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Sample records for human blur perception

  1. Chromatic blur perception in the presence of luminance contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Ben J; Kingdom, Frederick A A

    2017-06-01

    Hel-Or showed that blurring the chromatic but not the luminance layer of an image of a natural scene failed to elicit any impression of blur. Subsequent studies have suggested that this effect is due either to chromatic blur being masked by spatially contiguous luminance edges in the scene (Journal of Vision 13 (2013) 14), or to a relatively compressed transducer function for chromatic blur (Journal of Vision 15 (2015) 6). To test between the two explanations we conducted experiments using as stimuli both images of natural scenes as well as simple edges. First, we found that in color-and-luminance images of natural scenes more chromatic blur was needed to perceptually match a given level of blur in an isoluminant, i.e. colour-only scene. However, when the luminance layer in the scene was rotated relative to the chromatic layer, thus removing the colour-luminance edge correlations, the matched blur levels were near equal. Both results are consistent with Sharman et al.'s explanation. Second, when observers matched the blurs of luminance-only with isoluminant scenes, the matched blurs were equal, against Kingdom et al.'s prediction. Third, we measured the perceived blur in a square-wave as a function of (i) contrast (ii) number of luminance edges and (iii) the relative spatial phase between the colour and luminance edges. We found that the perceived chromatic blur was dependent on both relative phase and the number of luminance edges, or dependent on the luminance contrast if only a single edge is present. We conclude that this Hel-Or effect is largely due to masking of chromatic blur by spatially contiguous luminance edges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Blur Clarified: A review and Synthesis of Blur Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J.

    2011-01-01

    Blur is an important attribute of human spatial vision, and sensitivity to blur has been the subject of considerable experimental research and theoretical modeling. Often these models have invoked specialized concepts or mechanisms, such as intrinsic blur, multiple channels, or blur estimation units. In this paper we review the several experimental studies of blur discrimination and find they are in broad empirical agreement. But contrary to previous modeling efforts, we find that the essential features of blur discrimination are fully accounted for by a visible contrast energy model (ViCE), in which two spatial patterns are distinguished when the integrated difference between their masked local contrast energy responses reaches a threshold value.

  3. Blurring Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services; 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law aspects......; and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...... and distributive justice at national level....

  4. Fish invasions in the world's river systems: when natural processes are blurred by human activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Leprieur

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Because species invasions are a principal driver of the human-induced biodiversity crisis, the identification of the major determinants of global invasions is a prerequisite for adopting sound conservation policies. Three major hypotheses, which are not necessarily mutually exclusive, have been proposed to explain the establishment of non-native species: the "human activity" hypothesis, which argues that human activities facilitate the establishment of non-native species by disturbing natural landscapes and by increasing propagule pressure; the "biotic resistance" hypothesis, predicting that species-rich communities will readily impede the establishment of non-native species; and the "biotic acceptance" hypothesis, predicting that environmentally suitable habitats for native species are also suitable for non-native species. We tested these hypotheses and report here a global map of fish invasions (i.e., the number of non-native fish species established per river basin using an original worldwide dataset of freshwater fish occurrences, environmental variables, and human activity indicators for 1,055 river basins covering more than 80% of Earth's surface. First, we identified six major invasion hotspots where non-native species represent more than a quarter of the total number of species. According to the World Conservation Union, these areas are also characterised by the highest proportion of threatened fish species. Second, we show that the human activity indicators account for most of the global variation in non-native species richness, which is highly consistent with the "human activity" hypothesis. In contrast, our results do not provide support for either the "biotic acceptance" or the "biotic resistance" hypothesis. We show that the biogeography of fish invasions matches the geography of human impact at the global scale, which means that natural processes are blurred by human activities in driving fish invasions in the world's river systems

  5. Blurred world view: A study on the relationship between television viewing and the perception of the justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Benedikt; Truong, Florence; Mar, Raymond A; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies suggest that distorted representations of reality on television can lead to distorted perceptions of reality among viewers. In this study, 322 individuals in Austria reported their weekly television consumption and whether they believe that there is active practice of capital punishment in Austria, which has been abolished since 1968. The more television participants watched, the more likely they mistakenly believed that there is, or recently was, capital punishment in Austria, even when controlling for participants' age and education. It seems that television has the potential to influence viewers' perception and knowledge of core aspects of society.

  6. Neural networks for perception human and machine perception

    CERN Document Server

    Wechsler, Harry

    1991-01-01

    Neural Networks for Perception, Volume 1: Human and Machine Perception focuses on models for understanding human perception in terms of distributed computation and examples of PDP models for machine perception. This book addresses both theoretical and practical issues related to the feasibility of both explaining human perception and implementing machine perception in terms of neural network models. The book is organized into two parts. The first part focuses on human perception. Topics on network model ofobject recognition in human vision, the self-organization of functional architecture in t

  7. Human voice perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinus, Marianne; Belin, Pascal

    2011-02-22

    We are all voice experts. First and foremost, we can produce and understand speech, and this makes us a unique species. But in addition to speech perception, we routinely extract from voices a wealth of socially-relevant information in what constitutes a more primitive, and probably more universal, non-linguistic mode of communication. Consider the following example: you are sitting in a plane, and you can hear a conversation in a foreign language in the row behind you. You do not see the speakers' faces, and you cannot understand the speech content because you do not know the language. Yet, an amazing amount of information is available to you. You can evaluate the physical characteristics of the different protagonists, including their gender, approximate age and size, and associate an identity to the different voices. You can form a good idea of the different speaker's mood and affective state, as well as more subtle cues as the perceived attractiveness or dominance of the protagonists. In brief, you can form a fairly detailed picture of the type of social interaction unfolding, which a brief glance backwards can on the occasion help refine - sometimes surprisingly so. What are the acoustical cues that carry these different types of vocal information? How does our brain process and analyse this information? Here we briefly review an emerging field and the main tools used in voice perception research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancement of blurred image portions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for image enhancement, comprising a first step ( 41 ) of distinguishing blurred and non-blurred image portions of an input image, and a second step ( 42 ) of enhancing at least one of said blurred image portions of said input image to produce an output image. Said

  9. Restoration of motion blurred images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola, Leopoldo N.; Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.

    2017-08-01

    Image restoration is a classic problem in image processing. Image degradations can occur due to several reasons, for instance, imperfections of imaging systems, quantization errors, atmospheric turbulence, relative motion between camera or objects, among others. Motion blur is a typical degradation in dynamic imaging systems. In this work, we present a method to estimate the parameters of linear motion blur degradation from a captured blurred image. The proposed method is based on analyzing the frequency spectrum of a captured image in order to firstly estimate the degradation parameters, and then, to restore the image with a linear filter. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by processing synthetic and real-life images. The obtained results are characterized in terms of accuracy of image restoration given by an objective criterion.

  10. Understanding human perception by human-made illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2014-01-01

    IT MAY BE FUN TO PERCEIVE ILLUSIONS, BUT THE UNDERSTANDING OF HOW THEY WORK IS EVEN MORE STIMULATING AND SUSTAINABLE: They can tell us where the limits and capacity of our perceptual apparatus are found-they can specify how the constraints of perception are set. Furthermore, they let us analyze the cognitive sub-processes underlying our perception. Illusions in a scientific context are not mainly created to reveal the failures of our perception or the dysfunctions of our apparatus, but instead point to the specific power of human perception. The main task of human perception is to amplify and strengthen sensory inputs to be able to perceive, orientate and act very quickly, specifically and efficiently. The present paper strengthens this line of argument, strongly put forth by perceptual pioneer Richard L. Gregory (e.g., Gregory, 2009), by discussing specific visual illusions and how they can help us to understand the magic of perception.

  11. Edge dependent motion blur reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and a circuit arrangement to reduce motion blur of images shown in non-stroboscopic display devices, in particular Liquid Crystal Display Panels (LCDs). Thin Film Transistor Displays (TFTs), Color Sequential Displays. Plasma Display Panels (PDPs), Digital Micro

  12. Luminance cues constrain chromatic blur discrimination in natural scene stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Rebecca J; McGraw, Paul V; Peirce, Jonathan W

    2013-03-22

    Introducing blur into the color components of a natural scene has very little effect on its percept, whereas blur introduced into the luminance component is very noticeable. Here we quantify the dominance of luminance information in blur detection and examine a number of potential causes. We show that the interaction between chromatic and luminance information is not explained by reduced acuity or spatial resolution limitations for chromatic cues, the effective contrast of the luminance cue, or chromatic and achromatic statistical regularities in the images. Regardless of the quality of chromatic information, the visual system gives primacy to luminance signals when determining edge location. In natural viewing, luminance information appears to be specialized for detecting object boundaries while chromatic information may be used to determine surface properties.

  13. Blur Detection is Unaffected by Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loschky, Lester C; Ringer, Ryan V; Johnson, Aaron P; Larson, Adam M; Neider, Mark; Kramer, Arthur F

    2014-03-01

    Blur detection is affected by retinal eccentricity, but is it also affected by attentional resources? Research showing effects of selective attention on acuity and contrast sensitivity suggests that allocating attention should increase blur detection. However, research showing that blur affects selection of saccade targets suggests that blur detection may be pre-attentive. To investigate this question, we carried out experiments in which viewers detected blur in real-world scenes under varying levels of cognitive load manipulated by the N -back task. We used adaptive threshold estimation to measure blur detection thresholds at 0°, 3°, 6°, and 9° eccentricity. Participants carried out blur detection as a single task, a single task with to-be-ignored letters, or an N-back task with four levels of cognitive load (0, 1, 2, or 3-back). In Experiment 1, blur was presented gaze-contingently for occasional single eye fixations while participants viewed scenes in preparation for an easy picture recognition memory task, and the N -back stimuli were presented auditorily. The results for three participants showed a large effect of retinal eccentricity on blur thresholds, significant effects of N -back level on N -back performance, scene recognition memory, and gaze dispersion, but no effect of N -back level on blur thresholds. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 but presented the images tachistoscopically for 200 ms (half with, half without blur), to determine whether gaze-contingent blur presentation in Experiment 1 had produced attentional capture by blur onset during a fixation, thus eliminating any effect of cognitive load on blur detection. The results with three new participants replicated those of Experiment 1, indicating that the use of gaze-contingent blur presentation could not explain the lack of effect of cognitive load on blur detection. Thus, apparently blur detection in real-world scene images is unaffected by attentional resources, as manipulated by

  14. Rate-distortion theory and human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Chris R

    2016-07-01

    The fundamental goal of perception is to aid in the achievement of behavioral objectives. This requires extracting and communicating useful information from noisy and uncertain sensory signals. At the same time, given the complexity of sensory information and the limitations of biological information processing, it is necessary that some information must be lost or discarded in the act of perception. Under these circumstances, what constitutes an 'optimal' perceptual system? This paper describes the mathematical framework of rate-distortion theory as the optimal solution to the problem of minimizing the costs of perceptual error subject to strong constraints on the ability to communicate or transmit information. Rate-distortion theory offers a general and principled theoretical framework for developing computational-level models of human perception (Marr, 1982). Models developed in this framework are capable of producing quantitatively precise explanations for human perceptual performance, while yielding new insights regarding the nature and goals of perception. This paper demonstrates the application of rate-distortion theory to two benchmark domains where capacity limits are especially salient in human perception: discrete categorization of stimuli (also known as absolute identification) and visual working memory. A software package written for the R statistical programming language is described that aids in the development of models based on rate-distortion theory. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Public Perceptions of Human Trafficking in Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Robinson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is a widely studied phenomenon. Comparing public perceptions of trafficking to institutional (i.e. the academy, governmental and non-governmental organizations perceptions gives a richer understanding of the problem. The data for this study were collected in and around Chisinau, Moldova in the summer of 2004. Public discourse provides a more intimate "portraiture" of the issue, but the public also demonstrated a complex level of understanding of this social problem in this study. Its view is juxtaposed against an institutional view of human trafficking as explored through a literature review. Combining institutional and public perceptions and knowledge of a social problem is helpful in not only establishing a more thorough understanding of the social problem and guiding policy decisions, but in exploring the experiences victims may face at the community level.

  16. Human perception and the uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harney, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of the uncertainty principle that position and momentum cannot be simultaneously specified to arbitrary accuracy is somewhat difficult to reconcile with experience. This note describes order-of-magnitude calculations which quantify the inadequacy of human perception with regards to direct observation of the breakdown of the trajectory concept implied by the uncertainty principle. Even with the best optical microscope, human vision is inadequate by three orders of magnitude. 1 figure

  17. Network dynamics of human face perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Mehmet Kadipasaoglu

    Full Text Available Prevailing theories suggests that cortical regions responsible for face perception operate in a serial, feed-forward fashion. Here, we utilize invasive human electrophysiology to evaluate serial models of face-processing via measurements of cortical activation, functional connectivity, and cortico-cortical evoked potentials. We find that task-dependent changes in functional connectivity between face-selective regions in the inferior occipital (f-IOG and fusiform gyrus (f-FG are bidirectional, not feed-forward, and emerge following feed-forward input from early visual cortex (EVC to both of these regions. Cortico-cortical evoked potentials similarly reveal independent signal propagations between EVC and both f-IOG and f-FG. These findings are incompatible with serial models, and support a parallel, distributed network underpinning face perception in humans.

  18. ENVIRONMENT IN THE HUMAN PERCEPTION: GEOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Dushkova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work highlights the different aspects of human perception of environment, specific characteristics of the subjective estimation of its state and attitudes to environmental quality. The authors claim more scientific awareness for the understanding of the motivations determining human behavior during interaction with the environment and knowledge about the objective functional system “perception—action” as part of complex geoecological analyses. Furthermore the populations view on the further development of the landscape to improve its living conditions etc. is a crucial part of this concept.

  19. Recognition of Images Degraded by Gaussian Blur

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan; Farokhi, Sajad; Höschl, Cyril; Suk, Tomáš; Zitová, Barbara; Pedone, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2016), s. 790-806 ISSN 1057-7149 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Blurred image * object recognition * blur invariant comparison * Gaussian blur * projection operators * image moments * moment invariants Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 4.828, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/flusser-0454335.pdf

  20. Effects of playing video games on perceptions of one's humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    According to self-perception theory, individuals infer their characteristics by observing their own behavior. In the present research, the hypothesis is examined whether helping behavior increases perceptions of one's own humanity even when help is given that does not benefit a real person. In fact, two studies revealed that playing a prosocial video game (where the goal is to help and care for other game characters) led to increased perceptions of the player's own humanity (in particular, for positive humanity traits). Results also revealed that playing a violent, relative to a neutral, video game decreased perceptions of humanity on positive humanity traits and increased perceptions of humanity on negative humanity traits. Taken together, it appears that being helpful while playing video games leads to the perception of being more human, whereas being harmful while playing video games leads players to perceive themselves negatively.

  1. Automatic detection of blurred images in UAV image sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieberth, Till; Wackrow, Rene; Chandler, Jim H.

    2016-12-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have become an interesting and active research topic for photogrammetry. Current research is based on images acquired by an UAV, which have a high ground resolution and good spectral and radiometrical resolution, due to the low flight altitudes combined with a high resolution camera. UAV image flights are also cost effective and have become attractive for many applications including, change detection in small scale areas. One of the main problems preventing full automation of data processing of UAV imagery is the degradation effect of blur caused by camera movement during image acquisition. This can be caused by the normal flight movement of the UAV as well as strong winds, turbulence or sudden operator inputs. This blur disturbs the visual analysis and interpretation of the data, causes errors and can degrade the accuracy in automatic photogrammetric processing algorithms. The detection and removal of these images is currently achieved manually, which is both time consuming and prone to error, particularly for large image-sets. To increase the quality of data processing an automated process is necessary, which must be both reliable and quick. This paper describes the development of an automatic filtering process, which is based upon the quantification of blur in an image. Images with known blur are processed digitally to determine a quantifiable measure of image blur. The algorithm is required to process UAV images fast and reliably to relieve the operator from detecting blurred images manually. The newly developed method makes it possible to detect blur caused by linear camera displacement and is based on human detection of blur. Humans detect blurred images best by comparing it to other images in order to establish whether an image is blurred or not. The developed algorithm simulates this procedure by creating an image for comparison using image processing. Creating internally a comparable image makes the method independent of

  2. Perception of animacy in dogs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdai, Judit; Ferdinandy, Bence; Terencio, Cristina Baño; Pogány, Ákos; Miklósi, Ádám

    2017-06-01

    Humans have a tendency to perceive inanimate objects as animate based on simple motion cues. Although animacy is considered as a complex cognitive property, this recognition seems to be spontaneous. Researchers have found that young human infants discriminate between dependent and independent movement patterns. However, quick visual perception of animate entities may be crucial to non-human species as well. Based on general mammalian homology, dogs may possess similar skills to humans. Here, we investigated whether dogs and humans discriminate similarly between dependent and independent motion patterns performed by geometric shapes. We projected a side-by-side video display of the two patterns and measured looking times towards each side, in two trials. We found that in Trial 1, both dogs and humans were equally interested in the two patterns, but in Trial 2 of both species, looking times towards the dependent pattern decreased, whereas they increased towards the independent pattern. We argue that dogs and humans spontaneously recognized the specific pattern and habituated to it rapidly, but continued to show interest in the 'puzzling' pattern. This suggests that both species tend to recognize inanimate agents as animate relying solely on their motions. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Auditory perception of a human walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, David; Campbell, Megan E J

    2014-01-01

    When one hears footsteps in the hall, one is able to instantly recognise it as a person: this is an everyday example of auditory biological motion perception. Despite the familiarity of this experience, research into this phenomenon is in its infancy compared with visual biological motion perception. Here, two experiments explored sensitivity to, and recognition of, auditory stimuli of biological and nonbiological origin. We hypothesised that the cadence of a walker gives rise to a temporal pattern of impact sounds that facilitates the recognition of human motion from auditory stimuli alone. First a series of detection tasks compared sensitivity with three carefully matched impact sounds: footsteps, a ball bouncing, and drumbeats. Unexpectedly, participants were no more sensitive to footsteps than to impact sounds of nonbiological origin. In the second experiment participants made discriminations between pairs of the same stimuli, in a series of recognition tasks in which the temporal pattern of impact sounds was manipulated to be either that of a walker or the pattern more typical of the source event (a ball bouncing or a drumbeat). Under these conditions, there was evidence that both temporal and nontemporal cues were important in recognising theses stimuli. It is proposed that the interval between footsteps, which reflects a walker's cadence, is a cue for the recognition of the sounds of a human walking.

  4. Human Perception of Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guan-Lu

    2010-01-01

    Human daily activities on Earth involve motions that elicit both tilt and translation components of the head (i.e. gazing and locomotion). With otolith cues alone, tilt and translation can be ambiguous since both motions can potentially displace the otolithic membrane by the same magnitude and direction. Transitions between gravity environments (i.e. Earth, microgravity and lunar) have demonstrated to alter the functions of the vestibular system and exacerbate the ambiguity between tilt and translational motion cues. Symptoms of motion sickness and spatial disorientation can impair human performances during critical mission phases. Specifically, Space Shuttle landing records show that particular cases of tilt-translation illusions have impaired the performance of seasoned commanders. This sensorimotor condition is one of many operational risks that may have dire implications on future human space exploration missions. The neural strategy with which the human central nervous system distinguishes ambiguous inertial motion cues remains the subject of intense research. A prevailing theory in the neuroscience field proposes that the human brain is able to formulate a neural internal model of ambiguous motion cues such that tilt and translation components can be perceptually decomposed in order to elicit the appropriate bodily response. The present work uses this theory, known as the GIF resolution hypothesis, as the framework for experimental hypothesis. Specifically, two novel motion paradigms are employed to validate the neural capacity of ambiguous inertial motion decomposition in ground-based human subjects. The experimental setup involves the Tilt-Translation Sled at Neuroscience Laboratory of NASA JSC. This two degree-of-freedom motion system is able to tilt subjects in the pitch plane and translate the subject along the fore-aft axis. Perception data will be gathered through subject verbal reports. Preliminary analysis of perceptual data does not indicate that

  5. Human factors paradigm and customer care perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Colin; Eales-Reynolds, Lesley-Jane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine if customer care (CC) can be directly linked to patient safety through a human factors (HF) framework. Data from an online questionnaire, completed by a convenience healthcare worker sample (n=373), was interrogated using thematic analysis within Vincent et al.'s (1998) HF theoretical framework. This proposes seven areas affecting patient safety: institutional context, organisation and management, work environment, team factors, individual, task and patient. Analysis identified responses addressing all framework areas. Responses (597) principally focused on work environment 40.7 per cent (n=243), organisation and management 28.8 per cent (n=172). Nevertheless, reference to other framework areas were clearly visible within the data: teams 10.2 per cent (n=61), individual 6.7 per cent (n=40), patients 6.0 per cent (n=36), tasks 4.2 per cent (n=24) and institution 3.5 per cent (n=21). Findings demonstrate congruence between CC perceptions and patient safety within a HF framework. The questionnaire requested participants to identify barriers to rather than CC enablers. Although this was at a single site complex organisation, it was similar to those throughout the NHS and other international health systems. CC can be viewed as consonant with patient safety rather than the potentially dangerous consumerisation stance, which could ultimately compromise patient safety. This work provides an original perspective on the link between CC and patient safety and has the potential to re-focus healthcare perceptions.

  6. Altered Ecological Flows Blur Boundaries in Urbanizing Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd R. Lookingbill

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the boundary concept to ecological processes has been recently questioned. Humans in the post-industrial era have created novel lateral transport fluxes that have not been sufficiently considered in watershed studies. We describe patterns of land-use change within the Potomac River basin and demonstrate how these changes have blurred traditional ecosystem boundaries by increasing the movement of people, materials, and energy into and within the basin. We argue that this expansion of ecological commerce requires new science, monitoring, and management strategies focused on large rivers and suggest that traditional geopolitical and economic boundaries for environmental decision making be appropriately revised. Effective mitigation of the consequences of blurred boundaries will benefit from a broad-scale, interdisciplinary framework that can track and explicitly account for ecological fluxes of water, energy, materials, and organisms across human-dominated landscapes.

  7. IDENTIFIKASI DISTORSI BLUR PADA GAMBAR DIGITAL

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    Irwan Prasetya Gunawan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu masalah yang sering muncul dalam dunia fotografi adalah efek blur yang dapat diakibatkan baik oleh objek yang bergerak maupun gerakan kamera yang berhubungan dengan kecepatan rana (shutter speed ketika gambar akan diambil. Paper ini menyajikan sebuah metode baru yang sederhana untuk mendeteksi kemunculan distorsi blur yang tidak diinginkan pada gambar digital. Metode yang diusulkan menggunakan transformasi discrete cosine transform (DCT pada gambar yang telah mengalami distorsi dengan ukuran blok DCT yang bervariasi. Hasil dari pendeteksian ini kemudian digunakan untuk meningkatkan kualitas gambar melalui metode debluring berdasarkan korelasi pixel yang diterapkan pada area tertentu pada gambar yang mengandung distorsi blur ini. Hasil eksperimen menunjukkan bahwa kualitas gambar yang disempurnakan dihasilkan oleh metode debluring secara selektif menggunakan deteksi distorsi blur lokal akan lebih baik daripada yang tidak melalui proses seleksi. Dari berbagai ukuran blok yang digunakan dalam percobaan, blok berukuran 32×32 piksel menghasilkan kualitas gambar yang secara umum lebih baik. One of the problems that often arise in photography is a blurring effect that can be caused either by a moving object or camera movements that associated with the shutter speed when the picture is taken. This paper presents a simple new method for detecting the appearance of unwanted blur distortion in digital images. The proposed method uses the transformation of Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT on the image that has been distorted with varying DCT block size. The results of the detection used to improve image quality through debluring method based on pixel correlation that applied to certain areas of the image that contains this blur distortion. The experimental results show that the enhanced picture quality produced by the method of selectively debluring using a local blur distortion detection is better than not through the selection process

  8. Partial Deconvolution with Inaccurate Blur Kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongwei; Zuo, Wangmeng; Zhang, David; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Lei

    2017-10-17

    Most non-blind deconvolution methods are developed under the error-free kernel assumption, and are not robust to inaccurate blur kernel. Unfortunately, despite the great progress in blind deconvolution, estimation error remains inevitable during blur kernel estimation. Consequently, severe artifacts such as ringing effects and distortions are likely to be introduced in the non-blind deconvolution stage. In this paper, we tackle this issue by suggesting: (i) a partial map in the Fourier domain for modeling kernel estimation error, and (ii) a partial deconvolution model for robust deblurring with inaccurate blur kernel. The partial map is constructed by detecting the reliable Fourier entries of estimated blur kernel. And partial deconvolution is applied to wavelet-based and learning-based models to suppress the adverse effect of kernel estimation error. Furthermore, an E-M algorithm is developed for estimating the partial map and recovering the latent sharp image alternatively. Experimental results show that our partial deconvolution model is effective in relieving artifacts caused by inaccurate blur kernel, and can achieve favorable deblurring quality on synthetic and real blurry images.Most non-blind deconvolution methods are developed under the error-free kernel assumption, and are not robust to inaccurate blur kernel. Unfortunately, despite the great progress in blind deconvolution, estimation error remains inevitable during blur kernel estimation. Consequently, severe artifacts such as ringing effects and distortions are likely to be introduced in the non-blind deconvolution stage. In this paper, we tackle this issue by suggesting: (i) a partial map in the Fourier domain for modeling kernel estimation error, and (ii) a partial deconvolution model for robust deblurring with inaccurate blur kernel. The partial map is constructed by detecting the reliable Fourier entries of estimated blur kernel. And partial deconvolution is applied to wavelet-based and learning

  9. A blur-invariant local feature for motion blurred image matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qiang; Aoki, Terumasa

    2017-07-01

    Image matching between a blurred (caused by camera motion, out of focus, etc.) image and a non-blurred image is a critical task for many image/video applications. However, most of the existing local feature schemes fail to achieve this work. This paper presents a blur-invariant descriptor and a novel local feature scheme including the descriptor and the interest point detector based on moment symmetry - the authors' previous work. The descriptor is based on a new concept - center peak moment-like element (CPME) which is robust to blur and boundary effect. Then by constructing CPMEs, the descriptor is also distinctive and suitable for image matching. Experimental results show our scheme outperforms state of the art methods for blurred image matching

  10. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people's perception of a person's age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people's response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty.

  11. From humans to computers cognition through visual perception

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Viktor Vasilievitch

    1991-01-01

    This book considers computer vision to be an integral part of the artificial intelligence system. The core of the book is an analysis of possible approaches to the creation of artificial vision systems, which simulate human visual perception. Much attention is paid to the latest achievements in visual psychology and physiology, the description of the functional and structural organization of the human perception mechanism, the peculiarities of artistic perception and the expression of reality. Computer vision models based on these data are investigated. They include the processes of external d

  12. Blurred edges to population policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, H P

    1992-05-01

    politics. Often written in ambiguous language and intended to affect society as a whole, they still depend for their outcome on microlevel changes in a couple's perceptions of the costs and benefits of having children. In theory, they can be carried out in many ways but in practice such policies are severely limited by administrative, political, technological, economic, and ethical constraints. One difficulty is that governments is rarely enunciate precise goals. Their approach may range from noninterference in private reproductive behavior to total coercion using controls ranging from traditional cultural influences to imposition of fertility regulations. In some countries, fertility rates have increased briefly (in terms of period rates) following introduction of pronatalist policies. However, it is not clear how the rates were influenced, particularly in the case of parities 1, 2, and 3. A forthcoming report will describe experiences in Bulgaria, France, Germany, Sweden, and Norway. full text

  13. Blind estimation of blur in hyperspectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mo; Vozel, Benoit; Chehdi, Kacem; Uss, Mykhail; Abramov, Sergey; Lukin, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Hyperspectral images acquired by remote sensing systems are generally degraded by noise and can be sometimes more severely degraded by blur. When no knowledge is available about the degradations present on the original image, blind restoration methods can only be considered. By blind, we mean absolutely no knowledge neither of the blur point spread function (PSF) nor the original latent channel and the noise level. In this study, we address the blind restoration of the degraded channels component-wise, according to a sequential scheme. For each degraded channel, the sequential scheme estimates the blur point spread function (PSF) in a first stage and deconvolves the degraded channel in a second and final stage by means of using the PSF previously estimated. We propose a new component-wise blind method for estimating effectively and accurately the blur point spread function. This method follows recent approaches suggesting the detection, selection and use of sufficiently salient edges in the current processed channel for supporting the regularized blur PSF estimation. Several modifications are beneficially introduced in our work. A new selection of salient edges through thresholding adequately the cumulative distribution of their corresponding gradient magnitudes is introduced. Besides, quasi-automatic and spatially adaptive tuning of the involved regularization parameters is considered. To prove applicability and higher efficiency of the proposed method, we compare it against the method it originates from and four representative edge-sparsifying regularized methods of the literature already assessed in a previous work. Our attention is mainly paid to the objective analysis (via ݈l1-norm) of the blur PSF error estimation accuracy. The tests are performed on a synthetic hyperspectral image. This synthetic hyperspectral image has been built from various samples from classified areas of a real-life hyperspectral image, in order to benefit from realistic spatial

  14. Human perception of shape from touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, Astrid M L

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I focus on the role of active touch in three aspects of shape perception and discrimination studies. First an overview is given of curvature discrimination experiments. The most prominent result is that first-order stimulus information (that is, the difference in attitude or slope

  15. Human and machine perception communication, interaction, and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Cantoni, Virginio; Setti, Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    The theme of this book on human and machine perception is communication, interaction, and integration. For each basic topic there are invited lectures, corresponding to approaches in nature and machines, and a panel discussion. The lectures present the state of the art, outlining open questions and stressing synergies among the disciplines related to perception. The panel discussions are forums for open debate. The wide spectrum of topics allows comparison and synergy and can stimulate new approaches.

  16. The Functional Neuroanatomy of Human Face Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill-Spector, Kalanit; Weiner, Kevin S; Kay, Kendrick; Gomez, Jesse

    2017-09-15

    Face perception is critical for normal social functioning and is mediated by a network of regions in the ventral visual stream. In this review, we describe recent neuroimaging findings regarding the macro- and microscopic anatomical features of the ventral face network, the characteristics of white matter connections, and basic computations performed by population receptive fields within face-selective regions composing this network. We emphasize the importance of the neural tissue properties and white matter connections of each region, as these anatomical properties may be tightly linked to the functional characteristics of the ventral face network. We end by considering how empirical investigations of the neural architecture of the face network may inform the development of computational models and shed light on how computations in the face network enable efficient face perception.

  17. Occlusion edge blur: A cue to relative visual depth

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, J.A.; Burbeck, C.A.; Ariely, D.; Rolland, J.P.; Martin, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    We studied whether the blur/sharpness of an occlusion boundary between a sharply focused surface and a blurred surface is used as a relative depth cue. Observers judged relative depth in pairs of images that differed only in the blurriness of the common boundary between two adjoining texture regions, one blurred and one sharply focused. Two experiments were conducted; in both, observers consistently used the blur of the boundary as a cue to relative depth. However, the strength of the cue, re...

  18. Perception of Scary Halloween Masks by Zoo Animals and Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Sinnott, Joan M.; Speaker, H. Anton; Powell, Laura A.; Mosteller, Kelly W.

    2012-01-01

    Zoo animals were tested to see if they perceived the scary nature of Halloween masks, using a procedure that measured the avoidance response latency to take food from a masked human experimenter. Human perception of the masks was also assessed using a rating scale, with results showing that a Bill Clinton mask was rated not scary, while a Vampire mask was rated very scary. Animal results showed that primate latencies correlated significantly with the human ratings, while non-primate latencies...

  19. Registration of Large Motion Blurred CMOS Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-28

    raju@ee.iitm.ac.in - Institution : Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras, India - Mailing Address : Room ESB 307c, Dept. of Electrical ...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0066 Registration of Large Motion Blurred CMOS Images Ambasamudram Rajagopalan INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MADRAS Final...NUMBER 5f.  WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MADRAS SARDAR PATEL ROAD Chennai, 600036

  20. Image Visual Realism: From Human Perception to Machine Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shaojing; Ng, Tian-Tsong; Koenig, Bryan L; Herberg, Jonathan S; Jiang, Ming; Shen, Zhiqi; Zhao, Qi

    2017-08-30

    Visual realism is defined as the extent to which an image appears to people as a photo rather than computer generated. Assessing visual realism is important in applications like computer graphics rendering and photo retouching. However, current realism evaluation approaches use either labor-intensive human judgments or automated algorithms largely dependent on comparing renderings to reference images. We develop a reference-free computational framework for visual realism prediction to overcome these constraints. First, we construct a benchmark dataset of 2520 images with comprehensive human annotated attributes. From statistical modeling on this data, we identify image attributes most relevant for visual realism. We propose both empirically-based (guided by our statistical modeling of human data) and CNN-learned features to predict visual realism of images. Our framework has the following advantages: (1) it creates an interpretable and concise empirical model that characterizes human perception of visual realism; (2) it links computational features to latent factors of human image perception.

  1. Ethical perception of human gene in transgenic banana | Amin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transgenic banana has been developed to prevent hepatitis B through vaccination. Its production seems to be an ideal alternative for cheaper vaccines. The objective of this paper is to assess the ethical perception of transgenic banana which involved the transfer of human albumin gene, and to compare their ethical ...

  2. Human centric object perception for service robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alargarsamy Balasubramanian, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    The research interests and applicability of robotics have diversified and seen a
    tremendous growth in recent years. There has been a shift from industrial robots operating in constrained settings to consumer robots working in dynamic environments associated closely with everyday human

  3. Perception, acceptance and uptake of Human papillomavirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parental approval and readiness for HPV vaccine uptake were found to be significantly associated (p =0.000). Since knowledge about Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination is quite low, there is need to increase awareness about the Vaccination among female adolescents and their mothers. Also, peer educators in schools ...

  4. Perceptions of nonhuman primates in human-wildlife conflict scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine M; Webber, Amanda D

    2010-09-01

    Nonhuman primates (referred to as primates in this study) are sometimes revered as gods, abhorred as evil spirits, killed for food because they damage crops, or butchered for sport. Primates' perceived similarity to humans places them in an anomalous position. While some human groups accept the idea that primates "straddle" the human-nonhuman boundary, for others this resemblance is a violation of the human-animal divide. In this study we use two case studies to explore how people's perceptions of primates are often influenced by these animals' apparent similarity to humans, creating expectations, founded within a "human morality" about how primates should interact with people. When animals transgress these social rules, they are measured against the same moral framework as humans. This has implications for how people view and respond to certain kinds of primate behaviors, their willingness to tolerate co-existence with primates and their likely support for primate conservation initiatives. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Human walking in virtual environments perception, technology, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Visell, Yon; Campos, Jennifer; Lécuyer, Anatole

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a survey of past and recent developments on human walking in virtual environments with an emphasis on human self-motion perception, the multisensory nature of experiences of walking, conceptual design approaches, current technologies, and applications. The use of virtual reality and movement simulation systems is becoming increasingly popular and more accessible to a wide variety of research fields and applications. While, in the past, simulation technologies have focused on developing realistic, interactive visual environments, it is becoming increasingly obvious that our everyday interactions are highly multisensory. Therefore, investigators are beginning to understand the critical importance of developing and validating locomotor interfaces that can allow for realistic, natural behaviours. The book aims to present an overview of what is currently understood about human perception and performance when moving in virtual environments and to situate it relative to the broader scientific and ...

  6. DE-BLURRING SINGLE PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IMAGES USING WAVELET DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu M. Sasi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Single photon emission computed tomography imaging is a popular nuclear medicine imaging technique which generates images by detecting radiations emitted by radioactive isotopes injected in the human body. Scattering of these emitted radiations introduces blur in this type of images. This paper proposes an image processing technique to enhance cardiac single photon emission computed tomography images by reducing the blur in the image. The algorithm works in two main stages. In the first stage a maximum likelihood estimate of the point spread function and the true image is obtained. In the second stage Lucy Richardson algorithm is applied on the selected wavelet coefficients of the true image estimate. The significant contribution of this paper is that processing of images is done in the wavelet domain. Pre-filtering is also done as a sub stage to avoid unwanted ringing effects. Real cardiac images are used for the quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the algorithm. Blur metric, peak signal to noise ratio and Tenengrad criterion are used as quantitative measures. Comparison against other existing de-blurring algorithms is also done. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method effectively reduces blur present in the image.

  7. Human perception considerations for 3D content creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, G. Almont

    2011-03-01

    Observation and interviews with people viewing autostereoscopic 3D imagery provides evidence that there are many human perception considerations required for 3D content creation. A study was undertaken whereby it was witnessed that certain test autostereoscopic imagery elicited a highly emotional response and engagement, while other test autostereoscopic imagery was given only a passing glance. That an image can be viewed with a certain level of stereopsis does not make it compelling. By taking into consideration the manner in which humans perceive depth and the space between objects, 3D content can achieve a level of familiarity and realness that is not possible with single perspective imagery. When human perception issues are ignored, 3D imagery can be undesirable to viewers and a negative bias against 3D imagery can occur. The preparation of 3D content is more important than the display technology. Where human perception, as it is used to interpret reality, is not mimicked in the creation of 3D content, the general public typically express a negative bias against that imagery (where choices are provided). For some, the viewing of 3D content that could not exist naturally, induces physical discomfort.

  8. Radiosity methods driven by human perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prikryl, J.

    2001-05-01

    Despite its popularity among researchers the radiosity method still suffers some disadvantage over other global illumination methods. Usual implementations of the radiosity method use criteria based on radiometric values to drive the computation and to decide about sufficient mesh quality or to estimate the error of the simulation process and to decide when the simulation can be safely terminated. This is absolutely correct for the case of radiometric simulation, when the user is interested in actual values of radiometric quantities. On the other hand, the radiosity method is very often used just to generate pictures for the human observer and those pictures are not required to be the results of correct physical simulations, they just have to look the same. The results of research on human visual performance and visual signal processing can be built into the image synthesis algorithm itself under some circumstances and guarantee that no effort will be spent on computing changes that are only marginally important for the human observer. In the area of image processing, perceptual error metrics are used for image comparison and image coding that enable to better predict the differences between two images as opposed to the perceptually inappropriate and widely used mean-squared error metrics. Tone reproduction operators known from image synthesis make it possible to map a bright scale of image luminance onto a narrow scale of CRT luminance in such a way that the perceived CRT image produces the same mental image as the original image. Perceptually-driven radiosity algorithms exist, which use various methods to control the optimum density of the finite-element mesh defining the scene that is being rendered, to include only visible discontinuity lines into this mesh, and to predict the convergence of the method. We will describe an hierarchical extension to the Monte Carlo radiosity that keeps the accuracy of the solution high only in the area immediately visible from

  9. Human skin wetness perception: psychophysical and neurophysiological bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Havenith, George

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perceive thermal changes in the surrounding environment is critical for survival. However, sensing temperature is not the only factor among the cutaneous sensations to contribute to thermoregulatory responses in humans. Sensing skin wetness (i.e. hygrosensation) is also critical both for behavioral and autonomic adaptations. Although much has been done to define the biophysical role of skin wetness in contributing to thermal homeostasis, little is known on the neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning the ability to sense skin wetness. Humans are not provided with skin humidity receptors (i.e., hygroreceptors) and psychophysical studies have identified potential sensory cues (i.e. thermal and mechanosensory) which could contribute to sensing wetness. Recently, a neurophysiological model of human wetness sensitivity has been developed. In helping clarifying the peripheral and central neural mechanisms involved in sensing skin wetness, this model has provided evidence for the existence of a specific human hygrosensation strategy, which is underpinned by perceptual learning via sensory experience. Remarkably, this strategy seems to be shared by other hygroreceptor-lacking animals. However, questions remain on whether these sensory mechanisms are underpinned by specific neuromolecular pathways in humans. Although the first study on human wetness perception dates back to more than 100 years, it is surprising that the neurophysiological bases of such an important sensory feature have only recently started to be unveiled. Hence, to provide an overview of the current knowledge on human hygrosensation, along with potential directions for future research, this review will examine the psychophysical and neurophysiological bases of human skin wetness perception. PMID:27227008

  10. Dynamic Stimuli And Active Processing In Human Visual Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Ralph N.

    1990-03-01

    Theories of visual perception traditionally have considered a static retinal image to be the starting point for processing; and has considered processing both to be passive and a literal translation of that frozen, two dimensional, pictorial image. This paper considers five problem areas in the analysis of human visually guided locomotion, in which the traditional approach is contrasted to newer ones that utilize dynamic definitions of stimulation, and an active perceiver: (1) differentiation between object motion and self motion, and among the various kinds of self motion (e.g., eyes only, head only, whole body, and their combinations); (2) the sources and contents of visual information that guide movement; (3) the acquisition and performance of perceptual motor skills; (4) the nature of spatial representations, percepts, and the perceived layout of space; and (5) and why the retinal image is a poor starting point for perceptual processing. These newer approaches argue that stimuli must be considered as dynamic: humans process the systematic changes in patterned light when objects move and when they themselves move. Furthermore, the processing of visual stimuli must be active and interactive, so that perceivers can construct panoramic and stable percepts from an interaction of stimulus information and expectancies of what is contained in the visual environment. These developments all suggest a very different approach to the computational analyses of object location and identification, and of the visual guidance of locomotion.

  11. Efficient Image Blur in Web-Based Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Scripting languages require the use of high-level library functions to implement efficient image processing; thus, real-time image blur in web-based applications is a challenging task unless specific library functions are available for this purpose. We present a pyramid blur algorithm, which can ...

  12. Human alteration of the rural landscape: Variations in visual perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloquell-Ballester, Vicente-Agustín; Carmen Torres-Sibille, Ana del; Cloquell-Ballester, Víctor-Andrés; Santamarina-Siurana, María Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to evaluate how visual perception varies as the rural landscape is altered by human interventions of varying character. An experiment is carried out using Semantic Differential Analysis to analyse the effect of the character and the type of the intervention on perception. Interventions are divided into elements of “permanent industrial character”, “elements of permanent rural character” and “elements of temporary character”, and these categories are sub-divided into smaller groups according to the type of development. To increase the reliability of the results, the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient tool, is applied to validate the semantic space of the perceptual responses and to determine the number of subjects required for a reliable evaluation of the scenes.

  13. Human alteration of the rural landscape: Variations in visual perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloquell-Ballester, Vicente-Agustin, E-mail: cloquell@dpi.upv.es; Carmen Torres-Sibille, Ana del; Cloquell-Ballester, Victor-Andres; Santamarina-Siurana, Maria Cristina

    2012-01-15

    The objective of this investigation is to evaluate how visual perception varies as the rural landscape is altered by human interventions of varying character. An experiment is carried out using Semantic Differential Analysis to analyse the effect of the character and the type of the intervention on perception. Interventions are divided into elements of 'permanent industrial character', 'elements of permanent rural character' and 'elements of temporary character', and these categories are sub-divided into smaller groups according to the type of development. To increase the reliability of the results, the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient tool, is applied to validate the semantic space of the perceptual responses and to determine the number of subjects required for a reliable evaluation of the scenes.

  14. Neurolinguistic Relativity: How Language Flexes Human Perception and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Guillaume

    2016-09-01

    The time has come, perhaps, to go beyond merely acknowledging that language is a core manifestation of the workings of the human mind and that it relates interactively to all aspects of thinking. The issue, thus, is not to decide whether language and human thought may be ineluctably linked (they just are), but rather to determine what the characteristics of this relationship may be and to understand how language influences-and may be influenced by-nonverbal information processing. In an attempt to demystify linguistic relativity, I review neurolinguistic studies from our research group showing a link between linguistic distinctions and perceptual or conceptual processing. On the basis of empirical evidence showing effects of terminology on perception, language-idiosyncratic relationships in semantic memory, grammatical skewing of event conceptualization, and unconscious modulation of executive functioning by verbal input, I advocate a neurofunctional approach through which we can systematically explore how languages shape human thought.

  15. Using Opaque Image Blur for Real-Time Depth-of-Field Rendering and Image-Based Motion Blur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2013-01-01

    While depth of field is an important cinematographic means, its use in real-time computer graphics is still limited by the computational costs that are necessary to achieve a sufficient image quality. Specifically, color bleeding artifacts between objects at different depths are most effectively...... that the opaque image blur can also be used to add motion blur effects to images in real time....

  16. Effect of ambient temperature on human pain and temperature perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigo, I A; Carli, F; Bushnell, M C

    2000-03-01

    Animal studies show reduced nociceptive responses to noxious heat stimuli and increases in endogenous beta-endorphin levels in cold environments, suggesting that human pain perception may be dependent on ambient temperature. However, studies of changes in local skin temperature on human pain perception have yielded variable results. This study examines the effect of both warm and cool ambient temperature on the perception of noxious and innocuous mechanical and thermal stimuli. Ten subjects (7 men and 3 women, aged 20-23 yr) used visual analog scales to rate the stimulus intensity, pain intensity, and unpleasantness of thermal (0-50 degrees C) and mechanical (1.2-28.9 g) stimuli applied on the volar forearm with a 1-cm2 contact thermode and von Frey filaments, respectively. Mean skin temperatures were measured throughout the experiment by infrared pyrometer. Each subject was tested in ambient temperatures of 15 degrees C (cool), 25 degrees C (neutral), and 35 degrees C (warm) on separate days, after a 30-min acclimation to the environment. Studies began in the morning after an 8-h fast. Mean skin temperature was altered by ambient temperature (cool room: 30.1 degrees C; neutral room: 33.4 degrees C; warm room: 34.5 degrees C; P cool than in the neutral environment (P cool room and that noxious heat stimuli were more unpleasant in a warm environment. Environmental temperature did not alter ratings of warm (37 and 40 degrees C) or mechanical stimuli. These results indicate that, in humans, a decrease in skin temperature following exposure to cool environments reduces thermal pain. Suppression of Adelta primary afferent cold fiber activity has been shown to increase cold pain produced by skin cooling. Our current findings may represent the reverse phenomenon, i.e., a reduction in thermal nociceptive transmission by the activation of Adelta cutaneous cold fibers.

  17. Quantum theory and human perception of the macro-world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the question of 'why customary macroscopic entities appear to us humans as they do, i.e., as bounded entities occupying space and persisting through time', starting from our knowledge of quantum theory, how it affects the behavior of such customary macroscopic entities, and how it influences our perception of them. For this purpose, we approach the question from three perspectives. Firstly, we look at the situation from the standard quantum angle, more specifically the de Broglie wavelength analysis of the behavior of macroscopic entities, indicate how a problem with spin and identity arises, and illustrate how both play a fundamental role in well-established experimental quantum-macroscopical phenomena, such as Bose-Einstein condensates. Secondly, we analyze how the question is influenced by our result in axiomatic quantum theory, which proves that standard quantum theory is structurally incapable of describing separated entities. Thirdly, we put forward our new 'conceptual quantum interpretation', including a highly detailed reformulation of the question to confront the new insights and views that arise with the foregoing analysis. At the end of the final section, a nuanced answer is given that can be summarized as follows. The specific and very classical perception of human seeing-light as a geometric theory-and human touching-only ruled by Pauli's exclusion principle-plays a role in our perception of macroscopic entities as ontologically stable entities in space. To ascertain quantum behavior in such macroscopic entities, we will need measuring apparatuses capable of its detection. Future experimental research will have to show if sharp quantum effects-as they occur in smaller entities-appear to be ontological aspects of customary macroscopic entities. It remains a possibility that standard quantum theory is an incomplete theory, and hence incapable of coping ultimately with separated entities, meaning that a more general theory will be needed.

  18. Quantum Theory and Human Perception of the Macro-World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik eAerts

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the question of 'why customary macroscopic entities appear to us humans as they do, i.e. as bounded entities occupying space and persisting through time', starting from our knowledge of quantum theory, how it affects the behavior of such customary macroscopic entities, and how it influences our perception of them. For this purpose, we approach the question from three perspectives. Firstly, we look at the situation from the standard quantum angle, more specifically the de Broglie wavelength analysis of the behavior of macroscopic entities, indicate how a problem with spin and identity arises, and illustrate how both play a fundamental role in well-established experimental quantum-macroscopical phenomena, such as Bose-Einstein condensates. Secondly, we analyze how the question is influenced by our result in axiomatic quantum theory, which proves that standard quantum theory is structurally incapable of describing separated entities. Thirdly, we put forward our new `conceptual quantum interpretation', including a highly detailed reformulation of the question to confront the new insights and views that arise with the foregoing analysis. At the end of the final section, a nuanced answer is given that can be summarized as follows. The specific and very classical perception of human seeing -- light as a geometric theory -- and human touching -- only ruled by Pauli's exclusion principle -- plays a role in our perception of macroscopic entities as ontologically stable objects in space. To ascertain quantum behavior in such macroscopic entities, we will need measuring apparatuses capable of its detection. Future experimental research will have to show if sharp quantum effects -- as they occur in smaller entities -- appear to be ontological aspects of customary macroscopic entities. It remains a possibility that standard quantum theory is an incomplete theory, and hence incapable of coping with separated entities, meaning that a more general

  19. Shape perception in human and computer vision an interdisciplinary perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, Sven J

    2013-01-01

    This comprehensive and authoritative text/reference presents a unique, multidisciplinary perspective on Shape Perception in Human and Computer Vision. Rather than focusing purely on the state of the art, the book provides viewpoints from world-class researchers reflecting broadly on the issues that have shaped the field. Drawing upon many years of experience, each contributor discusses the trends followed and the progress made, in addition to identifying the major challenges that still lie ahead. Topics and features: examines each topic from a range of viewpoints, rather than promoting a speci

  20. Linking person perception and person knowledge in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, Inez M; Downing, Paul E; Ramsey, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Neuroscience research has examined separately how we detect human agents on the basis of their face and body (person perception) and how we reason about their thoughts, traits or intentions (person knowledge). Neuroanatomically distinct networks have been associated with person perception and person knowledge, but it remains unknown how multiple features of a person (e.g. thin and kind) are linked to form a holistic identity representation. In this fMRI experiment, we investigated the hypothesis that when encountering another person specialised person perception circuits would be functionally coupled with circuits involved in person knowledge. In a factorial design, we paired bodies or names with trait-based or neutral statements, and independent localiser scans identified body-selective and mentalising networks. When observing a body paired with a trait-implying statement, functional connectivity analyses demonstrated that body-selective patches in bilateral fusiform gyri were functionally coupled with nodes of the mentalising network. We demonstrate that when forming a representation of a person circuits for representing another person's physical appearance are linked to circuits that are engaged when reasoning about trait-based character. These data support the view that a 'who' system for social cognition involves communication between perceptual and inferential mechanisms when forming a representation of another's identity. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Age Estimation Robust to Optical and Motion Blurring by Deep Residual CNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Seong Kang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, real-time human age estimation based on facial images has been applied in various areas. Underneath this phenomenon lies an awareness that age estimation plays an important role in applying big data to target marketing for age groups, product demand surveys, consumer trend analysis, etc. However, in a real-world environment, various optical and motion blurring effects can occur. Such effects usually cause a problem in fully capturing facial features such as wrinkles, which are essential to age estimation, thereby degrading accuracy. Most of the previous studies on age estimation were conducted for input images almost free from blurring effect. To overcome this limitation, we propose the use of a deep ResNet-152 convolutional neural network for age estimation, which is robust to various optical and motion blurring effects of visible light camera sensors. We performed experiments with various optical and motion blurred images created from the park aging mind laboratory (PAL and craniofacial longitudinal morphological face database (MORPH databases, which are publicly available. According to the results, the proposed method exhibited better age estimation performance than the previous methods.

  2. Human papilloma virus vaccination: perceptions of young Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee Sun; Shin, Hyunsook; Hyun, Myung-Sun; Kim, Mi Ja

    2010-09-01

    This paper is a report of a descriptive study of young Korean women's perceptions of use of the human papilloma virus vaccine. In Korea, cervical cancer is one of the leading cancers in women, and the rate of human papilloma virus infection is increasing. A national media campaign has recently begun to promote human papilloma virus vaccination. However, research addressing the acceptability of this vaccine to women in Korea has been limited. Twenty-five Korean women, 21-30 years of age, participated in seven focus groups. The data were collected in 2007. Participants were concerned about the potential harmful effects of the human papilloma virus vaccine, a possible increase in unsafe sexual behaviours, and the high cost of the vaccine, which is not covered by health insurance. They suggested group vaccination at-cost or free of charge. They discussed ambivalence about the vaccination, the need for more information about the vaccine, and questions about its effectiveness. Most preferred to wait until more people have been vaccinated. There is a need for more aggressive dissemination of information about the safety and efficacy of the human papilloma virus vaccine. More reasonable cost, insurance coverage, or free vaccination using a group approach might increase young Korean women's acceptance and use of the human papilloma virus vaccine.

  3. Edge Modeling by Two Blur Parameters in Varying Contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Suyoung

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a method of modeling edge profiles with two blur parameters, and estimating and predicting those edge parameters with varying brightness combinations and camera-to-object distances (COD). First, the validity of the edge model is proven mathematically. Then, it is proven experimentally with edges from a set of images captured for specifically designed target sheets and with edges from natural images. Estimation of the two blur parameters for each observed edge profile is performed with a brute-force method to find parameters that produce global minimum errors. Then, using the estimated blur parameters, actual blur parameters of edges with arbitrary brightness combinations are predicted using a surface interpolation method (i.e., kriging). The predicted surfaces show that the two blur parameters of the proposed edge model depend on both dark-side edge brightness and light-side edge brightness following a certain global trend. This is similar across varying CODs. The proposed edge model is compared with a one-blur parameter edge model using experiments of the root mean squared error for fitting the edge models to each observed edge profile. The comparison results suggest that the proposed edge model has superiority over the one-blur parameter edge model in most cases where edges have varying brightness combinations.

  4. Restoration of non-uniform exposure motion blurred image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuanhong; Xu, Tingfa; Wang, Ningming; Liu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    Restoring motion-blurred image is the key technologies in the opto-electronic detection system. The imaging sensors such as CCD and infrared imaging sensor, which are mounted on the motion platforms, quickly move together with the platforms of high speed. As a result, the images become blur. The image degradation will cause great trouble for the succeeding jobs such as objects detection, target recognition and tracking. So the motion-blurred images must be restoration before detecting motion targets in the subsequent images. On the demand of the real weapon task, in order to deal with targets in the complex background, this dissertation uses the new theories in the field of image processing and computer vision to research the new technology of motion deblurring and motion detection. The principle content is as follows: 1) When the prior knowledge about degradation function is unknown, the uniform motion blurred images are restored. At first, the blur parameters, including the motion blur extent and direction of PSF(point spread function), are estimated individually in domain of logarithmic frequency. The direction of PSF is calculated by extracting the central light line of the spectrum, and the extent is computed by minimizing the correction between the fourier spectrum of the blurred image and a detecting function. Moreover, in order to remove the strip in the deblurred image, windows technique is employed in the algorithm, which makes the deblurred image clear. 2) According to the principle of infrared image non-uniform exposure, a new restoration model for infrared blurred images is developed. The fitting of infrared image non-uniform exposure curve is performed by experiment data. The blurred images are restored by the fitting curve.

  5. Theory of reflectivity blurring in seismic depth imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, C. J.; Kitchenside, P. W.; Fletcher, R. P.

    2016-05-01

    A subsurface extended image gather obtained during controlled-source depth imaging yields a blurred kernel of an interface reflection operator. This reflectivity kernel or reflection function is comprised of the interface plane-wave reflection coefficients and so, in principle, the gather contains amplitude versus offset or angle information. We present a modelling theory for extended image gathers that accounts for variable illumination and blurring, under the assumption of a good migration-velocity model. The method involves forward modelling as well as migration or back propagation so as to define a receiver-side blurring function, which contains the effects of the detector array for a given shot. Composition with the modelled incident wave and summation over shots then yields an overall blurring function that relates the reflectivity to the extended image gather obtained from field data. The spatial evolution or instability of blurring functions is a key concept and there is generally not just spatial blurring in the apparent reflectivity, but also slowness or angle blurring. Gridded blurring functions can be estimated with, for example, a reverse-time migration modelling engine. A calibration step is required to account for ad hoc band limitedness in the modelling and the method also exploits blurring-function reciprocity. To demonstrate the concepts, we show numerical examples of various quantities using the well-known SIGSBEE test model and a simple salt-body overburden model, both for 2-D. The moderately strong slowness/angle blurring in the latter model suggests that the effect on amplitude versus offset or angle analysis should be considered in more realistic structures. Although the description and examples are for 2-D, the extension to 3-D is conceptually straightforward. The computational cost of overall blurring functions implies their targeted use for the foreseeable future, for example, in reservoir characterization. The description is for scalar

  6. A review on otolith models in human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Houshyar; Mohamed, Shady; Lim, Chee Peng; Nahavandi, Saeid

    2016-08-01

    The vestibular system, which consists of semicircular canals and otolith, are the main sensors mammals use to perceive rotational and linear motions. Identifying the most suitable and consistent mathematical model of the vestibular system is important for research related to driving perception. An appropriate vestibular model is essential for implementation of the Motion Cueing Algorithm (MCA) for motion simulation purposes, because the quality of the MCA is directly dependent on the vestibular model used. In this review, the history and development process of otolith models are presented and analyzed. The otolith organs can detect linear acceleration and transmit information about sensed applied specific forces on the human body. The main purpose of this review is to determine the appropriate otolith models that agree with theoretical analyses and experimental results as well as provide reliable estimation for the vestibular system functions. Formulating and selecting the most appropriate mathematical model of the vestibular system is important to ensure successful human perception modelling and simulation when implementing the model into the MCA for motion analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Human Capital Questionnaire: Assessment of European nurses' perceptions as indicators of human capital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Romeo, Marina; Berger, Rita

    2013-06-01

    Healthcare accreditation models generally include indicators related to healthcare employees' perceptions (e.g. satisfaction, career development, and health safety). During the accreditation process, organizations are asked to demonstrate the methods with which assessments are made. However, none of the models provide standardized systems for the assessment of employees. In this study, we analyzed the psychometric properties of an instrument for the assessment of nurses' perceptions as indicators of human capital quality in healthcare organizations. The Human Capital Questionnaire was applied to a sample of 902 nurses in four European countries (Spain, Portugal, Poland, and the UK). Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: satisfaction with leadership, identification and commitment, satisfaction with participation, staff well-being, career development opportunities, and motivation. The results showed the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, which when applied to healthcare organizations, provide a better understanding of nurses' perceptions, and is a parsimonious instrument for assessment and organizational accreditation. From a practical point of view, improving the quality of human capital, by analyzing nurses and other healthcare employees' perceptions, is related to workforce empowerment. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Human cortical areas involved in perception of surface glossiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Atsushi; Sakano, Yuichi; Ando, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Glossiness is the visual appearance of an object's surface as defined by its surface reflectance properties. Despite its ecological importance, little is known about the neural substrates underlying its perception. In this study, we performed the first human neuroimaging experiments that directly investigated where the processing of glossiness resides in the visual cortex. First, we investigated the cortical regions that were more activated by observing high glossiness compared with low glossiness, where the effects of simple luminance and luminance contrast were dissociated by controlling the illumination conditions (Experiment 1). As cortical regions that may be related to the processing of glossiness, V2, V3, hV4, VO-1, VO-2, collateral sulcus (CoS), LO-1, and V3A/B were identified, which also showed significant correlation with the perceived level of glossiness. This result is consistent with the recent monkey studies that identified selective neural response to glossiness in the ventral visual pathway, except for V3A/B in the dorsal visual pathway, whose involvement in the processing of glossiness could be specific to the human visual system. Second, we investigated the cortical regions that were modulated by selective attention to glossiness (Experiment 2). The visual areas that showed higher activation to attention to glossiness than that to either form or orientation were identified as right hV4, right VO-2, and right V3A/B, which were commonly identified in Experiment 1. The results indicate that these commonly identified visual areas in the human visual cortex may play important roles in glossiness perception. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Humanly space objects-Perception and connection with the observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Hall, Ashley

    2015-05-01

    Expanding humanity into space is an inevitable step in our quest to explore our world. Yet space exploration is costly, and the awaiting environment challenges us with extreme cold, heat, vacuum and radiation, unlike anything encountered on Earth. Thus, the few pioneers who experience it needed to be well protected throughout their spaceflight. The resulting isolation heightens the senses and increases the desire to make humanly connections with any other perceived manifestation of life. Such connections may occur via sensory inputs, namely vision, touch, sound, smell, and taste. This then follows the process of sensing, interpreting, and recognizing familiar patterns, or learning from new experiences. The desire to connect could even transfer to observed objects, if their movements and characteristics trigger the appropriate desires from the observer. When ordered in a familiar way, for example visual stimuli from lights and movements of an object, it may create a perceived real bond with an observer, and evoke the feeling of surprise when the expected behavior changes to something no longer predictable or recognizable. These behavior patterns can be designed into an object and performed autonomously in front of an observer, in our case an astronaut. The experience may introduce multiple responses, including communication, connection, empathy, order, and disorder. While emotions are clearly evoked in the observer and may seem one sided, in effect the object itself provides a decoupled bond, connectivity and communication between the observer and the artist-designer of the object. In this paper we will discuss examples from the field of arts and other domains, including robotics, where human perception through object interaction was explored, and investigate the starting point for new innovative design concepts and future prototype designs, that extend these experiences beyond the boundaries of Earth, while taking advantage of remoteness and the zero gravity

  10. A computational model of human auditory signal processing and perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Morten Løve; Ewert, Stephan D.; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    A model of computational auditory signal-processing and perception that accounts for various aspects of simultaneous and nonsimultaneous masking in human listeners is presented. The model is based on the modulation filterbank model described by Dau et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 2892 (1997...... discrimination with pure tones and broadband noise, tone-in-noise detection, spectral masking with narrow-band signals and maskers, forward masking with tone signals and tone or noise maskers, and amplitude-modulation detection with narrow- and wideband noise carriers. The model can account for most of the key...... properties of the data and is more powerful than the original model. The model might be useful as a front end in technical applications....

