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Sample records for human blood specimens

  1. Degradation and Stabilization of Peptide Hormones in Human Blood Specimens.

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    Jizu Yi

    Full Text Available Plasma hormone peptides, including GLP-1, GIP, Glucagon, and OXM, possess multiple physiological roles and potential therapeutic and diagnostic utility as biomarkers in the research of metabolic disorders. These peptides are subject to proteolytic degradation causing preanalytical variations. Stabilization for accurate quantitation of these active peptides in ex vivo blood specimens is essential for drug and biomarker development. We investigated the protease-driven instability of these peptides in conventional serum, plasma, anticoagulated whole blood, as well as whole blood and plasma stabilized with protease inhibitors. The peptide was monitored by both time-course Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-to-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI -TOF MS and Ab-based assay (ELISA or RIA. MS enabled the identification of proteolytic fragments. In non-stabilized blood samples, the results clearly indicated that dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV removed the N-terminal two amino acid residues from GLP-1, GIP and OXM(1-37 and not-yet identified peptidase(s cleave(s the full-length OXM(1-37 and its fragments. DPP-IV also continued to remove two additional N-terminal residues of processed OXM(3-37 to yield OXM(5-37. Importantly, both DPP-IV and other peptidase(s activities were inhibited efficiently by the protease inhibitors included in the BD P800* tube. There was preservation of GLP-1, GIP, OXM and glucagon in the P800 plasma samples with half-lives > 96, 96, 72, and 45 hours at room temperature (RT, respectively. In the BD P700* plasma samples, the stabilization of GLP-1 was also achieved with half-life > 96 hours at RT. The stabilization of these variable peptides increased their utility in drug and/or biomarker development. While stability results of GLP-1 obtained with Ab-based assay were consistent with those obtained by MS analysis, the Ab-based results of GIP, Glucagon, and OXM did not reflect the time-dependent degradations revealed by MS

  2. Binding of the blood group-reactive lectins to human adult kidney specimens.

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    Laitinen, L; Juusela, H; Virtanen, I

    1990-01-01

    The binding of a panel of blood group-reactive lectins to frozen sections of human kidney was studied with a special emphasis on reactivity with endothelia and basement membranes. The blood group A-reactive lectins, all specific for alpha-D-N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), Helix aspersa (HAA), Helix pomatia (HPA), and Griffonia simplicifolia I-A4 (GSA-I-A4) agglutinins bound to the endothelium in specimens with blood groups A and AB. In other samples, these lectins reacted predominantly with tubular basement membranes, as well as with certain tubules. Both Dolichos biflorus (DBA) and Vicia villosa agglutinins (VVA), reported to react with blood group A1 substance, failed to reveal endothelia in most specimens, but bound differently to tubules in all blood groups. The blood group B-reactive lectins, specific for alpha-D-galactose (alpha-Gal) or GalNAc, respectively, GSA-I-B4 and Sophora japonica agglutinin (SJA), bound to the endothelia in specimens from blood group B or AB and in other specimens bound only to certain tubules. Among the blood group O-reactive lectins, specific for alpha-L-fucose (Fuc), Ulex europaeus I agglutinin (UEA-I) conjugates, but not other lectins with a similar nominal specificity, bound strongly to endothelia in specimens with blood group O. The UEA-I conjugates bound distinctly more faintly to endothelia in specimens of other blood groups. The present results indicate that lectins, binding to defined blood group determinants, react with endothelia in specimens of the respective blood group status. Furthermore, they suggest that basement membranes and some tubules in the human kidney show a distinct heterogeneity in their expression of saccharide residues, related to their blood group status.

  3. [Blood Count Specimen].

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    Tamura, Takako

    2015-12-01

    The circulating blood volume accounts for 8% of the body weight, of which 45% comprises cellular components (blood cells) and 55% liquid components. We can measure the number and morphological features of blood cells (leukocytes, red blood cells, platelets), or count the amount of hemoglobin in a complete blood count: (CBC). Blood counts are often used to detect inflammatory diseases such as infection, anemia, a bleeding tendency, and abnormal cell screening of blood disease. This count is widely used as a basic data item of health examination. In recent years, clinical tests before consultation have become common among outpatient clinics, and the influence of laboratory values on consultation has grown. CBC, which is intended to count the number of raw cells and to check morphological features, is easily influenced by the environment, techniques, etc., during specimen collection procedures and transportation. Therefore, special attention is necessary to read laboratory data. Providing correct test values that accurately reflect a patient's condition from the laboratory to clinical side is crucial. Inappropriate medical treatment caused by erroneous values resulting from altered specimens should be avoided. In order to provide correct test values, the daily management of devices is a matter of course, and comprehending data variables and positively providing information to the clinical side are important. In this chapter, concerning sampling collection, blood collection tubes, dealing with specimens, transportation, and storage, I will discuss their effects on CBC, along with management or handling methods.

  4. Drone Transport of Microbes in Blood and Sputum Laboratory Specimens.

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    Amukele, Timothy K; Street, Jeff; Carroll, Karen; Miller, Heather; Zhang, Sean X

    2016-10-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) could potentially be used to transport microbiological specimens. To examine the impact of UAVs on microbiological specimens, blood and sputum culture specimens were seeded with usual pathogens and flown in a UAV for 30 ± 2 min. Times to recovery, colony counts, morphologies, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identifications of the flown and stationary specimens were similar for all microbes studied.

  5. Innovation for reducing blood culture contamination: initial specimen diversion technique.

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    Patton, Richard G; Schmitt, Timothy

    2010-12-01

    We hypothesized that diversion of the first milliliter of venipuncture blood-the initial specimen diversion technique (ISDT)-would eliminate incompletely sterilized fragments of skin from the culture specimen and significantly reduce our blood culture contamination rate (R). We studied our hypothesis prospectively beginning with our control culture (C) definition: one venipuncture with two sequentially obtained specimens, 10 ml each, the first specimen (M1) for aerobic and the second (M2) for anaerobic media. The test ISDT culture (D) was identical, with the exception that each was preceded by diverting a 1-ml sample (DS) from the same venipuncture. During the first of two sequential 9-month periods, we captured D versus C data (n=3,733), where DMXR and CMXR are R for D and C specimens. Our hypothesis predicted DS would divert soiled skin fragments from DM1, and therefore, CM1R would be significantly greater than DM1R. This was confirmed by CM1R (30/1,061 [2.8%]) less DM1R (37/2,672 [1.4%]; P=0.005), which equals 1.4%. For the second 9-month follow-up period, data were compiled for all cultures (n=4,143), where ADMXR is R for all (A) diversion specimens, enabling comparison to test ISDT. Our hypothesis predicted no significant differences for test ISDT versus all ISDT. This was confirmed by DM1R (37/2,672 [1.4%]) versus ADM1R (42/4,143 [1.0%]; P=0.17) and DM2R (21/2,672 [0.80%]) versus ADM2R (39/4,143 [0.94%]; P=0.50). We conclude that our hypothesis is valid: venipuncture needles soil blood culture specimens with unsterilized skin fragments and increase R, and ISDT significantly reduces R from venipuncture-obtained blood culture specimens.

  6. Development of a Broad-Range 23S rDNA Real-Time PCR Assay for the Detection and Quantification of Pathogenic Bacteria in Human Whole Blood and Plasma Specimens

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    Paolo Gaibani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular methods are important tools in the diagnosis of bloodstream bacterial infections, in particular in patients treated with antimicrobial therapy, due to their quick turn-around time. Here we describe a new broad-range real-time PCR targeting the 23S rDNA gene and capable to detect as low as 10 plasmid copies per reaction of targeted bacterial 23S rDNA gene. Two commercially available DNA extraction kits were evaluated to assess their efficiency for the extraction of plasma and whole blood samples spiked with different amount of either Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli, in order to find the optimal extraction method to be used. Manual QIAmp extraction method with enzyme pre-treatment resulted the most sensitive for detection of bacterial load. Sensitivity of this novel assay ranged between 10 and 103 CFU per PCR reaction for E. coli and S. aureus in human whole blood samples depending on the extraction methods used. Analysis of plasma samples showed a 10- to 100-fold reduction of bacterial 23S rDNA in comparison to the corresponding whole blood specimens, thus indicating that whole blood is the preferential sample type to be used in this real-time PCR protocol. Our results thus show that the 23S rDNA gene represents an optimal target for bacteria quantification in human whole blood.

  7. Anaerococcus nagyae sp. nov., isolated from human clinical specimens

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    Veloo, A C M; Vries , de E. D.; Jean-Pierre, H; van Winkelhoff, A J

    We describe a new Anaerococcus species isolated from human clinical specimens. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences of three strains showed <98% similarity with its closest relative Anaerococcus octavius. Phylogenetically the isolated strains form a cluster and can be differentiated from other

  8. Anaerococcus nagyae sp. nov., isolated from human clinical specimens.

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    Veloo, A C M; de Vries, E D; Jean-Pierre, H; van Winkelhoff, A J

    2016-04-01

    We describe a new Anaerococcus species isolated from human clinical specimens. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences of three strains showed octavius. Phylogenetically the isolated strains form a cluster and can be differentiated from other species of the genus Anaerococcus based on its phenotypic characteristics and its MALDI-TOF MS profile. We propose the name Anaerococcus nagyae, with A. nagyae DSM101193 (accession number KU043522) as the type strain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of viable bacteria and bacterial DNA in blood and bloodstain specimens stored under various conditions.

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    Hosokawa-Muto, Junji; Fujinami, Yoshihito; Mizuno, Natsuko

    2013-11-01

    Microbial forensic specimens that are collected at biocrime and bioterrorism scenes include blood, tissue, cloths containing biological fluids, swabs, water, soil, and aerosols. It is preferable that pathogens in such specimens are alive and kept in a steady state. Specimens may be stored for a prolonged period before analysis; therefore, it is important to understand the effect of the storage conditions on the pathogens contained within the specimens. In this study, we prepared blood and bloodstain specimens containing Gram-negative or -positive bacteria, stored the samples for 482 days under various conditions, and measured viable bacterial counts and total bacterial contents in the samples. Viable bacteria were preserved well in the samples stored at -30 and -80 °C, but were diminished or undetectable in the samples stored at 4 °C and room temperature. The total bacterial content was maintained in the blood samples stored at -30 and -80 °C and in the bloodstain samples stored under all temperature conditions, but decreased in the blood samples stored at 4 °C and room temperature. This study showed that the storage conditions affected viable bacteria and bacterial DNA and that freezing and drying were significant for their long-term storage. We provide important information for the storage of microbial forensic specimens.

  10. Effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in forensic drug testing.

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    Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    In forensic drug testing, it is important to immediately take biological specimens from suspects and victims to prove their drug intake. We evaluated the effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in terms of ease of sampling, drug detection sensitivity, and drug detection periods for each specimen type. After four commercially available pharmaceutical products were administered to healthy subjects, each in a single dose, their urine, blood, saliva, and fingerprints were taken at predetermined sampling times over approximately four weeks. Fourteen analytes (the administered drugs and their main metabolites) were extracted from each specimen using simple pretreatments, such as dilution and deproteinization, and were analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Most of the analytes were detected in saliva and fingerprints, as well as in urine and blood. The time-courses of drug concentrations were similar between urine and fingerprints, and between blood and saliva. Compared to the other compounds, the acidic compounds, for example ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid, were more difficult to detect in all specimens. Acetaminophen, dihydrocodeine, and methylephedrine were detected in fingerprints at later sampling times than in urine. However, a relationship between the drug structures and their detection periods in each specimen was not found. Saliva and fingerprints could be easily sampled on site without using special techniques or facilities. In addition, fingerprints could be immediately analyzed after simple and rapid treatment. In cases where it would be difficult to immediately obtain urine and blood, saliva and fingerprints could be effective alternative specimens for drug testing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Effect of pneumatic tube delivery system rate and distance on hemolysis of blood specimens.

