to identify the different parameters, whether visual or ecological, influencing the perception regarding the value of these ecosystems; (2) to compare the perceptions of self-identified experts and lay-people. Four criteria appear to strongly influence peoples' perceptions of ecological and aesthetical values: water transparency and colour, the presence and appearance of aquatic vegetation, the presence of sediments, and finally, trophic status. In our study, we observed only a few differences in perception. The differences primarily related to the value assigned to oligotrophic wetlands but even here, the differences between lay and expert populations were minimal. These results support the idea that it is possible to

  20. First Steps in Understanding Texture Perception in the Human Mouth as an Inverse Bio-Fluid Mechanical Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, Adam S.; Strassburg, Julia A.; Hartmann, Christoph

    2008-07-01

    We discuss the perception of grittiness in the human mouth from the perspective of continuum mechanics and draw some conclusions about the likely interactions between hydrodynamically arising stress fluctuations and stimulation of biological mechanoreceptor structures. Two classes of mechanoreceptors exist, responding to either static or dynamic stresses. It is apparent that the static stresses arising from inclusions are very small relative to the background stresses generated by the squeeze flow unless the inclusion is very close to either the palate, tongue or free surface. The situation for dynamical stress fluctuations in less clear.

  1. The influence of structure depth on image blurring of micrometres-thick specimens in MeV transmission electron imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Sun, Ying; Cao, Meng; Nishi, Ryuji

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of structure depth on image blurring of micrometres-thick films by experiment and simulation with a conventional transmission electron microscope (TEM). First, ultra-high-voltage electron microscope (ultra-HVEM) images of nanometer gold particles embedded in thick epoxy-resin films were acquired in the experiment and compared with simulated images. Then, variations of image blurring of gold particles at different depths were evaluated by calculating the particle diameter. The results showed that with a decrease in depth, image blurring increased. This depth-related property was more apparent for thicker specimens. Fortunately, larger particle depth involves less image blurring, even for a 10-μm-thick epoxy-resin film. The quality dependence on depth of a 3D reconstruction of particle structures in thick specimens was revealed by electron tomography. The evolution of image blurring with structure depth is determined mainly by multiple elastic scattering effects. Thick specimens of heavier materials produced more blurring due to a larger lateral spread of electrons after scattering from the structure. Nevertheless, increasing electron energy to 2MeV can reduce blurring and produce an acceptable image quality for thick specimens in the TEM.

  2. Perception of Object Shape and Texture in Human Newborns: Evidence from Cross-Modal Transfer Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sann, Coralie; Streri, Arlette

    2007-01-01

    The present research investigates newborn infants' perceptions of the shape and texture of objects through studies of the bi-directionality of cross-modal transfer between vision and touch. Using an intersensory procedure, four experiments were performed in newborns to study their ability to transfer shape and texture information from vision to…

  3. Brain activity dynamics in human parietal regions during spontaneous switches in bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megumi, Fukuda; Bahrami, Bahador; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2015-02-15

    The neural mechanisms underlying conscious visual perception have been extensively investigated using bistable perception paradigms. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that the right anterior superior parietal (r-aSPL) and the right posterior superior parietal lobule (r-pSPL) have opposite roles in triggering perceptual reversals. It has been proposed that these two areas are part of a hierarchical network whose dynamics determine perceptual switches. However, how these two parietal regions interact with each other and with the rest of the brain during bistable perception is not known. Here, we investigated such a model by recording brain activity using fMRI while participants viewed a bistable structure-from-motion stimulus. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM), we found that resolving such perceptual ambiguity was specifically associated with reciprocal interactions between these parietal regions and V5/MT. Strikingly, the strength of bottom-up coupling between V5/MT to r-pSPL and from r-pSPL to r-aSPL predicted individual mean dominance duration. Our findings are consistent with a hierarchical predictive coding model of parietal involvement in bistable perception and suggest that visual information processing underlying spontaneous perceptual switches can be described as changes in connectivity strength between parietal and visual cortical regions.

  4. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-09-02

    Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers.

  5. Combined invariants to similarity transformation and to blur using orthogonal Zernike moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijing, Chen; Shu, Huazhong; Zhang, Hui; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Luo, Limin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    The derivation of moment invariants has been extensively investigated in the past decades. In this paper, we construct a set of invariants derived from Zernike moments which is simultaneously invariant to similarity transformation and to convolution with circularly symmetric point spread function (PSF). Two main contributions are provided: the theoretical framework for deriving the Zernike moments of a blurred image and the way to construct the combined geometric-blur invariants. The performance of the proposed descriptors is evaluated with various PSFs and similarity transformations. The comparison of the proposed method with the existing ones is also provided in terms of pattern recognition accuracy, template matching and robustness to noise. Experimental results show that the proposed descriptors perform on the overall better. PMID:20679028

  6. A Variational Framework for Simultaneous Motion Estimation and Restoration of Motion-Blurred Video (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    A VARIATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR SIMULTANEOUS MOTION ESTIMATION AND RESTORATION OF MOTION-BLURRED VIDEO By Leah Bar Benjamin Berkels Martin Rumpf and...Numerical Simulation University of Bonn, Germany benjamin.berkels@ins.uni-bonn.de Martin Rumpf Institute for Numerical Simulation University of Bonn...Image Processing, 10, no. 2:266 – 277, 2001. 6, 7 [6]D. Cremers and S. Soatto. Motion competition: A variotional approach to piecewiese parametric

  7. A Bayesian Super-Resolution Approach to Demosaicing of Blurred Images

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Rafael; Katsaggelos Aggelos K; Vega Miguel

    2006-01-01

    Most of the available digital color cameras use a single image sensor with a color filter array (CFA) in acquiring an image. In order to produce a visible color image, a demosaicing process must be applied, which produces undesirable artifacts. An additional problem appears when the observed color image is also blurred. This paper addresses the problem of deconvolving color images observed with a single coupled charged device (CCD) from the super-resolution point of view. Utilizing the Bayes...

  8. Positron range in PET imaging: an alternative approach for assessing and correcting the blurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jødal, L.; Le Loirec, C.; Champion, C.

    2012-06-01

    Positron range impairs resolution in PET imaging, especially for high-energy emitters and for small-animal PET. De-blurring in image reconstruction is possible if the blurring distribution is known. Furthermore, the percentage of annihilation events within a given distance from the point of positron emission is relevant for assessing statistical noise. This paper aims to determine the positron range distribution relevant for blurring for seven medically relevant PET isotopes, 18F, 11C, 13N, 15O, 68Ga, 62Cu and 82Rb, and derive empirical formulas for the distributions. This paper focuses on allowed-decay isotopes. It is argued that blurring at the detection level should not be described by the positron range r, but instead the 2D projected distance δ (equal to the closest distance between decay and line of response). To determine these 2D distributions, results from a dedicated positron track-structure Monte Carlo code, Electron and POsitron TRANsport (EPOTRAN), were used. Materials other than water were studied with PENELOPE. The radial cumulative probability distribution G2D(δ) and the radial probability density distribution g2D(δ) were determined. G2D(δ) could be approximated by the empirical function 1 - exp(-Aδ2 - Bδ), where A = 0.0266 (Emean)-1.716 and B = 0.1119 (Emean)-1.934, with Emean being the mean positron energy in MeV and δ in mm. The radial density distribution g2D(δ) could be approximated by differentiation of G2D(δ). Distributions in other media were very similar to water. The positron range is important for improved resolution in PET imaging. Relevant distributions for the positron range have been derived for seven isotopes. Distributions for other allowed-decay isotopes may be estimated with the above formulas.

  9. Simultaneous Tumor Segmentation, Image Restoration, and Blur Kernel Estimation in PET Using Multiple Regularizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Laquan; Wang, Jian; Lu, Wei; Tan, Shan

    2017-02-01

    Accurate tumor segmentation from PET images is crucial in many radiation oncology applications. Among others, partial volume effect (PVE) is recognized as one of the most important factors degrading imaging quality and segmentation accuracy in PET. Taking into account that image restoration and tumor segmentation are tightly coupled and can promote each other, we proposed a variational method to solve both problems simultaneously in this study. The proposed method integrated total variation (TV) semi-blind de-convolution and Mumford-Shah segmentation with multiple regularizations. Unlike many existing energy minimization methods using either TV or L2 regularization, the proposed method employed TV regularization over tumor edges to preserve edge information, and L2 regularization inside tumor regions to preserve the smooth change of the metabolic uptake in a PET image. The blur kernel was modeled as anisotropic Gaussian to address the resolution difference in transverse and axial directions commonly seen in a clinic PET scanner. The energy functional was rephrased using the Γ-convergence approximation and was iteratively optimized using the alternating minimization (AM) algorithm. The performance of the proposed method was validated on a physical phantom and two clinic datasets with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and esophageal cancer, respectively. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method had high performance for simultaneous image restoration, tumor segmentation and scanner blur kernel estimation. Particularly, the recovery coefficients (RC) of the restored images of the proposed method in the phantom study were close to 1, indicating an efficient recovery of the original blurred images; for segmentation the proposed method achieved average dice similarity indexes (DSIs) of 0.79 and 0.80 for two clinic datasets, respectively; and the relative errors of the estimated blur kernel widths were less than 19% in the transversal direction and 7% in the axial

  10. Bromo volcano area as human-environment system: interaction of volcanic eruption, local knowledge, risk perception and adaptation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachri, Syamsul; Stötter, Johann; Sartohadi, Junun

    2013-04-01

    People in the Bromo area (located within Tengger Caldera) have learn to live with the threat of volcanic hazard since this volcano is categorized as an active volcano in Indonesia. During 2010, the eruption intensity increased yielding heavy ash fall and glowing rock fragments. A significant risk is also presented by mass movement which reaches areas up to 25 km from the crater. As a result of the 2010 eruption, 12 houses were destroyed, 25 houses collapsed and there were severe also effects on agriculture and the livestock sector. This paper focuses on understanding the interaction of Bromo volcanic eruption processes and their social responses. The specific aims are to 1) identify the 2010 eruption of Bromo 2) examine the human-volcano relationship within Bromo area in general, and 3) investigate the local knowledge related to hazard, risk perception and their adaptation strategies in specific. In-depth interviews with 33 informants from four districts nearest to the crater included local people and authorities were carried out. The survey focused on farmers, key persons (dukun), students and teachers in order to understand how people respond to Bromo eruption. The results show that the eruption in 2010 was unusual as it took continued for nine months, the longest period in Bromo history. The type of eruption was phreatomagmatic producing material dominated by ash to fine sand. This kind of sediment typically belongs to Tengger mountain eruptions which had produced vast explosions in the past. Furthermore, two years after the eruption, the interviewed people explained that local knowledge and their experiences with volcanic activity do not influence their risk perception. Dealing with this eruption, people in the Bromo area applied 'lumbung desa' (traditional saving systems) and mutual aid activity for surviving the volcanic eruption. Keywords: Human-environment system, local knowledge, risk perception, adaptation strategies, Bromo Volcano Indonesia

  11. Blurring of emotional and non-emotional memories by taxing working memory during recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Eidhof, Marloes B; Verboom, Jesse; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M

    2014-01-01

    Memories that are recalled while working memory (WM) is taxed, e.g., by making eye movements (EM), become blurred during the recall + EM and later recall, without EM. This may help to explain the effects of Eye Movement and Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in which patients make EM during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies on recall + EM have focused on emotional memories. WM theory suggests that recall + EM is superior to recall only but is silent about effects of memory emotionality. Based on the emotion and memory literature, we examined whether recall + EM has superior effects in blurring emotional memories relative to neutral memories. Healthy volunteers recalled negative or neutral memories, matched for vividness, while visually tracking a dot that moved horizontally ("recall + EM") or remained stationary ("recall only"). Compared to a pre-test, a post-test (without concentrating on the dot) replicated earlier findings: negative memories are rated as less vivid after "recall + EM" but not after "recall only". This was not found for neutral memories. Emotional memories are more taxing than neutral memories, which may explain the findings. Alternatively, transient arousal induced by recall of aversive memories may promote reconsolidation of the blurred memory image that is provoked by EM.

  12. Scatter and Blurring Compensation in Inhomogeneous Media Using a Postprocessing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient postprocessing method to compensate for the scattering and blurring effects in inhomogeneous medium in SPECT is proposed. A two-dimensional point spread function (2D-PSF was estimated in the image domain to model the combination of these two physical effects. This 2D-PSF in the inhomogeneous medium is fitted with an asymmetric Gaussian function based on Monte Carlo simulation results. An efficient further blurring and deconvolution method was used to restore images from the spatially variant 2D-PSF kernel. The compensation is performed using a computer-simulated NCAT phantom and a flanged Jaszczak experimental phantom. The preliminary results demonstrate an improvement in image quality and quantity accuracy with increased image contrast (25% increase compared to uncompensated image and decreased error (40% decrease compared to uncompensated image. This method also offers an alternative to compensate for scatter and blurring in a more time efficient manner compared to the popular iterative methods. The execution time for this efficient postprocessing method is only a few minutes, which is within the clinically acceptable range.

  13. On the (Ineffectiveness of Mosaicing and Blurring as Tools for Document Redaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Steven

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In many online communities, it is the norm to redact names and other sensitive text from posted screenshots. Sometimes solid bars are used; sometimes a blur or other image transform is used. We consider the effectiveness of two popular image transforms - mosaicing (also known as pixelization and blurring - for redaction of text. Our main finding is that we can use a simple but powerful class of statistical models - so-called hidden Markov models (HMMs - to recover both short and indefinitely long instances of redacted text. Our approach borrows on the success of HMMs for automatic speech recognition, where they are used to recover sequences of phonemes from utterances of speech. Here we use HMMs in an analogous way to recover sequences of characters from images of redacted text. We evaluate an implementation of our system against multiple typefaces, font sizes, grid sizes, pixel offsets, and levels of noise. We also decode numerous real-world examples of redacted text. We conclude that mosaicing and blurring, despite their widespread usage, are not viable approaches for text redaction.

  14. Restoration of digital images with known space-variant blurs from conventional optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Thomas P.; Mikhael, Wasfy B.

    1999-07-01

    Space-variant (SV) digital image restoration methods attempt to restore images degraded by blurs that vary over the image field. One specific source of SV blurs is that of geometrical optical aberrations, which divert light rays as they pass through the optical system away from an ideal focal point. For simple optical system, aberrations can become significant even at moderate field angles. Restoration methods have been developed for some space- variant aberrations when they are individually dominant, but such dominance is not typically characteristic of conventional optical systems. In this paper, an iterative method of restoration that is applicable to generalized, known space-variant blurs is applied to simulations of images generated with a spherical lines. The method is based on the Gauss-Seidel method of solution to systems of linear equations. The method is applied to sub-images having off- axis displacements of up to 453 pixels, and found to be superior in restoration effectiveness to Fourier methods in that range of field angles.

  15. Restoration of motion-blurred image based on border deformation detection: a traffic sign restoration model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang Zeng

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid development of motor vehicle Driver Assistance Systems (DAS, the safety problems associated with automatic driving have become a hot issue in Intelligent Transportation. The traffic sign is one of the most important tools used to reinforce traffic rules. However, traffic sign image degradation based on computer vision is unavoidable during the vehicle movement process. In order to quickly and accurately recognize traffic signs in motion-blurred images in DAS, a new image restoration algorithm based on border deformation detection in the spatial domain is proposed in this paper. The border of a traffic sign is extracted using color information, and then the width of the border is measured in all directions. According to the width measured and the corresponding direction, both the motion direction and scale of the image can be confirmed, and this information can be used to restore the motion-blurred image. Finally, a gray mean grads (GMG ratio is presented to evaluate the image restoration quality. Compared to the traditional restoration approach which is based on the blind deconvolution method and Lucy-Richardson method, our method can greatly restore motion blurred images and improve the correct recognition rate. Our experiments show that the proposed method is able to restore traffic sign information accurately and efficiently.

  16. Human perceptions of landscape change: The case of a monodominant forest of Attalea speciosa Mart ex. Spreng (Northeast Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Gabriela M A; Ramos, Marcelo A; Araújo, Elcida L; Baldauf, Cristina; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2016-05-01

    From the perception of human populations, we can assess the changes occurring in certain landscapes and the factors that cause those changes. Such studies have proven helpful in increasing the knowledge of the history of a landscape, recognizing past formations and projecting its future. Our research objective was to determine how a landscape dominated by the palm tree Attalea speciosa, a species of ecological, economic, and cultural importance, has been changing over time by synthesizing and comparing historical documents and local perceptions. This study was conducted in Araripe Environmental Protection Area, Northeast Region, Brazil. To understand local landscape change, we interviewed active harvesters in four communities in which A. speciosa use has been documented. Historical documents were evaluated as a complement to the interview data. According to local informants, areas previously used for cultivation and animal husbandry that were abandoned or decimated by droughts in the region may have fostered the expansion of a monodominant A. speciosa forest. Furthermore, other forms of landscape management resulting from human population growth may also have affected the current and past distribution of this forest.

  17. Spherical blurred shape model for 3-D object and pose recognition: quantitative analysis and HCI applications in smart environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Oscar; Reyes, Miguel; Escalera, Sergio; Gonzàlez, Jordi

    2014-12-01

    The use of depth maps is of increasing interest after the advent of cheap multisensor devices based on structured light, such as Kinect. In this context, there is a strong need of powerful 3-D shape descriptors able to generate rich object representations. Although several 3-D descriptors have been already proposed in the literature, the research of discriminative and computationally efficient descriptors is still an open issue. In this paper, we propose a novel point cloud descriptor called spherical blurred shape model (SBSM) that successfully encodes the structure density and local variabilities of an object based on shape voxel distances and a neighborhood propagation strategy. The proposed SBSM is proven to be rotation and scale invariant, robust to noise and occlusions, highly discriminative for multiple categories of complex objects like the human hand, and computationally efficient since the SBSM complexity is linear to the number of object voxels. Experimental evaluation in public depth multiclass object data, 3-D facial expressions data, and a novel hand poses data sets show significant performance improvements in relation to state-of-the-art approaches. Moreover, the effectiveness of the proposal is also proved for object spotting in 3-D scenes and for real-time automatic hand pose recognition in human computer interaction scenarios.

  18. Variability of human saliva composition: possible relationships with fat perception and liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyraud, Eric; Palicki, Olivier; Schwartz, Camille; Nicklaus, Sophie; Feron, Gilles

    2012-05-01

    Saliva is the medium that bathes the taste receptors in the oral cavity and in which aroma and taste compounds are released when food is eaten. Moreover saliva contains enzymes and molecules that can interact with food. To date, little research has been devoted to the intra- and inter-individual variabilities of these components and their inter-relationships. The first aim of this work was to study intra- and inter-individual variabilities over time in the composition of molecules likely to interact with food in the mouth, with particular focus on molecules that might interact with fat. The second aim was to try to relate this composition to a liking for fat and its perception. Stimulated and unstimulated saliva from 13 subjects was collected in the morning and afternoon on three occasions at 4-month intervals. Saliva characteristics such as flow, protein concentration, lipolysis, proteolysis, amylolysis, lipocalin concentration, lysozyme activity, total antioxidant status and uric acid concentrations were measured, as well as the liking for and perceived fattiness of a fat solution. The results showed that for most of the measured characteristics, intra-subject variability in saliva composition was smaller than inter-subject variability, with remarkable stability over time (8 months) in terms of flow, lypolysis, proteolysis and total antioxidant status. Relationships were found between some of these characteristics (lipolysis, lipocalin and flow) and fat-liking or perception, showing that the composition of saliva may play an important role in fat perception and liking.

  19. Influence of base and PAG on deprotection blur in EUV photoresists and some thoughts on shot noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Juanita; Anderson, Christopher; Naulleau, Patrick; Niakoula, Demitra; Hassanein, Elsayed; Brainard, Robert; Gallatin, Gregg; Dean, Kim

    2008-06-01

    A contact-hole deprotection blur metric has been used to monitor the deprotection blur of an experimental open platform resist (EH27) as the weight percent of base and photo acid generator (PAG) were varied. Patterning ability in 1:1 line-space patterns is shown to improve at smaller pitches as base/PAG are increased however no significant change in deprotection blur was observed. Isolated (or intrinsic) line-edge-roughness (LER) is shown to improve with increased base loading while remaining fixed through PAG loading. A discussion of improved patterning performance as related to shot noise and deprotection blur concludes with a speculation that the spatial distribution of PAG molecules has been playing some role, perhaps a dominant one, in determining the uniformity of photo generated acids in the resists that have been studied.

  20. Few-view single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction based on a blurred piecewise constant object model

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Paul A; Schmidt, Taly G; Sidky, Emil Y

    2012-01-01

    A sparsity-exploiting algorithm intended for few-view Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) reconstruction is proposed and characterized. The algorithm models the object as piecewise constant subject to a blurring operation. To validate that the algorithm closely approximates the true object in the noiseless case, projection data were generated from an object assuming this model and using the system matrix. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to provide more realistic data of a phantom with varying smoothness across the field of view. Reconstructions were performed across a sweep of two primary design parameters. The results demonstrate that the algorithm recovers the object in a noiseless simulation case. While the algorithm assumes a specific blurring model, the results suggest that the algorithm may provide high reconstruction accuracy even when the object does not match the assumed blurring model. Generally, increased values of the blurring parameter and TV weighting parameters reduced noi...

  1. The BLUR (Blues Lyrics Collected at the University of Regensburg Corpus: Blues Lyricism and the African American Literary Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miethaner, Ulrich

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The BLUR corpus, a computerized collection of more than 8,000 transcripts of pre-World War II blues recordings, is a powerful research tool which facilitates investigations into various aspects of the blues. This paper illustrates how an analysis of BLUR might deepen our insights into structural aspects of blues poetry and and its contribution to the African American literary tradition.

  2. Perception-based 3D tactile rendering from a single image for human skin examinations by dynamic touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K; Lee, S

    2015-05-01

    Diagnosis of skin conditions is dependent on the assessment of skin surface properties that are represented by more tactile properties such as stiffness, roughness, and friction than visual information. Due to this reason, adding tactile feedback to existing vision based diagnosis systems can help dermatologists diagnose skin diseases or disorders more accurately. The goal of our research was therefore to develop a tactile rendering system for skin examinations by dynamic touch. Our development consists of two stages: converting a single image to a 3D haptic surface and rendering the generated haptic surface in real-time. Converting to 3D surfaces from 2D single images was implemented with concerning human perception data collected by a psychophysical experiment that measured human visual and haptic sensibility to 3D skin surface changes. For the second stage, we utilized real skin biomechanical properties found by prior studies. Our tactile rendering system is a standalone system that can be used with any single cameras and haptic feedback devices. We evaluated the performance of our system by conducting an identification experiment with three different skin images with five subjects. The participants had to identify one of the three skin surfaces by using a haptic device (Falcon) only. No visual cue was provided for the experiment. The results indicate that our system provides sufficient performance to render discernable tactile rendering with different skin surfaces. Our system uses only a single skin image and automatically generates a 3D haptic surface based on human haptic perception. Realistic skin interactions can be provided in real-time for the purpose of skin diagnosis, simulations, or training. Our system can also be used for other applications like virtual reality and cosmetic applications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic sensory pollution is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Human actions generate acoustic noise, emanate artificial light and emit chemical substances. All of these pollutants are known to affect animals. Most studies on anthropogenic pollution address the impact of pollutants in unimodal sensory domains. High levels of anthropogenic noise, for example, have been shown to interfere with acoustic signals and cues. However, animals rely on multiple senses, and pollutants often co-occur. Thus, a full ecological assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities requires a multimodal approach. We describe how sensory pollutants can co-occur and how covariance among pollutants may differ from natural situations. We review how animals combine information that arrives at their sensory systems through different modalities and outline how sensory conditions can interfere with multimodal perception. Finally, we describe how sensory pollutants can affect the perception, behaviour and endocrinology of animals within and across sensory modalities. We conclude that sensory pollution can affect animals in complex ways due to interactions among sensory stimuli, neural processing and behavioural and endocrinal feedback. We call for more empirical data on covariance among sensory conditions, for instance, data on correlated levels in noise and light pollution. Furthermore, we encourage researchers to test animal responses to a full-factorial set of sensory pollutants in the presence or the absence of ecologically important signals and cues. We realize that such approach is often time and energy consuming, but we think this is the only way to fully understand the multimodal impact of sensory pollution on animal performance and perception.