  11. 5-HT modulation of pain perception in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sarah L; Power, Andrea; Boyle, Yvonne; Anderson, Ian M; Silverdale, Monty A; Jones, Anthony K P

    2017-10-01

    Although there is clear evidence for the serotonergic regulation of descending control of pain in animals, little direct evidence exists in humans. The majority of our knowledge comes from the use of serotonin (5-HT)-modulating antidepressants as analgesics in the clinical management of chronic pain. Here, we have used an acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to manipulate 5-HT function and examine its effects of ATD on heat pain threshold and tolerance, attentional manipulation of nociceptive processing and mood in human volunteers. Fifteen healthy participants received both ATD and balanced amino acid (BAL) drinks on two separate sessions in a double-blind cross-over design. Pain threshold and tolerance were determined 4 h post-drink via a heat thermode. Additional attention, distraction and temperature discrimination paradigms were completed using a laser-induced heat pain stimulus. Mood was assessed prior and throughout each session. Our investigation reported that the ATD lowered plasma TRP levels by 65.05 ± 7.29% and significantly reduced pain threshold and tolerance in response to the heat thermode. There was a direct correlation between the reduction in total plasma TRP levels and reduction in thermode temperature. In contrast, ATD showed no effect on laser-induced pain nor significant impact of the distraction-induced analgesia on pain perception but did reduce performance of the painful temperature discrimination task. Importantly, all findings were independent of any effects of ATD on mood. As far as we are aware, it is the first demonstration of 5-HT effects on pain perception which are not confounded by mood changes.

  12. Human roughness perception and possible factors effecting roughness sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Tugba; Chen, Jianshe; Ettelaie, Rammile; Holmes, Melvin; Henson, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Surface texture sensation is significant for business success, in particular for solid surfaces for most of the materials; including foods. Mechanisms of roughness perception are still unknown, especially under different conditions such as lubricants with varying viscosities, different temperatures, or under different force loads during the observation of the surface. This work aims to determine the effect of those unknown factors, with applied sensory tests on 62 healthy participants. Roughness sensation of fingertip was tested under different lubricants including water and diluted syrup solutions at room temperature (25C) and body temperature (37C) by using simple pair-wise comparison to observe the just noticeable difference threshold and perception levels. Additionally, in this research applied force load during roughness observation was tested with pair-wise ranking method to illustrate its possible effect on human sensation. Obtained results showed that human's capability of roughness discrimination reduces with increased viscosity of the lubricant, where the influence of the temperature was not found to be significant. Moreover, the increase in the applied force load showed an increase in the sensitivity of roughness discrimination. Observed effects of the applied factors were also used for estimating the oral sensation of texture during eating. These findings are significant for our fundamental understanding to texture perception, and for the development of new food products with controlled textural features. Texture discrimination ability, more specifically roughness discrimination capability, is a significant factor for preference and appreciation for a wide range of materials, including food, furniture, or fabric. To explore the mechanism of sensation capability through tactile senses, it is necessary to identify the relevant factors and define characteristics that dominate the process involved. The results that will be obtained under these principles

  13. [A design of refractometer based on blur circle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yikui; Huang, Shenghai; Ye, Huifang; Zou, Ruitao; Tong, Gengmin; Zhuo, Ran

    2011-03-01

    Design a convenient and stable eye refractometer based on the theory of blur circle. Analyze the retinal blur circle in both Emsly reduced eye model and Liou & Brennan 1997 eye model by ZEMAX. Design the coefficients including PD (pupil diameter) and NO' (length between node point and fovea) with the purpose of improving the accuracy. At last, compare the clinical optometry data from this refractor with the data obtained from optometry hospital in Wenzhou. The blur circle diameters are nearly the same in both reduced eye model and the Liou & Brennan 1997 eye model. With the PD = 4 mm and NO' = 20 mm, the refractor shows a fine accuracy in optometry. The paired t test shows that the myopia group and the astigmatism axial direction group have no statistical difference between the data from the blur circle refractor and the hospital (P > 0.05), while the astigmatism degree group has the result of P = 0.41 which may be caused by the poor cooperation of pediatric patients. 80% of the astigmatism degree data differ from the data from the hospital in less than 0.75D. The blur circle refractor, with the features of convenience and fine accuracy, is promised to be a new style of refractometer in the future.

  14. Projection Operators and Moment Invariants to Image Blurring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan; Suk, Tomáš; Boldyš, Jiří; Zitová, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 4 (2015), s. 786-802 ISSN 0162-8828 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29225S; GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Blurred image * N-fold rotation symmetry * projection operators * image moments * moment invariants * blur invariants * object recognition Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 6.077, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/ZOI/flusser-0434521.pdf

  15. The Methods of Information Security Based on Blurring of System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Andreevich Styugin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the model of researching system with own known input, output and set of discrete internal states. These theoretical objects like an absolutely protected from research system and an absolutely indiscernible data transfer channel are defined. Generalization of the principle of Shannon Secrecy are made. The method of system blurring is defined. Theoretically cryptographically strong of absolutely indiscernible data transfer channel is proved and its practical unbreakable against unreliable pseudo random number generator is shown. This paper present system with blurring of channel named Pseudo IDTC and shown asymptotic complexity of break this system compare with AES and GOST.

  16. Blurring of the public/private divide: the Canadian chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Colleen M; Thomas, Bryan

    2010-06-01

    Blurring of public/private divide is occurring in different ways around the world, with differential effects in terms of access and equity. In Canada, one pathway towards privatization has received particular attention: duplicative private insurance, allowing those with the financial means to bypass queues in the public system. We assess recent legal and policy developments on this front, but also describe other trends towards the blurring of public and private in Canada: the reliance on mandated private insurance for pharmaceutical coverage; provincial governments' reliance on public-private partnerships to finance hospitals; and the incorporation of for-profit clinics within the public health care system.

  17. Blurred Boundaries in Wildlife Management Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonman-Berson, S.H.

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts have been increasing at alarming rates over the last few decades. Wildlife management practices deal with preventing and disentangling these conflicts. However, which approach should be taken is widely disputed in research, policy, in-the-field-wildlife management and local

  18. The role of human ventral visual cortex in motion perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Ayse P.; Lorenzi, Lauren J.; Egan, Ryan; Rees, Geraint; Behrmann, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Visual motion perception is fundamental to many aspects of visual perception. Visual motion perception has long been associated with the dorsal (parietal) pathway and the involvement of the ventral ‘form’ (temporal) visual pathway has not been considered critical for normal motion perception. Here, we evaluated this view by examining whether circumscribed damage to ventral visual cortex impaired motion perception. The perception of motion in basic, non-form tasks (motion coherence and motion detection) and complex structure-from-motion, for a wide range of motion speeds, all centrally displayed, was assessed in five patients with a circumscribed lesion to either the right or left ventral visual pathway. Patients with a right, but not with a left, ventral visual lesion displayed widespread impairments in central motion perception even for non-form motion, for both slow and for fast speeds, and this held true independent of the integrity of areas MT/V5, V3A or parietal regions. In contrast with the traditional view in which only the dorsal visual stream is critical for motion perception, these novel findings implicate a more distributed circuit in which the integrity of the right ventral visual pathway is also necessary even for the perception of non-form motion. PMID:23983030

  19. Converging Evidence of Ubiquitous Male Bias in Human Sex Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Gaetano

    Full Text Available Visually judging the sex of another can be achieved easily in most social encounters. When the signals that inform such judgements are weak (e.g. outdoors at night, observers tend to expect the presence of males-an expectation that may facilitate survival-critical decisions under uncertainty. The present aim was to examine whether this male bias depends on expertise. To that end, Caucasian and Asian observers targeted female and male hand images that were either the same or different to the observers' race (i.e. long term experience was varied while concurrently, the proportion of targets changed across presentation blocks (i.e. short term experience change. It was thus found that: (i observers of own-race stimuli were more likely to report the presence of males and absence of females, however (ii observers of other-race stimuli--while still tending to accept stimuli as male--were not prone to rejecting female cues. Finally, (iii male-biased measures did not track the relative frequency of targets or lures, disputing the notion that male bias derives from prior expectation about the number of male exemplars in a set. Findings are discussed in concert with the pan-stimulus model of human sex perception.

  20. Lecture classes in human anatomy: the students' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Maitreyee; Roy, Hironmoy; Ghosh, Anasuya; Tapadar, Arunabha; Chowdhury, Subhramoy; Mukherjee, Pranab; Jana, Tapan Kumar

    2013-06-01

    The human anatomy, or in brief, the body structure has fascinated man for ages. Due to the information explosion and the increase in specializations, this knowledge is available in a very sketchy manner in high school biology courses. The first comprehensive course on the human anatomy is taught to the first year medical students in medical colleges. This is in keeping with the regulations of the Medical Council of India. The anatomy lecture classes occupy a considerable time of the course, to provide the students with an effective knowledge of the gross anatomy, histology, embryology and the clinical anatomy. On the other hand, the students' feedback regarding the lecture methods and the teaching environment is crucial in judging the efficacy of the present curriculum. To obtain the students' feedback about the environment of the lecture classes, as regards the venue, the teaching and learning aids which are used, the lecture class schedule of the university (the number of classes per week, the durations of the lecture classes, etc.) and the existing departmental practices (display of the class routine in advance, synchronization between the lecture and the practical classes), so that their suggestions could help the faculty in planning the most effective teaching procedures. A semi structured questionnaire was supplied to the students to get their feedback. Most of the students found the air conditioned seminar room's environment to be more comfortable and they supported the existing durations of the lecture hours with the combined use of chalk and a board and overhead projectors (OHPs). The perceptions of the learners helped in modifying the departmental practice in the desired way.

  1. Examining Social Perceptions between Arab and Jewish Children through Human Figure Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedidia, Tova; Lipschitz-Elchawi, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined social perceptions among 191 Arab and Jewish children who live in mixed neighborhoods in Israel. Human Figure Drawing assessment was used to examine the children's social perceptions. The drawings that the Jewish Israeli children created portrayed Arabs as the enemy, whereas the Arab Israeli children expressed a more positive…

  2. Enrolment Purposes, Instructional Activities, and Perceptions of Attitudinal Learning in a Human Trafficking MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sunnie Lee; Kim, Woori

    2016-01-01

    This study examines learner enrolment purposes, perceptions on instructional activities and their relationship to learning gains in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for attitudinal change regarding human trafficking. Using an author-developed survey, learners reported their perceptions on instructional activities and learning gains within the…

  3. Erasing and blurring memories: The differential impact of interference on separate aspects of forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sol Z; Fidalgo, Celia; Barense, Morgan D; Lee, Andy C H; Cant, Jonathan S; Ferber, Susanne

    2017-11-01

    Interference disrupts information processing across many timescales, from immediate perception to memory over short and long durations. The widely held similarity assumption states that as similarity between interfering information and memory contents increases, so too does the degree of impairment. However, information is lost from memory in different ways. For instance, studied content might be erased in an all-or-nothing manner. Alternatively, information may be retained but the precision might be degraded or blurred. Here, we asked whether the similarity of interfering information to memory contents might differentially impact these 2 aspects of forgetting. Observers studied colored images of real-world objects, each followed by a stream of interfering objects. Across 4 experiments, we manipulated the similarity between the studied object and the interfering objects in circular color space. After interference, memory for object color was tested continuously on a color wheel, which in combination with mixture modeling, allowed for estimation of how erasing and blurring differentially contribute to forgetting. In contrast to the similarity assumption, we show that highly dissimilar interfering items caused the greatest increase in random guess responses, suggesting a greater frequency of memory erasure (Experiments 1-3). Moreover, we found that observers were generally able to resist interference from highly similar items, perhaps through surround suppression (Experiments 1 and 4). Finally, we report that interference from items of intermediate similarity tended to blur or decrease memory precision (Experiments 3 and 4). These results reveal that the nature of visual similarity can differentially alter how information is lost from memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Edge and line detection of complicated and blurred objects

    OpenAIRE

    Haugsdal, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This report deals with edge and line detection in pictures with complicated and/or blurred objects. It explores the alternatives available, in edge detection, edge linking and object recognition. Choice of methods are the Canny edge detection and Local edge search processing combined with regional edge search processing in the form of polygon approximation.

  5. Blurring the Boundaries of Public and Private Education in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkari, Abdeljalil

    2013-01-01

    A typical analysis of the privatization of education in Latin America focuses on private sector development at the expense of public education. In this paper, I propose a different view that will highlight the blurring of boundaries between public and private education in Brazil. This confusion perpetuates the historical duality of the education…

  6. A Blur track on Mars: how do you top that?

    CERN Multimedia

    Cooke, Rachel

    2003-01-01

    "On the eve of the landing of the Beagle 2 space probe on Mars, one of its instigators, Blur bassist Alex James, talks exclusively about his new-found passion for space 'Talking with scientists makes me feel giddy with excitement. Life on Mars, I mean, come on! How dead do you have to be not to find that interesting?' (1 page).

  7. Blind assessment of image blur using the Haar wavelet

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bachoo, A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available algorithms. We present an intuitive quality metric for characterizing the amount of blur in an image, through blind image assessment, using the Haar discrete wavelet transform. Thus, the method does not require a reference image or any prior information...

  8. Quantitative evaluation of impedance perception characteristics of humans in the man-machine interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onish, Keiichi; Kim, Young Woo; Obinata, Goro; Hase, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    We investigated impedance perception characteristics of humans in the man-machine interface. Sensibility or operational feel about physical properties of machine dynamics is obtained through perception process. We evaluated the impedance perception characteristics of humans who are operating a mechanical system, based on extended Scheffe's subjective evaluation method in full consideration of the influence of impedance level, impedance difference, experiment order, individual difference and so on. Constant method based quantitative evaluation was adopted to investigate the influence of motion frequency and change of the impedance on human impedance perception characteristics. Experimental results indicate that humans perceive impedance of mechanical systems based on comparison process of the dynamical characteristics of the systems. The proposed method can be applied to quantify the design requirement of man-machine interface. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through experimental results.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of impedance perception characteristics of humans in the man-machine interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onish, Keiichi [Yamaha Motor Co., Shizuoka (Japan); Kim, Young Woo [Daegu Techno Park R and D Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Obinata, Goro [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Hase, Kazunori [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-05-15

    We investigated impedance perception characteristics of humans in the man-machine interface. Sensibility or operational feel about physical properties of machine dynamics is obtained through perception process. We evaluated the impedance perception characteristics of humans who are operating a mechanical system, based on extended Scheffe's subjective evaluation method in full consideration of the influence of impedance level, impedance difference, experiment order, individual difference and so on. Constant method based quantitative evaluation was adopted to investigate the influence of motion frequency and change of the impedance on human impedance perception characteristics. Experimental results indicate that humans perceive impedance of mechanical systems based on comparison process of the dynamical characteristics of the systems. The proposed method can be applied to quantify the design requirement of man-machine interface. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through experimental results.

  10. Enhancing fuzzy robot navigation systems by mimicking human visual perception of natural terrain traversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstel, E.; Howard, A.; Edwards, D.; Carlson, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for learning to assess terrain traversability for outdoor mobile robot navigation using human-embedded logic and real-time perception of terrain features extracted from image data.

  11. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected

  12. Direct electrical stimulation of human cortex evokes high gamma activity that predicts conscious somatosensory perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Leah; Rolston, John D.; Fox, Neal P.; Knowlton, Robert; Rao, Vikram R.; Chang, Edward F.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a clinical gold standard for human brain mapping and readily evokes conscious percepts, yet the neurophysiological changes underlying these percepts are not well understood. Approach. To determine the neural correlates of DES, we stimulated the somatosensory cortex of ten human participants at frequency-amplitude combinations that both elicited and failed to elicit conscious percepts, meanwhile recording neural activity directly surrounding the stimulation site. We then compared the neural activity of perceived trials to that of non-perceived trials. Main results. We found that stimulation evokes distributed high gamma activity, which correlates with conscious perception better than stimulation parameters themselves. Significance. Our findings suggest that high gamma activity is a reliable biomarker for perception evoked by both natural and electrical stimuli.

  13. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  14. Bayesian versus politically motivated reasoning in human perception of climate anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripberger, Joseph T.; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Silva, Carol L.; Carlson, Deven E.; Gupta, Kuhika; Carlson, Nina; Dunlap, Riley E.

    2017-11-01

    In complex systems where humans and nature interact to produce joint outcomes, mitigation, adaptation, and resilience require that humans perceive feedback—signals of health and distress—from natural systems. In many instances, humans readily perceive feedback. In others, feedback is more difficult to perceive, so humans rely on experts, heuristics, biases, and/or identify confirming rationalities that may distort perceptions of feedback. This study explores human perception of feedback from natural systems by testing alternate conceptions about how individuals perceive climate anomalies, a form of feedback from the climate system. Results indicate that individuals generally perceive climate anomalies, especially when the anomalies are relatively extreme and persistent. Moreover, this finding is largely robust to political differences that generate predictable but small biases in feedback perception at extreme ends of the partisan spectrum. The subtlety of these biases bodes well for mitigation, adaptation, and resilience as human systems continue to interact with a changing climate system.

  15. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people’s perception of a person’s age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty ...

  16. Brain response to a humanoid robot in areas implicated in the perception of human emotional gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminade, Thierry; Zecca, Massimiliano; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Takanishi, Atsuo; Frith, Chris D; Micera, Silvestro; Dario, Paolo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Gallese, Vittorio; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra

    2010-07-21

    The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents. Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust) and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted. Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance. Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions. Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions.

  17. A new vision for the science of human flavor perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon M Shepherd

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The conference was organized and welcomed by Lisa Sasson, representing the NYU Steinhardt School and its Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Public Health in cooperation with the NYU School of Dentistry. As a co-organizer, I added my welcome, and explained how the many disciplines brought together in the conference constituted a new vision for the science of human flavor perception, which can be summarized by the term “neurogastronomy” (1. The speakers and the disciplines they represent were bound together by several principles. First, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." This is understood to apply to most research in biology; here we wished to show that it applies especially to the human behavior of choosing foods to eat, a view put forward most prominently by Richard Wrangham based on his book "Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human". We also wished to show that the sensory and motor apparatus of the mouth and nose need to be understood as adaptations through human evolution, as carefully documented by Daniel Lieberman, based on his recent "Evolution of the Human Head". Many of the speakers picked up this theme in their presentations. It is clear that an evolutionary framework must be part of understanding flavor and healthy eating. A second principle was that "Flavor is not in the food; it is created by the brain". Just as color is created out of different wavelengths of light by neural processing mechanisms in our brains, so is flavor created by neural processing mechanisms out of different molecules emitted by the food and drink in our mouths. This requires understanding neural mechanisms at all levels of organization of the brain, a vast field that our conference only began to address, starting with the sensory receptors and sensory systems as discussed by Gary Beauchamp for taste and Stuart Firestein for olfaction. Current research reported by Ivan De Araujo on sugars is dissociating their sweet

  18. Modeling human perception of orientation in altered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Torin K.; Newman, Michael C.; Oman, Charles M.; Merfeld, Daniel M.; Young, Laurence R.

    2015-01-01

    Altered gravity environments, such as those experienced by astronauts, impact spatial orientation perception, and can lead to spatial disorientation and sensorimotor impairment. To more fully understand and quantify the impact of altered gravity on orientation perception, several mathematical models have been proposed. The utricular shear, tangent, and the idiotropic vector models aim to predict static perception of tilt in hyper-gravity. Predictions from these prior models are compared to the available data, but are found to systematically err from the perceptions experimentally observed. Alternatively, we propose a modified utricular shear model for static tilt perception in hyper-gravity. Previous dynamic models of vestibular function and orientation perception are limited to 1 G. Specifically, they fail to predict the characteristic overestimation of roll tilt observed in hyper-gravity environments. To address this, we have proposed a modification to a previous observer-type canal-otolith interaction model based upon the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS) treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. Here we evaluate our modified utricular shear and modified observer models in four altered gravity motion paradigms: (a) static roll tilt in hyper-gravity, (b) static pitch tilt in hyper-gravity, (c) static roll tilt in hypo-gravity, and (d) static pitch tilt in hypo-gravity. The modified models match available data in each of the conditions considered. Our static modified utricular shear model and dynamic modified observer model may be used to help quantitatively predict astronaut perception of orientation in altered gravity environments. PMID:25999822

  19. Modeling Human Perception of Orientation in Altered Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torin K. Clark

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Altered gravity environments, such as those experienced by astronauts, impact spatial orientation perception and can lead to spatial disorientation and sensorimotor impairment. To more fully understand and quantify the impact of altered gravity on orientation perception, several mathematical models have been proposed. The utricular shear, tangent, and the idiotropic vector models aim to predict static perception of tilt in hyper-gravity. Predictions from these prior models are compared to the available data, but are found to systematically err from the perceptions experimentally observed. Alternatively, we propose a modified utricular shear model for static tilt perception in hyper-gravity. Previous dynamic models of vestibular function and orientation perception are limited to 1 G. Specifically, they fail to predict the characteristic overestimation of roll tilt observed in hyper-gravity environments. To address this, we have proposed a modification to a previous observer-type canal otolith interaction model based upon the hypothesis that the central nervous system treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. Here we evaluate our modified utricular shear and modified observer models in four altered gravity motion paradigms: a static roll tilt in hyper-gravity, b static pitch tilt in hyper-gravity, c static roll tilt in hypo-gravity, and d static pitch tilt in hypo-gravity. The modified models match available data in each of the conditions considered. Our static modified utricular shear model and dynamic modified observer model may be used to help quantitatively predict astronaut perception of orientation in altered gravity environments.

  20. Registration of Images with N-fold Dihedral Blur

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pedone, M.; Flusser, Jan; Heikkila, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2015), s. 1036-1045 ISSN 1057-7149 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29225S; GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Image registration * blurred images * N-fold rotational symmetry * dihedral symmetry * phase correlation Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 3.735, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/ZOI/flusser-0441247.pdf

  1. A Single Image Deblurring Algorithm for Nonuniform Motion Blur Using Uniform Defocus Map Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Feng Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common artifacts in digital photography is motion blur. When capturing an image under dim light by using a handheld camera, the tendency of the photographer’s hand to shake causes the image to blur. In response to this problem, image deblurring has become an active topic in computational photography and image processing in recent years. From the view of signal processing, image deblurring can be reduced to a deconvolution problem if the kernel function of the motion blur is assumed to be shift invariant. However, the kernel function is not always shift invariant in real cases; for example, in-plane rotation of a camera or a moving object can blur different parts of an image according to different kernel functions. An image that is degraded by multiple blur kernels is called a nonuniform blur image. In this paper, we propose a novel single image deblurring algorithm for nonuniform motion blur images that is blurred by moving object. First, a proposed uniform defocus map method is presented for measurement of the amounts and directions of motion blur. These blurred regions are then used to estimate point spread functions simultaneously. Finally, a fast deconvolution algorithm is used to restore the nonuniform blur image. We expect that the proposed method can achieve satisfactory deblurring of a single nonuniform blur image.

  2. Real-time deblurring of handshake blurred images on smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourreza-Shahri, Reza; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser

    2015-02-01

    This paper discusses an Android app for the purpose of removing blur that is introduced as a result of handshakes when taking images via a smartphone. This algorithm utilizes two images to achieve deblurring in a computationally efficient manner without suffering from artifacts associated with deconvolution deblurring algorithms. The first image is the normal or auto-exposure image and the second image is a short-exposure image that is automatically captured immediately before or after the auto-exposure image is taken. A low rank approximation image is obtained by applying singular value decomposition to the auto-exposure image which may appear blurred due to handshakes. This approximation image does not suffer from blurring while incorporating the image brightness and contrast information. The eigenvalues extracted from the low rank approximation image are then combined with those from the shortexposure image. It is shown that this deblurring app is computationally more efficient than the adaptive tonal correction algorithm which was previously developed for the same purpose.

  3. Wading through Perceptions: Understanding Human Perceptions of Water Quality in Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality perceptions influence people’s preferences for visiting coastal areas and willingness to participate in activities on or near the water. They also influence people’s social values for a waterbody, sense of place, support for protection of a waterbody, an...

  4. Perceptions about human rights, sexual and reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background About 1.6 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) from northern Uganda have been living in encampments since the late 1980s. In conflict settings such as northern Uganda women are disproportionately affected compared to men. This study explores women and men IDPs' perceptions of their access to ...

  5. Human Service Administrator Perceptions of Online MSW Degree Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Laura; Sanchez Mayers, Ray; Fulghum, Fontaine

    2017-01-01

    Online programs have proliferated rapidly in higher education, and this reality holds true for social work education as well. Employing a mixed methods design, this study looked at employer perceptions of online degrees compared to traditional degrees. Data was collected through an online survey that included Likert type and open-ended questions…

  6. DETECTING AND CORRECTING MOTION BLUR FROM IMAGES SHOT WITH CHANNEL-DEPENDENT EXPOSURE TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lelégard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a pipeline developed to automatically detect and correct motion blur due to the airplane motion in aerial images provided by a digital camera system with channel-dependent exposure times. Blurred images show anisotropy in their Fourier Transform coefficients that can be detected and estimated to recover the characteristics of the motion blur. To disambiguate the anisotropy produced by a motion blur from the possible spectral anisotropy produced by some periodic patterns present in a sharp image, we consider the phase difference of the Fourier Transform of two channel shot with different exposure times (i.e. with different blur extensions. This is possible because of the deep correlation between the three visible channels ensures phase coherence of the Fourier Transform coefficients in sharp images. In this context, considering the phase difference constitutes both a good detector and estimator of the motion blur parameters. In order to improve on this estimation, the phase difference is performed on local windows in the image where the channels are more correlated. The main lobe of the phase difference, where the phase difference between two channels is close to zero actually imitates an ellipse which axis ratio discriminates blur and which orientation and minor axis give respectively the orientation and the blur kernel extension of the long exposure-time channels. However, this approach is not robust to the presence in the phase difference of minor lobes due to phase sign inversions in the Fourier transform of the motion blur. They are removed by considering the polar representation of the phase difference. Based on the blur detection step, blur correction is eventually performed using two different approaches depending on the blur extension size: using either a simple frequency-based fusion for small blur or a semi blind iterative method for larger blur. The higher computing costs of the latter method make it only

  7. Human Occipital and Parietal GABA Selectively Influence Visual Perception of Orientation and Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chen; Sandberg, Kristian; Andersen, Lau Møller; Blicher, Jakob Udby; Rees, Geraint

    2017-09-13

    GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human brain. The level of GABA varies substantially across individuals, and this variability is associated with interindividual differences in visual perception. However, it remains unclear whether the association between GABA level and visual perception reflects a general influence of visual inhibition or whether the GABA levels of different cortical regions selectively influence perception of different visual features. To address this, we studied how the GABA levels of parietal and occipital cortices related to interindividual differences in size, orientation, and brightness perception. We used visual contextual illusion as a perceptual assay since the illusion dissociates perceptual content from stimulus content and the magnitude of the illusion reflects the effect of visual inhibition. Across individuals, we observed selective correlations between the level of GABA and the magnitude of contextual illusion. Specifically, parietal GABA level correlated with size illusion magnitude but not with orientation or brightness illusion magnitude; in contrast, occipital GABA level correlated with orientation illusion magnitude but not with size or brightness illusion magnitude. Our findings reveal a region- and feature-dependent influence of GABA level on human visual perception. Parietal and occipital cortices contain, respectively, topographic maps of size and orientation preference in which neural responses to stimulus sizes and stimulus orientations are modulated by intraregional lateral connections. We propose that these lateral connections may underlie the selective influence of GABA on visual perception. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT GABA, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human visual system, varies substantially across individuals. This interindividual variability in GABA level is linked to interindividual differences in many aspects of visual perception. However, the widespread influence of GABA raises the

  8. Human Occipital and Parietal GABA Selectively Influence Visual Perception of Orientation and Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lau Møller; Blicher, Jakob Udby

    2017-01-01

    GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human brain. The level of GABA varies substantially across individuals, and this variability is associated with interindividual differences in visual perception. However, it remains unclear whether the association between GABA level and visual perception reflects a general influence of visual inhibition or whether the GABA levels of different cortical regions selectively influence perception of different visual features. To address this, we studied how the GABA levels of parietal and occipital cortices related to interindividual differences in size, orientation, and brightness perception. We used visual contextual illusion as a perceptual assay since the illusion dissociates perceptual content from stimulus content and the magnitude of the illusion reflects the effect of visual inhibition. Across individuals, we observed selective correlations between the level of GABA and the magnitude of contextual illusion. Specifically, parietal GABA level correlated with size illusion magnitude but not with orientation or brightness illusion magnitude; in contrast, occipital GABA level correlated with orientation illusion magnitude but not with size or brightness illusion magnitude. Our findings reveal a region- and feature-dependent influence of GABA level on human visual perception. Parietal and occipital cortices contain, respectively, topographic maps of size and orientation preference in which neural responses to stimulus sizes and stimulus orientations are modulated by intraregional lateral connections. We propose that these lateral connections may underlie the selective influence of GABA on visual perception. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT GABA, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human visual system, varies substantially across individuals. This interindividual variability in GABA level is linked to interindividual differences in many aspects of visual perception. However, the widespread influence of GABA raises the

  9. Is it the real deal? Perception of virtual characters versus humans: an affective cognitive neuroscience perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline W. ede Borst

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in neuroimaging research support the increased use of naturalistic stimulus material such as film, animations, or androids. These stimuli allow for a better understanding of how the brain processes information in complex situations while maintaining experimental control. While avatars and androids are well suited to study human cognition, they should not be equated to human stimuli. For example, the Uncanny Valley hypothesis theorizes that artificial agents with high human-likeness may evoke feelings of eeriness in the human observer. Here we review if, when, and how the perception of human-like avatars and androids differs from the perception of humans and consider how this influences their utilization as stimulus material in social and affective neuroimaging studies. First, we discuss how the appearance of virtual characters affects perception. When stimuli are morphed across categories from non-human to human, the most ambiguous stimuli, rather than the most human-like stimuli, show prolonged classification times and increased eeriness. Human-like to human stimuli show a positive linear relationship with familiarity. Secondly, we show that expressions of emotions in human-like avatars can be perceived similarly to human emotions, with corresponding behavioral, physiological and neuronal activations, with exception of physical dissimilarities. Subsequently, we consider if and when one perceives differences in action representation by artificial agents versus humans. Motor resonance and predictive coding models may account for empirical findings, such as an interference effect on action for observed human-like, natural moving characters. However, the expansion of these models to explain more complex behavior, such as empathy, still needs to be investigated in more detail. Finally, we broaden our outlook to social interaction, where virtual reality stimuli can be utilized to imitate complex social situations.

  10. Is it the real deal? Perception of virtual characters versus humans: an affective cognitive neuroscience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Borst, Aline W; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in neuroimaging research support the increased use of naturalistic stimulus material such as film, avatars, or androids. These stimuli allow for a better understanding of how the brain processes information in complex situations while maintaining experimental control. While avatars and androids are well suited to study human cognition, they should not be equated to human stimuli. For example, the uncanny valley hypothesis theorizes that artificial agents with high human-likeness may evoke feelings of eeriness in the human observer. Here we review if, when, and how the perception of human-like avatars and androids differs from the perception of humans and consider how this influences their utilization as stimulus material in social and affective neuroimaging studies. First, we discuss how the appearance of virtual characters affects perception. When stimuli are morphed across categories from non-human to human, the most ambiguous stimuli, rather than the most human-like stimuli, show prolonged classification times and increased eeriness. Human-like to human stimuli show a positive linear relationship with familiarity. Secondly, we show that expressions of emotions in human-like avatars can be perceived similarly to human emotions, with corresponding behavioral, physiological and neuronal activations, with exception of physical dissimilarities. Subsequently, we consider if and when one perceives differences in action representation by artificial agents versus humans. Motor resonance and predictive coding models may account for empirical findings, such as an interference effect on action for observed human-like, natural moving characters. However, the expansion of these models to explain more complex behavior, such as empathy, still needs to be investigated in more detail. Finally, we broaden our outlook to social interaction, where virtual reality stimuli can be utilized to imitate complex social situations.

  11. Brain response to a humanoid robot in areas implicated in the perception of human emotional gestures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Chaminade

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents.Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted.Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance.Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions.Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions.

  12. Fourier correction for spatially variant collimator blurring in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, W.; Lewitt, R.M.; Edholm, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    In single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), projection data are acquired by rotating the photon detector around a patient, either in a circular orbit or in a noncircular orbit. The projection data of the desired spatial distribution of emission activity is blurred by the point-response function of the collimator that is used to define the range of directions of gamma-ray photons reaching the detector. The point-response function of the collimator is not spatially stationary, but depends on the distance from the collimator to the point. Conventional methods for deblurring collimator projection data are based on approximating the actual distance-dependent point-response function by a spatially invariant blurring function, so that deconvolution methods can be applied independently to the data at each angle of view. A method is described in this paper for distance-dependent preprocessing of SPECT projection data prior to image reconstruction. Based on the special distance-dependent characteristics of the Fourier coefficients of the sinogram, a spatially variant inverse filter can be developed to process the projection data in all views simultaneously. The algorithm is first derived from fourier analysis of the projection data from the circular orbit geometry. For circular orbit projection data, experimental results from both simulated data and real phantom data indicate the potential of this method. It is shown that the spatial filtering method can be extended to the projection data from the noncircular orbit geometry. Experiments on simulated projection data from an elliptical orbit demonstrate correction of the spatially variant blurring and distortion in the reconstructed image caused by the noncircular orbit geometry

  13. Changes in health perceptions after exposure to human suffering: using discrete emotions to understand underlying processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia A Paschali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine whether exposure to human suffering is associated with negative changes in perceptions about personal health. We further examined the relation of possible health perception changes, to changes in five discrete emotions (i.e., fear, guilt, hostility/anger, and joviality, as a guide to understand the processes underlying health perception changes, provided that each emotion conveys information regarding triggering conditions. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: An experimental group (N = 47 was exposed to images of human affliction, whereas a control group (N = 47 was exposed to relaxing images. Participants in the experimental group reported more health anxiety and health value, as well as lower health-related optimism and internal health locus of control, in comparison to participants exposed to relaxing images. They also reported more fear, guilt, hostility and sadness, as well as less joviality. Changes in each health perception were related to changes in particular emotions. CONCLUSION: These findings imply that health perceptions are shaped in a constant dialogue with the representations about the broader world. Furthermore, it seems that the core of health perception changes lies in the acceptance that personal well-being is subject to several potential threats, as well as that people cannot fully control many of the factors the determine their own well-being.

  14. Higher cortical modulation of pain perception in the human brain: Psychological determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew Cn

    2009-10-01

    Pain perception and its genesis in the human brain have been reviewed recently. In the current article, the reports on pain modulation in the human brain were reviewed from higher cortical regulation, i.e. top-down effect, particularly studied in psychological determinants. Pain modulation can be examined by gene therapy, physical modulation, pharmacological modulation, psychological modulation, and pathophysiological modulation. In psychological modulation, this article examined (a) willed determination, (b) distraction, (c) placebo, (d) hypnosis, (e) meditation, (f) qi-gong, (g) belief, and (h) emotions, respectively, in the brain function for pain modulation. In each, the operational definition, cortical processing, neuroimaging, and pain modulation were systematically deliberated. However, not all studies had featured the brain modulation processing but rather demonstrated potential effects on human pain. In our own studies on the emotional modulation on human pain, we observed that emotions could be induced from music melodies or pictures perception for reduction of tonic human pain, mainly in potentiation of the posterior alpha EEG fields, likely resulted from underneath activities of precuneous in regulation of consciousness, including pain perception. To sum, higher brain functions become the leading edge research in all sciences. How to solve the information bit of thinking and feeling in the brain can be the greatest challenge of human intelligence. Application of higher cortical modulation of human pain and suffering can lead to the progress of social humanity and civilization.

  15. Human perception of dental porcelain translucency correlated to spectrophotometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min-Chieh; Aquilino, Steven A; Lund, Peter S; Vargas, Marcos A; Diaz-Arnold, Ana M; Gratton, David G; Qian, Fang

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between instrumental measurements and subjective visual assessment of differences in dental porcelain translucency. Unshaded feldspathic porcelain was used with controlled amounts of tin oxide to create two groups of 12-mm diameter disks with incremental changes in opacity. Contrast ratio (CR = Yb/Yw) was determined with a spectrophotometer, and used as a measure of porcelain translucency (Group A = 0.20 to 0.40; Group B = 0.6-0.8). Within each group, there were 14 specimens with 11 CRs. Three observer groups (first year dental students, residents, faculty with >10 years of shade matching experience) were recruited to assess the translucency between porcelain disks under two lighting conditions (reflected light, transmitted light). Each subject's ability to distinguish between specimens of differing translucency was determined. Descriptive statistics and three-way ANOVA followed by a post-hoc Tukey-Kramer test were used to evaluate the translucency perception threshold (TPT) of subjects (alpha= 0.05). The overall mean TPT (DeltaC) was 0.07, while 50% of the subjects could perceive a 0.06 CR difference between porcelain specimens. Three-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in translucency perception among the observer groups (p or =10 years) significantly improved the ability to perceive differences in translucency; however, neither the viewing condition nor porcelain opacity affected the perceived translucency threshold.

  16. Perceptions of Human Services Students about Social Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Judith T.

    2010-01-01

    Human services educators and scholars maintain that they are teaching social change theory and skills that will allow students to engage in large-scale social change. A review of the literature, from a critical theory perspective, offered little evidence that social change is being taught in human services programs. In this collective case study,…

  17. INTEGRATION OF IMAGE-DERIVED AND POS-DERIVED FEATURES FOR IMAGE BLUR DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-A. Teo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The image quality plays an important role for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV’s applications. The small fixed wings UAV is suffering from the image blur due to the crosswind and the turbulence. Position and Orientation System (POS, which provides the position and orientation information, is installed onto an UAV to enable acquisition of UAV trajectory. It can be used to calculate the positional and angular velocities when the camera shutter is open. This study proposes a POS-assisted method to detect the blur image. The major steps include feature extraction, blur image detection and verification. In feature extraction, this study extracts different features from images and POS. The image-derived features include mean and standard deviation of image gradient. For POS-derived features, we modify the traditional degree-of-linear-blur (blinear method to degree-of-motion-blur (bmotion based on the collinear condition equations and POS parameters. Besides, POS parameters such as positional and angular velocities are also adopted as POS-derived features. In blur detection, this study uses Support Vector Machines (SVM classifier and extracted features (i.e. image information, POS data, blinear and bmotion to separate blur and sharp UAV images. The experiment utilizes SenseFly eBee UAV system. The number of image is 129. In blur image detection, we use the proposed degree-of-motion-blur and other image features to classify the blur image and sharp images. The classification result shows that the overall accuracy using image features is only 56%. The integration of image-derived and POS-derived features have improved the overall accuracy from 56% to 76% in blur detection. Besides, this study indicates that the performance of the proposed degree-of-motion-blur is better than the traditional degree-of-linear-blur.

  18. Circular blurred shape model for multiclass symbol recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, Sergio; Fornés, Alicia; Pujol, Oriol; Lladós, Josep; Radeva, Petia

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a circular blurred shape model descriptor to deal with the problem of symbol detection and classification as a particular case of object recognition. The feature extraction is performed by capturing the spatial arrangement of significant object characteristics in a correlogram structure. The shape information from objects is shared among correlogram regions, where a prior blurring degree defines the level of distortion allowed in the symbol, making the descriptor tolerant to irregular deformations. Moreover, the descriptor is rotation invariant by definition. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed descriptor in both the multiclass symbol recognition and symbol detection domains. In order to perform the symbol detection, the descriptors are learned using a cascade of classifiers. In the case of multiclass categorization, the new feature space is learned using a set of binary classifiers which are embedded in an error-correcting output code design. The results over four symbol data sets show the significant improvements of the proposed descriptor compared to the state-of-the-art descriptors. In particular, the results are even more significant in those cases where the symbols suffer from elastic deformations.

  19. Bounded rationality and risk perception in human behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Kenichi; Akimoto, Keigo; Sano, Fuminori; Nagashima, Miyuki; Oda, Junichiro; Tokushige, Kohko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of risk perception associated with nuclear power plants in the framework of the behavioral economics, such as prospect theory. Due to the bounded rationality of the people, the public tends to overestimate the risk of nuclear power, especially after the disaster of Fukushima Daiichi in Japan. Social acceptance is an essential element for the nuclear power plants, but nuclear option is getting regarded as a risky choice. On the other hand, experts define and measure risk by the calculation of the probability of damage to the core as a result of sequences of accidents identified by the study. However, this approach also involves limitations to some extent. We explore a possible way to close the gap under in the by wider social context with consideration of risk trade-off among various risk factors, rather than focusing only on nuclear issue. (author)

  20. Dogs' (Canis familiaris) attention to human perception: Influence of breed groups and life experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Marianne T E; Turner, Dennis C; Manser, Marta B

    2017-02-01

    Attending to the perception of others may help individuals gaining information from conspecifics, or help in competitive situations. Dogs (Canis familiaris) are attentive to humans' signals and their attentional state. We investigated whether dogs of different breed groups differ in their ability to pay attention to human's perception, first according to the genetic relatedness between dog breeds, and second according to working style differences. Once dogs had learned to leave forbidden food on the floor, they were confronted with 2 food items to which only they had unrestricted visual access. The owners saw either none or 1 food item through a transparent barrier. Our results showed that dogs pay attention to the perception of humans, whereby differences between breed groups became obvious. Within different genetic groups, ancient and hunting type dogs performed similarly, they were more attentive to their owners' perception than shepherd and the mastiff type dogs. When comparing dogs classified according to their working style, independent workers and family dogs were attentive to the owner's perception, while cooperative workers seemed not. The dogs' choice could not be explained by a general or training induced preference for eating behind an opaque screen, or by an influence of the owner's possible intention to prevent the dog from taking the food item he could see. Our study confirms that dogs are attentive/sensitive to human's perception, but genetic and working style differences among the breeds, as well as dog sport experiences explain part of the variation seen in their performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Higher cortical modulation of pain perception in the human brain: Psychological determinant

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Andrew Cn

    2009-01-01

    Pain perception and its genesis in the human brain have been reviewed recently. In the current article, the reports on pain modulation in the human brain were reviewed from higher cortical regulation, i.e. top-down effect, particularly studied in psychological determinants. Pain modulation can be examined by gene therapy, physical modulation, pharmacological modulation, psychological modulation, and pathophysiological modulation. In psychological modulation, this article examined (a) willed d...

  2. Outdoor human thermal perception in various climates: A comprehensive review of approaches, methods and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potchter, Oded; Cohen, Pninit; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2018-08-01

    Over the past century, many research studies have been conducted in an attempt to define thermal conditions for humans in the outdoor environment and to grade thermal sensation. Consequently, a large number of indices have been proposed. The examination of human thermal indices by thermal subjective perception has become recently a methodical issue to confirm the accuracy, applicability and validation of human thermal indices. The aims of this study are: (a) to review studies containing both calculated human thermal conditions and subjective thermal perception in the outdoor environment (b) to identify the most used human thermal indices for evaluating human thermal perception (c) to examine the relation between human thermal comfort range and outdoor thermal environment conditions and (d) to compare between categories of thermal sensation in different climatic zones based on subjective perception and levels of thermal strain. A comprehensive literature review identified 110 peer-reviewed articles which investigated in-situ thermal conditions versus subjective thermal perception during 2001-2017. It seems that out of 165 human thermal indices that have been developed, only 4 (PET, PMV, UTCI, SET*) are widely in use for outdoor thermal perception studies. Examination of the relation between human thermal comfort range and outdoor thermal environment conditions for selective indices in different climatic zones shows that the range of the thermal comfort or dis-comfort is affected by the outdoor thermal environment. For the PET index, the "neutral" range for hot climates of 24-26°C is agreed by 95% of the studies where for cold climate, the "neutral" range of 15-20°C is agreed by 89% of the studies. For the UTCI, the "no thermal stress" category is common to all climates. The "no stress category" of 16-23°C is agreed by 80% of the case studies, while 100% of the case studies agreed that the range is between 18 and 23°C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. Contact and perspective taking improve humanness standards and perceptions of humanness of older adults and people with dementia: a cross-sectional survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Anca M; McFadden, Susan H; Hermus, Nathan J; Buelow, Jennifer; Nazario, Amanda S; Seelman, Katarena

    2017-10-01

    No empirical work has systematically explored perceptions of humanness of people with dementia and of older adults and the variables that could improve these perceptions. We thus investigated the role of contact and perspective taking in improving perceptions of humanness of these social groups. To do so, we developed a new concept, humanness standards, defined as the amount of evidence of ability impairment needed to conclude that elderly people and those with dementia have lost personhood. We used a cross-sectional survey design (n = 619) to assess participants' humanness standards and perceptions of uniquely human characteristics and human nature characteristics of two social groups (people with dementia and older adults). Half the participants (n = 311) completed a survey about people with dementia and half (n = 308) assessed older adults. People with dementia were perceived as possessing humanness characteristics to a lesser extent than were older adults. For both groups, contact predicted enhanced perceptions of humanness characteristics. Participants' degree of contact with individuals with dementia also predicted humanness standards, but only under low perspective-taking conditions. As predicted, for older adults, participants set the highest humanness impairment thresholds in the high contact/high perspective-taking condition. We conclude that while social programs that bring persons with dementia and other individuals in contact could change humanness standards and perceptions of humanness characteristics of people with dementia, in the case of elderly adults, the contact must be supplemented by variables that facilitate taking the perspective of the person.

  4. Blurred digital mammography images: an analysis of technical recall and observer detection performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wang Kei; Borgen, Rita; Kelly, Judith; Millington, Sara; Hilton, Beverley; Aspin, Rob; Lança, Carla; Hogg, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Blurred images in full-field digital mammography are a problem in the UK Breast Screening Programme. Technical recalls may be due to blurring not being seen on lower resolution monitors used for review. This study assesses the visual detection of blurring on a 2.3-MP monitor and a 5-MP report grade monitor and proposes an observer standard for the visual detection of blurring on a 5-MP reporting grade monitor. 28 observers assessed 120 images for blurring; 20 images had no blurring present, whereas 100 images had blurring imposed through mathematical simulation at 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 mm levels of motion. Technical recall rate for both monitors and angular size at each level of motion were calculated. χ 2 tests were used to test whether significant differences in blurring detection existed between 2.3- and 5-MP monitors. The technical recall rate for 2.3- and 5-MP monitors are 20.3% and 9.1%, respectively. The angular size for 0.2- to 1-mm motion varied from 55 to 275 arc s. The minimum amount of motion for visual detection of blurring in this study is 0.4 mm. For 0.2-mm simulated motion, there was no significant difference [χ 2 (1, N = 1095) = 1.61, p = 0.20] in blurring detection between the 2.3- and 5-MP monitors. According to this study, monitors ≤2.3 MP are not suitable for technical review of full-field digital mammography images for the detection of blur. Advances in knowledge: This research proposes the first observer standard for the visual detection of blurring.

  5. GrabBlur--a framework to facilitate the secure exchange of whole-exome and -genome SNV data using VCF files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stade, Björn; Seelow, Dominik; Thomsen, Ingo; Krawczak, Michael; Franke, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of whole exomes or genomes is increasingly being used in human genetic research and diagnostics. Sharing NGS data with third parties can help physicians and researchers to identify causative or predisposing mutations for a specific sample of interest more efficiently. In many cases, however, the exchange of such data may collide with data privacy regulations. GrabBlur is a newly developed tool to aggregate and share NGS-derived single nucleotide variant (SNV) data in a public database, keeping individual samples unidentifiable. In contrast to other currently existing SNV databases, GrabBlur includes phenotypic information and contact details of the submitter of a given database entry. By means of GrabBlur human geneticists can securely and easily share SNV data from resequencing projects. GrabBlur can ease the interpretation of SNV data by offering basic annotations, genotype frequencies and in particular phenotypic information - given that this information was shared - for the SNV of interest. GrabBlur facilitates the combination of phenotypic and NGS data (VCF files) via a local interface or command line operations. Data submissions may include HPO (Human Phenotype Ontology) terms, other trait descriptions, NGS technology information and the identity of the submitter. Most of this information is optional and its provision at the discretion of the submitter. Upon initial intake, GrabBlur merges and aggregates all sample-specific data. If a certain SNV is rare, the sample-specific information is replaced with the submitter identity. Generally, all data in GrabBlur are highly aggregated so that they can be shared with others while ensuring maximum privacy. Thus, it is impossible to reconstruct complete exomes or genomes from the database or to re-identify single individuals. After the individual information has been sufficiently "blurred", the data can be uploaded into a publicly accessible domain where aggregated genotypes are

  6. Beginning Teachers' Perceptions of School Human Resource Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Human resource (HR) management is defined as the sum of activities employed by an organization to attract, develop, and retain people with the appropriate knowledge and skills for effectively and efficiently achieving organizational goals. An understanding of the HR practices in schools is important, as the assembly of a team of qualified and…

  7. Schools at the Rural-Urban Boundary - Blurring the Divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Will, Julia; Logan, John R

    2017-07-01

    Schools mirror the communities in which they are located. Research on school inequality across the rural-urban spectrum tends to focus on the contrast between urban, suburban, and rural schools and glosses over the variation within these areas as well as the similarities between them. To address this gap and provide a richer description of the spatial distribution of educational inequality, we examine the school composition, achievement, and resources of all U.S. elementary schools in 2010-2011. We apply standard census definitions of what areas fall within central cities, the remainder of metropolitan regions, and in rural America. We then apply spatially explicit methods to reveal blurred boundaries and gradual gradients rather than sharp breaks at the edges of these zones. The results show high levels of variation within the suburbs and substantial commonality between rural and urban areas.

  8. Effects of picture size reduction and blurring on emotional engagement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea De Cesarei

    Full Text Available The activity of basic motivational systems is reflected in emotional responses to arousing stimuli, such as natural pictures. The manipulation of picture properties such as size or detail allows for investigation into the extent to which separate emotional reactions are similarly modulated by perceptual changes, or, rather, may subserve different functions. Pursuing this line of research, the present study examined the effects of two types of perceptual degradation, namely picture size reduction and blurring, on emotional responses. Both manipulations reduced picture relevance and dampened affective modulation of skin conductance, possibly because of a reduced action preparation in response to degraded or remote pictures. However, the affective modulation of the startle reflex did not vary with picture degradation, suggesting that the identification of these degraded affective cues activated the neural circuits mediating appetitive or defensive motivation.

  9. Visualizing deep neural network by alternately image blurring and deblurring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Liu, Haijun; Cheng, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Visualization from trained deep neural networks has drawn massive public attention in recent. One of the visualization approaches is to train images maximizing the activation of specific neurons. However, directly maximizing the activation would lead to unrecognizable images, which cannot provide any meaningful information. In this paper, we introduce a simple but effective technique to constrain the optimization route of the visualization. By adding two totally inverse transformations, image blurring and deblurring, to the optimization procedure, recognizable images can be created. Our algorithm is good at extracting the details in the images, which are usually filtered by previous methods in the visualizations. Extensive experiments on AlexNet, VGGNet and GoogLeNet illustrate that we can better understand the neural networks utilizing the knowledge obtained by the visualization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. SEX DIFFERENCES AND REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE INFLUENCES ON HUMAN ODOR PERCEPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Richard L.; Cameron, E. Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether men and women differ in their ability to smell has been the topic of scientific investigation for over a hundred years. Although conflicting findings abound, most studies suggest that, for at least some odorants, women outperform men on tests of odor detection, identification, discrimination, and memory. Most functional imaging and electrophysiological studies similarly imply that, when sex differences are present, they favor women. In this review we examine what is known about sex-related alterations in human smell function, including influences of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, gonadectomy, and hormone replacement therapy on a range of olfactory measures. We conclude that the relationship between reproductive hormones and human olfactory function is complex and that simple associations between circulating levels of gonadal hormones and measures of olfactory function are rarely present. PMID:19272398

  11. Computational study of depth completion consistent with human bi-stable perception for ambiguous figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsukura, Eiichi; Satoh, Shunji

    2018-03-01

    We propose a computational model that is consistent with human perception of depth in "ambiguous regions," in which no binocular disparity exists. Results obtained from our model reveal a new characteristic of depth perception. Random dot stereograms (RDS) are often used as examples because RDS provides sufficient disparity for depth calculation. A simple question confronts us: "How can we estimate the depth of a no-texture image region, such as one on white paper?" In such ambiguous regions, mathematical solutions related to binocular disparities are not unique or indefinite. We examine a mathematical description of depth completion that is consistent with human perception of depth for ambiguous regions. Using computer simulation, we demonstrate that resultant depth-maps qualitatively reproduce human depth perception of two kinds. The resultant depth maps produced using our model depend on the initial depth in the ambiguous region. Considering this dependence from psychological viewpoints, we conjecture that humans perceive completed surfaces that are affected by prior-stimuli corresponding to the initial condition of depth. We conducted psychological experiments to verify the model prediction. An ambiguous stimulus was presented after a prior stimulus removed ambiguity. The inter-stimulus interval (ISI) was inserted between the prior stimulus and post-stimulus. Results show that correlation of perception between the prior stimulus and post-stimulus depends on the ISI duration. Correlation is positive, negative, and nearly zero in the respective cases of short (0-200 ms), medium (200-400 ms), and long ISI (>400 ms). Furthermore, based on our model, we propose a computational model that can explain the dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Engineering Data Compendium. Human Perception and Performance. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Solanch Consultant J.W. Whitlow Rutgers University Section 10.0 Effects of Environmental Stressors Colin Corbridge Institute of Sound Vibration...surrounding discs. Human Factors, 14, 139-148. 2. Drury , C, & Clement. M. (1978). The effect of area, density, and number of background charac- ters...nontargets are often difficult to distinguish. Key References * 1. Drury , C., & Clement, M. (1978). The effect of area, density, and number of

  13. The extreme relativity of perception: A new contextual effect modulates human resolving power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdar, Gal; Ganel, Tzvi; Algom, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The authors report the discovery of a new effect of context that modulates human resolving power with respect to an individual stimulus. They show that the size of the difference threshold or the just noticeable difference around a standard stimulus depends on the range of the other standards tested simultaneously for resolution within the same experimental session. The larger this range, the poorer the resolving power for a given standard. The authors term this effect the range of standards effect (RSE). They establish this result both in the visual domain for the perception of linear extent, and in the somatosensory domain for the perception of weight. They discuss the contingent nature of stimulus resolution in perception and psychophysics and contrast it with the immunity to contextual influences of visually guided action. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Human perception of radon risk and radon mitigation: Some remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neznal, M.; Neznal, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Radon program in the Czech Republic has a relatively long and rich history. Procedures, which enable to evaluate the risk of radon penetration from the ground, to protect new buildings, to find existing buildings with elevated indoor radon levels and to realise remedial measures in such buildings, have been developed, published and tested. In some cases, the whole system may fail due to psychological or sociological reasons. Three types of problems (conflicts) will be presented: human behaviour affecting measurement results, conflict between individual and 'all-society' points of view, interpretation of radon risk itself. (authors)

  15. Energy landscape and dynamics of brain activity during human bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Masuda, Naoki; Megumi, Fukuda; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2014-08-28

    Individual differences in the structure of parietal and prefrontal cortex predict the stability of bistable visual perception. However, the mechanisms linking such individual differences in brain structures to behaviour remain elusive. Here we demonstrate a systematic relationship between the dynamics of brain activity, cortical structure and behaviour underpinning bistable perception. Using fMRI in humans, we find that the activity dynamics during bistable perception are well described as fluctuating between three spatially distributed energy minimums: visual-area-dominant, frontal-area-dominant and intermediate states. Transitions between these energy minimums predicted behaviour, with participants whose brain activity tend to reflect the visual-area-dominant state exhibiting more stable perception and those whose activity transits to frontal-area-dominant states reporting more frequent perceptual switches. Critically, these brain activity dynamics are correlated with individual differences in grey matter volume of the corresponding brain areas. Thus, individual differences in the large-scale dynamics of brain activity link focal brain structure with bistable perception.

  16. Predictive modeling of human perception subjectivity: feasibility study of mammographic lesion similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songhua; Hudson, Kathleen; Bradley, Yong; Daley, Brian J.; Frederick-Dyer, Katherine; Tourassi, Georgia

    2012-02-01

    The majority of clinical content-based image retrieval (CBIR) studies disregard human perception subjectivity, aiming to duplicate the consensus expert assessment of the visual similarity on example cases. The purpose of our study is twofold: i) discern better the extent of human perception subjectivity when assessing the visual similarity of two images with similar semantic content, and (ii) explore the feasibility of personalized predictive modeling of visual similarity. We conducted a human observer study in which five observers of various expertise were shown ninety-nine triplets of mammographic masses with similar BI-RADS descriptors and were asked to select the two masses with the highest visual relevance. Pairwise agreement ranged between poor and fair among the five observers, as assessed by the kappa statistic. The observers' self-consistency rate was remarkably low, based on repeated questions where either the orientation or the presentation order of a mass was changed. Various machine learning algorithms were explored to determine whether they can predict each observer's personalized selection using textural features. Many algorithms performed with accuracy that exceeded each observer's self-consistency rate, as determined using a cross-validation scheme. This accuracy was statistically significantly higher than would be expected by chance alone (two-tailed p-value ranged between 0.001 and 0.01 for all five personalized models). The study confirmed that human perception subjectivity should be taken into account when developing CBIR-based medical applications.

  17. Comparison of two metrological approaches for the prediction of human haptic perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Annika; Frank, Daniel; Vondenhoff, Thomas; Schmitt, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Haptic perception is regarded as a key component of customer appreciation and acceptance for various products. The prediction of customers’ haptic perception is of interest both during product development and production phases. This paper presents the results of a multivariate analysis between perceived roughness and texture related surface measurements, to examine whether perceived roughness can be accurately predicted using technical measurements. Studies have shown that standardized measurement parameters, such as the roughness coefficients (e.g. Rz or Ra), do not show a one-dimensional linear correlation with the human perception (of roughness). Thus, an alternative measurement method was compared to standard measurements of roughness, in regard to its capability of predicting perceived roughness through technical measurements. To estimate perceived roughness, an experimental study was conducted in which 102 subjects evaluated four sets of 12 different geometrical surface structures regarding their relative perceived roughness. The two different metrological procedures were examined in relation to their capability to predict the perceived roughness of the subjects stated within the study. The standardized measurements of the surface roughness were made using a structured light 3D-scanner. As an alternative method, surface induced vibrations were measured by a finger-like sensor during robot-controlled traverse over a surface. The presented findings provide a better understanding of the predictability of human haptic perception using technical measurements.

  18. HUMAN PERCEPTION IN THE LIBYAN BUILT ENVIRONMENT: AL- KHUMS AND BANI WALID CITIES AS CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzi Mohamed Agael

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the identification of different influences on the built environment, and those which have a physical and psychological impact on people. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of the built environment on the lives of people. The interrelationship between people and built environment is based on human perception. This research will explore this relationship further in order to develop a clear understanding of the ways in which architecture may influence peoples’ perceptions and experiences. Additionally, the research entails a comparison between two important theories: the first is an Image of the city derived using the Mental Map Theory; the second is related to Space Syntax Theory. The two theories will be applied in two different cities in Libya with the aim of assessing the importance of their interrelationship and how it may be understood more clearly. This paper will also provide guidelines for improving urban design and planning standards with the end goal of producing a high quality perception by those who actually use the space. Moreover, it concludes with a number of research avenues that should be pursued to answer how the properties of built environment affect human perception.

  19. Role of synchronized oscillatory brain activity for human pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Michael; Lorenz, Jürgen; Engel, Andreas K

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of cortical pain processing in humans has significantly improved since the development of modern neuroimaging techniques. Non-invasive electrophysiological approaches such as electro- and magnetoencephalography have proven to be helpful tools for the real-time investigation of neuronal signals and synchronous communication between cortical areas. In particular, time-frequency decomposition of signals recorded with these techniques seems to be a promising approach because different pain-related oscillatory changes can be observed within different frequency bands, which are likely to be linked to specific sensory and motor functions. In this review we discuss the latest evidence on pain-induced time-frequency signals and propose that changes in oscillatory activity reflect an essential communication mechanism in the brain that is modulated during pain processing. The importance of synchronization processes for normal and pathological pain processing, such as chronic pain states, is discussed.