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    Evliyaoğlu, Osman; Toprak, Gülten; Tekin, Alicem; Başarali, Mustafa Kemal; Kilinç, Cumhur; Colpan, Leyla

    2012-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of pneumatic tube system (PTS) transport rates and distances on routine hematology and coagulation analysis. PTS effects on centrifuged blood samples were also examined. The study was completed at Dicle University Hospital, which has the longest pneumatic tube system in Turkey. Blood samples were collected at three different locations within the hospital and an emergency department, and delivered to the central laboratory by the PTS or a human carrier. Samples were transported at different rates and over varying distances. Each specimen's potassium (K) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, in both the serum and plasma, were tracked to monitor hemolysis. Measurements of LDH and K were obtained using heparin or citrate. A positive correlation was observed between distance and hemolysis in serum samples transported at 4.2 m/sec, and at 3.1 m/sec for more than 2200 m (r = 0.774 and r = 0.766, respectively). Distance and hemolysis were also correlated in non-centrifuged samples (r = 0.871). The alterations in plasma LDH and K levels at different rates and PTS lengths were not statistically significant. The rate of hemolysis in PTS transported samples, dependent on PTS length and rate, may seriously affect routine tests of non-centrifuged samples. © 2012 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Immunohistochemistry of Programmed Cell Death in Archival Human Pathology Specimens

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    Takami Matsuyama

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Immunohistochemistry (IHC for detecting key signal molecules involved in programmed cell death (PCD in archival human pathology specimens is fairly well established. Detection of cleaved caspase-3 in lymphocytes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and gastric surface foveolar glandular epithelia but not in synoviocytes in RA, gastric fundic glandular epithelia, or nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL cells suggests anti-apoptotic mechanisms in cell differentiation and in oncogenesis such as the induction of survivin. Enzymatically pretreated and ultra-super sensitive detection of beclin-1 in synoviocytes in RA and gastric fundic glandular epithelia suggests enhanced autophagy. The deposition of beclin-1 in fibrinoid necrosis in RA and expression of beclin-1 in detached gastric fundic glandular cells suggest that enhanced autophagy undergoes autophagic cell death (ACD. NKTCL exhibited enhanced autophagy through LC3 labeling and showed densely LC3 labeled cell-debris in regions of peculiar necrosis without deposition of beclin-1, indicating massive ACD in NKTCL and the alternative pathway enhancing autophagy following autophagic vesicle nucleation. Autophagy progression was monitored by labeling aggregated mitochondria and cathepsin D. The cell-debris in massive ACD in NKTCL were positive for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, suggesting DNA oxidation occurred in ACD. Immunohistochemical autophagy and PCD analysis in archival human pathology specimens may offer new insights into autophagy in humans.

  13. Identities of Microbacterium spp. encountered in human clinical specimens.

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    Gneiding, Kathrina; Frodl, Reinhard; Funke, Guido

    2008-11-01

    In the present study, 50 strains of yellow-pigmented gram-positive rods that had been isolated from human clinical specimens and collected over a 5-year period were further characterized by phenotypic and molecular genetic methods. All 50 strains belonged to the genus Microbacterium, and together they represented 18 different species. Microbacterium oxydans (n = 11), M. paraoxydans (n = 9), and M. foliorum (n = 7) represented more than half of the strains included in the present study. The isolation of strains belonging to M. hydrocarbonoxydans (n = 2), M. esteraromaticum (n = 1), M. oleivorans (n = 1), M. phyllosphaerae (n = 1), and M. thalassium (n = 1) from humans is reported for the first time. Microbacterium sp. strain VKM Ac-1389 (n = 1) and the previously uncultured Microbacterium sp. clone YJQ-29 (n = 1) probably represent new species. Comprehensive antimicrobial susceptibility data are given for the 50 Microbacterium isolates. This study is, so far, the largest on Microbacterium spp. encountered in human clinical specimens and outlines the heterogeneity of clinical Microbacterium strains.

  14. Fecal specimens preparation methods for PCR diagnosis of human taeniosis

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    Nunes Cáris Maroni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sample preparation and DNA extraction protocols for DNA amplification by PCR, which can be applied in human fecal samples for taeniasis diagnosis, are described. DNA extracted from fecal specimens with phenol/chloroform/isoamilic alcohol and DNAzol® reagent had to be first purified to generate fragments of 170 pb and 600 pb by HDP2-PCR. This purification step was not necessary with the use of QIAmp DNA stool mini kit®. Best DNA extraction results were achieved after eggs disruption with glass beads, either with phenol/chloroform/isoamilic alcohol, DNAzol® reagent or QIAmp DNA stool mini kit®.

  15. Salvia divinorum: toxicological aspects and analysis in human biological specimens.

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    Margalho, Cláudia; Corte-Real, Francisco; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Gallardo, Eugenia

    2016-07-01

    The identification and quantitation of the main psychoactive component of Salvia divinorum (salvinorin A) in biological specimens are crucial in forensic and clinical toxicology. Despite all the efforts made, its uncontrolled abuse has increased quickly, exposing its users' health to serious risks both in the short and long term. The use of alternative biological matrices in toxicological analyzes can be advantageous as complementary postmortem samples, or in situations when neither blood nor urine can be collected; they may be useful tools in those determinations, providing important information about prior exposure. The aim of this article is to present a brief summary of legal aspects of Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A, including the methods used for the determination of the latter in biological matrices.

  16. Use of a pneumatic tube system for delivery of blood bank products and specimens.

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    Tanley, P C; Wallas, C H; Abram, M C; Richardson, L D

    1987-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of pneumatic tube transport on blood bank specimens and products. No important differences were found between aliquots transported in the tube system and those stored in the laboratory as controls. ABO, Rh, antibody detection or identification, direct antiglobulin testing, and elution were studied. Further, no differences in plasma hemoglobin and potassium concentration were found between units of whole blood and packed cells handled in either manner. Platelet counts in platelet concentrates were not decreased and coagulation factor levels in units of fresh-frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate did not decrease after pneumatic transport. The system tested is currently providing expeditious transport of specimens and blood between blood banks and patient care areas.

  17. Identification of the Main Intermediate Precursor of l-Ergothioneine Biosynthesis in Human Biological Specimens

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    Salvatore Sotgia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A capillary electrophoresis coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (CE–MS/MS has been used to make a qualitative determination of hercynine—the main precursor of l-ergothioneine biosynthesis—in some key human biological specimens, such as urine, whole blood, plasma, and saliva. From semiquantitative analysis results, the highest concentrations of hercynine were detected in saliva and whole blood, whereas much lower concentrations were measured in urine and plasma. Whole blood was the biological matrix with the highest concentration of l-ergothioneine followed by plasma, saliva, and urine. The antioxidant effects attributed to l-ergothioneine, along with its peculiar antioxidant mechanism, offer a possible explanation for the presence of the hercynine, as well as its concentration, in the considered biological matrices.

  18. Evaluation of PNA FISH® Yeast Traffic Light in identification of Candida species from blood and non-blood culture specimens.

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    Radic, Marina; Goic-Barisic, Ivana; Novak, Anita; Rubic, Zana; Tonkic, Marija

    2016-08-01

    PNA FISH(®) (peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization) Yeast Traffic Light (PNA FISH(®) YTL) assay is a commercially avaliable method for rapid identification of Candida spp. directly from positive blood cultures. This report provides a one-year experience in identification of yeasts from 25 specimens (15 positive blood cultures and 10 other clinically significant specimens) using PNA FISH(®) YTL and comparing it to VITEK 2 System. Overall, assay identification compatibility with VITEK 2 System was found among 21/25 (84%) isolates tested. Only 3/25 (12%) of the isolates were not identified, and one isolate was misidentified by the PNA FISH(®) YTL assay. Our results show that the assay is a reliable method in identification of Candida spp. not only from blood cultures, but even from other clinically significant specimens (urine cultures, catheter tip cultures, peritoneal fluid cultures) when compared to automated method like VITEK 2 System. This novel application of the PNA FISH(®) YTL assay could therefore contribute to cost savings and significant benefit to patients, as rapid information about isolated yeast species is provided.

  19. Review of forensically important entomological specimens collected from human cadavers in Malaysia (2005-2010).

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    Kavitha, Rajagopal; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Tan, Tian Chye; Lee, Han Lim; Azirun, Mohd Sofian

    2013-07-01

    Forensic entomological specimens collected from human decedents during crime scene investigations in Malaysia in the past 6 years (2005-2010) are reviewed. A total of 80 cases were recorded and 93 specimens were collected. From these specimens, 10 species of cyclorrphagic flies were identified, consisting of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) -38 specimens (40.86%), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) -36 specimens (38.70%), Chrysomya villeneuvi (Patton) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hemipyrellia liguriens (Wiedemann) -5 specimens (5.37%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) -1 specimen (1.08%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew)-1 specimen (1.08%) and Sarcophaga ruficornis (Fabricius) -4 specimens (4.30%). In two specimens (2.15%), the maggots were not identifiable. Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies were the commonest species found in human decedents from three different ecological habitats. S. nudiseta is an uncommon species found only on human cadavers from indoors. A total of 75 cases (93.75%) had a single fly infestation and 5 cases (6.25%) had double fly infestation. In conclusion, although large numbers of fly species were found on human decedents, the predominant species are still those of Chrysomya. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. [Is it allowed to have a public open exhibition of human plastinated specimens in Japan?].

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    Masuda, Y; Yohro, T

    1997-02-01

    This survey was conducted to know what inhibits the public open exhibitions of human anatomical specimens. Questionnaires were handed to 1,035 visitors to the public open exhibition of plastinated specimens at the University of Tokyo between March 30 and April 4, 1995. Five hundred and twenty-two responses were analyzed. The survey revealed following responses of medial and non-medical visitors. 1) Over 90 percent of the visitors welcomed to the public open exhibition of human anatomical specimens. 2) Visitors concerned about the aim of the exhibition and hoped explanations of exhibited specimens. They thought it is necessary to pay attention to the privacy of the cadavers and their families. 3) The most impressive specimens to the visitors were whole body silicone specimens and a series of slices of a whole body for both medical and non-medical visitors. 4) Medical visitors evaluated specimens high for medical education to understand three dimensional structures. On the contrary, non-medical visitors are astonished to encounter the whole body specimens not the dissected ones, and found the identity and human beings in the specimens. 5) Some anatomists strongly stand against the public open exhibitions of anatomical specimens because the plastinated specimens are quite different from ordinary hormaline fixed specimens and they expect that non-medical people must get upset about the specimens.

  1. Rapid quantitative PCR assays for the simultaneous detection of herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpesvirus 6 DNA in blood and other clinical specimens

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    Engelmann, I.; Petzold, D. R.; Kosinska, A.; Hepkema, B. G.; Schulz, T. F.; Heim, A.

    Rapid diagnosis of human herpesvirus primary infections or reactivations is facilitated by quantitative PCRs. Quantitative PCR assays with a standard thermal cycling profile permitting simultaneous detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV),

  2. Molecular sex identification of dry human teeth specimens from Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria

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    A D Zagga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The advent of molecular techniques has revolutionized the ability of scientists to estimate the sex of individuals. Forensic odontology plays an important role in establishing the sex of victims with bodies mutilated beyond recognition due to major disaster. The genetic difference between males and females is defined by the presence or absence of the Y-chromosome. The use of alphoid-repeat primers in sex estimation was first applied on dried blood. Generally, the X, Y alphoid repeats blind test attest to the accuracy of genetic testing, and also point the potential for occasional error in morphometric sexing. Aim: To estimate genetic sex of dry human teeth specimens from Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods: A single-blind study of DNA analysis for sex estimation of nine dry human teeth specimens from Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria, through PCR, using alphoid repeats primers, was undertaken. Results: The genetic sex of each group of the teeth samples were accurately (100% identified. For each group of teeth, PCR Sensitivity = 100%, Specificity = 0%, Predictive value of positive test = 100%, Predictive value of negative test = 0%, False positive rate = 0%, False negative rate = 0%, Efficiency of test = 100%. Fisher′s exact probability test P = 1. Z-test: z- and P values were invalid. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated the successful use of alphoid-repeat primers in genetic sex identification of human dry teeth samples from Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria. This is the first known study estimating the sex of human dry teeth specimens by means of PCR in Nigeria. There is need for further studies in Nigeria to complement the findings of this study.

  3. Development of simple equations for effective screening of spurious hemolysis in whole-blood specimens.

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    Lippi, G; Pavesi, F; Avanzini, P; Chetta, F; Aloe, R; Pipitone, S

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to identify simple but reliable indices for effective screening of spurious hemolysis in whole-blood specimens. Thirteen inpatient whole-blood samples were divided in two aliquots. The former was left untreated, whereas the latter was mechanically hemolyzed by forced aspiration with an insulin syringe. All aliquots were tested on Siemens Advia 2120 and Sysmex XE-2100. The hemolysis index (HI) was also assessed in centrifuged plasma. The mechanical hemolysis generated a 4-40% decrease in red blood cells (RBCs). A statistically significant decrease was observed for hematocrit (Ht) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), whereas mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and platelet count were increased. The values of hemoglobin (Hb) and white blood cells remained substantially unchanged. Two specific equations ([Ht/Hb] × √MCV and [Ht/Hb] × 100) were developed. Both equations displayed an area under the curve of ≥0.99 for identifying spurious hemolysis, much greater than that of both RBC ghosts and immature platelet fraction. A highly significant correlation was also observed between results of these equations and percentage reduction in RBCs or HI increase. Provided that these results will be confirmed in further studies, these equations may provide a reliable means for screening spurious hemolysis in whole-blood samples. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Improved Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection by Culturing Periprosthetic Tissue Specimens in Blood Culture Bottles

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    Trisha N. Peel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite known low sensitivity, culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens on agars and in broths is routine. Culture of periprosthetic tissue samples in blood culture bottles (BCBs is potentially more convenient, but it has been evaluated in a limited way and has not been widely adopted. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of inoculation of periprosthetic tissue specimens into blood culture bottles with standard agar and thioglycolate broth culture, applying Bayesian latent class modeling (LCM in addition to applying the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection. This prospective cohort study was conducted over a 9-month period (August 2013 to April 2014 at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, and included all consecutive patients undergoing revision arthroplasty. Overall, 369 subjects were studied; 117 (32% met IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection, and 82% had late chronic infection. Applying LCM, inoculation of tissues into BCBs was associated with a 47% improvement in sensitivity compared to the sensitivity of conventional agar and broth cultures (92.1 versus 62.6%, respectively; this magnitude of change was similar when IDSA criteria were applied (60.7 versus 44.4%, respectively; P = 0.003. The time to microorganism detection was shorter with BCBs than with standard media (P < 0.0001, with aerobic and anaerobic BCBs yielding positive results within a median of 21 and 23 h, respectively. Results of our study demonstrate that the semiautomated method of periprosthetic tissue culture in blood culture bottles is more sensitive than and as specific as agar and thioglycolate broth cultures and yields results faster.