  4. State-space blur model for high-speed forward-moving imaging system and its recursive restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fengmei; Chen, Xichun; Jin, Weiqi

    2007-01-01

    When an imaging system is approaching the object at a high speed, because of the existence of integration time, the images obtained are always blurred radially. Since the degradation process is space variant, this kind of blur is difficult to handle, traditional frequency domain techniques can't be applied here. Obviously, the radially blurred image obtained is rotation symmetrical, so the usual uniformly sampled image can be resampled with fan-shaped grids, and the gray level of these new sampling points build up a new image matrix. The new image matrix's columns and rows are never the edges of the image, but the image's radius and angle. So, the original two-dimensional problem is simplified. Even after the resampling, the blur is still space variant, and the PSF (point spread function) will change along the radius direction. So the authors come up with a state-space method, a state-space blur model is constructed, which handles the problem recursively. To restore the degraded image simply means to find the inverse of the degradation system and computer simulation result shows the restoration algorithm restored the radially blurred image approvingly.

  5. A study of student perceptions of learning transfer from a human anatomy and physiology course in an allied health program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Leigh S.

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. First the study was designed to determine student perceptions regarding the perceived degree of original learning from a human anatomy and physiology course, and the student perception of the use of the knowledge in an allied health program. Second, the intention of the study was to establish student beliefs on the characteristics of the transfer of learning including those factors which enhance learning transfer and those that serve as barriers to learning transfer. The study participants were those students enrolled in any allied health program at a community college in a Midwest state, including: nursing, radiology, surgical technology, health information technology, and paramedic. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed from the responses to the survey. A sub-group of participants were chosen to participate in semi-structured formal interviews. From the interviews, additional qualitative data were gathered. The data collected through the study demonstrated student perception of successful transfer experiences. The students in the study were able to provide specific examples of learning transfer experienced from the human anatomy and physiology course in their allied health program. Findings also suggested students who earned higher grades in the human anatomy and physiology course perceived greater understanding and greater use of the course's learning objectives in their allied health program. The study found the students believed the following learning activities enhances the transfer of learning: (1) Providing application of the information or skills being learned during the instruction of the course content enhances the transfer of learning. (2) Providing resource materials and activities which allow the students to practice the content being taught facilitates the transfer of learning. The students made the following recommendations to remove barriers to the transfer of learning: (1

  6. Effect of acupuncture on the pain perception thresholds of human teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, Merete

    1976-01-01

    The effect of acumpuncture on the pain perception threshold of maxillary incisors and canines as determined by a Bofors Pulp Tester was studied in 33 dental students 19-30 years of age. Test teeth were cleaned with pumice and 10% alcohol, air-dried, and insulated at the approximal surfaces......), or S44 (foot). Compared with control threshold (8.44 muA) acupuncture was accompanied by a small increase, most pronounced after 45 min (1.51 muA, P less than 0.0005). However, the hypalgesia observed was insufficient to justify acupuncture as a means of pain control in conservative dentistry....

  7. A global simulation approach to optics, lighting, rendering, and human perception for the improvement of safety in automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, Jacques; Fournier, Laurent; Menu, Jean-Pierre

    2005-02-01

    In order to provide optimum comfort and safety conditions, information must be seen as clearly as possible by the driver and in all lighting conditions, by day and by night. Therefore, it is becoming fundamental to anticipate in order to predict what the driver will see in a vehicle, in various configurations of scene and observation conditions, so as to optimize the lighting, the ergonomics of the interfaces and the choice of surrounding materials which can be a source of reflection. This information and choices which will depend on it, make it necessary to call upon simulation techniques capable of modeling, globally and simultaneously, the entire light phenomena: surrounding lighting, display technologies, the inside lighting, taking into consideration the multiple reflections caused by the reflection of this light inside the vehicle. This has been the object of an important development, which results in the solution SPEOS Visual Ergonomics, led by company OPTIS. A unique human vision model was developed in collaboration with worldwide specialists in visual perception to transform spectral luminance information into perceived visual information. This model, based on physiological aspects, takes into account the response of the eye to light levels, to color, to contrast, and to ambient lighting, as well as to rapid changes in surrounding luminosity, in accordance with the response of the retina. This unique tool, and information now accessible, enable ergonomists and designers of on board systems to improve the conditions of global visibility, and in so doing the global perception of the environment that the driver will have.

  8. The role of modern academic libraries : survey of perceptions and experiences of graduate students in social sciences and humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Gašo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary academic libraries have experienced profound changes lately under the influence of information and communication technology and changed approaches to teaching and learning. If academic libraries are to remain integral parts of educational experience of students, librarians and managers of academic institutions need to think anew their physical and virtual spaces and services The paper presents results of a survey which aimed to investigate the perceptions and experiences of graduate students in humanities and social sciences regarding physical and virtual library spaces and services, and to assess their satisfaction with them. Results of the study show that the largest number of respondents ue their academic library regularly (several time a month or week and that more than half consider physical library spaces and services important for their successful learning. Interestingly, students reported that electronic library sources are more important to them than physical library spaces and services, although they prefer print material over electronic sources of information. Respondents had split opinions regarding their favourite learning place in the library: slightly more respondents preferred silent reading room over the group study room. The study has shown that perception adn use of academic library is influenced by gender, academic success and personal approach to the studying.

  9. Touching motion: rTMS on the human middle temporal complex interferes with tactile speed perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Demis; Pavan, Andrea; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Fagioli, Sabrina; Vecchi, Tomaso; Miniussi, Carlo; Pietrini, Pietro

    2012-10-01

    Brain functional and psychophysical studies have clearly demonstrated that visual motion perception relies on the activity of the middle temporal complex (hMT+). However, recent studies have shown that hMT+ seems to be also activated during tactile motion perception, suggesting that this visual extrastriate area is involved in the processing and integration of motion, irrespective of the sensorial modality. In the present study, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to assess whether hMT+ plays a causal role in tactile motion processing. Blindfolded participants detected changes in the speed of a grid of tactile moving points with their finger (i.e. tactile modality). The experiment included three different conditions: a control condition with no TMS and two TMS conditions, i.e. hMT+-rTMS and posterior parietal cortex (PPC)-rTMS. Accuracies were significantly impaired during hMT+-rTMS but not in the other two conditions (No-rTMS or PPC-rTMS), moreover, thresholds for detecting speed changes were significantly higher in the hMT+-rTMS with respect to the control TMS conditions. These findings provide stronger evidence that the activity of the hMT+ area is involved in tactile speed processing, which may be consistent with the hypothesis of a supramodal role for that cortical region in motion processing.

  10. A real-time human-perception interface for task-level control of a robot in unfamiliar environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Eric Scott

    Recent advances in the development of semi-autonomous robotic systems offer numerous potential advantages in many engineering and science endeavors. Significant reductions in cost, time and risk, as well as increased capability, can be obtained by utilizing intelligent machines to assist humans. However, the use of robots also introduces many challenging issues, including the need for high-bandwidth stable control despite communication delays and operator fatigue. In response to these challenges, the Stanford Aerospace Robotics Laboratory has pioneered the Task-Level Control architecture, which enables humans to direct, from a strategic level, sophisticated tasks that a robot then executes autonomously. The research reported here is intended to extend the Task-Level Control architecture significantly--by using human perception in a natural way--to work well in unfamiliar environments. An unfamiliar environment is defined to be one about which it is impossible to have perfect and complete knowledge before developing and deploying a robotic system. Clearly, every work environment is, to some extent, unfamiliar. This research has shown that drawing intimately, in real time, upon a human's deep visual perception is extremely effective in overcoming such unfamiliarity. A novel interactive vision-based operator interface for directing a highly autonomous robot operating in an unfamiliar environment is presented. Intuitive interaction with a live-video display from cameras on board the robot is used in combination with stereo-vision algorithms to maintain the operator's attention at the overall object-level during the modeling process. With this interface, the human's remarkable ability to discern entire object-level constructs is utilized to produce quick, cogent and robust models of unexpected and unknown objects in the environment. Once unfamiliar objects have been suitably modeled, tasks involving those objects can be directed via the Task-Level Control architecture

  11. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng, E-mail: qschen@ujs.edu.cn

    2014-09-02

    Highlights: • To develop a novel instrumental intelligent test methodology for food sensory analysis. • A novel data fusion was used in instrumental intelligent test methodology. • Linear and nonlinear tools were comparatively used for modeling. • The instrumental test methodology can be imitative of human test behavior. - Abstract: Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers.

  12. The relationship between employees' perceptions of human resource systems and organizational performance: examining mediating mechanisms and temporal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piening, Erk P; Baluch, Alina M; Salge, Torsten Oliver

    2013-11-01

    Given the limited understanding of temporal issues in extant theorizing about the link between human resource management (HRM) and performance, in this study we aim to shed light on how, when, and why HR interventions affect organizational performance. On the basis of longitudinal, multi-informant and multisource data from public hospital services in England, we provide new insights into the complex interplay between employees' perceptions of HR systems, job satisfaction, and performance outcomes over time. The dynamic panel data analyses provide support for changes in employees' experience of an HR system being related to subsequent changes in customer satisfaction, as mediated by changes in job satisfaction, albeit these effects decrease over time. Moreover, our longitudinal analyses highlight the importance of feedback effects in the HRM-performance chain, which otherwise appears to evolve in a cyclical manner.

  13. PERCEPTIONS REGARDING THE INTEGRATED HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY COURSE AMONG UNDERGRADUATE PHARMACY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Joan Bryant*1, Manjunatha Goud BK2, Anand Srinivasan3 and Vijayalakshmi SB3

    2016-01-01

    Human Anatomy and Physiology is an important core component for all allied healthcare professional education. At our university, we offer an integrated Human Anatomy and Physiology course (HAP) to the first year Pharmacy students. The main objective of this study was to ascertain and compare Pharmacy undergraduate students’ opinions and attitudes towards the integrated course of human anatomy and physiology. A pre-validated questionnaire was given to students of first year pharma...

  14. Blurred lines: the General Medical Council guidance on doctors and social media .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cork, Nick; Grant, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Digital technology in the early 21st century has introduced significant changes to everyday life and the ways in which we practise medicine. It is important that the ease and practicality of accessing and disseminating information does not intrude on the high standards expected of doctors, and that the boundaries between professional and public life do not become blurred through the increasing adoption of social media. This said, as with any such profound disruption, the social media age could be responsible for driving a new understanding of what it means to be a medical professional.

  15. Drag queens' use of language and the performance of blurred gendered and racial identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Stephen L

    2011-01-01

    Building on Barrett (1998), this study provides a sociolinguistic analysis of the language used by Suzanne, a European-American drag queen, during her on-stage performance in the southeastern United States. Suzanne uses wigs and costumes to portray a female character on stage, but never hides the fact that she is biologically male. She is also a member of a predominantly African-American cast. Through her creative use of linguistic features such as stylemixing (i.e., the use of linguistic features shared across multiple language varieties) and expletives, Suzanne is able to perform an identity that frequently blurs gender and racial lines.

  16. Motion de-blurring by second-order intensity-correlated imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zunwang Bo; Wenlin Gong; Shensheng Han

    2016-01-01

    For a Hanbury Brown and Twiss system,the influence of relative motion between the object and the detection plane on the resolution of second-order intensity-correlated imaging is investigated.The analytical results,which are backed up by experiments,demonstrate that the amplitude and mode of the object's motion have no effect on the second-order intensity-correlated imaging and that high-resolution imaging can be always achieved by using a phase-retrieval method from the diffraction patterns.The use of motion de-blurring imaging for this approach is also discussed.

  17. Coulomb blur advantage of a multi-shaped beam lithography approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slodowski, Matthias; Doering, Hans-Joachim; Elster, Thomas; Stolberg, Ines A.

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes a new multi beam approach in electron beam lithography called Multi Shaped Beam (MSB). Based on the well known Variable Shaped Beam (VSB) principle, the single shaped beam arrangement is extended and complemented by an array of individually controlled shaped beams. The positive effect of the MSB approach on resolution limiting stochastic beam blur due to Coulomb interactions will be highlighted applying detailed electron-optical Monte-Carlo simulations. To verify the feasibility of the above-mentioned new approach, there is also depicted a proof-of-lithography test stand based on a complete e-beam-lithography system containing MSB-specific hardware and software components.

  18. A Bayesian Super-Resolution Approach to Demosaicing of Blurred Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina Rafael

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the available digital color cameras use a single image sensor with a color filter array (CFA in acquiring an image. In order to produce a visible color image, a demosaicing process must be applied, which produces undesirable artifacts. An additional problem appears when the observed color image is also blurred. This paper addresses the problem of deconvolving color images observed with a single coupled charged device (CCD from the super-resolution point of view. Utilizing the Bayesian paradigm, an estimate of the reconstructed image and the model parameters is generated. The proposed method is tested on real images.

  19. Strategical Report on Removal of Blurring in an Original Image Using Non Linear Median Filter Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sasikala

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In real world application, the original signal, image, motion pictures or any another transform the removing of blur is a still challenging issue for the researchers. There have been several published algorithm, techniques and new methodologies. But each approach has its own assumptions, advantages and limitations. This study explores a technique of how image enhancement and denoising are useful in motion recording and storing for various applications such as digital still camera, video mail camera, video conferencing camera, surveillance camera, web camera, wireless camera, toy camera and digital video recorder.

  20. The Interplay of Resources and Multiracialism in Small, Four-Year Residential Colleges: A Study of Perception of Multicultural and Human Resource Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer-Hanson, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities in the United States need to find ways to meet the needs of the increasing number of multiracial students, faculty, and staff. The purpose of this survey research study was to compare the perceptions of multicultural directors/chief diversity officers and human resource offices about services and systems of support for…

  1. The Interplay of Resources and Multiracialism in Small, Four-Year Residential Colleges: A Study of Perception of Multicultural and Human Resource Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer-Hanson, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities in the United States need to find ways to meet the needs of the increasing number of multiracial students, faculty, and staff. The purpose of this survey research study was to compare the perceptions of multicultural directors/chief diversity officers and human resource offices about services and systems of support for…

  2. A comparison of human elements and nonhuman elements in private health care settings: customers' perceptions and expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Suki, Norazah; Chwee Lian, Jennifer Chiam; Suki, Norbayah Mohd

    2009-01-01

    In today's highly competitive health care environment, many private health care settings are now looking into customer service indicators to learn customers' perceptions and determine whether they are meeting customers' expectations in order to ensure that their customers are satisfied with the services. This research paper aims to investigate whether the human elements were more important than the nonhuman elements in private health care settings. We used the internationally renowned SERVQUAL five-dimension model plus three additional dimensions-courtesy, communication, and understanding of customers of the human element-when evaluating health care services. A total of 191 respondents from three private health care settings in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia were investigated. Descriptive statistics were calculated by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer program, version 15. Interestingly, the results suggested that customers nowadays have very high expectations especially when it comes to the treatment they are receiving. Overall, the research indicated that the human elements were more important than the nonhuman element in private health care settings. Hospital management should look further to improve on areas that have been highlighted. Implications for management practice and directions for future research are discussed.

  3. Epigenetic modification of the oxytocin receptor gene influences the perception of anger and fear in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglia, Meghan H; Lillard, Travis S; Morris, James P; Connelly, Jessica J

    2015-03-17

    In humans, the neuropeptide oxytocin plays a critical role in social and emotional behavior. The actions of this molecule are dependent on a protein that acts as its receptor, which is encoded by the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). DNA methylation of OXTR, an epigenetic modification, directly influences gene transcription and is variable in humans. However, the impact of this variability on specific social behaviors is unknown. We hypothesized that variability in OXTR methylation impacts social perceptual processes often linked with oxytocin, such as perception of facial emotions. Using an imaging epigenetic approach, we established a relationship between OXTR methylation and neural activity in response to emotional face processing. Specifically, high levels of OXTR methylation were associated with greater amounts of activity in regions associated with face and emotion processing including amygdala, fusiform, and insula. Importantly, we found that these higher levels of OXTR methylation were also associated with decreased functional coupling of amygdala with regions involved in affect appraisal and emotion regulation. These data indicate that the human endogenous oxytocin system is involved in attenuation of the fear response, corroborating research implicating intranasal oxytocin in the same processes. Our findings highlight the importance of including epigenetic mechanisms in the description of the endogenous oxytocin system and further support a central role for oxytocin in social cognition. This approach linking epigenetic variability with neural endophenotypes may broadly explain individual differences in phenotype including susceptibility or resilience to disease.

  4. Dopamine Activation Preserves Visual Motion Perception Despite Noise Interference of Human V5/MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Nada; Fu, Richard Z.; Abou-El-Ela Bourquin, Bilal; Bhrugubanda, Vamsee; Schultz, Simon R.

    2016-01-01

    When processing sensory signals, the brain must account for noise, both noise in the stimulus and that arising from within its own neuronal circuitry. Dopamine receptor activation is known to enhance both visual cortical signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and visual perceptual performance; however, it is unknown whether these two dopamine-mediated phenomena are linked. To assess this, we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied to visual cortical area V5/MT to reduce the SNR focally and thus disrupt visual motion discrimination performance to visual targets located in the same retinotopic space. The hypothesis that dopamine receptor activation enhances perceptual performance by improving cortical SNR predicts that dopamine activation should antagonize TMS disruption of visual perception. We assessed this hypothesis via a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study with the dopamine receptor agonists cabergoline (a D2 agonist) and pergolide (a D1/D2 agonist) administered in separate sessions (separated by 2 weeks) in 12 healthy volunteers in a William's balance-order design. TMS degraded visual motion perception when the evoked phosphene and the visual stimulus overlapped in time and space in the placebo and cabergoline conditions, but not in the pergolide condition. This suggests that dopamine D1 or combined D1 and D2 receptor activation enhances cortical SNR to boost perceptual performance. That local visual cortical excitability was unchanged across drug conditions suggests the involvement of long-range intracortical interactions in this D1 effect. Because increased internal noise (and thus lower SNR) can impair visual perceptual learning, improving visual cortical SNR via D1/D2 agonist therapy may be useful in boosting rehabilitation programs involving visual perceptual training. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this study, we address the issue of whether dopamine activation improves visual perception despite increasing sensory noise in the visual cortex

  5. "No-One Respects Them Anyway": Secondary School Students' Perceptions of Human Rights Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayir, Kenan; Bagli, Melike Turkan

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of compulsory courses on human rights into the secondary school curriculum in 1998 has been an important first step in developing respect for human rights and responsibilities among the younger generation in Turkey. Yet, these courses have many shortcomings in terms of materials, pedagogy and teacher attitudes. This paper…

  6. Is the force with you? On the accuracy of human force perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onneweer, B.

    2016-01-01

    Haptic technology is more and more widely used to improve human interaction with devices, for example in touch screens of smartphones that vibrate when touched. Another application is haptic-tele-manipulation where a human controls a slave manipulator (e.g. a surgical-robot) by using a master device

  7. Is the force with you? On the accuracy of human force perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onneweer, B.

    2016-01-01

    Haptic technology is more and more widely used to improve human interaction with devices, for example in touch screens of smartphones that vibrate when touched. Another application is haptic-tele-manipulation where a human controls a slave manipulator (e.g. a surgical-robot) by using a master device

  8. Removal of Color Scratches from Old Motion Picture Films Exploiting Human Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Vitulano

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a unified model for both detection and restoration of line scratches on color movies is presented. It exploits a generalization of the light diffraction effect for modeling the shape of scratches, while perception laws are used for their automatic detection and removal. The detection algorithm has a high precision in terms of number of detected true scratches and reduced number of false alarms. The quality of the restored images is satisfying from a subjective (visual point of view if compared with the state-of-the-art approaches. The use of very simple operations in both detection and restoration phases makes the implemented algorithms appealing for their low computing time.

  9. Phosphatidylserine and caffeine attenuate postexercise mood disturbance and perception of fatigue in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Adam J; Hoffman, Jay R; Gonzalez, Adam M; Stout, Jeffrey R; Fragala, Maren S; Mangine, Gerald T; McCormack, William P; Jajtner, Adam R; Townsend, Jeremy R; Robinson, Edward H

    2013-06-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) may attenuate the adverse effects of physical fatigue. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a multi-ingredient supplement containing 400 mg/d PS and 100 mg/d caffeine (supplement [SUP]) for 2 weeks on measures of cognitive function (CF), reaction time (RT), and mood (MD) following an acute exercise stress. It is hypothesized that PS will maintain preexercise CF and RT scores, while attenuating postexercise fatigue. Participants completed 2 acute bouts of resistance exercise (T1 and T2) separated by 2-week ingestion of SUP or control (CON). Outcome measures were assessed pre- and postexercise. When collapsed across groups, a significant decrease in RT performance was seen in the 60-second reaction drill from pre- to postexercise at T1. All other RT tests were similar from pre- to postexercise at T1. Reaction time was not significantly changed by PS. When collapsed across groups, a significant increase in performance of the serial subtraction test was seen. A significant increase (8.9% and 7.1%) in the number of correct answers and a significant decrease (8.0% and 7.5%) in time to answer were seen from pre- to postworkout at T1 and T2, respectively. A significant increase in total MD score from pre- to postworkout was observed for CON but not for PS at T2. Phosphatidylserine significantly attenuated pre- to postexercise perception of fatigue compared to CON. Ingestion of SUP for 14 days appears to attenuate postexercise MD scores and perception of fatigue, but does not affect CF or RT, in recreationally trained individuals.

  10. Innocuous skin cooling modulates perception and neurophysiological correlates of brief CO2 laser stimuli in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahra, Hicham; Plaghki, Léon

    2005-10-01

    The present study examined the influence of innocuous skin cooling on the perception and neurophysiological correlates of brief noxious CO2 laser stimuli. In nine normal subjects, brief CO2 laser pulses of four different intensities (duration 50 ms; diameter 5 mm; intensity range 5.8-10.6 mJ/mm2) were delivered at random every 5-10 s on the dorsum of the hand. Innocuous skin cooling was performed by a thermode (20 degrees C; 3x3 cm) with a central hole for the laser test stimuli. Quality and intensity (VAS) of perceptions, reaction times and laser evoked potentials (LEPs) were examined. Signal detection theory analysis was performed to evaluate discrimination performance and decision criterion. During innocuous skin cooling, detection threshold increased from 4.8+/-1.81 to 8.2+/-1.05 mJ/mm2 and pain threshold from 8.7+/-1.53 to 13.5+/-1.57 mJ/mm2. proportion of detected stimuli decreased from 87% to 48% and pain reports from 42% to 10%. The well localized 'pricking' sensation mediated by Adelta-nociceptors almost vanished. The intensity of sensations (VAS scores) was considerably reduced. Sensory discriminative performance was significantly depressed but decision criterion remained unchanged. Reaction times were delayed. The late-LEPs, correlates of Adelta-nociceptor activations, were also significantly depressed while the ultra-late LEPs, correlates of C-nociceptors, were not affected. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that innocuous skin cooling interfered with the sensory processing of laser heat stimuli and more prominently with those related to Adelta-nociceptive input.