  20. Sensor performance as a function of sampling (d) and optical blur (Fλ)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, P.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Detector sampling and optical blur are two major factors affecting Target Acquisition (TA) performance with modern EO and IR systems. In order to quantify their relative significance, we simulated five realistic LWIR and MWIR sensors from very under-sampled (detector pitch d >> diffraction blur Fλ)

  1. Community perceptions of human excreta as fertilizer in peri-urban agriculture in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariwah, Simon; Drangert, Jan-Olof

    2011-08-01

    Although human excreta contain the necessary nutrients for plant growth, local authorities in Ghana spend huge sums of money to dispose them as waste. Reusing excreta for agricultural purposes saves expenditure for chemical fertilizers, improves soil fertility, reduces poverty and ensures food security. People's attitudes and perceptions about excreta vary between cultures and even within specific cultures. This study aimed to explore attitudes and perceptions among a peri-urban agricultural community towards sanitized human excreta and its use. The study adopted an exploratory design and collected data from 154 randomly selected households using questionnaires and focus group discussions. It was found that there is a general negative attitude to fresh excreta and the handling of it. However, the residents accept that excreta can be used as fertilizer, but they are not willing to use it on their own crops or consume crops fertilized with excreta. The study recommends open discussions in the community for a successful implementation of ecological sanitation.

  2. Demonstration of brain noise on human EEG signals in perception of bistable images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubov, Vadim V.; Runnova, Anastasiya E.; Kurovskaya, Maria K.; Pavlov, Alexey N.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Hramov, Alexander E.

    2016-03-01

    In this report we studied human brain activity in the case of bistable visual perception. We proposed a new approach for quantitative characterization of this activity based on analysis of EEG oscillatory patterns and evoked potentials. Accordingly to theoretical background, obtained experimental EEG data and results of its analysis we studied a characteristics of brain activity during decision-making. Also we have shown that decisionmaking process has the special patterns on the EEG data.

  3. Increase of Universality in Human Brain during Mental Imagery from Visual Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Different complex systems behave in a similar way near their critical points of phase transitions which leads to an emergence of a universal scaling behaviour. Universality indirectly implies a long-range correlation between constituent subsystems. As the distributed correlated processing is a hallmark of higher complex cognition, I investigated a measure of universality in human brain during perception and mental imagery of complex real-life visual object like visual art. METHODO...

  4. Logarithmic Adaptive Neighborhood Image Processing (LANIP): Introduction, Connections to Human Brightness Perception, and Application Issues

    OpenAIRE

    J. Debayle; J.-C. Pinoli

    2007-01-01

    A new framework for image representation, processing, and analysis is introduced and exposed through practical applications. The proposed approach is called logarithmic adaptive neighborhood image processing (LANIP) since it is based on the logarithmic image processing (LIP) and on the general adaptive neighborhood image processing (GANIP) approaches, that allow several intensity and spatial properties of the human brightness perception to be mathematically modeled and operationalized, and c...

  5. Human haptic perception is interrupted by explorative stops of milliseconds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eGrunwald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The explorative scanning movements of the hands have been compared to those of the eyes. The visual process is known to be composed of alternating phases of saccadic eye movements and fixation pauses. Descriptive results suggest that during the haptic exploration of objects short movement pauses occur as well. The goal of the present study was to detect these explorative stops (ES during one-handed and two-handed haptic explorations of various objects and patterns, and to measure their duration. Additionally, the associations between the following variables were analyzed: a between mean exploration time and duration of ES, b between certain stimulus features and ES frequency, and c the duration of ES during the course of exploration. Methods: Five different experiments were used. The first two experiments were classical recognition tasks of unknown haptic stimuli (A and of common objects (B. In experiment C space-position information of angle legs had to be perceived and reproduced. For experiments D and E the PHANToM haptic device was used for the exploration of virtual (D and real (E sunken reliefs. Results: In each experiment we observed explorative stops of different average durations. For experiment A: 329.50 ms, experiment B: 67.47 ms, experiment C: 189.92 ms, experiment D: 186.17 ms and experiment E: 140.02 ms. Significant correlations were observed between exploration time and the duration of the ES. Also, ES occurred more frequently, but not exclusively, at defined stimulus features like corners, curves and the endpoints of lines. However, explorative stops do not occur every time a stimulus feature is explored. Conclusions: We assume that ES are a general aspect of human haptic exploration processes. We have tried to interpret the occurrence and duration of ES with respect to the Hypotheses-Rebuild-Model and the Limited Capacity Control System theory.

  6. Neural Activity Patterns in the Human Brain Reflect Tactile Stickiness Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junsuk; Yeon, Jiwon; Ryu, Jaekyun; Park, Jang-Yeon; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2017-01-01

    Our previous human fMRI study found brain activations correlated with tactile stickiness perception using the uni-variate general linear model (GLM) (Yeon et al., 2017). Here, we conducted an in-depth investigation on neural correlates of sticky sensations by employing a multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) on the same dataset. In particular, we statistically compared multi-variate neural activities in response to the three groups of sticky stimuli: A supra-threshold group including a set of sticky stimuli that evoked vivid sticky perception; an infra-threshold group including another set of sticky stimuli that barely evoked sticky perception; and a sham group including acrylic stimuli with no physically sticky property. Searchlight MVPAs were performed to search for local activity patterns carrying neural information of stickiness perception. Similar to the uni-variate GLM results, significant multi-variate neural activity patterns were identified in postcentral gyrus, subcortical (basal ganglia and thalamus), and insula areas (insula and adjacent areas). Moreover, MVPAs revealed that activity patterns in posterior parietal cortex discriminated the perceptual intensities of stickiness, which was not present in the uni-variate analysis. Next, we applied a principal component analysis (PCA) to the voxel response patterns within identified clusters so as to find low-dimensional neural representations of stickiness intensities. Follow-up clustering analyses clearly showed separate neural grouping configurations between the Supra- and Infra-threshold groups. Interestingly, this neural categorization was in line with the perceptual grouping pattern obtained from the psychophysical data. Our findings thus suggest that different stickiness intensities would elicit distinct neural activity patterns in the human brain and may provide a neural basis for the perception and categorization of tactile stickiness. PMID:28936171

  7. Human reaction and risk perception to catastrophic events: a psycho-social and cultural perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthakur, M.

    1998-01-01

    Catastrophes of various kinds occur worldwide inflicting major human suffering, more so in the less privileged regions of the world. Human beings react differently to different traumatic situations and to the threat of an event in spite of man common underlying factors. Psychological reactions to catastrophic natural events like flooding on the perception of risk of flooding across various communities thus becomes an interesting study. Economic situation, lack of knowledge and resources are assumed to give a totally different perspective to reactions and perception of risk and its interpretation specially in an underprivileged country like India, compared to other developed countries. For the proposed session, the results of a study carried out in India will be presented. This includes reactions and responses of individuals and general public affected by flooding and their perceptions of risk of flooding. The study also focuses on a comparison between the people affected and at risk of flooding. Socio-cultural values, religion and superstitions, common beliefs and expectations from authorities will be studied as underlying variables, to what extent they might have an impact on the behavioral pattern of an individual in a situation and the perception of oncoming risk. A sizeable number of the Indian population resides in areas, which are generally affected by flooding or highly prone to flooding. Could perceptions vary among individuals within the society or is it simply poverty and unaffordability that drive these people info such hazardous areas? Lack of consciousness may seem to be an important variable, but what really matters and needs to be looked into is how threatened they actually feel. (author)

  8. An Individualized, Perception-Based Protocol to Investigate Human Physiological Responses to Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolbaugh, Crystal L.; Bush, Emily C.; Galenti, Elizabeth S.; Welch, E. Brian; Towse, Theodore F.

    2018-01-01

    Cold exposure, a known stimulant of the thermogenic effects of brown adipose tissue (BAT), is the most widely used method to study BAT physiology in adult humans. Recently, individualized cooling has been recommended to standardize the physiological cold stress applied across participants, but critical experimental details remain unclear. The purpose of this work was to develop a detailed methodology for an individualized, perception-based protocol to investigate human physiological responses to cooling. Participants were wrapped in two water-circulating blankets and fitted with skin temperature probes to estimate BAT activity and peripheral vasoconstriction. We created a thermoesthesia graphical user interface (tGUI) to continuously record the subject's perception of cooling and shivering status during the cooling protocol. The protocol began with a 15 min thermoneutral phase followed by a series of 10 min cooling phases and concluded when sustained shivering (>1 min duration) occurred. Researchers used perception of cooling feedback (tGUI ratings) to manually adjust and personalize the water temperature at each cooling phase. Blanket water temperatures were recorded continuously during the protocol. Twelve volunteers (ages: 26.2 ± 1.4 years; 25% female) completed a feasibility study to evaluate the proposed protocol. Water temperature, perception of cooling, and shivering varied considerably across participants in response to cooling. Mean clavicle skin temperature, a surrogate measure of BAT activity, decreased (−0.99°C, 95% CI: −1.7 to −0.25°C, P = 0.16) after the cooling protocol, but an increase in supraclavicular skin temperature was observed in 4 participants. A strong positive correlation was also found between thermoesthesia and peripheral vasoconstriction (ρ = 0.84, P < 0.001). The proposed individualized, perception-based protocol therefore has potential to investigate the physiological responses to cold stress applied across populations with

  9. Baby schema in human and animal faces induces cuteness perception and gaze allocation in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eBorgi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The baby schema concept was originally proposed as a set of infantile traits with high appeal for humans, subsequently shown to elicit caretaking behavior and to affect cuteness perception and attentional processes. However, it is unclear whether the response to the baby schema may be extended to the human-animal bond context. Moreover, questions remain as to whether the cute response is constant and persistent or whether it changes with development. In the present study we parametrically manipulated the baby schema in images of humans, dogs and cats. We analyzed responses of 3-6-year-old children, using both explicit (i.e. cuteness ratings and implicit (i.e. eye gaze patterns measures. By means of eye-tracking, we assessed children’s preferential attention to images varying only for the degree of baby schema and explored participants’ fixation patterns during a cuteness task. For comparative purposes, cuteness ratings were also obtained in a sample of adults. Overall our results show that the response to an infantile facial configuration emerges early during development. In children, the baby schema affects both cuteness perception and gaze allocation to infantile stimuli and to specific facial features, an effect not simply limited to human faces. In line with previous research, results confirm human positive appraisal towards animals and inform both educational and therapeutic interventions involving pets, helping to minimize risk factors (e.g. dog bites.

  10. Social Media Blurred the Distinction Between Author and Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambiotte, Renaud

    The last few years have seen the emergence of the sharing economy. As social media blurred the distinction between author and reader, everyone can now offer or receive services thanks to the networking tools provided by new technological companies. Take Uber, and its billion of journeys in 2015 alone, with tens of thousands of vehicles crawling every moment in the globe's biggest cities. As often, when confronted with a technological change, we observe a polarization of society, and the search for an equilibrium characterized by new norms, rights, and obligations. Understanding the mechanisms behind this re-organization requires an integrated, interdisciplinary approach, covering an intricate web of legal, societal, economical, and computational issues which, we believe, could benefit from a complex systems perspective. As a first step, we are currently studying the dynamics of pricing in Uber. In this new de-regulated world, journey prices fluctuate in time depending on traffic but also on the service's perceived balance of passenger demand and driver supply...

  11. Materiality matters: Blurred boundaries and the domestication of functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Kate; Will, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Previous scholarship on novel foods, including functional foods, has suggested that they are difficult to categorise for both regulators and users. It is argued that they blur the boundary between 'food' and 'drug' and that uncertainties about the products create 'experimental' or 'restless' approaches to consumption. We investigate these uncertainties drawing on data about the use of functional foods containing phytosterols, which are licensed for sale in the EU for people wishing to reduce their cholesterol. We start from an interest in the products as material objects and their incorporation into everyday practices. We consider the scripts encoded in the physical form of the products through their regulation, production and packaging and find that these scripts shape but do not determine their use. The domestication of phytosterols involves bundling the products together with other objects (pills, supplements, foodstuffs). Considering their incorporation into different systems of objects offers new understandings of the products as foods or drugs. In their accounts of their practices, consumers appear to be relatively untroubled by uncertainties about the character of the products. We conclude that attending to materials and practices offers a productive way to open up and interrogate the idea of categorical uncertainties surrounding new food products.

  12. Baseflow vs floods: Linking geomorphology and ecology by blurring disciplinary and ecosystem boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, M. W.; Stanley, E. H.; Small, M.

    2011-12-01

    Linking ideas between geomorphology and ecology has led to some of the formative concepts in river science. These past developments suggest opportunities for greater conceptual alignment novel research agenda via continued cross-fertilization. Hydrologic variability provides a notable example of both intellectual divergence and convergence between geomorphologists and ecologists. Conceptually, both disciplines have recognition of the importance the "natural flow regime." Yet geomorphologists tend to focus on rare events which are formative in sculpting the landscape, while ecologists often emphasize baseflow conditions when biological production and biochemical processes (transformation) dominate over hydrologic transport. Thus, perceptions of river systems begin from two different starting points for these two disciplines. These different perspectives in turn lead to presumed appropriate spatial or temporal scale at which studies should be conducted and can influence site selection. Geomorphologists are more likely to work in rivers subject to pronounced physical change to gain insight to geomorphic processes, and to limit their work to sites with sufficient historic data to analyze change. Conversely, ecologists are likely to select less dynamic physical templates - both in space and time- to allow greater focus on biotic processes. Thus, the basic geography of the disciplines can be surprisingly divergent, as can be the basic timescales of studies. Recent developments in incorporating hydrologic variability into nutrient spiraling have been important in linking geomorphology and stream ecology. Moving from baseflow to more full inclusion of the hydrologic spectrum has dramatically increased understanding of stream biogeochemistry, but it has also drawn in more sophisticated treatments of hydrology into stream biogeochemistry and ecology. This relative success of hydrologic variability and nutrient spiraling studies raises the question of what other opportunities

  13. Plasticity in the Human Speech Motor System Drives Changes in Speech Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lametti, Daniel R.; Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Neufeld, Emily; Shiller, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of human speech motor learning suggest that learning is accompanied by changes in auditory perception. But what drives the perceptual change? Is it a consequence of changes in the motor system? Or is it a result of sensory inflow during learning? Here, subjects participated in a speech motor-learning task involving adaptation to altered auditory feedback and they were subsequently tested for perceptual change. In two separate experiments, involving two different auditory perceptual continua, we show that changes in the speech motor system that accompany learning drive changes in auditory speech perception. Specifically, we obtained changes in speech perception when adaptation to altered auditory feedback led to speech production that fell into the phonetic range of the speech perceptual tests. However, a similar change in perception was not observed when the auditory feedback that subjects' received during learning fell into the phonetic range of the perceptual tests. This indicates that the central motor outflow associated with vocal sensorimotor adaptation drives changes to the perceptual classification of speech sounds. PMID:25080594

  14. Rhythmic Cognition in Humans and Animals: Distinguishing Meter and Pulse Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Tecumseh eFitch

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a cognitive and comparative perspective on human rhythmic cognition that emphasizes a key distinction between pulse perception and meter perception. Pulse perception involves the extraction of a regular pulse or 'tactus' from a stream of events. Meter perception involves grouping of events into hierarchical trees with differing levels of 'strength', or perceptual prominence. I argue that metrically-structured rhythms are required to either perform or move appropriately to music (e.g. to dance. Rhythms, from this metrical perspective, constitute 'trees in time'. Rhythmic syntax represents a neglected form of musical syntax, and warrants more thorough neuroscientific investigation. The recent literature on animal entrainment clearly demonstrates the capacity to extract the pulse from rhythmic music, and to entrain periodic movements to this pulse, in several parrot species and a California sea lion, and a more limited ability to do so in one chimpanzee. However, the ability of these or other species to infer hierarchical rhythmic trees remains, for the most part, unexplored (with some apparent negative results from macaques. The results from this new animal comparative research, combined with new methods to explore rhythmic cognition neurally, provide exciting new routes for understanding not just rhythmic cognition, but hierarchical cognition more generally, from a biological and neural perspective.

  15. Human-biometeorological conditions and thermal perception in a Mediterranean coastal park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaroni, Hadas; Pearlmutter, David; Hatuka, Tali

    2015-10-01

    This study looks at the interrelation of human-biometeorological conditions, physiological thermal stress and subjective thermal perception in the design and use of a new waterfront park in Tel-Aviv, Israel. Our initial assumption was that the park's design would embody a comprehensive response to the area's ever-increasing heat stress and water shortage. However, almost half of it is covered by grass lawns, irrigated with fresh water, while the remaining area is mainly covered with concrete paving, with minimal shading and sparse trees. We hypothesized that stressful thermal conditions would prevail in the park in the summer season and would be expressed in a high discomfort perception of its users. Thermo-physiological stress conditions in a typical summer month were compared with the subjective comfort perceptions of pedestrians surveyed in the park. It was found that even during mid-day hours, the level of thermal stress tends to be relatively mild, owing largely to the strong sea breeze and despite the high intensity of solar radiation. Moreover, it appears that the largely favorable perception of comfort among individuals may also result from socio-cultural aspects related to their satisfaction with the park's aesthetic attractiveness and in fact its very existence. Adaptive planning is proposed for such vulnerable regions, which are expected to experience further aggravation in thermal comfort due to global as well as localized warming trends.

  16. Are mirror neurons the basis of speech perception? Evidence from five cases with damage to the purported human mirror system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalsky, Corianne; Love, Tracy; Driscoll, David; Anderson, Steven W.; Hickok, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons in macaque has led to a resurrection of motor theories of speech perception. Although the majority of lesion and functional imaging studies have associated perception with the temporal lobes, it has also been proposed that the ‘human mirror system’, which prominently includes Broca’s area, is the neurophysiological substrate of speech perception. Although numerous studies have demonstrated a tight link between sensory and motor speech processes, few have directly assessed the critical prediction of mirror neuron theories of speech perception, namely that damage to the human mirror system should cause severe deficits in speech perception. The present study measured speech perception abilities of patients with lesions involving motor regions in the left posterior frontal lobe and/or inferior parietal lobule (i.e., the proposed human ‘mirror system’). Performance was at or near ceiling in patients with fronto-parietal lesions. It is only when the lesion encroaches on auditory regions in the temporal lobe that perceptual deficits are evident. This suggests that ‘mirror system’ damage does not disrupt speech perception, but rather that auditory systems are the primary substrate for speech perception. PMID:21207313

  17. Immersive Environments: Using Flow and Sound to Blur Inhabitant and Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Luke

    Following in the footsteps of motif-reviving, aesthetically-focused Postmodern and deconstructivist architecture, purely computer-generated formalist contemporary architecture (i.e. blobitecture) has been reduced to vast, empty sculptural, and therefore, purely ocularcentric gestures for their own sake. Taking precedent over the deliberate relation to the people inhabiting them beyond scaleless visual stimulation, the forms become separated from and hostile toward their inhabitants; a boundary appears. This thesis calls for a reintroduction of human-centered design beyond Modern functionalism and ergonomics and Postmodern form and metaphor into architecture by exploring ecological psychology (specifically how one becomes attached to objects) and phenomenology (specifically sound) in an attempt to reach a contemporary human scale using the technology of today: the physiological mind. Psychologist Dr. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's concept of flow---when one becomes so mentally immersed within the current activity and immediate surroundings that the boundary between inhabitant and environment becomes transparent through a form of trance---is the embodiment of this thesis' goal, but it is limited to only specific moments throughout the day and typically studied without regard to the environment. Physiologically, the area within the brain---the medial prefrontal cortex---stimulated during flow experiences is also stimulated by the synthesis of sound, memory, and emotion. By exploiting sound (a sense not typically focused on within phenomenology) as a form of constant nuance within the everyday productive dissonance, the engagement and complete concentration on one's own interpretation of this sensory input affords flow experiences and, therefore, a blurred boundary with one's environment. This thesis aims to answer the question: How does the built environment embody flow? The above concept will be illustrated within a ubiquitous building type---the everyday housing tower

  18. Immigrants’ perception of business opportunities in Spain: the impact of general and specific human capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Aliaga Isla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Perceiving business opportunities is an important part of entrepreneurship. This study analyzes how immigrants’ general and specific human capital influences their likelihood of perceiving business opportunities. Analysis focuses on comparison between a group of immigrants and a group of Spanish citizens. Data from the 2008 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM was used. Logistic regression was used to analyze data. Results revealed that both immigrants’ and Spanish citizens’ human capital such as education is not significant to perceiving opportunities. Much to the contrary: the impact of specific human capital on perceiving opportunities is in general significant to both groups. This research reveals which specific types of human capital are relevant in the process of perceiving opportunities amongst immigrants. This paper is a novelty because it introduces a theoretical approach to the perception of opportunities within the universe of new businesses established by immigrants in Spain.

  19. Nurses' Perceptions of Victims of Human Trafficking in an Urban Emergency Department: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Elizabeth; Dowdell, Elizabeth B

    2017-12-15

    Human trafficking is estimated to surpass the drug trade as the leading illegal industry in the world. According to a recent study, over 87.8% of trafficking survivors came into contact with a healthcare professional while they were enslaved and were not identified as a victim of human trafficking. The aims of this study are to understand the perceptions of emergency nurses about human trafficking, victims of violence, and prostitution. A qualitative, descriptive study using a semi-structured interview approach was done with ten registered nurses in a large, urban Emergency Department in the northeastern U.S. Interviews were recorded and transcribed; thematic analysis was performed. Six themes emerged from the interviews including, "human trafficking exists in the patient population" yet no nurse has screened or treated a victim; human trafficking victims are perceived to be "young, female, and foreign born"; all of the emergency nurses reported having worked with or screened a victim of violence; victims of violence were viewed as patients who present as "sad and grieving"; prostitutes are seen as "hard and tough"; and emergency nurses did not have education on human trafficking victims' needs or resources. Emergency nurses should be more aware about victims of human trafficking. The media portrayal of human trafficking victims had influenced the nurses' perceptions of this population. Victims of violence are perceived to be very different from prostitutes, but there is a desire for education about violence as well as information about specific resources open to victims. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The non-linear development of the right hemispheric specialization for human face perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochy, Aliette; de Heering, Adélaïde; Rossion, Bruno

    2017-06-24

    The developmental origins of human adults' right hemispheric specialization for face perception remain unclear. On the one hand, infant studies have shown a right hemispheric advantage for face perception. On the other hand, it has been proposed that the adult right hemispheric lateralization for face perception slowly emerges during childhood due to reading acquisition, which increases left lateralized posterior responses to competing written material (e.g., visual letters and words). Since methodological approaches used in infant and children typically differ when their face capabilities are explored, resolving this issue has been difficult. Here we tested 5-year-old preschoolers varying in their level of visual letter knowledge with the same fast periodic visual stimulation (FPVS) paradigm leading to strongly right lateralized electrophysiological occipito-temporal face-selective responses in 4- to 6-month-old infants (de Heering and Rossion, 2015). Children's face-selective response was quantitatively larger and differed in scalp topography from infants', but did not differ across hemispheres. There was a small positive correlation between preschoolers' letter knowledge and a non-normalized index of right hemispheric specialization for faces. These observations show that previous discrepant results in the literature reflect a genuine nonlinear development of the neural processes underlying face perception and are not merely due to methodological differences across age groups. We discuss several factors that could contribute to the adult right hemispheric lateralization for faces, such as myelination of the corpus callosum and reading acquisition. Our findings point to the value of FPVS coupled with electroencephalography to assess specialized face perception processes throughout development with the same methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement of optical blurring in a turbulent cloud chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Corey D.; Ciochetto, David S.; Cantrell, Will H.; Roggemann, Michael C.; Shaw, Raymond A.

    2016-10-01

    Earth's atmosphere can significantly impact the propagation of electromagnetic radiation, degrading the performance of imaging systems. Deleterious effects of the atmosphere include turbulence, absorption and scattering by particulates. Turbulence leads to blurring, while absorption attenuates the energy that reaches imaging sensors. The optical properties of aerosols and clouds also impact radiation propagation via scattering, resulting in decorrelation from unscattered light. Models have been proposed for calculating a point spread function (PSF) for aerosol scattering, providing a method for simulating the contrast and spatial detail expected when imaging through atmospheres with significant aerosol optical depth. However, these synthetic images and their predicating theory would benefit from comparison with measurements in a controlled environment. Recently, Michigan Technological University (MTU) has designed a novel laboratory cloud chamber. This multiphase, turbulent "Pi Chamber" is capable of pressures down to 100 hPa and temperatures from -55 to +55°C. Additionally, humidity and aerosol concentrations are controllable. These boundary conditions can be combined to form and sustain clouds in an instrumented laboratory setting for measuring the impact of clouds on radiation propagation. This paper describes an experiment to generate mixing and expansion clouds in supersaturated conditions with salt aerosols, and an example of measured imagery viewed through the generated cloud is shown. Aerosol and cloud droplet distributions measured during the experiment are used to predict scattering PSF and MTF curves, and a methodology for validating existing theory is detailed. Measured atmospheric inputs will be used to simulate aerosol-induced image degradation for comparison with measured imagery taken through actual cloud conditions. The aerosol MTF will be experimentally calculated and compared to theoretical expressions. The key result of this study is the

  2. VISUAL PERCEPTION BASED AUTOMATIC RECOGNITION OF CELL MOSAICS IN HUMAN CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUMMICROSCOPY IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Gavet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The human corneal endothelium can be observed with two types of microscopes: classical optical microscope for ex-vivo imaging, and specular optical microscope for in-vivo imaging. The quality of the cornea is correlated to the endothelial cell density and morphometry. Automatic methods to analyze the human corneal endothelium images are still not totally efficient. Image analysis methods that focus only on cell contours do not give good results in presence of noise and of bad conditions of acquisition. More elaborated methods introduce regional informations in order to performthe cell contours completion, thus implementing the duality contour-region. Their good performance can be explained by their connections with several basic principles of human visual perception (Gestalt Theory and Marr's computational theory.

  3. Enhancing Perception with Tactile Object Recognition in Adaptive Grippers for Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandarias, Juan M; Gómez-de-Gabriel, Jesús M; García-Cerezo, Alfonso J

    2018-02-26

    The use of tactile perception can help first response robotic teams in disaster scenarios, where visibility conditions are often reduced due to the presence of dust, mud, or smoke, distinguishing human limbs from other objects with similar shapes. Here, the integration of the tactile sensor in adaptive grippers is evaluated, measuring the performance of an object recognition task based on deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) using a flexible sensor mounted in adaptive grippers. A total of 15 classes with 50 tactile images each were trained, including human body parts and common environment objects, in semi-rigid and flexible adaptive grippers based on the fin ray effect. The classifier was compared against the rigid configuration and a support vector machine classifier (SVM). Finally, a two-level output network has been proposed to provide both object-type recognition and human/non-human classification. Sensors in adaptive grippers have a higher number of non-null tactels (up to 37% more), with a lower mean of pressure values (up to 72% less) than when using a rigid sensor, with a softer grip, which is needed in physical human-robot interaction (pHRI). A semi-rigid implementation with 95.13% object recognition rate was chosen, even though the human/non-human classification had better results (98.78%) with a rigid sensor.

  4. Real-time multiple human perception with color-depth cameras on a mobile robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Reardon, Christopher; Parker, Lynne E

    2013-10-01

    The ability to perceive humans is an essential requirement for safe and efficient human-robot interaction. In real-world applications, the need for a robot to interact in real time with multiple humans in a dynamic, 3-D environment presents a significant challenge. The recent availability of commercial color-depth cameras allow for the creation of a system that makes use of the depth dimension, thus enabling a robot to observe its environment and perceive in the 3-D space. Here we present a system for 3-D multiple human perception in real time from a moving robot equipped with a color-depth camera and a consumer-grade computer. Our approach reduces computation time to achieve real-time performance through a unique combination of new ideas and established techniques. We remove the ground and ceiling planes from the 3-D point cloud input to separate candidate point clusters. We introduce the novel information concept, depth of interest, which we use to identify candidates for detection, and that avoids the computationally expensive scanning-window methods of other approaches. We utilize a cascade of detectors to distinguish humans from objects, in which we make intelligent reuse of intermediary features in successive detectors to improve computation. Because of the high computational cost of some methods, we represent our candidate tracking algorithm with a decision directed acyclic graph, which allows us to use the most computationally intense techniques only where necessary. We detail the successful implementation of our novel approach on a mobile robot and examine its performance in scenarios with real-world challenges, including occlusion, robot motion, nonupright humans, humans leaving and reentering the field of view (i.e., the reidentification challenge), human-object and human-human interaction. We conclude with the observation that the incorporation of the depth information, together with the use of modern techniques in new ways, we are able to create an

  5. Revisiting vocal perception in non-human animals: a review of vowel discrimination, speaker voice recognition, and speaker normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddhamas eKriengwatana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which human speech perception evolved by taking advantage of predispositions and pre-existing features of vertebrate auditory and cognitive systems remains a central question in the evolution of speech. This paper reviews asymmetries in vowel perception, speaker voice recognition, and speaker normalization in non-human animals – topics that have not been thoroughly discussed in relation to the abilities of non-human animals, but are nonetheless important aspects of vocal perception. Throughout this paper we demonstrate that addressing these issues in non-human animals is relevant and worthwhile because many non-human animals must deal with similar issues in their natural environment. That is, they must also discriminate between similar-sounding vocalizations, determine signaler identity from vocalizations, and resolve signaler-dependent variation in vocalizations from conspecifics. Overall, we find that, although plausible, the current evidence is insufficiently strong to conclude that directional asymmetries in vowel perception are specific to humans, or that non-human animals can use voice characteristics to recognize human individuals. However, we do find some indication that non-human animals can normalize speaker differences. Accordingly, we identify avenues for future research that would greatly improve and advance our understanding of these topics.

  6. Steady-state visually evoked potential correlates of human body perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giabbiconi, Claire-Marie; Jurilj, Verena; Gruber, Thomas; Vocks, Silja

    2016-11-01

    In cognitive neuroscience, interest in the neuronal basis underlying the processing of human bodies is steadily increasing. Based on functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, it is assumed that the processing of pictures of human bodies is anchored in a network of specialized brain areas comprising the extrastriate and the fusiform body area (EBA, FBA). An alternative to examine the dynamics within these networks is electroencephalography, more specifically so-called steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs). In SSVEP tasks, a visual stimulus is presented repetitively at a predefined flickering rate and typically elicits a continuous oscillatory brain response at this frequency. This brain response is characterized by an excellent signal-to-noise ratio-a major advantage for source reconstructions. The main goal of present study was to demonstrate the feasibility of this method to study human body perception. To that end, we presented pictures of bodies and contrasted the resulting SSVEPs to two control conditions, i.e., non-objects and pictures of everyday objects (chairs). We found specific SSVEPs amplitude differences between bodies and both control conditions. Source reconstructions localized the SSVEP generators to a network of temporal, occipital and parietal areas. Interestingly, only body perception resulted in activity differences in middle temporal and lateral occipitotemporal areas, most likely reflecting the EBA/FBA.

  7. Human perception of fear in dogs varies according to experience with dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Wan

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of experience in humans' perception of emotion using canine visual signals, we asked adults with various levels of dog experience to interpret the emotions of dogs displayed in videos. The video stimuli had been pre-categorized by an expert panel of dog behavior professionals as showing examples of happy or fearful dog behavior. In a sample of 2,163 participants, the level of dog experience strongly predicted identification of fearful, but not of happy, emotional examples. The probability of selecting the "fearful" category to describe fearful examples increased with experience and ranged from.30 among those who had never lived with a dog to greater than.70 among dog professionals. In contrast, the probability of selecting the "happy" category to describe happy emotional examples varied little by experience, ranging from.90 to.93. In addition, the number of physical features of the dog that participants reported using for emotional interpretations increased with experience, and in particular, more-experienced respondents were more likely to attend to the ears. Lastly, more-experienced respondents provided lower difficulty and higher accuracy self-ratings than less-experienced respondents when interpreting both happy and fearful emotional examples. The human perception of emotion in other humans has previously been shown to be sensitive to individual differences in social experience, and the results of the current study extend the notion of experience-dependent processes from the intraspecific to the interspecific domain.

  8. The human factor: behavioral and neural correlates of humanized perception in moral decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdandžić, Jasminka; Bauer, Herbert; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald; Engl, Elisabeth; Lamm, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states ("humanization") seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim's perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional conflict during decision making. Using fMRI, we assessed neural activity underlying moral decisions that affected fictitious persons that had or had not been experimentally humanized. In implicit priming trials, participants either engaged in mentalizing about these persons (Humanized condition) or not (Neutral condition). In subsequent moral dilemmas, participants had to decide about sacrificing these persons' lives in order to save the lives of numerous others. Humanized persons were sacrificed less often, and the activation pattern during decisions about them indicated increased negative affect, emotional conflict, vicarious emotions, and behavioral control (pgACC/mOFC, anterior insula/IFG, aMCC and precuneus/PCC). Besides, we found enhanced effective connectivity between aMCC and anterior insula, which suggests increased emotion regulation during decisions affecting humanized victims. These findings highlight the importance of others' perceived humanness for prosocial behavior - with aversive affect and other-related concern when imagining harming more "human-like" persons acting against purely utilitarian decisions.

  9. The human factor: behavioral and neural correlates of humanized perception in moral decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Majdandžić

    Full Text Available The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states ("humanization" seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim's perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional conflict during decision making. Using fMRI, we assessed neural activity underlying moral decisions that affected fictitious persons that had or had not been experimentally humanized. In implicit priming trials, participants either engaged in mentalizing about these persons (Humanized condition or not (Neutral condition. In subsequent moral dilemmas, participants had to decide about sacrificing these persons' lives in order to save the lives of numerous others. Humanized persons were sacrificed less often, and the activation pattern during decisions about them indicated increased negative affect, emotional conflict, vicarious emotions, and behavioral control (pgACC/mOFC, anterior insula/IFG, aMCC and precuneus/PCC. Besides, we found enhanced effective connectivity between aMCC and anterior insula, which suggests increased emotion regulation during decisions affecting humanized victims. These findings highlight the importance of others' perceived humanness for prosocial behavior - with aversive affect and other-related concern when imagining harming more "human-like" persons acting against purely utilitarian decisions.

  10. Risk - a symposium on the assessment and perception of risk to human health in Canada. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.T.; Bates, D.V.

    1983-04-01

    The central concern in this Symposium is with risk to human health and life. Health risk includes the possibility of deaths (mortality), either immediate or delayed, and less severe health effects due to injury and illness (morbidity). Risk is defined as the product of the magnitude and the probability so that where it may be expressed quantitatively it is stated in units of harm per unit time (e.g. deaths per year or deaths per year per million of population). The 15 papers presented at this conference discuss the measurement, analysis perception, and management of risk. Six papers judged to be in scope were indexed for INIS

  11. Perceptions of climate change and its impact on human health: an integrated quantitative and qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toan, Do Thi Thanh; Kien, Vu Duy; Bao Giang, Kim; Van Minh, Hoang; Wright, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization emphasized that climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, especially in lower income populations and tropical/subtropical countries. However, people in Asia and Africa were the least likely to perceive global warming as a threat. In Vietnam, little research has been conducted concerning the perceptions of effects of climate change on human health. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions on climate change and its impact on human health among people in Hanoi. We applied a combined quantitative and qualitative approach to study perceptions on climate change among people in Hanoi. A total of 1,444 people were recruited, including 754 people living in non-slum areas and 690 people living in slum areas of Hanoi. A structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data on their perceptions. In a parallel qualitative study, two focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews (IDs) were carried out involving 24 people from both slum and non-slum areas. The majority of the respondents in the study had heard about climate change and its impact on human health (79.3 and 70.1% in non-slum and slum areas, respectively). About one third of the respondents reported that members of their family had experienced illness in the recent summer and winter compared to the same seasons 5 years ago. The most common symptoms reported during hot weather were headaches, fatigue, and dizziness; hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases were also reported. During cold weather, people reported experiencing cough, fever, and influenza, as well as pneumonia and emerging infectious diseases such as dengue and Japanese encephalitis. The observed high level of awareness on the links between climate change and human health may help to increase the success of the National Prevention Program on Climate Change. Moreover, understanding the concerns of the people may help policy makers to develop and implement effective

  12. Perceptions of climate change and its impact on human health: an integrated quantitative and qualitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Thi Thanh Toan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization emphasized that climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, especially in lower income populations and tropical/subtropical countries. However, people in Asia and Africa were the least likely to perceive global warming as a threat. In Vietnam, little research has been conducted concerning the perceptions of effects of climate change on human health. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions on climate change and its impact on human health among people in Hanoi. Design: We applied a combined quantitative and qualitative approach to study perceptions on climate change among people in Hanoi. A total of 1,444 people were recruited, including 754 people living in non-slum areas and 690 people living in slum areas of Hanoi. A structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data on their perceptions. In a parallel qualitative study, two focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews (IDs were carried out involving 24 people from both slum and non-slum areas. Results: The majority of the respondents in the study had heard about climate change and its impact on human health (79.3 and 70.1% in non-slum and slum areas, respectively. About one third of the respondents reported that members of their family had experienced illness in the recent summer and winter compared to the same seasons 5 years ago. The most common symptoms reported during hot weather were headaches, fatigue, and dizziness; hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases were also reported. During cold weather, people reported experiencing cough, fever, and influenza, as well as pneumonia and emerging infectious diseases such as dengue and Japanese encephalitis. Conclusions: The observed high level of awareness on the links between climate change and human health may help to increase the success of the National Prevention Program on Climate Change. Moreover, understanding the concerns of

  13. Methodology for estimating human perception to tremors in high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wenqi; Goh, Key Seng; Pan, Tso-Chien

    2017-07-01

    Human perception to tremors during earthquakes in high-rise buildings is usually associated with psychological discomfort such as fear and anxiety. This paper presents a methodology for estimating the level of perception to tremors for occupants living in high-rise buildings subjected to ground motion excitations. Unlike other approaches based on empirical or historical data, the proposed methodology performs a regression analysis using the analytical results of two generic models of 15 and 30 stories. The recorded ground motions in Singapore are collected and modified for structural response analyses. Simple predictive models are then developed to estimate the perception level to tremors based on a proposed ground motion intensity parameter—the average response spectrum intensity in the period range between 0.1 and 2.0 s. These models can be used to predict the percentage of occupants in high-rise buildings who may perceive the tremors at a given ground motion intensity. Furthermore, the models are validated with two recent tremor events reportedly felt in Singapore. It is found that the estimated results match reasonably well with the reports in the local newspapers and from the authorities. The proposed methodology is applicable to urban regions where people living in high-rise buildings might feel tremors during earthquakes.

  14. Zizyphin modulates calcium signalling in human taste bud cells and fat taste perception in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Babar; Berrichi, Meryem; Bennamar, Chahid; Tordjmann, Thierry; Djeziri, Fatima Z; Hichami, Aziz; Leemput, Julia; Belarbi, Meriem; Ozdener, Hakan; Khan, Naim A

    2017-10-01

    Zizyphin, isolated from Zizyphus sps. leaf extracts, has been shown to modulate sugar taste perception, and the palatability of a sweet solution is increased by the addition of fatty acids. We, therefore, studied whether zizyphin also modulates fat taste perception. Zizyphin was purified from edible fruit of Zizyphus lotus L. Zizyphin-induced increases in [Ca 2+ ]i in human taste bud cells (hTBC). Zizyphin shared the endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ pool and also recruited, in part, Ca 2+ from extracellular environment via the opening of store-operated Ca 2+ channels. Zizyphin exerted additive actions on linoleic acid (LA)-induced increases in [Ca 2+ ]i in these cells, indicating that zizyphin does not exert its action via fatty acid receptors. However, zizyphin seemed to exert, at least in part, its action via bile acid receptor Takeda-G-protein-receptor-5 in hTBC. In behavioural tests, mice exhibited preference for both LA and zizyphin. Interestingly, zizyphin increased the preference for a solution containing-LA. This study is the first evidence of the modulation of fat taste perception by zizyphin at the cellular level in hTBC. Our study might be helpful for considering the synthesis of zizyphin analogues as 'taste modifiers' with a potential in the management of obesity and lipid-mediated disorders. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  15. Perception of human-derived risk influences choice at top of the food chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cristescu

    Full Text Available On human-used landscapes, animal behavior is a trade-off between maximizing fitness and minimizing human-derived risk. Understanding risk perception in wildlife can allow mitigation of anthropogenic risk, with benefits to long-term animal fitness. Areas where animals choose to rest should minimize risk from predators, which for large carnivores typically equate to humans. We hypothesize that high human activity leads to selection for habitat security, whereas low activity enables trading security for forage. We investigated selection of resting (bedding sites by GPS radiocollared adult grizzly bears (n = 10 in a low density population on a multiple-use landscape in Canada. We compared security and foods at resting and random locations while accounting for land use, season, and time of day. On reclaimed mines with low human access, bears selected high horizontal cover far from trails, but did not avoid open (herbaceous areas, resting primarily at night. In protected areas bears also bedded at night, in areas with berry shrubs and Hedysarum spp., with horizontal cover selected in the summer, during high human access. On public lands with substantial human recreation, bears bedded at day, selected resting sites with high horizontal cover in the summer and habitat edges, with bedding associated with herbaceous foods. These spatial and temporal patterns of selection suggest that bears perceive human-related risk differentially in relation to human activity level, season and time of day, and employ a security-food trade-off strategy. Although grizzly bears are presently not hunted in Alberta, their perceived risks associated with humans influence resting-site selection.

  16. The Human Factor: Behavioral and Neural Correlates of Humanized Perception in Moral Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdandžić, Jasminka; Bauer, Herbert; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald; Engl, Elisabeth; Lamm, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states (“humanization”) seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim’s perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional conflict during decision making. Using fMRI, we assessed neural activity underlying moral decisions that affected fictitious persons that had or had not been experimentally humanized. In implicit priming trials, participants either engaged in mentalizing about these persons (Humanized condition) or not (Neutral condition). In subsequent moral dilemmas, participants had to decide about sacrificing these persons’ lives in order to save the lives of numerous others. Humanized persons were sacrificed less often, and the activation pattern during decisions about them indicated increased negative affect, emotional conflict, vicarious emotions, and behavioral control (pgACC/mOFC, anterior insula/IFG, aMCC and precuneus/PCC). Besides, we found enhanced effective connectivity between aMCC and anterior insula, which suggests increased emotion regulation during decisions affecting humanized victims. These findings highlight the importance of others’ perceived humanness for prosocial behavior - with aversive affect and other-related concern when imagining harming more “human-like” persons acting against purely utilitarian decisions. PMID:23082194

  17. Iterative PSF Estimation and Its Application to Shift Invariant and Variant Blur Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Seung-Won Jung; Byeong-Doo Choi; Sung-Jea Ko

    2009-01-01

    Among image restoration approaches, image deconvolution has been considered a powerful solution. In image deconvolution, a point spread function (PSF), which describes the blur of the image, needs to be determined. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an iterative PSF estimation algorithm which is able to estimate an accurate PSF. In real-world motion-blurred images, a simple parametric model of the PSF fails when a camera moves in an arbitrary direction with an inconsistent speed during an e...

  18. Gendered risk perceptions associated with human-wildlife conflict: implications for participatory conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Meredith L; Kahler, Jessica S

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to foster discourse about the extent to which gender is important to consider within the context of participatory approaches for biological conservation. Our objectives are to: (1) gender-disaggregate data about stakeholders' risk perceptions associated with human-wildlife conflict (HWC) in a participatory conservation context, and (2) highlight insights from characterizing gendered similarities and differences in the way people think about HWC-related risks. Two communal conservancies in Caprivi, Namibia served as case study sites. We analyzed data from focus groups (n = 2) to create gendered concept maps about risks to wildlife and livelihoods and any associations of those risks with HWC, and semi-structured interviews (n = 76; men = 38, women = 38) to measure explicit risk attitudes associated with HWC. Concept maps indicated some divergent perceptions in how groups characterized risks to wildlife and livelihoods; however, not only were identified risks to wildlife (e.g., pollution, hunting) dissimilar in some instances, descriptions of risks varied as well. Study groups reported similar risk perceptions associated with HWC with the exception of worry associated with HWC effects on local livelihoods. Gendered differences in risk perceptions may signal different priorities or incentives to participate in efforts to resolve HWC-related risks. Thus, although shared goals and interests may seem to be an obvious reason for cooperative wildlife management, it is not always obvious that management goals are shared. Opportunity exists to move beyond thinking about gender as an explanatory variable for understanding how different groups think about participating in conservation activities.

  19. Gendered risk perceptions associated with human-wildlife conflict: implications for participatory conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith L Gore

    Full Text Available This research aims to foster discourse about the extent to which gender is important to consider within the context of participatory approaches for biological conservation. Our objectives are to: (1 gender-disaggregate data about stakeholders' risk perceptions associated with human-wildlife conflict (HWC in a participatory conservation context, and (2 highlight insights from characterizing gendered similarities and differences in the way people think about HWC-related risks. Two communal conservancies in Caprivi, Namibia served as case study sites. We analyzed data from focus groups (n = 2 to create gendered concept maps about risks to wildlife and livelihoods and any associations of those risks with HWC, and semi-structured interviews (n = 76; men = 38, women = 38 to measure explicit risk attitudes associated with HWC. Concept maps indicated some divergent perceptions in how groups characterized risks to wildlife and livelihoods; however, not only were identified risks to wildlife (e.g., pollution, hunting dissimilar in some instances, descriptions of risks varied as well. Study groups reported similar risk perceptions associated with HWC with the exception of worry associated with HWC effects on local livelihoods. Gendered differences in risk perceptions may signal different priorities or incentives to participate in efforts to resolve HWC-related risks. Thus, although shared goals and interests may seem to be an obvious reason for cooperative wildlife management, it is not always obvious that management goals are shared. Opportunity exists to move beyond thinking about gender as an explanatory variable for understanding how different groups think about participating in conservation activities.

  20. Motion-Blur-Free High-Speed Video Shooting Using a Resonant Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiaki Inoue

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel concept of actuator-driven frame-by-frame intermittent tracking for motion-blur-free video shooting of fast-moving objects. The camera frame and shutter timings are controlled for motion blur reduction in synchronization with a free-vibration-type actuator vibrating with a large amplitude at hundreds of hertz so that motion blur can be significantly reduced in free-viewpoint high-frame-rate video shooting for fast-moving objects by deriving the maximum performance of the actuator. We develop a prototype of a motion-blur-free video shooting system by implementing our frame-by-frame intermittent tracking algorithm on a high-speed video camera system with a resonant mirror vibrating at 750 Hz. It can capture 1024 × 1024 images of fast-moving objects at 750 fps with an exposure time of 0.33 ms without motion blur. Several experimental results for fast-moving objects verify that our proposed method can reduce image degradation from motion blur without decreasing the camera exposure time.

  1. A Stochastic Approach for Blurred Image Restoration and Optical Flow Computation on Field Image Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文; 陈熙霖

    1997-01-01

    The blur in target images caused by camera vibration due to robot motion or hand shaking and by object(s) moving in the background scene is different to deal with in the computer vision system.In this paper,the authors study the relation model between motion and blur in the case of object motion existing in video image sequence,and work on a practical computation algorithm for both motion analysis and blut image restoration.Combining the general optical flow and stochastic process,the paper presents and approach by which the motion velocity can be calculated from blurred images.On the other hand,the blurred image can also be restored using the obtained motion information.For solving a problem with small motion limitation on the general optical flow computation,a multiresolution optical flow algoritm based on MAP estimation is proposed. For restoring the blurred image ,an iteration algorithm and the obtained motion velocity are used.The experiment shows that the proposed approach for both motion velocity computation and blurred image restoration works well.

  2. The Human Factor: Behavioral and Neural Correlates of Humanized Perception in Moral Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Majdandžić, Jasminka; Bauer, Herbert; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald; Engl, Elisabeth; Lamm, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states ("humanization") seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim's perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional ...

  3. Phases of daylight and the stability of color perception in the near peripheral human retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panorgias, Athanasios; Kulikowski, Janus J; Parry, Neil R A; McKeefry, Declan J; Murray, Ian J

    2012-03-01

    Typical daylight extends from blue (morning sky) to orangey red (evening sky) and is represented mathematically as the Daylight Locus in color space. In this study, we investigate the impact of this daylight variation on human color vision. Thirty-eight color normal human observers performed an asymmetric color match in the near peripheral visual field. Unique hues were identified using a naming paradigm. The observers' performance for matching was almost perfectly coincident with the Daylight Locus but declined markedly in other regions. Interobserver variability reached a conspicuous minimum adjacent to the Daylight Locus and was maximal in the red and yellowish-green regions. In the naming task, unique blue and yellow were virtually coincident with the Daylight Locus. The results suggest that the mechanisms of color perception mediated by the phylogenetically older (blue-yellow) color pathway have been strongly influenced by the different phases of daylight.

  4. Human Perception of Physical Experiments and the Simplex Interpretation of Quantum Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaeva E. A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is argued that knowledge dividing the usual, unusual, transient and transcendental depends on human perception of the world (macro or micro and depends too on the inclusion of human consciousness in the system. For the analysis of this problem the idea of "Schrodinger’s cat" is employed. Transient and transcendental knowledge of the state of Schrodinger’s cat corresponds to the case when the observer’s consciousness is included in the system. Here it is possible to speak about the latent parameters of the sub quantum world of which Einstein was convinced. Knowledge of the unusual state of Schrodinger’s cat, simultaneously alive and dead, corresponds to a case of the open micro world. The usual knowledge of the state of Schrodinger’s cat (alive or dead corresponds to a case of the open macrocosm. Each world separately divides the objective and illusory.

  5. Perceptions of nursing undergraduate students concerning the human dimension in the learning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Camillo, Simone; Lúcia da Silva, Ana; Jefferson do Nascimento, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to identify and interpret the perceptions presented by undergraduate students of a Nursing course after internship in Mental Health. Twelve nursing undergraduate students at the Nursing School of ABC Foundation - Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil were interviewed. These interviews using a semi-structure script were performed and recorded in August 2004. Through Content Analysis, thematic modality, four categories were identified, 1. mental health: providing understanding of the other; 2. respect for the human being: the importance of listening, 3. mental health: contributing for a contextualized view of the patient and 4. nursing graduation: undesirable "signs and symptoms" of the profession. The analysis and the discussion of these categories suggest the possibility of teaching based on the human condition. Thus, we support the idea of new research been carried out, considering that the Mental Health discipline must be valued in the Political and Pedagogical projects of the Nursing Undergraduate Courses.

  6. The use of interval ratios in consonance perception by rats (Rattus norvegicus) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Bojorque, Paola; Toro, Juan M

    2015-02-01

    Traditionally, physical features in musical chords have been proposed to be at the root of consonance perception. Alternatively, recent studies suggest that different types of experience modulate some perceptual foundations for musical sounds. The present study tested whether the mechanisms involved in the perception of consonance are present in an animal with no extensive experience with harmonic stimuli and a relatively limited vocal repertoire. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to discriminate consonant from dissonant chords and tested to explore whether they could generalize such discrimination to novel chords. In Experiment 2, we tested if rats could discriminate between chords differing only in their interval ratios and generalize them to different octaves. To contrast the observed pattern of results, human adults were tested with the same stimuli in Experiment 3. Rats successfully discriminated across chords in both experiments, but they did not generalize to novel items in either Experiment 1 or Experiment 2. On the contrary, humans not only discriminated among both consonance-dissonance categories, and among sets of interval ratios, they also generalized their responses to novel items. These results suggest that experience with harmonic sounds may be required for the construction of categories among stimuli varying in frequency ratios. However, the discriminative capacity observed in rats suggests that at least some components of auditory processing needed to distinguish chords based on their interval ratios are shared across species. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. [Short-term memory characteristics of vibration intensity tactile perception on human wrist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fei; Chen, Li-Juan; Lu, Wei; Song, Ai-Guo

    2014-12-25

    In this study, a recall experiment and a recognition experiment were designed to assess the human wrist's short-term memory characteristics of tactile perception on vibration intensity, by using a novel homemade vibrotactile display device based on the spatiotemporal combination vibration of multiple micro vibration motors as a test device. Based on the obtained experimental data, the short-term memory span, recognition accuracy and reaction time of vibration intensity were analyzed. From the experimental results, some important conclusions can be made: (1) The average short-term memory span of tactile perception on vibration intensity is 3 ± 1 items; (2) The greater difference between two adjacent discrete intensities of vibrotactile stimulation is defined, the better average short-term memory span human wrist gets; (3) There is an obvious difference of the average short-term memory span on vibration intensity between the male and female; (4) The mechanism of information extraction in short-term memory of vibrotactile display is to traverse the scanning process by comparison; (5) The recognition accuracy and reaction time performance of vibrotactile display compares unfavourably with that of visual and auditory. The results from this study are important for designing vibrotactile display coding scheme.

  8. Perception of Management on Outcomes of Human Resource Information System (HRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shamimul Islam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human Resource Management is getting focused day by day for ensuring and sustaining organizational success. HRIS (Human Resource Information System is a prevailing HR tool coupled with contemporary innovation of information system. HRIS is defined as the information system to collect, store, process and retrieve HR information to seamlessly help organization achieve strategic objectives. For installation of HRIS, commitment, decision and action of management are inevitable. This study aims at unveiling implicit perception of management regarding performance of HRIS towards organizational objectives in three perspectives such as “Operational Efficiency (OE”, “Managerial Effectiveness (ME” and “Strategic Finesse (SF”. 54% and 57% respondents respectively agree that HRIS enhances OE and ensures ME. On the other hand, 70% respondents underline HRIS as SF. However, the hypothesis results showed that management perception toward HRIS performance is independent of experience, gender and education of managerial people but associated with organizational origin either Bangladeshi or foreign. Thus it is concluded that foreign companies are advanced to adopt contemporary tools whereas Bangladeshi firms are averse or endeavor to assimilate laggardly. The findings open the door for future research why Bangladeshi firms respond at late.

  9. Evaluating methods for controlling depth perception in stereoscopic cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Geng; Holliman, Nick

    2009-02-01

    Existing stereoscopic imaging algorithms can create static stereoscopic images with perceived depth control function to ensure a compelling 3D viewing experience without visual discomfort. However, current algorithms do not normally support standard Cinematic Storytelling techniques. These techniques, such as object movement, camera motion, and zooming, can result in dynamic scene depth change within and between a series of frames (shots) in stereoscopic cinematography. In this study, we empirically evaluate the following three types of stereoscopic imaging approaches that aim to address this problem. (1) Real-Eye Configuration: set camera separation equal to the nominal human eye interpupillary distance. The perceived depth on the display is identical to the scene depth without any distortion. (2) Mapping Algorithm: map the scene depth to a predefined range on the display to avoid excessive perceived depth. A new method that dynamically adjusts the depth mapping from scene space to display space is presented in addition to an existing fixed depth mapping method. (3) Depth of Field Simulation: apply Depth of Field (DOF) blur effect to stereoscopic images. Only objects that are inside the DOF are viewed in full sharpness. Objects that are far away from the focus plane are blurred. We performed a human-based trial using the ITU-R BT.500-11 Recommendation to compare the depth quality of stereoscopic video sequences generated by the above-mentioned imaging methods. Our results indicate that viewers' practical 3D viewing volumes are different for individual stereoscopic displays and viewers can cope with much larger perceived depth range in viewing stereoscopic cinematography in comparison to static stereoscopic images. Our new dynamic depth mapping method does have an advantage over the fixed depth mapping method in controlling stereo depth perception. The DOF blur effect does not provide the expected improvement for perceived depth quality control in 3D cinematography

  10. Farmers’ Perceptions on the Agricultural use of Human Urine in the Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Müller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Urine Diverting Dry Toilet (UDDT provides a technological alternative for the challenging environments found in Amazonia, and has the advantage of not consuming water. To verify its viability, however, it is necessary to understand user behavior in relation to the use of the toilet’s byproducts. The objective of the present study was to evaluate farmer’s perceptions of the use of human urine as a fertilizer for agricultural crops in the Central Amazon. We interviewed 73 smallholder farmers from a rural village in Tefé County and in the municipal farmers market of Tefé. It was verified that 12% of farmers have knowledge of the use of human urine in agriculture, and that more than a third consider it possible to use urine in their gardens and fields. However, more than half did not consider the possibility of using urine, manifesting concerns about crop development and doubts regarding the efficacy of its use as a fertilizer. The informants believed that crops watered with urine would be adequate for human consumption. It is possible to conclude that human urine has the potential to be used in agriculture in the study region and we understand that dry toilets should not be taken as the only alternative for sanitation in Amazonia.

  11. Shared sensory estimates for human motion perception and pursuit eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Trishna; Battifarano, Matthew; Simoncini, Claudio; Osborne, Leslie C

    2015-06-03

    Are sensory estimates formed centrally in the brain and then shared between perceptual and motor pathways or is centrally represented sensory activity decoded independently to drive awareness and action? Questions about the brain's information flow pose a challenge because systems-level estimates of environmental signals are only accessible indirectly as behavior. Assessing whether sensory estimates are shared between perceptual and motor circuits requires comparing perceptual reports with motor behavior arising from the same sensory activity. Extrastriate visual cortex both mediates the perception of visual motion and provides the visual inputs for behaviors such as smooth pursuit eye movements. Pursuit has been a valuable testing ground for theories of sensory information processing because the neural circuits and physiological response properties of motion-responsive cortical areas are well studied, sensory estimates of visual motion signals are formed quickly, and the initiation of pursuit is closely coupled to sensory estimates of target motion. Here, we analyzed variability in visually driven smooth pursuit and perceptual reports of target direction and speed in human subjects while we manipulated the signal-to-noise level of motion estimates. Comparable levels of variability throughout viewing time and across conditions provide evidence for shared noise sources in the perception and action pathways arising from a common sensory estimate. We found that conditions that create poor, low-gain pursuit create a discrepancy between the precision of perception and that of pursuit. Differences in pursuit gain arising from differences in optic flow strength in the stimulus reconcile much of the controversy on this topic. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358515-16$15.00/0.

  12. Consequences of a human TRPA1 genetic variant on the perception of nociceptive and olfactory stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schütz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: TRPA1 ion channels are involved in nociception and are also excited by pungent odorous substances. Based on reported associations of TRPA1 genetics with increased sensitivity to thermal pain stimuli, we therefore hypothesized that this association also exists for increased olfactory sensitivity. METHODS: Olfactory function and nociception was compared between carriers (n = 38 and non-carriers (n = 43 of TRPA1 variant rs11988795 G>A, a variant known to enhance cold pain perception. Olfactory function was quantified by assessing the odor threshold, odor discrimination and odor identification, and by applying 200-ms pulses of H2S intranasal. Nociception was assessed by measuring pain thresholds to experimental nociceptive stimuli (blunt pressure, electrical stimuli, cold and heat stimuli, and 200-ms intranasal pulses of CO2. RESULTS: Among the 11 subjects with moderate hyposmia, carriers of the minor A allele (n = 2 were underrepresented (34 carriers among the 70 normosmic subjects; p = 0.049. Moreover, carriers of the A allele discriminated odors significantly better than non-carriers (13.1±1.5 versus 12.3±1.6 correct discriminations and indicated a higher intensity of the H2S stimuli (29.2±13.2 versus 21±12.8 mm VAS, p = 0.006, which, however, could not be excluded to have involved a trigeminal component during stimulation. Finally, the increased sensitivity to thermal pain could be reproduced. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are in line with a previous association of a human TRPA1 variant with nociceptive parameters and extend the association to the perception of odorants. However, this addresses mainly those stimulants that involve a trigeminal component whereas a pure olfactory effect may remain disputable. Nevertheless, findings suggest that future TRPA1 modulating drugs may modify the perception of odorants.

  13. Human Resources Practitioners’ Perceptions Of Their Role And Responsibility In Managing HIV/Aids In Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. DE W. van Wyk

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The central question to be examined revolved around an analysis of the perceptions of Human Resources Practitioners regarding their role and responsibility in the management of HIV/AIDS in industry. A convenience sample of HR Practitioners was used in a cross-sectional design. A questionnaire measuring the constructs of managing HIV/AIDS in industry, as well as a biographical questionnaire was administered. The questionnaire proved to be reliable. A Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0,82 and 0,71 was obtained. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Results indicated that HR Practitioners experienced and perceived significant differences with regard to the implementation of their companies’ policy formation and -implementation, training needs of managers and employees, mentoring/ coaching -approaches and other AIDS-related issues in terms of their perceptions regarding the management of HIV/AIDS. The findings revealed a gap of knowledge on managing HIV/AIDS existing among HR Practitioners at all levels. While some HR Practitioners had a detailed knowledge of the disease and its prevention, others were ignorant about it, but agreed that the management of HIV/AIDS can be seen as an integral part of their daily role and responsibility in industry. Recommendations were proposed for future research, policy making and practice in the area of HIV/AIDS and the management thereof.

  14. Self-directed learning in gross human anatomy: assessment outcomes and student perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Gayle; Hughes, Diane

    2008-01-01

    Speech pathology students enrolled in a lecture-based gross human anatomy program completed two out of nine topics in self-directed mode. Student performance in quizzes was compared for the two modes, and the students completed questionnaires on their perceptions of the self-directed mode of delivery. Students performed as well in the first self-directed topic as they did in lecture-based material, but performance declined significantly on the second self-directed topic. Correlations showed that students who performed well in lecture-based topics also performed well on self-directed topics. The major issues that arose in the student questionnaires were primarily related to the amount of content in the topics and the length of time required for completion. We conclude that there is a strong need for appropriate design of distance education materials to reflect student perceptions of length, content, and time investment, and more importantly that there is a need to ensure extensive communication and support of students studying in distance education/self-directed modes for the first time.