  5. Endophytic fungi from Dragon's blood specimens: isolation, identification, phylogenetic diversity and bioactivity.

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    Cui, Jin-long; Guo, Shun-xing; Dong, Hailing; Xiao, Peigen

    2011-08-01

    Endophytic fungi from Dragon's blood specimens of different locations of China were characterized taxonomically and investigated concerning their antimicrobial and antitumor activity against six pathogenic microbes and five tumor cells. A total of 49 endophytic fungi were obtained from Dragon's blood materials of Dracaena spp., 18 taxa were represented by 43 (87.8%) isolates and only six (12.2%) isolates were unknown. Twenty (40.8%) of the isolates displayed antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogenic microorganism. Three isolates YNDC07, BJDC06 and BJDC09 displayed significant antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigates, respectively. The results of antitumor activity by the MTT assay revealed that 26.5%, 69.4%, 48.9%, 6.1% and 42.9% of isolate fermentation broths displayed growth inhibition on HepG2 cells, SKVO3 cells, MCF7 cells, HL-60 cells and 293-T cells, respectively. HNDC09 and HNDC10 showed very strong antitumor activity against MCF7 and 293-T, respectively. The results showed that endophytic fungi in Dragon's blood samples were valuable in screening antitumor and antimicrobial bioactivity agents. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Muscle patterning in mouse and human abdominal wall development and omphalocele specimens of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Peter F; Corliss, Robert F; Yamada, Shigehito; Shiota, Kohei; Saijoh, Yukio

    2012-12-01

    Human omphalocele is a congenital defect of the abdominal wall in which the secondary abdominal wall structures (muscle and connective tissue) in an area centered around the umbilicus are replaced by a translucent membranous layer of tissue. Histological examination of omphalocele development and moreover the staging of normal human abdominal wall development has never been described. We hypothesized that omphalocele is the result of an arrest in the secondary abdominal wall development and predicted that we would observe delays in myoblast maturation and an arrest in secondary abdominal wall development. To look for evidence in support of our hypothesis, we performed a histological analysis of normal human abdominal wall development and compared this to mouse. We also conducted the first histological analysis of two human specimens with omphalocele. In these two omphalocele specimens, secondary abdominal wall development appears to have undergone an arrest around Carnegie Stage 19. In both specimens disruptions in the unidirectional orientation of myofibers were observed in the external and internal obliques, and rectus abdominis but not in the transversus abdominis. These latter findings support a model of normal abdominal wall development in which positional information instructs the orientation of myoblasts as they organize into individual muscle groups.

  7. Common criteria among States for storage and use of dried blood spot specimens after newborn screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological samples collected in biobanks are a resource with significant research potential. The Italian Joint Group cNB - cNBBSV (National committee of Bioethics - National committee for Biosecurity, Biotechnologies and Life Sciences published a document reporting recommendations on storage and use of dried blood spot (DBS and on the development of a National Network of Regional Newborn Screening Repositories for collection of residual DBS. Several ethical questions (about consent, possible use of genetic information, unanticipated possible usages for research purposes rise from residual newborn screening specimens collections. Moreover, legal and ethical controversies are accentuated by the conflicts between the interests of sample donors, biobank holders, researchers and the public. To overcome these difficulties the identification of a few criteria for storage and research usage of DBS is crucial.

  8. Reducing error in feline platelet enumeration by addition of Iloprost to blood specimens: comparison to prostaglandin E1 and EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvedten, Harold W; Bäcklund, Kerstin; Lilliehöök, Inger E

    2015-06-01

    Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and Iloprost inhibit platelet aggregation and should prevent or minimize preanalytic error with feline platelet enumeration. The objective was to compare the relative effectiveness in reducing errors in platelet enumeration by adding Iloprost to feline EDTA blood specimens in comparison to adding PGE1 or EDTA alone. In addition, a grading system for platelet aggregation in blood smears was evaluated for effectiveness in predicting prominent errors and compared to ADVIA's PLT-CLM flag. Finally, the use of plateletcrit in feline blood with platelet aggregation was evaluated. Blood specimens from 35 cats were included. Blood was collected into EDTA tubes with or without Iloprost or PGE1, and was rapidly mixed. Platelet count (PLT), plateletcrit (PCT), mean platelet volume (MPV), and platelet flags were determined with an ADVIA 2120. Manual PLT was performed with a Leucoplate stain. PLT was determined by an IDEXX VetAutoread hematology analyzer (QBC). Neither addition of Iloprost nor PGE1 to EDTA blood specimens completely prevented platelet aggregation. Iloprost-treated specimens had the least severe aggregation. PGE1 was better than EDTA alone. Significant errors in PLT results were consistently identified by the grading system. ADVIA's PLT-CL flag usually predicted significant errors in PLT. QBC PLT results showed high imprecision. Manual PLT error was smaller than ADVIA PLT in EDTA specimens with aggregation. Adding Iloprost to feline blood specimens improved platelet enumeration accuracy. A grading system for severity of platelet aggregation and usually the ADVIA's PLT-CL alarm predicted specimens with significant errors in platelet enumeration. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  9. Impedance Spectroscopy of Human Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Francisco; Bernal, José J.; Sosa, Modesto A.; Villagómez, Julio C.; Palomares, Pascual

    2004-09-01

    The blood is one of the corporal fluids more used with analytical purposes. When the blood is extracted, immediately it is affected by agents that act on it, producing transformations in its elements. Among the effects of these transformations the hemolysis phenomenon stands out, which consists of the membrane rupture and possible death of the red blood cells. The main purpose of this investigation was the quantification of this phenomenon. A Solartron SI-1260 Impedance Spectrometer was used, which covers a frequency range of work from 1 μHz to 10 MHz, and its accuracy has been tested in the accomplishment of several applications. Measurements were performed on 3 mL human blood samples, from healthy donors. Reactive strips for sugar test of 2 μL, from Bayer, were used as electrodes, which allow gathering a portion of the sample, to be analyzed by the spectrometer. Preliminary results of these measurements are presented.

  10. Full-field optical coherence tomography for the analysis of fresh unstained human lobectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT is a real-time imaging technique that generates high-resolution three-dimensional tomographic images from unprocessed and unstained tissues. Lack of tissue processing and associated artifacts, along with the ability to generate large-field images quickly, warrants its exploration as an alternative diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods: One section each from the tumor and from adjacent non-neoplastic tissue was collected from 13 human lobectomy specimens. They were imaged fresh with FFOCT and then submitted for routine histopathology. Two blinded pathologists independently rendered diagnoses based on FFOCT images. Results: Normal lung architecture (alveoli, bronchi, pleura and blood vessels was readily identified with FFOCT. Using FFOCT images alone, the study pathologists were able to correctly identify all tumor specimens and in many cases, the histological subtype of tumor (e.g., adenocarcinomas with various patterns. However, benign diagnosis was provided with high confidence in roughly half the tumor-free specimens (others were diagnosed as equivocal or false positive. Further analysis of these images revealed two major confounding features: (a Extensive lung collapse and (b presence of smoker′s macrophages. On a closer inspection, however, the smoker′s macrophages could often be identified as distinct from tumor cells based on their relative location in the alveoli, size and presence of anthracosis. We posit that greater pathologist experience, complemented with morphometric analysis and color-coding of image components, may help minimize the contribution of these confounders in the future. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence for the potential utility of FFOCT in identifying and differentiating lung tumors from non-neoplastic lung tissue. We foresee its potential as an adjunct to intra-surgical frozen section analysis for margin assessment, especially in limited lung

  11. Anaerococcus degenerii sp nov., isolated from human clinical specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veloo, A. C. M.; Elgersma, P. E.; van Winkelhoff, A. J.

    Four clinical isolates of gram-positive strict anaerobic cocci were isolated from four different human mixed anaerobic infections. The taxonomical status of the four strains could not be established using standard identification techniques. The biochemical features of the strains were established

  12. Laboratory blood group examination of proteolysis degradation human blood

    OpenAIRE

    Beta Ahlam Gizela, Beta Ahlam Gizela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Blood group examination has many purposes and one of them is identification. In several forensic cases there is incompatibility of blood group in corpse and in other evidences usually used blood group examination is serum agglutination method. From the previous study, it was found that there was increasing osmotic fragility of red cell. For that reason, we need to know how the result of blood group tests in degradation human blood.Objective: The purpose of this study is to know bl...

  13. A transparent oversight policy for human anatomical specimen management: the University of California, Davis experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Brandi; Wacker, Charlotte; Ikemoto, Lisa; Meyers, Frederick J; Pomeroy, Claire

    2014-03-01

    The authors describe the development and implementation of a University of California (UC) system of oversight, education, tracking, and accountability for human anatomical specimen use in education and research activities. This program was created and initially implemented at UC Davis in 2005. Several incidents arising out of the handling of human anatomical specimens at UC campuses revealed significant challenges in the system for maintaining control of human anatomical specimens used in education and research. These events combined to undermine the public perception for research and educational endeavors involving anatomical materials at public institutions. Risks associated with the acquisition, maintenance, and disposal of these specimens were not fully understood by the faculty, staff, and students who used them. Laws governing sources of specimens are grouped with those that govern organ procurement and tissue banking, and sometimes are found in cemetery and funeral regulations. These variables complicate interpretations and may hinder compliance. To regain confidence in the system, the need to set appropriate and realistic guidelines that mitigate risk and facilitate an institution's research and educational mission was identified. This article chronicles a multiyear process in which diverse stakeholders developed (1) a regulatory policy for oversight, (2) a policy education program, (3) procedures for tracking and accountability, and (4) a reporting and enforcement mechanism for appropriate and ethical use of human anatomical specimens in university education and research.

  14. Thawed human sperm quality is influenced by the volume of the cryopreserved specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abush, Ayelet; Hauser, Ron; Paz, Gedalia; Kleiman, Sandra E; Lehavi, Ofer; Yavetz, Haim; Yogev, Leah

    2014-03-01

    To test the effect of sperm specimen volume in the freezing-thawing process on specimen quality. Experimental prospective study. Tertiary academic medical center. Fifty high-quality sperm donors donated ∼3 times each. Sperm samples were split into two aliquots and frozen in volumes of 0.25 mL and 0.5 mL. Semen analyses. Eight sperm quality parameters of thawed specimens. Thawed 0.5-mL specimens had a higher percentage of motility and viability, progressive motility concentration, percentage of cells with high mitochondrial membrane potential, and intact chromatin compared with 0.25-mL specimens. Although there were fewer cells with intact acrosomes in the 0.5-mL thawed samples, they had a similar ability to respond to ionophore by acrosome reaction as the 0.25-mL specimens. Both groups had similar percentages of cells with oxidative stress and numbers of cells that bound to the zona pellucida. The remaining air volume in the straw and freezing medium composition had a minimal effect on tested parameters. Better quality thawed human sperm was achieved after cryopreservation of high volumes compared with low volumes of specimens. Air volume in the straw had no influence on specimen quality. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a PCR Assay to Detect Low Level Trypanosoma cruzi in Blood Specimens Collected with PAXgene Blood DNA Tubes for Clinical Trials Treating Chagas Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bo; Chen, Lei; Kibukawa, Miho; Kang, John; Waskin, Hetty; Marton, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasitic infection of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). The STOP CHAGAS clinical trial was initiated in 2011 to evaluate posaconazole in treating Chagas disease, with treatment success defined as negative qualitative PCR results of detecting the parasites in blood specimens collected post-treatment. PAXgene Blood DNA tubes were utilized as a simple procedure to collect and process blood specimens. However, the PAXgene blood specimens challenged published T. cruzi PCR methods, resulting in poor sensitivity and reproducibility. To accurately evaluate the treatment efficacy of the clinical study, we developed and validated a robust PCR assay for detecting low level T. cruzi in PAXgene blood specimens. The assay combines a new DNA extraction method with a custom designed qPCR assay, resulting in limit of detection of 0.005 and 0.01 fg/μl for K98 and CL Brener, two representative strains of two of T. cruzi's discrete typing units. Reliable qPCR standard curves were established for both strains to measure parasite loads, with amplification efficiency ≥ 90% and the lower limit of linearity ≥ 0.05 fg/μl. The assay successfully analyzed the samples collected from the STOP CHAGAS study and may prove useful for future global clinical trials evaluating new therapies for asymptomatic chronic Chagas disease.