  11. Ambient Intelligence and Persuasive Technology: The Blurring Boundaries Between Human and Technology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.

    2009-01-01

    The currently developing fields of Ambient Intelligence and Persuasive Technology bring about a convergence of information technology and cognitive science. Smart environments that are able to respond intelligently to what we do and that even aim to influence our behaviour challenge the basic

  12. Ambient Intelligence and Persuasive Technology: The Blurring Boundaries Between Human and Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Peter-Paul

    2009-01-01

    The currently developing fields of Ambient Intelligence and Persuasive Technology bring about a convergence of information technology and cognitive science. Smart environments that are able to respond intelligently to what we do and that even aim to influence our behaviour challenge the basic framew

  13. Human, Nature, Dynamism: The Effects of Content and Movement Perception on Brain Activations during the Aesthetic Judgment of Representational Paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Dio, Cinzia; Ardizzi, Martina; Massaro, Davide; Di Cesare, Giuseppe; Gilli, Gabriella; Marchetti, Antonella; Gallese, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Movement perception and its role in aesthetic experience have been often studied, within empirical aesthetics, in relation to the human body. No such specificity has been defined in neuroimaging studies with respect to contents lacking a human form. The aim of this work was to explore, through functional magnetic imaging (f MRI), how perceived movement is processed during the aesthetic judgment of paintings using two types of content: human subjects and scenes of nature. Participants, untutored in the arts, were shown the stimuli and asked to make aesthetic judgments. Additionally, they were instructed to observe the paintings and to rate their perceived movement in separate blocks. Observation highlighted spontaneous processes associated with aesthetic experience, whereas movement judgment outlined activations specifically related to movement processing. The ratings recorded during aesthetic judgment revealed that nature scenes received higher scored than human content paintings. The imaging data showed similar activation, relative to baseline, for all stimuli in the three tasks, including activation of occipito-temporal areas, posterior parietal, and premotor cortices. Contrast analyses within aesthetic judgment task showed that human content activated, relative to nature, precuneus, fusiform gyrus, and posterior temporal areas, whose activation was prominent for dynamic human paintings. In contrast, nature scenes activated, relative to human stimuli, occipital and posterior parietal cortex/precuneus, involved in visuospatial exploration and pragmatic coding of movement, as well as central insula. Static nature paintings further activated, relative to dynamic nature stimuli, central and posterior insula. Besides insular activation, which was specific for aesthetic judgment, we found a large overlap in the activation pattern characterizing each stimulus dimension (content and dynamism) across observation, aesthetic judgment, and movement judgment tasks. These

  14. Metric to describe the Blurring in PET; Metrica para describir el emborronamiento en PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerga Cabrerizo, C.; Castro Tejero, P.; Corredoira Silva, E.; Plaza Aparicio, R.; Luquero Llopis, N.; Ferrer Gracia, C.; Serrada Hierro, A.

    2013-07-01

    The use of images from the nuclear medicine has become very quickly on a standard in the stages of planning of radiotherapy. These metabolic and molecular images lack sharpness which hinders the process of contouring to be difficult to define the limits of the tissue. Methods of segmentation by threshold used parameters such as the size of the tumor and the relationship signal noise to set using iterative methods activity relative to the maximum level to apply. Currently there is no consensus for the establishment of the appropriate threshold. This problem is exacerbated when we consider volumes in movement or also those whose edge is not a step function, as in the case of real tissues, where density variable clonogenic at the edge of the fabric is a variable profile in the catchment values. The hypothesis of this study is that all these effects, object size, relationship signal background, edge of variable uptake and movement, are added to the same level when it comes to producing a blurring. For this reason, we intend to establish a figure of merit that serve as a metric of the blurring and to determine unambiguously the value threshold to choose. (Author)

  15. Application of phase stretch transform to plate license identification under blur and noise conditions (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Hossein; Hadar, Ofer; Jalali, Bahram

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with implementing a new algorithm for edge detection based on the Phase Stretch Transform (PST) for purposes of car plate license recognition. In PST edge detection algorithm, the image is first filtered with a spatial kernel followed by application of a nonlinear frequency-dependent phase. The output of the transform is the phase in the spatial domain. The main step is the 2-D phase function which is typically applied in the frequency domain. The amount of phase applied to the image is frequency dependent with higher amount of phase applied to higher frequency features of the image. Since sharp transitions, such as edges and corners, contain higher frequencies, PST emphasizes the edge information. Features can be further enhanced by applying thresholding and morphological operations. Here we investigate the influence of noise and blur on the ability to recognize the characters in the plate license, by comparison of our suggested algorithm with the well known Canny algorithm. We use several types of noise distributions among them, Gaussian noise, salt and paper noise and uniform distributed noise, with several levels of noise variances. The simulated blur is related to the car velocity and we applied several filters representing different velocities of the car. Another interesting degradation that we intend to investigate is the cases that Laser shield license plate cover is used to distort the image taken by the authorities. Our comparison results are presented in terms of True positive, False positive and False negative probabilities.

  16. Blurred Lines? Provincial Reconstruction Teams and NGO Insecurity in Afghanistan, 2010–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F Mitchell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Members of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs have been critical of the Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT initiative in Afghanistan since its inception, claiming that the mixture of military and humanitarian operations has resulted in ‘blurred lines’ that inhibit insurgents from identifying who is and is not a combatant. Certain organizations have hypothesized that aid workers are more likely to come under attack as a result of this mixture. Although this claim has surfaced in multiple outlets over the years, there was a lack of empirical evidence to support it. This study tests this hypothesis using a panel-corrected standard error regression model of all 34 Afghan provinces in 2010 and 2011. Preliminary results show that NGOs were likely to encounter a greater number of security incidents in provinces with PRTs; however, further analysis reveals this was only the case in provinces with teams not led by the US. This calls into question the validity of a general ‘blurred lines’ explanation for decreased aid worker security.

  17. Real-Time Robust Tracking for Motion Blur and Fast Motion via Correlation Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingyun; Luo, Haibo; Hui, Bin; Chang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Visual tracking has extensive applications in intelligent monitoring and guidance systems. Among state-of-the-art tracking algorithms, Correlation Filter methods perform favorably in robustness, accuracy and speed. However, it also has shortcomings when dealing with pervasive target scale variation, motion blur and fast motion. In this paper we proposed a new real-time robust scheme based on Kernelized Correlation Filter (KCF) to significantly improve performance on motion blur and fast motion. By fusing KCF and STC trackers, our algorithm also solve the estimation of scale variation in many scenarios. We theoretically analyze the problem for CFs towards motions and utilize the point sharpness function of the target patch to evaluate the motion state of target. Then we set up an efficient scheme to handle the motion and scale variation without much time consuming. Our algorithm preserves the properties of KCF besides the ability to handle special scenarios. In the end extensive experimental results on benchmark of VOT datasets show our algorithm performs advantageously competed with the top-rank trackers. PMID:27618046

  18. Restoration of a single superresolution image from several blurred, noisy, and undersampled measured images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elad, M; Feuer, A

    1997-01-01

    The three main tools in the single image restoration theory are the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator, the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimator, and the set theoretic approach using projection onto convex sets (POCS). This paper utilizes the above known tools to propose a unified methodology toward the more complicated problem of superresolution restoration. In the superresolution restoration problem, an improved resolution image is restored from several geometrically warped, blurred, noisy and downsampled measured images. The superresolution restoration problem is modeled and analyzed from the ML, the MAP, and POCS points of view, yielding a generalization of the known superresolution restoration methods. The proposed restoration approach is general but assumes explicit knowledge of the linear space- and time-variant blur, the (additive Gaussian) noise, the different measured resolutions, and the (smooth) motion characteristics. A hybrid method combining the simplicity of the ML and the incorporation of nonellipsoid constraints is presented, giving improved restoration performance, compared with the ML and the POCS approaches. The hybrid method is shown to converge to the unique optimal solution of a new definition of the optimization problem. Superresolution restoration from motionless measurements is also discussed. Simulations demonstrate the power of the proposed methodology.

  19. Depth-Based Selective Blurring in Stereo Images Using Accelerated Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Subhayan; Guddeti, Ram Mohana Reddy

    2014-09-01

    We propose a hybrid method for stereo disparity estimation by combining block and region-based stereo matching approaches. It generates dense depth maps from disparity measurements of only 18 % image pixels (left or right). The methodology involves segmenting pixel lightness values using fast K-Means implementation, refining segment boundaries using morphological filtering and connected components analysis; then determining boundaries' disparities using sum of absolute differences (SAD) cost function. Complete disparity maps are reconstructed from boundaries' disparities. We consider an application of our method for depth-based selective blurring of non-interest regions of stereo images, using Gaussian blur to de-focus users' non-interest regions. Experiments on Middlebury dataset demonstrate that our method outperforms traditional disparity estimation approaches using SAD and normalized cross correlation by up to 33.6 % and some recent methods by up to 6.1 %. Further, our method is highly parallelizable using CPU-GPU framework based on Java Thread Pool and APARAPI with speed-up of 5.8 for 250 stereo video frames (4,096 × 2,304).

  20. Visitor Perceptions of Ancient Egyptian Human Remains in Three United Kindom Museums

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh Kilminster

    2003-01-01

    Although the issues of retention and display of human remains have become topical over the last decade, the thoughts of museum visitors about this topic have not been registered, despite their being the museums’ main stakeholder. The vast majority (82.5%) of 300 respondents questioned in the summer of 2002 at three British museums displaying ancient Egyptian human remains supported the idea of having these remains on display. However, a small percentage of visitors (14.2%) wanted the remains ...

  1. Don't always blame the photons: Relationships between deprotection blur, LER, and shot noise in EUV photoresists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Christopher N.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2008-06-02

    A corner rounding metric has been used to determine the deprotection blur of Rohm and Haas XP 5435, XP 5271, and XP 5496 extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photoresists as base weight percent is varied; an experimental open platform photoresist (EH27) as base weight percent is varied; and TOK EUVR P1123 and FUJI 1195 photoresists as post-exposure bake (PEB) temperature is varied. In the XP 5435, XP 5271, XP 5496, and EH27 resist platforms, a 6 times increase in base weight percent reduces the size of successfully patterned 1:1 lines by over 10 nm and lowers intrinsic line-edge roughness (LER) by over 2.5 nm without changing deprotection blur. In TOK EUVR P1123 photoresist, lowering the PEB temperature from 100 C to 80 C reduces measured deprotection blur (using the corner metric) from 30 nm to 20 nm and reduces the LER of 50 nm 1:1 lines from 4.8 nm to 4.3 nm. These data are used to drive a lengthy discussion about the relationships between deprotection blur, LER, and shot noise in EUV photoresists. We provide two separate conclusions: (1) shot noise is probably not the dominant mechanism causing the 3-4 nm EUV LER floor that has been observed over the past several years; (2) chemical contrast contributes to LER whenever deprotection blur is large relative to the printed half pitch.

  2. Influence of base and PAG on deprotection blur in EUV photoresists and some thoughts on shot noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Christopher N.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Niakoula, Dimitra; Hassanein, Elsayed; Brainard, Robert; Gallatin, Gregg; Dean, Kim

    2008-06-01

    A contact-hole deprotection blur metric has been used to monitor the deprotection blur of an experimental open platform resist (EH27) as the weight percent of base and photo acid generator (PAG) were varied. A 6x increase in base weight percent is shown to reduce the size of successfully patterned 1:1 line-space features from 52 nm to 39 nm without changing deprotection blur. Corresponding isolated line-edge-roughness is reduced from 6.9 nm to 4.1 nm. A 2x increase in PAG weight percent is shown to improve 1:1 line-space patterning from 47 nm to 40 nm without changing deprotection blur or isolated LER. A discussion of improved patterning performance as related to shot noise and deprotection blur concludes with a speculation that the spatial distribution of PAG molecules has been playing some role, perhaps a dominant one, in determining the uniformity of photo generated acids in the resists that have been studied.

  3. Hazardous Continuation Backward in Time in Nonlinear Parabolic Equations, and an Experiment in Deblurring Nonlinearly Blurred Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasso, Alfred S

    2013-01-01

    Identifying sources of ground water pollution, and deblurring nanoscale imagery as well as astronomical galaxy images, are two important applications involving numerical computation of parabolic equations backward in time. Surprisingly, very little is known about backward continuation in nonlinear parabolic equations. In this paper, an iterative procedure originating in spectroscopy in the 1930's, is adapted into a useful tool for solving a wide class of 2D nonlinear backward parabolic equations. In addition, previously unsuspected difficulties are uncovered that may preclude useful backward continuation in parabolic equations deviating too strongly from the linear, autonomous, self adjoint, canonical model. This paper explores backward continuation in selected 2D nonlinear equations, by creating fictitious blurred images obtained by using several sharp images as initial data in these equations, and capturing the corresponding solutions at some positive time T. Successful backward continuation from t=T to t = 0, would recover the original sharp image. Visual recognition provides meaningful evaluation of the degree of success or failure in the reconstructed solutions. Instructive examples are developed, illustrating the unexpected influence of certain types of nonlinearities. Visually and statistically indistinguishable blurred images are presented, with vastly different deblurring results. These examples indicate that how an image is nonlinearly blurred is critical, in addition to the amount of blur. The equations studied represent nonlinear generalizations of Brownian motion, and the blurred images may be interpreted as visually expressing the results of novel stochastic processes.

  4. The effectiveness and user perception of 3-dimensional digital human anatomy in an online undergraduate anatomy laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbelink, Amy Joanne

    2007-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of implementing desktop 3-dimensional (3D) stereo images of human anatomy into an undergraduate human anatomy distance laboratory. User perceptions of 2D and 3D images were gathered via questionnaire in order to determine ease of use and level of satisfaction associated with the 3D software in the online learning environment. Mayer's (2001, p. 184) principles of design were used to develop the study materials that consisted of PowerPoint presentations and AVI files accessed via Blackboard. The research design employed a mixed-methods approach. Volunteers each were administered a demographic survey and were then stratified into groups based upon pre-test scores. A total sample size of 62 pairs was available for combined data analysis. Quantitative research questions regarding the effectiveness of 2D versus the 3D treatment were analyzed using a doubly-multivariate repeated measures (Doubly-MANOVA) design. Paired test scores achieved by undergraduates on a laboratory practical of identification and spatial relationships of the bones and features of a human skull were used in the analysis. The questionnaire designed to gather user perceptions consisted of quantitative and qualitative questions. Response frequencies were analyzed for the two groups and common themes were noted. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in group means for the main effect of the treatment groups 2D and 3D and for the variables of identification and relationship with the 3D group outperforming the 2D group on both dependent variables. Effect sizes were determined to be small, 0.215 for the identification variable and 0.359 for the relationship variable. Overall, all students liked the convenience of using PowerPoint and AVI files online. The 3D group felt their PowerPoint was more realistic than did the 2D group and both groups appreciated the detailed labeling of the online images. One third of the

  5. [Practices and perception of risk in human immunodeficiency virus infected males who have sex with other males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Mosteyrín, Sol; del Val Acebrón, María; Fernández de Mosteyrín, Teresa; Fernández Guerrero, Manuel L

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases increases in males who have sex with males (MSM), despite the knowledge on how to prevent them. To determine the mechanisms that are driving this lack of prevention is important to reverse the trend. An anonymous, voluntary and self-reporting questionnaire was completed by HIV+ MSM patients who were seen in a hospital clinic, with the aim of finding out the sexual risk practices and behaviour, as well as their perceptions and assessment as regards this risk. The questionnaire included 58questions, divided into 10sections, to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour as regards HIV. The questionnaires were also given to the physicians, with the aim of exploring their perceptions, attitudes and opinions as regards the situation of the epidemic, prevention, perception of the diseases and the patient, and values in clinical practice. A total of 495 questionnaires from the patients were analysed. Most of them (87%) said they knew how HIV was acquired, and 97% knew how to prevent it, but 69% knew they were in a risk situation, and 43% had little concern of contracting HIV. Almost two-thirds (65%) had sex with ≥2persons on the same day, 47% met on the Internet and 26% had group sex. The same percentage of those surveyed considered that they acted impulsively. They highlighted a lack of information (33%), bad luck (32%), assumed excessive risk (36%), and lake of concern (25%), as the main reasons for acquiring the infection. When confronted with diagnosis 41% of patients answered «I never thought that it would happen to me», and 32% said «I had bad luck». Of the 121 physicians who completed the questionnaire, 24% considered that infection due to HIV/AIDS was out of control in Spain, and 65% responded that there was an image that HIV/AIDS was a controlled disease and of little concern. A large majority (71%) of those surveyed, considered that the increase in new

  6. Environmental change in the mid-Boteti area of north-central Botswana: Biophysical processes and human perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringrose, Susan; Chanda, Raban; Nkambwe, Musisi; Sefe, Francis

    1996-05-01

    Increased interest in environmental change issues has led researchers to consider more integrated approaches to change dynamics. This paper examines change in terms of land degradation in north-central Botswana from both biophysical and human perspectives. Although seasonal and periodic droughts were prevalent, analysis of rainfall data over the past 70 years revealed no downward trend. However, indicators of declining productivity such as soil erosion, loss of vegetation cover, and a declining groundwater table were amply evident. The GIS analysis of remotely sensed data has shown that complete vegetation recovery after drought is not taking place, particularly in the south-central part of the study area. These areas contained the highest human and livestock population densities. The local people acknowledged facing increasing resource depletion and indicated drought as the main cause. Pressures on available resources, particularly during drought periods, appeared to have impeded the regenerative capacity of the natural vegetation cover, thereby inducing land degradation. This situation may not easily be rectified because of widespread poverty and inappropriate local perceptions of the solutions. Both of these hinder the adoption of sustainable land management.

  7. Cosmetics as a feature of the extended human phenotype: modulation of the perception of biologically important facial signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L Etcoff

    Full Text Available Research on the perception of faces has focused on the size, shape, and configuration of inherited features or the biological phenotype, and largely ignored the effects of adornment, or the extended phenotype. Research on the evolution of signaling has shown that animals frequently alter visual features, including color cues, to attract, intimidate or protect themselves from conspecifics. Humans engage in conscious manipulation of visual signals using cultural tools in real time rather than genetic changes over evolutionary time. Here, we investigate one tool, the use of color cosmetics. In two studies, we asked viewers to rate the same female faces with or without color cosmetics, and we varied the style of makeup from minimal (natural, to moderate (professional, to dramatic (glamorous. Each look provided increasing luminance contrast between the facial features and surrounding skin. Faces were shown for 250 ms or for unlimited inspection time, and subjects rated them for attractiveness, competence, likeability and trustworthiness. At 250 ms, cosmetics had significant positive effects on all outcomes. Length of inspection time did not change the effect for competence or attractiveness. However, with longer inspection time, the effect of cosmetics on likability and trust varied by specific makeup looks, indicating that cosmetics could impact automatic and deliberative judgments differently. The results suggest that cosmetics can create supernormal facial stimuli, and that one way they may do so is by exaggerating cues to sexual dimorphism. Our results provide evidence that judgments of facial trustworthiness and attractiveness are at least partially separable, that beauty has a significant positive effect on judgment of competence, a universal dimension of social cognition, but has a more nuanced effect on the other universal dimension of social warmth, and that the extended phenotype significantly influences perception of biologically important

  8. Cosmetics as a feature of the extended human phenotype: modulation of the perception of biologically important facial signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcoff, Nancy L; Stock, Shannon; Haley, Lauren E; Vickery, Sarah A; House, David M

    2011-01-01

    Research on the perception of faces has focused on the size, shape, and configuration of inherited features or the biological phenotype, and largely ignored the effects of adornment, or the extended phenotype. Research on the evolution of signaling has shown that animals frequently alter visual features, including color cues, to attract, intimidate or protect themselves from conspecifics. Humans engage in conscious manipulation of visual signals using cultural tools in real time rather than genetic changes over evolutionary time. Here, we investigate one tool, the use of color cosmetics. In two studies, we asked viewers to rate the same female faces with or without color cosmetics, and we varied the style of makeup from minimal (natural), to moderate (professional), to dramatic (glamorous). Each look provided increasing luminance contrast between the facial features and surrounding skin. Faces were shown for 250 ms or for unlimited inspection time, and subjects rated them for attractiveness, competence, likeability and trustworthiness. At 250 ms, cosmetics had significant positive effects on all outcomes. Length of inspection time did not change the effect for competence or attractiveness. However, with longer inspection time, the effect of cosmetics on likability and trust varied by specific makeup looks, indicating that cosmetics could impact automatic and deliberative judgments differently. The results suggest that cosmetics can create supernormal facial stimuli, and that one way they may do so is by exaggerating cues to sexual dimorphism. Our results provide evidence that judgments of facial trustworthiness and attractiveness are at least partially separable, that beauty has a significant positive effect on judgment of competence, a universal dimension of social cognition, but has a more nuanced effect on the other universal dimension of social warmth, and that the extended phenotype significantly influences perception of biologically important signals at first

  9. Cosmetics as a Feature of the Extended Human Phenotype: Modulation of the Perception of Biologically Important Facial Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcoff, Nancy L.; Stock, Shannon; Haley, Lauren E.; Vickery, Sarah A.; House, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the perception of faces has focused on the size, shape, and configuration of inherited features or the biological phenotype, and largely ignored the effects of adornment, or the extended phenotype. Research on the evolution of signaling has shown that animals frequently alter visual features, including color cues, to attract, intimidate or protect themselves from conspecifics. Humans engage in conscious manipulation of visual signals using cultural tools in real time rather than genetic changes over evolutionary time. Here, we investigate one tool, the use of color cosmetics. In two studies, we asked viewers to rate the same female faces with or without color cosmetics, and we varied the style of makeup from minimal (natural), to moderate (professional), to dramatic (glamorous). Each look provided increasing luminance contrast between the facial features and surrounding skin. Faces were shown for 250 ms or for unlimited inspection time, and subjects rated them for attractiveness, competence, likeability and trustworthiness. At 250 ms, cosmetics had significant positive effects on all outcomes. Length of inspection time did not change the effect for competence or attractiveness. However, with longer inspection time, the effect of cosmetics on likability and trust varied by specific makeup looks, indicating that cosmetics could impact automatic and deliberative judgments differently. The results suggest that cosmetics can create supernormal facial stimuli, and that one way they may do so is by exaggerating cues to sexual dimorphism. Our results provide evidence that judgments of facial trustworthiness and attractiveness are at least partially separable, that beauty has a significant positive effect on judgment of competence, a universal dimension of social cognition, but has a more nuanced effect on the other universal dimension of social warmth, and that the extended phenotype significantly influences perception of biologically important signals at first

  10. Dimensionality of Leadership in the Perceptions of Senior Human Resource Executives in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pawłowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Sixty-five HR general managers representing companies from a variety of industries took part in the research that we conducted between April and October 2013. They had identified leadership development as the most significant factor in the growth of the top firms in Poland’s economy. We have conducted in-depth interviews to understand the perception of the leadership concept. We have found that they tend to focus on the following dimensions of leadership: conveying a vision, inspiring, being charismatic, being credible, being able to manage others, and having good interpersonal skills. Research limitations and implications: The main limitation of the research is that it does not allow for generalization of findings on perceived dimensionality of leadership on larger population of HR Executives. Our findings imply that leadership development will soon be a strong priority among HR teams of 500 largest companies, but several dimensions are not present in their description of leadership. Originality/value: Our paper makes three contributions to the literature. We have developed a managerial attention view of the firm by surveying senior HR executives. CEOs, CFOs, and top management teams tend to be subject of studies in this theoretical tradition more often than HR executives, Another contribution is the use of mixed methods that is rather rare yet offering vast opportunities for triangulation and knowledge building in the discipline. Our third contribution is that we applied a standard scale of the multidimensional leadership concept.