  15. Knowledge, perception and attitude towards human papillomavirus among pre-university students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwang, Ng Beng; Yee, Choy Mun; Shan, Lim Pei; Teik, Chew Kah; Chandralega, Kampan Nirmala; Abdul Kadir, Abdul Karim

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge, perception and attitudes towards human papilloma virus (HPV) among pre-university students in Malaysia. In this cross sectional study, between November 2013 to March 2014, in a public university, a convenient sampling method was used. A total of 716 respondents were recruited and interviewed with a set of standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, perception and attitudes towards HPV and predictor variables associated with level of knowledge. Almost half (48.9%) of the respondents scored less than 5 and were categorised as having poor knowledge. Three hundred and twelve (43.6%) respondents had moderate knowledge and only 54 (7.5%) respondents exhibited good knowledge with the score of 11 and above. Only 142 (20%) students perceived themselves to be vulnerable to HPV infection though 560 (78.2%) students thought that HPV infection is a serious disease. Perceived benefits and desire to be vaccinated were significantly associated with gender (p=0.000) and knowledge of HPV vaccine and cervical cancer (p=0.000). The level of knowledge regarding HPV among the pre-university students was low. However, student intention for vaccination increased with increasing level of knowledge. Thus, efforts to improve knowledge and awareness should be prioritised to increase uptake of the HPV vaccination programme and hence reduce morbidity and mortality from consequences of HPV infection, including cervical carcinoma.

  16. Accurate estimation of motion blur parameters in noisy remote sensing image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xueyan; Wang, Lin; Shao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Huilin; Tao, Zhong

    2015-05-01

    The relative motion between remote sensing satellite sensor and objects is one of the most common reasons for remote sensing image degradation. It seriously weakens image data interpretation and information extraction. In practice, point spread function (PSF) should be estimated firstly for image restoration. Identifying motion blur direction and length accurately is very crucial for PSF and restoring image with precision. In general, the regular light-and-dark stripes in the spectrum can be employed to obtain the parameters by using Radon transform. However, serious noise existing in actual remote sensing images often causes the stripes unobvious. The parameters would be difficult to calculate and the error of the result relatively big. In this paper, an improved motion blur parameter identification method to noisy remote sensing image is proposed to solve this problem. The spectrum characteristic of noisy remote sensing image is analyzed firstly. An interactive image segmentation method based on graph theory called GrabCut is adopted to effectively extract the edge of the light center in the spectrum. Motion blur direction is estimated by applying Radon transform on the segmentation result. In order to reduce random error, a method based on whole column statistics is used during calculating blur length. Finally, Lucy-Richardson algorithm is applied to restore the remote sensing images of the moon after estimating blur parameters. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and robustness of our algorithm.

  17. Reduce blurring and distortion in a projection type virtual image display using integrated small optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Yendo, Tomohiro

    2015-03-01

    Head Up Display (HUD) is being applied to automobile. HUD displays information as far virtual image on the windshield. Existing HUD usually displays planar information. If the image corresponding to scenery on the road like Augmented Reality (AR) is displayed on the HUD, driver can efficiently get the information. To actualize this, HUD covering large viewing field is needed. However existing HUD cannot cover large viewing field. Therefore we have proposed system consisting of projector and many small diameter convex lenses. However observed virtual image has blurring and distortion . In this paper, we propose two methods to reduce blurring and distortion of images. First, to reduce blurring of images, distance between each of screen and lens comprised in lens array is adjusted. We inferred from the more distant the lens from center of the array is more blurred that the cause of blurring is curvature of field of lens in the array. Second, to avoid distortion of images, each lens in the array is curved spherically. We inferred from the more distant the lens from center of the array is more distorted that the cause of distortion is incident angle of ray. We confirmed effectiveness of both methods.

  18. Human perception of air movement. Impact of frequency and airflow direction on draught sensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genhong Zhou

    1999-08-01

    Draught is defined as an unwanted local cooling of the human body caused by air movement. Air velocity and temperature are the main characteristics of air movement in rooms. Characteristics of instantaneous air velocity and temperature records previously measured in ventilated indoor spaces were analyzed. Air velocity and temperature fluctuated randomly. The amplitude and frequency of the fluctuations changed over time. Air movements around the human body were measured with a three-dimensional laser Doppler amemometer. A new parameter, equivalent frequency, was defined as an integral single parameter for describing the frequency characteristics of air velocity. The equivalent frequency of a randomly fluctuating velocity is defined as the frequency of sinusoidal velocity fluctuations with the same ratio of the standard deviation of acceleration to the standard deviation of air velocity as in the random velocity fluctuations. The equivalent frequencies of numerous instantaneous air-velocity records measured in ventilated space were analysed. The equivalent frequency of an airflow in an indoor space was found to be 0.1 to 2 Hz. The equivalent frequencies of most of the airflows were between 0.2 and 0.6 Hz. The relation between equivalent frequency and mean air velocity and standard deviation was established. Experiments were performed to identify the impact of the equivalent frequency on the human perception of draught. Forty subjects (20 women and 20 men) were subjected to airflows from behind with mean air velocities of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/s, with equivalent frequencies from 0 to 1 Hz at an air temperature of 20 deg. C. In this human-subject experimental study the frequency was found to have a significant impact on draught sensation. Subjects were more sensitive to airflow at an equivalent frequency between 0.2 and 0.6 Hz. A mathematical model for the simulation of draught was established and a computer program was developed for simulating the draught. The program

  19. The "Human Colour" Crayon: Investigating the Attitudes and Perceptions of Learners regarding Race and Skin Colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeske Alexander

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Some coloured and black learners in South Africa use a light orange or pink crayon to represent themselves in art. Many learners name this colour “human colour” or “skin colour”. This is troublesome, because it could reflect exclusionary ways of representing race in images and language. This case study, conducted with two schools in the Western Cape, investigated Grade 3 learners’ attitudes and perceptions regarding race and skin colour through art processes and discussion. The aim was to promote critical engagement with race in Foundation Phase educational contexts. Suggestions include changing the language used to describe skin colour, just recognition and representation of races in educational resources and the promotion of critical citizenship education. This research indicates the need to create practical curriculum guidelines to discuss race issues in the South African classroom.

  20. Effects of exposure to noise and indoor air pollution on human perception and symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witterseh, Thomas; Wargocki, Pawel; Fang, Lei

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate human perception and SBS symptoms when people are exposed simultaneously to different levels of air pollution and ventilation noise. The air quality in an office was modified by placing or removing a carpet and the background noise level...... of the occupants were recorded throughout the exposure period. During occupation, the subjects performed simulated office work. The results show that elevated air pollution and noise in an office can interact and negatively affect office workers by increasing the prevalence of SBS symptoms. A moderate increase...... was modified by playing a recording of ventilation noise. Thirty female subjects, six at a time, occupied the office for 4.4 hours. The subjects assessed the air quality, the noise, and the indoor environment upon entering the office and on six occasions during occupation. Furthermore, SBS symptoms...

  1. Crossing the “Uncanny Valley”: adaptation to cartoon faces can influence perception of human faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiwen; Russell, Richard; Nakayama, Ken; Livingstone, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation can shift what individuals identify to be a prototypical or attractive face. Past work suggests that low-level shape adaptation can affect high-level face processing but is position dependent. Adaptation to distorted images of faces can also affect face processing but only within sub-categories of faces, such as gender, age, and race/ethnicity. This study assesses whether there is a representation of face that is specific to faces (as opposed to all shapes) but general to all kinds of faces (as opposed to subcategories) by testing whether adaptation to one type of face can affect perception of another. Participants were shown cartoon videos containing faces with abnormally large eyes. Using animated videos allowed us to simulate naturalistic exposure and avoid positional shape adaptation. Results suggest that adaptation to cartoon faces with large eyes shifts preferences for human faces toward larger eyes, supporting the existence of general face representations. PMID:20465173

  2. Young Asian Americans' knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer and the human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor, Beverly J; Chilton, Janice A; Camingue, Pamela T; Hajek, Richard A

    2011-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a major health disparity among Asian Americans, with cervical cancer rates of Vietnamese women being significantly higher than for the general US female population and low screening rates reported for Asian American females. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with young Vietnamese, Filipino, and Korean adults (ages 18-29) to collect information on knowledge, perceptions and sources of information regarding cervical cancer, Pap tests and the human papillomavirus. 16 Korean, 18 Vietnamese, and 18 Filipino (50% female) adults participated in the study. Many participants had never heard of HPV, cervical cancer and Pap testing. Cervical cancer screening rates were low for Korean and Vietnamese females and were influenced by moral beliefs and lack of awareness. Culturally relevant education materials that consider specific Asian ethnicity and language are needed to increase awareness of cervical cancer, Pap testing, and HPV among Asian American young adults.

  3. Diversity and human perceptions of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) in Southeast Asian megacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Kong-Wah; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Wan, Tao; Lee, Ping-Shin; Li, Zong-Xu; Chen, Xing; Wang, Yun-Yu; Wilson, John-James

    2016-10-01

    Urbanization requires the conversion of natural land cover to cover with human-constructed elements and is considered a major threat to biodiversity. Bee populations, globally, are under threat; however, the effect of rapid urban expansion in Southeast Asia on bee diversity has not been investigated. Given the pressing issues of bee conservation and urbanization in Southeast Asia, coupled with complex factors surrounding human-bee coexistence, we investigated bee diversity and human perceptions of bees in four megacities. We sampled bees and conducted questionnaires at three different site types in each megacity: a botanical garden, central business district, and peripheral suburban areas. Overall, the mean species richness and abundance of bees were significantly higher in peripheral suburban areas than central business districts; however, there were no significant differences in the mean species richness and abundance between botanical gardens and peripheral suburban areas or botanical gardens and central business districts. Urban residents were unlikely to have seen bees but agreed that bees have a right to exist in their natural environment. Residents who did notice and interact with bees, even though being stung, were more likely to have positive opinions towards the presence of bees in cities.

  4. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Assess Social Work Students' Perceptions, Knowledge, and Attitudes about Human Trafficking Questionnaire (PKA-HTQ): An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsonwu, Maura Busch; Welch-Brewer, Chiquitia; Heffron, Laurie Cook; Lemke, Melinda A.; Busch-Armendariz, Noel; Sulley, Caitlin; Cook, Sharon Warren; Lewis, Mary; Watson, Elizabeth; Moore, Wayne; Li, Jilan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a tool designed to assess social work students' knowledge of and perceptions and attitudes toward human trafficking. To achieve this aim, the Perceptions, Knowledge, and Attitudes toward Human Trafficking Questionnaire (PKA-HTQ) was developed and its psychometric…

  5. Blurred image restoration using knife-edge function and optimal window Wiener filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shudao; Yan, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Motion blur in images is usually modeled as the convolution of a point spread function (PSF) and the original image represented as pixel intensities. The knife-edge function can be used to model various types of motion-blurs, and hence it allows for the construction of a PSF and accurate estimation of the degradation function without knowledge of the specific degradation model. This paper addresses the problem of image restoration using a knife-edge function and optimal window Wiener filtering. In the proposed method, we first calculate the motion-blur parameters and construct the optimal window. Then, we use the detected knife-edge function to obtain the system degradation function. Finally, we perform Wiener filtering to obtain the restored image. Experiments show that the restored image has improved resolution and contrast parameters with clear details and no discernible ringing effects. PMID:29377950

  6. Positron range in PET imaging: an alternative approach for assessing and correcting the blurring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars; Le Loirec, Cindy; Champion, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Background: Positron range impairs resolution in PET imaging, especially for high-energy emitters and for small-animal PET. De-blurring in image reconstruction is possible if the blurring distribution is known. Further, the percentage of annihilation events within a given distance from the point...... on allowed-decay isotopes. Methods: It is argued that blurring at the detection level should not be described by positron range r, but instead the 2D-projected distance δ (equal to the closest distance between decay and line-of-response). To determine these 2D distributions, results from a dedicated positron...... is important for improved resolution in PET imaging. Relevant distributions for positron range have been derived for seven isotopes. Distributions for other allowed-decay isotopes may be estimated with the above formulas....

  7. Human Perception, SBS Sympsoms and Performance of Office Work during Exposure to Air Polluted by Building Materials and Personal Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bako-Biro, Zsolt

    The present thesis deals with the impact of polluted air from building materials and personal computers on human perception, Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms and performance of office work. These effects have been studies in a series of experiments that are described in two different chapters...

  8. Interteaching within a Human Physiology Course: A Comparison of First- and Second-Year Students' Learning Skills and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Bruce; Guy, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This article describes student perceptions and outcomes in relation to the use of a novel interteaching approach. The study sample (n = 260) was taken from a large human physiology class, which included both first- and second-year students. However, unlike the first-year students, the second-year students had significant prior knowledge, having…

  9. Examination of Information Technology (IT) Certification and the Human Resources (HR) Professional Perception of Job Performance: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Horo, Neal O.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative survey study was to test the Leontief input/output theory relating the input of IT certification to the output of the English-speaking U.S. human resource professional perceived IT professional job performance. Participants (N = 104) rated their perceptions of IT certified vs. non-IT certified professionals' job…

  10. How the unique configuration of the human head may enhance flavor perception capabilities: an evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Lieberman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since flavor derives from the synthesis of taste, somatosensation and smell, one of the most important factors in the ability to perceive flavor is retronasal olfaction in which volatile compounds pass from the oral cavity through the pharynx to the olfactory epithelium. Retronasal olfaction has been documented in both humans and rodents, but appears less effective in rodents than orthonasal olfaction because expired air does not come into as much contact with the sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium as inspired air [1,2]. Detailed comparisons of retronasal airflow patterns among different species have not been conducted, but several lines of evidence lead to the hypothesis that retronasal airflow may be specially enhanced in humans because of four derived features of the human head and neck that evolved at different stages because of selection for functions other than olfaction [3]. If so, then human flavor perception capabilities may be more derived than is commonly appreciated, and perhaps played a role in selecting for the evolution of cooking. The first derived adaptation that aids human retronasal olfaction is the absence of the transverse lamina, a horizontal shelf of bone that partitions the olfactory chamber of the nasal fossa from the more inferior respiratory passage. This lamina, which is present in most mammals, was lost during the evolution of monkeys (haplorhines from more primitive primates (strepsirhines as part of a reorganization of the nasal cavity. The function of the transverse lamina has not been tested but it probably aids orthonasal olfaction by trapping inspired air in the olfactory region. Loss of the transverse lamina is commonly interpreted to be one of several trade-offs in primate evolution that favored vision over olfaction [4], but it likely benefits retronasal olfaction by permitting a direct pathway for expired air to flow towards the olfactory epithelium. A second derived adaptation present in humans is

  11. Nanotech, blur and tragedy in recent artworks by Gerhard Richter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    2008-01-01

    The author considers Gerhard Richter's work on nanotechnology, highlighting how these pieces continue the artist's ontology on photographic blur and, as such, raise questions about truth and reality with respect to the mass media's visual presentation of nanotechnology. The four works discussed i...... and terrorism, and contrasts Richter's artworks with utopian visions of nano-science in the mass media.......The author considers Gerhard Richter's work on nanotechnology, highlighting how these pieces continue the artist's ontology on photographic blur and, as such, raise questions about truth and reality with respect to the mass media's visual presentation of nanotechnology. The four works discussed...

  12. Multi-frequency interpolation in spiral magnetic resonance fingerprinting for correction of off-resonance blurring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostenson, Jason; Robison, Ryan K; Zwart, Nicholas R; Welch, E Brian

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) pulse sequences often employ spiral trajectories for data readout. Spiral k-space acquisitions are vulnerable to blurring in the spatial domain in the presence of static field off-resonance. This work describes a blurring correction algorithm for use in spiral MRF and demonstrates its effectiveness in phantom and in vivo experiments. Results show that image quality of T1 and T2 parametric maps is improved by application of this correction. This MRF correction has negligible effect on the concordance correlation coefficient and improves coefficient of variation in regions of off-resonance relative to uncorrected measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tactile Evaluation Feedback System for Multi-Layered Structure Inspired by Human Tactile Perception Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iza Husna Mohamad Hashim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tactile sensation is one type of valuable feedback in evaluating a product. Conventionally, sensory evaluation is used to get direct subjective responses from the consumers, in order to improve the product’s quality. However, this method is a time-consuming and costly process. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel tactile evaluation system that can give tactile feedback from a sensor’s output. The main concept of this system is hierarchically layering the tactile sensation, which is inspired by the flow of human perception. The tactile sensation is classified from low-order of tactile sensation (LTS to high-order of tactile sensation (HTS, and also to preference. Here, LTS will be correlated with physical measures. Furthermore, the physical measures that are used to correlate with LTS are selected based on four main aspects of haptic information (roughness, compliance, coldness, and slipperiness, which are perceived through human tactile sensors. By using statistical analysis, the correlation between each hierarchy was obtained, and the preference was derived in terms of physical measures. A verification test was conducted by using unknown samples to determine the reliability of the system. The results showed that the system developed was capable of estimating preference with an accuracy of approximately 80%.

  14. Tactile Evaluation Feedback System for Multi-Layered Structure Inspired by Human Tactile Perception Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Iza Husna Mohamad; Kumamoto, Shogo; Takemura, Kenjiro; Maeno, Takashi; Okuda, Shin; Mori, Yukio

    2017-11-11

    Tactile sensation is one type of valuable feedback in evaluating a product. Conventionally, sensory evaluation is used to get direct subjective responses from the consumers, in order to improve the product's quality. However, this method is a time-consuming and costly process. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel tactile evaluation system that can give tactile feedback from a sensor's output. The main concept of this system is hierarchically layering the tactile sensation, which is inspired by the flow of human perception. The tactile sensation is classified from low-order of tactile sensation (LTS) to high-order of tactile sensation (HTS), and also to preference. Here, LTS will be correlated with physical measures. Furthermore, the physical measures that are used to correlate with LTS are selected based on four main aspects of haptic information (roughness, compliance, coldness, and slipperiness), which are perceived through human tactile sensors. By using statistical analysis, the correlation between each hierarchy was obtained, and the preference was derived in terms of physical measures. A verification test was conducted by using unknown samples to determine the reliability of the system. The results showed that the system developed was capable of estimating preference with an accuracy of approximately 80%.

  15. The First Appearance of Symmetry in the Human Lineage: Where Perception Meets Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Hodgson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although symmetry may be important for understanding the selection of form in art over the historical period, this preference may have originally stemmed from certain basic perceptual mechanism that initially arose during prehistory. The first signs of an awareness to symmetry can be found in the archaeological record with the arrival of Acheulean handaxes, especially those dating from 500,000 years ago onwards, which are typified by a prodigious bilateral symmetry. As handaxes represent the earliest material record of an interest in symmetry by the human lineage, they provide a privileged means of understanding why this kind of form came to be valued by later human groups, particularly in relation to “art”. Although still controversial, the preference for symmetry at such an early date has been linked to various aspects of perception relating to enduring evolutionary factors. In this regard, it will be demonstrated how the preference for symmetrical Acheulean tools arose out of long standing perceptual correlates relating to ecological factors that predated the arrival of hominins.

  16. Our Faces in the Dog's Brain: Functional Imaging Reveals Temporal Cortex Activation during Perception of Human Faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura V Cuaya

    Full Text Available Dogs have a rich social relationship with humans. One fundamental aspect of it is how dogs pay close attention to human faces in order to guide their behavior, for example, by recognizing their owner and his/her emotional state using visual cues. It is well known that humans have specific brain regions for the processing of other human faces, yet it is unclear how dogs' brains process human faces. For this reason, our study focuses on describing the brain correlates of perception of human faces in dogs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We trained seven domestic dogs to remain awake, still and unrestrained inside an MRI scanner. We used a visual stimulation paradigm with block design to compare activity elicited by human faces against everyday objects. Brain activity related to the perception of faces changed significantly in several brain regions, but mainly in the bilateral temporal cortex. The opposite contrast (i.e., everyday objects against human faces showed no significant brain activity change. The temporal cortex is part of the ventral visual pathway, and our results are consistent with reports in other species like primates and sheep, that suggest a high degree of evolutionary conservation of this pathway for face processing. This study introduces the temporal cortex as candidate to process human faces, a pillar of social cognition in dogs.

  17. An Experimental Study of Embodied Interaction and Human Perception of Social Presence for Interactive Robots in Public Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Heath, Damith; Vlachos, Evgenios

    2018-01-01

    The human perception of cognitive robots as social depends on many factors, including those that do not necessarily pertain to a robot’s cognitive functioning. Experience Design offers a useful framework for evaluating when participants interact with robots as products or tools and when they regard...... them as social actors. This study describes a between-participants experiment conducted at a science museum, where visitors were invited to play a game of noughts and crosses with a Baxter robot. The goal is to foster meaningful interactions that promote engagement between the human and robot...... in a museum context. Using an Experience Design framework, we tested the robot in three different conditions to better understand which factors contribute to the perception of robots as social. The experiment also outlines best practices for conducting human-robot interaction research in museum exhibitions...

  18. A Convex Variational Model for Restoring Blurred Images with Multiplicative Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yiqiu; Tieyong Zeng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a new variational model for restoring blurred images with multiplicative noise is proposed. Based on the statistical property of the noise, a quadratic penalty function technique is utilized in order to obtain a strictly convex model under a mild condition, which guarantees...

  19. New Hybrid Variational Recovery Model for Blurred Images with Multiplicative Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yiqiu; Zeng, Tieyong

    2013-01-01

    A new hybrid variational model for recovering blurred images in the presence of multiplicative noise is proposed. Inspired by previous work on multiplicative noise removal, an I-divergence technique is used to build a strictly convex model under a condition that ensures the uniqueness...

  20. Blurring of emotional and non-emotional memories by taxing working memory during recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, Marcel A.; Eidhof, Marloes B.; Verboom, Jesse; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Memories that are recalled while working memory (WM) is taxed, e.g., by making eye movements (EM), become blurred during the recall + EM and later recall, without EM. This may help to explain the effects of Eye Movement and Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic

  1. Nanotech, blur and tragedy in recent artworks by Gerhard Richter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    2008-01-01

    The author considers Gerhard Richter's work on nanotechnology, highlighting how these pieces continue the artist's ontology on photographic blur and, as such, raise questions about truth and reality with respect to the mass media's visual presentation of nanotechnology. The four works discussed i...

  2. Blurring Boundaries: From the Danish Welfare State to the European Social Model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    Abstract: This paper builds on the results obtained in the so-called Blurring Boundaries project which was undertaken at the Law Department, Copenhagen Business School, in the period from 2007 to 2009. It looks at the sustainability of the Danish welfare state in an EU law context and on the inte......Abstract: This paper builds on the results obtained in the so-called Blurring Boundaries project which was undertaken at the Law Department, Copenhagen Business School, in the period from 2007 to 2009. It looks at the sustainability of the Danish welfare state in an EU law context...... and on the integration of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services, 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law...... aspects, and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...

  3. Iterative correction method for shift-variant blurring caused by collimator aperture in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Koichi; Katsu, Haruto

    1996-01-01

    A collimation system in single photon computed tomography (SPECT) induces blurring on reconstructed images. The blurring varies with the collimator aperture which is determined by the shape of the hole (its diameter and length), and with the distance between the collimator surface and the object. The blurring has shift-variant properties. This paper presents a new iterative method for correcting the shift-variant blurring. The method estimates the ratio of 'ideal projection value' to 'measured projection value' at each sample point. The term 'ideal projection value' means the number of photons which enter the hole perpendicular to the collimator surface, and the term 'measured projection value' means the number of photons which enter the hole at acute angles to the collimator aperture axis. If the estimation is accurate, ideal projection value can be obtained as the product of the measured projection value and the estimated ratio. The accuracy of the estimation is improved iteratively by comparing the measured projection value with a weighted summation of several estimated projection value. The simulation results showed that spatial resolution was improved without amplification of artifacts due to statistical noise. (author)

  4. Understanding and Modeling the Evolution of Critical Points under Gaussian Blurring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, A.; Florack, L.M.J.; Heyden, A.; Sparr, G.; Nielsen, M.; Johansen, P.

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate the deep structure of Gaussian scale space images, one needs to understand the behaviour of critical points under the influence of parameter-driven blurring. During this evolution two different types of special points are encountered, the so-called scale space saddles and the

  5. Efficient dense blur map estimation for automatic 2D-to-3D conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosters, L. P. J.; de Haan, G.

    2012-03-01

    Focus is an important depth cue for 2D-to-3D conversion of low depth-of-field images and video. However, focus can be only reliably estimated on edges. Therefore, Bea et al. [1] first proposed an optimization based approach to propagate focus to non-edge image portions, for single image focus editing. While their approach produces accurate dense blur maps, the computational complexity and memory requirements for solving the resulting sparse linear system with standard multigrid or (multilevel) preconditioning techniques, are infeasible within the stringent requirements of the consumer electronics and broadcast industry. In this paper we propose fast, efficient, low latency, line scanning based focus propagation, which mitigates the need for complex multigrid or (multilevel) preconditioning techniques. In addition we propose facial blur compensation to compensate for false shading edges that cause incorrect blur estimates in people's faces. In general shading leads to incorrect focus estimates, which may lead to unnatural 3D and visual discomfort. Since visual attention mostly tends to faces, our solution solves the most distracting errors. A subjective assessment by paired comparison on a set of challenging low-depth-of-field images shows that the proposed approach achieves equal 3D image quality as optimization based approaches, and that facial blur compensation results in a significant improvement.

  6. The Role of Clarity and Blur in Guiding Visual Attention in Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, James T.; MacDonald, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    Visual artists and photographers believe that a viewer's gaze can be guided by selective use of image clarity and blur, but there is little systematic research. In this study, participants performed several eye-tracking tasks with the same naturalistic photographs, including recognition memory for the entire photo, as well as recognition memory…

  7. Iterative PSF Estimation and Its Application to Shift Invariant and Variant Blur Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Won Jung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Among image restoration approaches, image deconvolution has been considered a powerful solution. In image deconvolution, a point spread function (PSF, which describes the blur of the image, needs to be determined. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an iterative PSF estimation algorithm which is able to estimate an accurate PSF. In real-world motion-blurred images, a simple parametric model of the PSF fails when a camera moves in an arbitrary direction with an inconsistent speed during an exposure time. Moreover, the PSF normally changes with spatial location. In order to accurately estimate the complex PSF of a real motion blurred image, we iteratively update the PSF by using a directional spreading operator. The directional spreading is applied to the PSF when it reduces the amount of the blur and the restoration artifacts. Then, to generalize the proposed technique to the linear shift variant (LSV model, a piecewise invariant approach is adopted by the proposed image segmentation method. Experimental results show that the proposed method effectively estimates the PSF and restores the degraded images.

  8. School nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of role as opinion leader, and professional practice regarding human papillomavirus vaccine for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brittany L; Goodson, Patricia; Thompson, Bruce; Wilson, Kelly L

    2015-02-01

    Because human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine rates remain low, we evaluated US school nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of their role as opinion leaders, and professional practice regarding HPV vaccine, and assessed whether knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of being an opinion leader influenced their professional practice regarding the HPV vaccine. We used a cross-sectional design by recruiting members from the National Association of School Nurses. All participants (N = 505) were e-mailed a survey designed for this study. Structural equation modeling (SEM) tested direct and indirect effects. Overall, school nurses had knowledge about HPV and the vaccine, and positive attitudes toward the vaccine. They had less-than-enthusiastic perceptions of their role as opinion leaders regarding the vaccine and implemented few activities related to providing vaccine information. The model revealed a good fit (χ(2)=20.238 [df=8, prole as opinion leaders. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  9. Few-view single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction based on a blurred piecewise constant object model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Paul A.; Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer; Schmidt, Taly G.

    2013-01-01

    the assumed blurring model. Generally, increased values of the blurring parameter and TV weighting parameters reduced noise and streaking artifacts, while decreasing spatial resolution. As the number of views decreased from 60 to 9 the accuracy of images reconstructed using the proposed algorithm varied...

  10. Focal Electrically Administered Therapy (FEAT): Device parameter effects on stimulus perception in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borckardt, Jeffrey J.; Linder, Katie; Ricci, Raffaella; Li, Xingbao; Anderson, Berry; Arana, Ashley; Nahas, Ziad; Amassian, Vahe; Long, James; George, Mark S.; Sackeim, Harold A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Focal Electrically-Administered Therapy (FEAT) is a new method of transcranial electrical stimulation capable of focal modulation of cerebral activity. Other than invasive studies in animals and examination of motor output in humans, there are limited possibilities for establishing basic principles about how variation in stimulus parameters impact on patterns of intracortical stimulation. This study used a simpler paradigm, and evaluated the effects of different stimulation parameters on subjective perception of the quality and location of scalp pain. Methods In two studies, 19 subjects were randomly stimulated over the left forehead, varying the anode-cathode arrangement, the intensity of stimulation, the electrode size and placement, and whether the current flow was unidirectional or bidirectional. Subjects rated the location of the sensation, and its quality. Results The perceived center of stimulation moved toward the cathode, regardless of placement. This shift in subjective sensation was more prominent when the electricity was unidirectional. Additionally, more intense stimulation, as well as stimulation with a smaller electrode, caused greater perceived pain. Unidirectional stimulation was rated more painful when traveling from a large anode to a small cathode and less painful when traveling from a small anode to a large cathode. Finally, participants were more likely to perceive the electrical stimulation as moving towards a specific direction when the intensity was high than when it was low. Conclusions The intensity and location of sensations can be manipulated by varying the intensity, current direction, or geometry of electrodes. PMID:19092677

  11. Electrical noise modulates perception of electrical pulses in humans: sensation enhancement via stochastic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Fivos; Nierhaus, Till; Villringer, Arno

    2014-03-01

    Although noise is usually considered to be harmful for signal detection and information transmission, stochastic resonance (SR) describes the counterintuitive phenomenon of noise enhancing the detection and transmission of weak input signals. In mammalian sensory systems, SR-related phenomena may arise both in the peripheral and the central nervous system. Here, we investigate behavioral SR effects of subliminal electrical noise stimulation on the perception of somatosensory stimuli in humans. We compare the likelihood to detect near-threshold pulses of different intensities applied on the left index finger during presence vs. absence of subliminal noise on the same or an adjacent finger. We show that (low-pass) noise can enhance signal detection when applied on the same finger. This enhancement is strong for near-threshold pulses below the 50% detection threshold and becomes stronger when near-threshold pulses are applied as brief trains. The effect reverses at pulse intensities above threshold, especially when noise is replaced by subliminal sinusoidal stimulation, arguing for a peripheral direct current addition. Unfiltered noise applied on longer pulses enhances detection of all pulse intensities. Noise applied to an adjacent finger has two opposing effects: an inhibiting effect (presumably due to lateral inhibition) and an enhancing effect (most likely due to SR in the central nervous system). In summary, we demonstrate that subliminal noise can significantly modulate detection performance of near-threshold stimuli. Our results indicate SR effects in the peripheral and central nervous system.

  12. Sensory augmentation: integration of an auditory compass signal into human perception of space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Frank; O’Regan, J. Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Bio-mimetic approaches to restoring sensory function show great promise in that they rapidly produce perceptual experience, but have the disadvantage of being invasive. In contrast, sensory substitution approaches are non-invasive, but may lead to cognitive rather than perceptual experience. Here we introduce a new non-invasive approach that leads to fast and truly perceptual experience like bio-mimetic techniques. Instead of building on existing circuits at the neural level as done in bio-mimetics, we piggy-back on sensorimotor contingencies at the stimulus level. We convey head orientation to geomagnetic North, a reliable spatial relation not normally sensed by humans, by mimicking sensorimotor contingencies of distal sounds via head-related transfer functions. We demonstrate rapid and long-lasting integration into the perception of self-rotation. Short training with amplified or reduced rotation gain in the magnetic signal can expand or compress the perceived extent of vestibular self-rotation, even with the magnetic signal absent in the test. We argue that it is the reliability of the magnetic signal that allows vestibular spatial recalibration, and the coding scheme mimicking sensorimotor contingencies of distal sounds that permits fast integration. Hence we propose that contingency-mimetic feedback has great potential for creating sensory augmentation devices that achieve fast and genuinely perceptual experiences. PMID:28195187

  13. Challenges of nursing teaching-learning to care for human dying - professors' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelle Caires Dias Araújo Nunes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate professors' perceptions about their experiences in the teaching-learning process of nursing care in relation to dying. This is a descriptive-exploratory, qualitative research, delimited by data saturation, was carried out with 11 nursing professors from three higher education institutions. Data collection involved the drawing-text theme technique and a semi-structured interview. Analysis used the technique of collective subject discourse. The results identified three categories: How I would like to take care in the context of finitude - my challenge; Challenging fragilities in the teaching of nurses in the context of care concerned with death and dying; Strategies to compensate or promote more substantial nurse training related to care in finitude. We conclude that the graduation of the nurses studied did not satisfactorily develop the necessary skills and abilities to deal with human death and dying. This study infers the need of permanent education to support transformations in this area.

  14. Dental and Medical Students' Use and Perceptions of Learning Resources in a Human Physiology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, Monica; Schwartzstein, Richard; Friedland, Bernard; Park, Sang E

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the use and perceived utility of various learning resources available during the first-year Integrated Human Physiology course at the dental and medical schools at Harvard University. Dental and medical students of the Class of 2018 were surveyed anonymously online in 2015 regarding their use of 29 learning resources in this combined course. The learning resources had been grouped into four categories to discern frequency of use and perceived usefulness among the categories. The survey was distributed to 169 students, and 73 responded for a response rate of 43.2%. There was no significant difference among the learning resource categories in frequency of use; however, there was a statistically significant difference among categories in students' perceptions of usefulness. No correlation was found between frequency of use and perceived usefulness of each category. Students seemingly were not choosing the most useful resources for them. These results suggest that, in the current educational environment, where new technologies and self-directed learning are highly sought after, there remains a need for instructor-guided learning.

  15. A Very Liquid Heaven: An exhibit exploring the human perception of stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, M. M.

    2004-12-01

    This year the Tang Teaching Museum and Art Gallery at Skidmore College is showing an exhibit about the human perception of stars, accompanied by a catalog, a speaker series, and an outreach program. The exhibit includes historical documents and atlases as well as work by a variety of artists and scientists. A Very Liquid Heaven opened with a performance of George Crumb's musical piece Makrokosmos III surrounded by original dance, theater, and video art. The title of the exhibit is inspired by Rene Descartes' 1644 text Principles of Philosophy, where he describes the earth as "surrounded on all sides by a very liquid heaven." Although Isaac Newton's laws of mechanics and gravity later discredited his specific hypothesis, in a sense Descartes was correct: astronomy has indeed revealed stars not as hard, fixed objects, but as pulsing plasmas, and interstellar space not as a pure void, but as diffuse clouds of atoms and molecules. This exhibit is made possible with support from Beverly P. and R. Lawrence St. Clair, the Nathalie Potter Voorhees '45 Memorial fund, and the Friends of the Tang.

  16. Design engineer perceptions and attitudes regarding human factors application to nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, R.; Jones, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    With the renewed interest in nuclear power and the possibility of constructing new reactors within the next decade in the U.S., there are several challenges for the regulators, designers, and vendors. One challenge is to ensure that Human Factors Engineering (HFE) is involved, and correctly applied in the life-cycle design of the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). As an important part of the effort, people would ask: 'is the system-design engineer effectively incorporating HFE in the NPPs design?' The present study examines the sagacity of Instrumentation and Control design engineers on issues relating to awareness, attitude, and application of HFE in NPP design. A questionnaire was developed and distributed, focusing on the perceptions and attitudes of the design engineers. The responses revealed that, while the participants had a relatively high positive attitude about HFE, their awareness and application of HFE were moderate. The results also showed that senior engineers applied HFE more frequently in their design work than young engineers. This study provides some preliminary results and implications for improved HFE education and application in NPP design. (authors)

  17. Perceptions of Nigerian Women about Human Papilloma Virus, Cervical Cancer, and HPV Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Anuoluwapo Akanbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV though preventable has claimed the lives of many women worldwide. This study was embarked upon to evaluate the general knowledge and perceptions of Nigerian women on HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine. Methods. Structured questionnaires were administered to a cross section of 737 women randomly selected from the general population in two southwestern States of Nigeria. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 16. A P value >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. One hundred and seventy-six (23.9% of the respondents had knowledge of HPV; 474 (64.3% are aware of cervical cancer but only 136 (18.5% know that HPV causes cervical cancer. 200 (27.1% are aware that there is an HPV vaccine while 300 (40.7% had knowledge of Pap smear test. Two hundred and sixty (35.3% of the respondents know that early detection of HPV can prevent cervical cancer and in spite of this, only 110 (14.9% have taken the Pap smear test before while 151 (20.5% are not willing to go for the test at all. Conclusions. There is therefore the need to create proper awareness on the HPV and its possible consequence of cervical carcinoma.

  18. Conical Perspective Image of an Architectural Object Close to Human Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwierzynska, Jolanta

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a method of computer aided constructing conical perspective of an architectural object, which is close to human perception. The conical perspective considered in the paper is a central projection onto a projection surface being a conical rotary surface or a fragment of it. Whereas, the centre of projection is a stationary point or a point moving on a circular path. The graphical mapping results of the perspective representation is realized directly on an unrolled flat projection surface. The projective relation between a range of points on a line and the perspective image of the same range of points received on a cylindrical projection surface permitted to derive formulas for drawing perspective. Next, the analytical algorithms for drawing perspective image of a straight line passing through any two points were formulated. It enabled drawing a perspective wireframe image of a given 3D object. The use of the moving view point as well as the application of the changeable base elements of perspective as the variables in the algorithms enable drawing conical perspective from different viewing positions. Due to this fact, the perspective drawing method is universal. The algorithms are formulated and tested in Mathcad Professional software, but can be implemented in AutoCAD and majority of computer graphical packages, which makes drawing a perspective image more efficient and easier. The presented conical perspective representation, and the convenient method of its mapping directly on the flat unrolled surface can find application for numerous advertisement and art presentations.

  19. Promoting women's human rights: A qualitative analysis of midwives' perceptions about virginity control and hymen 'reconstruction'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Monica; Eriksson, Carola

    2015-06-01

    To explore midwives' perceptions regarding virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions', and how these practices can be debated from a gender perspective. An international group of 266 midwives answered an open-ended question in a Web survey. The great majority came from the Western world, among them, the majority were from Europe. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Three themes emerged: misogynistic practices that cement the gender order, which revealed how the respondents viewed virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions'; raising public awareness and combatting practices that demean women, which were suggested as strategies by which to combat these practices; and promoting agency in women and providing culturally sensitive care, which were considered to improve health care encounters. Virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions' are elements of patriarchy, whereby violence and control are employed to subordinate women. To counter these practices, macro and micro-level activities are needed to expand women's human rights in the private and the public spheres. Political activism, international debates, collaboration between sectors such as health care and law-makers may lead to increased gender equality. A women-centred approach whereby women are empowered with agency will make women more capable of combatting virginity control and hymen 'reconstruction'.

  20. A Model of the Perception of Facial Expressions of Emotion by Humans: Research Overview and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Aleix; Du, Shichuan

    2012-05-01

    aid in studies of human perception, social interactions and disorders.

  1. Blurred boundaries: the therapeutics and politics of medical marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, J Michael

    2012-02-01

    For 5 millennia, Cannabis sativa has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally, and spiritually. From the mid-19th century to the 1930s, American physicians prescribed it for a plethora of indications, until the federal government started imposing restrictions on its use, culminating in 1970 with the US Congress classifying it as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Simultaneous with this prohibition, marijuana became the United States' most widely used illicit recreational drug, a substance generally regarded as pleasurable and relaxing without the addictive dangers of opioids or stimulants. Meanwhile, cannabis never lost its cachet in alternative medicine circles, going mainstream in 1995 when California became the first of 16 states to date to legalize its medical use, despite the federal ban. Little about cannabis is straightforward. Its main active ingredient, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, was not isolated until 1964, and not until the 1990s were the far-reaching modulatory activities of the endocannabinoid system in the human body appreciated. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as draconian federal restrictions that hamstring research show no signs of softening. Recreational use continues unabated, despite growing evidence of marijuana's addictive potential, particularly in the young, and its propensity for inducing and exacerbating psychotic illness in the susceptible. Public approval drives medical marijuana legalization efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction. This article explores each of these controversies, with the intent of educating physicians to decide for themselves whether marijuana is panacea, scourge, or both. PubMed searches were conducted using the following keywords: medical marijuana, medical cannabis, endocannabinoid system, CB1 receptors, CB2 receptors, THC, cannabidiol, nabilone

  2. Blurred Boundaries: The Therapeutics and Politics of Medical Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    For 5 millennia, Cannabis sativa has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally, and spiritually. From the mid-19th century to the 1930s, American physicians prescribed it for a plethora of indications, until the federal government started imposing restrictions on its use, culminating in 1970 with the US Congress classifying it as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Simultaneous with this prohibition, marijuana became the United States' most widely used illicit recreational drug, a substance generally regarded as pleasurable and relaxing without the addictive dangers of opioids or stimulants. Meanwhile, cannabis never lost its cachet in alternative medicine circles, going mainstream in 1995 when California became the first of 16 states to date to legalize its medical use, despite the federal ban. Little about cannabis is straightforward. Its main active ingredient, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, was not isolated until 1964, and not until the 1990s were the far-reaching modulatory activities of the endocannabinoid system in the human body appreciated. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as draconian federal restrictions that hamstring research show no signs of softening. Recreational use continues unabated, despite growing evidence of marijuana's addictive potential, particularly in the young, and its propensity for inducing and exacerbating psychotic illness in the susceptible. Public approval drives medical marijuana legalization efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction. This article explores each of these controversies, with the intent of educating physicians to decide for themselves whether marijuana is panacea, scourge, or both. PubMed searches were conducted using the following keywords: medical marijuana, medical cannabis, endocannabinoid system, CB1 receptors, CB2 receptors, THC, cannabidiol, nabilone

  3. School Nurses' Knowledge, Attitudes, Perceptions of Role as Opinion Leader, and Professional Practice Regarding Human Papillomavirus Vaccine for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brittany L.; Goodson, Patricia; Thompson, Bruce; Wilson, Kelly L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine rates remain low, we evaluated US school nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of their role as opinion leaders, and professional practice regarding HPV vaccine, and assessed whether knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of being an opinion leader influenced their professional…

  4. Development and Testing of a Small-Size Olfactometer for the Perception of Food and Beverages in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Risso

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of olfactory perception and about the way humans interact with, and perceive food and beverages require appropriate olfactory devices. Moreover, small size, and portable interfaces are needed within the context of Human Computer Interaction (HCI, to enrich and complete the design of different mediated experiences. In this paper, the authors tested a new portable olfactory device for the orthonasal administration of smells. The main aim was to verify if the experience generated by the odors delivered through such device can affect people's taste perception. Once established that people could perceive odors using the olfactory device, a group of participants was asked to taste two different types of food (Experiment 1 and three types of beverages (Experiment 2 and to evaluate them on a number of perceptual-dimensions (such as pleasantness, freshness, sweetness, saltiness, and bitterness. The participants could taste the food and the beverage without the presence of additional olfactory stimuli, or under conditions where olfactory stimuli (the smell of chocolate or citrus were also presented using the device. The results showed that the participants' evaluation of food and beverages was significantly modulated by the concurrently presented odors. The experimental results suggest that: (1 the device is effective in controlling the delivery of odors to human participants without the complexity of management that often affect larger odors delivery systems; (2 odors administered by means of such device can have an effects on food and beverage perception, without the need to change their chemical properties.

  5. The impact of human perception of simultaneous exposure to thermal load, low-frequency ventilation noise and indoor air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, Ole; Witterseh, Thomas; Clausen, Geo

    1999-01-01

    Human perception of simultaneous exposure to combinations of three different levels of operative temperature, low-frequency ventilation noise and indoor air pollution (27 combinations) was studied in climate chambers. The operative temperatures studied were: 26.0 deg.C, 27.6 deg.C and 29.6 deg.......C, and the sound pressure levels were: 45 dB(A), 48 dB(A) and 51 dB(A). The air pollution corresponding to these three levels of perceived air quality (at 26 deg.C) was: 1.1 decipol (dp), 2.4 dp and 4.5 dp. A 1 deg.C change in operative temperature had the same impact on the human perception of the overall...... conditions as a change of 3.8 dB(A) in sound pressure level or a change of 7 dp in air pollution (at 26 deg.C). The percentage of dissatisfied with the perceived air quality increased with increasing temperature. An elevated temperature had a dominant impact on the human perception of the indoor environment...

  6. The influence of structure depth on image blurring of micrometres-thick specimens in MeV transmission electron imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Sun, Ying; Cao, Meng; Nishi, Ryuji

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of structure depth on image blurring of micrometres-thick films by experiment and simulation with a conventional transmission electron microscope (TEM). First, ultra-high-voltage electron microscope (ultra-HVEM) images of nanometer gold particles embedded in thick epoxy-resin films were acquired in the experiment and compared with simulated images. Then, variations of image blurring of gold particles at different depths were evaluated by calculating the particle diameter. The results showed that with a decrease in depth, image blurring increased. This depth-related property was more apparent for thicker specimens. Fortunately, larger particle depth involves less image blurring, even for a 10-μm-thick epoxy-resin film. The quality dependence on depth of a 3D reconstruction of particle structures in thick specimens was revealed by electron tomography. The evolution of image blurring with structure depth is determined mainly by multiple elastic scattering effects. Thick specimens of heavier materials produced more blurring due to a larger lateral spread of electrons after scattering from the structure. Nevertheless, increasing electron energy to 2MeV can reduce blurring and produce an acceptable image quality for thick specimens in the TEM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermal blurring effects on fluctuations of conserved charges in rapidity space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, M.; Kitazawa, M.; Onishi, Y.; Sakaida, M.

    2016-12-15

    We argue that the diffusion in the hadron phase and the thermal blurring at thermal freezeout affect observed conserved charge fluctuations considerably in relativistic heavy ion collisions, and show that their effects are of similar order at RHIC and LHC, and thus equally important in understanding experimental data. We also argue that, in order to disentangle them and obtain the initial state charge fluctuations, which we are interested in, it is crucial to measure their dependence on the rapidity window size. In the energy range of the beam energy scan program at RHIC, the diffusion effect would be less important because of the shorter duration of the hadron phase, but the importance of thermal blurring is not reduced. In addition, it is necessary to take account of the complex correspondence between the space-time rapidity and rapidity of observed particles, there.

  8. A novel rotational invariants target recognition method for rotating motion blurred images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jinhui; Gong, Meiling; Dong, Mingwei; Zeng, Yiliang; Zhang, Yuzhen

    2017-11-01

    The imaging of the image sensor is blurred due to the rotational motion of the carrier and reducing the target recognition rate greatly. Although the traditional mode that restores the image first and then identifies the target can improve the recognition rate, it takes a long time to recognize. In order to solve this problem, a rotating fuzzy invariants extracted model was constructed that recognizes target directly. The model includes three metric layers. The object description capability of metric algorithms that contain gray value statistical algorithm, improved round projection transformation algorithm and rotation-convolution moment invariants in the three metric layers ranges from low to high, and the metric layer with the lowest description ability among them is as the input which can eliminate non pixel points of target region from degenerate image gradually. Experimental results show that the proposed model can improve the correct target recognition rate of blurred image and optimum allocation between the computational complexity and function of region.

  9. A Fast Algorithm for Image Super-Resolution from Blurred Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Michael K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of reconstruction of a high-resolution image from several blurred low-resolution image frames. The image frames consist of blurred, decimated, and noisy versions of a high-resolution image. The high-resolution image is modeled as a Markov random field (MRF, and a maximum a posteriori (MAP estimation technique is used for the restoration. We show that with the periodic boundary condition, a high-resolution image can be restored efficiently by using fast Fourier transforms. We also apply the preconditioned conjugate gradient method to restore high-resolution images in the aperiodic boundary condition. Computer simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  10. Blur kernel estimation with algebraic tomography technique and intensity profiles of object boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingacheva, Anastasia; Chukalina, Marina; Khanipov, Timur; Nikolaev, Dmitry

    2018-04-01

    Motion blur caused by camera vibration is a common source of degradation in photographs. In this paper we study the problem of finding the point spread function (PSF) of a blurred image using the tomography technique. The PSF reconstruction result strongly depends on the particular tomography technique used. We present a tomography algorithm with regularization adapted specifically for this task. We use the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART algorithm) as the starting algorithm and introduce regularization. We use the conjugate gradient method for numerical implementation of the proposed approach. The algorithm is tested using a dataset which contains 9 kernels extracted from real photographs by the Adobe corporation where the point spread function is known. We also investigate influence of noise on the quality of image reconstruction and investigate how the number of projections influence the magnitude change of the reconstruction error.

  11. Methodological issues in the study of risk perception and human behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, P.F.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad perspective on the use of the methods and techniques of the behavioral and social sciences as they pertain to the work of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, particularly in issues of risk perception. Four major topics or themes are discussed: (1) a brief overview of the classic theories of risk perception; (2) current contractor work in the area of risk perception and cognitive psychology; (3) other uses of the social and behavioral sciences in the Agency; and (4) methodological considerations in using the techniques

  12. Human fMRI reveals that delayed action re-recruits visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Singhal

    Full Text Available Behavioral and neuropsychological research suggests that delayed actions rely on different neural substrates than immediate actions; however, the specific brain areas implicated in the two types of actions remain unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to measure human brain activation during delayed grasping and reaching. Specifically, we examined activation during visual stimulation and action execution separated by a 18-s delay interval in which subjects had to remember an intended action toward the remembered object. The long delay interval enabled us to unambiguously distinguish visual, memory-related, and action responses. Most strikingly, we observed reactivation of the lateral occipital complex (LOC, a ventral-stream area implicated in visual object recognition, and early visual cortex (EVC at the time of action. Importantly this reactivation was observed even though participants remained in complete darkness with no visual stimulation at the time of the action. Moreover, within EVC, higher activation was observed for grasping than reaching during both vision and action execution. Areas in the dorsal visual stream were activated during action execution as expected and, for some, also during vision. Several areas, including the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS, dorsal premotor cortex (PMd, primary motor cortex (M1 and the supplementary motor area (SMA, showed sustained activation during the delay phase. We propose that during delayed actions, dorsal-stream areas plan and maintain coarse action goals; however, at the time of execution, motor programming requires re-recruitment of detailed visual information about the object through reactivation of (1 ventral-stream areas involved in object perception and (2 early visual areas that contain richly detailed visual representations, particularly for grasping.

  13. Different Signal Enhancement Pathways of Attention and Consciousness Underlie Perception in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Jeroen J A

    2017-06-14

    It is not yet known whether attention and consciousness operate through similar or largely different mechanisms. Visual processing mechanisms are routinely characterized by measuring contrast response functions (CRFs). In this report, behavioral CRFs were obtained in humans (both males and females) by measuring afterimage durations over the entire range of inducer stimulus contrasts to reveal visual mechanisms behind attention and consciousness. Deviations relative to the standard CRF, i.e., gain functions, describe the strength of signal enhancement, which were assessed for both changes due to attentional task and conscious perception. It was found that attention displayed a response-gain function, whereas consciousness displayed a contrast-gain function. Through model comparisons, which only included contrast-gain modulations, both contrast-gain and response-gain effects can be explained with a two-level normalization model, in which consciousness affects only the first level and attention affects only the second level. These results demonstrate that attention and consciousness can effectively show different gain functions because they operate through different signal enhancement mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The relationship between attention and consciousness is still debated. Mapping contrast response functions (CRFs) has allowed (neuro)scientists to gain important insights into the mechanistic underpinnings of visual processing. Here, the influence of both attention and consciousness on these functions were measured and they displayed a strong dissociation. First, attention lowered CRFs, whereas consciousness raised them. Second, attention manifests itself as a response-gain function, whereas consciousness manifests itself as a contrast-gain function. Extensive model comparisons show that these results are best explained in a two-level normalization model in which consciousness affects only the first level, whereas attention affects only the second level

  14. Perceptions and opinions regarding human papilloma virus vaccination among young women in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed; Al-Jashamy, Karim; Chen, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the perceptions and opinions of young women about human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and associated barriers. This qualitative in-depth interview study was conducted in January 2010 with 30 university students from different faculties, i.e.:International Medical School (IMS), Faculty of Health and Life Sciences (FHLS), Faculty of Business Management and Professional Studies (FBMP) and Faculty of Information Sciences and Engineering (FISE) of the Management and Science University (MSU), Shah Alam, Malaysia. After consent was obtained from all participants, the interviewer wrote down the conversations during the interview sessions. The data obtained were classified into various categories and analyzed manually. The majority of participants 25 (83%) had heard about cervical cancer, while 16 (53.3%) have never heard of HPV. Only five participants (17%) mentioned that HPV is the cause of cervical cancer. Ten participants (33.3%) did not know any causes. The majority 16 (53.3%) did not know the mode of HPV transmission. The majority of participants 22 (73.3%) mentioned that they had not been vaccinated against HPV. Out of 22, 16 (53.3%) agreed to be vaccinated in the future to protect themselves from cervical cancer and five (17%) participants mentioned they are not willing because of the uncertain safety of the available vaccines and their side effects. This study showed relatively poor knowledge about HPV and its vaccines, pointing to urgency of educational campaigns aimed at students in the public and government universities to promote HPV vaccination among this highly eligible population.

  15. Human fMRI reveals that delayed action re-recruits visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Anthony; Monaco, Simona; Kaufman, Liam D; Culham, Jody C

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral and neuropsychological research suggests that delayed actions rely on different neural substrates than immediate actions; however, the specific brain areas implicated in the two types of actions remain unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure human brain activation during delayed grasping and reaching. Specifically, we examined activation during visual stimulation and action execution separated by a 18-s delay interval in which subjects had to remember an intended action toward the remembered object. The long delay interval enabled us to unambiguously distinguish visual, memory-related, and action responses. Most strikingly, we observed reactivation of the lateral occipital complex (LOC), a ventral-stream area implicated in visual object recognition, and early visual cortex (EVC) at the time of action. Importantly this reactivation was observed even though participants remained in complete darkness with no visual stimulation at the time of the action. Moreover, within EVC, higher activation was observed for grasping than reaching during both vision and action execution. Areas in the dorsal visual stream were activated during action execution as expected and, for some, also during vision. Several areas, including the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), primary motor cortex (M1) and the supplementary motor area (SMA), showed sustained activation during the delay phase. We propose that during delayed actions, dorsal-stream areas plan and maintain coarse action goals; however, at the time of execution, motor programming requires re-recruitment of detailed visual information about the object through reactivation of (1) ventral-stream areas involved in object perception and (2) early visual areas that contain richly detailed visual representations, particularly for grasping.

  16. Effects of psilocybin on time perception and temporal control of behaviour in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Carter, Olivia; Hasler, Felix; Cahn, B Rael; Grimberg, Ulrike; Spring, Philipp; Hell, Daniel; Flohr, Hans; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2007-01-01

    Hallucinogenic psilocybin is known to alter the subjective experience of time. However, there is no study that systematically investigated objective measures of time perception under psilocybin. Therefore, we studied dose-dependent effects of the serotonin (5-HT)2A/1A receptor agonist psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine) on temporal processing, employing tasks of temporal reproduction, sensorimotor synchronization and tapping tempo. To control for cognitive and subjective changes, we assessed spatial working memory and conscious experience. Twelve healthy human volunteers were tested under placebo, medium (115 microg/kg), and high (250 microg/kg) dose conditions, in a double-blind experimental design. Psilocybin was found to significantly impair subjects' ability to (1) reproduce interval durations longer than 2.5 sec, (2) to synchronize to inter-beat intervals longer than 2 sec and (3) caused subjects to be slower in their preferred tapping rate. These objective effects on timing performance were accompanied by working-memory deficits and subjective changes in conscious state, namely increased reports of 'depersonalization' and 'derealization' phenomena including disturbances in subjective 'time sense.' Our study is the first to systematically assess the impact of psilocybin on timing performance on standardized measures of temporal processing. Results indicate that the serotonin system is selectively involved in duration processing of intervals longer than 2 to 3 seconds and in the voluntary control of the speed of movement. We speculate that psilocybin's selective disruption of longer intervals is likely to be a product of interactions with cognitive dimensions of temporal processing -presumably via 5-HT2A receptor stimulation.

  17. Human papillomavirus vaccination of males: attitudes and perceptions of physicians who vaccinate females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Thomas W; Zimet, Gregory D; Rosenthal, Susan L; Brenneman, Susan K; Klein, Jonathan D

    2010-07-01

    We assessed U.S. physicians' attitudes and perceptions regarding potential human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of males. We surveyed a random sample of 2,714 pediatricians and family practitioners identified in administrative claims of a U.S. health plan as HPV vaccinators of females; 595 pediatricians and 499 family practitioners participated. Most physicians would recommend HPV vaccination to males aged 11-12 (63.9%), 13-18 (93.4%), and 19-26 (92.7%) years. Physicians agreed that males should be vaccinated to prevent them from getting genital and anal warts (52.9% strongly and 36.0% somewhat) and to protect females from cervical cancer (75.3% strongly and 20.8% somewhat). Physicians agreed that an HPV vaccine recommendation for males would increase opportunities to discuss sexual health with adolescent male patients (58.7% strongly, 35.3% somewhat). Most did not strongly agree (15.4% strongly, 45.4% somewhat) that parents of adolescent male patients would be interested in HPV vaccination for males, that a gender-neutral HPV vaccine recommendation would increase acceptance by adolescent females and their parents (19.6% strongly, 42.0% somewhat), or that a gender-neutral recommendation would improve current female vaccination rates (10.4% strongly, 26.0% somewhat). Physicians who currently vaccinate females against HPV supported the concept of vaccinating males for its benefits for both sexes. They agreed that a gender-neutral HPV vaccination recommendation would be appropriate with regard to public health and believed that it would increase opportunities for sexual health discussions, but were less sure that such a recommendation would change patient or parental attitudes toward HPV vaccination or improve current HPV vaccination efforts. Copyright (c) 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Peripheral and central components of habituation of heat pain perception and evoked potentials in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greffrath, Wolfgang; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2007-12-05

    For the neurophysiological examination of nociceptive pathways, contact-heat evoked potentials (contact-heat EPs) are elicited by repetitive brief noxious heat stimuli. Suppression of heat responses in primary nociceptive neurons during repetitive stimulation has been shown in animal models in vivo and in vitro. We now investigated whether heat pain and contact-heat EPs in humans display equivalent signs of habituation. Heat pain and EPs were elicited in 16 volunteers with a contact thermode (30 degrees Cs(-1)). Heat pulses at three intensities (pain threshold, moderate noxious and maximum available) were applied to the right forearm either by moving the thermode after each pulse to variable locations or when fixed to one location (inter-stimulus intervals 8-10s). Contact-heat EPs consisted of an early negativity in temporal leads (N1), followed by a biphasic response at the vertex (N2-P2). Pain ratings and contact-heat EPs (N1 and N2-P2 components) displayed significant temperature dependence. N2-P2 correlated positively with ratings. With stimulation at variable locations, both measures slowly decreased with time constants tau of 2 min (ratings) and 12 min (EPs). With stimulation at a fixed location, habituation was much faster for both, ratings (tau=10s) and EPs (tau=33 s). As a consequence, both measures were significantly reduced (pheat pain perception and contact-heat EPs display signs of rapid habituation when stimulation is restricted to a fixed location and thus, reflect fatigue of peripheral nociceptive neurons. Habituation within the central nervous system is slower and less pronounced.

  19. Flexible friends? Flexible working time arrangements, blurred work-life boundaries and friendship

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Vivi Bach; Lewis, Suzan

    2012-01-01

    The changing nature and demands of work raise concerns about how workers can find time for activities such as friendship and leisure, which are important for well-being. This article brings friendship into the work-life debate by exploring how individuals do friendship in a period characterised by time dilemmas, blurred work-life boundaries and increased employer- and employee-led flexible working. Interviews with employees selected according to their working time structures were supplemented...

  20. Postural stability in the elderly during sensory perturbations and dual tasking: the influence of refractive blur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Vijay; Buckley, John G; Scally, Andy; Elliott, David B

    2003-07-01

    To determine the influence of refractive blur on postural stability during somatosensory and vestibular system perturbation and dual tasking. Fifteen healthy, elderly subjects (mean age, 71 +/- 5 years), who had no history of falls and had normal vision, were recruited. Postural stability during standing was assessed using a force platform, and was determined as the root mean square (RMS) of the center of pressure (COP) signal in the anterior-posterior (A-P) and medial-lateral directions collected over a 30-second period. Data were collected under normal standing conditions and with somatosensory and vestibular system perturbations. Measurements were repeated with an additional physical and/or cognitive task. Postural stability was measured under conditions of binocular refractive blur of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 D and with eyes closed. The data were analyzed with a population-averaged linear model. The greatest increases in postural instability were due to disruptions of the somatosensory and vestibular systems. Increasing refractive blur caused increasing postural instability, and its effect was greater when the input from the other sensory systems was disrupted. Performing an additional cognitive and physical task increased A-P RMS COP further. All these detrimental effects on postural stability were cumulative. The findings highlight the multifactorial nature of postural stability and indicate why the elderly, many of whom have poor vision and musculoskeletal and central nervous system degeneration, are at greater risk of falling. The findings also highlight that standing instability in both normal and perturbed conditions was significantly increased with refractive blur. Correcting visual impairment caused by uncorrected refractive error could be a useful intervention strategy to help prevent falls and fall-related injuries in the elderly.