  16. Development of a PCR Assay to Detect Low Level Trypanosoma cruzi in Blood Specimens Collected with PAXgene Blood DNA Tubes for Clinical Trials Treating Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bo; Chen, Lei; Kibukawa, Miho; Kang, John; Waskin, Hetty; Marton, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasitic infection of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). The STOP CHAGAS clinical trial was initiated in 2011 to evaluate posaconazole in treating Chagas disease, with treatment success defined as negative qualitative PCR results of detecting the parasites in blood specimens collected post-treatment. PAXgene Blood DNA tubes were utilized as a simple procedure to collect and process blood specimens. However, the PAXgene blood specimens challenged published T. cruzi PCR methods, resulting in poor sensitivity and reproducibility. To accurately evaluate the treatment efficacy of the clinical study, we developed and validated a robust PCR assay for detecting low level T. cruzi in PAXgene blood specimens. The assay combines a new DNA extraction method with a custom designed qPCR assay, resulting in limit of detection of 0.005 and 0.01 fg/μl for K98 and CL Brener, two representative strains of two of T. cruzi’s discrete typing units. Reliable qPCR standard curves were established for both strains to measure parasite loads, with amplification efficiency ≥ 90% and the lower limit of linearity ≥ 0.05 fg/μl. The assay successfully analyzed the samples collected from the STOP CHAGAS study and may prove useful for future global clinical trials evaluating new therapies for asymptomatic chronic Chagas disease. PMID:27906977

  17. Significant Reduction in Preanalytical Errors for Nonphlebotomy Blood Draws After Implementation of a Novel Integrated Specimen Collection Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Rachel D; Melanson, Stacy E F; Petrides, Athena K; Goonan, Ellen M; Bixho, Ida; Landman, Adam B; Brogan, Anne Marie; Bates, David W; Tanasijevic, Milenko J

    2016-10-01

    Most preanalytical errors at our institution occur during nonphlebotomy blood draws. We implemented an electronic health record (EHR), interfaced the EHR to the laboratory information system, and designed a new specimen collection module. We studied the effects of the new system on nonphlebotomy preanalytical errors. We used an electronic database of preanalytical errors and calculated the number and type of the most common errors in the emergency department (ED) and inpatient nursing for 3-month periods before (August-October 2014) and after (August-October 2015) implementation. The level of staff compliance with the new system was also assessed. The average monthly preanalytical errors decreased significantly from 7.95 to 1.45 per 1,000 specimens in the ED (P < 0001) and 11.75 to 3.25 per 1,000 specimens in inpatient nursing (P < 0001). The rate of decrease was similar for mislabeled, unlabeled, wrong specimen received and no specimen received errors. Most residual errors (80% in the ED and 67% in inpatient nursing) occurred when providers did not use the new system as designed. Implementation of a customized specimen collection module led to a significant reduction in preanalytical errors. Improved compliance with the system may lead to further reductions in error rates. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The use of dried blood spot specimens for HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping in young children initiating antiretroviral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimo, Anna T.; Ledwaba, Johanna; Coovadia, Ashraf; Abrams, Elaine J.; Technau, Karl-Günter; Kuhn, Louise; Morris, Lynn; Hunt, Gillian M.

    2015-01-01

    Paired plasma and dried blood spots (DBS) from 232 South African HIV-infected children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) were genotyped for drug resistance mutations, most of who had prior exposure to ART for prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutations were most commonly detected in both specimen types, particularly Y181C/I and K103N/S. Resistance interpretation concordance was achieved in 97% of pairs with 7 children having mutations detected in DBS only. These results validate the preferential use of DBS specimens for HIVDR genotyping in this patient group. PMID:26192603

  19. Comparison of Red Blood Cell Hemolysis Using Plasma and Serum Separation Tubes for Outpatient Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dae-Hyun; Won, Dahae; Jeong, Tae-Dong; Lee, Woochang; Chun, Sail

    2015-01-01

    Background To rapidly obtain outpatient results, we use plasma separation tubes (PST) for chemistry analysis. If lactate dehydrogenase measurement is required, serum separation tubes (SST) are used. There has been no evaluation of hemolysis with these tubes. We compared the hemolytic index (HI) obtained by using PST and SST and applied this for choosing appropriate tubes for clinical laboratories. Methods The HI of specimens obtained from outpatients visiting Asan Medical Center between July and December 2012 was analyzed. The HI was scored from 0 to 10 by using the Toshiba 200FR (Toshiba Medical Systems Co., Japan). HI was classified by sample tube type, and significant hemolysis was defined as a HI of 2 or more. For significant hemolysis cases, medical records were reviewed to identify the causes. Results Among 171,519 specimens, significant hemolysis was observed in 0.66% of specimens (0.68% of PST specimens, 0.46% of SST specimens). The mean HI in PST was 0.18 (SD: 0.43) and that in SST was 0.14 (SD: 0.37). The proportion of significant hemolysis was significantly higher in PST than in SST (P=0.001). The cause of significant hemolysis was identified as chemotherapy and prosthetic valve in 48.1% of specimens. Complex sampling errors may have caused significant hemolysis in the remaining 51.9% of specimens. Conclusions The incidence of hemolysis was slightly higher for PST than SST, although both were sample volume, and less risk of random errors due to fibrin strands. PMID:25729720

  20. Zika Virus Infection and Prolonged Viremia in Whole-Blood Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuy, Jean Michel; Mengelle, Catherine; Pasquier, Christophe; Chapuy-Regaud, Sabine; Delobel, Pierre; Martin-Blondel, Guillaume; Izopet, Jacques

    2017-05-01

    We tested whole-blood and plasma samples from immunocompetent patients who had had benign Zika virus infections and found that Zika virus RNA persisted in whole blood substantially longer than in plasma. This finding may have implications for diagnosis of acute symptomatic and asymptomatic infections and for testing of blood donations.

  1. Effect of sequential therapy of prostaglandins on renal function indexes in blood and urine specimens in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Zhao Zhang; Zhi-Yuan Lu; Zhen Ren; Wei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of sequential therapy of prostaglandins on renal function indexes in blood and urine specimens in patients with diabetic nephropathy.Methods: A total of 96 cases of patients with diabetic nephropathy (IV) were selected as the subjects of the study and randomly divided into control group (group A), alprostadil group (group B), beraprost sodium group (group C) and sequential therapy group (group D), renal color Doppler ultrasound was carried out, and trace albumin, total protein, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α) and thromboxane B2(TXB2) levels in 24 h urine specimens as well as creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), 6-keto-PGF1α, TXB2, cystatin C (CysC), retinol-binding protein (RBP) levels in blood specimens were determined.Results:Renal blood flow of group B, C and D were higher than that of group A and renal blood flow of group D was higher than those of group B and C; 24 h urine trace albumin, total protein and TXB2 levels as well as serum BUN, Cr, CysC and RBP levels of group B, C and D were significantly lower than those before treatment, and serum and urine 6-keto-PGF1α levels of group B, C and D were significantly higher than those before treatment; 24 h urine trace albumin, total protein and TXB2 levels as well as serum BUN, Cr, CysC and RBP levels of group D group were significantly lower than those of group B and group C, and serum and urine 6-keto-PGF1α levels of group D after treatment were significantly higher than those of group B and group C.Conclusion:Sequential therapy of alprostadil can protect renal function in patients with diabetic nephropathy, reduce proteinuria, improve glomerular filtration function and microcirculation disturbance, and inhibit platelet activation.

  2. Comparison of a PCR assay in whole blood and serum specimens for canine brucellosis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keid, L B; Soares, R M; Vasconcellos, S A; Salgado, V R; Megid, J; Richtzenhain, L J

    2010-07-17

    The performance of a serum PCR assay was compared with that of a blood PCR assay for the diagnosis of canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis in 72 dogs. The dogs were classified into three groups (infected, non-infected and suspected brucellosis) according to the results of blood culture and serological tests. The sensitivities of blood PCR and serum PCR were, respectively, 97.14 per cent and 25.71 per cent. The specificities of both were 100 per cent. In the group of dogs with suspected brucellosis, three were positive by blood PCR and none was positive by serum PCR. Serum PCR showed little value for the direct diagnosis of canine brucellosis as the assay had low diagnostic sensitivity and fewer positive dogs were detected by this test than by blood culture, blood PCR, rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) and RSAT with 2-mercaptoethanol.

  3. Feasibility and Technical Considerations of Mammary Ductoscopy in Human Mastectomy Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Jill R.; Kim, Julian A.; Malycky, Jan L.; Levy, Lawrence; Crowe, Joseph

    2000-05-01

    Recent advances in endoscopic technology have made visualization of human mammary ducts possible. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and technical factors influencing the ability to successfully visualize the epithelium of the human mammary ductal system. Lacrimal duct probes were used to dilate nipple orifices to 1.2 mm on 42 mastectomy specimens. The Depth of Field Imaging Micro-Minimally Invasive (DOFI(R) MMI) system consisting of a 1.2 mm rigid ductoscope with a 350 &mgr;m working channel was introduced into mammary ducts under air insufflation or saline irrigation. At least one major duct could be dilated and cannulated in all 42 specimens. Visualization of the proximal duct was accomplished in 34 of 42 (81%) specimens, whereas more extensive navigation through the distal subsegmental ducts was achieved in 22 of 42 (52%) specimens. Ductoscopy into the terminal ducts was accomplished in all patients with a previous history of nipple discharge or discharge at the time of the procedure (10 of 10). In three patients with no history of nipple discharge prior to ductoscopy, incidental papillomas were discovered and confirmed by the pathologist. In conclusion, mammary ductoscopy is technically feasible and may have an application as an additional diagnostic modality for patients with pathologic nipple discharge.

  4. δ18O values of Sus scrofa blood water and bone phosphate; a marked discrepancy between domestic and wild specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enrico

    2011-12-30

    δ¹⁸O analyses of water in the blood of domestic and wild pigs indicated that large isotopic differences exist between domestic and wild specimens of the same species (Sus scrofa) living in the same area. Similar isotopic differences are found between the δ¹⁸O(PO₄³⁻) values of bones from the two groups of animals. When δ¹⁸O values obtained from recent wild boar bones are introduced in the equation of the isotopic scale determined for domestic pigs, totally unreliable δ¹⁸O values of local meteoric water are obtained. The δ¹⁸O(PO₄³⁻) values measured in three groups of modern wild boar specimens allow the calculation of a first approximate equation which is quite different from that of domestic pigs. This isotopic scale should be accurately re-calibrated for wild animals.

  5. Tumor characterization and treatment monitoring of postsurgical human breast specimens using harmonic motion imaging (HMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Wang, Shutao; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Taback, Bret; Konofagou, Elisa

    2016-05-09

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a noninvasive technique used in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer and benign tumors. To facilitate its translation to the clinic, there is a need for a simple, cost-effective device that can reliably monitor HIFU treatment. We have developed harmonic motion imaging (HMI), which can be used seamlessly in conjunction with HIFU for tumor ablation monitoring, namely harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU). The overall objective of this study was to develop an all ultrasound-based system for real-time imaging and ablation monitoring in the human breast in vivo. HMI was performed in 36 specimens (19 normal, 15 invasive ductal carcinomas, and 2 fibroadenomas) immediately after surgical removal. The specimens were securely embedded in a tissue-mimicking agar gel matrix and submerged in degassed phosphate-buffered saline to mimic in vivo environment. The HMI setup consisted of a HIFU transducer confocally aligned with an imaging transducer to induce an oscillatory radiation force and estimate the resulting displacement. 3D HMI displacement maps were reconstructed to represent the relative tissue stiffness in 3D. The average peak-to-peak displacement was found to be significantly different (p = 0.003) between normal breast tissue and invasive ductal carcinoma. There were also significant differences before and after HMIFU ablation in both the normal (53.84 % decrease) and invasive ductal carcinoma (44.69 % decrease) specimens. HMI can be used to map and differentiate relative stiffness in postsurgical normal and pathological breast tissues. HMIFU can also successfully monitor thermal ablations in normal and pathological human breast specimens. This HMI technique may lead to a new clinical tool for breast tumor imaging and HIFU treatment monitoring.

  6. Compact NMR relaxometry of human blood and blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cistola, David P; Robinson, Michelle D

    2016-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry is a uniquely practical and versatile implementation of NMR technology. Because it does not depend on chemical shift resolution, it can be performed using low-field compact instruments deployed in atypical settings. Early relaxometry studies of human blood were focused on developing a diagnostic test for cancer. Those efforts were misplaced, as the measurements were not specific to cancer. However, important lessons were learned about the factors that drive the water longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times. One key factor is the overall distribution of proteins and lipoproteins. Plasma water T2 can detect shifts in the blood proteome resulting from inflammation, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. In whole blood, T2 is sensitive to hemoglobin content and oxygenation, although the latter can be suppressed by manipulating the static and applied magnetic fields. Current applications of compact NMR relaxometry include blood tests for candidiasis, hemostasis, malaria and insulin resistance.