  11. Cranes, Crops and Conservation: Understanding Human Perceptions of Biodiversity Conservation in South Korea's Civilian Control Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Oh; Steiner, Frederick; Mueller, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    South Korea's Civilian Control Zone (CCZ), a relatively untouched area due to tight military oversight since the end of Korean War, has received considerable attention nationally and internationally for its rich biodiversity. However, the exclusion of local communities from the process of defining problems and goals and of setting priorities for biodiversity conservation has halted a series of biodiversity conservation efforts. Through qualitative research, we explored CCZ farmers' views of key problems and issues and also the sources of their opposition to the government-initiated conservation approaches. Key findings include the farmers' concerns about the impact of conservation restrictions on their access to necessary resources needed to farm, wildlife impacts on the value of rice and other agricultural goods they produce, and farmers' strong distrust of government, the military, and planners, based on their experiences with past conservation processes. The findings regarding farmers' perceptions should prove useful for the design of future participatory planning processes for biodiversity conservation in the CCZ. This case highlights how conservative measures, perceived to be imposed from above—however scientifically valuable—can be undermined and suggests the value that must be placed on communication among planners and stakeholders.

  12. Neural correlates of radial frequency trajectory perception in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbet, Diana J; Wilkinson, Frances; Wilson, Hugh R

    2014-01-10

    Radial frequency (RF) motion trajectories are visual stimuli that consist of a difference of Gaussians moving along a closed trajectory defined by a sinusoidal variation of the radius relative to a circular path. In the current study, multivoxel fMRI analyses demonstrated that spatial patterns of activity in visual regions V2, V3, and MT can predict RF motion trajectory shape regardless of whether an observer can behaviorally identify the shape or not. This result suggests that processing in these regions is concerned with local properties of the trajectories and not directly linked with a conscious percept of global trajectory shape. Whole-brain analyses show that RF motion trajectories also evoke premotor and posterior parietal cortical activity that may be a neural correlate of shape recognizability. Further, comparisons with activity evoked by static versions of the RF shapes reveal cue-invariant processing in regions of the posterior parietal and occipitotemporal cortices. Interestingly, the RF motion trajectories evoke patterns of dorsal visual stream cortical activity typical of visually guided movement preparation or action observation, suggesting that these stimuli may be processed as potential motor actions rather than as purely visual experiences.

  13. Perception of human rights temperature of community in persons with severe mental illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnadin Shibu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the rights of persons with mental illnesses (PwMI are protected by law in India, human rights of PwMI is being violated in many ways. There is dearth of literature on the human rights of PwMI in India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted to understand the perceived human rights temperature of community in PwMI. Data were collected from PwMI (diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder, and symptomatically stable for 3 years seeking outpatient psychiatric treatment from private psychiatric hospitals and clinics in Kozhikode (Calicut district of Kerala state, India. Data were collected using “Taking the Human Rights Temperature of Your Community” which was modified and validated in Indian population and a sociodemographic schedule which was prepared by the researchers. Results: The majority were males (54.2%. Mean duration of illness as 10.42 ± 6.43 years. Mean score of the human rights temperature was 68.31 ± 5.95. Perceived major concerns in the areas of career opportunity (59.5%, discrimination in hiring for work (61.3%, help and care in development of PwMI (64.5%, equal opportunity to avail treatment and cost incurred in it (60.5%, involvement in decision making (46.7%, and responsiveness of the community when any rights violation happens (44.9%. Conclusion: Human rights of PwMI are a major concern. Functioning of the mental health authority and legal aid clinics has to be strengthened to address rights issues of PwMI.

  14. Psychobiology and Food Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, A.

    1985-01-01

    Psychobiology is a scientific discipline which encompasses the phenomena known to be important as regards nutrition and food consumption in space. Specifically, it includes those areas of biology which are clearly related to behavior, human subjective experience and problems of coping and adapting to stress. Taste and odor perception; perception (knowledge gaps); perception (needs); food preference and menu selection; and choosing of acceptable diets are discussed.

  15. Psychobiology and Food Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, A.

    1985-01-01

    Psychobiology is a scientific discipline which encompasses the phenomena known to be important as regards nutrition and food consumption in space. Specifically, it includes those areas of biology which are clearly related to behavior, human subjective experience and problems of coping and adapting to stress. Taste and odor perception; perception (knowledge gaps); perception (needs); food preference and menu selection; and choosing of acceptable diets are discussed.

  16. Stroboscopic Image Modulation to Reduce the Visual Blur of an Object Being Viewed by an Observer Experiencing Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K. (Inventor); Adelstein, Bernard D. (Inventor); Anderson, Mark R. (Inventor); Beutter, Brent R. (Inventor); Ahumada, Albert J., Jr. (Inventor); McCann, Robert S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the visual blur of an object being viewed by an observer experiencing vibration. In various embodiments of the present invention, the visual blur is reduced through stroboscopic image modulation (SIM). A SIM device is operated in an alternating "on/off" temporal pattern according to a SIM drive signal (SDS) derived from the vibration being experienced by the observer. A SIM device (controlled by a SIM control system) operates according to the SDS serves to reduce visual blur by "freezing" (or reducing an image's motion to a slow drift) the visual image of the viewed object. In various embodiments, the SIM device is selected from the group consisting of illuminator(s), shutter(s), display control system(s), and combinations of the foregoing (including the use of multiple illuminators, shutters, and display control systems).

  17. Understanding the impacts of medical tourism on health human resources in Barbados: a prospective, qualitative study of stakeholder perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical tourism is a global health practice where patients travel internationally with the intention of receiving medical services. A range of low, middle, and high income countries are encouraging investment in the medical tourism sector, including countries in the Caribbean targeting patients in North America and Europe. While medical tourism has the potential to provide economic and employment opportunities in destination countries, there are concerns that it could encourage the movement of health workers from the public to private health sector. Methods We present findings from 19 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders across the public health care, private health care, government, allied business, and civil society sectors. These interviews were conducted in-person in Barbados and via phone. The interview transcripts were coded and a thematic analysis developed. Results Three themes were identified: 1) Stakeholder perceptions of the patterns and plans for health human resource usage by current and planned medical tourism facilities in Barbados. We found that while health human resource usage in the medical tourism sector has been limited, it is likely to grow in the future; 2) Anticipated positive impacts of medical tourism on health human resources and access to care in the public system. These benefits included improved quality control, training opportunities, and health worker retention; and 3) Anticipated negative impacts of medical tourism on health human resources and access to care in the public system. These impacts included longer wait times for care and a shift in planning priorities driven by the medical tourism sector. Conclusions Stakeholders interviewed who were connected to medical tourism expansion or the tourism sector took a generally positive view of the likely impacts of medical tourism on health human resources in Barbados. However, stakeholders associated with the public health system and health equity expressed concern

  18. Understanding the impacts of medical tourism on health human resources in Barbados: a prospective, qualitative study of stakeholder perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A; Turner, Leigh; Johnston, Rory

    2013-01-05

    Medical tourism is a global health practice where patients travel internationally with the intention of receiving medical services. A range of low, middle, and high income countries are encouraging investment in the medical tourism sector, including countries in the Caribbean targeting patients in North America and Europe. While medical tourism has the potential to provide economic and employment opportunities in destination countries, there are concerns that it could encourage the movement of health workers from the public to private health sector. We present findings from 19 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders across the public health care, private health care, government, allied business, and civil society sectors. These interviews were conducted in-person in Barbados and via phone. The interview transcripts were coded and a thematic analysis developed. Three themes were identified: 1) Stakeholder perceptions of the patterns and plans for health human resource usage by current and planned medical tourism facilities in Barbados. We found that while health human resource usage in the medical tourism sector has been limited, it is likely to grow in the future; 2) Anticipated positive impacts of medical tourism on health human resources and access to care in the public system. These benefits included improved quality control, training opportunities, and health worker retention; and 3) Anticipated negative impacts of medical tourism on health human resources and access to care in the public system. These impacts included longer wait times for care and a shift in planning priorities driven by the medical tourism sector. Stakeholders interviewed who were connected to medical tourism expansion or the tourism sector took a generally positive view of the likely impacts of medical tourism on health human resources in Barbados. However, stakeholders associated with the public health system and health equity expressed concern that medical tourism may spread

  19. The Career Perceptions of Academic Staff and Human Resource Discourses in English Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strike, Tony; Taylor, John

    2009-01-01

    This paper sets out findings from research that considered the interplay between English national policy developments in human resources management in higher education and the personal stories of academic staff as career participants. Academic careers are pursued in an institutional and national policy context but it was not clear that the formal…

  20. A Possible Model of Noise Enhanced Visual Perception in Human Vision

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Ajanta

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate, through simulation, that a simple centre surround receptive field of vision is capable of exhibiting stochastic resonance. We also show that this could be used to model the nature of contrast sensitivity enhancement of human vision, through stochastic resonance, observed in psychophysical experiments.

  1. Lack of effort or lack of ability? Robot failures and human perception of agency and responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdt, S. van der; Haselager, W.F.G.

    2016-01-01

    Research on human interaction has shown that attributing agency to another agent has substantial consequences for the way we perceive and evaluate its actions. Specifically, considering an agent's actions related to either effort or ability can have important consequences for the attribution of resp

  2. Two eyes, one vision: binocular motion perception in human visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, M.

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human vision is the fact that it is binocular, i.e. that we have two eyes. As a result, the brain nearly always receives two slightly different images of the same visual scene. Yet, we only perceive a single image and thus our brain has to actively combine the binocular visual

  3. Impact of visual context on public perceptions of non-human primate performers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Leighty

    Full Text Available Prior research has shown that the use of apes, specifically chimpanzees, as performers in the media negatively impacts public attitudes of their conservation status and desirability as a pet, yet it is unclear whether these findings generalize to other non-human primates (specifically non-ape species. We evaluated the impact of viewing an image of a monkey or prosimian in an anthropomorphic or naturalistic setting, either in contact with or in the absence of a human. Viewing the primate in an anthropomorphic setting while in contact with a person significantly increased their desirability as a pet, which also correlated with increased likelihood of believing the animal was not endangered. The majority of viewers felt that the primates in all tested images were "nervous." When shown in contact with a human, viewers felt they were "sad" and "scared", while also being less "funny." Our findings highlight the potential broader implications of the use of non-human primate performers by the entertainment industry.

  4. Two eyes, one vision: binocular motion perception in human visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371576792

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human vision is the fact that it is binocular, i.e. that we have two eyes. As a result, the brain nearly always receives two slightly different images of the same visual scene. Yet, we only perceive a single image and thus our brain has to actively combine the binocular visual

  5. The "Human Colour" Crayon: Investigating the Attitudes and Perceptions of Learners Regarding Race and Skin Colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Neeske; Costandius, Elmarie

    2017-01-01

    Some coloured and black learners in South Africa use a light orange or pink crayon to represent themselves in art. Many learners name this colour "human colour" or "skin colour". This is troublesome, because it could reflect exclusionary ways of representing race in images and language. This case study, conducted with two…

  6. Human response to wind turbine noise - perception, annoyance and moderating factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Eja

    2007-05-15

    The aims of this thesis were to describe and gain an understanding of how people who live in the vicinity of wind turbines are affected by wind turbine noise, and how individual, situational and visual factors, as well as sound properties, moderate the response. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in a flat, mainly rural area in Sweden, with the objective to estimate the prevalence of noise annoyance and to examine the dose-response relationship between A-weighted sound pressure levels (SPLs) and perception of and annoyance with wind turbine noise. Subjective responses were obtained through a questionnaire (n = 513; response rate: 68%) and outdoor, A-weighted SPLs were calculated for each respondent. To gain a deeper understanding of the observed noise annoyance, 15 people living in an area were interviewed using open-ended questions. The interviews were analysed using the comparative method of Grounded Theory (GT). An additional cross-sectional study, mainly exploring the influence of individual and situational factors, was carried out in seven areas in Sweden that differed with regard to terrain (flat or complex) and degree of urbanization (n = 765; response rate: 58%). To further explore the impact of visual factors, data from the two cross-sectional studies were tested with structural equation modelling. A proposed model of the influence of visual attitude on noise annoyance, also comprising the influence of noise level and general attitude, was tested among respondents who could see wind turbines versus respondents who could not see wind turbines from their dwelling, and respondents living in flat versus complex terrain. Dose-response relationships were found both for perception of noise and for noise annoyance in relation to A-weighted SPLs. The risk of annoyance was enhanced among respondents who could see at least one turbine from their dwelling and among those living in a rural in comparison with a suburban area. Noise from wind turbines was

  7. Model cortical association fields account for the time course and dependence on target complexity of human contour perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadas Gintautas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Can lateral connectivity in the primary visual cortex account for the time dependence and intrinsic task difficulty of human contour detection? To answer this question, we created a synthetic image set that prevents sole reliance on either low-level visual features or high-level context for the detection of target objects. Rendered images consist of smoothly varying, globally aligned contour fragments (amoebas distributed among groups of randomly rotated fragments (clutter. The time course and accuracy of amoeba detection by humans was measured using a two-alternative forced choice protocol with self-reported confidence and variable image presentation time (20-200 ms, followed by an image mask optimized so as to interrupt visual processing. Measured psychometric functions were well fit by sigmoidal functions with exponential time constants of 30-91 ms, depending on amoeba complexity. Key aspects of the psychophysical experiments were accounted for by a computational network model, in which simulated responses across retinotopic arrays of orientation-selective elements were modulated by cortical association fields, represented as multiplicative kernels computed from the differences in pairwise edge statistics between target and distractor images. Comparing the experimental and the computational results suggests that each iteration of the lateral interactions takes at least [Formula: see text] ms of cortical processing time. Our results provide evidence that cortical association fields between orientation selective elements in early visual areas can account for important temporal and task-dependent aspects of the psychometric curves characterizing human contour perception, with the remaining discrepancies postulated to arise from the influence of higher cortical areas.

  8. Prediction of object detection, recognition, and identification [DRI] ranges at color scene images based on quantifying human color contrast perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, Ephi; Levin, Ilia; Yaron, Ofer

    2016-10-01

    We propose a novel approach to predict, for specified color imaging system and for objects with known characteristics, their detection, recognition, identification (DRI) ranges in a colored dynamic scene, based on quantifying the human color contrast perception. The method refers to the well established L*a*b*, 3D color space. The nonlinear relations of this space are intended to mimic the nonlinear response of the human eye. The metrics of L*a*b* color space is such that the Euclidian distance between any two colors in this space is approximately proportional to the color contrast as perceived by the human eye/brain. The result of this metrics leads to the outcome that color contrast of any two points is always greater (or equal) than their equivalent grey scale contrast. This meets our sense that looking on a colored image, contrast is superior to the gray scale contrast of the same image. Yet, color loss by scattering at very long ranges should be considered as well. The color contrast derived from the distance between the colored object pixels and to the nearby colored background pixels, as derived from the L*a*b* color space metrics, is expressed in terms of gray scale contrast. This contrast replaces the original standard gray scale contrast component of that image. As expected, the resulted DRI ranges are, in most cases, larger than those predicted by the standard gray scale image. Upon further elaboration and validation of this method, it may be combined with the next versions of the well accepted TRM codes for DRI predictions. Consistent prediction of DRI ranges implies a careful evaluation of the object and background color contrast reduction along the range. Clearly, additional processing for reconstructing the objects and background true colors and hence the color contrast along the range, will further increase the DRI ranges.

  9. Gaussian Light Field: Estimation of Viewpoint-Dependent Blur for Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Yuta; Amano, Toshiyuki; Iwai, Daisuke; Klinker, Gudrun

    2016-11-01

    We propose a method to calibrate viewpoint-dependent, channel-wise image blur of near-eye displays, especially of Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays (OST-HMDs). Imperfections in HMD optics cause channel-wise image shift and blur that degrade the image quality of the display at a user's viewpoint. If we can estimate such characteristics perfectly, we could mitigate the effect by applying correction techniques from the computational photography in computer vision as analogous to cameras. Unfortunately, directly applying existing calibration techniques of cameras to OST-HMDs is not a straightforward task. Unlike ordinary imaging systems, image blur in OST-HMDs is viewpoint-dependent, i.e., the optical characteristic of a display dynamically changes depending on the current viewpoint of the user. This constraint makes the problem challenging since we must measure image blur of an HMD, ideally, over the entire 3D eyebox in which a user can see an image. To overcome this problem, we model the viewpoint-dependent blur as a Gaussian Light Field (GLF) that stores spatial information of the display screen as a (4D) light field with depth information and the blur as point-spread functions in the form of Gaussian kernels, respectively. We first describe both our GLF model and a calibration procedure to learn a GLF for a given OST-HMD. We then apply our calibration method to two HMDs that use different optics: a cubic prism or holographic gratings. The results show that our method achieves significantly better accuracy in Point-Spread Function (PSF) estimations with an accuracy about 2 to 7 dB in Peak SNR.

  10. Using a Graphics Turing Test to Evaluate the Effect of Frame Rate and Motion Blur on Telepresence of Animated Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Borg, Mathias; Johansen, Stine Schmieg; Krog, Kim Srirat; Thomsen, Dennis Lundgaard; Kraus, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A limited Graphics Turing Test is used to determine the frame rate that is required to achieve telepresence of an animated object. For low object velocities of 2.25 and 4.5 degrees of visual angle per second at 60 frames per second a rotating object with no added motion blur is able to pass the test. The results of the experiments confirm previous results in psychophysics and show that the Graphics Turing Test is a useful tool in computer graphics. Even with simulated motion blur, our Graphic...

  11. Using a Graphics Turing Test to Evaluate the Effect of Frame Rate and Motion Blur on Telepresence of Animated Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Mathias; Johansen, Stine Schmieg; Krog, Kim Srirat

    2013-01-01

    the test. The results of the experiments confirm previous results in psychophysics and show that the Graphics Turing Test is a useful tool in computer graphics. Even with simulated motion blur, our Graphics Turing Test could not be passed with frame rates of 30 and 20 frames per second. Our results suggest......A limited Graphics Turing Test is used to determine the frame rate that is required to achieve telepresence of an animated object. For low object velocities of 2.25 and 4.5 degrees of visual angle per second at 60 frames per second a rotating object with no added motion blur is able to pass...

  12. Coded illumination for motion-blur free imaging of cells on cell-phone based imaging flow cytometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Manish; Gorthi, Sai Siva

    2014-10-01

    Cell-phone based imaging flow cytometry can be realized by flowing cells through the microfluidic devices, and capturing their images with an optically enhanced camera of the cell-phone. Throughput in flow cytometers is usually enhanced by increasing the flow rate of cells. However, maximum frame rate of camera system limits the achievable flow rate. Beyond this, the images become highly blurred due to motion-smear. We propose to address this issue with coded illumination, which enables recovery of high-fidelity images of cells far beyond their motion-blur limit. This paper presents simulation results of deblurring the synthetically generated cell/bead images under such coded illumination.

  13. First, you need a Gestalt: An interaction of bottom-up and top-down streams during the perception of the ambiguously rotating human walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastukhov, Alexander

    2017-04-25

    Our visual system combines sensory evidence with prior knowledge to produce a representation of an outside world. Here, we explored the limits of the feedforward computation using an ambiguously rotating human biological motion. Specifically, we investigated whether an overall rotation, which was added to all the displays used in the study, would be perceived when the point-light walker was presented upside-down, a condition that typically obliterates perception of a human Gestalt. We report that inversion of the point-light walker or the absence of an identifiable Gestalt abolished the perception of an overall rotation. Perception of rotation was restored if the human walker Gestalt could be identified (an upright walker), if observers were informed about the nature of the motion display, or if observers expected to see the rotation of an unknown dynamic object. This implies that a mathematically more complex human motion was accounted for before the remaining motion components could be used to infer an overall rotation. Our results indicate that the perceptual inference does not proceed in a hierarchical manner with the simpler components being identified first. Instead, prior knowledge acts as a starting point for the decomposition of an even relatively simple combination of two motions.

  14. A Model of Human Orientation and Self Motion Perception during Body Acceleration: The Orientation Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-28

    Aviation accident investigators often conduct qualitative perceptual analyses of mishaps when spatial disorientation is inferred as a cause. We have...developed a quantitative perceptual model of human spatial orientation and have employed it to evaluate data from a variety of acceleration situations, in...Research and Material Command (USAMRMC; In-House Laboratory Independent Research), Small Business Innovative Research program (PEO Aviation), and the

  15. EMPLOYEE PERCEPTION TOWARD THE IMPECT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay Saxena; Rohit Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Human Resource Information technology is a software solution for small to mid-sized businesses to help automate and manage their HR, payroll, management and accounting, recruiting selecting and many others. In the present time the role of IT in HRM is very wide and special An IT in HRM generally should provide the capability to more effectively plan, control and manage HR costs; achieve improved efficiency and quality in HR decision making; and improve employee and managerial productivity...

  16. Experience-based human perception of facial expressions in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laëtitia Maréchal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Facial expressions convey key cues of human emotions, and may also be important for interspecies interactions. The universality hypothesis suggests that six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise should be expressed by similar facial expressions in close phylogenetic species such as humans and nonhuman primates. However, some facial expressions have been shown to differ in meaning between humans and nonhuman primates like macaques. This ambiguity in signalling emotion can lead to an increased risk of aggression and injuries for both humans and animals. This raises serious concerns for activities such as wildlife tourism where humans closely interact with wild animals. Understanding what factors (i.e., experience and type of emotion affect ability to recognise emotional state of nonhuman primates, based on their facial expressions, can enable us to test the validity of the universality hypothesis, as well as reduce the risk of aggression and potential injuries in wildlife tourism. Methods The present study investigated whether different levels of experience of Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, affect the ability to correctly assess different facial expressions related to aggressive, distressed, friendly or neutral states, using an online questionnaire. Participants’ level of experience was defined as either: (1 naïve: never worked with nonhuman primates and never or rarely encountered live Barbary macaques; (2 exposed: shown pictures of the different Barbary macaques’ facial expressions along with the description and the corresponding emotion prior to undertaking the questionnaire; (3 expert: worked with Barbary macaques for at least two months. Results Experience with Barbary macaques was associated with better performance in judging their emotional state. Simple exposure to pictures of macaques’ facial expressions improved the ability of inexperienced participants to better discriminate neutral

  17. Experience-based human perception of facial expressions in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchal, Laëtitia; Levy, Xandria; Meints, Kerstin; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2017-01-01

    Facial expressions convey key cues of human emotions, and may also be important for interspecies interactions. The universality hypothesis suggests that six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise) should be expressed by similar facial expressions in close phylogenetic species such as humans and nonhuman primates. However, some facial expressions have been shown to differ in meaning between humans and nonhuman primates like macaques. This ambiguity in signalling emotion can lead to an increased risk of aggression and injuries for both humans and animals. This raises serious concerns for activities such as wildlife tourism where humans closely interact with wild animals. Understanding what factors (i.e., experience and type of emotion) affect ability to recognise emotional state of nonhuman primates, based on their facial expressions, can enable us to test the validity of the universality hypothesis, as well as reduce the risk of aggression and potential injuries in wildlife tourism. The present study investigated whether different levels of experience of Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, affect the ability to correctly assess different facial expressions related to aggressive, distressed, friendly or neutral states, using an online questionnaire. Participants' level of experience was defined as either: (1) naïve: never worked with nonhuman primates and never or rarely encountered live Barbary macaques; (2) exposed: shown pictures of the different Barbary macaques' facial expressions along with the description and the corresponding emotion prior to undertaking the questionnaire; (3) expert: worked with Barbary macaques for at least two months. Experience with Barbary macaques was associated with better performance in judging their emotional state. Simple exposure to pictures of macaques' facial expressions improved the ability of inexperienced participants to better discriminate neutral and distressed faces, and a trend was found for

  18. [Madness and malaria--intersections and boundary blurring between psychiatry and tropical medicine in Hamburg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Stefan; Schmiedebach, Heinz-Peter

    2014-01-01

    The object of this article is to point out and to discuss the significant intersections and boundary blurring between psychiatry and tropical medicine while treating malaria in the German "colonial metropolis" Hamburg. The focus of this study is the Hamburg asylum at Friedrichsberg and the Institute for Maritime and Tropical Diseases (Hamburg Tropical Institute). Under analysis are two groups of patients as well as the means with which their doctors treated them: 1. patients who have been sent back from the German colonies in Africa after mental disorders had been diagnosed, and 2. patients suffering from general paralysis and treated in Friedrichsberg after 1919 using the then newly developed malaria fever therapy (according to Wagner-Jauregg). The implementation of this latter led to an intensification of the cooperation between psychiatry and tropical medicine in Hamburg which prior to this had been only very sporadic.