  1. Positron range in PET imaging: an alternative approach for assessing and correcting the blurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jødal, L.; Le Loirec, C.; Champion, C.

    2012-06-01

    Positron range impairs resolution in PET imaging, especially for high-energy emitters and for small-animal PET. De-blurring in image reconstruction is possible if the blurring distribution is known. Furthermore, the percentage of annihilation events within a given distance from the point of positron emission is relevant for assessing statistical noise. This paper aims to determine the positron range distribution relevant for blurring for seven medically relevant PET isotopes, 18F, 11C, 13N, 15O, 68Ga, 62Cu and 82Rb, and derive empirical formulas for the distributions. This paper focuses on allowed-decay isotopes. It is argued that blurring at the detection level should not be described by the positron range r, but instead the 2D projected distance δ (equal to the closest distance between decay and line of response). To determine these 2D distributions, results from a dedicated positron track-structure Monte Carlo code, Electron and POsitron TRANsport (EPOTRAN), were used. Materials other than water were studied with PENELOPE. The radial cumulative probability distribution G2D(δ) and the radial probability density distribution g2D(δ) were determined. G2D(δ) could be approximated by the empirical function 1 - exp(-Aδ2 - Bδ), where A = 0.0266 (Emean)-1.716 and B = 0.1119 (Emean)-1.934, with Emean being the mean positron energy in MeV and δ in mm. The radial density distribution g2D(δ) could be approximated by differentiation of G2D(δ). Distributions in other media were very similar to water. The positron range is important for improved resolution in PET imaging. Relevant distributions for the positron range have been derived for seven isotopes. Distributions for other allowed-decay isotopes may be estimated with the above formulas.

  2. Impact of corneal cross-linking combined with photorefractive keratectomy on blurring strength

    OpenAIRE

    Labiris, Georgios; Sideroudi, Haris; Angelonias, Dimitris; Georgantzoglou, Kimonas; Kozobolis, Vassilios P

    2016-01-01

    Georgios Labiris,1,2 Haris Sideroudi,2 Dimitris Angelonias,2 Kimonas Georgantzoglou,2 Vassilios P Kozobolis1,21Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, 2Eye Institute of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, GreecePurpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of corneal cross-linking combined with photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) on blurring strength.Methods: A total of 63 patients with keratoconus were recruited for this study, and two study groups were formed acc...

  3. Framework for Processing Videos in the Presence of Spatially Varying Motion Blur

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-10

    32 bits, a warped image requires 5000 × 5000 × 32 bits, that is 95.3 megabytes. If all three colour channels are used , this value will triple. Storing...sub-image sizes S. The blur kernels are displayed as binary images with non-zero values shown in white colour . point, any further increase in S...INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MADRAS Final Report 02/10/2016 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. AF Office Of Scientific Research (AFOSR)/ IOA

  4. Moment forms invariant to rotation and blur in arbitrary number of dimensions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan; Boldyš, Jiří; Zitová, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2003), s. 234-246 ISSN 0162-8828 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/1711; GA ČR GP102/01/P065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : blur invariants * rotation invariants * group representation theory Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 3.823, year: 2003 http://library.utia.cas.cz/prace/20030006.pdf

  5. Perception and attitudes towards street sexual harassment among female students of a private Human Medicine Faculty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Corazón Llerena Benites

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Determinate the perception and attitudes towards street sexual harassment among female students of the Human Medicine Faculty at San Martin de Porres University. Methods: Descriptive and transversal study in which the previously validated “Likert” questionnaires, “Scale of Acceptance of Modern Myths about Sexual Aggression” and “Street Harassment Scale” where applied in a virtual way to 227 female students from the 4th, 5th, 6th academic year of the Human Medicine Faculty at San Martin de Porres University. The analysis was made in the SPSS v22 program using descriptive statistics like media, mode, tables of frequency and percentage to determine the prevalence of street harassment and the level of acceptance of beliefs about sexual harassment. Results: We found that 91% of the participants considered that they had been (sexually harassed at least once in the last year. 48% of participants were absolutely disagree with the statements about the myths of sexual aggression. The th percentage of students that mentioned never have been harassed lowered for every year of study, from 13% in the 4 year th to 7.9% in the 6 year. Most of the students came from Central South Lima of which 88% were harassed at least once the past year. Approximately, about half of the participants, independent of the mean of transport they have used, said that they had been harassed once last year. The group of 22 years old was the most affected Conclusion: Even though the participants considered that the Street harassment only happened a few times the past year, we didn't underestimate the fact that for almost everyone this harassment had happened at least once. Also, the majority considered to be strongly disagree regarding the myths about sexual harassment. So, it appears that street harassment, despite acting as a social problem that affects the physical and mental well-being of the Young female community, hasn't been properly managed by the

  6. Public perceptions of snakes and snakebite management: implications for conservation and human health in southern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Deb Prasad; Subedi Pandey, Gita; Devkota, Kamal; Goode, Matt

    2016-06-02

    Venomous snakebite and its effects are a source of fear for people living in southern Nepal. As a result, people have developed a negative attitude towards snakes, which can lead to human-snake conflicts that result in killing of snakes. Attempting to kill snakes increases the risk of snakebite, and actual killing of snakes contributes to loss of biodiversity. Currently, snake populations in southern Nepal are thought to be declining, but more research is needed to evaluate the conservation status of snakes. Therefore, we assessed attitudes, knowledge, and awareness of snakes and snakebite by Chitwan National Park's (CNP) buffer zone (BZ) inhabitants in an effort to better understand challenges to snake conservation and snakebite management. The results of this study have the potential to promote biodiversity conservation and increase human health in southern Nepal and beyond. We carried out face-to-face interviews of 150 randomly selected CNP BZ inhabitants, adopting a cross-sectional mixed research design and structured and semi-structured questionnaires from January-February 2013. Results indicated that 43 % of respondents disliked snakes, 49 % would exterminate all venomous snakes, and 86 % feared snakes. Farmers were the most negative and teachers were the most ambivalent towards snakes. Respondents were generally unable to identify different snake species, and were almost completely unaware of the need of conserve snakes and how to prevent snakebites. Belief in a snake god, and the ability of snakes to absorb poisonous gases from the atmosphere were among many superstitions that appeared to predispose negativity towards snakes of BZ residents. People with predisposed negativity towards snakes were not proponents of snake conservation. Fear, negativity, ambivalence towards, and ignorance about, snakes and the need for snake conservation were strong indicators of the propensity to harm or kill snakes. It seems that if wanton killing of snakes continues

  7. Restoration of motion-blurred image based on border deformation detection: a traffic sign restoration model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang Zeng

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid development of motor vehicle Driver Assistance Systems (DAS, the safety problems associated with automatic driving have become a hot issue in Intelligent Transportation. The traffic sign is one of the most important tools used to reinforce traffic rules. However, traffic sign image degradation based on computer vision is unavoidable during the vehicle movement process. In order to quickly and accurately recognize traffic signs in motion-blurred images in DAS, a new image restoration algorithm based on border deformation detection in the spatial domain is proposed in this paper. The border of a traffic sign is extracted using color information, and then the width of the border is measured in all directions. According to the width measured and the corresponding direction, both the motion direction and scale of the image can be confirmed, and this information can be used to restore the motion-blurred image. Finally, a gray mean grads (GMG ratio is presented to evaluate the image restoration quality. Compared to the traditional restoration approach which is based on the blind deconvolution method and Lucy-Richardson method, our method can greatly restore motion blurred images and improve the correct recognition rate. Our experiments show that the proposed method is able to restore traffic sign information accurately and efficiently.

  8. Blurring of emotional and non-emotional memories by taxing working memory during recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Eidhof, Marloes B; Verboom, Jesse; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M

    2014-01-01

    Memories that are recalled while working memory (WM) is taxed, e.g., by making eye movements (EM), become blurred during the recall + EM and later recall, without EM. This may help to explain the effects of Eye Movement and Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in which patients make EM during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies on recall + EM have focused on emotional memories. WM theory suggests that recall + EM is superior to recall only but is silent about effects of memory emotionality. Based on the emotion and memory literature, we examined whether recall + EM has superior effects in blurring emotional memories relative to neutral memories. Healthy volunteers recalled negative or neutral memories, matched for vividness, while visually tracking a dot that moved horizontally ("recall + EM") or remained stationary ("recall only"). Compared to a pre-test, a post-test (without concentrating on the dot) replicated earlier findings: negative memories are rated as less vivid after "recall + EM" but not after "recall only". This was not found for neutral memories. Emotional memories are more taxing than neutral memories, which may explain the findings. Alternatively, transient arousal induced by recall of aversive memories may promote reconsolidation of the blurred memory image that is provoked by EM.

  9. Photographic simulation of off-axis blurring due to chromatic aberration in spectacle lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroslovački, Pavle; Guyton, David L

    2015-02-01

    Spectacle lens materials of high refractive index (nd) tend to have high chromatic dispersion (low Abbé number [V]), which may contribute to visual blurring with oblique viewing. A patient who noted off-axis blurring with new high-refractive-index spectacle lenses prompted us to do a photographic simulation of the off-axis aberrations in 3 readily available spectacle lens materials, CR-39 (nd = 1.50), polyurethane (nd = 1.60), and polycarbonate (nd = 1.59). Both chromatic and monochromatic aberrations were found to cause off-axis image degradation. Chromatic aberration was more prominent in the higher-index materials (especially polycarbonate), whereas the lower-index CR-39 had more astigmatism of oblique incidence. It is important to consider off-axis aberrations when a patient complains of otherwise unexplained blurred vision with a new pair of spectacle lenses, especially given the increasing promotion of high-refractive-index materials with high chromatic dispersion. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Local blur analysis and phase error correction method for fringe projection profilometry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Li; Da, Feipeng

    2018-05-20

    We introduce a flexible error correction method for fringe projection profilometry (FPP) systems in the presence of local blur phenomenon. Local blur caused by global light transport such as camera defocus, projector defocus, and subsurface scattering will cause significant systematic errors in FPP systems. Previous methods, which adopt high-frequency patterns to separate the direct and global components, fail when the global light phenomenon occurs locally. In this paper, the influence of local blur on phase quality is thoroughly analyzed, and a concise error correction method is proposed to compensate the phase errors. For defocus phenomenon, this method can be directly applied. With the aid of spatially varying point spread functions and local frontal plane assumption, experiments show that the proposed method can effectively alleviate the system errors and improve the final reconstruction accuracy in various scenes. For a subsurface scattering scenario, if the translucent object is dominated by multiple scattering, the proposed method can also be applied to correct systematic errors once the bidirectional scattering-surface reflectance distribution function of the object material is measured.

  11. A pilot trial of tele-ophthalmology for diagnosis of chronic blurred vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Johnson Choon Hwai; Poh, Eugenie Wei Ting; Srinivasan, Sanjay; Lim, Tock Han

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of tele-ophthalmology in diagnosing the major causes of chronic blurring of vision. Thirty consecutive patients attending a primary eye-care facility in Singapore (the Ang Mo Kio Polyclinic, AMKP) with the symptom of chronic blurred vision were recruited. An ophthalmic technician was trained to perform Snellen acuity; auto-refraction; intraocular pressure measurement; red-colour perimetry; video recordings of extraocular movement, cover tests and pupillary reactions; and anterior segment and fundus photography. Digital information was transmitted to a tertiary hospital in Singapore (the Tan Tock Seng Hospital) via a tele-ophthalmology system for teleconsultation with an ophthalmologist. The diagnoses were compared with face-to-face consultation by another ophthalmologist at the AMKP. A user experience questionnaire was administered at the end of the consultation. Using face-to-face consultation as the gold standard, tele-ophthalmology achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing media opacity (n = 29), maculopathy (n = 23) and keratopathy (n = 30) of any type; and 100% sensitivity and 92% specificity in diagnosing optic neuropathy of any type (n = 24). The majority of the patients (97%) were satisfied with the tele-ophthalmology workflow and consultation. The tele-ophthalmology system was able to detect causes of chronic blurred vision accurately. It has the potential to deliver high-accuracy diagnostic eye support to remote areas if suitably trained ophthalmic technicians are available.

  12. Category Selectivity of Human Visual Cortex in Perception of Rubin Face–Vase Illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When viewing the Rubin face–vase illusion, our conscious perception spontaneously alternates between the face and the vase; this illusion has been widely used to explore bistable perception. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have studied the neural mechanisms underlying bistable perception through univariate and multivariate pattern analyses; however, no studies have investigated the issue of category selectivity. Here, we used fMRI to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the Rubin face–vase illusion by introducing univariate amplitude and multivariate pattern analyses. The results from the amplitude analysis suggested that the activity in the fusiform face area was likely related to the subjective face perception. Furthermore, the pattern analysis results showed that the early visual cortex (EVC and the face-selective cortex could discriminate the activity patterns of the face and vase perceptions. However, further analysis of the activity patterns showed that only the face-selective cortex contains the face information. These findings indicated that although the EVC and face-selective cortex activities could discriminate the visual information, only the activity and activity pattern in the face-selective areas contained the category information of face perception in the Rubin face–vase illusion.

  13. Quantification of mouse in vivo whole-body vibration amplitude from motion-blur using x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zhengyi; Yuan, Xunhua; Pollmann, Steven I; Nikolov, Hristo N; Holdsworth, David W; Welch, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal effects of whole-body vibration on animals and humans have become an intensely studied topic recently, due to the potential of applying this method as a non-pharmacological therapy for strengthening bones. It is relatively easy to quantify the transmission of whole-body mechanical vibration through the human skeletal system using accelerometers. However, this is not the case for small-animal pre-clinical studies because currently available accelerometers have a large mass, relative to the mass of the animals, which causes the accelerometers themselves to affect the way vibration is transmitted. Additionally, live animals do not typically remain motionless for long periods, unless they are anesthetized, and they are required to maintain a static standing posture during these studies. These challenges provide the motivation for the development of a method to quantify vibrational transmission in small animals. We present a novel imaging technique to quantify whole-body vibration transmission in small animals using 280 μm diameter tungsten carbide beads implanted into the hind limbs of mice. Employing time-exposure digital x-ray imaging, vibrational amplitude is quantified based on the blurring of the implanted beads caused by the vibrational motion. Our in vivo results have shown this technique is capable of measuring vibration amplitudes as small as 0.1 mm, with precision as small as  ±10 μm, allowing us to distinguish differences in the transmitted vibration at different locations on the hindlimbs of mice. (paper)

  14. Quantification of mouse in vivo whole-body vibration amplitude from motion-blur using x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengyi; Welch, Ian; Yuan, Xunhua; Pollmann, Steven I.; Nikolov, Hristo N.; Holdsworth, David W.

    2015-08-01

    Musculoskeletal effects of whole-body vibration on animals and humans have become an intensely studied topic recently, due to the potential of applying this method as a non-pharmacological therapy for strengthening bones. It is relatively easy to quantify the transmission of whole-body mechanical vibration through the human skeletal system using accelerometers. However, this is not the case for small-animal pre-clinical studies because currently available accelerometers have a large mass, relative to the mass of the animals, which causes the accelerometers themselves to affect the way vibration is transmitted. Additionally, live animals do not typically remain motionless for long periods, unless they are anesthetized, and they are required to maintain a static standing posture during these studies. These challenges provide the motivation for the development of a method to quantify vibrational transmission in small animals. We present a novel imaging technique to quantify whole-body vibration transmission in small animals using 280 μm diameter tungsten carbide beads implanted into the hind limbs of mice. Employing time-exposure digital x-ray imaging, vibrational amplitude is quantified based on the blurring of the implanted beads caused by the vibrational motion. Our in vivo results have shown this technique is capable of measuring vibration amplitudes as small as 0.1 mm, with precision as small as  ±10 μm, allowing us to distinguish differences in the transmitted vibration at different locations on the hindlimbs of mice.

  15. Spherical blurred shape model for 3-D object and pose recognition: quantitative analysis and HCI applications in smart environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Oscar; Reyes, Miguel; Escalera, Sergio; Gonzàlez, Jordi

    2014-12-01

    The use of depth maps is of increasing interest after the advent of cheap multisensor devices based on structured light, such as Kinect. In this context, there is a strong need of powerful 3-D shape descriptors able to generate rich object representations. Although several 3-D descriptors have been already proposed in the literature, the research of discriminative and computationally efficient descriptors is still an open issue. In this paper, we propose a novel point cloud descriptor called spherical blurred shape model (SBSM) that successfully encodes the structure density and local variabilities of an object based on shape voxel distances and a neighborhood propagation strategy. The proposed SBSM is proven to be rotation and scale invariant, robust to noise and occlusions, highly discriminative for multiple categories of complex objects like the human hand, and computationally efficient since the SBSM complexity is linear to the number of object voxels. Experimental evaluation in public depth multiclass object data, 3-D facial expressions data, and a novel hand poses data sets show significant performance improvements in relation to state-of-the-art approaches. Moreover, the effectiveness of the proposal is also proved for object spotting in 3-D scenes and for real-time automatic hand pose recognition in human computer interaction scenarios.

  16. What Property of the Contour of a Deforming Region Biases Percepts toward Liquid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Kawabe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human observers can perceive the existence of a transparent surface from dynamic image deformation. They can also easily discriminate a transparent solid material such as plastic and glass from a transparent fluid one such as water and shampoo just by viewing them. However, the image information required for material discrimination of this sort is still unclear. A liquid changes its contour shape non-rigidly. We therefore examined whether additional properties of the contour of a deformation-defined region, which indicated contour non-rigidity, biased percepts of the region toward liquid materials. Our stimuli had a translating circular region wherein a natural texture image was deformed at the spatiotemporal deformation frequency that was optimal for the perception of a transparent layer. In Experiment 1, we dynamically deformed the contour of the circular region and found that large deformation of the contour biased the percept toward liquid. In Experiment 2, we manipulated the blurriness of the contour and observed that a strongly blurred contour biased percepts toward liquid. Taken together, the results suggest that a deforming region lacking a discrete contour biases percepts toward liquid.

  17. Postural stability changes in the elderly with cataract simulation and refractive blur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Vijay; Buckley, John G; Scally, Andy; Elliott, David B

    2003-11-01

    To determine the influence of cataractous and refractive blur on postural stability and limb-load asymmetry (LLA) and to establish how postural stability changes with the spatial frequency and contrast of the visual stimulus. Thirteen elderly subjects (mean age, 70.76 +/- 4.14 [SD] years) with no history of falls and normal vision were recruited. Postural stability was determined as the root mean square [RMS] of the center of pressure (COP) signal in the anterior-posterior (A-P) and medial-lateral directions and LLA was determined as the ratio of the average body weight placed on the more-loaded limb to the less-loaded limb, recorded during a 30-second period. Data were collected under normal standing conditions and with somatosensory system input disrupted. Measurements were repeated with four visual targets with high (8 cyc/deg) or low (2 cyc/deg) spatial frequency and high (Weber contrast, approximately 95%) or low (Weber contrast, approximately 25%) contrast. Postural stability was measured under conditions of binocular refractive blur of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 D and with cataract simulation. The data were analyzed in a population-averaged linear model. The cataract simulation caused significant increases in postural instability equivalent to that caused by 8-D blur conditions, and its effect was greater when the input from the somatosensory system was disrupted. High spatial frequency targets increased postural instability. Refractive blur, cataract simulation, or eye closure had no effect on LLA. Findings indicate that cataractous and refractive blur increase postural instability, and show why the elderly, many of whom have poor vision along with musculoskeletal and central nervous system degeneration, are at greater risk of falling. Findings also highlight that changes in contrast sensitivity rather than resolution changes are responsible for increasing postural instability. Providing low spatial frequency information in certain environments may be useful in

  18. Survey of attitudes and perceptions of urine-diverting toilets and human waste recycling in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamichhane, Krishna M.; Babcock, Roger W.

    2013-01-01

    Urine constitutes only about 1% of domestic sewage but contains 50% or more of the excreted nutrients and chemicals like hormones and pharmaceutical residues. Urine diverting toilet (UDT) systems can be considered a more sustainable alternative to wastewater management because they allow nutrient recycling, reduce water use, and allow source-separation of hormones and chemicals that can harm the environment. An online survey was conducted to determine whether UDTs are acceptable to the general public in Hawaii and if attitudes and perceptions towards it and human waste (HW) recycling vary with age, sex, level of education, religious affiliation, ethnicity, and employment status. The survey was also intended to detect possible drivers and barriers for the UDTs. Variations on variables were tested at 5% significance (p = 0.05) level (Chi-squared test or ANOVA) and considered significantly different if the p-value was less than 0.05. The results were encouraging as more than 60% are willing to pay extra for the UDT, while only 22% knew that such systems existed. No statistically significant difference was found between males and females on all survey questions at the 5% level. However, females had higher willingness to pay (WTP) than males and WTP increased with age and income. The WTP of Caucasians was higher than Asians and differed significantly. Some respondents expressed concern about the legal provisions for recycling of HW. The survey results indicate that with a public education program, it is possible that most people would be willing to adopt UDTs and HW recycling with incurred societal benefits of reduced water and fertilizer use, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and collection of micropollutants at the source to prevent their entry into waterways. Because of the small sample size (N = 132, 13% response rate) the survey is not representative but may be indicative of the general attitude of Hawaiian people. - Highlights: ► Urine diverting toilets (UDTs

  19. Survey of attitudes and perceptions of urine-diverting toilets and human waste recycling in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamichhane, Krishna M., E-mail: lamichha@hawaii.edu [University of Hawaii, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 2540 Dole Street, Holmes Hall 283, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States); Babcock, Roger W., E-mail: rbabcock@hawaii.edu [University of Hawaii, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Holmes Hall 383, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Urine constitutes only about 1% of domestic sewage but contains 50% or more of the excreted nutrients and chemicals like hormones and pharmaceutical residues. Urine diverting toilet (UDT) systems can be considered a more sustainable alternative to wastewater management because they allow nutrient recycling, reduce water use, and allow source-separation of hormones and chemicals that can harm the environment. An online survey was conducted to determine whether UDTs are acceptable to the general public in Hawaii and if attitudes and perceptions towards it and human waste (HW) recycling vary with age, sex, level of education, religious affiliation, ethnicity, and employment status. The survey was also intended to detect possible drivers and barriers for the UDTs. Variations on variables were tested at 5% significance (p = 0.05) level (Chi-squared test or ANOVA) and considered significantly different if the p-value was less than 0.05. The results were encouraging as more than 60% are willing to pay extra for the UDT, while only 22% knew that such systems existed. No statistically significant difference was found between males and females on all survey questions at the 5% level. However, females had higher willingness to pay (WTP) than males and WTP increased with age and income. The WTP of Caucasians was higher than Asians and differed significantly. Some respondents expressed concern about the legal provisions for recycling of HW. The survey results indicate that with a public education program, it is possible that most people would be willing to adopt UDTs and HW recycling with incurred societal benefits of reduced water and fertilizer use, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and collection of micropollutants at the source to prevent their entry into waterways. Because of the small sample size (N = 132, 13% response rate) the survey is not representative but may be indicative of the general attitude of Hawaiian people. - Highlights: ► Urine diverting toilets (UDTs

  20. Risk communication: climate change as a human-health threat, a survey of public perceptions in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBono, Roberto; Vincenti, Karen; Calleja, Neville

    2012-02-01

    Scientific evidence shows that climate change is very likely the product of human behaviour and lifestyle. The effects of climate change on human health are diverse in nature and range from direct effects due to extreme weather events such as heat waves, floods and storms, to indirect effects such as those caused by water and food shortages. A telephone survey was conducted between January and February 2009, on a stratified representative random sample of the Maltese population over the age of 18 years (N = 310,819). Five hundred and forty-three individuals successfully participated in the survey giving a response rate of 92.7%. The respondent sample was very similar to the target population by gender (P = 0.977), age (P = 0.767) and district (P = 0.812). The results of the study demonstrate a very strong relationship between the perception of climate change as a threat to health and well-being, support for climate change mitigation policy and a willingness to implement measures to address climate change. The findings of this study show that the perception that climate change may claim lives, cause disease, reduce the standard of living and worsen water shortages, may be the strongest driver behind support for climate change mitigation policy and a willingness to act. It is recommended that, in order to gain more public support, climate change campaigns and risk communication strategies should frame climate change as a threat to human health and general well-being.

  1. Human perception of indoor environment generated by chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation or localised chilled beam under cooling mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nygaard, Linette; Uth, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments with 24 subjects were performed to study and compare the human perception of the indoor environment under summer conditions generated by a chilled ceiling combined with overhead mixing ventilation and localised chilled beam. The experiments were performed in an experimental chamber (4....../s and 16 0C. The localised chilled beam was installed over the workstation placed by the simulated window. During the experiment the subjects were delegated control over the primary flow rate supplied by the localised chilled beam. The whole exposure lasted 2 hours with 30 min of acclimatisation before...

  2. Auditory distance perception in humans: a review of cues, development, neuronal bases, and effects of sensory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarik, Andrew J; Moore, Brian C J; Zahorik, Pavel; Cirstea, Silvia; Pardhan, Shahina

    2016-02-01

    Auditory distance perception plays a major role in spatial awareness, enabling location of objects and avoidance of obstacles in the environment. However, it remains under-researched relative to studies of the directional aspect of sound localization. This review focuses on the following four aspects of auditory distance perception: cue processing, development, consequences of visual and auditory loss, and neurological bases. The several auditory distance cues vary in their effective ranges in peripersonal and extrapersonal space. The primary cues are sound level, reverberation, and frequency. Nonperceptual factors, including the importance of the auditory event to the listener, also can affect perceived distance. Basic internal representations of auditory distance emerge at approximately 6 months of age in humans. Although visual information plays an important role in calibrating auditory space, sensorimotor contingencies can be used for calibration when vision is unavailable. Blind individuals often manifest supranormal abilities to judge relative distance but show a deficit in absolute distance judgments. Following hearing loss, the use of auditory level as a distance cue remains robust, while the reverberation cue becomes less effective. Previous studies have not found evidence that hearing-aid processing affects perceived auditory distance. Studies investigating the brain areas involved in processing different acoustic distance cues are described. Finally, suggestions are given for further research on auditory distance perception, including broader investigation of how background noise and multiple sound sources affect perceived auditory distance for those with sensory loss.

  3. Human perception of a conversational virtual human : an empirical study on the effect of emotion and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, C.; Brinkman, W.P.; Ling, Y.; Wiggers, P.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality applications with virtual humans, such as virtual reality exposure therapy, health coaches and negotiation simulators, are developed for different contexts and usually for users from different countries. The emphasis on a virtual human's emotional expression depends on the

  4. Students' Perceptions of a University Access (Bridging) Programme for Social Science, Commerce and Humanities: Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quayle, Michael; Essack, Zaynab

    2007-01-01

    Universities in South Africa face the challenge of redressing past (and continuing) inequalities in higher education by increasing accessibility to previously (and currently) disadvantaged students. One means of doing so is through 'access' or 'bridging' programmes. This article explores successful students' perceptions of one such programme at…

  5. The role of human basolateral amygdala in ambiguous social threat perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gelder, B.; Terburg, D.; Morgan, B.; Hortensius, R.; Stein, D.J.; van Honk, J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the amygdala (AMG) plays a role in how affective signals are processed. Animal research has allowed this role to be better understood and has assigned to the basolateral amygdala (BLA) an important role in threat perception. Here we show that, when passively exposed

  6. Brain activity dynamics in human parietal regions during spontaneous switches in bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megumi, Fukuda; Bahrami, Bahador; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2015-02-15

    The neural mechanisms underlying conscious visual perception have been extensively investigated using bistable perception paradigms. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that the right anterior superior parietal (r-aSPL) and the right posterior superior parietal lobule (r-pSPL) have opposite roles in triggering perceptual reversals. It has been proposed that these two areas are part of a hierarchical network whose dynamics determine perceptual switches. However, how these two parietal regions interact with each other and with the rest of the brain during bistable perception is not known. Here, we investigated such a model by recording brain activity using fMRI while participants viewed a bistable structure-from-motion stimulus. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM), we found that resolving such perceptual ambiguity was specifically associated with reciprocal interactions between these parietal regions and V5/MT. Strikingly, the strength of bottom-up coupling between V5/MT to r-pSPL and from r-pSPL to r-aSPL predicted individual mean dominance duration. Our findings are consistent with a hierarchical predictive coding model of parietal involvement in bistable perception and suggest that visual information processing underlying spontaneous perceptual switches can be described as changes in connectivity strength between parietal and visual cortical regions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Human cortical neural correlates of visual fatigue during binocular depth perception: An fNIRS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Cai

    Full Text Available Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS was adopted to investigate the cortical neural correlates of visual fatigue during binocular depth perception for different disparities (from 0.1° to 1.5°. By using a slow event-related paradigm, the oxyhaemoglobin (HbO responses to fused binocular stimuli presented by the random-dot stereogram (RDS were recorded over the whole visual dorsal area. To extract from an HbO curve the characteristics that are correlated with subjective experiences of stereopsis and visual fatigue, we proposed a novel method to fit the time-course HbO curve with various response functions which could reflect various processes of binocular depth perception. Our results indicate that the parietal-occipital cortices are spatially correlated with binocular depth perception and that the process of depth perception includes two steps, associated with generating and sustaining stereovision. Visual fatigue is caused mainly by generating stereovision, while the amplitude of the haemodynamic response corresponding to sustaining stereovision is correlated with stereopsis. Combining statistical parameter analysis and the fitted time-course analysis, fNIRS could be a promising method to study visual fatigue and possibly other multi-process neural bases.

  8. Application of mathematical removal of positron range blurring in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.F.; Derenzo, S.E.; Uber, D.

    1990-01-01

    The range of positrons in tissue is an important limitation to the ultimate spatial resolution achievable in positron emission tomography. In this work the authors have applied a Fourier deconvolution technique to remove range blurring in images taken by the Donner 600-crystal positron tomograph. Using phantom data, the authors have found significant improvement in the image quality and the FWHM for both 68 Ga and 82 Rb. These were successfully corrected so that the images and FWHM almost matched those of 18 F which has negligible positron range. However, statistical noise was increased by the deconvolution process and it was not practical to recover the full spatial resolution of the tomograph

  9. Restoration of color images degraded by space-variant motion blur

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šorel, Michal; Flusser, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2007, č. 4673 (2007), s. 450-457 ISSN 0302-9743. [Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns. Vienna, 27.08.2007-29.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : deblurring * space-variant restoration * motion blur * color Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74272-2_56

  10. The blurred boundaries of political violence in the Sahel-Sahara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    The Sahel and the Sahara are faced with exceptional political instability involving a combination of rebellions, jihadist insurgencies, coups d’état, protest movements and illegal trafficking. Analysis of the outbreaks of violence reveals that the region is not just the victim of an escalation...... of wars and conflicts that marked the 20th century. The Sahel-Sahara has also become the setting of a globalised security environment, in which boundaries between what is local and global, domestic and international, military and civilian, politics and identity are blurred....

  11. A method for correcting the depth-of-interaction blurring in PET cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.G.

    1993-11-01

    A method is presented for the purpose of correcting PET images for the blurring caused by variations in the depth-of-interaction in position-sensitive gamma ray detectors. In the case of a fine-cut 50x50x30 mm BGO block detector, the method is shown to improve the detector resolution by about 25%, measured in the geometry corresponding to detection at the edge of the field-of-view. Strengths and weaknesses of the method are discussed and its potential usefulness for improving the images of future PET cameras is assessed. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs

  12. Ambient Intelligence and Persuasive Technology: The Blurring Boundaries Between Human and Technology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.

    2009-01-01

    The currently developing fields of Ambient Intelligence and Persuasive Technology bring about a convergence of information technology and cognitive science. Smart environments that are able to respond intelligently to what we do and that even aim to influence our behaviour challenge the basic

  13. Perceptions of human papillomavirus vaccination of adolescent schoolgirls in western Uganda and their implications for acceptability of HPV vaccination: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Okello, Elialilia Sarikieli; Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza

    2017-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been perceived in diverse ways some of which encourage its uptake while others could potentially deter its acceptability. This study explored community member?s perceptions about HPV vaccination in Ibanda district and the implications of the perceptions for acceptability of HPV vaccination. The study was conducted following initial vaccination of adolescent schoolgirls in the district between 2008 and 2011. Methods This qualitative study e...

  14. Does human perception of wetland aesthetics and healthiness relate to ecological functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, Marylise; Piégay, Hervé; Bornette, Gudrun

    2013-10-15

    Wetland management usually aims at preserving or restoring desirable ecological characteristics or functions. It is now well-recognized that some social criteria should also be included. Involving lay-people in wetland preservation or restoration projects may mean broadening project objectives to fit various and potentially competing requirements that relate to ecology, aesthetics, recreation, etc. In addition, perceived value depends both upon expertise and objectives, both of which vary from one stakeholder population to another. Perceived value and ecological functioning have to be reconciled in order to make a project successful. Understanding the perceptions of lay-people as well as their opinions about ecological value is a critical part of the development of sustainable management plans. Characterizing the environment in a way that adequately describes ecological function while also being consistent with lay perception may help reach such objectives. This goal has been addressed in a case study relating to wetlands of the Ain River (France). A photo-questionnaire presenting a sample of photographs of riverine wetlands distributed along the Ain River was submitted to 403 lay-people and self-identified experts. Two objectives were defined: (1) to identify the different parameters, whether visual or ecological, influencing the perception regarding the value of these ecosystems; (2) to compare the perceptions of self-identified experts and lay-people. Four criteria appear to strongly influence peoples' perceptions of ecological and aesthetical values: water transparency and colour, the presence and appearance of aquatic vegetation, the presence of sediments, and finally, trophic status. In our study, we observed only a few differences in perception. The differences primarily related to the value assigned to oligotrophic wetlands but even here, the differences between lay and expert populations were minimal. These results support the idea that it is possible to

  15. Why individual thermo sensation and pain perception varies? Clue of disruptive mutations in TRPVs from 2504 human genome data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arijit; Kaur, Navneet; Kumar, Abhishek; Goswami, Chandan

    2016-09-02

    Every individual varies in character and so do their sensory functions and perceptions. The molecular mechanism and the molecular candidates involved in these processes are assumed to be similar if not same. So far several molecular factors have been identified which are fairly conserved across the phylogenetic tree and are involved in these complex sensory functions. Among all, members belonging to Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels have been widely characterized for their involvement in thermo-sensation. These include TRPV1 to TRPV4 channels which reveal complex thermo-gating behavior in response to changes in temperature. The molecular evolution of these channels is highly correlative with the thermal response of different species. However, recent 2504 human genome data suggest that these thermo-sensitive TRPV channels are highly variable and carry possible deleterious mutations in human population. These unexpected findings may explain the individual differences in terms of complex sensory functions.

  16. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-09-02

    Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceptions of the Veterinary Profession among Human Health Care Students before an Inter-Professional Education Course at Midwestern University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englar, Ryane E; Show-Ridgway, Alyssa; Noah, Donald L; Appelt, Erin; Kosinski, Ross

    2017-11-03

    Conflicts among health care professionals often stem from misperceptions about each profession's role in the health care industry. These divisive tendencies impede progress in multidisciplinary collaborations to improve human, animal, and environmental health. Inter-professional education (IPE) may repair rifts between health care professions by encouraging students to share their professional identities with colleagues in unrelated health care disciplines. An online survey was conducted at Midwestern University (MWU) to identify baseline perceptions about veterinary medicine among entry-level human health care students before their enrollment in an inter-professional course. Participation was anonymous and voluntary. The survey included Likert-type scales and free-text questions. Survey participants expressed their interest in and respect for the discipline of veterinary medicine, but indicated that their unfamiliarity with the profession hindered their ability to collaborate. Twenty percent of human health care students did not know the length of a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) program and 27.6% were unaware that veterinarians could specialize. Although 83.2% of participants agreed that maintaining the human-animal bond is a central role of the veterinary profession, veterinary contributions to stem cell research, food and water safety, public health, environmental conservation, and the military were infrequently recognized. If IPE is to successfully pave the way for multidisciplinary collaboration, it needs to address these gaps in knowledge and broaden the definition of veterinary practice for future human health care providers.

  18. Neural coding and perception of pitch in the normal and impaired human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    that the use of spectral cues remained plausible. Simulations of auditory-nerve representations of the complex tones further suggested that a spectrotemporal mechanism combining precise timing information across auditory channels might best account for the behavioral data. Overall, this work provides insights...... investigated using psychophysical methods. First, hearing loss was found to affect the perception of binaural pitch, a pitch sensation created by the binaural interaction of noise stimuli. Specifically, listeners without binaural pitch sensation showed signs of retrocochlear disorders. Despite adverse effects...... of reduced frequency selectivity on binaural pitch perception, the ability to accurately process the temporal fine structure (TFS) of sounds at the output of the cochlear filters was found to be essential for perceiving binaural pitch. Monaural TFS processing also played a major and independent role...

  19. Localization of Human Cortical Areas Underlying Glossiness Perception: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Sakano

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted two fMRI experiments to clarify what cortical areas are involved in perception of surface glossiness. To dissociate activations caused by glossiness from those caused by low-level features such as luminance and luminance contrast of the stimulus, we utilized the perceptual glossiness constancy (Experiment 1 and the selective attention technique (Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, subjects viewed glossy or matte objects under bright or dim illumination. The mean luminance and luminance RMS contrast of glossy objects under dim illumination were lower than those of matte objects under bright illumination. Thus, if certain areas are more activated by the former stimulus than the latter, the activation differences can be explained by the differences in surface glossiness but not by the differences in mean luminance or luminance RMS contrast of the stimulus. In Experiment 2, subjects judged whether the paired objects were the same or different in terms of glossiness, 3D form, or 3D orientation. If certain areas are more activated during the glossiness discrimination task than the other two tasks, it is suggested that the areas are involved in glossiness perception. Common areas identified as those involved in glossiness perception in both experiments are bilateral ventral occipital areas.

  20. Depth-Based Selective Blurring in Stereo Images Using Accelerated Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Subhayan; Guddeti, Ram Mohana Reddy

    2014-09-01

    We propose a hybrid method for stereo disparity estimation by combining block and region-based stereo matching approaches. It generates dense depth maps from disparity measurements of only 18 % image pixels (left or right). The methodology involves segmenting pixel lightness values using fast K-Means implementation, refining segment boundaries using morphological filtering and connected components analysis; then determining boundaries' disparities using sum of absolute differences (SAD) cost function. Complete disparity maps are reconstructed from boundaries' disparities. We consider an application of our method for depth-based selective blurring of non-interest regions of stereo images, using Gaussian blur to de-focus users' non-interest regions. Experiments on Middlebury dataset demonstrate that our method outperforms traditional disparity estimation approaches using SAD and normalized cross correlation by up to 33.6 % and some recent methods by up to 6.1 %. Further, our method is highly parallelizable using CPU-GPU framework based on Java Thread Pool and APARAPI with speed-up of 5.8 for 250 stereo video frames (4,096 × 2,304).

  1. Perfect blind restoration of images blurred by multiple filters: theory and efficient algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikumar, G; Bresler, Y

    1999-01-01

    We address the problem of restoring an image from its noisy convolutions with two or more unknown finite impulse response (FIR) filters. We develop theoretical results about the existence and uniqueness of solutions, and show that under some generically true assumptions, both the filters and the image can be determined exactly in the absence of noise, and stably estimated in its presence. We present efficient algorithms to estimate the blur functions and their sizes. These algorithms are of two types, subspace-based and likelihood-based, and are extensions of techniques proposed for the solution of the multichannel blind deconvolution problem in one dimension. We present memory and computation-efficient techniques to handle the very large matrices arising in the two-dimensional (2-D) case. Once the blur functions are determined, they are used in a multichannel deconvolution step to reconstruct the unknown image. The theoretical and practical implications of edge effects, and "weakly exciting" images are examined. Finally, the algorithms are demonstrated on synthetic and real data.

  2. Restoration of a single superresolution image from several blurred, noisy, and undersampled measured images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elad, M; Feuer, A

    1997-01-01

    The three main tools in the single image restoration theory are the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator, the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimator, and the set theoretic approach using projection onto convex sets (POCS). This paper utilizes the above known tools to propose a unified methodology toward the more complicated problem of superresolution restoration. In the superresolution restoration problem, an improved resolution image is restored from several geometrically warped, blurred, noisy and downsampled measured images. The superresolution restoration problem is modeled and analyzed from the ML, the MAP, and POCS points of view, yielding a generalization of the known superresolution restoration methods. The proposed restoration approach is general but assumes explicit knowledge of the linear space- and time-variant blur, the (additive Gaussian) noise, the different measured resolutions, and the (smooth) motion characteristics. A hybrid method combining the simplicity of the ML and the incorporation of nonellipsoid constraints is presented, giving improved restoration performance, compared with the ML and the POCS approaches. The hybrid method is shown to converge to the unique optimal solution of a new definition of the optimization problem. Superresolution restoration from motionless measurements is also discussed. Simulations demonstrate the power of the proposed methodology.

  3. Prosthetic component segmentation with blur compensation: a fast method for 3D fluoroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroni, Giacomo; Tersi, Luca; Corsi, Cristiana; Stagni, Rita

    2012-06-01

    A new method for prosthetic component segmentation from fluoroscopic images is presented. The hybrid approach we propose combines diffusion filtering, region growing and level-set techniques without exploiting any a priori knowledge of the analyzed geometry. The method was evaluated on a synthetic dataset including 270 images of knee and hip prosthesis merged to real fluoroscopic data simulating different conditions of blurring and illumination gradient. The performance of the method was assessed by comparing estimated contours to references using different metrics. Results showed that the segmentation procedure is fast, accurate, independent on the operator as well as on the specific geometrical characteristics of the prosthetic component, and able to compensate for amount of blurring and illumination gradient. Importantly, the method allows a strong reduction of required user interaction time when compared to traditional segmentation techniques. Its effectiveness and robustness in different image conditions, together with simplicity and fast implementation, make this prosthetic component segmentation procedure promising and suitable for multiple clinical applications including assessment of in vivo joint kinematics in a variety of cases.

  4. Velocity storage contribution to vestibular self-motion perception in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, G; Ramat, S; Laurens, J; Bockisch, C J; Marti, S; Straumann, D; Palla, A

    2011-01-01

    Self-motion perception after a sudden stop from a sustained rotation in darkness lasts approximately as long as reflexive eye movements. We hypothesized that, after an angular velocity step, self-motion perception and reflexive eye movements are driven by the same vestibular pathways. In 16 healthy subjects (25-71 years of age), perceived rotational velocity (PRV) and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (rVOR) after sudden decelerations (90°/s(2)) from constant-velocity (90°/s) earth-vertical axis rotations were simultaneously measured (PRV reported by hand-lever turning; rVOR recorded by search coils). Subjects were upright (yaw) or 90° left-ear-down (pitch). After both yaw and pitch decelerations, PRV rose rapidly and showed a plateau before decaying. In contrast, slow-phase eye velocity (SPV) decayed immediately after the initial increase. SPV and PRV were fitted with the sum of two exponentials: one time constant accounting for the semicircular canal (SCC) dynamics and one time constant accounting for a central process, known as velocity storage mechanism (VSM). Parameters were constrained by requiring equal SCC time constant and VSM time constant for SPV and PRV. The gains weighting the two exponential functions were free to change. SPV were accurately fitted (variance-accounted-for: 0.85 ± 0.10) and PRV (variance-accounted-for: 0.86 ± 0.07), showing that SPV and PRV curve differences can be explained by a greater relative weight of VSM in PRV compared with SPV (twofold for yaw, threefold for pitch). These results support our hypothesis that self-motion perception after angular velocity steps is be driven by the same central vestibular processes as reflexive eye movements and that no additional mechanisms are required to explain the perceptual dynamics.

  5. Body mapping of cutaneous wetness perception across the human torso during thermo-neutral and warm environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Fournet, Damien; Hodder, Simon; Havenith, George

    2014-10-15

    Sensing skin wetness is linked to inputs arising from cutaneous cold-sensitive afferents. As thermosensitivity to cold varies significantly across the torso, we investigated whether similar regional differences in wetness perception exist. We also investigated the regional differences in thermal pleasantness and whether these sensory patterns are influenced by ambient temperature. Sixteen males (20 ± 2 yr) underwent a quantitative sensory test under thermo-neutral [air temperature (Tair) = 22°C; relative humidity (RH) = 50%] and warm conditions (Tair = 33°C; RH = 50%). Twelve regions of the torso were stimulated with a dry thermal probe (25 cm(2)) with a temperature of 15°C below local skin temperature (Tsk). Variations in Tsk, thermal, wetness, and pleasantness sensations were recorded. As a result of the same cold-dry stimulus, the skin-cooling response varied significantly by location (P = 0.003). The lateral chest showed the greatest cooling (-5 ± 0.4°C), whereas the lower back showed the smallest (-1.9 ± 0.4°C). Thermal sensations varied significantly by location and independently from regional variations in skin cooling with colder sensations reported on the lateral abdomen and lower back. Similarly, the frequency of perceived skin wetness was significantly greater on the lateral and lower back as opposed to the medial chest. Overall wetness perception was slightly higher under warm conditions. Significantly more unpleasant sensations were recorded when the lateral abdomen and lateral and lower back were stimulated. We conclude that humans present regional differences in skin wetness perception across the torso, with a pattern similar to the regional differences in thermosensitivity to cold. These findings indicate the presence of a heterogeneous distribution of cold-sensitive thermo-afferent information. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Knowledge, perceptions, and decision making about human papillomavirus vaccination among Korean American women: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyounghae; Kim, Boyoung; Choi, Eunsuk; Song, Youngshin; Han, Hae-Ra

    2015-01-01

    As one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in the United States, Korean American (KA) women experience a heightened cervical cancer burden. The advent of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine offers an unprecedented opportunity to eliminate cervical cancer disparities in KA women. However, the uptake of HPV vaccine among KA adolescents remains suboptimal. Hence, we set out to explore knowledge, perceptions, and decision making about HPV vaccination among KA women. We conducted four focus groups of 26 KA women who participated in a community-based, randomized, controlled trial to promote breast and cervical cancer screening. Focus group data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Four main themes emerged from the focus groups: 1) limited awareness and knowledge of HPV vaccine, 2) perceptions and beliefs about HPV vaccination (acceptance, negative perceptions, ambivalence), 3) patterns of decision making about HPV vaccination (hierarchical, peer influenced, autonomous, and collaborative), and 4) promoting HPV education and information sharing in the Korean community. KA women are generally positive toward HPV vaccination, but lack awareness and knowledge about HPV. Culturally tailored HPV education programs based on KA women's decision-making patterns and effective information sharing by trustworthy sources in comfortable environments are suggested strategies to promote HPV vaccination in the KA community. The findings point to the need for a multilevel approach to addressing linguistic, cultural, and system barriers that the recent immigrant community faces in promoting HPV vaccinations. In the development of targeted interventions for KA women, educational strategies and patterns of decision making need to be considered. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic sensory pollution is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Human actions generate acoustic noise, emanate artificial light and emit chemical substances. All of these pollutants are known to affect animals. Most studies on anthropogenic pollution address the impact of pollutants in unimodal sensory domains. High levels of anthropogenic noise, for example, have been shown to interfere with acoustic signals and cues. However, animals rely on multiple senses, and pollutants often co-occur. Thus, a full ecological assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities requires a multimodal approach. We describe how sensory pollutants can co-occur and how covariance among pollutants may differ from natural situations. We review how animals combine information that arrives at their sensory systems through different modalities and outline how sensory conditions can interfere with multimodal perception. Finally, we describe how sensory pollutants can affect the perception, behaviour and endocrinology of animals within and across sensory modalities. We conclude that sensory pollution can affect animals in complex ways due to interactions among sensory stimuli, neural processing and behavioural and endocrinal feedback. We call for more empirical data on covariance among sensory conditions, for instance, data on correlated levels in noise and light pollution. Furthermore, we encourage researchers to test animal responses to a full-factorial set of sensory pollutants in the presence or the absence of ecologically important signals and cues. We realize that such approach is often time and energy consuming, but we think this is the only way to fully understand the multimodal impact of sensory pollution on animal performance and perception. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. A study of student perceptions of learning transfer from a human anatomy and physiology course in an allied health program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Leigh S.

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. First the study was designed to determine student perceptions regarding the perceived degree of original learning from a human anatomy and physiology course, and the student perception of the use of the knowledge in an allied health program. Second, the intention of the study was to establish student beliefs on the characteristics of the transfer of learning including those factors which enhance learning transfer and those that serve as barriers to learning transfer. The study participants were those students enrolled in any allied health program at a community college in a Midwest state, including: nursing, radiology, surgical technology, health information technology, and paramedic. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed from the responses to the survey. A sub-group of participants were chosen to participate in semi-structured formal interviews. From the interviews, additional qualitative data were gathered. The data collected through the study demonstrated student perception of successful transfer experiences. The students in the study were able to provide specific examples of learning transfer experienced from the human anatomy and physiology course in their allied health program. Findings also suggested students who earned higher grades in the human anatomy and physiology course perceived greater understanding and greater use of the course's learning objectives in their allied health program. The study found the students believed the following learning activities enhances the transfer of learning: (1) Providing application of the information or skills being learned during the instruction of the course content enhances the transfer of learning. (2) Providing resource materials and activities which allow the students to practice the content being taught facilitates the transfer of learning. The students made the following recommendations to remove barriers to the transfer of learning: (1

  9. Image Acquisition of Robust Vision Systems to Monitor Blurred Objects in Hazy Smoking Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Yongjin; Park, Seungkyu; Baik, Sunghoon; Kim, Donglyul; Nam, Sungmo; Jeong, Kyungmin

    2014-01-01

    Image information in disaster area or radiation area of nuclear industry is an important data for safety inspection and preparing appropriate damage control plans. So, robust vision system for structures and facilities in blurred smoking environments, such as the places of a fire and detonation, is essential in remote monitoring. Vision systems can't acquire an image when the illumination light is blocked by disturbance materials, such as smoke, fog, dust. The vision system based on wavefront correction can be applied to blurred imaging environments and the range-gated imaging system can be applied to both of blurred imaging and darken light environments. Wavefront control is a widely used technique to improve the performance of optical systems by actively correcting wavefront distortions, such as atmospheric turbulence, thermally-induced distortions, and laser or laser device aberrations, which can reduce the peak intensity and smear an acquired image. The principal applications of wavefront control are for improving the image quality in optical imaging systems such as infrared astronomical telescopes, in imaging and tracking rapidly moving space objects, and in compensating for laser beam distortion through the atmosphere. A conventional wavefront correction system consists of a wavefront sensor, a deformable mirror and a control computer. The control computer measures the wavefront distortions using a wavefront sensor and corrects it using a deformable mirror in a closed-loop. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra

  10. Image Acquisition of Robust Vision Systems to Monitor Blurred Objects in Hazy Smoking Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yongjin; Park, Seungkyu; Baik, Sunghoon; Kim, Donglyul; Nam, Sungmo; Jeong, Kyungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Image information in disaster area or radiation area of nuclear industry is an important data for safety inspection and preparing appropriate damage control plans. So, robust vision system for structures and facilities in blurred smoking environments, such as the places of a fire and detonation, is essential in remote monitoring. Vision systems can't acquire an image when the illumination light is blocked by disturbance materials, such as smoke, fog, dust. The vision system based on wavefront correction can be applied to blurred imaging environments and the range-gated imaging system can be applied to both of blurred imaging and darken light environments. Wavefront control is a widely used technique to improve the performance of optical systems by actively correcting wavefront distortions, such as atmospheric turbulence, thermally-induced distortions, and laser or laser device aberrations, which can reduce the peak intensity and smear an acquired image. The principal applications of wavefront control are for improving the image quality in optical imaging systems such as infrared astronomical telescopes, in imaging and tracking rapidly moving space objects, and in compensating for laser beam distortion through the atmosphere. A conventional wavefront correction system consists of a wavefront sensor, a deformable mirror and a control computer. The control computer measures the wavefront distortions using a wavefront sensor and corrects it using a deformable mirror in a closed-loop. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra

  11. Near-peer teaching strategy in a large human anatomy course: perceptions of near-peer instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Hernández, Cynthia Guadalupe; Carmona Pulido, Juan Manuel; De la Garza Chapa, Roberto Isaac; Serna Vázquez, Ruth Patricia; Alcalá Briones, Ricardo Daniel; Plasencia Banda, Perla Marina; Villarreal Silva, Eliud Enrique; Jacobo Baca, Guillermo; de la Garza Castro, Oscar; Elizondo Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; Guzmán López, Santos

    2015-01-01

    Near-peer teaching (NPT) is a strategy in which senior students assume the instructor role with junior peers (mentees). Senior students develop unique skills and knowledge through NPT, an experience which extends their learning beyond content mastery. Different teaching modules featuring NPT were utilized in the human anatomy course at the School of Medicine, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon in Monterrey, Mexico. Modules included: Theory, Clinical Hour, Imaging Anatomy, and Laboratory. The aim of this study was to assess instructor participants' perceptions on the benefits of the NPT strategy in the anatomy classroom. A survey was administered to anatomy course instructors who utilized NPT strategies during winter, fall, and spring semesters of the 2012-2013 school year. A total of 120 instructors were enrolled in the study. There were different perceptions of instructors' roles. Theory and Imaging Anatomy instructors considered themselves to be information providers and resource developers, whereas Clinical Hour and Laboratory instructors saw themselves more as facilitators, role models, and planners. All instructors' opinions on the benefits of NPT were positive. Thus, in this article, the authors find NPT to be a strategy that promotes self-learning, a vital skill. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. ERK1/2 activation in human taste bud cells regulates fatty acid signaling and gustatory perception of fat in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Selvakumar; Ozdener, Mehmet Hakan; Abdoul-Azize, Souleymane; Saito, Katsuyoshi; Malik, Bilal; Maquart, Guillaume; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Marambaud, Philippe; Aribi, Mourad; Tordoff, Michael G; Besnard, Philippe; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem. An in-depth knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of oro-sensory detection of dietary lipids may help fight it. Humans and rodents can detect fatty acids via lipido-receptors, such as CD36 and GPR120. We studied the implication of the MAPK pathways, in particular, ERK1/2, in the gustatory detection of fatty acids. Linoleic acid, a dietary fatty acid, induced via CD36 the phosphorylation of MEK1/2-ERK1/2-ETS-like transcription factor-1 cascade, which requires Fyn-Src kinase and lipid rafts in human taste bud cells (TBCs). ERK1/2 cascade was activated by Ca 2+ signaling via opening of the calcium-homeostasis modulator-1 (CALHM1) channel. Furthermore, fatty acid-evoked Ca 2+ signaling and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were decreased in both human TBCs after small interfering RNA knockdown of CALHM1 channel and in TBCs from Calhm1 -/- mice. Targeted knockdown of ERK1/2 by small interfering RNA or PD0325901 (MEK1/2 inhibitor) in the tongue and genetic ablation of Erk1 or Calhm1 genes impaired preference for dietary fat in mice. Lingual inhibition of ERK1/2 in healthy volunteers also decreased orogustatory sensitivity for linoleic acid. Our data demonstrate that ERK1/2-MAPK cascade is regulated by the opening of CALHM1 Ca 2+ channel in TBCs to modulate orogustatory detection of dietary lipids in mice and humans.-Subramaniam, S., Ozdener, M. H., Abdoul-Azize, S., Saito, K., Malik, B., Maquart, G., Hashimoto, T., Marambaud, P., Aribi, M., Tordoff, M. G., Besnard, P., Khan, N. A. ERK1/2 activation in human taste bud cells regulates fatty acid signaling and gustatory perception of fat in mice and humans. © FASEB.

  13. Perceptions of community-based human milk banks before and after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Human breastmilk provides gold standard nutrition and immunological support to infants. For low birth weight, HIVinfected, HIV-exposed or otherwise vulnerable babies, it can mean the difference between life and death. When a mother's own milk is not available, safe, donated human breastmilk is an excellent ...

  14. Dynamic perceptions of human-likeness while interacting with a social robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijten, P.A.M.; Cuijpers, R.H.

    2017-01-01

    In human-robot interaction research, much attention is given to the development of socially assistive robots that can have natural interactions with their users. One crucial aspect of such natural interactions is that the robot is perceived as human-like. Much research already exists that

  15. Student Perceptions of an Upper-Level, Undergraduate Human Anatomy Laboratory Course without Cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Shirley J.

    2012-01-01

    Several programs in health professional education require or are considering requiring upper-level human anatomy as prerequisite for their applicants. Undergraduate students are confronted with few institutions offering such a course, in part because of the expense and logistical issues associated with a cadaver-based human anatomy course. This…

  16. Is the force with you? On the accuracy of human force perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onneweer, B.

    2016-01-01

    Haptic technology is more and more widely used to improve human interaction with devices, for example in touch screens of smartphones that vibrate when touched. Another application is haptic-tele-manipulation where a human controls a slave manipulator (e.g. a surgical-robot) by using a master device

  17. Understanding Older Adult's Perceptions of Factors that Support Trust in Human and Robot Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuck, Rachel E; Rogers, Wendy A

    2017-06-01

    As the population of older adults increase so will the need for care providers, both human and robot. Trust is a key aspect to establish and maintain a successful older adult-care provider relationship. However, due to trust volatility it is essential to understand it within specific contexts. This proposed mixed methods study will explore what dimensions of trust emerge as important within the human-human and human-robot dyads in older adults and care providers. First, this study will help identify key qualities that support trust in a care provider relationship. By understanding what older adults perceive as needing to trust humans and robots for various care tasks, we can begin to provide recommendations based on user expectations for design to support trust.

  18. The relationship between employees' perceptions of human resource systems and organizational performance: examining mediating mechanisms and temporal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piening, Erk P; Baluch, Alina M; Salge, Torsten Oliver

    2013-11-01

    Given the limited understanding of temporal issues in extant theorizing about the link between human resource management (HRM) and performance, in this study we aim to shed light on how, when, and why HR interventions affect organizational performance. On the basis of longitudinal, multi-informant and multisource data from public hospital services in England, we provide new insights into the complex interplay between employees' perceptions of HR systems, job satisfaction, and performance outcomes over time. The dynamic panel data analyses provide support for changes in employees' experience of an HR system being related to subsequent changes in customer satisfaction, as mediated by changes in job satisfaction, albeit these effects decrease over time. Moreover, our longitudinal analyses highlight the importance of feedback effects in the HRM-performance chain, which otherwise appears to evolve in a cyclical manner. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Human subjects’ perception of indoor environment and their office work performance during exposures to moderate operative temperature ramps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the presented research work was to study the effects of moderate operative temperature drifts on human thermal comfort, perceived air quality, intensity of SBS symptoms and office work performance. Experimental subjects (52, 50% female) were seated in a climatic chamber and exposed....... A linear relation between perceived air quality and temperature (enthalpy) was found. No significant consistent effect of individual temperature ramps on office work performance was found. Increasing operative temperature appeared to slightly decrease speed of addition and text typing regardless the slope...... sensation was also included. Subjects filled out questionnaires regarding perception of the environment and intensity of SBS symptoms. Subjects performed simulated office tasks (addition, text typing, proof reading, comprehension and reasoning). Results showed that all tested ramps were recognized...

  20. Schools at the Rural-Urban Boundary – Blurring the Divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Will, Julia; Logan, John R.

    2018-01-01

    Schools mirror the communities in which they are located. Research on school inequality across the rural-urban spectrum tends to focus on the contrast between urban, suburban, and rural schools and glosses over the variation within these areas as well as the similarities between them. To address this gap and provide a richer description of the spatial distribution of educational inequality, we examine the school composition, achievement, and resources of all U.S. elementary schools in 2010–2011. We apply standard census definitions of what areas fall within central cities, the remainder of metropolitan regions, and in rural America. We then apply spatially explicit methods to reveal blurred boundaries and gradual gradients rather than sharp breaks at the edges of these zones. The results show high levels of variation within the suburbs and substantial commonality between rural and urban areas. PMID:29430017

  1. Joint de-blurring and nonuniformity correction method for infrared microscopy imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Anselmo; Torres, Sergio; Machuca, Guillermo; Ramírez, Wagner; Gutiérrez, Pablo A.; Viafora, Laura A.; Godoy, Sebastián E.; Vera, Esteban

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we present a new technique to simultaneously reduce two major degradation artifacts found in mid-wavelength infrared microscopy imagery, namely the inherent focal-plane array nonuniformity noise and the scene defocus presented due to the point spread function of the infrared microscope. We correct both nuisances using a novel, recursive method that combines the constant range nonuniformity correction algorithm with a frame-by-frame deconvolution approach. The ability of the method to jointly compensate for both nonuniformity noise and blur is demonstrated using two different real mid-wavelength infrared microscopic video sequences, which were captured from two microscopic living organisms using a Janos-Sofradir mid-wavelength infrared microscopy setup. The performance of the proposed method is assessed on real and simulated infrared data by computing the root mean-square error and the roughness-laplacian pattern index, which was specifically developed for the present work.