  7. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF SURGICALLY OBTAINED HUMAN COCHLEAR SPECIMENS-TECHNICAL ASPECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei; GUO Rui; Rask Andersen Helge

    2014-01-01

    Object To explore the procedures in per-operative harvesting and management of fresh human cochlear specimens for research. Methods During trans-cochlear surgery to remove large petro-clival meningiomas causing life-threatening compression on the brainstem, cochleae are normally destroyed and drilled away in order to reach the apical petrous and clivus region. Instead the cochlea can be dissected out after ethical per-mission was obtained from the local ethical committee (EPN) and allowance gained from the patients. Sur-gery is performed by a team consisting of oto-and neurosurgeons as a two-day procedure with total petro-sectomy in combination with an inferior re-routing of the facial nerve. Fixation of the cochleae was done in the operating room as soon as the specimens had been separated from the temporal bones. Decalcification began after hours’to overnight’s fixation for 4 weeks. Sectioning parallel to the modiolus (mid-modiolus) was performed with a cryostat microtome. The sections were subjected to immunofluorescence (IF). Results Using freshly prepared 4%paraformaldehyde (PFD) solution, adequate fixation of fine inner ear structures was achieved with hours’immersion of the cochlear specimens. Decalcification in 6.2% ethylene di-amine-tetracetic acid (EDTA) solution for 4 weeks yielded a thoroughly decalcified cochlea. Experiences in processing 14 human cochleae and analysing main landmarks in five human inner ear plastic/silicone casts showed that the oval window/stapes footplate are backward tilted, at an angle about 15 degrees, from the plane perpendicular to the modiolar axis. The distance from the modiolar apex to the anterior border of the oval window/footplate in these inner ear casts measured between 4 and 5 mm. High quality IF staining was obtained. Conclusion Surgically obtained human cochlear specimen, when properly processed, contains ide-ally preserved antigenicity for immunohistochemical study. Adequate orientation during sectioning helps

  8. Detection of Giardia lamblia Antigens in Human Fecal Specimens by a Solid-Phase Qualitative Immunochromatographic Assay▿

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Lynne S.; Garcia, John Paul

    2006-01-01

    The SIMPLE-READ Giardia rapid assay (Medical Chemical Corporation) is a solid-phase qualitative immunochromatographic assay that detects Giardia lamblia in aqueous extracts of human fecal specimens. Testing 106 Giardia-positive and 104 Giardia-negative stool specimens yielded a sensitivity of 97.2% and a specificity of 100% for the SIMPLE-READ Giardia rapid assay.

  9. All Known Human Rhinovirus Species Are Present in Sputum Specimens of Military Recruits During Respiratory Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merja Roivainen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Human rhinoviruses (HRV are known to cause common cold as well as more complicated respiratory infections. HRV species -A, -B and -C have all been associated with lower respiratory infections and exacerbations of asthma. However, the type distribution of strains connected to different kinds of lower respiratory conditions is not clearly known. We have analysed the presence of HRV in sputum specimens derived from military recruits with and without pre-diagnosed asthma at times of acute respiratory infection (CIAS Study, 2004-2005. The analysis was performed with HRV and HEV real-time RT-PCR assays. Subsequently we studied type distribution of HRV strains by genetic typing in the VP4/VP2 genomic region. In total 146 (38.8% specimens were HRV-positive and 36 (9.3% HEV-positive. No difference was found in HRV detection between the asthmatic vs. non-asthmatic patients. Most of the genetically typed strains, 18 (62.1%, belonged to HRV-A, while HRV-B strains constituted five (17.2% of the HRV-positive strains. HRV-C strain was typed four times from the HRV-positive cases and a HEV-D strain twice. We further typed six HEV positive strains in the partial VP1 region. Three of these belonged to HRV-A and three to HEV-D. HRV-A strains were discovered throughout the study period, while HRV-C strains originated from winter and spring specimens. Interestingly, four out of five typed HRV-B strains originated from the summer season specimens.

  10. The stability of iso-α-acids and reduced iso-α-acids in stored blood specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2014-06-01

    The long-term stability of the iso-α-acids, and three structurally similar but chemically altered iso-α-acids (known as 'reduced iso-α-acids' and consisting of the rho-, tetrahydro- and hexahydro-iso-α-acid groups) were investigated in whole blood. Pools of blank blood spiked with the four beer-specific ingredient congener groups at two different concentration levels were stored at 20°C, 4°C and -20°C; and extracted in duplicate in weeks 1, 3, 5 and 8, using a previously published method. A loss of 15% of the initial concentration was considered to indicate possible instability and losses greater than 30% demonstrated significant losses. The individual analytes within the four iso-α-acid groups were also measured to determine which iso-α-acids were subject to greater degradation and were responsible for the overall group instability. All four iso-α-acid groups showed significant losses after 8 weeks of storage under room temperature conditions in particularly the natural iso-α-acid group where major losses were observed (96% and 85% losses for low and high concentrations, respectively). Some degradation in all iso-α-acid groups were seen at 4°C samples predominantly due to the 'n' analogs of the groups showing an increased instability in blood. The -20°C storage conditions resulted in minimal changes in concentrations of all analytes. Higher than frozen storage temperatures can result in substantial changes on the stability of the iso-α-acid type groups in blood. The aim of this study was to highlight the stabilities of the IAA analytes in order to assist in the interpretation of IAA in stored blood specimens.

  11. Storage and use of Newborn Screening Blood Specimens for Research: Assessing Public Opinion in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Alexa; Petros, Michael; Charrow, Joel; Nash, Claudia; Wicklund, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Storage and use of residual dried blood spots (DBS) from newborn screening (NBS) for research purposes has been a topic of elevated interest following high profile disputes between genetic privacy advocacy groups and state NBS programs. Our objective was to assess public opinion in Illinois regarding storage and use of residual DBS for research. Five hundred twenty-six Illinois residents completed a survey assessing attitudes about research uses for DBS, storage length, and consent issues. Over 80 % of respondents expressed agreement with questions regarding research uses of DBS. Eighty-three percent of respondents were in favor of storage for at least one year with 44 % favoring indefinite storage. Respondents with higher educational attainment were more likely to support research use of DBS and less likely to desire contact for each future study (P research or to favor long-term storage (P public health program. Trust in the public health service of NBS must be protected through transparency in the policy process.

  12. Dried blood spot specimen quality and validation of a new pre-analytical processing method for qualitative HIV-1 PCR, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerusha Govender

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor quality dried blood spot (DBS specimens are usually rejected by virology laboratories, affecting early infant diagnosis of HIV. The practice of combining two incompletely-filled DBS in one specimen preparation tube during pre-analytical specimen processing (i.e., the two-spot method has been implemented to reduce the number of specimens being rejected for insufficient volume.Objectives: This study analysed laboratory data to describe the quality of DBS specimens and the use of the two-spot method over a one-year period, then validated the two-spot method against the standard (one-spot method.Methods: Data on HIV-1 PCR test requests submitted in 2014 to the Department of Virology at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa were analysed to describe reasons for specimen rejection, as well as results of the two-spot method. The accuracy, lower limit of detection and precision of the two-spot method were assessed.Results: Of the 88 481 specimens received, 3.7% were rejected for pre-analytical problems. Of those, 48.9% were rejected as a result of insufficient specimen volume. Two health facilities had significantly more specimen rejections than other facilities. The two-spot method prevented 10 504 specimen rejections. The Pearson correlation coefficient comparing the standard to the two-spot method was 0.997.Conclusions: The two-spot method was comparable with the standard method of pre-analytical specimen processing. Two health facilities were identified for targeted retraining on specimen quality. The two-spot method of DBS specimen processing can be used as an adjunct to retraining, to reduce the number of specimens rejected and improve linkage to care.

  13. Response rates for providing a blood specimen for HIV testing in a population-based survey of young adults in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dube Hazel M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine differences among persons who provided blood specimens for HIV testing compared with those who did not among those interviewed for the population-based Zimbabwe Young Adult Survey (YAS. Methods Chi-square analysis of weighted data to compare demographic and behavioral data of persons interviewed who provided specimens for anonymous testing with those who did not. Prevalence estimation to determine the impact if persons not providing specimens had higher prevalence rates than those who did. Results Comparing those who provided specimens with those who did not, there was no significant difference by age, residence, education, marital status, perceived risk, sexual experience or number of sex partners for women. A significant difference by sexual experience was found for men. Prevalence estimates did not change substantially when prevalence was assumed to be two times higher for persons not providing specimens. Conclusion When comparing persons who provided specimens for HIV testing with those who did not, few significant differences were found. If those who did not provide specimens had prevalence rates twice that of those who did, overall prevalence would not be substantially affected. Refusal to provide blood specimens does not appear to have contributed to an underestimation of HIV prevalence.

  14. Ultrastructural characteristics of novel epithelial cell types identified in human pathologic liver specimens with chronic ductular reaction.

    OpenAIRE

    De Vos, R; Desmet, V

    1992-01-01

    Previous immunohistochemical studies on human liver biopsies with chronic ductular reaction revealed the presence of "small cells" with bile-duct type cytokeratin profile in the periportal area. This study identified similar cells by electron microscopy. The authors studied 13 human liver specimens with various liver diseases, but all characterized by chronic ductular reaction. In all specimens, variable numbers of "small cells" with common epithelial characteristics were identified in the pe...

  15. Human spleen and red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivkin, Igor; Peng, Zhangli; Karniadakis, George; Buffet, Pierre; Dao, Ming

    2016-11-01

    Spleen plays multiple roles in the human body. Among them is removal of old and altered red blood cells (RBCs), which is done by filtering cells through the endothelial slits, small micron-sized openings. There is currently no experimental technique available that allows us to observe RBC passage through the slits. It was previously noticed that people without a spleen have less deformable red blood cells, indicating that the spleen may play a role in defining the size and shape of red blood cells. We used detailed RBC model implemented within the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation framework to study the filter function of the spleen. Our results demonstrate that spleen indeed plays major role in defining the size and shape of the healthy human red blood cells.

  16. Genetic variation of human papillomavirus type 16 in individual clinical specimens revealed by deep sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwao Kukimoto

    Full Text Available Viral genetic diversity within infected cells or tissues, called viral quasispecies, has been mostly studied for RNA viruses, but has also been described among DNA viruses, including human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 present in cervical precancerous lesions. However, the extent of HPV genetic variation in cervical specimens, and its involvement in HPV-induced carcinogenesis, remains unclear. Here, we employ deep sequencing to comprehensively analyze genetic variation in the HPV16 genome isolated from individual clinical specimens. Through overlapping full-circle PCR, approximately 8-kb DNA fragments covering the whole HPV16 genome were amplified from HPV16-positive cervical exfoliated cells collected from patients with either low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL or invasive cervical cancer (ICC. Deep sequencing of the amplified HPV16 DNA enabled de novo assembly of the full-length HPV16 genome sequence for each of 7 specimens (5 LSIL and 2 ICC samples. Subsequent alignment of read sequences to the assembled HPV16 sequence revealed that 2 LSILs and 1 ICC contained nucleotide variations within E6, E1 and the non-coding region between E5 and L2 with mutation frequencies of 0.60% to 5.42%. In transient replication assays, a novel E1 mutant found in ICC, E1 Q381E, showed reduced ability to support HPV16 origin-dependent replication. In addition, partially deleted E2 genes were detected in 1 LSIL sample in a mixed state with the intact E2 gene. Thus, the methods used in this study provide a fundamental framework for investigating the influence of HPV somatic genetic variation on cervical carcinogenesis.

  17. Cytoarchitecture of the human cerebral cortex: MR microscopy of excised specimens at 9.4 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatterpekar, Girish M; Naidich, Thomas P; Delman, Bradley N; Aguinaldo, Juan G; Gultekin, S Humayun; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R; Drayer, Burton P; Fayad, Zahi A

    2002-09-01

    The laminar patterns displayed by MR microscopy (MRM) form one basis for the classification of the cytoarchitectonic areas (Brodmann areas). It is plausible that in the future MRM may depict Brodmann areas directly, and not only by inference from gross anatomic location. Our purpose was to depict the laminar cytoarchitecture of excised, formalin-fixed specimens of human cerebral cortex by use of 9.4-T MR and to correlate MR images with histologic stains of the same sections. Formalin-fixed samples of human sensory isocortex (calcarine, Heschl's, and somatosensory cortices), motor isocortex (hand motor area of M1), polar isocortex (frontal pole), allocortex (hippocampal formation), and transitional periallocortex (retrosplenial cortex) were studied by MRM at 9.4 T with intermediate-weighted pulse sequences for a total overnight acquisition time of 14 hours 17 minutes for each specimen. The same samples were then histologically analyzed to confirm the MR identification of the cortical layers. Curves representing the change in MR signal intensity across the cortex were generated to display the signal intensity profiles for each type of cortex. High-field-strength MR imaging at a spatial resolution of 78 x 78 x 500 micro m resolves the horizontal lamination of isocortex, allocortex, and periallocortex and displays specific intracortical structures such as the external band of Baillarger. The signal intensity profiles demonstrate the greatest hypointensity at the sites of maximum myelin concentration and maximum cell density and show gradations of signal intensity inversely proportional to varying cell density. MRM at 9.4 T depicts important aspects of the cytoarchitecture of normal formalin-fixed human cortex.