  19. Limits to Seeing High-Redshift Galaxies Due to Planck-Scale-Induced Blurring

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbring, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade or so there has been debate over the possibility that the fuzzy quantum nature of spacetime might decohere wavefronts emanating from very distant sources. Consequences of that could be "blurred" or "faded" images of compact structures in galaxies, primarily at z>1 for their emitted X-rays and gamma-rays, but perhaps even in ultraviolet through optical light at higher redshift. So far there are only inconclusive hints of this from z~4 active-galactic nucleii and gamma-ray bursts viewed with Fermi and Hubble Space Telescope. If correct though, that would impose a significant, fundamental resolution limit for galaxies out to z~8 in the era of the James Webb Space Telescope and the next generation of ground-based telescopes using adaptive optics.

  20. The islands are different: human perceptions of game species in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Johnson, Edwin D

    2014-10-01

    Hawaii's game animals are all non-native species, which provokes human-wildlife conflict among stakeholders. The management of human-wildlife conflict in Hawaii is further complicated by the discrete nature of island communities. Our goal was to understand the desires and perceived values or impacts of game held by residents of Hawaii regarding six game species [pigs (Sus scrofa), goats (Capra hircus), mouflon (Ovis musimon), axis deer (Axis axis), turkeys (Melagris gallopavo), and doves (Geopelia striata)]. We measured the desired abundance of game on the six main Hawaiian Islands using the potential for conflict index and identified explanatory variables for those desires via recursive partitioning. In 2011 we surveyed 5,407 residents (2,360 random residents and 3,047 pre-identified stakeholders). Overall 54.5 and 27.6 % of the emailed and mailed surveys were returned (n = 1,510). A non-respondent survey revealed that respondents and non-respondents had similar interest in wildlife, and a similar education level. The desired abundance of game differed significantly among stakeholders, species, and islands. The desired abundance scores were higher for axis deer, mouflon, and turkeys compared to pigs, goats or doves. Enjoyment at seeing game and the cultural value of game were widespread explanatory variables for desired abundance. Models for Lanai emphasized the economic value of game, whereas models for Maui identified the potential for game to contaminate soil and water. Models for Oahu and Kauai revealed concern for human health and safety. Given our findings we recommend managers design separate management plans for each island taking into consideration the values of residents.

  1. The Islands Are Different: Human Perceptions of Game Species in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Cheryl A.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Johnson, Edwin D.

    2014-10-01

    Hawaii's game animals are all non-native species, which provokes human-wildlife conflict among stakeholders. The management of human-wildlife conflict in Hawaii is further complicated by the discrete nature of island communities. Our goal was to understand the desires and perceived values or impacts of game held by residents of Hawaii regarding six game species [pigs ( Sus scrofa), goats ( Capra hircus), mouflon ( Ovis musimon), axis deer ( Axis axis), turkeys ( Melagris gallopavo), and doves ( Geopelia striata)]. We measured the desired abundance of game on the six main Hawaiian Islands using the potential for conflict index and identified explanatory variables for those desires via recursive partitioning. In 2011 we surveyed 5,407 residents (2,360 random residents and 3,047 pre-identified stakeholders). Overall 54.5 and 27.6 % of the emailed and mailed surveys were returned ( n = 1,510). A non-respondent survey revealed that respondents and non-respondents had similar interest in wildlife, and a similar education level. The desired abundance of game differed significantly among stakeholders, species, and islands. The desired abundance scores were higher for axis deer, mouflon, and turkeys compared to pigs, goats or doves. Enjoyment at seeing game and the cultural value of game were widespread explanatory variables for desired abundance. Models for Lanai emphasized the economic value of game, whereas models for Maui identified the potential for game to contaminate soil and water. Models for Oahu and Kauai revealed concern for human health and safety. Given our findings we recommend managers design separate management plans for each island taking into consideration the values of residents.

  2. Interteaching within a human physiology course: a comparison of first- and second-year students' learning skills and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Bruce; Guy, Richard

    2016-09-01

    This article describes student perceptions and outcomes in relation to the use of a novel interteaching approach. The study sample (n = 260) was taken from a large human physiology class, which included both first- and second-year students. However, unlike the first-year students, the second-year students had significant prior knowledge, having completed a previous physiology course. Active learning, where students were required to engage with course material in a self-directed manner before tutorials and to identify areas of difficulty and discuss these within tutorial sessions, was a central component of the study. The second-year students adapted quickly to the novel approach, as indicated by stable levels of perceived difficulty and understanding. In contrast, the first-year students demonstrated a decrease in perceived difficulty and an increase in perceived individual understanding throughout the study. These results notwithstanding, there was a consistent low level of interest for both years but no significant difference between the first- and second-year individual and group learning skills by the end of the study, as measured by their performance in the tutorials. Overall, the results were encouraging, with both years achieving a reasonably high learning skill level (average: ∼70%) within the interteaching environment. The improvement of active learning shown by the first-year students may have compensated, to some extent, for the prior learning advantage of the second-year students, since both groups achieved similar marks in the written components of final exams for both interteaching modules.

  3. What are the Mental Health Needs of Adolescents in Rural South Australia? The Perceptions of Human Service Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms Marijeta Kurtin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND:Up to 20% of Australian adolescents experience the burden of having a mental health problem. Priorresearch has suggested that inhabitants of rural areas are at particular risk of mental healthmorbidity due to their location. The current study sought to investigate how ‘rurality’ influences themental health of adolescents in rural South Australia, and to explore the perceptions of the mentalhealth needs of adolescents as described by service providers in rural South Australia.METHODS:Four focus group discussions and 14 interviews were conducted with 38 human (allied health serviceproviders in the Eyre Peninsula, Spencer Gulf, Limestone Coast and Greater Green Triangle regions ofSouth Australia. Semi-structured telephone interviews were also conducted with three Victorianhuman service providers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed to identify emergentthemes.RESULTS:Ninety codes were developed and subsequently categorised into five major themes: Community andSociety Factors; Youth Issues, Indigeneity; Service Delivery and Utilisation; and Occupational Factors.Significant gaps in mental health service delivery were identified. Better utilisation of currentresources was identified as a greater concern than the absence of resources per se.CONCLUSIONS:This study provided a unique opportunity for rural allied and primary health care service providers todiscuss adolescent mental health issues in their communities and as part of their work. The datagenerated by these discussions identified areas where practice could be improved.

  4. Structural relationships between work environment and service quality perceptions as a function of customer contact intensity: implications for human service strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Dennis J; Harmon, Joel; Behson, Scott J

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the importance of customer-contact intensity at the service encounter level as a determinant of service quality assessments. Using data from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, it shows that performance-driven human resources practices play an important role as determinants of employee customer orientation and service capability in both high-contact (outpatient healthcare) and low-contact (benefits claim processing) human service contexts. However, there existed significant differences across service delivery settings in the salience of customer orientation and the congruence between employee and customer perceptions of service quality, depending on the intensity of customer contact. In both contexts, managerial attention to high-performance work systems and customer-orientation has the potential to favorably impact perceptions of service quality, amplify consumer satisfaction, and enhance operational efficiency.

  5. Genetic and molecular basis of individual differences in human umami taste perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriatsu Shigemura

    Full Text Available Umami taste (corresponds to savory in English is elicited by L-glutamate, typically as its Na salt (monosodium glutamate: MSG, and is one of five basic taste qualities that plays a key role in intake of amino acids. A particular property of umami is the synergistic potentiation of glutamate by purine nucleotide monophosphates (IMP, GMP. A heterodimer of a G protein coupled receptor, TAS1R1 and TAS1R3, is proposed to function as its receptor. However, little is known about genetic variation of TAS1R1 and TAS1R3 and its potential links with individual differences in umami sensitivity. Here we investigated the association between recognition thresholds for umami substances and genetic variations in human TAS1R1 and TAS1R3, and the functions of TAS1R1/TAS1R3 variants using a heterologous expression system. Our study demonstrated that the TAS1R1-372T creates a more sensitive umami receptor than -372A, while TAS1R3-757C creates a less sensitive one than -757R for MSG and MSG plus IMP, and showed a strong correlation between the recognition thresholds and in vitro dose-response relationships. These results in human studies support the propositions that a TAS1R1/TAS1R3 heterodimer acts as an umami receptor, and that genetic variation in this heterodimer directly affects umami taste sensitivity.

  6. Perceptions of human cadaver dissection by medical students: a highly valued experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj, Inaya; Dany, Mohammed; Forbes, William; Barremkala, Mallikarjuna; Thompson, Brent J; Jurjus, Abdo

    2015-01-01

    Cadaver dissection remains a cornerstone in the study of anatomical sciences by medical students. However, this activity can cause emotions that may affect learning outcomes. This study, which involved medical students of various cultural backgrounds, assessed their responses to dissection. Medicine I year students (n = 100) at Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine were invited to complete a questionnaire after the first week of dissection, and again at the end of the course. The questionnaire asked for demographics, and assessed the students' appraisal of their dissection experience, cultural influences, coping activities and learning outcomes. After the first week of dissection, most of the students found the experience challenging, stimulating, exciting and informative, rather than nauseating or unbearable. Still, some students found the experience anxiety-provoking, especially when they thought about human mortality. Cultural background influenced the students' emotional development as they worked through the course. Most of the participants agreed that dissection promotes teamwork, familiarity with the human body, and integration of the theoretical knowledge with practical application. At the end of the course, dissection was significantly less anxiety-provoking, and, interestingly, the study found that culture and religious beliefs became more important to the students. Most students agreed that dissection is important, relevant, and necessary, and has the potential to improve learning outcomes that are essential to the development of physicians. The study suggests that an introductory course in social, behavioral and ethical considerations be presented at the beginning of the medical curriculum.

  7. Visual Warning Signals Optimized for Human Perception: What the Eye Sees Fastest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Gros

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to answer the question of how to design a visual warning signal that is most easily seen and produces the quickest reaction time. This is a classic problem of bionic optimization—if one knows the properties of the receiver one can most easily find a suitable solution. Because the peak of the spatio-temporal contrast sensitivity function of the human visual system occurs at non-zero spatial and temporal frequencies, it is likely that movement enhances the detectability of threshold visual signals. Earlier studies employing extended drifting sinewave gratings bear out this prediction. We have studied the ability of human observers to detect threshold visual signals for both moving and stationary stimuli. We used discrete, localized signals such as might be employed in aerospace or automotive warning signal displays. Moving stimuli show a superior detectability to non-moving stimuli of the same integrated energy. Moving stimuli at threshold detectability are seen faster than non-moving threshold stimuli. Under some conditions the speed advantage is over 0.25 seconds. Similar advantages have also been shown to occur for suprathreshold signals.

  8. Impact of perception and attitude towards the study of African languages on Human Resource needs: A case for Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gora, Ruth Babra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the Zimbabwean high school curriculum has remained largely irrelevant to human resource needs for professions that draw expertise from African languages, such as teaching, translating, broadcasting and interpreting. Despite some curriculum reforms after the attainment of political independence, effects of colonial language policy and language planning with regard to the Zimbabwean education system seem to have remained intact. As a result, observations have been made that the system continues to churn out Africans who are still deeply rooted in the belief that the study of foreign languages, English in particular, prepares them for a better and brighter future than African languages would. The belief is largely that a pass in English guarantees them better, higher-paying, more prestigious and more readily available jobs than would African languages. The education system in Zimbabwe today, this paper argues, has negative perceptions and attitudes towards the study of African languages. African languages-related professions are therefore filled by people with little or no sound background knowledge in the area. In addition, those who end up being absorbed in professions that draw from the African languages area, in most cases, are not satisfied. The same can be said of most other African countries that were subjected to colonialism in the past and neo-colonialism today, under the vague and obscure concepts of globalisation and modernisation. Against this backdrop, the article advocates for the re-engineering of the Zimbabwean school core-curriculum by incorporating mandatory study of an indigenous language, at least up to ‘O’ level, in a bid to preserve and promote African languages and at the same time meet human resource needs of professions that draw from the discipline over time.

  9. Judging whether a patient is actually improving: more pitfalls from the science of human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Dickinson, Victoria M

    2012-09-01

    Fallible human judgment may lead clinicians to make mistakes when assessing whether a patient is improving following treatment. This article provides a narrative review of selected studies in psychology that describe errors that potentially apply when a physician assesses a patient's response to treatment. Comprehension may be distorted by subjective preconceptions (lack of double blinding). Recall may fail through memory lapses (unwanted forgetfulness) and tacit assumptions (automatic imputation). Evaluations may be further compromised due to the effects of random chance (regression to the mean). Expression may be swayed by unjustified overconfidence following conformist groupthink (group polarization). An awareness of these five pitfalls may help clinicians avoid some errors in medical care when determining whether a patient is improving.

  10. The perception of regularity in an isochronous stimulus in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aa, Jeroen; Honing, Henkjan; ten Cate, Carel

    2015-06-01

    Perceiving temporal regularity in an auditory stimulus is considered one of the basic features of musicality. Here we examine whether zebra finches can detect regularity in an isochronous stimulus. Using a go/no go paradigm we show that zebra finches are able to distinguish between an isochronous and an irregular stimulus. However, when the tempo of the isochronous stimulus is changed, it is no longer treated as similar to the training stimulus. Training with three isochronous and three irregular stimuli did not result in improvement of the generalization. In contrast, humans, exposed to the same stimuli, readily generalized across tempo changes. Our results suggest that zebra finches distinguish the different stimuli by learning specific local temporal features of each individual stimulus rather than attending to the global structure of the stimuli, i.e., to the temporal regularity.

  11. Perception, action, and word meanings in the human brain: the case from action verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedny, Marina; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2011-04-01

    Among other things, humans talk about what they perceive and do, like "glowing,"hopping," and "squeaking." What is the relationship between our sensory-motor experiences and word meanings? Does understanding action-verbs rely on the same neural circuits as seeing and acting? The available evidence indicates that sensory-motor experience and word meanings are represented in distinct, but interacting systems. Understanding action-verbs does not rely on early modality-specific visual or motor circuits. Instead, word comprehension relies on a network of amodal brain regions in the left frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices that represent conceptual and grammatical properties of words. Interactions between word meanings and sensory-motor experiences occur in higher-order polymodal brain regions. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Metaplasticity in human primary somatosensory cortex: effects on physiology and tactile perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christina B; Lulic, Tea; Bailey, Aaron Z; Mackenzie, Tanner N; Mi, Yi Qun; Tommerdahl, Mark; Nelson, Aimee J

    2016-05-01

    Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) over human primary motor cortex evokes plasticity and metaplasticity, the latter contributing to the homeostatic balance of excitation and inhibition. Our knowledge of TBS-induced effects on primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is limited, and it is unknown whether TBS induces metaplasticity within human SI. Sixteen right-handed participants (6 females, mean age 23 yr) received two TBS protocols [continuous TBS (cTBS) and intermittent TBS (iTBS)] delivered in six different combinations over SI in separate sessions. TBS protocols were delivered at 30 Hz and were as follows: a single cTBS protocol, a single iTBS protocol, cTBS followed by cTBS, iTBS followed by iTBS, cTBS followed by iTBS, and iTBS followed by cTBS. Measures included the amplitudes of the first and second somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) via median nerve stimulation, their paired-pulse ratio (PPR), and temporal order judgment (TOJ). Dependent measures were obtained before TBS and at 5, 25, 50, and 90 min following stimulation. Results indicate similar effects following cTBS and iTBS; increased amplitudes of the second SEP and PPR without amplitude changes to SEP 1, and impairments in TOJ. Metaplasticity was observed such that TOJ impairments following a single cTBS protocol were abolished following consecutive cTBS protocols. Additionally, consecutive iTBS protocols altered the time course of effects when compared with a single iTBS protocol. In conclusion, 30-Hz cTBS and iTBS protocols delivered in isolation induce effects consistent with a TBS-induced reduction in intracortical inhibition within SI. Furthermore, cTBS- and iTBS-induced metaplasticity appear to follow homeostatic and nonhomeostatic rules, respectively.

  13. Glacier Retreat in the Southern Peruvian Andes: Climate Change, Environmental Impacts, Human Perception and Social Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlove, B.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents results from recent environmental and anthropological research near glacierized areas in the department of Cusco, Peru, home to the well-known Quelccaya Ice Cap and to the peak of Ausangate (6384 m). Glaciers in the region are in negative mass balance, losing volume and area, with upslope movement of the glacier fronts. Somewhat paradoxically, flows in many streams close to the glaciers are reduced, particularly in the dry season, due to a shift in the seasonal distribution of melting, to increased evaporation and to increased percolation into newly-exposed sands and gravels. Associated with this reduction in flow is a desiccation of some anthropogenic and natural wetlands, reducing the availability of dry season forage to wild (vicuna) and domesticated (alpaca, llama) ruminants. Interviews and ethnographic observations with local populations of Quechua-speaking herders at elevations of 4500-5200 meters provide detailed comments on these changes. They have an extensive vocabulary of terms for glacial features associated with retreat. They link this treat with environmental factors (higher temperatures, greater winds that deposit dust on lower portions of glaciers) and with religious factors (divine punishment for human wrong-doing, failure of humans to respect mountain spirits). They describe a variety of economic and extra-economic impacts of this retreat on different spatial, social and temporal scales. Though they face other issues as well (threats of pollution from new mining projects, inadequacy of government services), glacier retreat is their principal concern. Many herders express extreme distress over this unprecedented threat to their livelihoods and communities, though a few propose responses - out-migration, the formation of an association of neighboring communities, development of irrigation works - that could serve as adaptations.

  14. Metaplasticity in human primary somatosensory cortex: effects on physiology and tactile perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christina B.; Lulic, Tea; Bailey, Aaron Z.; Mackenzie, Tanner N.; Mi, Yi Qun; Tommerdahl, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) over human primary motor cortex evokes plasticity and metaplasticity, the latter contributing to the homeostatic balance of excitation and inhibition. Our knowledge of TBS-induced effects on primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is limited, and it is unknown whether TBS induces metaplasticity within human SI. Sixteen right-handed participants (6 females, mean age 23 yr) received two TBS protocols [continuous TBS (cTBS) and intermittent TBS (iTBS)] delivered in six different combinations over SI in separate sessions. TBS protocols were delivered at 30 Hz and were as follows: a single cTBS protocol, a single iTBS protocol, cTBS followed by cTBS, iTBS followed by iTBS, cTBS followed by iTBS, and iTBS followed by cTBS. Measures included the amplitudes of the first and second somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) via median nerve stimulation, their paired-pulse ratio (PPR), and temporal order judgment (TOJ). Dependent measures were obtained before TBS and at 5, 25, 50, and 90 min following stimulation. Results indicate similar effects following cTBS and iTBS; increased amplitudes of the second SEP and PPR without amplitude changes to SEP 1, and impairments in TOJ. Metaplasticity was observed such that TOJ impairments following a single cTBS protocol were abolished following consecutive cTBS protocols. Additionally, consecutive iTBS protocols altered the time course of effects when compared with a single iTBS protocol. In conclusion, 30-Hz cTBS and iTBS protocols delivered in isolation induce effects consistent with a TBS-induced reduction in intracortical inhibition within SI. Furthermore, cTBS- and iTBS-induced metaplasticity appear to follow homeostatic and nonhomeostatic rules, respectively. PMID:26984422

  15. Blurred controlling of crossroads traffic light%十字路口交通灯的模糊控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖霄

    2009-01-01

    we could control the crossroads traffic light by blur,to solve the situation of crowded traffic in traditional controlling%通过对十字路口交通灯的模糊控制,解决了在传统控制中出现的交通堵塞情况.

  16. Few-view single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction based on a blurred piecewise constant object model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Paul A.; Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer; Schmidt, Taly G.

    2013-01-01

    A sparsity-exploiting algorithm intended for few-view Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) reconstruction is proposed and characterized. The algorithm models the object as piecewise constant subject to a blurring operation. To validate that the algorithm closely approximates the true...

  17. Learning acts on distinct processes for visual form perception in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Stephen D; Li, Sheng; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2012-01-18

    Learning is known to facilitate our ability to detect targets in clutter and optimize brain processes for successful visual recognition. Previous brain-imaging studies have focused on identifying spatial patterns (i.e., brain areas) that change with learning, implicating occipitotemporal and frontoparietal areas. However, little is known about the interactions within this network that mediate learning-dependent improvement in complex perceptual tasks (i.e., discrimination of visual forms in clutter). Here we take advantage of the complementary high spatial and temporal resolution of simultaneous EEG-fMRI to identify the learning-dependent changes in spatiotemporal brain patterns that mediate enhanced behavioral sensitivity in the discrimination of global forms after training. We measured the observers' choices when discriminating between concentric and radial patterns presented in noise before and after training. Similarly, we measured the choices of a pattern classifier when predicting each stimulus from EEG-fMRI signals. By comparing the performance of human observers and classifiers, we demonstrated that learning alters sensitivity to visual forms and EEG-fMRI activation patterns related to distinct visual recognition processes. In particular, behavioral improvement after training was associated with changes in (1) early processes involved in the integration of global forms in higher occipitotemporal and parietal areas, and (2) later processes related to categorical judgments in frontal circuits. Thus, our findings provide evidence that learning acts on distinct visual recognition processes and shapes feedforward interactions across brain areas to support performance in complex perceptual tasks.

  18. Cortical oscillations in auditory perception and speech: evidence for two temporal windows in human auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan eLuo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural sounds, including vocal communication sounds, contain critical information at multiple time scales. Two essential temporal modulation rates in speech have been argued to be in the low gamma band (~20-80 ms duration information and the theta band (~150-300 ms, corresponding to segmental and syllabic modulation rates, respectively. On one hypothesis, auditory cortex implements temporal integration using time constants closely related to these values. The neural correlates of a proposed dual temporal window mechanism in human auditory cortex remain poorly understood. We recorded MEG responses from participants listening to non-speech auditory stimuli with different temporal structures, created by concatenating frequency-modulated segments of varied segment durations. We show that these non-speech stimuli with temporal structure matching speech-relevant scales (~25 ms and ~200 ms elicit reliable phase tracking in the corresponding associated oscillatory frequencies (low gamma and theta bands. In contrast, stimuli with non-matching temporal structure do not. Furthermore, the topography of theta band phase tracking shows rightward lateralization while gamma band phase tracking occurs bilaterally. The results support the hypothesis that there exists multi-time resolution processing in cortex on discontinuous scales and provide evidence for an asymmetric organization of temporal analysis (asymmetrical sampling in time, AST. The data argue for a macroscopic-level neural mechanism underlying multi-time resolution processing: the sliding and resetting of intrinsic temporal windows on privileged time scales.