  2. Variable blurred reflection in the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 493

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonson, K.; Gallo, L. C.; Wilkins, D. R.; Fabian, A. C.

    2018-04-01

    We examine a 200 ks XMM-Newton observation of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 493. The active galaxy was half as bright as in a previous 2003 snapshot observation and the current lower flux enables a study of the putative reflection component in detail. We determine the characteristics of the 2015 X-ray continuum by first analyzing the short-term variability using model-independent techniques. We then continue with a time-resolve analysis including spectral fitting and modelling the fractional variability. We determine that the variability arises from changes in the amount of primary flux striking the accretion disk, which induces changes in the ionization parameter and flux of the blurred reflection component. The observations seem consistent with the picture that the primary source is of roughly constant brightness and that variations arise from changes in the degree of light bending happening in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole.

  3. Level of perception of technical terms regarding the effect of radiation on the human body by residents of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Yoshida, Yasuko; Isogai, Emiko; Hayase, Takashi; Nakamura, Kozue; Saito, Mitsuo; Arizono, Koji

    2017-10-27

    This study aimed to examine the level of perception of the technical terms related to the effect of radiation on the human body among residents of the six prefectures of Miyagi, Fukushima, Tokyo, Aichi, Hiroshima, and Nagasaki in Japan. Miyagi and Fukushima were selected as devastated area by Great East Japan Earthquake. Tokyo and Aichi were selected as control. Hiroshima and Nagasaki were selected as the A-bombed area. A total of 1030 respondents, 172, 173, 171, 173, 171, and 170, respectively, were surveyed. Differences in the recognition level of technical terms related to the effect of radiation on the human body among residents of the six prefectures were assessed. The highest recognition levels were reported by the respondents from Fukushima (17 items). Those from Miyagi scored the second highest recognition levels (10 out of the 17 terms); the second highest recognition levels for the remaining seven terms were marked by the respondents of Tokyo. Respondents in the Tohoku region had a better recognition for the technical terminology relevant to the effect of radiation on the human body. Our findings indicate a need for continued, comprehensive risk communication pertaining to health hazards of radiation exposure in Tohoku region. Concerted efforts by central/local governments and other stakeholders are required to allay the anxiety/stress related to radiation exposure among the residents.

  4. A comparison of human elements and nonhuman elements in private health care settings: customers' perceptions and expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Suki, Norazah; Chwee Lian, Jennifer Chiam; Suki, Norbayah Mohd

    2009-01-01

    In today's highly competitive health care environment, many private health care settings are now looking into customer service indicators to learn customers' perceptions and determine whether they are meeting customers' expectations in order to ensure that their customers are satisfied with the services. This research paper aims to investigate whether the human elements were more important than the nonhuman elements in private health care settings. We used the internationally renowned SERVQUAL five-dimension model plus three additional dimensions-courtesy, communication, and understanding of customers of the human element-when evaluating health care services. A total of 191 respondents from three private health care settings in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia were investigated. Descriptive statistics were calculated by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer program, version 15. Interestingly, the results suggested that customers nowadays have very high expectations especially when it comes to the treatment they are receiving. Overall, the research indicated that the human elements were more important than the nonhuman element in private health care settings. Hospital management should look further to improve on areas that have been highlighted. Implications for management practice and directions for future research are discussed.

  5. Human Perception Measures for Product Design and Development—A Tutorial to Measurement Methods and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hatzfeld

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This tutorial describes the necessary steps for designing and conducting a perception experiment in order to obtain design parameters for human–machine interactions. It is intended for engineers and product designers, which require design parameters not included in the current state of the art. Topics addressed are the preposition of hypotheses, the selection of parameters, psychophysical measurement procedures and the calculation of sample sizes. Relevant steps for data analysis from psychology and social sciences are applied to the engineering and design context and guidelines for reporting results are given. The required steps are illustrated with an example experiment assessing detection thresholds of damping parameters of haptic automotive rotary controls with regard to parameters like knob diameter and distraction. Results imply significant effects of knob diameter on both absolute and differential thresholds, but no effect of distraction, implying a good transferability of laboratory results to real-world applications.

  6. Theoretical background and experimental measurements of human brain noise intensity in perception of ambiguous images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runnova, Anastasiya E.; Hramov, Alexander E.; Grubov, Vadim V.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Kurovskaya, Maria K.; Pisarchik, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a theoretical approach associated with an experimental technique to quantitatively characterize cognitive brain activity in the perception of ambiguous images. Based on the developed theoretical background and the obtained experimental data, we introduce the concept of effective noise intensity characterizing cognitive brain activity and propose the experimental technique for its measurement. The developed theory, using the methods of statistical physics, provides a solid experimentally approved basis for further understanding of brain functionality. The rather simple way to measure the proposed quantitative characteristic of the brain activity related to the interpretation of ambiguous images will hopefully become a powerful tool for physicists, physiologists and medics. Our theoretical and experimental findings are in excellent agreement with each other.

  7. Phosphatidylserine and caffeine attenuate postexercise mood disturbance and perception of fatigue in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Adam J; Hoffman, Jay R; Gonzalez, Adam M; Stout, Jeffrey R; Fragala, Maren S; Mangine, Gerald T; McCormack, William P; Jajtner, Adam R; Townsend, Jeremy R; Robinson, Edward H

    2013-06-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) may attenuate the adverse effects of physical fatigue. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a multi-ingredient supplement containing 400 mg/d PS and 100 mg/d caffeine (supplement [SUP]) for 2 weeks on measures of cognitive function (CF), reaction time (RT), and mood (MD) following an acute exercise stress. It is hypothesized that PS will maintain preexercise CF and RT scores, while attenuating postexercise fatigue. Participants completed 2 acute bouts of resistance exercise (T1 and T2) separated by 2-week ingestion of SUP or control (CON). Outcome measures were assessed pre- and postexercise. When collapsed across groups, a significant decrease in RT performance was seen in the 60-second reaction drill from pre- to postexercise at T1. All other RT tests were similar from pre- to postexercise at T1. Reaction time was not significantly changed by PS. When collapsed across groups, a significant increase in performance of the serial subtraction test was seen. A significant increase (8.9% and 7.1%) in the number of correct answers and a significant decrease (8.0% and 7.5%) in time to answer were seen from pre- to postworkout at T1 and T2, respectively. A significant increase in total MD score from pre- to postworkout was observed for CON but not for PS at T2. Phosphatidylserine significantly attenuated pre- to postexercise perception of fatigue compared to CON. Ingestion of SUP for 14 days appears to attenuate postexercise MD scores and perception of fatigue, but does not affect CF or RT, in recreationally trained individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • To develop a novel instrumental intelligent test methodology for food sensory analysis. • A novel data fusion was used in instrumental intelligent test methodology. • Linear and nonlinear tools were comparatively used for modeling. • The instrumental test methodology can be imitative of human test behavior. - Abstract: Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers

  9. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng, E-mail: qschen@ujs.edu.cn

    2014-09-02

    Highlights: • To develop a novel instrumental intelligent test methodology for food sensory analysis. • A novel data fusion was used in instrumental intelligent test methodology. • Linear and nonlinear tools were comparatively used for modeling. • The instrumental test methodology can be imitative of human test behavior. - Abstract: Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers.

  10. Using a model of human visual perception to improve deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Michael; Francis, Gregory

    2018-04-17

    Deep learning algorithms achieve human-level (or better) performance on many tasks, but there still remain situations where humans learn better or faster. With regard to classification of images, we argue that some of those situations are because the human visual system represents information in a format that promotes good training and classification. To demonstrate this idea, we show how occluding objects can impair performance of a deep learning system that is trained to classify digits in the MNIST database. We describe a human inspired segmentation and interpolation algorithm that attempts to reconstruct occluded parts of an image, and we show that using this reconstruction algorithm to pre-process occluded images promotes training and classification performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Human, Nature, Dynamism: The Effects of Content and Movement Perception on Brain Activations during the Aesthetic Judgment of Representational Paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Dio, Cinzia; Ardizzi, Martina; Massaro, Davide; Di Cesare, Giuseppe; Gilli, Gabriella; Marchetti, Antonella; Gallese, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Movement perception and its role in aesthetic experience have been often studied, within empirical aesthetics, in relation to the human body. No such specificity has been defined in neuroimaging studies with respect to contents lacking a human form. The aim of this work was to explore, through functional magnetic imaging (f MRI), how perceived movement is processed during the aesthetic judgment of paintings using two types of content: human subjects and scenes of nature. Participants, untutored in the arts, were shown the stimuli and asked to make aesthetic judgments. Additionally, they were instructed to observe the paintings and to rate their perceived movement in separate blocks. Observation highlighted spontaneous processes associated with aesthetic experience, whereas movement judgment outlined activations specifically related to movement processing. The ratings recorded during aesthetic judgment revealed that nature scenes received higher scored than human content paintings. The imaging data showed similar activation, relative to baseline, for all stimuli in the three tasks, including activation of occipito-temporal areas, posterior parietal, and premotor cortices. Contrast analyses within aesthetic judgment task showed that human content activated, relative to nature, precuneus, fusiform gyrus, and posterior temporal areas, whose activation was prominent for dynamic human paintings. In contrast, nature scenes activated, relative to human stimuli, occipital and posterior parietal cortex/precuneus, involved in visuospatial exploration and pragmatic coding of movement, as well as central insula. Static nature paintings further activated, relative to dynamic nature stimuli, central and posterior insula. Besides insular activation, which was specific for aesthetic judgment, we found a large overlap in the activation pattern characterizing each stimulus dimension (content and dynamism) across observation, aesthetic judgment, and movement judgment tasks. These

  12. Perception of human rights temperature of community in persons with severe mental illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnadin Shibu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the rights of persons with mental illnesses (PwMI are protected by law in India, human rights of PwMI is being violated in many ways. There is dearth of literature on the human rights of PwMI in India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted to understand the perceived human rights temperature of community in PwMI. Data were collected from PwMI (diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder, and symptomatically stable for 3 years seeking outpatient psychiatric treatment from private psychiatric hospitals and clinics in Kozhikode (Calicut district of Kerala state, India. Data were collected using “Taking the Human Rights Temperature of Your Community” which was modified and validated in Indian population and a sociodemographic schedule which was prepared by the researchers. Results: The majority were males (54.2%. Mean duration of illness as 10.42 ± 6.43 years. Mean score of the human rights temperature was 68.31 ± 5.95. Perceived major concerns in the areas of career opportunity (59.5%, discrimination in hiring for work (61.3%, help and care in development of PwMI (64.5%, equal opportunity to avail treatment and cost incurred in it (60.5%, involvement in decision making (46.7%, and responsiveness of the community when any rights violation happens (44.9%. Conclusion: Human rights of PwMI are a major concern. Functioning of the mental health authority and legal aid clinics has to be strengthened to address rights issues of PwMI.

  13. Using a Graphics Turing Test to Evaluate the Effect of Frame Rate and Motion Blur on Telepresence of Animated Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Mathias; Johansen, Stine Schmieg; Krog, Kim Srirat

    2013-01-01

    A limited Graphics Turing Test is used to determine the frame rate that is required to achieve telepresence of an animated object. For low object velocities of 2.25 and 4.5 degrees of visual angle per second at 60 frames per second a rotating object with no added motion blur is able to pass the t...

  14. The effectiveness and user perception of 3-dimensional digital human anatomy in an online undergraduate anatomy laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbelink, Amy Joanne

    2007-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of implementing desktop 3-dimensional (3D) stereo images of human anatomy into an undergraduate human anatomy distance laboratory. User perceptions of 2D and 3D images were gathered via questionnaire in order to determine ease of use and level of satisfaction associated with the 3D software in the online learning environment. Mayer's (2001, p. 184) principles of design were used to develop the study materials that consisted of PowerPoint presentations and AVI files accessed via Blackboard. The research design employed a mixed-methods approach. Volunteers each were administered a demographic survey and were then stratified into groups based upon pre-test scores. A total sample size of 62 pairs was available for combined data analysis. Quantitative research questions regarding the effectiveness of 2D versus the 3D treatment were analyzed using a doubly-multivariate repeated measures (Doubly-MANOVA) design. Paired test scores achieved by undergraduates on a laboratory practical of identification and spatial relationships of the bones and features of a human skull were used in the analysis. The questionnaire designed to gather user perceptions consisted of quantitative and qualitative questions. Response frequencies were analyzed for the two groups and common themes were noted. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in group means for the main effect of the treatment groups 2D and 3D and for the variables of identification and relationship with the 3D group outperforming the 2D group on both dependent variables. Effect sizes were determined to be small, 0.215 for the identification variable and 0.359 for the relationship variable. Overall, all students liked the convenience of using PowerPoint and AVI files online. The 3D group felt their PowerPoint was more realistic than did the 2D group and both groups appreciated the detailed labeling of the online images. One third of the

  15. Cranes, crops and conservation: understanding human perceptions of biodiversity conservation in South Korea's Civilian Control Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Oh; Steiner, Frederick; Mueller, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    South Korea's Civilian Control Zone (CCZ), a relatively untouched area due to tight military oversight since the end of Korean War, has received considerable attention nationally and internationally for its rich biodiversity. However, the exclusion of local communities from the process of defining problems and goals and of setting priorities for biodiversity conservation has halted a series of biodiversity conservation efforts. Through qualitative research, we explored CCZ farmers' views of key problems and issues and also the sources of their opposition to the government-initiated conservation approaches. Key findings include the farmers' concerns about the impact of conservation restrictions on their access to necessary resources needed to farm, wildlife impacts on the value of rice and other agricultural goods they produce, and farmers' strong distrust of government, the military, and planners, based on their experiences with past conservation processes. The findings regarding farmers' perceptions should prove useful for the design of future participatory planning processes for biodiversity conservation in the CCZ. This case highlights how conservative measures, perceived to be imposed from above--however scientifically valuable--can be undermined and suggests the value that must be placed on communication among planners and stakeholders.

  16. Dimensionality of Leadership in the Perceptions of Senior Human Resource Executives in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pawłowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Sixty-five HR general managers representing companies from a variety of industries took part in the research that we conducted between April and October 2013. They had identified leadership development as the most significant factor in the growth of the top firms in Poland’s economy. We have conducted in-depth interviews to understand the perception of the leadership concept. We have found that they tend to focus on the following dimensions of leadership: conveying a vision, inspiring, being charismatic, being credible, being able to manage others, and having good interpersonal skills. Research limitations and implications: The main limitation of the research is that it does not allow for generalization of findings on perceived dimensionality of leadership on larger population of HR Executives. Our findings imply that leadership development will soon be a strong priority among HR teams of 500 largest companies, but several dimensions are not present in their description of leadership. Originality/value: Our paper makes three contributions to the literature. We have developed a managerial attention view of the firm by surveying senior HR executives. CEOs, CFOs, and top management teams tend to be subject of studies in this theoretical tradition more often than HR executives, Another contribution is the use of mixed methods that is rather rare yet offering vast opportunities for triangulation and knowledge building in the discipline. Our third contribution is that we applied a standard scale of the multidimensional leadership concept.

  17. Perception of emotion-related conflict in human communications: what are the effects of schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rachel L C; Rossell, Susan L

    2014-12-15

    Our ability to make sense of emotional cues is of paramount importance for understanding state of mind and communicative intent. However, emotional cues often conflict with each other; this presents a significant challenge for people with schizophrenia. We conducted a theoretical review to determine the extent and types of impaired processing of emotion-related conflict in schizophrenia; we evaluated the relationship with medication and symptoms, and considered possible mediatory mechanisms. The literature established that people with schizophrenia demonstrated impaired function: (i) when passively exposed to emotion cues whilst performing an unrelated task, (ii) when selectively attending to one source of emotion cues whilst trying to ignore interference from another source, and (iii) when trying to resolve conflicting emotion cues and judge meta-communicative intent. These deficits showed associations with both negative and positive symptoms. There was limited evidence for antipsychotic medications attenuating impaired emotion perception when there are conflicting cues, with further direct research needed. Impaired attentional control and context processing may underlie some of the observed impairments. Neuroanatomical correlates are likely to involve interhemispheric transfer via the corpus callosum, limbic regions such as the amygdala, and possibly dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex through their role in conflict processing. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The "Human Colour" Crayon: Investigating the Attitudes and Perceptions of Learners Regarding Race and Skin Colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Neeske; Costandius, Elmarie

    2017-01-01

    Some coloured and black learners in South Africa use a light orange or pink crayon to represent themselves in art. Many learners name this colour "human colour" or "skin colour". This is troublesome, because it could reflect exclusionary ways of representing race in images and language. This case study, conducted with two…

  19. Human perceptions before and after a 50% reduction in an urban deer herd's density

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Henderson; Robert J. Warren; David H. Newman; J. Michael Bowker; Jennifer S. Cromwell; Jeffrey J. Jackson

    2000-01-01

    Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations in urban and suburban areas can be controversial because of potential damage to landscape vegetation, deer-vehicle collisions, and fear over transmission of tick-borne diseases. Herd reduction is often proposed to solve these problems; however, the ability of human residents to...

  20. Two eyes, one vision: binocular motion perception in human visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, M.

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human vision is the fact that it is binocular, i.e. that we have two eyes. As a result, the brain nearly always receives two slightly different images of the same visual scene. Yet, we only perceive a single image and thus our brain has to actively combine the binocular visual

  1. Student Performance in and Perceptions of a High Structure Undergraduate Human Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Justin F.

    2016-01-01

    Human anatomy has usually been taught in a didactic fashion in colleges and universities. However, recent calls from United States governmental agencies have called for the transformation of undergraduate life sciences education to include active learning in the classroom. In addition, high structure courses have been shown to increase student…

  2. The Career Perceptions of Academic Staff and Human Resource Discourses in English Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strike, Tony; Taylor, John

    2009-01-01

    This paper sets out findings from research that considered the interplay between English national policy developments in human resources management in higher education and the personal stories of academic staff as career participants. Academic careers are pursued in an institutional and national policy context but it was not clear that the formal…

  3. Comments on "Weed Recognition using Image Blur Information" by Peng, Z. & Jun, C., Biosystems Engineering 110 (2), p. 198-205”

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan; Suk, Tomáš; Zitová, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, č. 126 (2014), s. 104-108 ISSN 1537-5110 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Keywords : Weed recognition * Blur * Moment Invariants * Blur Invariants Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 1.619, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/ZOI/flusser-0431031.pdf

  4. [Practices and perception of risk in human immunodeficiency virus infected males who have sex with other males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Mosteyrín, Sol; del Val Acebrón, María; Fernández de Mosteyrín, Teresa; Fernández Guerrero, Manuel L

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases increases in males who have sex with males (MSM), despite the knowledge on how to prevent them. To determine the mechanisms that are driving this lack of prevention is important to reverse the trend. An anonymous, voluntary and self-reporting questionnaire was completed by HIV+ MSM patients who were seen in a hospital clinic, with the aim of finding out the sexual risk practices and behaviour, as well as their perceptions and assessment as regards this risk. The questionnaire included 58questions, divided into 10sections, to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour as regards HIV. The questionnaires were also given to the physicians, with the aim of exploring their perceptions, attitudes and opinions as regards the situation of the epidemic, prevention, perception of the diseases and the patient, and values in clinical practice. A total of 495 questionnaires from the patients were analysed. Most of them (87%) said they knew how HIV was acquired, and 97% knew how to prevent it, but 69% knew they were in a risk situation, and 43% had little concern of contracting HIV. Almost two-thirds (65%) had sex with ≥2persons on the same day, 47% met on the Internet and 26% had group sex. The same percentage of those surveyed considered that they acted impulsively. They highlighted a lack of information (33%), bad luck (32%), assumed excessive risk (36%), and lake of concern (25%), as the main reasons for acquiring the infection. When confronted with diagnosis 41% of patients answered «I never thought that it would happen to me», and 32% said «I had bad luck». Of the 121 physicians who completed the questionnaire, 24% considered that infection due to HIV/AIDS was out of control in Spain, and 65% responded that there was an image that HIV/AIDS was a controlled disease and of little concern. A large majority (71%) of those surveyed, considered that the increase in new

  5. Cosmetics as a Feature of the Extended Human Phenotype: Modulation of the Perception of Biologically Important Facial Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcoff, Nancy L.; Stock, Shannon; Haley, Lauren E.; Vickery, Sarah A.; House, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the perception of faces has focused on the size, shape, and configuration of inherited features or the biological phenotype, and largely ignored the effects of adornment, or the extended phenotype. Research on the evolution of signaling has shown that animals frequently alter visual features, including color cues, to attract, intimidate or protect themselves from conspecifics. Humans engage in conscious manipulation of visual signals using cultural tools in real time rather than genetic changes over evolutionary time. Here, we investigate one tool, the use of color cosmetics. In two studies, we asked viewers to rate the same female faces with or without color cosmetics, and we varied the style of makeup from minimal (natural), to moderate (professional), to dramatic (glamorous). Each look provided increasing luminance contrast between the facial features and surrounding skin. Faces were shown for 250 ms or for unlimited inspection time, and subjects rated them for attractiveness, competence, likeability and trustworthiness. At 250 ms, cosmetics had significant positive effects on all outcomes. Length of inspection time did not change the effect for competence or attractiveness. However, with longer inspection time, the effect of cosmetics on likability and trust varied by specific makeup looks, indicating that cosmetics could impact automatic and deliberative judgments differently. The results suggest that cosmetics can create supernormal facial stimuli, and that one way they may do so is by exaggerating cues to sexual dimorphism. Our results provide evidence that judgments of facial trustworthiness and attractiveness are at least partially separable, that beauty has a significant positive effect on judgment of competence, a universal dimension of social cognition, but has a more nuanced effect on the other universal dimension of social warmth, and that the extended phenotype significantly influences perception of biologically important signals at first

  6. Cosmetics as a feature of the extended human phenotype: modulation of the perception of biologically important facial signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L Etcoff

    Full Text Available Research on the perception of faces has focused on the size, shape, and configuration of inherited features or the biological phenotype, and largely ignored the effects of adornment, or the extended phenotype. Research on the evolution of signaling has shown that animals frequently alter visual features, including color cues, to attract, intimidate or protect themselves from conspecifics. Humans engage in conscious manipulation of visual signals using cultural tools in real time rather than genetic changes over evolutionary time. Here, we investigate one tool, the use of color cosmetics. In two studies, we asked viewers to rate the same female faces with or without color cosmetics, and we varied the style of makeup from minimal (natural, to moderate (professional, to dramatic (glamorous. Each look provided increasing luminance contrast between the facial features and surrounding skin. Faces were shown for 250 ms or for unlimited inspection time, and subjects rated them for attractiveness, competence, likeability and trustworthiness. At 250 ms, cosmetics had significant positive effects on all outcomes. Length of inspection time did not change the effect for competence or attractiveness. However, with longer inspection time, the effect of cosmetics on likability and trust varied by specific makeup looks, indicating that cosmetics could impact automatic and deliberative judgments differently. The results suggest that cosmetics can create supernormal facial stimuli, and that one way they may do so is by exaggerating cues to sexual dimorphism. Our results provide evidence that judgments of facial trustworthiness and attractiveness are at least partially separable, that beauty has a significant positive effect on judgment of competence, a universal dimension of social cognition, but has a more nuanced effect on the other universal dimension of social warmth, and that the extended phenotype significantly influences perception of biologically important

  7. Cosmetics as a feature of the extended human phenotype: modulation of the perception of biologically important facial signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcoff, Nancy L; Stock, Shannon; Haley, Lauren E; Vickery, Sarah A; House, David M

    2011-01-01

    Research on the perception of faces has focused on the size, shape, and configuration of inherited features or the biological phenotype, and largely ignored the effects of adornment, or the extended phenotype. Research on the evolution of signaling has shown that animals frequently alter visual features, including color cues, to attract, intimidate or protect themselves from conspecifics. Humans engage in conscious manipulation of visual signals using cultural tools in real time rather than genetic changes over evolutionary time. Here, we investigate one tool, the use of color cosmetics. In two studies, we asked viewers to rate the same female faces with or without color cosmetics, and we varied the style of makeup from minimal (natural), to moderate (professional), to dramatic (glamorous). Each look provided increasing luminance contrast between the facial features and surrounding skin. Faces were shown for 250 ms or for unlimited inspection time, and subjects rated them for attractiveness, competence, likeability and trustworthiness. At 250 ms, cosmetics had significant positive effects on all outcomes. Length of inspection time did not change the effect for competence or attractiveness. However, with longer inspection time, the effect of cosmetics on likability and trust varied by specific makeup looks, indicating that cosmetics could impact automatic and deliberative judgments differently. The results suggest that cosmetics can create supernormal facial stimuli, and that one way they may do so is by exaggerating cues to sexual dimorphism. Our results provide evidence that judgments of facial trustworthiness and attractiveness are at least partially separable, that beauty has a significant positive effect on judgment of competence, a universal dimension of social cognition, but has a more nuanced effect on the other universal dimension of social warmth, and that the extended phenotype significantly influences perception of biologically important signals at first

  8. Local Directional Probability Optimization for Quantification of Blurred Gray/White Matter Junction in Magnetic Resonance Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Qu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The blurred gray/white matter junction is an important feature of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD lesions. FCD is the main cause of epilepsy and can be detected through magnetic resonance (MR imaging. Several earlier studies have focused on computing the gradient magnitude of the MR image and used the resulting map to model the blurred gray/white matter junction. However, gradient magnitude cannot quantify the blurred gray/white matter junction. Therefore, we proposed a novel algorithm called local directional probability optimization (LDPO for detecting and quantifying the width of the gray/white matter boundary (GWB within the lesional areas. The proposed LDPO method mainly consists of the following three stages: (1 introduction of a hidden Markov random field-expectation-maximization algorithm to compute the probability images of brain tissues in order to obtain the GWB region; (2 generation of local directions from gray matter (GM to white matter (WM passing through the GWB, considering the GWB to be an electric potential field; (3 determination of the optimal local directions for any given voxel of GWB, based on iterative searching of the neighborhood. This was then used to measure the width of the GWB. The proposed LDPO method was tested on real MR images of patients with FCD lesions. The results indicated that the LDPO method could quantify the GWB width. On the GWB width map, the width of the blurred GWB in the lesional region was observed to be greater than that in the non-lesional regions. The proposed GWB width map produced higher F-scores in terms of detecting the blurred GWB within the FCD lesional region as compared to that of FCD feature maps, indicating better trade-off between precision and recall.

  9. Impact of the Parameter Variation on the Image Blurring in 3 T Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Phantom Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Nam Kug; Cho, Kyung Sik; Lee, Jin Seong [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    To evaluate the effects of the key imaging-parameter alterations on the four MR sequences in a phantom study. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on a MR phantom with an 8-channel head coil by using a 3 T MR system. The images were obtained in the axial plane on four MR sequences [T1-weighted, T2-weighted, Proton-density, and 3 dimensional (3D) fast spin echo (FSE)] with controlled variations in the following key parameters: 1) echo train length (ETL), 2) repetition time (TR), and 3) echo time (TE). The image blurring was determined by the degree of the gradient angle; i.e., the blurring increased as the gradient angle decreases. The increasing ETL was observed to cause an increase in the image blurring on all pulse sequences with a statistical significance (p = 0.004) on the 3D FSE. Increasing the TR appeared to have no effect except a statistically significant decrease on the T1-weighted images (p = 0.011). Increasing TE showed no effect on the T1-weighted images (p = 0.932); however, it caused an increase of blurring on the proton density images (p = 0.016) as well as the T2-weighted images (p < 0.001), and a decrease on the 3D FSE (p = 0.001). To reduce the image blurring, short ETL and long TE for 3D FSE, long TR for T1-weighted images and short TE for proton-density and T2-weighted images should be applied.

  10. Understanding the impacts of medical tourism on health human resources in Barbados: a prospective, qualitative study of stakeholder perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical tourism is a global health practice where patients travel internationally with the intention of receiving medical services. A range of low, middle, and high income countries are encouraging investment in the medical tourism sector, including countries in the Caribbean targeting patients in North America and Europe. While medical tourism has the potential to provide economic and employment opportunities in destination countries, there are concerns that it could encourage the movement of health workers from the public to private health sector. Methods We present findings from 19 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders across the public health care, private health care, government, allied business, and civil society sectors. These interviews were conducted in-person in Barbados and via phone. The interview transcripts were coded and a thematic analysis developed. Results Three themes were identified: 1) Stakeholder perceptions of the patterns and plans for health human resource usage by current and planned medical tourism facilities in Barbados. We found that while health human resource usage in the medical tourism sector has been limited, it is likely to grow in the future; 2) Anticipated positive impacts of medical tourism on health human resources and access to care in the public system. These benefits included improved quality control, training opportunities, and health worker retention; and 3) Anticipated negative impacts of medical tourism on health human resources and access to care in the public system. These impacts included longer wait times for care and a shift in planning priorities driven by the medical tourism sector. Conclusions Stakeholders interviewed who were connected to medical tourism expansion or the tourism sector took a generally positive view of the likely impacts of medical tourism on health human resources in Barbados. However, stakeholders associated with the public health system and health equity expressed concern

  11. Understanding the impacts of medical tourism on health human resources in Barbados: a prospective, qualitative study of stakeholder perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A; Turner, Leigh; Johnston, Rory

    2013-01-05

    Medical tourism is a global health practice where patients travel internationally with the intention of receiving medical services. A range of low, middle, and high income countries are encouraging investment in the medical tourism sector, including countries in the Caribbean targeting patients in North America and Europe. While medical tourism has the potential to provide economic and employment opportunities in destination countries, there are concerns that it could encourage the movement of health workers from the public to private health sector. We present findings from 19 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders across the public health care, private health care, government, allied business, and civil society sectors. These interviews were conducted in-person in Barbados and via phone. The interview transcripts were coded and a thematic analysis developed. Three themes were identified: 1) Stakeholder perceptions of the patterns and plans for health human resource usage by current and planned medical tourism facilities in Barbados. We found that while health human resource usage in the medical tourism sector has been limited, it is likely to grow in the future; 2) Anticipated positive impacts of medical tourism on health human resources and access to care in the public system. These benefits included improved quality control, training opportunities, and health worker retention; and 3) Anticipated negative impacts of medical tourism on health human resources and access to care in the public system. These impacts included longer wait times for care and a shift in planning priorities driven by the medical tourism sector. Stakeholders interviewed who were connected to medical tourism expansion or the tourism sector took a generally positive view of the likely impacts of medical tourism on health human resources in Barbados. However, stakeholders associated with the public health system and health equity expressed concern that medical tourism may spread

  12. A 58-year-old female with blurred vision and apraxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hong SHI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old right handed woman, with 12 years of formal education, had a five-year history of slowly progressive blurred vision and apraxia. Five years before the examination she gradually became blurred vision and had difficulties identifying static objects within the visual field. Then she went to an ophthalmologist and received cataract surgery. However, the symptoms were not improved after surgery. Two years later, she had difficulty doing household chores and was unable to dress herself. She developed an anxiety disorder in the absence of prominent language or memory deficits. Five years after onset, she showed global cognitive decline and abilities of daily life decline. On neurological examination she was alert. Neuropsychological testing revealed a mini-mental state examination (MMSE score of 20/30 with anomia, agraphia, alexia and partial impairment on time orientation. Biochemical investigations for disorders involving thyroid function, vitamin B12, and folate were unremarkable. A brain MRI showed diffuse cortical atrophy and hippocampus atrophy. An 18F-FDG PET scan showed bilateral hypometabolism at the frontal lobes, tempoparietooccipital adjunction, posterior cingulate cortices and precuneus, insular lobes, caudate nuclei and right thalamus. An 11C-PIB PET scan showed bilateral amyloid deposits at bilateral frontal lobes and occipital lobes, left temporal lobe and insular, basal ganglia, bilateral cingulate cortices and precuneus. No PSEN1, PSEN2 or APP mutations were identified. This early-onset patient had an unusual cognitive complaint, including visual agnosia and apraxia. The clinical features, structural and functional imaging findings of this case were compatible with the diagnosis of Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA. PCA is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by a progressive, often dramatic and relatively selective decline in visual processing skills and other functions subserved by parietal, occipital and

  13. Human response to wind turbine noise - perception, annoyance and moderating factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Eja

    2007-05-15

    The aims of this thesis were to describe and gain an understanding of how people who live in the vicinity of wind turbines are affected by wind turbine noise, and how individual, situational and visual factors, as well as sound properties, moderate the response. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in a flat, mainly rural area in Sweden, with the objective to estimate the prevalence of noise annoyance and to examine the dose-response relationship between A-weighted sound pressure levels (SPLs) and perception of and annoyance with wind turbine noise. Subjective responses were obtained through a questionnaire (n = 513; response rate: 68%) and outdoor, A-weighted SPLs were calculated for each respondent. To gain a deeper understanding of the observed noise annoyance, 15 people living in an area were interviewed using open-ended questions. The interviews were analysed using the comparative method of Grounded Theory (GT). An additional cross-sectional study, mainly exploring the influence of individual and situational factors, was carried out in seven areas in Sweden that differed with regard to terrain (flat or complex) and degree of urbanization (n = 765; response rate: 58%). To further explore the impact of visual factors, data from the two cross-sectional studies were tested with structural equation modelling. A proposed model of the influence of visual attitude on noise annoyance, also comprising the influence of noise level and general attitude, was tested among respondents who could see wind turbines versus respondents who could not see wind turbines from their dwelling, and respondents living in flat versus complex terrain. Dose-response relationships were found both for perception of noise and for noise annoyance in relation to A-weighted SPLs. The risk of annoyance was enhanced among respondents who could see at least one turbine from their dwelling and among those living in a rural in comparison with a suburban area. Noise from wind turbines was

  14. Human response to wind turbine noise - perception, annoyance and moderating factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Eja

    2007-05-01

    The aims of this thesis were to describe and gain an understanding of how people who live in the vicinity of wind turbines are affected by wind turbine noise, and how individual, situational and visual factors, as well as sound properties, moderate the response. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in a flat, mainly rural area in Sweden, with the objective to estimate the prevalence of noise annoyance and to examine the dose-response relationship between A-weighted sound pressure levels (SPLs) and perception of and annoyance with wind turbine noise. Subjective responses were obtained through a questionnaire (n = 513; response rate: 68%) and outdoor, A-weighted SPLs were calculated for each respondent. To gain a deeper understanding of the observed noise annoyance, 15 people living in an area were interviewed using open-ended questions. The interviews were analysed using the comparative method of Grounded Theory (GT). An additional cross-sectional study, mainly exploring the influence of individual and situational factors, was carried out in seven areas in Sweden that differed with regard to terrain (flat or complex) and degree of urbanization (n = 765; response rate: 58%). To further explore the impact of visual factors, data from the two cross-sectional studies were tested with structural equation modelling. A proposed model of the influence of visual attitude on noise annoyance, also comprising the influence of noise level and general attitude, was tested among respondents who could see wind turbines versus respondents who could not see wind turbines from their dwelling, and respondents living in flat versus complex terrain. Dose-response relationships were found both for perception of noise and for noise annoyance in relation to A-weighted SPLs. The risk of annoyance was enhanced among respondents who could see at least one turbine from their dwelling and among those living in a rural in comparison with a suburban area. Noise from wind turbines was

  15. 3D models as a platform for urban analysis and studies on human perception of space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Gewirtzman, D.

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an integrated visual analysis and modelling for environmental and urban systems in respect to interior space layout and functionality. This work involves interdisciplinary research efforts that focus primarily on architecture design discipline, yet incorporates experts from other and different disciplines, such as Geoinformatics, computer sciences and environment-behavior studies. This work integrates an advanced Spatial Openness Index (SOI) model within realistic geovisualized Geographical Information System (GIS) environment and assessment using subjective residents' evaluation. The advanced SOI model measures the volume of visible space at any required view point practically, for every room or function. This model enables accurate 3D simulation of the built environment regarding built structure and surrounding vegetation. This paper demonstrates the work on a case study. A 3D model of Neve-Shaanan neighbourhood in Haifa was developed. Students that live in this neighbourhood had participated in this research. Their apartments were modelled in details and inserted into a general model, representing topography and the volumes of buildings. The visual space for each room in every apartment was documented and measured and at the same time the students were asked to answer questions regarding their perception of space and view from their residence. The results of this research work had shown potential contribution to professional users, such as researchers, designers and city planners. This model can be easily used by professionals and by non-professionals such as city dwellers, contractors and developers. This work continues with additional case studies having different building typologies and functions variety, using virtual reality tools.

  16. Human fMRI Reveals That Delayed Action Re-Recruits Visual Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Anthony; Monaco, Simona; Kaufman, Liam D.; Culham, Jody C.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral and neuropsychological research suggests that delayed actions rely on different neural substrates than immediate actions; however, the specific brain areas implicated in the two types of actions remain unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure human brain activation during delayed grasping and reaching. Specifically, we examined activation during visual stimulation and action execution separated by a 18-s delay interval in which subjects had to rememb...

  17. Investigating the role of musical genre in human perception of music stretching resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jun; Wang, Chaokun

    2017-01-01

    To stretch a music piece to a given length is a common demand in people's daily lives, e.g., in audio-video synchronization and animation production. However, it is not always guaranteed that the stretched music piece is acceptable for general audience since music stretching suffers from people's perceptual artefacts. Over-stretching a music piece will make it uncomfortable for human psychoacoustic hearing. The research on music stretching resistance attempts to estimate the maximum stretchab...

  18. Humanização hospitalar: percepção dos pacientes = Hospital humanization: perception of the patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce Stein Backes

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available É necessário mudar a forma como os profissionais se posicionam frente ao seu principal objeto de trabalho, a vida, o sofrimento e a dor dos indivíduos. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo relatar as percepções dos pacientes em relação à humanização no ambiente hospitalar. Emergiram, dentre outros, a necessidade de implementar um processo reflexivo acerca dos princípios, valores, direitos e deveres que regem a prática dos profissionais de saúde. Um programa de humanização hospitalar supõe estabelecer um ambiente de cuidado humano e uma cultura de respeito e valorização não da doença, masdo ser humano que adoece, contemplando uma relação sujeito-sujeito e não sujeito-objeto.It is necessary to change the manner in which they position themselves in the face of the principle object of their work, the life, suffering and pain of individuals. Thus, this study aimed to relating the patient’s perceptions with regards to the humanization in hospital ambient. Among others, the following to need the implementation of a reflective process concerning the principles,values, rights and duties which govern the practice os health professionals. Summarizing, a humanization hospital program supposed to establish an ambient to nurse people, and a culture of respecting and valuing the human being who gets il, contemplating a relationsubject-subject and no subject-object.

  19. Model cortical association fields account for the time course and dependence on target complexity of human contour perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadas Gintautas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Can lateral connectivity in the primary visual cortex account for the time dependence and intrinsic task difficulty of human contour detection? To answer this question, we created a synthetic image set that prevents sole reliance on either low-level visual features or high-level context for the detection of target objects. Rendered images consist of smoothly varying, globally aligned contour fragments (amoebas distributed among groups of randomly rotated fragments (clutter. The time course and accuracy of amoeba detection by humans was measured using a two-alternative forced choice protocol with self-reported confidence and variable image presentation time (20-200 ms, followed by an image mask optimized so as to interrupt visual processing. Measured psychometric functions were well fit by sigmoidal functions with exponential time constants of 30-91 ms, depending on amoeba complexity. Key aspects of the psychophysical experiments were accounted for by a computational network model, in which simulated responses across retinotopic arrays of orientation-selective elements were modulated by cortical association fields, represented as multiplicative kernels computed from the differences in pairwise edge statistics between target and distractor images. Comparing the experimental and the computational results suggests that each iteration of the lateral interactions takes at least [Formula: see text] ms of cortical processing time. Our results provide evidence that cortical association fields between orientation selective elements in early visual areas can account for important temporal and task-dependent aspects of the psychometric curves characterizing human contour perception, with the remaining discrepancies postulated to arise from the influence of higher cortical areas.

  20. Sensory function assessment of the human male lower urinary tract using current perception thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knüpfer, Stephanie C; Liechti, Martina D; Gregorini, Flavia; De Wachter, Stefan; Kessler, Thomas M; Mehnert, Ulrich

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of current perception threshold (CPT) measurement for sensory assessment of distinct locations in the male lower urinary tract (LUT). Twelve male subjects (>18 years) without LUT symptoms or medical comorbidities were eligible. CPTs were determined twice (interval: 7-20 days) at the bladder dome, trigone and the proximal, membranous, and distal urethra. Square wave electrical stimulation of 3 Hz/0.2 ms and 0.5 Hz/1 ms was applied using a transurethral 8F catheter placed under fluoroscopic control. Bladder volume was kept constant (60 mL) using a second 10F catheter. Repetitive measurements and reliability were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The ANOVA revealed significant main effects for stimulation site (P = 0.008) and type of stimulation (P < 0.001) with lower CPTs for 0.5 Hz/1 ms compared to 3 Hz/0.2 ms. There was no significant effect for visit number (P = 0.061). CPTs were higher for bladder dome than for proximal (0.5 Hz/1 ms: P = 0.022; 3 Hz/0.2 ms: P = 0.022) and distal urethra (0.5 Hz/1 ms: P = 0.026; 3 Hz/0.2 ms: P = 0.030). Reliability of CPT measurements was excellent to good (ICC = 0.67-0.96) except for the bladder dome (5 Hz/1 ms: ICC = 0.45; 3 Hz/0.2 ms: ICC = 0.20) and distal urethra (3 Hz/0.2 ms: ICC = 0.57). CPTs can be reliably detected at different LUT locations. However, alert and compliant subjects are essential. CPTs of LUT may become a complementary assessment method providing information on responsiveness and sensitivity of afferent LUT nerves. This is especially relevant for urethral afferents, which are not covered by standard urodynamic investigations. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:469-473, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The islands are different: human perceptions of game species in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Johnson, Edwin D

    2014-10-01

    Hawaii's game animals are all non-native species, which provokes human-wildlife conflict among stakeholders. The management of human-wildlife conflict in Hawaii is further complicated by the discrete nature of island communities. Our goal was to understand the desires and perceived values or impacts of game held by residents of Hawaii regarding six game species [pigs (Sus scrofa), goats (Capra hircus), mouflon (Ovis musimon), axis deer (Axis axis), turkeys (Melagris gallopavo), and doves (Geopelia striata)]. We measured the desired abundance of game on the six main Hawaiian Islands using the potential for conflict index and identified explanatory variables for those desires via recursive partitioning. In 2011 we surveyed 5,407 residents (2,360 random residents and 3,047 pre-identified stakeholders). Overall 54.5 and 27.6 % of the emailed and mailed surveys were returned (n = 1,510). A non-respondent survey revealed that respondents and non-respondents had similar interest in wildlife, and a similar education level. The desired abundance of game differed significantly among stakeholders, species, and islands. The desired abundance scores were higher for axis deer, mouflon, and turkeys compared to pigs, goats or doves. Enjoyment at seeing game and the cultural value of game were widespread explanatory variables for desired abundance. Models for Lanai emphasized the economic value of game, whereas models for Maui identified the potential for game to contaminate soil and water. Models for Oahu and Kauai revealed concern for human health and safety. Given our findings we recommend managers design separate management plans for each island taking into consideration the values of residents.

  2. The Islands Are Different: Human Perceptions of Game Species in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Cheryl A.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Johnson, Edwin D.

    2014-10-01

    Hawaii's game animals are all non-native species, which provokes human-wildlife conflict among stakeholders. The management of human-wildlife conflict in Hawaii is further complicated by the discrete nature of island communities. Our goal was to understand the desires and perceived values or impacts of game held by residents of Hawaii regarding six game species [pigs ( Sus scrofa), goats ( Capra hircus), mouflon ( Ovis musimon), axis deer ( Axis axis), turkeys ( Melagris gallopavo), and doves ( Geopelia striata)]. We measured the desired abundance of game on the six main Hawaiian Islands using the potential for conflict index and identified explanatory variables for those desires via recursive partitioning. In 2011 we surveyed 5,407 residents (2,360 random residents and 3,047 pre-identified stakeholders). Overall 54.5 and 27.6 % of the emailed and mailed surveys were returned ( n = 1,510). A non-respondent survey revealed that respondents and non-respondents had similar interest in wildlife, and a similar education level. The desired abundance of game differed significantly among stakeholders, species, and islands. The desired abundance scores were higher for axis deer, mouflon, and turkeys compared to pigs, goats or doves. Enjoyment at seeing game and the cultural value of game were widespread explanatory variables for desired abundance. Models for Lanai emphasized the economic value of game, whereas models for Maui identified the potential for game to contaminate soil and water. Models for Oahu and Kauai revealed concern for human health and safety. Given our findings we recommend managers design separate management plans for each island taking into consideration the values of residents.

  3. Motion-blurred star acquisition method of the star tracker under high dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng; Wei, Minsong

    2013-08-26

    The star tracker is one of the most promising attitude measurement devices used in spacecraft due to its extremely high accuracy. However, high dynamic performance is still one of its constraints. Smearing appears, making it more difficult to distinguish the energy dispersive star point from the noise. An effective star acquisition approach for motion-blurred star image is proposed in this work. The correlation filter and mathematical morphology algorithm is combined to enhance the signal energy and evaluate slowly varying background noise. The star point can be separated from most types of noise in this manner, making extraction and recognition easier. Partial image differentiation is then utilized to obtain the motion parameters from only one image of the star tracker based on the above process. Considering the motion model, the reference window is adopted to perform centroid determination. Star acquisition results of real on-orbit star images and laboratory validation experiments demonstrate that the method described in this work is effective and the dynamic performance of the star tracker could be improved along with more identified stars and guaranteed position accuracy of the star point.

  4. Overcoming turbulence-induced space-variant blur by using phase-diverse speckle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Brian J; Paxman, Richard G; Carrara, David A; Seldin, John H

    2009-01-01

    Space-variant blur occurs when imaging through volume turbulence over sufficiently large fields of view. Space-variant effects are particularly severe in horizontal-path imaging, slant-path (air-to-ground or ground-to-air) geometries, and ground-based imaging of low-elevation satellites or astronomical objects. In these geometries, the isoplanatic angle can be comparable to or even smaller than the diffraction-limited resolution angle. We report on a postdetection correction method that seeks to correct for the effects of space-variant aberrations, with the goal of reconstructing near-diffraction-limited imagery. Our approach has been to generalize the method of phase-diverse speckle (PDS) by using a physically motivated distributed-phase-screen model. Simulation results are presented that demonstrate the reconstruction of near-diffraction-limited imagery under both matched and mismatched model assumptions. In addition, we present evidence that PDS could be used as a beaconless wavefront sensor in a multiconjugate adaptive optics system when imaging extended scenes.

  5. eLearning and eMaking: 3D Printing Blurring the Digital and the Physical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Loy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the potential of 3D printing as an eLearning tool for design education and the role of eMaking in bringing together the virtual and the physical in the design studio. eLearning has matured from the basics of lecture capture into sophisticated, interactive learning activities for students. At the same time, laptops and internet enabled phones have made computer-based learning mobile, invading classroom learning, changing communication between students, enabling on the spot research, and making the recording of ideas and activities easier. The barriers between online and offline are becoming blurred in a combined digital and physical learning environment. Three-dimensional printing is part of this unification and can be an empowering learning tool for students, changing their relationship with the virtual and the physical, allowing them to take ideas and thinking from screen to reality and back again in an iterative, connected process, however, from an eLearning point of view it is, more importantly, a transformative technology with the potential to change the relationship of the learner to their learning and the scope and nature of their work. Examples from Griffith Product Design student learning illustrate the potential of eMaking to enhance combined learning in a digital age.

  6. Supratentorial white matter blurring associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex limbic encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, H.; Mader, I. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Rauer, S.; Baumgartner, A. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neurology, Freiburg (Germany); Paus, S. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Bonn (Germany); Wagner, J. [University Medical Center, Department of Epileptology, Bonn (Germany); Malter, M.P. [University of Cologne, Department of Neurology, Cologne (Germany); Pruess, H. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Lewerenz, J.; Kassubek, J. [Ulm University, Department of Neurology, Ulm (Germany); Hegen, H.; Auer, M.; Deisenhammer, F. [University Innsbruck, Department of Neurology, Innsbruck (Austria); Ufer, F. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany); Bien, C.G. [Epilepsy Centre Bethel, Bielefeld-Bethel (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (VGKC-LE) is frequently non-paraneoplastic and associated with marked improvement following corticosteroid therapy. Mesial temporal lobe abnormalities are present in around 80 % of patients. If associated or preceded by faciobrachial dystonic seizures, basal ganglia signal changes may occur. In some patients, blurring of the supratentorial white matter on T2-weighted images (SWMB) may be seen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of SWMB and whether it is specific for VGKC-LE. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently evaluated signal abnormalities on FLAIR MRI in 79 patients with LE while unaware on the antibody type. SWMB was independently assessed as present in 10 of 36 (28 %) compared to 2 (5 %) of 43 non-VGKC patients (p = 0.009). It was not related to the presence of LGI1 or CASPR2 proteins of VGKC antibodies. MRI showed increased temporomesial FLAIR signal in 22 (61 %) VGKC compared to 14 (33 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.013), and extratemporomesial structures were affected in one VGKC (3 %) compared to 11 (26 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.005). SWMB is a newly described MRI sign rather specific for VGKC-LE. (orig.)

  7. Digital Tomosynthesis System Geometry Analysis Using Convolution-Based Blur-and-Add (BAA) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Yoon, Sungwon; Solomon, Edward G; Star-Lack, Josh; Pelc, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Digital tomosynthesis is a three-dimensional imaging technique with a lower radiation dose than computed tomography (CT). Due to the missing data in tomosynthesis systems, out-of-plane structures in the depth direction cannot be completely removed by the reconstruction algorithms. In this work, we analyzed the impulse responses of common tomosynthesis systems on a plane-to-plane basis and proposed a fast and accurate convolution-based blur-and-add (BAA) model to simulate the backprojected images. In addition, the analysis formalism describing the impulse response of out-of-plane structures can be generalized to both rotating and parallel gantries. We implemented a ray tracing forward projection and backprojection (ray-based model) algorithm and the convolution-based BAA model to simulate the shift-and-add (backproject) tomosynthesis reconstructions. The convolution-based BAA model with proper geometry distortion correction provides reasonably accurate estimates of the tomosynthesis reconstruction. A numerical comparison indicates that the simulated images using the two models differ by less than 6% in terms of the root-mean-squared error. This convolution-based BAA model can be used in efficient system geometry analysis, reconstruction algorithm design, out-of-plane artifacts suppression, and CT-tomosynthesis registration.

  8. Supratentorial white matter blurring associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex limbic encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbach, H.; Mader, I.; Rauer, S.; Baumgartner, A.; Paus, S.; Wagner, J.; Malter, M.P.; Pruess, H.; Lewerenz, J.; Kassubek, J.; Hegen, H.; Auer, M.; Deisenhammer, F.; Ufer, F.; Bien, C.G.

    2015-01-01

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (VGKC-LE) is frequently non-paraneoplastic and associated with marked improvement following corticosteroid therapy. Mesial temporal lobe abnormalities are present in around 80 % of patients. If associated or preceded by faciobrachial dystonic seizures, basal ganglia signal changes may occur. In some patients, blurring of the supratentorial white matter on T2-weighted images (SWMB) may be seen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of SWMB and whether it is specific for VGKC-LE. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently evaluated signal abnormalities on FLAIR MRI in 79 patients with LE while unaware on the antibody type. SWMB was independently assessed as present in 10 of 36 (28 %) compared to 2 (5 %) of 43 non-VGKC patients (p = 0.009). It was not related to the presence of LGI1 or CASPR2 proteins of VGKC antibodies. MRI showed increased temporomesial FLAIR signal in 22 (61 %) VGKC compared to 14 (33 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.013), and extratemporomesial structures were affected in one VGKC (3 %) compared to 11 (26 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.005). SWMB is a newly described MRI sign rather specific for VGKC-LE. (orig.)

  9. A study of glasses-type color CGH using a color filter considering reduction of blurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Saki; Sakamoto, Yuji

    2009-02-01

    We have developed a glasses-type color computer generated hologram (CGH) by using a color filter. The proposed glasses consist of two "lenses" made of overlapping holograms and color filters. The holograms, which are calculated to reconstruct images in each primary color, are divided to small areas, which we called cells, and superimposed on one hologram. In the same way, colors of the filter correspond to the hologram cells. We can configure it very simply without a complex optical system, and the configuration yields a small and light weight system suitable for glasses. When the cell is small enough, the colors are mixed and reconstructed color images are observed. In addition, color expression of reconstruction images improves, too. However, using small cells blurrs reconstructed images because of the following reasons: (1) interference between cells because of the correlation with the cells, and (2) reduction of resolution caused by the size of the cell hologram. We are investigating in order to make a hologram that has high resolution reconstructed color images without ghost images. In this paper, we discuss (1) the details of the proposed glasses-type color CGH, (2) appropriate cell size for an eye system, (3) effects of cell shape on the reconstructed images, and (4) a new method to reduce the blurring of the images.

  10. Supratentorial white matter blurring associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, H; Rauer, S; Mader, I; Paus, S; Wagner, J; Malter, M P; Prüss, H; Lewerenz, J; Kassubek, J; Hegen, H; Auer, M; Deisenhammer, F; Ufer, F; Bien, C G; Baumgartner, A

    2015-12-01

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (VGKC-LE) is frequently non-paraneoplastic and associated with marked improvement following corticosteroid therapy. Mesial temporal lobe abnormalities are present in around 80 % of patients. If associated or preceded by faciobrachial dystonic seizures, basal ganglia signal changes may occur. In some patients, blurring of the supratentorial white matter on T2-weighted images (SWMB) may be seen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of SWMB and whether it is specific for VGKC-LE. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently evaluated signal abnormalities on FLAIR MRI in 79 patients with LE while unaware on the antibody type. SWMB was independently assessed as present in 10 of 36 (28 %) compared to 2 (5 %) of 43 non-VGKC patients (p = 0.009). It was not related to the presence of LGI1 or CASPR2 proteins of VGKC antibodies. MRI showed increased temporomesial FLAIR signal in 22 (61 %) VGKC compared to 14 (33 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.013), and extratemporomesial structures were affected in one VGKC (3 %) compared to 11 (26 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.005). SWMB is a newly described MRI sign rather specific for VGKC-LE.

  11. Vomeronasal versus olfactory epithelium: is there a cellular basis for human vomeronasal perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Martin; Hummel, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) constitutes an accessory olfactory organ that receives chemical stimuli, pheromones, which elicit behavioral, reproductive, or neuroendocrine responses among individuals of the same species. In many macrosmatic animals, the morphological substrate constitutes a separate organ system consisting of a vomeronasal duct (ductus vomeronasalis, VND), equipped with chemosensory cells, and a vomeronasal nerve (nervus vomeronasalis, VNN) conducting information into the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent data require that the long-accepted dual functionality of a main olfactory system and the VNO be reexamined, since all species without a VNO are nevertheless sexually active, and species possessing a VNO also can sense other than "vomeronasal" stimuli via the vomeronasal epithelium (VNE). The human case constitutes a borderline situation, as its embryonic VNO anlage exerts a developmental track common to most macrosmatics, but later typical structures such as the VNN, AOB, and probably most of the chemoreceptor cells within the still existent VND are lost. This review also presents recent information on the VND including immunohistochemical expression of neuronal markers, intermediate filaments, lectins, integrins, caveolin, CD44, and aquaporins. Further, we will address the issue of human pheromone candidates.

  12. Genetic and molecular basis of individual differences in human umami taste perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriatsu Shigemura

    Full Text Available Umami taste (corresponds to savory in English is elicited by L-glutamate, typically as its Na salt (monosodium glutamate: MSG, and is one of five basic taste qualities that plays a key role in intake of amino acids. A particular property of umami is the synergistic potentiation of glutamate by purine nucleotide monophosphates (IMP, GMP. A heterodimer of a G protein coupled receptor, TAS1R1 and TAS1R3, is proposed to function as its receptor. However, little is known about genetic variation of TAS1R1 and TAS1R3 and its potential links with individual differences in umami sensitivity. Here we investigated the association between recognition thresholds for umami substances and genetic variations in human TAS1R1 and TAS1R3, and the functions of TAS1R1/TAS1R3 variants using a heterologous expression system. Our study demonstrated that the TAS1R1-372T creates a more sensitive umami receptor than -372A, while TAS1R3-757C creates a less sensitive one than -757R for MSG and MSG plus IMP, and showed a strong correlation between the recognition thresholds and in vitro dose-response relationships. These results in human studies support the propositions that a TAS1R1/TAS1R3 heterodimer acts as an umami receptor, and that genetic variation in this heterodimer directly affects umami taste sensitivity.

  13. Knowledge, attitudes, and perception towards human papillomavirus among university students in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Mehmood Khan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study comprises a questionnaire-based survey regarding knowledge about human papillomavirus and its vaccine among students in different educational fields at public and private universities in the city of Lahore in Pakistan. A 26-item questionnaire was used to attain the objective of this study. The reliability of this tool was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (0.79 and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value was 0.827. The response rate to the survey was 78.0%, of whom the majority (74.9% were females and 308 (79% were single (median age=23 years. While assessing the respondents' knowledge about HPV, 223(57% students reported that they had already heard of HPV (human papillomavirus and nearly 215 (55% reported that HPV causes cervical cancer and can infect both men and women. Gender and field of study were two main factors found influencing the respondents' knowledge about HPV. Moreover, students' understanding about the mode of transmission of HPV was cursory: 40.51% said they did not know how HPV is transmitted, 133 (34.10% stated that HPV spreads through the exchange of bodily fluids, and 22 (5.64% selected cough/sneezing. In terms of prevention, 175 (44.87% students stated that HPV can be prevented by vaccination, 30.0% reported sexual abstinence, 21.54% using condoms, and nearly 5.38% disclosed use of antibiotics. Addressing the knowledge of students regarding HPV vaccine, nearly 53% stated there is no vaccine against HPV and almost 64% rejected the statement that HPV vaccine prevents cervical cancer. In addition, students reported that they will be more than willing to get vaccinated for HPV if their physician recommend them (RII=0.74 followed by parents (RII=0.69. The results of this study revealed a poor understanding among respondents about the health problems associated with HPV, its prevention, modes of transmission and arability of HPV vaccine in Pakistan. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Vaccine, Knowledge, Attitude

  14. Perception of Urban Environmental Risks and the Effects of Urban Green Infrastructures (UGIs) on Human Well-being in Four Public Green Spaces of Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Junya; Wang, Yafei; Fan, Chen; Xia, Beicheng; de Groot, Rudolf

    2018-05-28

    Cities face many challenging environmental problems that affect human well-being. Environmental risks can be reduced by Urban Green Infrastructures (UGIs). The effects of UGIs on the urban environment have been widely studied, but less attention has been given to the public perception of these effects. This paper presents the results of a study in Guangzhou, China, on UGI users' perceptions of these effects and their relationship with sociodemographic variables. A questionnaire survey was conducted in four public green spaces. Descriptive statistics, a binary logistic regression model and cross-tabulation analysis were applied on the data from 396 valid questionnaires. The results show that UGI users were more concerned about poor air quality and high temperature than about flooding events. Their awareness of environmental risks was partly in accordance with official records. Regarding the perception of the impacts of environmental risks on human well-being, elderly and female respondents with higher education levels were the most sensitive to these impacts. The respondents' perceptions of these impacts differed among the different green spaces. The effects of UGIs were well perceived and directly observed by the UGI users, but were not significantly influenced by most sociodemographic variables. Moreover, tourists had a lower perception of the impacts of environmental risks and the effects of UGI than residents did. This study provides strong support for UGIs as an effective tool to mitigate environmental risks. Local governments should consider the role of UGIs in environmental risk mitigation and human well-being with regard to urban planning and policy making.

  15. The Ecology of Human-Machine Systems II: Mediating 'Direct Perception' in Complex Work Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, Kim J.; Rasmussen, Jens

    1990-01-01

    Recently, a new class of artifacts has appeared in our environment: complex, high-technology work domains. An important characteristic of such systems is that their goal-relevant properties cannot be directly observed by the unaided eye. As a result, interface design is a ubiquitous problem in th...... in the design of these work environments. Nevertheless, the problem is one that has yet to be addressed in an adequate manner. An analogy to human perceptual mechanisms suggests that a smart instrument approach to interface design is needed to supplant the rote instrument (single......-sensor-single-indicator) approach that has dominated to this point. Ecological interface design (ED) is a theoretical framework in the smart instrument vein that postulates a set of general, prescriptive principles for design. The goal of E D is twofold: first, to reveal the affordances of the work domain through the interface...