  18. Dissection and Exposure of the Whole Course of Deep Nerves in Human Head Specimens after Decalcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longping Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The whole course of the chorda tympani nerve, nerve of pterygoid canal, and facial nerves and their relationships with surrounding structures are complex. After reviewing the literature, it was found that details of the whole course of these deep nerves are rarely reported and specimens displaying these nerves are rarely seen in the dissecting room, anatomical museum, or atlases. Dissections were performed on 16 decalcified human head specimens, exposing the chorda tympani and the nerve connection between the geniculate and pterygopalatine ganglia. Measurements of nerve lengths, branching distances, and ganglia size were taken. The chorda tympani is a very fine nerve (0.44 mm in diameter within the tympanic cavity and approximately 54 mm in length. The mean length of the facial nerve from opening of internal acoustic meatus to stylomastoid foramen was 52.5 mm. The mean length of the greater petrosal nerve was 26.1 mm and nerve of the pterygoid canal was 15.1 mm.

  19. Detection of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in tonsillar specimens using 2 commercially available assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockerill, Cara C; Orvidas, Laura J; Moore, Eric J; Binnicker, Matthew J; Duresko, Brian J; Espy, Mark J; Cockerill, Franklin R; Tombers, Nicole M; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2016-12-01

    THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY IS TO DETERMINE THE PREVALENCE OF HIGH-RISK HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HRHPV) INFECTION IN TONSILLAR SWABS AND TISSUE: Patients undergoing tonsillectomy for nonmalignant causes were enrolled. A flocked swab and fresh tissue were collected from the left and right tonsil of each patient. Specimens were tested for hrHPV DNA using the Roche cobas test and for the presence of E6/E7 messenger RNA using the Hologic Aptima hrHPV test. Of the 193 patients enrolled, 129 were in the pediatric group (ages 1-12years; median, 5years), and 64 were in the adult group (ages 13-55; median, 22years). All swab and tissue specimens were negative for hrHPV by both methods. Positive, negative, and internal controls performed as expected. We found a 0% rate of infection indicating that detectable hrHPV infection in tonsillar tissue appears to be uncommon in the children and adults in the population sampled. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Blood type biochemistry and human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, D Rose; Sumner, Susan C J

    2016-11-01

    Associations between blood type and disease have been studied since the early 1900s when researchers determined that antibodies and antigens are inherited. In the 1950s, the chemical identification of the carbohydrate structure of surface antigens led to the understanding of biosynthetic pathways. The blood type is defined by oligosaccharide structures, which are specific to the antigens, thus, blood group antigens are secondary gene products, while the primary gene products are various glycosyltransferase enzymes that attach the sugar molecules to the oligosaccharide chain. Blood group antigens are found on red blood cells, platelets, leukocytes, plasma proteins, certain tissues, and various cell surface enzymes, and also exist in soluble form in body secretions such as breast milk, seminal fluid, saliva, sweat, gastric secretions, urine, and amniotic fluid. Recent advances in technology, biochemistry, and genetics have clarified the functional classifications of human blood group antigens, the structure of the A, B, H, and Lewis determinants and the enzymes that produce them, and the association of blood group antigens with disease risks. Further research to identify differences in the biochemical composition of blood group antigens, and the relationship to risks for disease, can be important for the identification of targets for the development of nutritional intervention strategies, or the identification of druggable targets. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2016, 8:517-535. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1355 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  1. Muscle Patterning in Mouse and Human Abdominal Wall Development and Omphalocele Specimens of Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Nichol, Peter F.; Corliss, Robert F.; Yamada, Shigehito; SHIOTA, KOHEI; Saijoh, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    Human omphalocele is a congenital defect of the abdominal wall in which the secondary abdominal wall structures (muscle and connective tissue) in an area centered around the umbilicus are replaced by a translucent membranous layer of tissue. Histological examination of omphalocele development and moreover the staging of normal human abdominal wall development has never been described. We hypothesized that omphalocele is the result of an arrest in the secondary abdominal wall development and p...

  2. 血液检验标本误差的影响因素分析%Analysis of the factors affecting blood test specimens error

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶云

    2015-01-01

    目的:对血液检验标本误差的影响因素进行探讨。方法:选取我院100份出现误差的血液检验标本为研究对象,对检验误差的原因进行分析和统计,并针对影响因素制定相应的预防对策。结果:100份血液检验标本的误差诱因包括采集因素、患者自身因素、标本处理因素、标本送检因素及标本检验因素。结论:在对患者实施血液检验时,对血液检验标本造成误差的诱因较多,医院单位需要规范血液检验的流程,加强把控,从而减少临床检验的误差率。%AIM:To discuss the factors of the blood specimens error. METHODS: 100 blood test specimens with error in our hospital were selected as the research subjects. Analyzing the fac⁃tors and developing appropriate preventive measures. RESULTS:The incentive factors of 100 blood test specimens include the patient�s own factors, collecting factors, specimens handing and specimens inspecting factors. CONCLUSION: Because of the varies factors of the blood specimens testing error, hospitals need to regulate the flow of blood tests and strengthen the control of the blood tests, which can reduce the error rate in clinical testing.

  3. The handling procedures of blood specimen in common medical laboratories%常规实验室检验血液标本处理程序

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪; 王治国

    2011-01-01

    常规实验室血液标本的处理质量对于帮助实验室在识别、减少以及消除来自血液标本不恰当处理的分析前阶段中的误差非常重要.通过查阅临床和实验室标准化研究院( CLSI)等参考文献规范血液标准的处理程序,总结了对全血标本、血清、血浆样本恰当的处理程序,强调了标本处理的离心前(标本运输的时间和温度、试管方向、标本溶血、标本暴露于光下、自动化传输系统、实验室标本拒收标准等)、离心时(温控离心机、再离心)及离心后阶段(血清/血浆标本的储存、防腐剂等)相关的变量.%The quality of the handling procedures for blood specimen can help laboratories in recognizing, reducing, or removing the errors from inappropriate handling procedures of blood specimen. This paper consults reference articles from CLSI to standardize the handling procedures of blood specimen. Having summarized the handling procedures of specimen of whole blood, serum, plasma, emphasizing the relatively variables of specimen handling in pre-centrifugation (time and temperature of specimen transportation, tube orientation, hemolysis, exposure to light, automated delivery systems, criteria for specimen rejection etc), centrifugation(temperature-controlled centrifuges, recentrifugation )and post-centrifugation (storage, preservatives etc.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus survival in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malachowa, Natalia; DeLeo, Frank R

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is abundant in hospitals and in the United States is a leading cause of mortality due to infectious agents. Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains such as USA300, which typically cause disease outside of healthcare settings, are also prevalent in the United States. Although most CA-MRSA infections affect skin and soft tissue, the pathogen can enter the bloodstream and ultimately cause severe disease. In a recent paper, we used USA300-specific microarrays to generate a comprehensive view of the molecules that facilitate S. aureus immune evasion and survival in human blood. Notably, genes encoding proteins involved in iron-uptake and utilization and gamma-hemolysin (hlgABC) are highly up-regulated by USA300 during culture in human blood. Here we discuss the potential implication of these findings and the possible role of gamma-hemolysin in the success of S. aureus as a human pathogen.

  5. Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy on Human Blood

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, M; Lunkenheimer, P; Loidl, A

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric spectra of human blood reveal a rich variety of dynamic processes. Achieving a better characterization and understanding of these processes not only is of academic interest but also of high relevance for medical applications as, e.g., the determination of absorption rates of electromagnetic radiation by the human body. The dielectric properties of human blood are studied using broadband dielectric spectroscopy, systematically investigating the dependence on temperature and hematocrit value. By covering a frequency range from 1 Hz to 40 GHz, information on all the typical dispersion regions of biological matter is obtained. We find no evidence for a low-frequency relaxation (alpha-relaxation) caused, e.g., by counterion diffusion effects as reported for some types of biological matter. The analysis of a strong Maxwell-Wagner relaxation arising from the polarization of the cell membranes in the 1-100 MHz region (beta-relaxation) allows for the test of model predictions and the determination of variou...

  6. Detection and characterisation of bisegmented double-stranded RNA viruses (picobirnaviruses) in human faecal specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, C I; Appleton, H; Lewis, D; Green, J; Brown, D W

    1995-02-01

    The prevalence of picobirnaviruses (PBVs) in human stools was investigated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis of 832 faecal specimens collected between 1982 and 1993 from patients in various clinical groups. Similar prevalences (9-13%) were detected in patients with or without gastroenteritis and throughout the age range of 3 to > 65 years. Two methods for the extraction of nucleic acid, a phenol/chloroform method and a guanidinium thiocynate (GTC)/silica method, were compared. Detection of PBVs by PAGE was three times more sensitive following RNA extraction by the GTC/silica method. Characterisation of three strains was carried out. Segment sizes ranged from 1.625 to 1.95 kilo base pairs (Kbp) and 2.2 to 2.5 Kbp for the fast and slow migrating bands, respectively. The nuclic acid was shown to be double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) by nuclease digestion. PBV-like particles were detected by electron microscopy in two PAGE-positive stools. Virion diameters ranged from 35 to 41 nm and a buoyant density of 1.38-1.4 g/ml in caesium chloride (CsCl) was demonstrated. These findings suggest that PBVs are widespread in humans in the United Kingdom. However, no disease association could be demonstrated.

  7. Evaluation of the AMPLICOR cytomegalovirus test with specimens from human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, G; Handfield, J; Toma, E; Murray, G; Lalonde, R; Tevere, V J; Sun, R; Bergeron, M G

    1998-09-01

    The AMPLICOR cytomegalovirus (CMV) test, a new qualitative assay for the detection of CMV DNA in plasma, was compared to conventional methods and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) assays by using leukocytes and plasma from 179 blood samples from subjects with AIDS. For the diagnosis of CMV disease, cell-based assays such as a Q-PCR with polymorphonuclear leukocytes (Q-PCR-PMNL) and a pp65 antigenemia assay had the highest sensitivities but suffered from a lack of specificity. The best agreement between the results of the Q-PCR-PMNL assay and those of the AMPLICOR test was found when a threshold diagnostic value of 690 copies per 10(5) cells was selected for the Q-PCR-PMNL assay. In that context, the AMPLICOR CMV test had a sensitivity of 96.4% and a specificity of 95.3% when results were compared to results of the cell-based PCR assay. This threshold was close to the one described as associated with the best sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of CMV disease in a recently published study (4). Blood samples that tested positive by the Q-PCR-PMNL assay but negative by the AMPLICOR CMV test were associated with viral loads (mean, 785 copies, median, 96 copies per 10(5) leukocytes) lower than the viral loads of blood samples that tested positive by both assays (mean, 21,452 copies; median, 9,784 copies per 10(5) leukocytes) (P = 0.003). The AMPLICOR CMV test gave positive results at least 48 days before the development of symptomatic CMV disease in a longitudinal analysis of a limited subset of patients (n = 6) from whom sequential specimens were available for testing. In conclusion, the AMPLICOR CMV test is a very convenient assay combining rapidity, simplicity, and the possibility of batch testing. A positive result by this test seems particularly important since this implies, in most instances, the presence or the imminence of CMV disease, although a negative test result does not rule out disease.

  8. Multi-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Profiling of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolates from Blood Cultures and Gallbladder Specimens from Makassar, South-Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatta, M.; Pastoor, R.; Scheelbeek, P.F.D.; Sultan, A.R.; Dwiyanti, R.; Labeda, I.; Smits, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis differentiated 297 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from Makassar in 76 genotypes and a single unique S. Typhi genotype was isolated from the cholecystectomy specimens of four patients with cholelithiasis. The high diversity

  9. Multi-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Profiling of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolates from Blood Cultures and Gallbladder Specimens from Makassar, South-Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatta, M.; Pastoor, R.; Scheelbeek, P.F.D.; Sultan, A.R.; Dwiyanti, R.; Labeda, I.; Smits, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis differentiated 297 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from Makassar in 76 genotypes and a single unique S. Typhi genotype was isolated from the cholecystectomy specimens of four patients with cholelithiasis. The high diversity

  10. Importance to Ensure the Quality of Blood Specimen%保证血液标本质量的重要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈喜哲

    2013-01-01

    The quality of blood specimen is an important link in process of blood collection and supply. In order to ensure the quality of blood specimen, ensure the accuracy of test results, willbe from the blood specimen collection to keep under control. To strengthen the quality controllof each link in the process of specimen collection;discover and solve problems, improve service quality and work ef iciency.%血液标本质量在采供血过程中是一个重要环节。为确保血液标本质量,保证检验结果的准确性,就要从血液标本的采集到保存加以控制。加强标本采集过程中各环节质量控制;及时发现问题解决问题,提高服务质量和工作效率。