  19. Tactile Toe Agnosia and Percept of a "Missing Toe" in Healthy Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicmil, Nela; Meyer, Achim P; Stein, John F

    2016-03-01

    A disturbance of body representation is central to many neurological and psychiatric conditions, but the mechanisms by which body representations are constructed by the brain are not fully understood. We demonstrate a directional disturbance in tactile identification of the toes in healthy humans. Nineteen young adult participants underwent tactile stimulation of the digits with the eyes closed and verbally reported the identity of the stimulated digit. In the majority of individuals, responses to the second and third toes were significantly biased toward the laterally neighboring digit. The directional bias was greater for the nondominant foot and was affected by the identity of the immediately preceding stimulated toe. Unexpectedly, 9/19 participants reported the subjective experience of a "missing toe" or "missing space" during the protocol. These findings challenge current models of somatosensory localization, as they cannot be explained simply by a lack of distinct representations for toes compared with fingers, or by overt toe-finger correspondences. We present a novel theory of equal spatial representations of digit width combined with a "preceding neighbor" effect to explain the observed phenomena. The diagnostic implications for neurological disorders that involve "digit agnosia" are discussed.

  20. Processed images in human perception: A case study in ultrasound breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Moi Hoon [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, FH09, Ergonomics and Safety Research Institute, Holywell Park (United Kingdom)], E-mail: M.H.Yap@lboro.ac.uk; Edirisinghe, Eran [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, FJ.05, Garendon Wing, Holywell Park, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Bez, Helmut [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, Room N.2.26, Haslegrave Building, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Two main research efforts in early detection of breast cancer include the development of software tools to assist radiologists in identifying abnormalities and the development of training tools to enhance their skills. Medical image analysis systems, widely known as Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) systems, play an important role in this respect. Often it is important to determine whether there is a benefit in including computer-processed images in the development of such software tools. In this paper, we investigate the effects of computer-processed images in improving human performance in ultrasound breast cancer detection (a perceptual task) and classification (a cognitive task). A survey was conducted on a group of expert radiologists and a group of non-radiologists. In our experiments, random test images from a large database of ultrasound images were presented to subjects. In order to gather appropriate formal feedback, questionnaires were prepared to comment on random selections of original images only, and on image pairs consisting of original images displayed alongside computer-processed images. We critically compare and contrast the performance of the two groups according to perceptual and cognitive tasks. From a Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis, we conclude that the provision of computer-processed images alongside the original ultrasound images, significantly improve the perceptual tasks of non-radiologists but only marginal improvements are shown in the perceptual and cognitive tasks of the group of expert radiologists.

  1. Human gender differences in the perception of conspecific alarm chemosensory cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca R Radulescu

    Full Text Available It has previously been established that, in threatening situations, animals use alarm pheromones to communicate danger. There is emerging evidence of analogous chemosensory "stress" cues in humans. For this study, we collected alarm and exercise sweat from "donors," extracted it, pooled it and presented it to 16 unrelated "detector" subjects undergoing fMRI. The fMRI protocol consisted of four stimulus runs, with each combination of stimulus condition and donor gender represented four times. Because olfactory stimuli do not follow the canonical hemodynamic response, we used a model-free approach. We performed minimal preprocessing and worked directly with block-average time series and step-function estimates. We found that, while male stress sweat produced a comparably strong emotional response in both detector genders, female stress sweat produced a markedly stronger arousal in female than in male detectors. Our statistical tests pinpointed this gender-specificity to the right amygdala (strongest in the superficial nuclei. When comparing the olfactory bulb responses to the corresponding stimuli, we found no significant differences between male and female detectors. These imaging results complement existing behavioral evidence, by identifying whether gender differences in response to alarm chemosignals are initiated at the perceptual versus emotional level. Since we found no significant differences in the olfactory bulb (primary processing site for chemosensory signals in mammals, we infer that the specificity in responding to female fear is likely based on processing meaning, rather than strength, of chemosensory cues from each gender.

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Using drug from mathematical perceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Amar Nath; Saha, Shubhankar; Roy, Priti Kumar

    2015-11-12

    Entry of acquired immune deficiency syndrome virus into the host immune cell involves the participation of various components of host and viral cell unit. These components may be categorized as attachment of the viral surface envelope protein subunit, gp120, to the CD4(+) receptor and chemokine coreceptors, CCR5 and CXCR4, present on T cell surface. The viral fusion protein, gp41, the second cleaved subunit of Env undergoes reconfiguration and the membrane fusion reaction itself. Since the CD4(+) T cell population is actively involved; the ultimate outcome of human immunodeficiency virus infection is total collapse of the host immune system. Mathematical modeling of the stages in viral membrane protein-host cell receptor-coreceptor interaction and the effect of antibody vaccine on the viral entry into the susceptible host cell has been carried out using as impulsive differential equations. We have studied the effect of antibody vaccination and determined analytically the threshold value of drug dosage and dosing interval for optimum levels of infection. We have also investigated the effect of perfect adherence of drug dose on the immune cell count in extreme cases and observed that systematic drug dosage of the immune cells leads to longer and improved lives.

  3. Alpha stimulation of the human parietal cortex attunes tactile perception to external space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzoli, Manuela; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2014-02-03

    An intriguing question in neuroscience concerns how somatosensory events on the skin are represented in the human brain. Since Head and Holmes' [1] neuropsychological dissociation between localizing touch on the skin and localizing body parts in external space, touch is considered to operate in a variety of spatial reference frames [2]. At least two representations of space are in competition during orienting to touch: a somatotopic one, reflecting the organization of the somatosensory cortex (S1) [3], and a more abstract, external reference frame that factors postural changes in relation to body parts and/or external space [4, 5]. Previous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays a key role in supporting representations as well as orienting attention in an external reference frame [4, 6]. Here, we capitalized on the TMS entrainment approach [7, 8], targeting the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). We found that frequency-specific (10 Hz) tuning of the PPC induced spatially specific enhancement of tactile detection that was expressed in an external reference frame. This finding establishes a tight causal link between a concrete form of brain activity (10 Hz oscillation) and a specific type of spatial representation, revealing a fundamental property of how the parietal cortex encodes information.

  4. Probenecid inhibits the human bitter taste receptor TAS2R16 and suppresses bitter perception of salicin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffani A Greene

    Full Text Available Bitter taste stimuli are detected by a diverse family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs expressed in gustatory cells. Each bitter taste receptor (TAS2R responds to an array of compounds, many of which are toxic and can be found in nature. For example, human TAS2R16 (hTAS2R16 responds to β-glucosides such as salicin, and hTAS2R38 responds to thiourea-containing molecules such as glucosinolates and phenylthiocarbamide (PTC. While many substances are known to activate TAS2Rs, only one inhibitor that specifically blocks bitter receptor activation has been described. Here, we describe a new inhibitor of bitter taste receptors, p-(dipropylsulfamoylbenzoic acid (probenecid, that acts on a subset of TAS2Rs and inhibits through a novel, allosteric mechanism of action. Probenecid is an FDA-approved inhibitor of the Multidrug Resistance Protein 1 (MRP1 transporter and is clinically used to treat gout in humans. Probenecid is also commonly used to enhance cellular signals in GPCR calcium mobilization assays. We show that probenecid specifically inhibits the cellular response mediated by the bitter taste receptor hTAS2R16 and provide molecular and pharmacological evidence for direct interaction with this GPCR using a non-competitive (allosteric mechanism. Through a comprehensive analysis of hTAS2R16 point mutants, we define amino acid residues involved in the probenecid interaction that result in decreased sensitivity to probenecid while maintaining normal responses to salicin. Probenecid inhibits hTAS2R16, hTAS2R38, and hTAS2R43, but does not inhibit the bitter receptor hTAS2R31 or non-TAS2R GPCRs. Additionally, structurally unrelated MRP1 inhibitors, such as indomethacin, fail to inhibit hTAS2R16 function. Finally, we demonstrate that the inhibitory activity of probenecid in cellular experiments translates to inhibition of bitter taste perception of salicin in humans. This work identifies probenecid as a pharmacological tool for understanding the cell

  5. Behavioral Perceptions of Oakland University Female College Students towards Human Papillomavirus Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishwarya Navalpakam

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccination decreases the risk for cervical cancer. However, the uptake of HPV vaccine remains low when compared with other recommended vaccines. This study evaluates the knowledge and attitudes towards HPV infection and vaccination, and the readiness for the uptake of HPV vaccine amongst female students attending Oakland University (OU in Michigan, United States. This is a cross-sectional study targeting a randomized sample of a 1000 female OU students using an online questionnaire. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software. A total of 192 female students, with the mean age of 24 years completed the survey. The majority of participants had previous sexual experience with occasional use of contraceptives (78.1%, were non-smokers (92.7%, and non-alcohol drinkers (54.2%. The participants had a mean knowledge score of 53.0% with a standard error of 2.3% translating to a moderately informed population. The majority agreed that HPV is life threatening (79%, the vaccine prevents cervical cancer (62%, and that side effects would not deter them from vaccination (63%. Although two thirds (67% believed that, based on sexual practices in the United States, female college students in Michigan have a higher chance of contracting HPV, about 50% did not believe they themselves were at risk. Higher knowledge correlated with increased recommendation for the vaccine (correlation-factor 0.20, p = 0.005. Results suggested that the best predictor for improvement of vaccination was the awareness level and health education. This indicates a need for an educational intervention to raise awareness, increase HPV vaccine uptake, and decrease the incidence of cervical cancer.

  6. Behavioral Perceptions of Oakland University Female College Students towards Human Papillomavirus Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navalpakam, Aishwarya; Dany, Mohammed; Hajj Hussein, Inaya

    2016-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination decreases the risk for cervical cancer. However, the uptake of HPV vaccine remains low when compared with other recommended vaccines. This study evaluates the knowledge and attitudes towards HPV infection and vaccination, and the readiness for the uptake of HPV vaccine amongst female students attending Oakland University (OU) in Michigan, United States. This is a cross-sectional study targeting a randomized sample of a 1000 female OU students using an online questionnaire. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software. A total of 192 female students, with the mean age of 24 years completed the survey. The majority of participants had previous sexual experience with occasional use of contraceptives (78.1%), were non-smokers (92.7%), and non-alcohol drinkers (54.2%). The participants had a mean knowledge score of 53.0% with a standard error of 2.3% translating to a moderately informed population. The majority agreed that HPV is life threatening (79%), the vaccine prevents cervical cancer (62%), and that side effects would not deter them from vaccination (63%). Although two thirds (67%) believed that, based on sexual practices in the United States, female college students in Michigan have a higher chance of contracting HPV, about 50% did not believe they themselves were at risk. Higher knowledge correlated with increased recommendation for the vaccine (correlation-factor 0.20, p = 0.005). Results suggested that the best predictor for improvement of vaccination was the awareness level and health education. This indicates a need for an educational intervention to raise awareness, increase HPV vaccine uptake, and decrease the incidence of cervical cancer.

  7. How does your own knowledge influence the perception of another person's action in the human brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Richard; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2012-02-01

    When you see someone reach into a cookie jar, their goal remains obvious even if you know that the last cookie has already been eaten. Thus, it is possible to infer the goal of an action even if you know that the goal cannot be achieved. Previous research has identified distinct brain networks for processing information about object locations, actions and mental-state inferences. However, the relationship between brain networks for action understanding in social contexts remains unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, this study assesses the role of these networks in understanding another person searching for hidden objects. Participants watched movie clips depicting a toy animal hiding and an actor, who was ignorant of the hiding place, searching in the filled or empty location. When the toy animal hid in the same location repeatedly, the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response was suppressed in occipital, posterior temporal and posterior parietal brain regions, consistent with processing object properties and spatial attention. When the actor searched in the same location repeatedly, the BOLD signal was suppressed in the inferior frontal gyrus, consistent with the observation of hand actions. In contrast, searches towards the filled location compared to the empty location were associated with a greater response in the medial prefrontal cortex and right temporal pole, which are both associated with mental state inference. These findings show that when observing another person search for a hidden object, brain networks for processing information about object properties, actions and mental state inferences work together in a complementary fashion. This supports the hypothesis that brain regions within and beyond the putative human mirror neuron system are involved in action comprehension within social contexts.

  8. Music Sound and Picture Perception: Topography of the Human Brain Electrical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichian Sittiprapaporn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The functional properties and topographic distribution of eventrelated potential (ERP components elicited by simultaneously music sound and picture discrimination were investigated. Simultaneous audio-visual stimulus in the oddball paradigm was used to re-examine the MMN occurrence in auditory, visual and audiovisual modalities. This study was designed to investigate whether task-related processing of visual and auditory features was independent or task-related processing in one modality might influence the processing of the other. The grand-average deviant-related components producing deviant-related negativities (DRNs divided into and early DRN1 around 100- 200 ms and late DRN2 around 200-300 ms. Two ERP components were found: MMN associated with DRN1, and N2b associated with DRN2. MMN and N2b were more negative when a stimulus was a target, showing the selection negativity effect. Feature-specific effects on component amplitude or topography varied by component. ANOVA shows that the interaction between electrode site and modality of MMN amplitudes at 100- 200 ms was statistically significant. The difference waves with 100-200 ms latency at the anterior sites were markedly different to the posterior sites. In visual modality, there was no MMN elicitation in the posterior sites compared to the auditory and audiovisual modalities. The emergence of posterior negativity (MMN in the present study is thus not to be attributed to visual discrimination process. These data provide topographic evidence that ERP components in the 100-300 ms time domain can be differentiated on the basis to proceeding of specific stimuli features, and reflect neurophysiologically distinct auditory and visual pathways in the human cortex.

  9. A 58-year-old female with blurred vision and apraxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hong SHI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old right handed woman, with 12 years of formal education, had a five-year history of slowly progressive blurred vision and apraxia. Five years before the examination she gradually became blurred vision and had difficulties identifying static objects within the visual field. Then she went to an ophthalmologist and received cataract surgery. However, the symptoms were not improved after surgery. Two years later, she had difficulty doing household chores and was unable to dress herself. She developed an anxiety disorder in the absence of prominent language or memory deficits. Five years after onset, she showed global cognitive decline and abilities of daily life decline. On neurological examination she was alert. Neuropsychological testing revealed a mini-mental state examination (MMSE score of 20/30 with anomia, agraphia, alexia and partial impairment on time orientation. Biochemical investigations for disorders involving thyroid function, vitamin B12, and folate were unremarkable. A brain MRI showed diffuse cortical atrophy and hippocampus atrophy. An 18F-FDG PET scan showed bilateral hypometabolism at the frontal lobes, tempoparietooccipital adjunction, posterior cingulate cortices and precuneus, insular lobes, caudate nuclei and right thalamus. An 11C-PIB PET scan showed bilateral amyloid deposits at bilateral frontal lobes and occipital lobes, left temporal lobe and insular, basal ganglia, bilateral cingulate cortices and precuneus. No PSEN1, PSEN2 or APP mutations were identified. This early-onset patient had an unusual cognitive complaint, including visual agnosia and apraxia. The clinical features, structural and functional imaging findings of this case were compatible with the diagnosis of Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA. PCA is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by a progressive, often dramatic and relatively selective decline in visual processing skills and other functions subserved by parietal, occipital and

  10. Unmanned Ground Vehicle Perception Using Thermal Infrared Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry; Bajracharya, Max; Assad, Christopher; Brennan, Shane; Bellut, Paolo; Sherwin, Gary

    2011-01-01

    TIR cameras can be used for day/night Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) autonomous navigation when stealth is required. The quality of uncooled TIR cameras has significantly improved over the last decade, making them a viable option at low speed Limiting factors for stereo ranging with uncooled LWIR cameras are image blur and low texture scenes TIR perception capabilities JPL has explored includes: (1) single and dual band TIR terrain classification (2) obstacle detection (pedestrian, vehicle, tree trunks, ditches, and water) (3) perception thru obscurants

  11. Brain connections of words, perceptions and actions: A neurobiological model of spatio-temporal semantic activation in the human cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Rosario; Garagnani, Max; Wennekers, Thomas; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2017-04-01

    Neuroimaging and patient studies show that different areas of cortex respectively specialize for general and selective, or category-specific, semantic processing. Why are there both semantic hubs and category-specificity, and how come that they emerge in different cortical regions? Can the activation time-course of these areas be predicted and explained by brain-like network models? In this present work, we extend a neurocomputational model of human cortical function to simulate the time-course of cortical processes of understanding meaningful concrete words. The model implements frontal and temporal cortical areas for language, perception, and action along with their connectivity. It uses Hebbian learning to semantically ground words in aspects of their referential object- and action-related meaning. Compared with earlier proposals, the present model incorporates additional neuroanatomical links supported by connectivity studies and downscaled synaptic weights in order to control for functional between-area differences purely due to the number of in- or output links of an area. We show that learning of semantic relationships between words and the objects and actions these symbols are used to speak about, leads to the formation of distributed circuits, which all include neuronal material in connector hub areas bridging between sensory and motor cortical systems. Therefore, these connector hub areas acquire a role as semantic hubs. By differentially reaching into motor or visual areas, the cortical distributions of the emergent 'semantic circuits' reflect aspects of the represented symbols' meaning, thus explaining category-specificity. The improved connectivity structure of our model entails a degree of category-specificity even in the 'semantic hubs' of the model. The relative time-course of activation of these areas is typically fast and near-simultaneous, with semantic hubs central to the network structure activating before modality-preferential areas carrying

  12. Quantitative model of cellulite: three-dimensional skin surface topography, biophysical characterization, and relationship to human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalls, Lola K; Lee, Caroline Y; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kitzmiller, W John; Wickett, R Randall; Visscher, Marty O

    2005-01-01

    Gynoid lipodystrophy (cellulite) is the irregular, dimpled skin surface of the thighs, abdomen, and buttocks in 85% of post-adolescent women. The distinctive surface morphology is believed to result when subcutaneous adipose tissue protrudes into the lower reticular dermis, thereby creating irregularities at the surface. The biomechanical properties of epidermal and dermal tissue may also influence severity. Cellulite-affected thigh sites were measured in 51 females with varying degrees of cellulite, in 11 non-cellulite controls, and in 10 male controls. A non-contact high-resolution three-dimensional laser surface scanner was used to quantify the skin surface morphology and determine specific roughness values. The scans were evaluated by experts and naive judges (n=62). Body composition was evaluated via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; dermal thickness and the dermal-subcutaneous junction were evaluated via high-resolution 3D ultrasound and surface photography under compression. Biomechanical properties were also measured. The roughness parameters Svm (mean depth of the lowest valleys) and Sdr (ratio between the roughness surface area and the area of the xy plane) were highly correlated to the expert image grades and, therefore, designated as the quantitative measures of cellulite severity. The strength of the correlations among naive grades, expert grades, and roughness values confirmed that the data quantitatively evaluate the human perception of cellulite. Cellulite severity was correlated to BMI, thigh circumference, percent thigh fat, architecture of the dermal-subcutaneous border (ultrasound surface area, red-band SD from compressed images), compliance, and stiffness (negative correlation). Cellulite severity was predicted by the percent fat and the area of the dermal-subcutaneous border. The biomechanical properties did not significantly contribute to the prediction. Comparison of the parameters for females and males further suggest that percent thigh fat

  13. Human subjects’ perception of indoor environment and their office work performance during exposures to moderate operative temperature ramps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.;

    2008-01-01

    sensation was also included. Subjects filled out questionnaires regarding perception of the environment and intensity of SBS symptoms. Subjects performed simulated office tasks (addition, text typing, proof reading, comprehension and reasoning). Results showed that all tested ramps were recognized...

  14. Relationship between threshold and suprathreshold perception of position and stereoscopic depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Saumil S; Bedell, Harold E; Tsang, Dorcas K; Ukwade, Michael T

    2009-04-01

    We seek to determine the relationship between threshold and suprathreshold perception for position offset and stereoscopic depth perception under conditions that elevate their respective thresholds. Two threshold-elevating conditions were used: (1) increasing the interline gap and (2) dioptric blur. Although increasing the interline gap increases position (Vernier) offset and stereoscopic disparity thresholds substantially, the perception of suprathreshold position offset and stereoscopic depth remains unchanged. Perception of suprathreshold position offset also remains unchanged when the Vernier threshold is elevated by dioptric blur. We show that such normalization of suprathreshold position offset can be attributed to the topographical-map-based encoding of position. On the other hand, dioptric blur increases the stereoscopic disparity thresholds and reduces the perceived suprathreshold stereoscopic depth, which can be accounted for by a disparity-computation model in which the activities of absolute disparity encoders are multiplied by a Gaussian weighting function that is centered on the horopter. Overall, the statement "equal suprathreshold perception occurs in threshold-elevated and unelevated conditions when the stimuli are equally above their corresponding thresholds" describes the results better than the statement "suprathreshold stimuli are perceived as equal when they are equal multiples of their respective threshold values."

  15. Depth perception not found in human observers for static or dynamic anti-correlated random dot stereograms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B Hibbard

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges in visual neuroscience is that of linking neural activity with perceptual experience. In the case of binocular depth perception, important insights have been achieved through comparing neural responses and the perception of depth, for carefully selected stimuli. One of the most important types of stimulus that has been used here is the anti-correlated random dot stereogram (ACRDS. In these stimuli, the contrast polarity of one half of a stereoscopic image is reversed. While neurons in cortical area V1 respond reliably to the binocular disparities in ACRDS, they do not create a sensation of depth. This discrepancy has been used to argue that depth perception must rely on neural activity elsewhere in the brain. Currently, the psychophysical results on which this argument rests are not clear-cut. While it is generally assumed that ACRDS do not support the perception of depth, some studies have reported that some people, some of the time, perceive depth in some types of these stimuli. Given the importance of these results for understanding the neural correlates of stereopsis, we studied depth perception in ACRDS using a large number of observers, in order to provide an unambiguous conclusion about the extent to which these stimuli support the perception of depth. We presented observers with random dot stereograms in which correlated dots were presented in a surrounding annulus and correlated or anti-correlated dots were presented in a central circular region. While observers could reliably report the depth of the central region for correlated stimuli, we found no evidence for depth perception in static or dynamic anti-correlated stimuli. Confidence ratings for stereoscopic perception were uniformly low for anti-correlated stimuli, but showed normal variation with disparity for correlated stimuli. These results establish that the inability of observers to perceive depth in ACRDS is a robust phenomenon.

  16. Depth perception not found in human observers for static or dynamic anti-correlated random dot stereograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Paul B; Scott-Brown, Kenneth C; Haigh, Emma C; Adrain, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in visual neuroscience is that of linking neural activity with perceptual experience. In the case of binocular depth perception, important insights have been achieved through comparing neural responses and the perception of depth, for carefully selected stimuli. One of the most important types of stimulus that has been used here is the anti-correlated random dot stereogram (ACRDS). In these stimuli, the contrast polarity of one half of a stereoscopic image is reversed. While neurons in cortical area V1 respond reliably to the binocular disparities in ACRDS, they do not create a sensation of depth. This discrepancy has been used to argue that depth perception must rely on neural activity elsewhere in the brain. Currently, the psychophysical results on which this argument rests are not clear-cut. While it is generally assumed that ACRDS do not support the perception of depth, some studies have reported that some people, some of the time, perceive depth in some types of these stimuli. Given the importance of these results for understanding the neural correlates of stereopsis, we studied depth perception in ACRDS using a large number of observers, in order to provide an unambiguous conclusion about the extent to which these stimuli support the perception of depth. We presented observers with random dot stereograms in which correlated dots were presented in a surrounding annulus and correlated or anti-correlated dots were presented in a central circular region. While observers could reliably report the depth of the central region for correlated stimuli, we found no evidence for depth perception in static or dynamic anti-correlated stimuli. Confidence ratings for stereoscopic perception were uniformly low for anti-correlated stimuli, but showed normal variation with disparity for correlated stimuli. These results establish that the inability of observers to perceive depth in ACRDS is a robust phenomenon.