  16. The perception of regularity in an isochronous stimulus in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aa, Jeroen; Honing, Henkjan; ten Cate, Carel

    2015-06-01

    Perceiving temporal regularity in an auditory stimulus is considered one of the basic features of musicality. Here we examine whether zebra finches can detect regularity in an isochronous stimulus. Using a go/no go paradigm we show that zebra finches are able to distinguish between an isochronous and an irregular stimulus. However, when the tempo of the isochronous stimulus is changed, it is no longer treated as similar to the training stimulus. Training with three isochronous and three irregular stimuli did not result in improvement of the generalization. In contrast, humans, exposed to the same stimuli, readily generalized across tempo changes. Our results suggest that zebra finches distinguish the different stimuli by learning specific local temporal features of each individual stimulus rather than attending to the global structure of the stimuli, i.e., to the temporal regularity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Glacier Retreat in the Southern Peruvian Andes: Climate Change, Environmental Impacts, Human Perception and Social Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlove, B.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents results from recent environmental and anthropological research near glacierized areas in the department of Cusco, Peru, home to the well-known Quelccaya Ice Cap and to the peak of Ausangate (6384 m). Glaciers in the region are in negative mass balance, losing volume and area, with upslope movement of the glacier fronts. Somewhat paradoxically, flows in many streams close to the glaciers are reduced, particularly in the dry season, due to a shift in the seasonal distribution of melting, to increased evaporation and to increased percolation into newly-exposed sands and gravels. Associated with this reduction in flow is a desiccation of some anthropogenic and natural wetlands, reducing the availability of dry season forage to wild (vicuna) and domesticated (alpaca, llama) ruminants. Interviews and ethnographic observations with local populations of Quechua-speaking herders at elevations of 4500-5200 meters provide detailed comments on these changes. They have an extensive vocabulary of terms for glacial features associated with retreat. They link this treat with environmental factors (higher temperatures, greater winds that deposit dust on lower portions of glaciers) and with religious factors (divine punishment for human wrong-doing, failure of humans to respect mountain spirits). They describe a variety of economic and extra-economic impacts of this retreat on different spatial, social and temporal scales. Though they face other issues as well (threats of pollution from new mining projects, inadequacy of government services), glacier retreat is their principal concern. Many herders express extreme distress over this unprecedented threat to their livelihoods and communities, though a few propose responses - out-migration, the formation of an association of neighboring communities, development of irrigation works - that could serve as adaptations.

  18. Metaplasticity in human primary somatosensory cortex: effects on physiology and tactile perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christina B; Lulic, Tea; Bailey, Aaron Z; Mackenzie, Tanner N; Mi, Yi Qun; Tommerdahl, Mark; Nelson, Aimee J

    2016-05-01

    Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) over human primary motor cortex evokes plasticity and metaplasticity, the latter contributing to the homeostatic balance of excitation and inhibition. Our knowledge of TBS-induced effects on primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is limited, and it is unknown whether TBS induces metaplasticity within human SI. Sixteen right-handed participants (6 females, mean age 23 yr) received two TBS protocols [continuous TBS (cTBS) and intermittent TBS (iTBS)] delivered in six different combinations over SI in separate sessions. TBS protocols were delivered at 30 Hz and were as follows: a single cTBS protocol, a single iTBS protocol, cTBS followed by cTBS, iTBS followed by iTBS, cTBS followed by iTBS, and iTBS followed by cTBS. Measures included the amplitudes of the first and second somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) via median nerve stimulation, their paired-pulse ratio (PPR), and temporal order judgment (TOJ). Dependent measures were obtained before TBS and at 5, 25, 50, and 90 min following stimulation. Results indicate similar effects following cTBS and iTBS; increased amplitudes of the second SEP and PPR without amplitude changes to SEP 1, and impairments in TOJ. Metaplasticity was observed such that TOJ impairments following a single cTBS protocol were abolished following consecutive cTBS protocols. Additionally, consecutive iTBS protocols altered the time course of effects when compared with a single iTBS protocol. In conclusion, 30-Hz cTBS and iTBS protocols delivered in isolation induce effects consistent with a TBS-induced reduction in intracortical inhibition within SI. Furthermore, cTBS- and iTBS-induced metaplasticity appear to follow homeostatic and nonhomeostatic rules, respectively. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Human papillomavirus and vaccine-related perceptions among men who have sex with men: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarzynski, Tom; Smith, Helen; Richardson, Daniel; Jones, Christina J; Llewellyn, Carrie D

    2014-11-01

    Targeted human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine could prevent HPV-related cancers and genital warts among men who have sex with men (MSM). In order to develop effective vaccination programmes for MSM, it is crucial to understand their knowledge, beliefs about HPV and attitudes towards HPV vaccine. A systematic search of 10 databases examined articles investigating HPV knowledge and HPV-related perceptions among MSM. Each paper was assessed to identify potential research directions in the context of targeted HPV vaccination for MSM. We identified 16 studies that included 5185 MSM and conducted mainly in North America. Generally, participants were over 26 years old, had poor-to-moderate knowledge about HPV and were not concerned about HPV-related diseases. Over a half of MSM were willing to accept HPV vaccine, if offered. However, there was large variability in HPV vaccine acceptability, partially due to inconsistencies in methods of ascertainment but also different levels of HPV vaccine awareness. Despite several misconceptions and poor knowledge of HPV infection, MSM might be receptive to HPV vaccination. However, further research is needed to identify which factors contribute to potential vaccine uptake in hypothetical MSM-targeted HPV vaccination. Future studies need to target those MSM with little sexual experience, who would benefit most from HPV vaccination. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. The NOMA track module on nutrition human rights and governance: Part 1 Perceptions held by Master's students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Marais

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. A module on nutrition, human rights and governance was developed and presented jointly by academic institutions in Norway, South Africa and Uganda, under the NOrway MAsters (NOMA programme, for their respective Master’s degree programmes in nutrition. Consisting of three study units, it was presented consecutively in the three countries, with each study unit building on the previous one.Objectives. To document the perceptions of participating students on various aspects of the module, informing future curriculum endeavours.Methods. A mixed methods approach was followed. A module evaluation form completed by students for each study unit was analysed. In-depth telephonic interviews were voice recorded and transcribed. Through an inductive process, emerging themes were used to compile a code list and content analysis of the unstructured data.Results. An overall positive module evaluation by 20 participants (91% response rate can be ascribed to the module content, enlightening study visits, expertise of lecturers and an interactive teaching style. Logistical issues regarding time management and administrative differences among the academic institutions caused some concerns. Students experienced some resistance against qualitative research in natural science faculties. Students benefited from being exposed to different teaching styles and education systems at universities in differentcountries. Constructive alignment of teaching and learning activities could be optimised through involvement and empowerment of all relevant lecturers.Conclusion. Successful implementation of the module not only provides nutrition Master’s students with knowledge to operationalise a human rights-based approach during future interactions in their professional practice, but also serves as an example of the benefits and challenges of interdisciplinary and transnational collaboration in module development.

  1. Impact of perception and attitude towards the study of African languages on Human Resource needs: A case for Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gora, Ruth Babra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the Zimbabwean high school curriculum has remained largely irrelevant to human resource needs for professions that draw expertise from African languages, such as teaching, translating, broadcasting and interpreting. Despite some curriculum reforms after the attainment of political independence, effects of colonial language policy and language planning with regard to the Zimbabwean education system seem to have remained intact. As a result, observations have been made that the system continues to churn out Africans who are still deeply rooted in the belief that the study of foreign languages, English in particular, prepares them for a better and brighter future than African languages would. The belief is largely that a pass in English guarantees them better, higher-paying, more prestigious and more readily available jobs than would African languages. The education system in Zimbabwe today, this paper argues, has negative perceptions and attitudes towards the study of African languages. African languages-related professions are therefore filled by people with little or no sound background knowledge in the area. In addition, those who end up being absorbed in professions that draw from the African languages area, in most cases, are not satisfied. The same can be said of most other African countries that were subjected to colonialism in the past and neo-colonialism today, under the vague and obscure concepts of globalisation and modernisation. Against this backdrop, the article advocates for the re-engineering of the Zimbabwean school core-curriculum by incorporating mandatory study of an indigenous language, at least up to ‘O’ level, in a bid to preserve and promote African languages and at the same time meet human resource needs of professions that draw from the discipline over time.

  2. Knowledge, attitudes, and perception towards human papillomavirus among university students in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Buksh, Malik Allah; Rehman, Inayat Ur; Saleem, Ahsan

    2016-12-01

    This cross-sectional study comprises a questionnaire-based survey regarding knowledge about human papillomavirus and its vaccine among students in different educational fields at public and private universities in the city of Lahore in Pakistan. A 26-item questionnaire was used to attain the objective of this study. The reliability of this tool was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (0.79) and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value was 0.827. The response rate to the survey was 78.0%, of whom the majority (74.9%) were females and 308 (79%) were single (median age=23 years). While assessing the respondents' knowledge about HPV, 223(57%) students reported that they had already heard of HPV (human papillomavirus) and nearly 215 (55%) reported that HPV causes cervical cancer and can infect both men and women. Gender and field of study were two main factors found influencing the respondents' knowledge about HPV. Moreover, students' understanding about the mode of transmission of HPV was cursory: 40.51% said they did not know how HPV is transmitted, 133 (34.10%) stated that HPV spreads through the exchange of bodily fluids, and 22 (5.64%) selected cough/sneezing. In terms of prevention, 175 (44.87%) students stated that HPV can be prevented by vaccination, 30.0% reported sexual abstinence, 21.54% using condoms, and nearly 5.38% disclosed use of antibiotics. Addressing the knowledge of students regarding HPV vaccine, nearly 53% stated there is no vaccine against HPV and almost 64% rejected the statement that HPV vaccine prevents cervical cancer. In addition, students reported that they will be more than willing to get vaccinated for HPV if their physician recommend them (RII=0.74) followed by parents (RII=0.69). The results of this study revealed a poor understanding among respondents about the health problems associated with HPV, its prevention, modes of transmission and arability of HPV vaccine in Pakistan. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Structural relationships between work environment and service quality perceptions as a function of customer contact intensity: implications for human service strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Dennis J; Harmon, Joel; Behson, Scott J

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the importance of customer-contact intensity at the service encounter level as a determinant of service quality assessments. Using data from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, it shows that performance-driven human resources practices play an important role as determinants of employee customer orientation and service capability in both high-contact (outpatient healthcare) and low-contact (benefits claim processing) human service contexts. However, there existed significant differences across service delivery settings in the salience of customer orientation and the congruence between employee and customer perceptions of service quality, depending on the intensity of customer contact. In both contexts, managerial attention to high-performance work systems and customer-orientation has the potential to favorably impact perceptions of service quality, amplify consumer satisfaction, and enhance operational efficiency.

  4. Human perception of electrical stimulation on the surface of somatosensory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivayogi V Hiremath

    Full Text Available Recent advancement in electrocorticography (ECoG-based brain-computer interface technology has sparked a new interest in providing somatosensory feedback using ECoG electrodes, i.e., cortical surface electrodes. We conducted a 28-day study of cortical surface stimulation in an individual with arm paralysis due to brachial plexus injury to examine the sensation produced by electrical stimulation of the somatosensory cortex. A high-density ECoG grid was implanted over the somatosensory and motor cortices. Stimulation through cortical surface electrodes over the somatosensory cortex successfully elicited arm and hand sensations in our participant with chronic paralysis. There were three key findings. First, the intensity of perceived sensation increased monotonically with both pulse amplitude and pulse frequency. Second, changing pulse width changed the type of sensation based on qualitative description provided by the human participant. Third, the participant could distinguish between stimulation applied to two neighboring cortical surface electrodes, 4.5 mm center-to-center distance, for three out of seven electrode pairs tested. Taken together, we found that it was possible to modulate sensation intensity, sensation type, and evoke sensations across a range of locations from the fingers to the upper arm using different stimulation electrodes even in an individual with chronic impairment of somatosensory function. These three features are essential to provide effective somatosensory feedback for neuroprosthetic applications.

  5. Tactile Toe Agnosia and Percept of a "Missing Toe" in Healthy Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicmil, Nela; Meyer, Achim P; Stein, John F

    2016-03-01

    A disturbance of body representation is central to many neurological and psychiatric conditions, but the mechanisms by which body representations are constructed by the brain are not fully understood. We demonstrate a directional disturbance in tactile identification of the toes in healthy humans. Nineteen young adult participants underwent tactile stimulation of the digits with the eyes closed and verbally reported the identity of the stimulated digit. In the majority of individuals, responses to the second and third toes were significantly biased toward the laterally neighboring digit. The directional bias was greater for the nondominant foot and was affected by the identity of the immediately preceding stimulated toe. Unexpectedly, 9/19 participants reported the subjective experience of a "missing toe" or "missing space" during the protocol. These findings challenge current models of somatosensory localization, as they cannot be explained simply by a lack of distinct representations for toes compared with fingers, or by overt toe-finger correspondences. We present a novel theory of equal spatial representations of digit width combined with a "preceding neighbor" effect to explain the observed phenomena. The diagnostic implications for neurological disorders that involve "digit agnosia" are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Cortical oscillations in auditory perception and speech: evidence for two temporal windows in human auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan eLuo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural sounds, including vocal communication sounds, contain critical information at multiple time scales. Two essential temporal modulation rates in speech have been argued to be in the low gamma band (~20-80 ms duration information and the theta band (~150-300 ms, corresponding to segmental and syllabic modulation rates, respectively. On one hypothesis, auditory cortex implements temporal integration using time constants closely related to these values. The neural correlates of a proposed dual temporal window mechanism in human auditory cortex remain poorly understood. We recorded MEG responses from participants listening to non-speech auditory stimuli with different temporal structures, created by concatenating frequency-modulated segments of varied segment durations. We show that these non-speech stimuli with temporal structure matching speech-relevant scales (~25 ms and ~200 ms elicit reliable phase tracking in the corresponding associated oscillatory frequencies (low gamma and theta bands. In contrast, stimuli with non-matching temporal structure do not. Furthermore, the topography of theta band phase tracking shows rightward lateralization while gamma band phase tracking occurs bilaterally. The results support the hypothesis that there exists multi-time resolution processing in cortex on discontinuous scales and provide evidence for an asymmetric organization of temporal analysis (asymmetrical sampling in time, AST. The data argue for a macroscopic-level neural mechanism underlying multi-time resolution processing: the sliding and resetting of intrinsic temporal windows on privileged time scales.

  7. Processed images in human perception: A case study in ultrasound breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Moi Hoon [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, FH09, Ergonomics and Safety Research Institute, Holywell Park (United Kingdom)], E-mail: M.H.Yap@lboro.ac.uk; Edirisinghe, Eran [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, FJ.05, Garendon Wing, Holywell Park, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Bez, Helmut [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, Room N.2.26, Haslegrave Building, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Two main research efforts in early detection of breast cancer include the development of software tools to assist radiologists in identifying abnormalities and the development of training tools to enhance their skills. Medical image analysis systems, widely known as Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) systems, play an important role in this respect. Often it is important to determine whether there is a benefit in including computer-processed images in the development of such software tools. In this paper, we investigate the effects of computer-processed images in improving human performance in ultrasound breast cancer detection (a perceptual task) and classification (a cognitive task). A survey was conducted on a group of expert radiologists and a group of non-radiologists. In our experiments, random test images from a large database of ultrasound images were presented to subjects. In order to gather appropriate formal feedback, questionnaires were prepared to comment on random selections of original images only, and on image pairs consisting of original images displayed alongside computer-processed images. We critically compare and contrast the performance of the two groups according to perceptual and cognitive tasks. From a Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis, we conclude that the provision of computer-processed images alongside the original ultrasound images, significantly improve the perceptual tasks of non-radiologists but only marginal improvements are shown in the perceptual and cognitive tasks of the group of expert radiologists.

  8. Characterization of visual percepts evoked by noninvasive stimulation of the human posterior parietal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Fried

    Full Text Available Phosphenes are commonly evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to study the functional organization, connectivity, and excitability of the human visual brain. For years, phosphenes have been documented only from stimulating early visual areas (V1-V3 and a handful of specialized visual regions (V4, V5/MT+ in occipital cortex. Recently, phosphenes were reported after applying TMS to a region of posterior parietal cortex involved in the top-down modulation of visuo-spatial processing. In the present study, we systematically characterized parietal phosphenes to determine if they are generated directly by local mechanisms or emerge through indirect activation of other visual areas. Using technology developed in-house to record the subjective features of phosphenes, we found no systematic differences in the size, shape, location, or frame-of-reference of parietal phosphenes when compared to their occipital counterparts. In a second experiment, discrete deactivation by 1 Hz repetitive TMS yielded a double dissociation: phosphene thresholds increased at the deactivated site without producing a corresponding change at the non-deactivated location. Overall, the commonalities of parietal and occipital phosphenes, and our ability to independently modulate their excitability thresholds, lead us to conclude that they share a common neural basis that is separate from either of the stimulated regions.

  9. Minimal olfactory perception during sleep: why odor alarms will not work for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carskadon, Mary A; Herz, Rachel S

    2004-05-01

    To examine olfactory arousal threshold during sleep in comparison to an auditory tone. On night 1, participants rated odor intensity when awake and experienced olfactory stimuli during stage 1 sleep. Night 2 involved stage 2, stage 4, and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep trials using the "staircase" threshold-detection method. Electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, electromyogram, electrocardiogram, and respiration were recorded along with behavioral response. An 800-Hz tone was given on trials when odors failed to arouse. Participants slept in individual rooms. Stimulus-delivery systems were operated from a separate room, where an experimenter observed physiologic recordings and behavioral responses. Three healthy men and 3 women aged 20 to 25 years (mean, 22 years). Two odorants, peppermint and pyridine, at 4 concentrations were presented through nasal cannulas using an air-dilution olfactometer. Tones were played over a speaker. Behavioral (button press and oral) responses, electroencephalographic activation, and changes in breathing and heart rate were assessed. Participants responded to odors on 92% of stage 1 sleep trials. Peppermint was ineffective in stages 2, 4, and REM sleep. Pyridine produced behavioral threshold on 45% of stage 2 trials, none in stage 4, and one third of REM sleep trials. Tones were effective on at least 75% of trials. Heart rate increased significantly only following behavioral responses to odors or tones across sleep stages. The data indicate that human olfaction is not reliably capable of alerting a sleeper.

  10. Processed images in human perception: A case study in ultrasound breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, Moi Hoon; Edirisinghe, Eran; Bez, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    Two main research efforts in early detection of breast cancer include the development of software tools to assist radiologists in identifying abnormalities and the development of training tools to enhance their skills. Medical image analysis systems, widely known as Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) systems, play an important role in this respect. Often it is important to determine whether there is a benefit in including computer-processed images in the development of such software tools. In this paper, we investigate the effects of computer-processed images in improving human performance in ultrasound breast cancer detection (a perceptual task) and classification (a cognitive task). A survey was conducted on a group of expert radiologists and a group of non-radiologists. In our experiments, random test images from a large database of ultrasound images were presented to subjects. In order to gather appropriate formal feedback, questionnaires were prepared to comment on random selections of original images only, and on image pairs consisting of original images displayed alongside computer-processed images. We critically compare and contrast the performance of the two groups according to perceptual and cognitive tasks. From a Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis, we conclude that the provision of computer-processed images alongside the original ultrasound images, significantly improve the perceptual tasks of non-radiologists but only marginal improvements are shown in the perceptual and cognitive tasks of the group of expert radiologists.

  11. Evaluation of noise and blur effects with SIRT-FISTA-TV reconstruction algorithm: Application to fast environmental transmission electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjak, Hussein; Grenier, Thomas; Epicier, Thierry; Koneti, Siddardha; Roiban, Lucian; Gay, Anne-Sophie; Magnin, Isabelle; Peyrin, Françoise; Maxim, Voichita

    2018-06-01

    Fast tomography in Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy (ETEM) is of a great interest for in situ experiments where it allows to observe 3D real-time evolution of nanomaterials under operating conditions. In this context, we are working on speeding up the acquisition step to a few seconds mainly with applications on nanocatalysts. In order to accomplish such rapid acquisitions of the required tilt series of projections, a modern 4K high-speed camera is used, that can capture up to 100 images per second in a 2K binning mode. However, due to the fast rotation of the sample during the tilt procedure, noise and blur effects may occur in many projections which in turn would lead to poor quality reconstructions. Blurred projections make classical reconstruction algorithms inappropriate and require the use of prior information. In this work, a regularized algebraic reconstruction algorithm named SIRT-FISTA-TV is proposed. The performance of this algorithm using blurred data is studied by means of a numerical blur introduced into simulated images series to mimic possible mechanical instabilities/drifts during fast acquisitions. We also present reconstruction results from noisy data to show the robustness of the algorithm to noise. Finally, we show reconstructions with experimental datasets and we demonstrate the interest of fast tomography with an ultra-fast acquisition performed under environmental conditions, i.e. gas and temperature, in the ETEM. Compared to classically used SIRT and SART approaches, our proposed SIRT-FISTA-TV reconstruction algorithm provides higher quality tomograms allowing easier segmentation of the reconstructed volume for a better final processing and analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Blurring the boundaries: using institutional ethnography to inquire into health professions education and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Stella L; Bisaillon, Laura; Webster, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative, social science approaches to research have surged in popularity within health professions education (HPE) over the past decade. Institutional ethnography (IE) offers the field another sociological approach to inquiry. Although widely used in nursing and health care research, IE remains relatively uncommon in the HPE research community. This article provides a brief introduction to IE and suggests why HPE researchers may wish to consider it for future studies. Part 1 of this paper presents IE's conceptual grounding in: (i) the entry point to inquiry ('materiality'), (ii) a generous definition of 'work' and (iii) a focus on how 'texts' such as policies, forms and written protocols influence activity. Part 2 of this paper outlines the method's key features through exemplars from our own research. Part 3 discusses the ways in which research that blurs the lines between educational and clinical practice can be both generative for HPE and accomplished using IE. The authors demonstrate the usefulness of IE for studying complex social issues in HPE. It is posited that a key added value of IE is that it goes beyond individual-level explanations of problems and phenomena, yet also closely studies individuals' activities, rather than remaining at an abstract or distant level of analysis. Thereby, IE can result in feasible and meaningful social change at the nexus of health professions education and other social systems such as clinical practice. IE adds to the growing qualitative research toolkit for HPE researchers. It is worth considering because it may enable change through the study of HPE in relation to other social processes, structures and systems, including the clinical practice world. A particular benefit may be found in blending HPE research with research on clinical practice, toward changing practice and policy through IE, given the interrelated nature of these fields. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  13. Developmental changes in the balance of disparity, blur and looming/proximity cues to drive ocular alignment and focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Accurate co-ordination of accommodation and convergence is necessary to view near objects and develop fine motor co-ordination. We used a remote haploscopic videorefraction paradigm to measure longitudinal changes in simultaneous ocular accommodation and vergence to targets at different depths, and to all combinations of blur, binocular disparity, and change-in-size (“proximity”) cues. Infants were followed longitudinally and compared to older children and young adults, with the prediction that sensitivity to different cues would change during development. Mean infant responses to the most naturalistic condition were similar to those of adults from 6-7 weeks (accommodation) and 8-9 weeks (vergence). Proximity cues influenced responses most in infants less than 14 weeks of age, but sensitivity declined thereafter. Between 12-28 weeks of age infants were equally responsive to all three cues, while in older children and adults manipulation of disparity resulted in the greatest changes in response. Despite rapid development of visual acuity (thus increasing availability of blur cues), responses to blur were stable throughout development. Our results suggest that during much of infancy, vergence and accommodation responses are not dependent on the development of specific depth cues, but make use of any cues available to drive appropriate changes in response. PMID:24344547

  14. Ethnic Variations in Perception of Human Papillomavirus and its Vaccination among Young Women in Nepal .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathian, Brijesh; Babu, M G Ramesh; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Banerjee, Indrajit; Roy, Bedanta; Subramanya, Supram Hosuru; Rajesh, Elayedath; Devkota, Suresh

    2017-03-01

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is strongly associated with cervical and other cancers. In women, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer. HPV infection can be largely prevented through vaccination of (adolescent) girls. At the same time, Nepal is a low-income country experiencing a cultural change in attitudes towards sex and sexual behaviour. However, in the adolescent population knowledge about HPV, factors associated with an increased risk of HPV and the existence of the vaccination is often low. This was a cross-sectional study with female students enrolled in health and non-health science courses in Pokhara, Nepal. The questionnaire included demographic details, knowledge and attitude questions related to HPV, associated risk behaviour and its vaccination. Descriptive statistics, including Chi-Square test, were used to identify statistically significant relationships. Ethical approval was granted by the relevant authority in Nepal. Hindu religion (75.0 %; 95% CI: 70.9, 78.6) and Newari caste (75.5%; CI: 61.1, 86.7) were more aware about HPV, HPV vaccination. Hindus religion (55.6%; 95% CI: 51.2, 60.0) and Dalit caste (61.6%, 95% CI: 53.3, 69.4) more willing to be vaccinated than other religions and other castes, respectively. Not unsurprisingly, students on health-related courses had a greater awareness of HPV, HPV vaccination and were more willing to be vaccinated than students on other courses. Similar patterns of association arose for knowledge related to those sexually active at an early age; HPV risk and multiple sex partners; and fact that condoms cannot fully prevent the transmission of HPV. Knowledge about the link between HPV and (a) early sexual initiation, (b) having multiple sexual partners, and (c) the limited protection of condoms and other birth control measures was poor in our study compared to similar research conducted in other parts of the world. One key implication is the need for education campaigns in Nepal to educate young women

  15. Ethnic Variations in Perception of Human Papillomavirus and its Vaccination among Young Women in Nepal .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, M G Ramesh; van Teijlingen, Edwin R.; Banerjee, Indrajit; Roy, Bedanta; Subramanya, Supram Hosuru; Rajesh, Elayedath; Devkota, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is strongly associated with cervical and other cancers. In women, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer. HPV infection can be largely prevented through vaccination of (adolescent) girls. At the same time, Nepal is a low-income country experiencing a cultural change in attitudes towards sex and sexual behaviour. However, in the adolescent population knowledge about HPV, factors associated with an increased risk of HPV and the existence of the vaccination is often low. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with female students enrolled in health and non-health science courses in Pokhara, Nepal. The questionnaire included demographic details, knowledge and attitude questions related to HPV, associated risk behaviour and its vaccination. Descriptive statistics, including Chi-Square test, were used to identify statistically significant relationships. Ethical approval was granted by the relevant authority in Nepal. Results: Hindu religion (75.0 %; 95% CI: 70.9, 78.6) and Newari caste (75.5%; CI: 61.1, 86.7) were more aware about HPV, HPV vaccination. Hindus religion (55.6%; 95% CI: 51.2, 60.0) and Dalit caste (61.6%, 95% CI: 53.3, 69.4) more willing to be vaccinated than other religions and other castes, respectively. Not unsurprisingly, students on health-related courses had a greater awareness of HPV, HPV vaccination and were more willing to be vaccinated than students on other courses. Similar patterns of association arose for knowledge related to those sexually active at an early age; HPV risk and multiple sex partners; and fact that condoms cannot fully prevent the transmission of HPV. Conclusion: Knowledge about the link between HPV and (a) early sexual initiation, (b) having multiple sexual partners, and (c) the limited protection of condoms and other birth control measures was poor in our study compared to similar research conducted in other parts of the world. One key implication is the need

  16. Depth perception not found in human observers for static or dynamic anti-correlated random dot stereograms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B Hibbard

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges in visual neuroscience is that of linking neural activity with perceptual experience. In the case of binocular depth perception, important insights have been achieved through comparing neural responses and the perception of depth, for carefully selected stimuli. One of the most important types of stimulus that has been used here is the anti-correlated random dot stereogram (ACRDS. In these stimuli, the contrast polarity of one half of a stereoscopic image is reversed. While neurons in cortical area V1 respond reliably to the binocular disparities in ACRDS, they do not create a sensation of depth. This discrepancy has been used to argue that depth perception must rely on neural activity elsewhere in the brain. Currently, the psychophysical results on which this argument rests are not clear-cut. While it is generally assumed that ACRDS do not support the perception of depth, some studies have reported that some people, some of the time, perceive depth in some types of these stimuli. Given the importance of these results for understanding the neural correlates of stereopsis, we studied depth perception in ACRDS using a large number of observers, in order to provide an unambiguous conclusion about the extent to which these stimuli support the perception of depth. We presented observers with random dot stereograms in which correlated dots were presented in a surrounding annulus and correlated or anti-correlated dots were presented in a central circular region. While observers could reliably report the depth of the central region for correlated stimuli, we found no evidence for depth perception in static or dynamic anti-correlated stimuli. Confidence ratings for stereoscopic perception were uniformly low for anti-correlated stimuli, but showed normal variation with disparity for correlated stimuli. These results establish that the inability of observers to perceive depth in ACRDS is a robust phenomenon.

  17. Depth perception not found in human observers for static or dynamic anti-correlated random dot stereograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Paul B; Scott-Brown, Kenneth C; Haigh, Emma C; Adrain, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in visual neuroscience is that of linking neural activity with perceptual experience. In the case of binocular depth perception, important insights have been achieved through comparing neural responses and the perception of depth, for carefully selected stimuli. One of the most important types of stimulus that has been used here is the anti-correlated random dot stereogram (ACRDS). In these stimuli, the contrast polarity of one half of a stereoscopic image is reversed. While neurons in cortical area V1 respond reliably to the binocular disparities in ACRDS, they do not create a sensation of depth. This discrepancy has been used to argue that depth perception must rely on neural activity elsewhere in the brain. Currently, the psychophysical results on which this argument rests are not clear-cut. While it is generally assumed that ACRDS do not support the perception of depth, some studies have reported that some people, some of the time, perceive depth in some types of these stimuli. Given the importance of these results for understanding the neural correlates of stereopsis, we studied depth perception in ACRDS using a large number of observers, in order to provide an unambiguous conclusion about the extent to which these stimuli support the perception of depth. We presented observers with random dot stereograms in which correlated dots were presented in a surrounding annulus and correlated or anti-correlated dots were presented in a central circular region. While observers could reliably report the depth of the central region for correlated stimuli, we found no evidence for depth perception in static or dynamic anti-correlated stimuli. Confidence ratings for stereoscopic perception were uniformly low for anti-correlated stimuli, but showed normal variation with disparity for correlated stimuli. These results establish that the inability of observers to perceive depth in ACRDS is a robust phenomenon.

  18. Unmanned Ground Vehicle Perception Using Thermal Infrared Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry; Bajracharya, Max; Assad, Christopher; Brennan, Shane; Bellut, Paolo; Sherwin, Gary

    2011-01-01

    TIR cameras can be used for day/night Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) autonomous navigation when stealth is required. The quality of uncooled TIR cameras has significantly improved over the last decade, making them a viable option at low speed Limiting factors for stereo ranging with uncooled LWIR cameras are image blur and low texture scenes TIR perception capabilities JPL has explored includes: (1) single and dual band TIR terrain classification (2) obstacle detection (pedestrian, vehicle, tree trunks, ditches, and water) (3) perception thru obscurants

  19. Men's Intentions to Engage in Behaviors to Protect Against Human Papillomavirus (HPV): Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pask, Elizabeth B; Rawlins, Sarah T

    2016-01-01

    Guided by the risk perception attitude framework (RPA), this study examined men's perceptions of risk and efficacy beliefs as predictors of their intentions to engage in self-protective behaviors. The results of multiple regression analyses did not provide support for the RPA prediction that efficacy beliefs moderate the relationship between risk perceptions and self-protective behavior. However, the results provide support for the main effects of risk and efficacy on all four behavioral intentions examined (i.e., Internet information seeking, communication with a health provider, HPV vaccination, and condom use). Risk and efficacy were positively related to (and significant individual predictors of) all four behavioral intentions. Scholarly and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Blur Quantification of Medical Images: Dicom Media, Whole Slide Images, Generic Images and Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ameisen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/ Background We have designed a quality assurance tool to quantify blur by quantifying the sharpness of custom-sized tiles composing an image, generating global results, detailed exchangeable logs and sharpness-maps regardless of their dimensions, quantity or acquisition rate [1]. We have now integrated the programming libraries and the standalone program we built to existing workflows and software, in order to improve quality assurance procedures. Aims When integrated in an acquisition workflow, the ability to map the quality of local areas inside an image allows to re-acquire parts of the image that were not scanned properly, or discard and re-acquire images when the global results fall under the thresholds set by the users. When integrated in an image analysis software, the regions of interest can be automatically chosen or suggested to the user according to the quality-map of the image to analyze, reducing the amount of incoherent analysis results. When integrated as a library in an image management platform, or as a standalone program in a storage server, a systematic quality check can detect de-calibration of the acquisition software, failed acquisitions that may be automatically deleted and users can be notified to re-acquire the images when below their quality-thresholds profiles. A quantified quality score can be inserted in each image’s metadata for traceability purposes. When integrated as a library in a local or remote image viewer, the best quality tiles can be sent first to the viewer, and magnification levels can be dynamically resampled for a better render. Methods One notable implementation, using our Java library, is inside the FlexMIm project [2], which includes 27 pathology laboratories in the Paris area (coordinated by APHP, research laboratories from University Paris 6 Paris 7, as well as 3 companies: TRIBVN, PERTIMM and Orange. All Whole Slide Images are systematically analyzed and mapped as they enter the

  1. Human Factors in Green Office Building Design: The Impact of Workplace Green Features on Health Perceptions in High-Rise High-Density Asian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about human factors in green building, which is imperative in high-rise high-density urban environments. This paper describes our attempts to explore the influence of workplace green features (such as green certification, ventilation mode, and building morphology on health perceptions (personal sensation, sensorial assumptions, healing performance based on a survey in Hong Kong and Singapore. The results validated the relationship between green features and health perceptions in the workplace environment. Remarkably, participants from the air-conditioned offices revealed significant higher concerns about health issues than those participants from the mixed-ventilated offices. The mixed-ventilation design performs as a bridge to connect the indoor environment and outdoor space, which enables people to have contact with nature. Additionally, the preferred building morphology of the workplace is the pattern of a building complex instead of a single building. The complex form integrates the configuration of courtyards, podium gardens, green terrace, public plaza, and other types of open spaces with the building clusters, which contributes to better health perceptions. This research contributes to the rationalization and optimization of passive climate-adaptive design strategies for green buildings in high-density tropical or subtropical cities.

  2. Physiological activation of the human cerebral cortex during auditory perception and speech revealed by regional increases in cerebral blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Friberg, L

    1988-01-01

    by measuring regional cerebral blood flow CBF after intracarotid Xenon-133 injection are reviewed with emphasis on tests involving auditory perception and speech, and approach allowing to visualize Wernicke and Broca's areas and their contralateral homologues in vivo. The completely atraumatic tomographic CBF...

  3. Chemosignalling effects of human tears revisited: Does exposure to female tears decrease males' perception of female sexual attractiveness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gračanin, Asmir; van Assen, Marcel A L M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/407629971; Omrčen, Višnja; Koraj, Ivana; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2016-01-01

    Gelstein et al. reported the results of three experiments suggesting a dampening influence of inhalation of female emotional tears on males' arousal and perception of female sexual attractiveness, specifically in non-sexual situations. This prompted the hypothesis that crying exerts its influence on

  4. Chemosignalling effects of human tears revisited : Does exposure to female tears decrease males' perception of female sexual attractiveness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracanin, A.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Omrčen, Višnja; Koraj, Ivana; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Gelstein et al. reported the results of three experiments suggesting a dampening influence of inhalation of female emotional tears on males' arousal and perception of female sexual attractiveness, specifically in non-sexual situations. This prompted the hypothesis that crying exerts its influence on

  5. U-shaped Relation between Prestimulus Alpha-band and Poststimulus Gamma-band Power in Temporal Tactile Perception in the Human Somatosensory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Marc André; Baumgarten, Thomas J; Schnitzler, Alfons; Lange, Joachim

    2018-04-01

    Neuronal oscillations are a ubiquitous phenomenon in the human nervous system. Alpha-band oscillations (8-12 Hz) have been shown to correlate negatively with attention and performance, whereas gamma-band oscillations (40-150 Hz) correlate positively. Here, we studied the relation between prestimulus alpha-band power and poststimulus gamma-band power in a suprathreshold tactile discrimination task. Participants received two electrical stimuli to their left index finger with different SOAs (0 msec, 100 msec, intermediate SOA, intermediate SOA ± 10 msec). The intermediate SOA was individually determined so that stimulation was bistable, and participants perceived one stimulus in half of the trials and two stimuli in the other half. We measured neuronal activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG). In trials with intermediate SOAs, behavioral performance correlated inversely with prestimulus alpha-band power but did not correlate with poststimulus gamma-band power. Poststimulus gamma-band power was high in trials with low and high prestimulus alpha-band power and low for intermediate prestimulus alpha-band power (i.e., U-shaped). We suggest that prestimulus alpha activity modulates poststimulus gamma activity and subsequent perception: (1) low prestimulus alpha-band power leads to high poststimulus gamma-band power, biasing perception such that two stimuli were perceived; (2) intermediate prestimulus alpha-band power leads to low gamma-band power (interpreted as inefficient stimulus processing), consequently, perception was not biased in either direction; and (3) high prestimulus alpha-band power leads to high poststimulus gamma-band power, biasing perception such that only one stimulus was perceived.

  6. Impact of human papilloma virus vaccination on adolescent knowledge, perception of sexual risk and need for safer sexual behaviors in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayudi, Pande Kadek Aditya; Permatasari, Anak Agung Istri Yulan; Winata, I Gde Sastra; Suwiyoga, Ketut

    2016-12-01

    To determine the impact of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination on knowledge, perception of sexual risk and need for continued safe sexual behavior among Indonesian girls. A comparative cross-sectional study was carried on in Denpasar, the capital city of Bali, Indonesia, during September 2015-February 2016. A total of 828 adolescent girls (12-16 years) were recruited to assess their knowledge on HPV/HPV vaccine, perception of sexual risks and need for continued safe sexual behavior. A total of 419 girls (50.7%) had received HPV vaccination prior to the study, 76.4% of whom (320/419) had sufficient knowledge about HPV. HPV vaccination was a strong and independent predictor of higher HPV/HPV vaccine knowledge (adjusted OR [AOR], 9.358; 95%CI: 6.816-12.849, P < 0.001). HPV vaccination (AOR, 0.107; 95%CI: 0.074-0.155, P < 0.001) and higher knowledge level (AOR, 0.667; 95%CI: 0.464-0.958, P = 0.028) were associated with lower perceived HPV risk. Despite the low risk perception, most of the vaccinated girls (408/419, 97.4%) continued to perceive higher need for safe sexual behaviors. On multivariate analysis, higher knowledge was the independent predictor for higher perceived need for safe sexual behaviors (AOR, 4.260; 95%CI: 2.016-9.001, P < 0.001). The HPV vaccination was associated with higher knowledge and appropriately lower perception of HPV risk. Despite the vaccination, most of the adolescents continued to perceive a need for safer sexual behavior. All adolescent girls should receive HPV vaccination in order to reduce cervical cancer burden in the future. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. ‘How movies move us just the right way’ - Exploring the role of camera movement and montage in human film perception - First steps on a joint venture of 4EA approaches to cognition and empirical Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Heimann, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Film is an omnipresent medium in today’s world, playing a crucial role in a massive amusement industry, in advertisement as well as in information distribution, education, sciences and the arts. What and how we perceive the world when we perceive it via film thus seems an important question to answer. Still, the principles of film perception are barely understood. This thesis presents some of the newest steps in an interdisciplinary approach to exploring human creation and perception of film....

  8. The effect of combined sensory and semantic components on audio-visual speech perception in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrina eMaguinness

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that perception in older people benefits from multisensory over uni-sensory information. As normal speech recognition is affected by both the auditory input and the visual lip-movements of the speaker, we investigated the efficiency of audio and visual integration in an older population by manipulating the relative reliability of the auditory and visual information in speech. We also investigated the role of the semantic context of the sentence to assess whether audio-visual integration is affected by top-down semantic processing. We presented participants with audio-visual sentences in which the visual component was either blurred or not blurred. We found that there was a greater cost in recall performance for semantically meaningless speech in the audio-visual blur compared to audio-visual no blur condition and this effect was specific to the older group. Our findings have implications for understanding how aging affects efficient multisensory integration for the perception of speech and suggests that multisensory inputs may benefit speech perception in older adults when the semantic content of the speech is unpredictable.

  9. Age-associated variation in sensory perception of iron in drinking water and the potential for overexposure in the human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlohi, Susan; Dietrich, Andrea M; Duncan, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Humans interact with their environment through the five senses, but little is known about population variability in the ability to assess contaminants. Sensory thresholds and biochemical indicators of metallic flavor perception in humans were evaluated for ferrous (Fe(2+)) iron in drinking water; subjects aged 19-84 years participated. Metallic flavor thresholds for individuals and subpopulations based on age were determined. Oral lipid oxidation and oral pH were measured in saliva as potential biochemical indicators. Individual thresholds were 0.007-14.14 mg/L Fe(2+) and the overall population threshold was 0.17 mg/L Fe(2+) in reagent water. Average thresholds for individuals younger and older than 50 years of age (grouped by the daily recommended nutritional guidelines for iron intake) were significantly different (p = 0.013); the population thresholds for each group were 0.045 mg/L Fe(2+) and 0.498 mg/L Fe(2+), respectively. Many subjects >50 and a few subjects <50 years were insensitive to metallic flavor. There was no correlation between age, oral lipid oxidation, and oral pH. Standardized olfactory assessment found poor sensitivity for Fe(2+) corresponded with conditions of mild, moderate, and total anosmia. The findings demonstrate an age-dependent sensitivity to iron indicating as people age they are less sensitive to metallic perception.

  10. Sour ageusia in two individuals implicates ion channels of the ASIC and PKD families in human sour taste perception at the anterior tongue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqul Huque

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of sour taste in humans is incompletely understood at the receptor cell level. We report here on two patients with an acquired sour ageusia. Each patient was unresponsive to sour stimuli, but both showed normal responses to bitter, sweet, and salty stimuli.Lingual fungiform papillae, containing taste cells, were obtained by biopsy from the two patients, and from three sour-normal individuals, and analyzed by RT-PCR. The following transcripts were undetectable in the patients, even after 50 cycles of amplification, but readily detectable in the sour-normal subjects: acid sensing ion channels (ASICs 1a, 1beta, 2a, 2b, and 3; and polycystic kidney disease (PKD channels PKD1L3 and PKD2L1. Patients and sour-normals expressed the taste-related phospholipase C-beta2, the delta-subunit of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC and the bitter receptor T2R14, as well as beta-actin. Genomic analysis of one patient, using buccal tissue, did not show absence of the genes for ASIC1a and PKD2L1. Immunohistochemistry of fungiform papillae from sour-normal subjects revealed labeling of taste bud cells by antibodies to ASICs 1a and 1beta, PKD2L1, phospholipase C-beta2, and delta-ENaC. An antibody to PKD1L3 labeled tissue outside taste bud cells.These data suggest a role for ASICs and PKDs in human sour perception. This is the first report of sour ageusia in humans, and the very existence of such individuals ("natural knockouts" suggests a cell lineage for sour that is independent of the other taste modalities.

  11. Disparity-driven vs blur-driven models of accommodation and convergence in binocular vision and intermittent strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2014-12-01

    To propose an alternative and practical model to conceptualize clinical patterns of concomitant intermittent strabismus, heterophoria, and convergence and accommodation anomalies. Despite identical ratios, there can be a disparity- or blur-biased "style" in three hypothetical scenarios: normal; high ratio of accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) and low ratio of convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C); low AC/A and high CA/C. We calculated disparity bias indices (DBI) to reflect these biases and provide early objective data from small illustrative clinical groups that fit these styles. Normal adults (n = 56) and children (n = 24) showed disparity bias (adult DBI 0.43 [95% CI, 0.50-0.36], child DBI 0.20 [95% CI, 0.31-0.07]; P = 0.001). Accommodative esotropia (n = 3) showed less disparity-bias (DBI 0.03). In the high AC/A-low CA/C scenario, early presbyopia (n = 22) showed mean DBI of 0.17 (95% CI, 0.28-0.06), compared to DBI of -0.31 in convergence excess esotropia (n=8). In the low AC/A-high CA/C scenario near exotropia (n = 17) showed mean DBI of 0.27. DBI ranged between 1.25 and -1.67. Establishing disparity or blur bias adds to AC/A and CA/C ratios to explain clinical patterns. Excessive bias or inflexibility in near-cue use increases risk of clinical problems. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Perceptions of human papillomavirus vaccination of adolescent schoolgirls in western Uganda and their implications for acceptability of HPV vaccination: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Okello, Elialilia Sarikieli; Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza

    2017-08-30

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been perceived in diverse ways some of which encourage its uptake while others could potentially deter its acceptability. This study explored community member's perceptions about HPV vaccination in Ibanda district and the implications of the perceptions for acceptability of HPV vaccination. The study was conducted following initial vaccination of adolescent schoolgirls in the district between 2008 and 2011. This qualitative study employed focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs). FGDs were conducted with schoolgirls and parents/guardians and KIIs were conducted with school teachers, health workers and community leaders. Transcripts from the FGDs and KIIs were coded and analyzed thematically using ATLAS.ti (v. 6). The HPV vaccination was understood to safely prevent cervical cancer, which was perceived to be a severe incurable disease. Vaccinations were perceived as protection against diseases like measles and polio that were known to kill children. These were major motivations for girls' and parents' acceptance of HPV vaccination. Parents' increased awareness that HPV is sexually transmitted encouraged their support for vaccination of their adolescent daughters against HPV. There were reports however of some initial fears and misconceptions about HPV vaccination especially during its introduction. These initially discouraged some parents and girls but over the years with no major side effects reported, girls reported that they were willing to recommend the vaccination to others and parents also reported their willingness to get their daughters vaccinated without fear. Health workers and teachers interviewed however explained that, some concerns stilled lingered in the communities. The perceived benefits and safety of HPV vaccination enhanced girls' and parents' acceptability of HPV vaccination. The initial rumors, fears and concerns about HPV vaccination that reportedly discouraged some girls and

  13. Caregivers' perception of oral health-related quality of life in a group of Nigerian children living with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, A A; Diaku-Akinwumi, I N; Ola, B A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the caregivers' perception of the effect of dental conditions on general well-being and family life of a group of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected Nigerian children. A secondary aim was to investigate correlations between the children's sociodemographic and health-related variables and caregivers' global ratings of oral health and well-being. Study Design A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted among parents/caregivers of 95 HIV-positive children receiving care at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. The "Parental-Caregivers Perception Questionnaire" which included measures of global ratings of oral health and well-being as well as effects of oral health on domains of oral symptoms, functional limitations, emotional well-being, and family well-being/parental distress was used. Assessment was based on the child's oral health within the preceding 3 months of the study. The most affected subscale of the oral health-related quality of life was functional limitation followed by parental distress and then oral symptoms. Caregivers of older children were 2½ times more likely to view oral health as impacting their child's overall health (P = 0.034). Furthermore, caregivers of children who had not yet commenced antiretroviral therapy were 15% more likely to report oral symptoms (P = 0.024) and 11% were more likely to be distressed. Data entry, validation, and analysis were done using SPSS version 17.0. Findings were considered to be statistically significant when 95% confidence intervals were not overlapping. According to caregivers' perceptions, oral symptoms, functional limitations, and parental distress outweighed emotional well-being in impacting a child's oral health quality of life. Oral health programs to improve the knowledge of caregivers on the importance of oral health in HIV-positive children are necessary for improvement in overall quality of life.

  14. Benefit of spatial filtering for visual perception with a subretinal implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Viola; Aryan, Naser Pour; Brendler, Christian; Rothermel, Albrecht

    2014-01-01

    Subretinal implants have proven to be capable of restoring vision to patients suffering from hereditary retinal degeneration diseases like retinitis pigmentosa and cone-rod dystrophy. Although they already provide basic visual perception, there is still much room for improvement in this field. Effects like electric field interference limit the visual acuity and may be the cause of the perceived vision to be blurred. This influence could be reduced by means of highpass spatial filtering. In this paper, based on the available reports about the visual perception parameters from the patients using the alpha-IMS subretinal implant, a model for the blurring effect of the patients retina is proposed. On this basis, highpass filters are suggested which will compensate the obscuring effect of the stimulator device plus retina system to some extent.

  15. Brain mechanisms for simple perception and bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Megan; Arteaga, Daniel; He, Biyu J

    2013-08-27

    When faced with ambiguous sensory inputs, subjective perception alternates between the different interpretations in a stochastic manner. Such multistable perception phenomena have intrigued scientists and laymen alike for over a century. Despite rigorous investigations, the underlying mechanisms of multistable perception remain elusive. Recent studies using multivariate pattern analysis revealed that activity patterns in posterior visual areas correlate with fluctuating percepts. However, increasing evidence suggests that vision--and perception at large--is an active inferential process involving hierarchical brain systems. We applied searchlight multivariate pattern analysis to functional magnetic resonance imaging signals across the human brain to decode perceptual content during bistable perception and simple unambiguous perception. Although perceptually reflective activity patterns during simple perception localized predominantly to posterior visual regions, bistable perception involved additionally many higher-order frontoparietal and temporal regions. Moreover, compared with simple perception, both top-down and bottom-up influences were dramatically enhanced during bistable perception. We further studied the intermittent presentation of ambiguous images--a condition that is known to elicit perceptual memory. Compared with continuous presentation, intermittent presentation recruited even more higher-order regions and was accompanied by further strengthened top-down influences but relatively weakened bottom-up influences. Taken together, these results strongly support an active top-down inferential process in perception.

  16. Visual masking and the dynamics of human perception, cognition, and consciousness A century of progress, a contemporary synthesis, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge, Ulrich; Francis, Gregory; Herzog, Michael H; Oğmen, Haluk

    2008-07-15

    The 1990s, the "decade of the brain," witnessed major advances in the study of visual perception, cognition, and consciousness. Impressive techniques in neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, neuropsychology, electrophysiology, psychophysics and brain-imaging were developed to address how the nervous system transforms and represents visual inputs. Many of these advances have dealt with the steady-state properties of processing. To complement this "steady-state approach," more recent research emphasized the importance of dynamic aspects of visual processing. Visual masking has been a paradigm of choice for more than a century when it comes to the study of dynamic vision. A recent workshop (http://lpsy.epfl.ch/VMworkshop/), held in Delmenhorst, Germany, brought together an international group of researchers to present state-of-the-art research on dynamic visual processing with a focus on visual masking. This special issue presents peer-reviewed contributions by the workshop participants and provides a contemporary synthesis of how visual masking can inform the dynamics of human perception, cognition, and consciousness.

  17. Chemosignalling effects of human tears revisited: Does exposure to female tears decrease males' perception of female sexual attractiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gračanin, Asmir; van Assen, Marcel A L M; Omrčen, Višnja; Koraj, Ivana; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2017-01-01

    Gelstein et al. reported the results of three experiments suggesting a dampening influence of inhalation of female emotional tears on males' arousal and perception of female sexual attractiveness, specifically in non-sexual situations. This prompted the hypothesis that crying exerts its influence on others not only via the auditory and visual mode but also via chemosignals. In three studies, we attempted to replicate and extend Gelstein et al.'s findings by including an additional condition with irritant tears, by using pictures of sexually attractive women, and by testing related hypotheses on the pro-social effects of exposure to tears. All three studies, separately or combined in a meta-analysis, failed to replicate the original inhibitory effects of tears. In addition, sniffing tears did not affect measures of connectedness, aggression and pro-social behaviour. It is concluded that the effects of female tears on male arousal and perception of female sexual attractiveness, if any, are very weak at best. Rather, it seems that crying exerts its strong inter-personal effects through the visual and auditory sensory channels.

  18. Knowledge and perception about climate change and human health: findings from a baseline survey among vulnerable communities in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Iqbal; Rahman, Md Bayzidur; Smith, Wayne; Lusha, Mirza Afreen Fatima; Azim, Syed; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2016-03-15

    Bangladesh is one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change (CC). A basic understanding of public perception on vulnerability, attitude and the risk in relation to CC and health will provide strategic directions for government policy, adaptation strategies and development of community-based guidelines. The objective of this study was to collect community-based data on peoples' knowledge and perception about CC and its impact on health. In 2012, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 6720 households of 224 enumeration areas of rural villages geographically distributed in seven vulnerable districts of Bangladesh, with total population of 19,228,598. Thirty households were selected randomly from each enumeration area using the household listing provided by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). Information was collected from all the 6720 research participants using a structured questionnaire. An observation checklist was used by the interviewers to collect household- and community-related information. In addition, we selected the head of each household as the eligible participant for an interview. Evidence of association between sociodemographic variables and knowledge of CC was explored by cross-tabulation and measured using chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were used to further explore the predictors of knowledge. The study revealed that the residents of the rural communities selected for this study largely come from a low socioeconomic background: only 9.6% had postsecondary education or higher, the majority worked as day labourer or farmer (60%), and only 10% earned a monthly income above BDT 12000 (equivalent to US $150 approx.). The majority of the participants (54.2%) had some knowledge about CC but 45.8% did not (p change of climate (83.2%). Among all the respondents (n = 6720), 94.5% perceived change in climate and extreme weather events. Most of them (91.9%) observed change in rainfall patterns in the last 10 years, and 97

  19. What You See is what You Just Heard: The Effect of Temporal Rate Adaptation on Human Intersensory Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel Levitan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on perception have yet to establish that psychophysical adaptation effects transfer from one sense to another. To test for this phenomenon, the current study examines the possible crossmodal transfer of temporal rate adaptation from vision to audition (VA and from audition to vision (AV. Participants were trained, using feedback, to discriminate the perceived rapidity of either auditory or visual stimuli presented at a range of randomly-ordered frequencies (3.25–4.75 Hz as compared to that of stimuli (of the same modality at a familiar average frequency (4 Hz. Afterwards, subjects were repeatedly exposed to stimuli (of the other modality at a specific rate (3 Hz or 5 Hz. To test whether adaptation resulted from this exposure, subjects again completed the task previously used for training, but now without feedback. After the initial training and adaptation phases, these test and adaptation tasks were presented in 20 alternating blocks. A comparison of the pre- and post-adaptation responses showed crossmodal changes in subjects' perception of temporal rate, such that adaptation to 5 Hz led to the subsequent stimuli seeming slower than they had before adaptation. On the other hand, after exposure to 3 Hz stimuli, the opposite effect was seen. This shift occurred in both VA and AV conditions. As audition and vision were never simultaneously presented, this is suggestive of a strong linkage between the two modalities in perceiving rate. We propose that this is due to the presence of early, distributed, within-modal clocks, that can vigorously modulate each other cross-modally.

  20. Binocular versus standard occlusion or blurring treatment for unilateral amblyopia in children aged three to eight years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Vijay; Bossi, Manuela; Bunce, Catey; Greenwood, John A; Dahlmann-Noor, Annegret

    2015-08-11

    Current treatments for amblyopia in children, occlusion and pharmacological blurring, have had limited success, with less than two-thirds of children achieving good visual acuity of at least 0.20 logMAR in the amblyopic eye, limited improvement of stereopsis, and poor compliance. A new treatment approach, based on the dichoptic presentation of movies or computer games (images presented separately to each eye), may yield better results, as it aims to balance the input of visual information from each eye to the brain. Compliance may also improve with these more child-friendly treatment procedures. To determine whether binocular treatments in children aged three to eight years with unilateral amblyopia result in better visual outcomes than conventional occlusion or pharmacological blurring treatment. We searched the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register (last date of searches: 14 April 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to April 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2015), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. Two review authors independently screened the results of the search in order to identify studies that met the inclusion criteria of the review: randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled participants between the ages of three and eight years old with unilateral amblyopia, defined as best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) worse than 0.200 logMAR in the amblyopic eye, and BCVA 0.200 logMAR or better in the fellow eye, in the presence of an amblyogenic risk factor such as anisometropia, strabismus, or both. Prior

  1. Knowledge and perception about climate change and human health: findings from a baseline survey among vulnerable communities in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Iqbal Kabir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh is one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change (CC. A basic understanding of public perception on vulnerability, attitude and the risk in relation to CC and health will provide strategic directions for government policy, adaptation strategies and development of community-based guidelines. The objective of this study was to collect community-based data on peoples’ knowledge and perception about CC and its impact on health. Methods In 2012, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 6720 households of 224 enumeration areas of rural villages geographically distributed in seven vulnerable districts of Bangladesh, with total population of 19,228,598. Thirty households were selected randomly from each enumeration area using the household listing provided by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS. Information was collected from all the 6720 research participants using a structured questionnaire. An observation checklist was used by the interviewers to collect household- and community-related information. In addition, we selected the head of each household as the eligible participant for an interview. Evidence of association between sociodemographic variables and knowledge of CC was explored by cross-tabulation and measured using chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were used to further explore the predictors of knowledge. Results The study revealed that the residents of the rural communities selected for this study largely come from a low socioeconomic background: only 9.6 % had postsecondary education or higher, the majority worked as day labourer or farmer (60 %, and only 10 % earned a monthly income above BDT 12000 (equivalent to US $150 approx.. The majority of the participants (54.2 % had some knowledge about CC but 45.8 % did not (p < 0.001. The majority of knowledgeable participants (n = 3645 felt excessive temperature as the change of climate (83.2 %. Among all the

  2. Sudbury soils study : human health and ecological risk assessment : a case study in science, process and perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, C.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discussed the public relations and public opinion strategies used as part of a soils study conducted to assess the risk of mining activities in the Sudbury region to human health and the environment. The human health risk assessment (HHRA) study was conducted and administered by a multi-stakeholder technical committee attended by the public. The study was comprised of extensive soil collection and analysis; a review of historical soils data; and extensive human health and ecological risk assessments. Extensive sampling was also conducted on air, dust, and locally-produced foods. A public advisory committee was formed to disseminate scientific information to the community. Scientific data obtained in the study were reviewed by experts in various fields. Results of the study were also peer-reviewed by an independent expert review panel comprised of leading specialists in human health, toxicology, speciation, and risk assessment. The study showed that the identified risks were over-estimated in the interest of protecting human health. It was concluded that the HHRA's findings were generally accepted by the public. tabs., figs

  3. Primary student teachers’ perceptions of their prior experiences with craft-making in light of Hannah Arendt’s human condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seija Karppinen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study about student teachers’ feelings toward craft-making and teaching crafts. As a teacher educator in teacher training, my interest lies first in student teachers’ prior craft experiences and in their prejudices about themselves as craft-makers in relation to the human condition as set forth by philosopher Hannah Arendt (1958/2002. Second, I am interested in how students’ experiences and their image of crafts affect their attitude to crafts and teaching crafts. The study uses qualitative content analysis (e.g. Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2007, concept clarification (e.g. Kramer, 1993; Burkin, 2011 and thought experiments (Zalta, 2011; Cohnitz, 2006; Sorensen, 1992 to identify and categorise student teachers’ emotional experiences. The data consist of essays (craft biographies, N=144 by first-year student teachers which were written in 2008 and 2009 during a basic course in crafts as part of teacher education at the University of Helsinki. Arendt (1958/2002 labelled the elements of the human condition as labour, work and action. In this study I discuss how, for instance, Arendtian concepts could be explained in relation to crafts, craft-making and education. Arendt categorises craft, defined as things made by hand, as part of the concept of work. In this study, I consider whether crafts and craft-making could be part of other Arendtian terms as well and how these terms fit various educational situations. As a result, there is a need for additional terms alongside Arendtian terms to describe multifaceted craft-making and primary student teachers’ perceptions of themselves as craft-makers. In relation to student teachers’ memories on primary school crafts, I have labelled Arendtian concept labour as students’ credit-orientated activity, the concept of work as making-orientated activity and the concept of action as interaction-orientated activity. These three orientations of craft frame student

  4. A study to determine whether targeted education significantly improves the perception of human torture in medical students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Munawwar; Ghaffar, Usama B; Usmani, Jawed Ahmad; Rivzi, Shameem Jahan

    2010-08-01

    This study was undertaken to find out the knowledge of torture in MBBS students. A fair comparison was done by selecting two groups of medical students; one, to whom torture was not taught ie, pretaught group (PrTG, n = 125), and second, to whom torture was taught in classroom ie, post-taught group (PoTG, n = 110) in more than one sessions. The topic on torture was taught under many headings maximising the effort to cover as much as possible; namely, definition, geographical distribution, types of torture (physical, psychological and sexual), post-torture sequelae, sociopolitical environment prevailing in the country, doctors' involvement in torture, rehabilitation of torture victims and the UNO's role in containment of torture. In all a questionnaire was designed having MCQ types on these aspects. It was found that significant level of difference in perception and knowledge about torture existed amongst the groups, and this was further accentuated in medical and non-medical intratopics. 'P' value of each question was computed separately. It was found that the study was statistically significant and reestablished the need of fortifying the gossameric firmament of education specific to torture.