  11. Unavoidable Human Errors of Tumor Size Measurement during Specimen Attachment after Endoscopic Resection: A Clinical Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Tsushimi, Takaaki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Fujihara, Shintaro; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Objective Objective evaluation of resected specimen and tumor size is critical because the tumor diameter after endoscopic submucosal dissection affects therapeutic strategies. In this study, we investigated whether the true tumor diameter of gastrointestinal cancer specimens measured by flexible endoscopy is subjective by testing whether the specimen is correctly attached to the specimen board after endoscopic submucosal dissection resection and whether the size differs depending on the endoscopist who attached the specimen. Methods Seventy-two patients diagnosed with early gastric cancer who satisfied the endoscopic submucosal dissection expanded-indication guideline were enrolled. Three endoscopists were randomly selected before every endoscopic submucosal dissection. Each endoscopist separately attached the same resected specimen, measured the maximum resection diameter and tumor size, and removed the lesion from the attachment board. Results The resected specimen diameters of the 3 endoscopists were 44.5±13.9 mm (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 23–67), 37.4±12.0 mm (95% CI: 18–60), and 41.1±13.3 mm (95% CI: 20–63) mm. Comparison among 3 groups (Kruskal Wallis H- test), there were significant differences (H = 6.397, P = 0.040), and recorded tumor sizes were 38.3±13.1 mm (95% CI: 16–67), 31.1±11.2 mm (95% CI: 12.5–53.3), and 34.8±12.8 (95% CI: 11.5–62.3) mm. Comparison among 3 groups, there were significant differences (H = 6.917, P = 0.031). Conclusions Human errors regarding the size of attached resected specimens are unavoidable, but it cannot be ignored because it affects the patient’s additional treatment and/or surgical intervention. We must develop a more precise methodology to obtain accurate tumor size. Trial Registration University hospital Medical Information Network UMIN No. 000012915 PMID:25856397

  12. Comparison of PBDE congener profiles and concentration levels in human specimens from China and the US and identification of human exposure sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to investigate the status of human exposure to PBDEs in China,available monitoring data in human specimens(including breast milk,serums,and blood) was collected from the general population as well as specific groups that are occupationally exposed.PBDEs exposure profiles and concentration levels were compared with their counterparts in the United States of America.It was found that PBDE burdens in general Chinese population are one order lower and have different congener profiles from that in the US,showing higher percentages of BDE-28 or BDE-153 in human specimens from China.Workers and residents in electronic wastes recycling regions or areas of commercial PBDE manufacturing have the highest PBDE exposure levels reported worldwide,which are close or higher than the exposure levels of the general population in the US. Highly brominated congeners,such as BDE-207 and 209,are among the major PBDE congeners,and BDE-209 has the highest percentage(above 50%) for all occupational populations studied.Principal components analysis(PCA) demonstrates that the exposure of the general population in the US is closely related to penta-BDE while the human burden in China is not.The PBDE in indoor air(gas phase) in the US is highly correlated with the PBDE burden in the general population in the US,indicating a major exposure pathway.For the occupationally exposed populations in China,the congener profiles are closely related to the commercial deca-BDE products.Examination of exposure profiles for general and occupational populations in China suggests that it is essential to include more highly brominated congeners,such as BDE-207 and 209,in future human exposure studies,in order to assess the real burdens and profiles of PBDEs exposure in China.Strict pollution prevention and occupational protection procedures are in need in China to avoid the PBDE contamination problem that has occurred in the US.

  13. Detection of alpha human papillomaviruses in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocjan, Boštjan J; Hošnjak, Lea; Poljak, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens stored in pathology departments worldwide are an invaluable source for diagnostic purposes when fresh clinical material is unavailable as well as for retrospective molecular and epidemiological studies, especially when dealing with rare clinical conditions for which prospective collection is not feasible. Accurate detection of HPV infection in these specimens is particularly challenging because nucleic acids are often degraded and therefore, not suitable for amplification of larger fragments of the viral genome or viral gene transcripts. This review provides a brief summary of molecular methods for detecting alpha-HPV DNA/RNA in FFPE tissue specimens. We specifically address the key procedural and environmental factors that have the greatest impact on the quality of nucleic acids extracted from FFPE tissue specimens, and describe some solutions that can be used to increase their integrity and/or amplifiability. Moreover, commonly used methods for HPV DNA/RNA detection in FFPE tissue specimens are presented and discussed, focusing on studies using polymerase chain reaction as an HPV detection method and published after 1999. Finally, we briefly summarize our 22 years of experience with HPV detection in FFPE tissue specimens.

  14. Raman spectroscopic analyses of preserved historical specimens of human hair attributed to Robert Stephenson and Sir Isaac Newton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; Hassan, Nik F N; Wilson, Andrew S

    2004-10-01

    The Raman spectra of two historical specimens of human hair attributed to the engineer Robert Stephenson and scientist Sir Isaac Newton, preserved in private collections are reported. Comparisons are made with the Raman spectra of modern hair specimens and with hair from archaeological excavations. The hair spectra collected with a laser excitation of 785 nm are of a better quality than those collected using 1064 nm. The historical hair specimens are remarkably well-defined spectroscopically in terms of the amide I vibrational mode and the [small nu](SS), ascribed to a predominantly gauche-gauche-gauche CSSC conformation. The contrast with degraded hair specimens recovered from archaeological excavations is striking. The presence of a weak feature near 2590 cm(-1) in the hair samples attributed to a [small nu](SH) vibration could be indicative of a reduction process operative on the CSSC cystine keratotic linkages and a possible origin of this is bacterial biodegradation identified histologically. This study demonstrates the molecular information available from non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis from single hair shafts or small bundles of fibres which complements information available from histological and destructive analytical techniques for rare biological specimens subjected to conservation or curation procedures in museums or private collections.

  15. A Comparison of Microscopy and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in Human Faecal Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Noor; Khatoon, Razia; Ahmad, Siraj

    2014-11-01

    Giardia lamblia, a flagellate protozoa, is a common causative agent of parasitic diarrhoeal diseases of humans. Laboratory diagnosis mainly consists of direct microscopic examination of stool specimen for trophozoite and cysts of Giardia. However, due to intermittent faecal excretion of parasite, the case may be miss diagnosed and the patient may continue excreting the parasite and infecting others. Therefore, other mode of diagnosis should be looked for, which overcome the above drawbacks of microscopy used alone for diagnosis. The present study was done to evaluate the efficacy of RIDASCREEN Giardia (ELISA) test in comparison to direct microscopy in the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in stool specimens from patients with diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms. A total of 1680 patients were included in the study and three faecal specimens were taken from each patient which was divided into two parts. One part was used for direct wet mount examination and second part was used to put ELISA by using RIDASCREEN Giardia test. Out of 1680 stool samples, 380 specimens (22.6%) were found to be positive for Giardia lamblia. Maximum cases were detected by RIDASCREEN Giardia (ELISA) test with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 91.5%. Maximum cases of giardiasis were detected in children less than 10 y of age (12.8%). RIDASCREEN Giardia test is a rapid and effective method with high sensitivity and specificity and detects Giardia antigens in stool specimens even when the count of parasite is low, thus reducing the chances of missing even the asymptomatic cases.

  16. Computational Analysis of Human Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panta, Yogendra; Marie, Hazel; Harvey, Mark

    2009-11-01

    Fluid flow modeling with commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is widely used to visualize and predict physical phenomena related to various biological systems. In this presentation, a typical human aorta model was analyzed assuming the blood flow as laminar with complaint cardiac muscle wall boundaries. FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume software, coupled with Solidworks, a modeling software, was employed for the preprocessing, simulation and postprocessing of all the models.The analysis mainly consists of a fluid-dynamics analysis including a calculation of the velocity field and pressure distribution in the blood and a mechanical analysis of the deformation of the tissue and artery in terms of wall shear stress. A number of other models e.g. T branches, angle shaped were previously analyzed and compared their results for consistency for similar boundary conditions. The velocities, pressures and wall shear stress distributions achieved in all models were as expected given the similar boundary conditions. The three dimensional time dependent analysis of blood flow accounting the effect of body forces with a complaint boundary was also performed.

  17. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  18. Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat profiling of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from blood cultures and gallbladder specimens from Makassar, South-Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Hatta

    Full Text Available Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis differentiated 297 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from Makassar in 76 genotypes and a single unique S. Typhi genotype was isolated from the cholecystectomy specimens of four patients with cholelithiasis. The high diversity in S. Typhi genotypes circulating in Makassar indicates that the number of carriers could be very large, which may complicate disease prevention and control.

  19. Examination of periodontal pathogens in stenotic valve specimens and in whole blood samples in patients affected by aortic valve stenosis and chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelli, L; Santangelo, R; Falchetti, P; Galluccio, F; Luciani, N; Anselmi, A; Nowzari, H; Verdugo, F; Fadda, G; D'Addona, A

    2010-01-01

    Periodontitis may be a risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The influence of periodontal pathogens in cardiovascular diseases needs further investigation. Therefore, the aims of this clinical study are: to test the presence of periodontal bacteria DNA in aortic valves and to assess the concomitant presence of the same periodontal bacteria DNA in whole blood samples in patients affected by aortic valve stenosis and chronic periodontitis. Nineteen consecutive patients (12 males and 7 females, age: 49-85 years) were enrolled in this study after having been subjected to a complete periodontal evaluation to confirm the diagnosis of chronic periodontitis. All patients were scheduled for aortic valve replacement surgery. After clinical and microbial periodontal examination, the aortic valve tissue specimens were obtained by excision during valve replacement surgery and the patients were subjected to the whole blood sampling before the surgery. The polymerase chain reaction technology was used to detect the putative periodontal pathogens Tannerella forshytia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Campylobacter rectus, Eikenella corrodens and Treponema denticola. Neither the 19 aortic valve specimens nor the blood samples were positive for the genoma of the selected periodontal pathogens. The selected periodontal pathogens did not colonize the aortic valve of patients affected by stenosis and bacterial genoma was not present in whole blood samples. A high blood pressure at the aortic valve may prevent the adhesion and proliferation of bacterial colonies.

  20. The Human Blood Metabolome-Transcriptome Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Katharina; Adamski, Jerzy; Gieger, Christian; Herder, Christian; Carstensen, Maren; Peters, Annette; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Roden, Michael; Strauch, Konstantin; Suhre, Karsten; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Prokisch, Holger; Theis, Fabian J.

    2015-01-01

    Biological systems consist of multiple organizational levels all densely interacting with each other to ensure function and flexibility of the system. Simultaneous analysis of cross-sectional multi-omics data from large population studies is a powerful tool to comprehensively characterize the underlying molecular mechanisms on a physiological scale. In this study, we systematically analyzed the relationship between fasting serum metabolomics and whole blood transcriptomics data from 712 individuals of the German KORA F4 cohort. Correlation-based analysis identified 1,109 significant associations between 522 transcripts and 114 metabolites summarized in an integrated network, the ‘human blood metabolome-transcriptome interface’ (BMTI). Bidirectional causality analysis using Mendelian randomization did not yield any statistically significant causal associations between transcripts and metabolites. A knowledge-based interpretation and integration with a genome-scale human metabolic reconstruction revealed systematic signatures of signaling, transport and metabolic processes, i.e. metabolic reactions mainly belonging to lipid, energy and amino acid metabolism. Moreover, the construction of a network based on functional categories illustrated the cross-talk between the biological layers at a pathway level. Using a transcription factor binding site enrichment analysis, this pathway cross-talk was further confirmed at a regulatory level. Finally, we demonstrated how the constructed networks can be used to gain novel insights into molecular mechanisms associated to intermediate clinical traits. Overall, our results demonstrate the utility of a multi-omics integrative approach to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying both normal physiology and disease. PMID:26086077

  1. The Human Blood Metabolome-Transcriptome Interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Bartel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems consist of multiple organizational levels all densely interacting with each other to ensure function and flexibility of the system. Simultaneous analysis of cross-sectional multi-omics data from large population studies is a powerful tool to comprehensively characterize the underlying molecular mechanisms on a physiological scale. In this study, we systematically analyzed the relationship between fasting serum metabolomics and whole blood transcriptomics data from 712 individuals of the German KORA F4 cohort. Correlation-based analysis identified 1,109 significant associations between 522 transcripts and 114 metabolites summarized in an integrated network, the 'human blood metabolome-transcriptome interface' (BMTI. Bidirectional causality analysis using Mendelian randomization did not yield any statistically significant causal associations between transcripts and metabolites. A knowledge-based interpretation and integration with a genome-scale human metabolic reconstruction revealed systematic signatures of signaling, transport and metabolic processes, i.e. metabolic reactions mainly belonging to lipid, energy and amino acid metabolism. Moreover, the construction of a network based on functional categories illustrated the cross-talk between the biological layers at a pathway level. Using a transcription factor binding site enrichment analysis, this pathway cross-talk was further confirmed at a regulatory level. Finally, we demonstrated how the constructed networks can be used to gain novel insights into molecular mechanisms associated to intermediate clinical traits. Overall, our results demonstrate the utility of a multi-omics integrative approach to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying both normal physiology and disease.

  2. Noncontact discrimination of animal and human blood with vacuum blood vessel and factors affect the discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linna; Zhang, Shengzhao; Sun, Meixiu; Li, Hongxiao; Li, Yingxin; Fu, Zhigang; Guan, Yang; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-03-01

    Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood is crucial for import-export ports and inspection and quarantine departments. Current methods are usually destructive, complicated and time-consuming. We had previously demonstrated that visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy combining PLS-DA method can successfully realize human blood discrimination. In that research, the spectra were measured with the fiber probe under the surface of blood samples. However, open sampling may pollute the blood samples. Virulence factors in blood samples can also endanger inspectors. In this paper, we explored the classification effect with the blood samples measured in the original containers-vacuum blood vessel. Furthermore, we studied the impact of different conditions of blood samples, such as coagulation and hemolysis, on the prediction ability of the discrimination model. The calibration model built with blood samples in different conditions displayed a satisfactory prediction result. This research demonstrated that visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method was potential for noncontact discrimination of human blood.