  17. Combination Restoration for Motion-blurred Color Videos under Limited Transmission Bandwidth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Li

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Color video images degraded in a deterministic way by motion-blurring can be restored by the new algorithm in real-time by using color components combination to fit to the limited transmission bandwidth. The image motion PSF of each surface of YUV422 image can be obtained based on the color space conversion model. The Y, U, V planes are packed to construct a 2 dimensional complex array. Through the decomposition of frequency domain, the Y, U, V frequency can be had respectively by performing Fourier transform a time on the specific complex array. The resulting frequencies will be filtered by Wiener filter to generate the final restored images. The proposed algorithm can restore 1024x1024 24-bit motionblurred color video images at 18 ms/frame speed on GPU, and the PSNR of the restored frame is 31.45. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm is 3X speed compared to the traditional algorithm, and it reduces the bandwidth of video data stream 1/3.

  18. The Glenn A. Fry award lecture 2013: blurred vision, spectacle correction, and falls in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David B

    2014-06-01

    This article reviews the literature on how blurred vision contributes to falls, gait, and postural control and discusses how these are influenced by spectacle correction. Falls are common and represent a very serious health risk for older people. They are not random events as studies have shown that falls are linked to a range of intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Vision provides a significant input to postural control in addition to providing information about the size and position of hazards and obstacles in the travel pathway and allows us to safely negotiate steps and stairs. Many studies have shown that reduced vision is a significant risk factor for falls. However, randomized controlled trials of optometric interventions and cataract surgery have not shown the expected reduction in falls rate, which may be due to magnification changes (and thus vestibulo-ocular reflex gain) in those participants who have large changes in refractive correction. Epidemiological studies have also shown that progressive addition lens and bifocal wearers are twice as likely to fall as non-multifocal wearers, laboratory-based studies have shown safer adaptive gait with single-vision glasses than progressive addition lenses or bifocals, and a randomized controlled trial has shown that an additional pair of distance vision single-vision glasses for outdoor use can reduce falls rate. Clinical recommendations to help optometrists prevent their frail, older patients from falling are suggested.

  19. A simple model for the efficient correction of collimator blur in 3D SPECT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccacci, P.; Bonetto, P.; Calvini, P.; Formiconi, A. R.

    1999-08-01

    The problem of performing an efficient compensation of collimator blur in the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of SPECT data acquired in parallel beam geometry is tackled. An approximate model for data acquisition is developed, which leads to the construction of the corresponding projector-backprojector pair. In order to perform some numerical tests, the model is customized to a state-of-the-art neuro-SPECT scanner, which is supplied with a three-segmented parallel beam collimator. Some reconstruction algorithms based on this customization are presented and their results are compared, in terms of quality and timing requirements, with the outcome generated by the corresponding fully 3D model. According to this numerical simulation, where voxel-driven (back-)projectors are used, the conclusion can be drawn that the approximate model produces reconstructions as good as the ones generated by the fully 3D model in a time which is one order of magnitude shorter. In the case that (back-)projectors based on the rotation of the emission matrix are used, the proposed approximate model is evaluated to be about four times faster than the corresponding fully 3D model.

  20. Supratentorial white matter blurring associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex limbic encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, H.; Mader, I. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Rauer, S.; Baumgartner, A. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neurology, Freiburg (Germany); Paus, S. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Bonn (Germany); Wagner, J. [University Medical Center, Department of Epileptology, Bonn (Germany); Malter, M.P. [University of Cologne, Department of Neurology, Cologne (Germany); Pruess, H. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Lewerenz, J.; Kassubek, J. [Ulm University, Department of Neurology, Ulm (Germany); Hegen, H.; Auer, M.; Deisenhammer, F. [University Innsbruck, Department of Neurology, Innsbruck (Austria); Ufer, F. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany); Bien, C.G. [Epilepsy Centre Bethel, Bielefeld-Bethel (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (VGKC-LE) is frequently non-paraneoplastic and associated with marked improvement following corticosteroid therapy. Mesial temporal lobe abnormalities are present in around 80 % of patients. If associated or preceded by faciobrachial dystonic seizures, basal ganglia signal changes may occur. In some patients, blurring of the supratentorial white matter on T2-weighted images (SWMB) may be seen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of SWMB and whether it is specific for VGKC-LE. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently evaluated signal abnormalities on FLAIR MRI in 79 patients with LE while unaware on the antibody type. SWMB was independently assessed as present in 10 of 36 (28 %) compared to 2 (5 %) of 43 non-VGKC patients (p = 0.009). It was not related to the presence of LGI1 or CASPR2 proteins of VGKC antibodies. MRI showed increased temporomesial FLAIR signal in 22 (61 %) VGKC compared to 14 (33 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.013), and extratemporomesial structures were affected in one VGKC (3 %) compared to 11 (26 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.005). SWMB is a newly described MRI sign rather specific for VGKC-LE. (orig.)

  1. One hemodialysis patient with headache, blurred vision, and hypotension induced by pituitary prolactinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wen-di; Liu, Wen-Hu; Zhang, Dong-Liang

    2012-08-01

    We reported a rare case of a dialysis patient coincident pituitary prolactinoma with calcification. A 55-year-old woman who had undergone hemodialysis for 8 years was admitted to the nephrology unit because of headache, blurred vision, and hypotension. Physical examination was normal; endocrinological examination demonstrated elevated serum levels of prolactin (> 4240 mIU/L), but other hormonal profiles, such as growth hormon, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, were absolutely or relatively lower. A cranial computed tomography (CT) suggested saddle area a high-density screenage with an anteroposterior diameter of 1.0 cm. A cerebral magnetic resonance scan confirmed the pituitary adenoma accompanied with calcification. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images revealed a less enhancing tumor, 14 mm wide round lesion with a high intensity signal. It enlarges the sella turcica, but the optic chiasma is not displaced. We suggest that in the differential diagnosis of any hemodialysis patient with severe headache, hypotension, and visual disturbances, this syndrome should be considered as prompt pituitary adenoma.

  2. Overcoming turbulence-induced space-variant blur by using phase-diverse speckle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Brian J; Paxman, Richard G; Carrara, David A; Seldin, John H

    2009-01-01

    Space-variant blur occurs when imaging through volume turbulence over sufficiently large fields of view. Space-variant effects are particularly severe in horizontal-path imaging, slant-path (air-to-ground or ground-to-air) geometries, and ground-based imaging of low-elevation satellites or astronomical objects. In these geometries, the isoplanatic angle can be comparable to or even smaller than the diffraction-limited resolution angle. We report on a postdetection correction method that seeks to correct for the effects of space-variant aberrations, with the goal of reconstructing near-diffraction-limited imagery. Our approach has been to generalize the method of phase-diverse speckle (PDS) by using a physically motivated distributed-phase-screen model. Simulation results are presented that demonstrate the reconstruction of near-diffraction-limited imagery under both matched and mismatched model assumptions. In addition, we present evidence that PDS could be used as a beaconless wavefront sensor in a multiconjugate adaptive optics system when imaging extended scenes.

  3. Blurring the Boundaries? Supporting Students and Staff within an Online Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith HURST

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Blurring the Boundaries? Supporting Students and Staff within an Online Learning Environment Dr Susannah QUINSEE Head of E-Learning City University London, THE UNITED KINDOM Judith HURST Senior Lecturer School of Nursing and Midwifery London, THE UNITED KINDOM ABSTRACT The inclusion of online learning technologies into the higher education (HE curriculum is frequently associated with the design and development of new models of learning. One could argue that e-learning even demands a reconfiguration of traditional methods of learning and teaching. One of the key elements of this transformational process is flexibility. This paper considers a number of aspects relating to the flexibility inherent within models of online learning and the potential impact of this on support structures. City University, London, is used as a case study to provide examples of online practice which support strategies outlined here. A number of models of online learning are used at the University to provide evidence of the variation in modes of support and illustrate the different needs of both students and staff when using these forms of learning. What is apparent through this discussion is that to provide effective support for online learners, whether students or staff, clear and solid structures need to be put in place to assist with the creation of an online community.

  4. One hemodialysis patient with headache, blurred vision, and hypotension induced by pituitary prolactinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Wen-di; LIU Wen-hu; ZHANG Dong-liang

    2012-01-01

    We reported a rare case of a dialysis patient coincident pituitary prolactinoma with calcification.A 55-year-old woman who had undergone hemodialysis for 8 years was admitted to the nephrology unit because of headache,blurred vision.and hypotension.Physical examination was normal; endocrinological examination demonstrated elevated serum levels of prolactin (>4240 mlU/L).but other hormonal profiles,such as growth hormon,adrenocorticotropic hormone,thyroid stimulating hormone,free triiodothyronine,free thyroxine,follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone,were absolutely or relatively lower.A cranial computed tomography (CT) suggested saddle area a high-density screenage with an anteroposterior diameter of 1.0 cm.A cerebral magnetic resonance scan confirmed the pituitary adenoma accompanied with calcification.Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images revealed a less enhancing tumor,14 mm wideround lesion with a high intensity signal.It enlarges the sella turcica,but the optic chiasma is not displaced.We suggest that in the differential diagnosis of any hemodialysis patient with severe headache,hypotension.and visual disturbances,this syndrome should be considered as prompt pituitary adenoma.

  5. eLearning and eMaking: 3D Printing Blurring the Digital and the Physical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Loy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the potential of 3D printing as an eLearning tool for design education and the role of eMaking in bringing together the virtual and the physical in the design studio. eLearning has matured from the basics of lecture capture into sophisticated, interactive learning activities for students. At the same time, laptops and internet enabled phones have made computer-based learning mobile, invading classroom learning, changing communication between students, enabling on the spot research, and making the recording of ideas and activities easier. The barriers between online and offline are becoming blurred in a combined digital and physical learning environment. Three-dimensional printing is part of this unification and can be an empowering learning tool for students, changing their relationship with the virtual and the physical, allowing them to take ideas and thinking from screen to reality and back again in an iterative, connected process, however, from an eLearning point of view it is, more importantly, a transformative technology with the potential to change the relationship of the learner to their learning and the scope and nature of their work. Examples from Griffith Product Design student learning illustrate the potential of eMaking to enhance combined learning in a digital age.

  6. Blurring artifacts in megavoltage radiography with a flat-panel imaging system: comparison of Monte Carlo simulations with measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schach von Wittenau, A E; Logan, C M; Aufderheide, M B; Slone, D M

    2002-11-01

    Originally designed for use at medical-imaging x-ray energies, imaging systems comprising scintillating screens and amorphous Si detectors are also used at the megavoltage photon energies typical of portal imaging and industrial radiography. While image blur at medical-imaging x-ray energies is strongly influenced both by K-shell fluorescence and by the transport of optical photons within the scintillator layer, at higher photon energies the image blur is dominated by radiation scattered from the detector housing and internal support structures. We use Monte Carlo methods to study the blurring in a notional detector: a series of semi-infinite layers with material compositions, thicknesses, and densities similar to those of a commercially available flat-panel amorphous Si detector system comprising a protective housing, a gadolinium oxysulfide scintillator screen, and associated electronics. We find that the image blurring, as described by a point-spread function (PSF), has three length scales. The first component, with a submillimeter length scale, arises from electron scatter within the scintillator and detection electronics. The second component, with a millimeter-to-centimeter length scale, arises from electrons produced in the front cover of the detector. The third component, with a length scale of tens of centimeters, arises from photon scatter by the back cover of the detector. The relative contributions of each of these components to the overall PSF vary with incident photon energy. We present an algorithm that includes the energy-dependent sensitivity and energy-dependent PSF within a ray-tracing formalism. We find quantitative agreement (approximately 2%) between predicted radiographs with radiographs of copper step wedges, taken with a 9 MV bremsstrahlung source and a commercially available flat-panel system. The measured radiographs show the blurring artifacts expected from both the millimeter-scale electron transport and from the tens

  7. Human thermal perception related to Föhn winds due to Saharan dust outbreaks in Crete Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, P. T.; Bleta, A. G.; Matsangouras, I. T.

    2016-01-01

    Crete Island is located in the southmost border of East Mediterranean basin, facing exacerbating atmospheric conditions (mainly concentrations of particulates) due to Saharan dust outbreaks. It is worth to note that these episodes are more frequent during spring and autumn, when mild biometeorological conditions become intolerable due to the synergy of the so called Föhn winds. Cretan mountains, especially Psiloritis Mt. (summit at 2456 m), are orientated perpendicularly to the southwest air mass flow, generating the Föhn winds. Propagating from the leeward of the mountains, these dry, hot winds have an effect on prevailing biometeorological conditions. While descending to the lowlands on the leeward side of the range, the wind becomes strong, gusty, and desiccating. This wind often lasts less than an hour to several days, with gradual weakening after the first or the second day. Sometimes, it stops very abruptly. In this work, the authors examined and analyzed the abrupt changes of human thermal perception within specific case studies during which Föhn winds appeared in Heraklion city at the leeward of Psiloritis Mt, associated with extreme Saharan dust episodes, observed within the period 2006-2010. In order to verify the development of Föhn winds, Meteorological Terminal Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METARs, meteorological observations every half hour), were acquired from the Heraklion meteorological station installed by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). The biometeorological conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). METAR recordings of meteorological variables, such as air temperature, vapor pressure, wind speed, and cloudiness, were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, so that to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was

  8. Human thermal perception related to Föhn winds due to Saharan dust outbreaks in Crete Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, P. T.; Bleta, A. G.; Matsangouras, I. T.

    2017-05-01

    Crete Island is located in the southmost border of East Mediterranean basin, facing exacerbating atmospheric conditions (mainly concentrations of particulates) due to Saharan dust outbreaks. It is worth to note that these episodes are more frequent during spring and autumn, when mild biometeorological conditions become intolerable due to the synergy of the so called Föhn winds. Cretan mountains, especially Psiloritis Mt. (summit at 2456 m), are orientated perpendicularly to the southwest air mass flow, generating the Föhn winds. Propagating from the leeward of the mountains, these dry, hot winds have an effect on prevailing biometeorological conditions. While descending to the lowlands on the leeward side of the range, the wind becomes strong, gusty, and desiccating. This wind often lasts less than an hour to several days, with gradual weakening after the first or the second day. Sometimes, it stops very abruptly. In this work, the authors examined and analyzed the abrupt changes of human thermal perception within specific case studies during which Föhn winds appeared in Heraklion city at the leeward of Psiloritis Mt, associated with extreme Saharan dust episodes, observed within the period 2006-2010. In order to verify the development of Föhn winds, Meteorological Terminal Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METARs, meteorological observations every half hour), were acquired from the Heraklion meteorological station installed by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). The biometeorological conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). METAR recordings of meteorological variables, such as air temperature, vapor pressure, wind speed, and cloudiness, were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, so that to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was

  9. Non-rigid image registration to reduce beam-induced blurring of cryo-electron microscopy images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi Nejadasl, Fatemeh; Karuppasamy, Manikandan [Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, 2300RC Leiden (Netherlands); Newman, Emily R.; McGeehan, John E. [University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2DY (United Kingdom); Ravelli, Raimond B. G., E-mail: raimond.nl@gmail.com [Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, 2300RC Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy images of vitrified large macromolecular complexes can become blurred due to beam-induced specimen alterations. Exposure series are examined, and rigid and non-rigid image registration schemes are applied to reduce such blurring. The typical dose used to record cryo-electron microscopy images from vitrified biological specimens is so high that radiation-induced structural alterations are bound to occur during data acquisition. Integration of all scattered electrons into one image can lead to significant blurring, particularly if the data are collected from an unsupported thin layer of ice suspended over the holes of a support film. Here, the dose has been fractioned and exposure series have been acquired in order to study beam-induced specimen movements under low dose conditions, prior to bubbling. Gold particles were added to the protein sample as fiducial markers. These were automatically localized and tracked throughout the exposure series and showed correlated motions within small patches, with larger amplitudes of motion vectors at the start of a series compared with the end of each series. A non-rigid scheme was used to register all images within each exposure series, using natural neighbor interpolation with the gold particles as anchor points. The procedure increases the contrast and resolution of the examined macromolecules.

  10. Human Factors in Green Office Building Design: The Impact of Workplace Green Features on Health Perceptions in High-Rise High-Density Asian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about human factors in green building, which is imperative in high-rise high-density urban environments. This paper describes our attempts to explore the influence of workplace green features (such as green certification, ventilation mode, and building morphology on health perceptions (personal sensation, sensorial assumptions, healing performance based on a survey in Hong Kong and Singapore. The results validated the relationship between green features and health perceptions in the workplace environment. Remarkably, participants from the air-conditioned offices revealed significant higher concerns about health issues than those participants from the mixed-ventilated offices. The mixed-ventilation design performs as a bridge to connect the indoor environment and outdoor space, which enables people to have contact with nature. Additionally, the preferred building morphology of the workplace is the pattern of a building complex instead of a single building. The complex form integrates the configuration of courtyards, podium gardens, green terrace, public plaza, and other types of open spaces with the building clusters, which contributes to better health perceptions. This research contributes to the rationalization and optimization of passive climate-adaptive design strategies for green buildings in high-density tropical or subtropical cities.

  11. Oxytocin blurs the self-other distinction during trait judgments and reduces medial prefrontal cortex responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weihua; Yao, Shuxia; Li, Qin; Geng, Yayuan; Ma, Xiaole; Luo, Lizhu; Xu, Lei; Kendrick, Keith M

    2016-07-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) may act either to increase or blur the distinction between self and other and thereby promote either more selfish or altruistic behaviors. To attempt to distinguish between these two possibilities we performed a double-blind, between-subject, placebo-controlled design study to investigate the effect of intranasal OXT on self and other (mother, classmate, or stranger) trait judgments in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results showed that OXT reduced response times for making both self and other judgments, but also reduced the accuracy of their subsequent recall, thereby abolishing the normal self-bias observed in this task. OXT also abolished the positive correlation between response and self-esteem scale scores seen in the PLC group, suggesting that its effects were strongest in individuals with higher levels of self-esteem. A whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis revealed that OXT also reduced responses during both self and other trait judgments in the dorsal (dmPFC) and ventral (vmPFC) medial prefrontal cortex. A subsequent region of interest analysis revealed that behavioral performance and self-esteem scale scores were associated with dmPFC activation and its functional connectivity with the anterior cingulate and between the vmPFC and posterior cingulate. Thus overall, while OXT may improve speed of decision making in self -vs. other trait judgments it also blunts the normal bias towards remembering self-attributes and reduces mPFC responses and connectivity with other cortical midline regions involved in self-processing. This is consistent with the view that OXT can reduce self-centered behavior. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2512-2527, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effects of ocean products variability from PSF blurring in NIR band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eunsong; Ahn, Jae-Hyun; Cho, Seongick; Ahn, Ki-Beom; Park, Young-Je; Kim, Suk-Whan

    2016-10-01

    Development and operational planning for ocean color satellite requires lots of careful consideration of the spatial and radiometric performance, which are represented by modulation transfer function (MTF) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) respectively. Those representative values are crucial indicator of sensor performance so that small changes of ocean properties (e.g., remote sensed reflectance (Rrs), surface chlorophyll-a concentrations (Chl-a), and so on) can be quantified and directly related with those values. MTF is affected from a performance of instrument itself and environmental conditions, and its variation leads to change the final products. The goal of this study is to simulate and to analyze the relationship between MTF parameter and ocean product variations, and then to provide a reference for the design of future ocean color sensors. In this study, we used the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) data to generate the simulated atmospheric correction band image. And then Rrs data and ocean products were generated with imagery from two different locations and acquisition times, and we analyzed and compared the statistical results with study area having different characteristics. For ocean products relationships, we notify the linear variation of the absolute percentage difference (APD) according to the changeable MTF value. Especially, Case-II water (turbid water) area shows more sensitive variation than Case-I water (clear water) area. Even though the same area was applied in the simulation, it was 1-2 times higher sensitivity of variation when a specific ocean phenomena such as red tide. The suggested simulation can be confirmed the relationship between blurred NIR band image and ocean products. And statistical results with MTF values were able to help estimating ocean product precision and designing a future mission such as the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager-II (GOCI-II) mission currently being progressed.

  13. Brain mechanisms for simple perception and bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Megan; Arteaga, Daniel; He, Biyu J

    2013-08-27

    When faced with ambiguous sensory inputs, subjective perception alternates between the different interpretations in a stochastic manner. Such multistable perception phenomena have intrigued scientists and laymen alike for over a century. Despite rigorous investigations, the underlying mechanisms of multistable perception remain elusive. Recent studies using multivariate pattern analysis revealed that activity patterns in posterior visual areas correlate with fluctuating percepts. However, increasing evidence suggests that vision--and perception at large--is an active inferential process involving hierarchical brain systems. We applied searchlight multivariate pattern analysis to functional magnetic resonance imaging signals across the human brain to decode perceptual content during bistable perception and simple unambiguous perception. Although perceptually reflective activity patterns during simple perception localized predominantly to posterior visual regions, bistable perception involved additionally many higher-order frontoparietal and temporal regions. Moreover, compared with simple perception, both top-down and bottom-up influences were dramatically enhanced during bistable perception. We further studied the intermittent presentation of ambiguous images--a condition that is known to elicit perceptual memory. Compared with continuous presentation, intermittent presentation recruited even more higher-order regions and was accompanied by further strengthened top-down influences but relatively weakened bottom-up influences. Taken together, these results strongly support an active top-down inferential process in perception.

  14. Impact of human papilloma virus vaccination on adolescent knowledge, perception of sexual risk and need for safer sexual behaviors in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayudi, Pande Kadek Aditya; Permatasari, Anak Agung Istri Yulan; Winata, I Gde Sastra; Suwiyoga, Ketut

    2016-12-01

    To determine the impact of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination on knowledge, perception of sexual risk and need for continued safe sexual behavior among Indonesian girls. A comparative cross-sectional study was carried on in Denpasar, the capital city of Bali, Indonesia, during September 2015-February 2016. A total of 828 adolescent girls (12-16 years) were recruited to assess their knowledge on HPV/HPV vaccine, perception of sexual risks and need for continued safe sexual behavior. A total of 419 girls (50.7%) had received HPV vaccination prior to the study, 76.4% of whom (320/419) had sufficient knowledge about HPV. HPV vaccination was a strong and independent predictor of higher HPV/HPV vaccine knowledge (adjusted OR [AOR], 9.358; 95%CI: 6.816-12.849, P < 0.001). HPV vaccination (AOR, 0.107; 95%CI: 0.074-0.155, P < 0.001) and higher knowledge level (AOR, 0.667; 95%CI: 0.464-0.958, P = 0.028) were associated with lower perceived HPV risk. Despite the low risk perception, most of the vaccinated girls (408/419, 97.4%) continued to perceive higher need for safe sexual behaviors. On multivariate analysis, higher knowledge was the independent predictor for higher perceived need for safe sexual behaviors (AOR, 4.260; 95%CI: 2.016-9.001, P < 0.001). The HPV vaccination was associated with higher knowledge and appropriately lower perception of HPV risk. Despite the vaccination, most of the adolescents continued to perceive a need for safer sexual behavior. All adolescent girls should receive HPV vaccination in order to reduce cervical cancer burden in the future. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. The effect of combined sensory and semantic components on audio-visual speech perception in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrina eMaguinness

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that perception in older people benefits from multisensory over uni-sensory information. As normal speech recognition is affected by both the auditory input and the visual lip-movements of the speaker, we investigated the efficiency of audio and visual integration in an older population by manipulating the relative reliability of the auditory and visual information in speech. We also investigated the role of the semantic context of the sentence to assess whether audio-visual integration is affected by top-down semantic processing. We presented participants with audio-visual sentences in which the visual component was either blurred or not blurred. We found that there was a greater cost in recall performance for semantically meaningless speech in the audio-visual blur compared to audio-visual no blur condition and this effect was specific to the older group. Our findings have implications for understanding how aging affects efficient multisensory integration for the perception of speech and suggests that multisensory inputs may benefit speech perception in older adults when the semantic content of the speech is unpredictable.