  5. Anodal-tDCS over the human right occipital cortex enhances the perception and memory of both faces and objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Marica; Negrini, Marcello; Nitsche, Michael A; Rivolta, Davide

    2016-01-29

    Accurate face processing skills are pivotal for typical social cognition, and impairments in this ability characterise various clinical conditions (e.g., prosopagnosia). No study to date has investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can causally enhance face processing. In addition, the category- and the process-specificity of tDCS effects, as well as the role of the timing of neuromodulation with respect to the execution of cognitive tasks are still unknown. In this single-blind, sham-controlled study, we examined whether the administration of anodal-tDCS (a-tDCS) over the right occipital cortex of healthy volunteers (N=64) enhances performance on perceptual and memory tasks involving both face and object stimuli. Neuromodulation was delivered in two conditions: online (a-tDCS during task execution) and offline (a-tDCS before task execution). The results demonstrate that offline a-tDCS enhances the perception and memory performance of both faces and objects. There was no effect of online a-tDCS on behaviour. Furthermore, the offline effect was site-specific since a-tDCS over the sensory-motor cortex did not lead to behavioural changes. Our results add relevant information about the breadth of cognitive processes and visual stimuli that can be modulated by tDCS, and about the design of effective neuromodulation protocols, which have implications for advancing theories in cognitive neuroscience and clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Defining Face Perception Areas in the Human Brain: A Large-Scale Factorial fMRI Face Localizer Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossion, Bruno; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Dricot, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    A number of human brain areas showing a larger response to faces than to objects from different categories, or to scrambled faces, have been identified in neuroimaging studies. Depending on the statistical criteria used, the set of areas can be overextended or minimized, both at the local (size of areas) and global (number of areas) levels. Here…

  7. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Risk Factors, Vaccination Patterns, and Vaccine Perceptions among a Sample of Male College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Holly B.; Collins Fantasia, Heidi; Charyk, Anna; Sutherland, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates, including initiation and completion of the vaccine series, and barriers to vaccination in a sample of male college students. Participants: Male students between the ages of 18 and 25 who reported being currently or previously sexually active (N = 735). Methods: A cross-sectional…

  8. The Perception of Four Basic Emotions in Human and Nonhuman Faces by Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    Children who experienced autism, mental retardation, and language disorders; and, children in a clinical control group were shown photographs of human female, orangutan, and canine (boxer) faces expressing happiness, sadness, anger, surprise and a neutral expression. For each species of faces, children were asked to identify the happy, sad, angry,…

  9. Near-Peer Teaching Strategy in a Large Human Anatomy Course: Perceptions of Near-Peer Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Hernández, Cynthia Guadalupe; Carmona Pulido, Juan Manuel; De la Garza Chapa, Roberto Isaac; Serna Vázquez, Ruth Patricia; Alcalá Briones, Ricardo Daniel; Plasencia Banda, Perla Marina; Villarreal Silva, Eliud Enrique; Jacobo Baca, Guillermo; de la Garza Castro, Oscar; Elizondo Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; Guzmán López, Santos

    2015-01-01

    Near-peer teaching (NPT) is a strategy in which senior students assume the instructor role with junior peers (mentees). Senior students develop unique skills and knowledge through NPT, an experience which extends their learning beyond content mastery. Different teaching modules featuring NPT were utilized in the human anatomy course at the School…

  10. Knowledge, attitude, and perception of disease among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome: A study from a tertiary care center in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K; Chauahn, Pushpinder S; Mehta, Karainder S; Rawat, Ritu; Shiny, T N

    2016-01-01

    Although modification of behavioral practices among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-affected patients is important in decreasing HIV disease transmission, the knowledge, attitude, and perception studies about HIV infection rarely include persons living with HIV/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS). To assess knowledge, attitude, and perceptions of persons living with HIV/AIDS for the disease and other epidemiological aspects. One-hundred and fifty consecutive persons living with HIV/AIDS were enrolled for this questionnaire-based cross-sectional, descriptive study. These 150 patients comprised 93 men and 57 women, aged between 14 and 78 (mean 37.13) years. The majority, 112 (74.67%) patients were between 20 and 50 years of age and 116 (77.3%) patients were either illiterate or high-school dropouts. Drivers, laborers, and self-employed comprised 69 (74.2%) patients among affected males. Only 129 (86%) respondents had heard about HIV/AIDS and knew about its heterosexual transmission. Ninety-eight (65.3%) respondents were aware of disease transmission from infected blood or needle pricks. Interestingly, 106 (70.7%) respondents were aware of the importance of using condom in preventing disease transmission. Television/radio was the most common sources of information for 135 (90%) patients. Nearly, 69% respondents disfavored disclosing their disease to friends/colleagues fearing stigmatization. Information, education, and communication activities are imperative to educate persons living with HIV/AIDS about life-long nature of the disease, modes of its transmission, and significance of preventive measures to bridge the gaps in their knowledge. While improvement in individual economic status, education, and health services remains highly desirable, mass media can play a pivotal role in creating awareness among masses.

  11. Salvinorin-A Induces Intense Dissociative Effects, Blocking External Sensory Perception and Modulating Interoception and Sense of Body Ownership in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqueda, Ana Elda; Valle, Marta; Addy, Peter H; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Puntes, Montserrat; Coimbra, Jimena; Ballester, Maria Rosa; Garrido, Maite; González, Mireia; Claramunt, Judit; Barker, Steven; Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R; Riba, Jordi

    2015-06-05

    Salvinorin-A is a terpene with agonist properties at the kappa-opioid receptor, the binding site of endogenous dynorphins. Salvinorin-A is found in Salvia divinorum, a psychoactive plant traditionally used by the Mazatec people of Oaxaca, Mexico, for medicinal and spiritual purposes. Previous studies with the plant and salvinorin-A have reported psychedelic-like changes in perception, but also unusual changes in body awareness and detachment from external reality. Here we comprehensively studied the profiles of subjective effects of increasing doses of salvinorin-A in healthy volunteers, with a special emphasis on interoception. A placebo and three increasing doses of vaporized salvinorin-A (0.25, 0.50, and 1mg) were administered to eight healthy volunteers with previous experience in the use of psychedelics. Drug effects were assessed using a battery of questionnaires that included, among others, the Hallucinogen Rating Scale, the Altered States of Consciousness, and a new instrument that evaluates different aspects of body awareness: the Multidimensional Assessment for Interoceptive Awareness. Salvinorin-A led to a disconnection from external reality, induced elaborate visions and auditory phenomena, and modified interoception. The lower doses increased somatic sensations, but the highest dose led to a sense of a complete loss of contact with the body. Salvinorin-A induced intense psychotropic effects characterized by a dose-dependent gating of external audio-visual information and an inverted-U dose-response effect on body awareness. These results suggest a prominent role for the kappa opioid receptor in the regulation of sensory perception, interoception, and the sense of body ownership in humans. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  12. Blurring of the vessels of the interhemispheric fissure in multislice CT angiography: a sign of meningeal carcinomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertl-Wagner, Birgit B.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten; Herrmann, Karin; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Bruening, Roland; Dichgans, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Meningeal carcinomatosis remains a challenging diagnosis to make, with both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and radiological methods having a limited sensitivity. We aimed at describing a possible diagnostic sign of multislice CT angiography (MS-CTA) in the diagnosis of meningeal carcinomatosis. Upon retrospective analysis of MSCT angiographies of the brain, a conspicuous sign of the vessels of the interhemispheric fissure was noted in five patients. Cranial MSCT angiographies were performed with a standardized protocol (120 kV, 200 mA s, collimation of 4 x 1 mm, table feed per rotation 4 mm). We injected 120 ml of nonionic contrast medium as a bolus, and data acquisition was started after a fixed delay of 35 s. In order to elucidate the finding, correlation with clinical follow-up and/or CSF findings was performed for all patients. In five patients there was a blurring, an increased number, and a pathologic configuration of the vessels of the interhemispheric fissure. All five patients with this sign had clinical signs and symptoms of meningeal carcinomatosis. Three patients had positive CSF cytology, one further patient had follow-up spinal MRI 6 weeks later demonstrating meningeal carcinomatosis. One patient declined lumbar puncture. MS-CTA has the capacity to demonstrate a pathologic configuration of the vessels of the interhemispheric fissure in patients with meningeal carcinomatosis. This sign may serve as an indicator of meningeal carcinomatosis and should raise the suspicion of this disease entity. (orig.)

  13. Parents' knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow young males to receive human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Winstons Muhwezi

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008-2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10-23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p = 0.003, believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p = 0.006, thought their son(s couldn't contract HPV (p = 0.010, didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p = 0.002, knew that males could not acquire HPV (p = 0.000 and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p = 0.000. Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital.

  14. The fear of awful smell: risk perceptions among farmers in Vietnam using wastewater and human excreta in agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Line G; Phuc, Pham D; Hiep, Nguyen T

    2008-01-01

    Vietnamese farmers' health-risk awareness, knowledge, and practices related to their use of wastewater and human excreta was investigated in an anthropological study by a multidisciplinary team in peri-urban Hanoi and Nghe An Province. Farmers identified health risks associated with their use...... of excreta and wastewater, but they viewed these as unavoidable risks related to production. They perceived the health risks as different for the use of wastewater and human feces. They perceived health risks from wastewater as non-serious because it remained on the skin and only caused skin problems......, but they considered health risks from non-composted smelly feces serious because it entered the body through 'polluted' air. Most farmers were more aware of threats to health from 'dirt' entering the domestic environment than of the health risks during their work. The concept of 'dirt' should be separated from...

  15. Knowledge and perception of human papilloma virus vaccine among the antenatal women in a Nigerian tertiary hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Agida, Teddy E.; Akaba, Godwin O.; Isah, Aliyu Y.; Ekele, Bissalla

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is a major health problem globally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria inclusive. One of the preventive measures is the vaccination of teenagers against oncogenic human papilloma virus. The aim of this study was to find out the level of knowledge mothers possess about these vaccines and their willingness to administer vaccination to their teenage girls. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 255 consecutive women attending ant...

  16. Humanism in Dental Education: A Comparison of Theory, Intention, and Stakeholder Perceptions at a North American Dental School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Lucinda; Itaya, Lisa E; Hoover, Terry; Booth, Mark T; Nadershahi, Nader

    2017-08-01

    In today's dental education environment, a humanistic culture is an expectation for all U.S. dental schools, codified in 2013 by its inclusion in the Commission on Dental Accreditation's standards for accreditation. The University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry has made an active commitment to humanism since the mid-1970s. The aim of this study was to determine how well the school's students and faculty and staff members perceived the school was living up to its formal aspirational values and who was benefitting from the humanistic culture. Using an electronic survey, data were collected from a total of 195 students, faculty members, and staff members in 2014. Respondents were 15% of the 492 full- and part-time faculty members; 9% of the total student population of 540; and 29% of 255 staff members. In the responses, humanism was described as manifest by attributes such as caring, understanding, respect, and compassion. Although the findings confirmed the value of a humanistic culture, some portions of the school's formal definition and goals, such as good work ethic, professional responsibility, high ethical standards, increasing independence, and attainment of competence, appeared less frequently in responses. Authentic assessment of institutional culture proved challenging. Focus groups offered additional ways to assess how effectively the school lives its core value of humanism. There was recognition that more varied, robust methods were needed to assess institutional alignment with stated goals for a humanistic learning environment.

  17. Perceptions of Psychological Coercion and Human Trafficking in the West Midlands of England: Beginning to Know the Unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Coral J.; Walsh, David; Brierley, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery). Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime. PMID:27149330

  18. Perceptions of Psychological Coercion and Human Trafficking in the West Midlands of England: Beginning to Know the Unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Coral J; Walsh, David; Brierley, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery). Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime.

  19. Public perceptions of climate change as a human health risk: surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Karen; Debono, Roberto; Berry, Peter; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Clarke, Kaila-Lea; Rogaeva, Anastasia; Nisbet, Matthew C; Weathers, Melinda R; Maibach, Edward W

    2010-06-01

    We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%), their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%), and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76%) as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31%) said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45%) and children (33%) are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78-91%), heat-related problems (75-84%), cancer (61-90%), and infectious diseases (49-62%). Canadians also named sunburn (79%) and injuries from extreme weather events (73%), and Maltese cited allergies (84%). However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the salience of the

  20. Public Perceptions of Climate Change as a Human Health Risk: Surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Akerlof

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%, their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%, and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76% as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31% said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45% and children (33% are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78–91%, heat-related problems (75–84%, cancer (61–90%, and infectious diseases (49–62%. Canadians also named sunburn (79% and injuries from extreme weather events (73%, and Maltese cited allergies (84%. However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the

  1. Man-systems evaluation of moving base vehicle simulation motion cues. [human acceleration perception involving visual feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, M.; Brye, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    A motion cue investigation program is reported that deals with human factor aspects of high fidelity vehicle simulation. General data on non-visual motion thresholds and specific threshold values are established for use as washout parameters in vehicle simulation. A general purpose similator is used to test the contradictory cue hypothesis that acceleration sensitivity is reduced during a vehicle control task involving visual feedback. The simulator provides varying acceleration levels. The method of forced choice is based on the theory of signal detect ability.

  2. Can a Soft Robotic Probe Use Stiffness Control Like a Human Finger to Improve Efficacy of Haptic Perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornkarn, Nantachai; Nanayakkara, Thrishantha

    2017-01-01

    When humans are asked to palpate a soft tissue to locate a hard nodule, they regulate the stiffness, speed, and force of the finger during examination. If we understand the relationship between these behavioral variables and haptic information gain (transfer entropy) during manual probing, we can improve the efficacy of soft robotic probes for soft tissue palpation, such as in tumor localization in minimally invasive surgery. Here, we recorded the muscle co-contraction activity of the finger using EMG sensors to address the question as to whether joint stiffness control during manual palpation plays an important role in the haptic information gain. To address this question, we used a soft robotic probe with a controllable stiffness joint and a force sensor mounted at the base to represent the function of the tendon in a biological finger. Then, we trained a Markov chain using muscle co-contraction patterns of human subjects, and used it to control the stiffness of the soft robotic probe in the same soft tissue palpation task. The soft robotic experiments showed that haptic information gain about the depth of the hard nodule can be maximized by varying the internal stiffness of the soft probe.

  3. Manipulation of pre-target activity on the right frontal eye field enhances conscious visual perception in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Chanes

    Full Text Available The right Frontal Eye Field (FEF is a region of the human brain, which has been consistently involved in visuo-spatial attention and access to consciousness. Nonetheless, the extent of this cortical site's ability to influence specific aspects of visual performance remains debated. We hereby manipulated pre-target activity on the right FEF and explored its influence on the detection and categorization of low-contrast near-threshold visual stimuli. Our data show that pre-target frontal neurostimulation has the potential when used alone to induce enhancements of conscious visual detection. More interestingly, when FEF stimulation was combined with visuo-spatial cues, improvements remained present only for trials in which the cue correctly predicted the location of the subsequent target. Our data provide evidence for the causal role of the right FEF pre-target activity in the modulation of human conscious vision and reveal the dependence of such neurostimulatory effects on the state of activity set up by cue validity in the dorsal attentional orienting network.

  4. Adaptive restoration of a partially coherent blurred image using an all-optical feedback interferometer with a liquid-crystal device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Tomohiro; Barnes, Thomas H

    2002-02-01

    A liquid-crystal adaptive optics system using all-optical feedback interferometry is applied to partially coherent imaging through a phase disturbance. A theoretical analysis based on the propagation of the cross-spectral density shows that the blurred image due to the phase disturbance can be restored, in principle, irrespective of the state of coherence of the light illuminating the object. Experimental verification of the theory has been performed for two cases when the object to be imaged is illuminated by spatially coherent light originating from a He-Ne laser and by spatially incoherent white light from a halogen lamp. We observed in both cases that images blurred by the phase disturbance were successfully restored, in agreement with the theory, immediately after the adaptive optics system was activated. The origin of the deviation of the experimental results from the theory, together with the effect of the feedback misalignment inherent in our optical arrangement, is also discussed.

  5. Real-time high-speed motion blur compensation system based on back-and-forth motion control of galvanometer mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Takanoshin; Ishikawa, Masatoshi

    2015-12-14

    We developed a novel real-time motion blur compensation system for the blur caused by high-speed one-dimensional motion between a camera and a target. The system consists of a galvanometer mirror and a high-speed color camera, without the need for any additional sensors. We controlled the galvanometer mirror with continuous back-and-forth oscillating motion synchronized to a high-speed camera. The angular speed of the mirror is given in real time within 10 ms based on the concept of background tracking and rapid raw Bayer block matching. Experiments demonstrated that our system captures motion-invariant images of objects moving at speeds up to 30 km/h.

  6. A computer vision system for rapid search inspired by surface-based attention mechanisms from human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Johannes; Park, Jong-Han; Obermayer, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    Humans are highly efficient at visual search tasks by focusing selective attention on a small but relevant region of a visual scene. Recent results from biological vision suggest that surfaces of distinct physical objects form the basic units of this attentional process. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how such surface-based attention mechanisms can speed up a computer vision system for visual search. The system uses fast perceptual grouping of depth cues to represent the visual world at the level of surfaces. This representation is stored in short-term memory and updated over time. A top-down guided attention mechanism sequentially selects one of the surfaces for detailed inspection by a recognition module. We show that the proposed attention framework requires little computational overhead (about 11 ms), but enables the system to operate in real-time and leads to a substantial increase in search efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Seeing with ears: Sightless humans' perception of dog bark provides a test for structural rules in vocal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Csaba; Pongrácz, Péter; Miklósi, Adám

    2010-05-01

    Prerecorded family dog (Canis familiaris) barks were played back to groups of congenitally sightless, sightless with prior visual experience, and sighted people (none of whom had ever owned a dog). We found that blind people without any previous canine visual experiences can categorize accurately various dog barks recorded in different contexts, and their results are very close to those of sighted people in characterizing the emotional content of barks. These findings suggest that humans can recognize some of the most important motivational states reflecting, for example, fear or aggression in a dog's bark without any visual experience. It is very likely that this result can be generalized to other mammalian species--that is, no visual experience of another individual is needed for recognizing some of the most important motivational states of the caller.

  8. Haptic perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, A.M.L.; Bergmann Tiest, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Fueled by novel applications, interest in haptic perception is growing. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of a number of important aspects of haptic perception. By means of touch we can not only perceive quite different material properties, such as roughness, compliance,

  9. An alternative approach to depth of field which avoids the blur circle and uses the pixel pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Norbert

    2015-09-01

    Modern thermal imaging systems apply more and more uncooled detectors. High volume applications work with detectors which have a reduced pixel count (typical between 200x150 and 640x480). This shrinks the application of modern image treatment procedures like wave front coding. On the other hand side, uncooled detectors demand lenses with fast F-numbers near 1.0. Which are the limits on resolution if the target to analyze changes its distance to the camera system? The aim to implement lens arrangements without any focusing mechanism demands a deeper quantification of the Depth of Field problem. The proposed Depth of Field approach avoids the classic "accepted image blur circle". It bases on a camera specific depth of focus which is transformed in the object space by paraxial relations. The traditional RAYLEIGH's -criterion bases on the unaberrated Point Spread Function and delivers a first order relation for the depth of focus. Hence, neither the actual lens resolution neither the detector impact is considered. The camera specific depth of focus respects a lot of camera properties: Lens aberrations at actual F-number, detector size and pixel pitch. The through focus MTF is the base of the camera specific depth of focus. It has a nearly symmetric course around the maximum of sharp imaging. The through focus MTF is considered at detector's Nyquist frequency. The camera specific depth of focus is this the axial distance in front and behind of sharp image plane where the through focus MTF is pitch (detector). The DLTF- discussion provides physical limits and technical requirements. The detector development with pixel pitches smaller than captured wavelength in the LWIR-region generates a special challenge for optical design.

  10. Gay and Bisexual Men's Perceptions of the Donation and Use of Human Biological Samples for Research: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Patterson

    Full Text Available Human biological samples (biosamples are increasingly important in diagnosing, treating and measuring the prevalence of illnesses. For the gay and bisexual population, biosample research is particularly important for measuring the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. By determining people's understandings of, and attitudes towards, the donation and use of biosamples, researchers can design studies to maximise acceptability and participation. In this study we examine gay and bisexual men's attitudes towards donating biosamples for HIV research. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 46 gay and bisexual men aged between 18 and 63 recruited in commercial gay scene venues in two Scottish cities. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically using the framework approach. Most men interviewed seemed to have given little prior consideration to the issues. Participants were largely supportive of donating tissue for medical research purposes, and often favourable towards samples being stored, reused and shared. Support was often conditional, with common concerns related to: informed consent; the protection of anonymity and confidentiality; the right to withdraw from research; and ownership of samples. Many participants were in favour of the storage and reuse of samples, but expressed concerns related to data security and potential misuse of samples, particularly by commercial organisations. The sensitivity of tissue collection varied between tissue types and collection contexts. Blood, urine, semen and bowel tissue were commonly identified as sensitive, and donating saliva and as unlikely to cause discomfort. To our knowledge, this is the first in-depth study of gay and bisexual men's attitudes towards donating biosamples for HIV research. While most men in this study were supportive of donating tissue for research, some clear areas of concern were identified. We suggest that these minority concerns should be accounted

  11. Knowledge and perception of human papilloma virus vaccine among the antenatal women in a Nigerian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agida, Teddy E; Akaba, Godwin O; Isah, Aliyu Y; Ekele, Bissalla

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major health problem globally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria inclusive. One of the preventive measures is the vaccination of teenagers against oncogenic human papilloma virus. The aim of this study was to find out the level of knowledge mothers possess about these vaccines and their willingness to administer vaccination to their teenage girls. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 255 consecutive women attending antenatal clinic at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja. They were given either a self-administered questionnaire or interviewer-administered questionnaire containing both closed and open-ended questions. Information recorded includes socio-demographic variables, knowledge of cervical cancer, knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccines and acceptance of these vaccines for their adolescent girls. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics. The mean age of the respondents was 26.9 years. Over 90% had at least secondary education. A total of 102 (40%) had the knowledge of cancer of the cervix while 153 (60%) had never heard about it. Overall, 236 (92.5%) of them had no idea about the predisposing factors. The study showed that only 23 (9.0%) out of the total respondents had heard about human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. In the same vein, 20 (7.8%) had knowledge about HPV vaccine. Among the respondents, who had the knowledge of HPV and vaccination, 18.2% and 23.4% of them had secondary and tertiary levels of education respectively. Overall, 160 (62.8%) accepted that the vaccines could be administered to their teenage girls. Awareness of cervical cancer, HPV infections, and HPV vaccines is low among antenatal clinic attendees in Gwagwalada, Abuja. However, majority of them would want their girls vaccinated against HPV infections. There is a need for all stakeholders to step up awareness creation for improved HPV vaccination project in Nigeria.

  12. English Writing for International Publication in the Age of Globalization: Practices and Perceptions of Mainland Chinese Academics in the Humanities and Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Ge

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Much scholarly attention has been given to the English writing and publishing practices of the academics in non-Anglophone countries, but studies on such practices in the humanities and social sciences (HSS have in general been limited. The case of Mainland Chinese HSS academics is potentially interesting. On the one hand, international publications in these disciplines have been on the increase, which are also encouraged by the national research policy of “going-out”. On the other hand, unlike those in science and technology (S&T, such practices in the HSS are still much less institutionalized at the local level. In the study reported in this article, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine academics in economics, sociology and archaeology from the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS, and all nine participants had prior experience in international publishing. With a focus on participants’ experiences and perceptions, findings from this study demonstrated the relatively passive role participants played in their international publications, the importance of various resources in bringing forth these publications, and the relations between participants’ alignments with the local or international community and their voluntary investment in participating in their practices. Implications of the study were also discussed.

  13. Perceptions on the risk communication strategy during the 2013 avian influenza A/H7N9 outbreak in humans in China: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Richun; Xie, Ruiqian; Yang, Chong; Frost, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    To identify the general public's perceptions of the overall risk communication strategy carried out by Chinese public health agencies during the first wave of avian influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in humans in 2013. Participants were recruited from communities in Beijing, Lanzhou and Hangzhou, China in May and June 2013 by convenience sampling. Demographics and other relevant information were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Focus group interviews were conducted using a set of nine pre-developed questions and a tested moderator guide. The interviews were audio recorded and were transcribed verbatim. The constant comparative method was used to identify trends and themes. A total of nine focus group interviews, with 94 participants recruited from nine communities, were conducted. Most participants received H7N9 information via television and the Internet. Most the participants appreciated the transparency and timeliness of the information released by the government. They expressed a sense of trust in the recommended public health advice and followed most of them. The participants suggested that the government release more information about clinical treatment outcomes, have more specific health recommendations that are practical to their settings and expand the use of new media channels for risk communication. The public perceived the overall risk communication strategy by the Chinese public health agencies as effective, though the moderator had a governmental agency title that might have biased the results. There is a need to expand the use of social media for risk communication in the future.

  14. Validation of the blurring of a small object on CT images calculated on the basis of three-dimensional spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Masaki; Wada, Shinichi; Saito, Masatoshi

    2005-01-01

    We determine three-dimensional (3D) blurring of a small object on computed tomography (CT) images calculated on the basis of 3D spatial resolution. The images were characterized by point spread function (PSF), line spread function (LSF) and slice sensitivity profile (SSP). In advance, we systematically arranged expressions in the model for the imaging system to calculate 3D images under various conditions of spatial resolution. As a small object, we made a blood vessel phantom in which the direction of the vessel was not parallel to either the xy scan-plane or the z-axis perpendicular to the scan-plane. Therefore, when scanning the phantom, non-sharpness must be induced in all axes of the image. To predict the image blurring of the phantom, 3D spatial resolution is essential. The LSF and SSP were measured on our scanner, and two-dimensional (2D) PSF in the scan-plane was derived from the LSF by solving an integral equation. We obtained 3D images by convolving the 3D object-function of the phantom with both 2D PSF and SSP, corresponding to the 3D convolution. Calculated images showed good agreement with scanned images. Our technique of determining 3D blurring offers an accuracy advantage in 3D shape (size) and density measurements of small objects. (author)

  15. Vision as subjective perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reppas, J.B.; Dale, A.; Sereno, M.; Tootell, R.

    1996-01-01

    The human brain is not very different of the monkey's one: at least, its visual cortex is organized as a similar scheme. Specialized areas in the movement analysis are found and others in the forms perception. In this work, the author tries to answer to the following questions: 1)why so many visual areas? What are exactly their role in vision? Thirteen years of experimentation have not allowed to answer to these questions. The cerebral NMR imaging gives the opportunity of understanding the subjective perception of the visual world. One step which is particularly described in this work is to know how the visual cortex reacts to the optical illusions. (O.M.)

  16. Lifestyle Journalism: Blurring boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    From, Unni

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle journalism has experienced enormous growth in the media over the past two decades, but scholars in the fields of journalism and communication studies have so far paid relatively little attention to a field that is still sometimes seen as "not real journalism". There is now an urgent need...... for in-depth exploration and contextualisation of this field, with its increasing relevance for 21st century consumer cultures. For the first time, this book presents a wide range of studies which have engaged with the field of lifestyle journalism in order to outline the various political, economic...... of sub-fields such as travel, music, food, health, fashion and personal technology journalism. This volume provides a fascinating account of the different facets of lifestyle journalism, and charts the way forward for a more sustained analysis of the field. This book was originally published as a special...

  17. Differences in 3D dose distributions due to calculation method of voxel S-values and the influence of image blurring in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacilio, Massimiliano; Basile, Chiara; Amato, Ernesto; Lanconelli, Nico; Torres, Leonel Alberto; Perez, Marco Coca; Gil, Alex Vergara; Botta, Francesca; Ferrari, Mahila; Cremonesi, Marta; Diaz, Nestor Cornejo; Fernández, María; Lassmann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study compares 3D dose distributions obtained with voxel S values (VSVs) for soft tissue, calculated by several methods at their current state-of-the-art, varying the degree of image blurring. The methods were: 1) convolution of Dose Point Kernel (DPK) for water, using a scaling factor method; 2) an analytical model (AM), fitting the deposited energy as a function of the source-target distance; 3) a rescaling method (RSM) based on a set of high-resolution VSVs for each isotope; 4) local energy deposition (LED). VSVs calculated by direct Monte Carlo simulations were assumed as reference. Dose distributions were calculated considering spheroidal clusters with various sizes (251, 1237 and 4139 voxels of 3 mm size), uniformly filled with 131 I, 177 Lu, 188 Re or 90 Y. The activity distributions were blurred with Gaussian filters of various widths (6, 8 and 12 mm). Moreover, 3D-dosimetry was performed for 10 treatments with 90 Y derivatives. Cumulative Dose Volume Histograms (cDVHs) were compared, studying the differences in D 95% , D 50% or D max (ΔD 95% , ΔD 50% and ΔD max ) and dose profiles. For unblurred spheroidal clusters, ΔD 95% , ΔD 50% and ΔD max were mostly within some percents, slightly higher for 177 Lu with DPK (8%) and RSM (12%) and considerably higher for LED (ΔD 95% up to 59%). Increasing the blurring, differences decreased and also LED yielded very similar results, but D 95% and D 50% underestimations between 30–60% and 15–50%, respectively (with respect to 3D-dosimetry with unblurred distributions), were evidenced. Also for clinical images (affected by blurring as well), cDVHs differences for most methods were within few percents, except for slightly higher differences with LED, and almost systematic for dose profiles with DPK (−1.2%), AM (−3.0%) and RSM (4.5%), whereas showed an oscillating trend with LED. The major concern for 3D-dosimetry on clinical SPECT images is more strongly represented by image blurring than by

  18. Volunteer feedback and perceptions after participation in a phase I, first-in-human Ebola vaccine trial: An anonymous survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie-Anne Dayer

    Full Text Available The continued participation of volunteers in clinical trials is crucial to advances in healthcare. Few data are available regarding the satisfaction and impressions of healthy volunteers after participation in phase I trials, many of which lead to unexpected adverse events. We report feedback from over 100 adult volunteers who took part in a first-in-human trial conducted in a high-income country testing an experimental Ebola vaccine causing significant reactogenicity, as well as unexpected arthritis in one fifth of participants. The anonymous, internet-based satisfaction survey was sent by email to all participants upon their completion of this one-year trial; it asked 24 questions concerning volunteers' motivations, impressions of the trial experience, and overall satisfaction. Answers were summarized using descriptive statistics. Of the 115 trial participants, 103 (90% filled out the survey. Fifty-five respondents (53% were male. Thirty-five respondents (34% were healthcare workers, many of whom would deploy to Ebola-affected countries. All respondents cited scientific advancement as their chief motivation for participation, while 100/103 (97% and 61/103 (59% reported additional "humanitarian reasons" and potential protection from Ebolavirus, respectively. Although investigators had documented adverse events in 97% of trial participants, only 74 of 103 respondents (72% recalled experiencing an adverse event. All reported an overall positive experience, and 93/103 (90% a willingness to participate in future trials. Given the high level of satisfaction, no significant associations could be detected between trial experiences and satisfaction, even among respondents reporting adverse events lasting weeks or months. Despite considerable reactogenicity and unexpected vaccine-related arthritis, all survey respondents reported overall satisfaction. While this trial's context was unique, the positive feedback is likely due at least in part to the

  19. Ambient environment analysis by means of perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bitterman, M.S.; Ciftcioglu, O.; Bhatt, M.; Schultz, C.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of an ambient environment by means of perception is described. The surveillance of an object by human, who watches a scene via a monitor that shows camera sensed information, is investigated. Although the camera sensing process is a deterministic process, human perception of a scene via

  20. Analysis of Handwriting based on Rhythm Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Uchida, Masafumi; Nozawa, Akio

    Humanity fluctuation was reported in some fields. In handwriting process, fluctuation appears on handwriting-velocity. In this report, we focused attention on human rhythm perception and analyzed fluctuation in handwriting process. As a result, 1/f noise related to rhythm perception and features may caused by Kahneman's capacity model were measured on handwriting process.

  1. Towards computer-based perception by modeling visual perception : A probalistic theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftcioglu, O.; Bittermann, M.; Sariyildiz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Studies on computer-based perception by vision modelling are described. The visual perception is mathematically modelled where the model receives and interprets visual data from the environment. The perception is defined in probabilistic terms so that it is in the same way quantified. Human visual

  2. Perception of the importance of human-animal interactions on cattle flow and worker safety on Minnesota dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, U S; Cherry, C; Bender, J B

    2014-07-01

    Proper cattle-handling techniques (stockmanship) are important to ensure calm animals and a safe work environment for dairy workers on farm. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess Minnesota dairy herd owners' attitudes toward stockmanship, its perceived importance for cow comfort and worker health, and the establishment of calm cattle movement; and (2) identify current resources and methods of stockmanship training on Minnesota dairy farms. A stratified-random sample of Minnesota dairy farmers were contacted via mail to participate in a 28-question survey. One hundred eight bovine dairy producers participated. Most commonly, respondents learned their cattle handling skills from family members (42.6%) and 29.9% of producers had participated in previous stockmanship training. Producers thought that the skill of the human handler was the most important factor in establishing good cattle flow. Cattle-handling techniques was the third most common topic for new-employee orientation after training in milking parlor protocols and milking parlor disinfection. Time limitations and language barrier were considered serious challenges for worker training. Work-related injuries were responsible for lost work days in the previous year in 13.3% of dairy herds and 73.3% of those injuries occurred while working with cattle. Producers perceived that cattle-related injuries were predominantly the handler's fault: either because of not paying enough attention to the animal or due to poor cattle handling skills. Facility design was considered the least important for the occurrence of worker injuries. Although no causal inference can be made, herds that had workers who had previously participated in stockmanship training had a 810 ± 378 kg (mean ± standard error of the mean) higher rolling herd average than those that did not, even after adjusting for herd size and bulk tank somatic cell count. However, 50% of respondents were not interested in attending future stockmanship

  3. "The Invisible Staff": A Qualitative Analysis of Environmental Service Workers' Perceptions of the VA Clostridium difficile Prevention Bundle Using a Human Factors Engineering Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanke, Eric; Moriarty, Helene; Carayon, Pascale; Safdar, Nasia

    2018-06-11

    Using a novel human factors engineering approach, the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model, we evaluated environmental service workers' (ESWs) perceptions of barriers and facilitators influencing adherence to the nationally mandated Department of Veterans Affairs Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) prevention bundle. A focus group of ESWs was conducted. Qualitative analysis was performed employing a visual matrix display to identify barrier/facilitator themes related to Department of Veterans Affairs CDI bundle adherence using the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety work system as a framework. Environmental service workers reported adequate cleaning supplies/equipment and displayed excellent knowledge of CDI hand hygiene requirements. Environmental service workers described current supervisory practices as providing an acceptable amount of time to clean CDI rooms, although other healthcare workers often pressured ESWs to clean rooms more quickly. Environmental service workers reported significant concern for CDI patients' family members as well as suggesting uncertainty regarding the need for family members to follow infection prevention practices. Small and cluttered patient rooms made cleaning tasks more difficult, and ESW cleaning tasks were often interrupted by other healthcare workers. Environmental service workers did not feel comfortable asking physicians for more time to finish cleaning a room nor did ESWs feel comfortable pointing out lapses in physician hand hygiene. Multiple work system components serve as barriers to and facilitators of ESW adherence to the nationally mandated Department of Veterans Affairs CDI bundle. Environmental service workers may represent an underappreciated resource for hospital infection prevention, and further efforts should be made to engage ESWs as members of the health care team.

  4. Use of an audience response system during peer teaching among physical therapy students in human gross anatomy: perceptions of peer teachers and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wait, Kevin R; Cloud, Beth A; Forster, Lindsey A; Jones, Tiffany M; Nokleby, Jessica J; Wolfe, Cortney R; Youdas, James W

    2009-01-01

    An audience response system (ARS) has become popular among educators in medicine and the health professions because of the system's ability to engage listeners during a lecture presentation. No one has described the usefulness of ARS technology during planned nonlecture peer teaching sessions in gross anatomy instruction for health professionals. The unique feature of each peer teaching session was a nongraded 12-15 item ARS quiz assembled by six second-year doctor of physical therapy (DPT) students and purposely placed at the beginning of the review session for those first-year DPT students in attendance. This study used a ten-item questionnaire and a five-point Likert scale in addition to three open ended questions to survey perceptions of both first-year and second-year DPT students about the usefulness of ARS technology implemented during weekly interactive peer teaching sessions during a semester course in Anatomy for Physical Therapists. First-year students overwhelmingly acknowledged the ARS system permitted each student to self-assess his/her preparedness for a quiz or examination and compare his/her performance with that of classmates. Peer teachers recognized an ARS quiz provided them an opportunity to: (1) estimate first-year students' level of understanding of anatomical concepts; and (2) effectively prepare first-year students for their weekly quizzes and future examinations. On the basis of the mutual benefits derived by both students/tutees and teachers/tutors, physical therapist educators may wish to consider using ARS technology to enhance teaching methods for a class in gross human anatomy.

  5. Do Gold Humanism Honor Society Inductees Differ From Their Peers in Empathy, Patient-Centeredness, Tolerance of Ambiguity, Coping Style, and Perception of the Learning Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Dunham, Lisette; Krupat, Edward; Stansfield, Brent; Christianson, Charles; Skochelak, Susan

    2018-01-24

    Construct: Induction into the Gold Humanism Honor Society (GHHS) during medical school is recognized as an indicator of humanistic orientation and behavior. Various attitudes and interpersonal orientations including empathy and patient-centeredness have been posited to translate into behaviors constituting humanistic care. To our knowledge there has never been a longitudinal, multi-institutional empirical study of the attitudinal and interpersonal orientations correlated with GHHS membership status. We used the American Medical Association Learning Environment Study (LES) data set to explore attitudinal correlates associated with students whose behaviors are recognized by their peers as being exceptionally humanistic. Specifically, we examined whether empathy, patient-centeredness, tolerance of ambiguity, coping style, and perceptions of the learning environment are associated with GHHS membership status. We further considered to what extent GHHS members arrive in medical school with these attitudinal correlates and to what extent they change and evolve differentially among GHHS members compared to their non-GHHS peers. Between 2011 and 2015, 585 students from 13 North American medical schools with GHHS chapters participated in the LES, a longitudinal cohort study using a battery of validated psychometric measures including the Jefferson Scale of Empathy, Patient-Practitioner Orientation Scale and Tolerance of Ambiguity Questionnaire. In the final survey administration, students self-identified as GHHS inductees or not (non-GHHS). T tests, effect sizes, and longitudinal generalized mixed-effects models examined the differences between GHHS and non-GHHS students. Students inducted into GHHS scored significantly higher on average over 4 years than non-GHHS inductees on clinical empathy, patient-centered beliefs, and tolerance of ambiguity. GHHS students reported higher levels of empathy and patient-centeredness at medical school matriculation. This difference

  6. From perceptive fields to Gestalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillmann, Lothar

    2006-01-01

    Studies on visual psychophysics and perception conducted in the Freiburg psychophysics laboratory during the last 35 years are reviewed. Many of these were inspired by single-cell neurophysiology in cat and monkey. The aim was to correlate perceptual phenomena and their effects to possible neuronal mechanisms from retina to visual cortex and beyond. Topics discussed include perceptive field organization, figure-ground segregation and grouping, fading and filling-in, and long-range color interaction. While some of these studies succeeded in linking perception to neuronal response patterns, others require further investigation. The task of probing the human brain with perceptual phenomena continues to be a challenge for the future.

  7. Perceptual asymmetry in texture perception.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, D; Julesz, B

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental property of human visual perception is our ability to distinguish between textures. A concerted effort has been made to account for texture segregation in terms of linear spatial filter models and their nonlinear extensions. However, for certain texture pairs the ease of discrimination changes when the role of figure and ground are reversed. This asymmetry poses a problem for both linear and nonlinear models. We have isolated a property of texture perception that can account for...

  8. Human versus artificial texture perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petiet, Peter J.; van Erp, J.; Drullman, R.; van den Broek, Egon; Beintema, J.; van Wijngaarden, S.

    2006-01-01

    The performances of current texture analysis algorithms are still poor, especially when applied to a large, diffuse texture domain. Most of these purely computationally driven techniques are created to function within a highly restricted domain. When applied as computer vision techniques, frequently

  9. Experimental determination of blurring in x-ray fluoroscopy last image hold due to patient movement and its repercussion to patient doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guibelalde, E.; Gonzalez, L.; Vano, E.; Fernandez, J.M.; Alberdi, J.; Molinero, A.

    2001-01-01

    Significant dose reduction can be achieved in fluoroscopy and interventional radiology by using the last image hold (LIH). This feature in modern digital fluoroscopy x-ray units usually works with frame or temporal averaging techniques to reduce noise. This image quality works quite well for objects without motion but it could be a serious limitation in presence of motion blur. With an in-house developed robotic device, the authors have experimentally determined the image quality degradation introduced by normal physiological movements (i.e., respiratory and cardiac pulse movements). FAXIL test objects TO.10 and 18FG from Leeds University have been used for spatial resolution limit and threshold contrast detail detectability. Seven X-ray equipment with last image hold features from three different manufacturers were analysed. Although results show that motion blur affects LIH to different extends depending on equipment, magnification, entrance dose and detail size, it can be estimated that, on average for all equipment and analysed conditions, it represents 30% degradation in image quality parameters in comparison with static images. (author)

  10. SU-F-T-560: Measurement of Dose Blurring Effect Due to Respiratory Motion for Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) Using Monte Carlo Based Calculation Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badkul, R; Pokhrel, D; Jiang, H; Lominska, C; Wang, F; Ramanjappa, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Intra-fractional tumor motion due to respiration may potentially compromise dose delivery for SBRT of lung tumors. Even sufficient margins are used to ensure there is no geometric miss of target volume, there is potential dose blurring effect may present due to motion and could impact the tumor coverage if motions are larger. In this study we investigated dose blurring effect of open fields as well as Lung SBRT patients planned using 2 non-coplanar dynamic conformal arcs(NCDCA) and few conformal beams(CB) calculated with Monte Carlo (MC) based algorithm utilizing phantom with 2D-diode array(MapCheck) and ion-chamber. Methods: SBRT lung patients were planned on Brainlab-iPlan system using 4D-CT scan and ITV were contoured on MIP image set and verified on all breathing phase image sets to account for breathing motion and then 5mm margin was applied to generate PTV. Plans were created using two NCDCA and 4-5 CB 6MV photon calculated using XVMC MC-algorithm. 3 SBRT patients plans were transferred to phantom with MapCheck and 0.125cc ion-chamber inserted in the middle of phantom to calculate dose. Also open field 3×3, 5×5 and 10×10 were calculated on this phantom. Phantom was placed on motion platform with varying motion from 5, 10, 20 and 30 mm with duty cycle of 4 second. Measurements were carried out for open fields as well 3 patients plans at static and various degree of motions. MapCheck planar dose and ion-chamber reading were collected and compared with static measurements and computed values to evaluate the dosimetric effect on tumor coverage due to motion. Results: To eliminate complexity of patients plan 3 simple open fields were also measured to see the dose blurring effect with the introduction of motion. All motion measured ionchamber values were normalized to corresponding static value. For open fields 5×5 and 10×10 normalized central axis ion-chamber values were 1.00 for all motions but for 3×3 they were 1 up to 10mm motion and 0.97 and 0

  11. Reentrant processing in intuitive perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Luu

    Full Text Available The process of perception requires not only the brain's receipt of sensory data but also the meaningful organization of that data in relation to the perceptual experience held in memory. Although it typically results in a conscious percept, the process of perception is not fully conscious. Research on the neural substrates of human visual perception has suggested that regions of limbic cortex, including the medial orbital frontal cortex (mOFC, may contribute to intuitive judgments about perceptual events, such as guessing whether an object might be present in a briefly presented fragmented drawing. Examining dense array measures of cortical electrical activity during a modified Waterloo Gestalt Closure Task, results show, as expected, that activity in medial orbital frontal electrical responses (about 250 ms was associated with intuitive judgments. Activity in the right temporal-parietal-occipital (TPO region was found to predict mOFC (approximately 150 ms activity and, in turn, was subsequently influenced by the mOFC at a later time (approximately 300 ms. The initial perception of gist or meaning of a visual stimulus in limbic networks may thus yield reentrant input to the visual areas to influence continued development of the percept. Before perception is completed, the initial representation of gist may support intuitive judgments about the ongoing perceptual process.

  12. Multisensory flavor perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Charles

    2015-03-26

    The perception of flavor is perhaps the most multisensory of our everyday experiences. The latest research by psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists increasingly reveals the complex multisensory interactions that give rise to the flavor experiences we all know and love, demonstrating how they rely on the integration of cues from all of the human senses. This Perspective explores the contributions of distinct senses to our perception of food and the growing realization that the same rules of multisensory integration that have been thoroughly explored in interactions between audition, vision, and touch may also explain the combination of the (admittedly harder to study) flavor senses. Academic advances are now spilling out into the real world, with chefs and food industry increasingly taking the latest scientific findings on board in their food design. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Human factors involved in perception and action in a natural stereoscopic world: an up-to-date review with guidelines for stereoscopic displays and stereoscopic virtual reality (VR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Bayas, Luis

    2001-06-01

    In stereoscopic perception of a three-dimensional world, binocular disparity might be thought of as the most important cue to 3D depth perception. Nevertheless, in reality there are many other factors involved before the 'final' conscious and subconscious stereoscopic perception, such as luminance, contrast, orientation, color, motion, and figure-ground extraction (pop-out phenomenon). In addition, more complex perceptual factors exist, such as attention and its duration (an equivalent of 'brain zooming') in relation to physiological central vision, In opposition to attention to peripheral vision and the brain 'top-down' information in relation to psychological factors like memory of previous experiences and present emotions. The brain's internal mapping of a pure perceptual world might be different from the internal mapping of a visual-motor space, which represents an 'action-directed perceptual world.' In addition, psychological factors (emotions and fine adjustments) are much more involved in a stereoscopic world than in a flat 2D-world, as well as in a world using peripheral vision (like VR, using a curved perspective representation, and displays, as natural vision does) as opposed to presenting only central vision (bi-macular stereoscopic vision) as in the majority of typical stereoscopic displays. Here is presented the most recent and precise information available about the psycho-neuro- physiological factors involved in the perception of stereoscopic three-dimensional world, with an attempt to give practical, functional, and pertinent guidelines for building more 'natural' stereoscopic displays.

  14. Ambient Surveillance by Probabilistic-Possibilistic Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittermann, M.S.; Ciftcioglu, O.

    2013-01-01

    A method for quantifying ambient surveillance is presented, which is based on probabilistic-possibilistic perception. The human surveillance of a scene through observing camera sensed images on a monitor is modeled in three steps. First immersion of the observer is simulated by modeling perception

  15. Individual differences in visual perception and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colizoli, O.

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial variation in perception and memory in humans. There are individuals who cannot see red at all, and there are individuals who hear colors and taste words. What determines the differences and similarities between individuals' perception and memory? Can we characterize the neural

  16. Visual-vestibular interaction in motion perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosman, Ruud J A W; Cardullo, Frank M.; Bos, Jelte E.

    2011-01-01

    Correct perception of self motion is of vital importance for both the control of our position and posture when moving around in our environment. With the development of human controlled vehicles as bicycles, cars and aircraft motion perception became of interest for the understanding of vehicle

  17. Visual Perception with Color for Architectural Aesthetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittermann, M.S.; Ciftcioglu, O.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on computer-based visual perception and aesthetical judgment for architectural design are presented. In the model, both color and the geometric aspects of human vision are jointly taken into account, quantifying the perception of an individual object, as well as a scene consisting of several

  18. Perceptions about Homeless Elders and Community Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane; Jacobs, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Human service students were surveyed ("N" = 207) to determine their perceptions about homeless elders and communal responsibility for their well-being. Using a backward regression analysis, a final model ("F" = 15.617, "df" = 7, "p" < 0.001) for Perceptions about Homeless Persons and Community…

  19. Reinforcement of perceptual inference: reward and punishment alter conscious visual perception during binocular rivalry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor eWilbertz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Perception is an inferential process, which becomes immediately evident when sensory information is conflicting or ambiguous and thus allows for more than one perceptual interpretation. Thinking the idea of perception as inference through to the end results in a blurring of boundaries between perception and action selection, as perceptual inference implies the construction of a percept as an active process. Here we therefore wondered whether perception shares a key characteristic of action selection, namely that it is shaped by reinforcement learning. In two behavioral experiments, we used binocular rivalry to examine whether perceptual inference can be influenced by the association of perceptual outcomes with reward or punishment, respectively, in analogy to instrumental conditioning. Binocular rivalry was evoked by two orthogonal grating stimuli presented to the two eyes, resulting in perceptual alternations between the two gratings. Perception was tracked indirectly and objectively through a target detection task, which allowed us to preclude potential reporting biases. Monetary rewards or punishments were given repeatedly during perception of only one of the two rivalling stimuli. We found an increase in dominance durations for the percept associated with reward, relative to the non-rewarded percept. In contrast, punishment led to an increase of the non-punished compared to a relative decrease of the punished percept. Our results show that perception shares key characteristics with action selection, in that it is influenced by reward and punishment in opposite directions, thus narrowing the gap between the conceptually separated domains of perception and action selection. We conclude that perceptual inference is an adaptive process that is shaped by its consequences.

  20. Habitat-induced degradation of sound signals: Quantifying the effects of communication sounds and bird location on blur ratio, excess attenuation, and signal-to-noise ratio in blackbird song

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, T.; Larsen, O N; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    1993-01-01

    measures were calculated from changes of the amplitude functions (i.e., envelopes) of the degraded songs using a new technique which allowed a compensation for the contribution of the background noise to the amplitude values. Representative songs were broadcast in a deciduous forest without leaves......The habitat-induced degradation of the full song of the blackbird (Turdus merula) was quantified by measuring excess attenuation, reduction of the signal-to-noise ratio, and blur ratio, the latter measure representing the degree of blurring of amplitude and frequency patterns over time. All three...

  1. Ascertaining Disabling Perceptions Using Perceptual Mapping: Applications to Teachers' Perceptions of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, S. Craig; Wheeler, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that humans form perceptions as a result of a variety of complex cognitive processes. The purpose of this pilot study is to demonstrate the potential use of perceptual mapping as a means to capture the perceptions of groups of individuals who work closely with people with disabilities and examine their perceptions in a…

  2. Intellectual Capital: Perceptions of Productivity and Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristides Isidoro Ferreira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the influence intellectual capital has on employees’ perceptions as related to both company investments and productivity levels. The data was obtained from 440 employees at 13 Portuguese companies. Both ANOVA and Regression Analysis were conducted in order to understand the impact three Intellectual Capital Scale components have on perceptions of investment and organizational productivity. Results show that companies with higher scores of Structural Capital have a lower perception of investment in human resources and research, as well as a higher perception of investment in marketing and sales. Moreover, employees of companies with higher Structural Capital scores also have higher perceptions of productivity. On the other hand, organizations with higher investment in Customer Capital tend to be associated with a lower perception of organizational productivity.

  3. Action-based effects on music perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc; Palmer, Caroline; Wanderley, Marcelo M

    2014-01-03

    The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral processes. In contrast, embodied accounts of music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework that captures the ways in which the human motor system and its actions can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory, postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modeling), and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modeling). Embodied accounts typically refer to inverse modeling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007). We extend this account by pinpointing forward modeling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system and its actions suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music) cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamical process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial importance.

  4. Action-based effects on music perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc; Palmer, Caroline; Wanderley, Marcelo M.

    2013-01-01

    The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral processes. In contrast, embodied accounts of music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework that captures the ways in which the human motor system and its actions can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory, postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modeling), and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modeling). Embodied accounts typically refer to inverse modeling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007). We extend this account by pinpointing forward modeling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system and its actions suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music) cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamical process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial importance. PMID:24454299

  5. Action-based effects on music perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter-Jan eMaes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral phenomena. In contrast, embodied accounts to music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework capturing the ways that the human motor system, and the actions it produces, can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modelling, and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modelling. Embodied accounts typically adhere to inverse modelling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007. We extent this account by pinpointing forward modelling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system, and the action it produces, suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamic process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial

  6. Consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems...... that there was no link between the negative images of production methods and their purchase behaviour. The groups were clearly confused and mistrusted the limited information available at the point of purchase. Careful consideration should be given to meat labelling, in particular taking account of the evident consumer...... ethnocentrism, to assure that such information is targeted to enhance consumer confidence....

  7. Wildlife disease and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch-Kirkbride, Shauna L; Riley, Shawn J; Gore, Meredith L

    2013-10-01

    Risk perception has an important influence on wildlife management and is particularly relevant to issues that present health risks, such as those associated with wildlife disease management. Knowledge of risk perceptions is useful to wildlife health professionals in developing communication messages that enhance public understanding of wildlife disease risks and that aim to increase public support for disease management. To promote knowledge of public understanding of disease risks in the context of wildlife disease management, we used a self-administered questionnaire mailed to a stratified random sample (n = 901) across the continental United States to accomplish three objectives: 1) assess zoonotic disease risk perceptions; 2) identify sociodemographic and social psychologic factors underlying these risk perceptions; and 3) examine the relationship between risk perception and agreement with wildlife disease management practices. Diseases we assessed in the surveys were rabies, plague, and West Nile virus. Risk perception, as measured by an index consisting of severity, susceptibility, and dread, was greatest for rabies and West Nile virus disease (x = 2.62 and 2.59, respectively, on a scale of 1 to 4 and least for plague (x = 2.39). The four most important variables associated with disease risk perception were gender, education, prior exposure to the disease, and concern for health effects. We found that stronger risk perception was associated with greater agreement with wildlife disease management. We found particular concern for the vulnerability of wildlife to zoonotic disease and for protection of wildlife health, indicating that stakeholders may be receptive to messages emphasizing the potential harm to wildlife from disease and to messages promoting One Health (i.e., those that emphasize the interdependence of human, domestic animal, wildlife, and ecosystem health).

  8. How does glaucoma look?: patient perception of visual field loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, David P; Smith, Nicholas D; Glen, Fiona C; Burton, Robyn; Garway-Heath, David F

    2013-06-01

    To explore patient perception of vision loss in glaucoma and, specifically, to test the hypothesis that patients do not recognize their impairment as a black tunnel effect or as black patches in their field of view. Clinic-based cross-sectional study. Fifty patients (age range, 52-82 years) with visual acuity better than 20/30 and with a range of glaucomatous visual field (VF) defects in both eyes, excluding those with very advanced disease (perimetrically blind). Participants underwent monocular VF testing in both eyes using a Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA; 24-2 Swedish interactive threshold algorithm standard tests) and other tests of visual function. Participants took part in a recorded interview during which they were asked if they were aware of their VF loss; if so, there were encouraged to describe it in their own words. Participants were shown 6 images modified in a variety of ways on a computer monitor and were asked to select the image that most closely represented their perception of their VF loss. Forced choice of an image best representing glaucomatous vision impairment. Participants had a range of VF defect severity: average HFA mean deviation was -8.7 dB (standard deviation [SD], 5.8 dB) and -10.5 dB (SD, 7.1 dB) in the right and left eyes, respectively. Thirteen patients (26%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 15%-40%) reported being completely unaware of their vision loss. None of the patients chose the images with a distinct black tunnel effect or black patches. Only 2 patients (4%; 95% CI, 0%-14%) chose the image with a tunnel effect with blurred edges. An image depicting blurred patches and another with missing patches was chosen by 54% (95% CI, 39%-68%) and 16% (95% CI, 7%-29%) of the patients, respectively. Content analysis of the transcripts from the recorded interviews indicated a frequent use of descriptors of visual symptoms associated with reported blur and missing features. Patients with glaucoma do not perceive

  9. How Do Humans Perceive Emotion?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen

    2017-01-01

    Emotion carries crucial qualities of the human condition, representing one of the major challenges in artificial intelligence. Re-search in psychology and neuroscience in the past two to three decades has generated rich insights into the processes underlying human emotion. Cognition and emotion represent the two main pillars of the human psyche and human intelligence. While the hu-man cognitive system and cognitive brain has inspired and informed computer science and artificial intelligence, the future is ripe for the human emotion system to be integrated into artificial intelligence and robotic systems. Here, we review behavioral and neu-ral findings in human emotion perception, including facial emotion perception, olfactory emotion perception, multimodal emotion perception, and the time course of emotion perception. It is our hope that knowledge of how humans perceive emotion will help bring artificial intelligence strides closer to human intelligence.

  10. Evaluation of image quality and lesion perception by human readers on 3D CT colonography: comparison of standard and low radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisichella, Valeria A.; Allansdotter Johnsson, Aase; Hellstroem, Mikael; Baath, Magnus; Jaederling, Fredrik; Bergsten, Tommy; Persson, Ulf; Mellingen, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    We compared the prevalence of noise-related artefacts and lesion perception on three-dimensional (3D) CT colonography (CTC) at standard and low radiation doses. Forty-eight patients underwent CTC (64 x 0.625 mm collimation; tube rotation time 0.5 s; automatic tube current modulation: standard dose 40-160 mA, low dose 10-50 mA). Low- and standard-dose acquisitions were performed in the supine position, one after the other. The presence of artefacts (cobblestone and snow artefacts, irregularly delineated folds) and the presence of polyps were evaluated by five radiologists on 3D images at standard dose, the original low dose and a modified low dose, i.e. after manipulation of opacity on 3D. The mean effective dose was 3.9 ± 1.3 mSv at standard dose and 1.03 ± 0.4 mSv at low dose. The number of images showing cobblestone artefacts and irregularly delineated folds at original and modified low doses was significantly higher than at standard dose (P < 0.0001). Most of the artefacts on modified low-dose images were mild. No significant difference in sensitivity between the dose levels was found for polyps ≥6 mm. Reduction of the effective dose to 1 mSv significantly affects image quality on 3D CTC, but the perception of ≥6 mm lesions is not significantly impaired. (orig.)

  11. Colour Perception in Ancient World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, D. I.; Fedorova, M. Yu

    2017-11-01

    How did the human thought form the surrounding color information into the persistent semantic images of a mythological, pseudoscientific and religious nature? The concepts associated with colour perception are suggested. The existence of colour environment does not depend on the human consciousness. The colour culture formation is directly related to the level of the human consciousness development and the possibility to influence the worldview and culture. The colour perception of a person goes through the stages similar to the development of colour vision in a child. Like any development, the colour consciousness has undergone stages of growth and decline, evolution and stagnation. The way of life and difficult conditions for existence made their own adjustments to the development of the human perception of the surrounding world. Wars have been both a powerful engine of progress in all spheres of life and a great destructive force demolishing the already created and preserved heritage. The surrounding world has always been interesting for humans, evoked images and fantasies in the consciousness of ancient people. Unusual and inexplicable natural phenomena spawned numerous legends and myths which was reflected in the ancient art and architecture and, accordingly, in a certain manifestation of colour in the human society. The colour perception of the ancient man, his pragmatic, utilitarian attitude to colour is considered as well as the influence of dependence on external conditions of existence and their reflection in the colour culture of antiquity. “Natural Science” conducts research in the field of the colour nature and their authorial interpretation of the Hellenic period. Several authorial concepts of the ancient world have been considered.

  12. Body_Machine? Encounters of the Human and the Mechanical in Education, Industry and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Frederik; Priem, Karin; Thyssen, Geert

    2017-01-01

    This paper unveils the body_machine as a key element of dynamic mental maps that have come to shape both educational praxis and research. It traces and analyses instances in which the human and the mechanical encountered each other in metaphorical, material and visual forms, thereby blurring to some extent the boundaries between them while…

  13. Inversion Effects in the Perception of the Moving Human Form: A Comparison of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Laura; Looney, Kathy; Brady, Nuala; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The "body inversion effect" refers to superior recognition of upright than inverted images of the human body and indicates typical configural processing. Previous research by Reed et al. using static images of the human body shows that people with autism fail to demonstrate this effect. Using a novel task in which adults, adolescents…

  14. Health workers' perception on the work, working conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the philosophy that ensures proper utilization of human resources that would ... on the work, working conditions, compensation, and career development in a ... of human resources management practices to change the negative perceptions ...

  15. Show me how you walk and I tell you how you feel - a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study on emotion perception based on human gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sabrina; Christensen, Andrea; Häußinger, Florian B; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Giese, Martin A; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2014-01-15

    The ability to recognize and adequately interpret emotional states in others plays a fundamental role in regulating social interaction. Body language presents an essential element of nonverbal communication which is often perceived prior to mimic expression. However, the neural networks that underlie the processing of emotionally expressive body movement and body posture are poorly understood. 33 healthy subjects have been investigated using the optically based imaging method functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during the performance of a newly developed emotion discrimination paradigm consisting of faceless avatars expressing fearful, angry, sad, happy or neutral gait patterns. Participants were instructed to judge (a) the presented emotional state (emotion task) and (b) the observed walking speed of the respective avatar (speed task). We measured increases in cortical oxygenated haemoglobin (O2HB) in response to visual stimulation during emotion discrimination. These O2HB concentration changes were enhanced for negative emotions in contrast to neutral gait sequences in right occipito-temporal and left temporal and temporo-parietal brain regions. Moreover, fearful and angry bodies elicited higher activation increases during the emotion task compared to the speed task. Haemodynamic responses were correlated with a number of behavioural measures, whereby a positive relationship between emotion regulation strategy preference and O2HB concentration increases after sad walks was mediated by the ability to accurately categorize sad walks. Our results support the idea of a distributed brain network involved in the recognition of bodily emotion expression that comprises visual association areas as well as body/movement perception specific cortical regions that are also sensitive to emotion. This network is activated less when the emotion is not intentionally processed (i.e. during the speed task). Furthermore, activity of this perceptiv