  16. Chemosignalling effects of human tears revisited: Does exposure to female tears decrease males' perception of female sexual attractiveness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gračanin, Asmir; van Assen, Marcel A L M; Omrčen, Višnja; Koraj, Ivana; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2016-01-01

    Gelstein et al. reported the results of three experiments suggesting a dampening influence of inhalation of female emotional tears on males' arousal and perception of female sexual attractiveness, specifically in non-sexual situations. This prompted the hypothesis that crying exerts its influence on

  17. Chemosignalling effects of human tears revisited : Does exposure to female tears decrease males' perception of female sexual attractiveness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracanin, A.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Omrčen, Višnja; Koraj, Ivana; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Gelstein et al. reported the results of three experiments suggesting a dampening influence of inhalation of female emotional tears on males' arousal and perception of female sexual attractiveness, specifically in non-sexual situations. This prompted the hypothesis that crying exerts its influence on

  18. Physiological activation of the human cerebral cortex during auditory perception and speech revealed by regional increases in cerebral blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Friberg, L

    1988-01-01

    by measuring regional cerebral blood flow CBF after intracarotid Xenon-133 injection are reviewed with emphasis on tests involving auditory perception and speech, and approach allowing to visualize Wernicke and Broca's areas and their contralateral homologues in vivo. The completely atraumatic tomographic CBF...

  19. Potential role of the binding of whey proteins to human buccal cells on the perception of astringency in whey protein beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Aiqian; Zheng, Tao; Ye, Jack Z; Singh, Harjinder

    2012-07-16

    Whey protein beverages have been shown to be astringent, which means that they are not appealing to consumers. The exact mechanism of astringency in whey protein beverages is yet to be fully elucidated. In this preliminary study, the binding between β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), lactoferrin (LF) and human oral epithelial cells (HSC-2 and NO-1-N-1 cells) at pH 3.5 and pH 7.4 was assayed as a function of protein concentration using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The binding of β-LG and LF to HSC-2 and NO-1-N-1 cells was dependent on protein type, protein concentration, pH and time. The intensity of the binding to HSC-2 and NO-1-N-1 cells was much greater for LF than for β-LG and was protein concentration dependent, which was consistent with the in vivo astringency perception of LF and β-LG. The findings demonstrated that the binding interaction between whey proteins and human oral epithelial cells may play an important role in the perception of astringency in whey protein beverages.

  20. Age-associated variation in sensory perception of iron in drinking water and the potential for overexposure in the human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlohi, Susan; Dietrich, Andrea M; Duncan, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Humans interact with their environment through the five senses, but little is known about population variability in the ability to assess contaminants. Sensory thresholds and biochemical indicators of metallic flavor perception in humans were evaluated for ferrous (Fe(2+)) iron in drinking water; subjects aged 19-84 years participated. Metallic flavor thresholds for individuals and subpopulations based on age were determined. Oral lipid oxidation and oral pH were measured in saliva as potential biochemical indicators. Individual thresholds were 0.007-14.14 mg/L Fe(2+) and the overall population threshold was 0.17 mg/L Fe(2+) in reagent water. Average thresholds for individuals younger and older than 50 years of age (grouped by the daily recommended nutritional guidelines for iron intake) were significantly different (p = 0.013); the population thresholds for each group were 0.045 mg/L Fe(2+) and 0.498 mg/L Fe(2+), respectively. Many subjects >50 and a few subjects <50 years were insensitive to metallic flavor. There was no correlation between age, oral lipid oxidation, and oral pH. Standardized olfactory assessment found poor sensitivity for Fe(2+) corresponded with conditions of mild, moderate, and total anosmia. The findings demonstrate an age-dependent sensitivity to iron indicating as people age they are less sensitive to metallic perception.

  1. Modeling shift-variant X-ray focal spot blur for high-resolution flat-panel cone-beam CT

    CERN Document Server

    Tilley, Steven; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Stayman, J Webster

    2016-01-01

    Flat-panel cone-beam CT (CBCT) has been applied clinically in a number of high-resolution applications. Increasing geometric magnification can potentially improve resolution, but also increases blur due to an extended x-ray focal-spot. We present a shift-variant focal-spot blur model and incorporate it into a model-based iterative-reconstruction algorithm. We apply this algorithm to simulation and CBCT test-bench data. In a trabecular bone simulation study, we find traditional reconstruction approaches without a blur model exhibit shift-variant resolution properties that depend greatly on the acquisition protocol (e.g. short vs. full scans) and the anode angles of the rays used to reconstruct a particular region. For physical CBCT experiments focal spot blur was characterized and a spatial resolution phantom was scanned and reconstructed. In both experiments image quality using the shift-variant model was significantly improved over approaches that modeled no blur or only a shift-invariant blur, suggesting a ...

  2. Visual Perception Based Objective Stereo Image Quality Assessment for 3D Video Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangyi Jiang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Stereo image quality assessment is a crucial and challenging issue in 3D video communication. One of major difficulties is how to weigh binocular masking effect. In order to establish the assessment mode more in line with the human visual system, Watson model is adopted, which defines visibility threshold under no distortion composed of contrast sensitivity, masking effect and error in this study. As a result, we propose an Objective Stereo Image Quality Assessment method (OSIQA, organically combining a new Left-Right view Image Quality Assessment (LR-IQA metric and Depth Perception Image Quality Assessment (DP-IQA metric. The new LR-IQA metric is first given to calculate the changes of perception coefficients in each sub-band utilizing Watson model and human visual system after wavelet decomposition of left and right images in stereo image pair, respectively. Then, a concept of absolute difference map is defined to describe abstract differential value between the left and right view images and the DP-IQA metric is presented to measure structure distortion of the original and distorted abstract difference maps through luminance function, error sensitivity and contrast function. Finally, an OSIQA metric is generated by using multiplicative fitting of the LR-IQA and DP-IQA metrics based on weighting. Experimental results shows that the proposed method are highly correlated with human visual judgments (Mean Opinion Score and the correlation coefficient and monotony are more than 0.92 under five types of distortions such as Gaussian blur, Gaussian noise, JP2K compression, JPEG compression and H.264 compression.

  3. Pain perception in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janum, Susanne; Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Werner, Mads U

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study the relationship between pain perception and cytokine release during systemic inflammation. We present a randomized crossover trial in healthy volunteers (n = 17) in 37 individual trials. Systemic inflammation was induced by an i.v. bolus of Escherichia coli LPS (2 ng/kg) on two...... in healthy human volunteers leads to reduction in pain pressure threshold and an increase in pain perception to heat stimuli, supporting a relationship between acute systemic inflammation and pain perception....

  4. Human Capital. Monitoring of Safeguards and Addressing Employee Perceptions Are Key to Implementing a Civilian Performance Management System in DOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    on employee motivation and morale, (2) the excessive amount of time spent navigating the performance management process, (3) challenges with job...supervisors continue to have consistent concerns and negative perceptions of NSPS. These included the following: (1) NSPS’s negative impact on employee ... motivation and morale; (2) the excessive amount of time spent navigating the performance management process; (3) challenges with job objectives; (4

  5. 基于Gabor滤波的辐射状模糊图像质量评价方法%An Image Quality Assessment Method Based on Gabor Filter for Assessing the Radiant Blur Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凡; 曹峰梅; 粟宇路

    2012-01-01

    针对相向运动成像的辐射状模糊图像,提出了基于Gabor滤波的图像对比度相似度图像质量评价方法.该方法利用对数极坐标Gabor滤波器模拟人眼视觉系统处理图像的方式,实现对图像频率和方位角同时滤波的功能.结果表明,该方法的评价结果与主观评价结果的相关系数达到0.95,是一种评价辐射状模糊图像质量的有效方法.%An image quality assessment method image contrast similarity based on Gabor filter is proposed for assessing the image quality of radiant blur image which is taken place in the forward motion imaging. Method uses the log polar Gabor filter for simulating the way that human visual system processing the image, then the image can be filtered by frequency and azimuth bands at the same time. Experiment results have proved that the correlation coefficient between results of our method and the subjective one is 0. 95, and our method is effective for assessing the radial blur image.

  6. Image Magnification Based on the Human Visual Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Je, Sung-Kwan; Kim, Kwang-Baek; Cho, Jae-Hyun; Song, Doo-Heon

    2007-01-01

    In image processing, the interpolated magnification method brings about the problem of image loss such as the blocking and blurring phenomenon when the image is enlarged. In this paper, we proposed the magnification method considering the properties of human visual processing to solve such problems. As a result, our method is faster than any other algorithm that is capable of removing the blocking and blurring phenomenon when the image is enlarged. The cubic convolution interpolation in image...

  7. Perceptions of crosstalk and the possibility of a zoneless autostereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Mel

    2001-06-01

    Overlaid stereo image pairs, viewed without stereo demultiplexing optics, are not always perceived as a ghosted image: if image generation and display parameters are adjusted so that disparities are small and limited to foreground and background regions, then the perception is rather more of blurring than of doubling. Since this blurring seems natural, comparable to the blurring due to depth-of-focus, it is unobjectionable. In contrast, the perception of ghosting seems always to be objectionable. Now consider the possibility that there is a perceptual regime in which disparity is small enough that perception of crosstalk is as blurring rather than as ghosting, but it is large enough to stimulate depth perception. If such a perceptual region exists, then it might be exploited to relax the strict 'crosstalk minimization' requirement normally imposed in the engineering of stereoscopic displays. This paper reports experiments that indicate that such a perceptual region does actually exist. We suggest a stereoscopic display engineering design concept that illustrates how this observation might be exploited to create a zoneless autostereoscopic display. By way of introduction and motivation, we begin from the observation that, just as color can be shouted in primary tones or whispered in soft pastel hues, so stereo can be shoved in your face or raised ever so gently off the screen plane. We review the problems with 'in your face stereo,' we demonstrate that 'just enough reality' is both gentle and effective in achieving stereoscopy's fundamental goal: resolving the front-back ambiguity inherent in 2D projections, and we show how this perspective leads naturally to the relaxation of the requirement for crosstalk reduction to be the main engineering constraint on the design of stereoscopic display systems.

  8. Blind Image Deconvolution for Defocus Blurred Image%离焦模糊图像的盲复原算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙韶杰; 吴琼; 李国辉

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm of blind image deconvolution is proposed for defocus blurred images.Firstly, Hough transform is applied to detect the line edges in the defocus image.Then the step-edges or approximate step-edges are located, based on the image spatial statistical characteristic and the modified Grubbs method.The line spread function is calculated by using the detected step-edges, and the radius of the defocus blur is obtained by adopting the relationship between the radius and the line spread function.Finally the defocus image is restored by Wiener filter method.Tested on the real defocus blurred photographs, the experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can detect the step-edges or approximate step-edges accurately, and improve the identification precision of blur radius and the quality of restored images.The algorithm has been applied in the practical detection forensics work successfully.%针对离焦模糊图像,提出了一种盲复原算法.该算法首先利用Hough变换检测出离焦图像中的直线边缘,然后基于图像的空域统计特性和修正的Grubbs检验法,定位出阶跃或近似阶跃直线边缘,在此基础上自适应计算出线扩散函数,最后利用线扩散函数求取离焦模糊半径,进而用Wiener滤波完成了图像的复原.实验结果表明,对真实的离焦模糊图像,该算法能够准确地检测和定位出阶跃或近似阶跃边缘,提高离焦模糊半径的鉴别精度和图像的复原效果,已在实际刑侦取证工作中获得较为成功的应用.

  9. Compensation of inorganic acid interferences in ICP-OES and ICP-MS using a Flow Blurring® multinebulizer

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre Pastor, Miguel Ángel; Fialhob, Lucimar L.; NÓBREGA, Joaquim A.; Hidalgo Núñez, Montserrat; Canals Hernández, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A new and easy method has been proposed for compensation of inorganic acid matrix effects in ICP-OES and ICP-MS. The method consists on an on-line standard addition calibration using a Flow Blurring® multinebulizer (FBMN-based system). Experimental conditions of the FBMN-based system are optimized for both ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Under optimized conditions recovery values obtained in the analysis of synthetic acid samples were close to 100% for HNO3 and HCl (with acid concentrations of up to 15% ...

  10. Perceptions of human papillomavirus vaccination of adolescent schoolgirls in western Uganda and their implications for acceptability of HPV vaccination: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Okello, Elialilia Sarikieli; Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza

    2017-08-30

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been perceived in diverse ways some of which encourage its uptake while others could potentially deter its acceptability. This study explored community member's perceptions about HPV vaccination in Ibanda district and the implications of the perceptions for acceptability of HPV vaccination. The study was conducted following initial vaccination of adolescent schoolgirls in the district between 2008 and 2011. This qualitative study employed focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs). FGDs were conducted with schoolgirls and parents/guardians and KIIs were conducted with school teachers, health workers and community leaders. Transcripts from the FGDs and KIIs were coded and analyzed thematically using ATLAS.ti (v. 6). The HPV vaccination was understood to safely prevent cervical cancer, which was perceived to be a severe incurable disease. Vaccinations were perceived as protection against diseases like measles and polio that were known to kill children. These were major motivations for girls' and parents' acceptance of HPV vaccination. Parents' increased awareness that HPV is sexually transmitted encouraged their support for vaccination of their adolescent daughters against HPV. There were reports however of some initial fears and misconceptions about HPV vaccination especially during its introduction. These initially discouraged some parents and girls but over the years with no major side effects reported, girls reported that they were willing to recommend the vaccination to others and parents also reported their willingness to get their daughters vaccinated without fear. Health workers and teachers interviewed however explained that, some concerns stilled lingered in the communities. The perceived benefits and safety of HPV vaccination enhanced girls' and parents' acceptability of HPV vaccination. The initial rumors, fears and concerns about HPV vaccination that reportedly discouraged some girls and

  11. Children's Perception of Death in Humans and Animals as a Function of Age, Anxiety and Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbach, Israel; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Findings indicate a main effect of age, anxiety, and cognition on the conception of animal and human death. Human death scores were higher than animal death scores. Anxiety had a stranger impact on cognitively high subjects than on cognitively low subjects. Cognition affected the animal death concept more than the human death concept. (Author/RH)

  12. Visual masking and the dynamics of human perception, cognition, and consciousness A century of progress, a contemporary synthesis, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge, Ulrich; Francis, Gregory; Herzog, Michael H; Oğmen, Haluk

    2008-07-15

    The 1990s, the "decade of the brain," witnessed major advances in the study of visual perception, cognition, and consciousness. Impressive techniques in neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, neuropsychology, electrophysiology, psychophysics and brain-imaging were developed to address how the nervous system transforms and represents visual inputs. Many of these advances have dealt with the steady-state properties of processing. To complement this "steady-state approach," more recent research emphasized the importance of dynamic aspects of visual processing. Visual masking has been a paradigm of choice for more than a century when it comes to the study of dynamic vision. A recent workshop (http://lpsy.epfl.ch/VMworkshop/), held in Delmenhorst, Germany, brought together an international group of researchers to present state-of-the-art research on dynamic visual processing with a focus on visual masking. This special issue presents peer-reviewed contributions by the workshop participants and provides a contemporary synthesis of how visual masking can inform the dynamics of human perception, cognition, and consciousness.

  13. Human Age Estimation Method Robust to Camera Sensor and/or Face Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Dat Tien Nguyen; So Ra Cho; Tuyen Danh Pham; Kang Ryoung Park

    2015-01-01

    Human age can be employed in many useful real-life applications, such as customer service systems, automatic vending machines, entertainment, etc. In order to obtain age information, image-based age estimation systems have been developed using information from the human face. However, limitations exist for current age estimation systems because of the various factors of camera motion and optical blurring, facial expressions, gender, etc. Motion blurring can usually be presented on face images...

  14. Region-confined restoration method for motion-blurred star image of the star sensor under dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liheng; Bernelli-Zazzera, Franco; Jiang, Guangwen; Wang, Xingshu; Huang, Zongsheng; Qin, Shiqiao

    2016-06-10

    Under dynamic conditions, the centroiding accuracy of the motion-blurred star image decreases and the number of identified stars reduces, which leads to the degradation of the attitude accuracy of the star sensor. To improve the attitude accuracy, a region-confined restoration method, which concentrates on the noise removal and signal to noise ratio (SNR) improvement of the motion-blurred star images, is proposed for the star sensor under dynamic conditions. A multi-seed-region growing technique with the kinematic recursive model for star image motion is given to find the star image regions and to remove the noise. Subsequently, a restoration strategy is employed in the extracted regions, taking the time consumption and SNR improvement into consideration simultaneously. Simulation results indicate that the region-confined restoration method is effective in removing noise and improving the centroiding accuracy. The identification rate and the average number of identified stars in the experiments verify the advantages of the region-confined restoration method.

  15. Methods to learn human anatomy: perceptions of medical students in paraclinical and clinical phases regarding cadaver dissection and other learning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitreyee Mutalik

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Perception of knowledge by an individual student is different based on the individual primary mental abilities. Therefore, some individuals may show better learning by particular methods. Hence a blend of different methodologies to teach a subject is helpful for majority of the students. In the teaching of human gross anatomy too, a combination of different methods has been in use. However, in the era of decrease in course duration, high and ldquo;student:cadaver ratio and rdquo;, and easy availability of newer technologies, there is a need to review the priorities and preferences of the methods or to find out different ways to use the existing methods to increase their effectiveness. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2536-2541

  16. Human subjects’ perception of indoor environment and their office work performance during exposures to moderate operative temperature ramps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    sensation was also included. Subjects filled out questionnaires regarding perception of the environment and intensity of SBS symptoms. Subjects performed simulated office tasks (addition, text typing, proof reading, comprehension and reasoning). Results showed that all tested ramps were recognized....... A linear relation between perceived air quality and temperature (enthalpy) was found. No significant consistent effect of individual temperature ramps on office work performance was found. Increasing operative temperature appeared to slightly decrease speed of addition and text typing regardless the slope...... of perceived air quality. Increasing temperature may negatively influence speed of simple, repetitive tasks of mental work. The significant effect on complex tasks that require concentration, vigilance and logical thinking was not found....

  17. What You See is what You Just Heard: The Effect of Temporal Rate Adaptation on Human Intersensory Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel Levitan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on perception have yet to establish that psychophysical adaptation effects transfer from one sense to another. To test for this phenomenon, the current study examines the possible crossmodal transfer of temporal rate adaptation from vision to audition (VA and from audition to vision (AV. Participants were trained, using feedback, to discriminate the perceived rapidity of either auditory or visual stimuli presented at a range of randomly-ordered frequencies (3.25–4.75 Hz as compared to that of stimuli (of the same modality at a familiar average frequency (4 Hz. Afterwards, subjects were repeatedly exposed to stimuli (of the other modality at a specific rate (3 Hz or 5 Hz. To test whether adaptation resulted from this exposure, subjects again completed the task previously used for training, but now without feedback. After the initial training and adaptation phases, these test and adaptation tasks were presented in 20 alternating blocks. A comparison of the pre- and post-adaptation responses showed crossmodal changes in subjects' perception of temporal rate, such that adaptation to 5 Hz led to the subsequent stimuli seeming slower than they had before adaptation. On the other hand, after exposure to 3 Hz stimuli, the opposite effect was seen. This shift occurred in both VA and AV conditions. As audition and vision were never simultaneously presented, this is suggestive of a strong linkage between the two modalities in perceiving rate. We propose that this is due to the presence of early, distributed, within-modal clocks, that can vigorously modulate each other cross-modally.

  18. Changing Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Susanne; Wren, Steve; Dawes, Mark; Blinco, Amy; Haines, Brett; Everton, Jenny; Morgan, Ellen; Barton, Craig; Breen, Debbie; Ellison, Geraldine; Burgess, Danny; Stavrou, Jim; Carre, Catherine; Watson, Fran; Cherry, David; Hawkins, Chris; Stapenhill-Hunt, Maria; Gilderdale, Charlie; Kiddle, Alison; Piggott, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    A group of teachers involved in embedding NRICH tasks (http://nrich.maths.org) into their everyday practice were keen to challenge common perceptions of mathematics, and of the teaching and learning of mathematics. In this article, the teachers share what they are doing to change these perceptions in their schools.

  19. 利用频谱特性鉴别运动模糊方向%Identification of the motion blur direction using spectral property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁宛玉; 孙权森; 夏德深

    2011-01-01

    点扩展函数(PSF)的精确估计是运动模糊图像恢复的关键.匀速直线运动模糊的PSF参数主要由模糊角度(方向)和模糊尺度两个参数组成,然而模糊角度的估计又是重中之重.针对R Lokhande等人提出的霍夫变换的运动模糊方向估计法进行改进,通过增加边缘检测等预处理步骤,利用霍夫变换检测直线,并利用改进的霍夫变换峰值提取方法来估计角度值.实验表明,该方法能够得到比原方法更精确的角度值,并且具有抗噪能力强、鉴别精度高的优点.%The accurate estimation of the point spread function (PSF) is very important in restoration of motion-blurred image. The uniform linear motion blur PSF is composed of two parameters, namely blur angle( direction) and blur length. However, estimation of the motion-blurred angle is the most important. The motion-blurred direction based on Hough transform, which is proposed by R. Lokhande et al, is improved. The improvement adopts more pretreatments such as edge detection, detect the straight line by Hough transform, and takes advantage of the improved Hough transform peak extraction method to estimate the value of the angle. Experiments show that the method can be more accurate than the original method of angle values, and has anti-noise ability, identification of high precision.

  20. 盲复原高斯模糊图像%The blind restoration of Gaussian blurred images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁左红; 郭汉明; 高秀敏; 蓝景恒; 翁晓羽; 满忠胜; 庄松林

    2011-01-01

    经典的图像恢复算法设点扩展函数(PSF)是已知的,然而在许多情况下PSF难以确定,不得不在只知道成像系统部分信息甚至没有任何信息的情况下估计真实图像和PSF,这一过程称为图像盲复原.对于高斯模糊图像,它的PSF是很难被检测出来的,因此高斯模糊图像的盲复原一直是个棘手的问题.利用高斯点扩展函数的特性,初始估计PSF并对加噪后的模糊图像进行维纳滤波,后经过中值滤波获得恢复图像.恢复的图像主观视觉效果较好,具有良好的抗噪性,复原效果明显.该方法对于提高图像质量有一定的参考价值.%Classical image restoration algorithm is based on point spread function (PSF) is known. However, it is difficult to determine PSF in many cases, we have to estimate the true image and PSF in the case of only knowing some of the information or no information of imaging systems, this process is called blind image restoration. For the Gaussian blurred image, it is very difficult to detect PSF, so blind restoration of the Gaussian blurred image has been a troublesome issue. In this paper, we suppose the initial PSF using the characteristics of Gaussian PSF, and do Wiener filtering based on Gaussian blurred image with noise, then gain the restoration image through the median filtering. Experiment shows that, restored image is better in subjective visual effect, and remarkable in recovery effect with good noise immunity. This method has some reference value to improve the image quality.