  3. Bacteroides faecis and Bacteroides intestinalis recovered from clinical specimens of human intestinal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yangsoon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Yong, Dongeun; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

    2015-01-01

    We report three cases of recently named Bacteroides spp. isolates, two B. faecis isolates and one B. intestinalis isolate from clinical specimens of inpatients at a Korean tertiary-care hospital in 2011. All isolates were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, meropenem, chloramphenicol, and metronidazole.

  4. Genetic Characterization of Atypical Mansonella (Mansonella) ozzardi Microfilariae in Human Blood Samples from Northeastern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Luis A.; Arrospide, Nancy; Recuenco, Sergio; Cabezas, Cesar; Weil, Gary J.; Fischer, Peter U.

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequence comparisons are useful for characterizing proposed new parasite species or strains. Microfilariae with an atypical arrangement of nuclei behind the cephalic space have been recently described in human blood samples from the Amazon region of Peru. Three blood specimens containing atypical microfilariae were genetically characterized using three DNA markers (5S ribosomal DNA, 12S ribosomal DNA, and cytochrome oxidase I). All atypical microfilariae were clustered into the Mansonella group and indistinguishable from M. ozzardi based on these DNA markers. PMID:22826497

  5. Cervical Spine Muscle-Tendon Unit Length Differences Between Neutral and Forward Head Postures: Biomechanical Study Using Human Cadaveric Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatzadeh, Saeed; Kalmanson, Olivia A; Schuit, Dale; Havey, Robert M; Voronov, Leonard I; Ghanayem, Alexander J; Patwardhan, Avinash G

    2017-07-01

    Forward head posture (FHP) may be associated with neck pain and poor health-related quality of life. Literature describes only qualitative muscle length changes associated with FHP. The purpose of this study was to quantify how muscle-tendon unit lengths are altered when human cadaveric specimens are placed in alignments representing different severities of FHP. This biomechanical study used 13 fresh-frozen cadaveric cervical spine specimens (Occiput-T1, 54±15 y). Specimens' postural changes simulating increasing FHP severity while maintaining horizontal gaze were assessed. Specimen-specific anatomic models derived from computed tomography-based anatomic data were combined with postural data and specimen-specific anatomy of muscle attachment points to estimate the muscle length changes associated with FHP. Forward head posture was associated with flexion of the mid-lower cervical spine and extension of the upper cervical (sub-occipital) spine. Muscles that insert on the cervical spine and function as flexors (termed "cervical flexors") as well as muscles that insert on the cranium and function as extensors ("occipital extensors") shortened in FHP when compared to neutral posture. In contrast, muscles that insert on the cervical spine and function as extensors ("cervical extensors") as well as muscles that insert on the cranium and function as flexors ("occipital flexors") lengthened. The greatest shortening was seen in the major and minor rectus capitis posterior muscles. These muscles cross the Occiput-C2 segments, which exhibited extension to maintain horizontal gaze. The greatest lengthening was seen in posterior muscles crossing the C4-C6 segments, which exhibited the most flexion. This cadaver study did not incorporate the biomechanical influence of active musculature. This study offers a novel way to quantify postural alignment and muscle length changes associated with FHP. Model predictions are consistent with qualitative descriptions in the literature.

  6. Rapid Identification of Psychoactive Drugs in Drained Gastric Lavage Fluid and Whole Blood Specimens of Drug Overdose Patients Using Ambient Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Wei; Su, Hung; Cai, You-Da; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Wu, Den-Chyang; Shiea, Jentaie

    2017-01-01

    Psychoactive drug overdoses are life-threatening and require prompt and proper treatment in the emergency room to minimize morbidity and mortality. Prompt identification of the ingested psychoactive drugs is challenging, since witness recall is unreliable and patients' symptoms do not necessarily explain their loss of consciousness. Gas and liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analyses have been the traditionally employed methods to detect and identify abused substances; however, these techniques are time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this study, thermal desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, an ambient mass spectrometric technique, was applied to rapidly characterize flunitrazepam, lysergic acid diethylamide, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine in drained gastric lavage fluid, and ketamine, cocaine, amphetamine and norketamine in whole blood samples. No pretreatment of the gastric lavage fluid specimens was required and the entire analytical process took less than 30 s per specimen. Liquid-liquid extraction, followed by centrifugation, was performed on the whole blood samples. The corresponding compounds were identified through matching the obtained mass spectrometric data with those provided by commercial databases. The limits-of-detection of the tested drugs in both drained gastric lavage fluid and whole blood samples are at sub ppm levels. This is sensitive enough for emergency medical application, since the quantities of medications ingested by overdosed abusers are much higher than the amounts that were tested.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of community acquired and nosocomial isolates ofEscherichiacoli from clinical blood culture specimens at a Nigerian university teaching hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jombo GTA; Akpan S; Epoke J; Denen Akaa P; Eyong KI; Gyuse AN

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To ascertain the antibiotic susceptibility patterns ofEscherichia coli recovered from blood culture specimens in Calabar, Nigeria.Methods: The study was retrospective in nature and was carried out at University of Calabar Teaching Hospital(UCTH)Calabar. Data generated from blood culture specimens over a five year period (Feb.2004-Feb.2009) was compiled, relevant information such as age, sex, organism recovered and antibiotic susceptibility patterns were obtained from patients records. Samples were collected, transported, stored and processed using standard laboratory procedures. Data obtained was analysed using Epi Info6 statistical software.Results:Escherichia coli was responsible for15.3% (31/203) of the blood infections being the third most common microorganism encountered. The community acquired(CA) isolates of the organism were significantly less resistant (P0.05). Majority(>95.0%) of theNC isolates ofEscherichia coli were resistant to six of the antibiotics tested.Conclusions: Control mechanisms for hospital acquired infections should be stepped up so as to limit the spread of the highly resistant bacterial strains. Also the sale and consumption of antibiotics by the public need to be regulated.

  8. Comparison of DNA extraction kits for PCR-DGGE analysis of human intestinal microbial communities from fecal specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakatsu Cindy H

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of diet on intestinal microflora has been investigated mainly using conventional microbiological approaches. Although these studies have advanced knowledge on human intestinal microflora, it is imperative that new methods are applied to facilitate scientific progress. Culture-independent molecular fingerprinting method of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE has been used to study microbial communities in a variety of environmental samples. However, these protocols must be optimized prior to their application in order to enhance the quality and accuracy of downstream analyses. In this study, the relative efficacy of four commercial DNA extraction kits (Mobio Ultra Clean® Fecal DNA Isolation Kit, M; QIAamp® DNA Stool Mini Kit, Q; FastDNA® SPIN Kit, FSp; FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Soil, FSo were evaluated. Further, PCR-DGGE technique was also assessed for its feasibility in detecting differences in human intestinal bacterial fingerprint profiles. Method Total DNA was extracted from varying weights of human fecal specimens using four different kits, followed by PCR amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA genes, and DGGE separation of the amplicons. Results Regardless of kit, maximum DNA yield was obtained using 10 to 50 mg (wet wt of fecal specimens and similar DGGE profiles were obtained. However, kits FSp and FSo extracted significantly larger amounts of DNA per g dry fecal specimens and produced more bands on their DGGE profiles than kits M and Q due to their use of bead-containing lysing matrix and vigorous shaking step. DGGE of 16S rRNA gene PCR products was suitable for capturing the profiles of human intestinal microbial community and enabled rapid comparative assessment of inter- and intra-subject differences. Conclusion We conclude that extraction kits that incorporated bead-containing lysing matrix and vigorous shaking produced high quality DNA from human fecal

  9. Field evaluation of the InBios Chagas detect plus rapid test in serum and whole-blood specimens in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vishal; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; Gilman, Robert H; Ramirez, Margot; Saenza, Eliana; Malaga, Edith; Sanchez, Gerardo; Okamoto, Emi E; Sherbuck, Jacqueline E; Clark, Eva H; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Bozo, Ricardo; Flores-Franco, Jorge Luis; Colanzi, Rony; Verastegui, Manuela; Bern, Caryn

    2014-12-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, which affects an estimated 7 million to 8 million people. Chagas disease is endemic throughout Latin America, with the highest prevalence in Bolivia. Conventional diagnosis requires a well-equipped laboratory with experienced personnel. We evaluated the Chagas Detect Plus (CDP) (InBios, Seattle, WA), a rapid immunochromatographic assay for IgG antibodies to T. cruzi. CDP performance was compared to infection status based on results obtained by indirect hemagglutination assay, immunofluorescent-antibody test, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Confirmed infection required positive results by at least 2 conventional assays. We used specimens from adults of both sexes in a general hospital in the city of Santa Cruz and from pregnant women in a hospital and children in villages in the Bolivian Chaco, an area of hyperendemicity. CDP was performed in paired whole-blood and serum specimens from 385 individuals in the two hospital studies and in 200 serum specimens from the community study. CDP showed sensitivities/specificities of 96.2% (95% confidence interval, 92.7 to 98.4)/98.8% (95.9 to 99.9) in whole blood and 99.3% (97.5 to 99.9)/96.9% (94.2 to 98.6) in serum, with no differences by sex, age group, or study site. CDP showed excellent sensitivity and specificity in our study population, comparable to those of conventional serology. The test is reliable for field surveys, requires no laboratory equipment, and performed well in serum and whole blood. The CDP could also be used for accurate maternal screening to identify neonates at risk of congenital transmission. CDP performance data in diverse geographic areas are needed to strengthen the evidence base for its use. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Impact of the phlebotomy training based on CLSI/NCCLS H03-a6 - procedures for the collection of diagnostic blood specimens by venipuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2012-01-01

    The activities involving phlebotomy, a critical task for obtaining diagnostic blood samples, are poorly studied as regards the major sources of errors and the procedures related to laboratory quality control. The aim of this study was to verify the compliance with CLSI documents of clinical laboratories from South America and to assess whether teaching phlebotomists to follow the exact procedure for blood collection by venipuncture from CLSI/NCCLS H03-A6 - Procedures for the Collection of Diagnostic Blood Specimens by Venipuncture might improve the quality of the process. A survey was sent by mail to 3674 laboratories from South America to verify the use of CLSI documents. Thirty skilled phlebotomists were trained with the CLSI H03-A6 document to perform venipuncture procedures for a period of 20 consecutive working days. The overall performances of the phlebotomists were further compared before and after the training program. 2622 from 2781 laboratories that did answer our survey used CLSI documents to standardize their procedures and process. The phlebotomists' training for 20 days before our evaluation completely eliminated non-conformity procedures for: i) incorrect friction of the forearm, during the cleaning of the venipuncture site to ease vein location; ii) incorrect sequence of vacuum tubes collection; and iii) inadequate mixing of the blood in primary vacuum tubes containing anticoagulants or clot activators. Unfortunately the CLSI H03-A6 document does not caution against both unsuitable tourniquet application time (i.e., for more than one minute) and inappropriate request to clench the fist repeatedly. These inadequate procedures were observed for all phlebotomists. We showed that strict observance of the CLSI H03-A6 document can remarkably improve quality, although the various steps for collecting diagnostic blood specimens are not a gold standard, since they may still permit errors. Tourniquet application time and forearm clench should be verified by

  11. Impact of the phlebotomy training based on CLSI/NCCLS H03-A6 - procedures for the collection of diagnostic blood specimens by venipuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The activities involving phlebotomy, a critical task for obtaining diagnostic blood samples, are poorly studied as regards the major sources of errors and the procedures related to laboratory quality control. The aim of this study was to verify the compliance with CLSI documents of clinical laboratories from South America and to assess whether teaching phlebotomists to follow the exact procedure for blood collection by venipuncture from CLSI/NCCLS H03-A6 - Procedures for the Collection of Diagnostic Blood Specimens by Venipuncture might improve the quality of the process. Materials and methods: A survey was sent by mail to 3674 laboratories from South America to verify the use of CLSI documents. Thirty skilled phlebotomists were trained with the CLSI H03-A6 document to perform venipuncture procedures for a period of 20 consecutive working days. The overall performances of the phlebotomists were further compared before and after the training program. Results: 2622 from 2781 laboratories that did answer our survey used CLSI documents to standardize their procedures and process. The phlebotomists’ training for 20 days before our evaluation completely eliminated non-conformity procedures for: i) incorrect friction of the forearm, during the cleaning of the venipuncture site to ease vein location; ii) incorrect sequence of vacuum tubes collection; and iii) inadequate mixing of the blood in primary vacuum tubes containing anticoagulants or clot activators. Unfortunately the CLSI H03-A6 document does not caution against both unsuitable tourniquet application time (i.e., for more than one minute) and inappropriate request to clench the fist repeatedly. These inadequate procedures were observed for all phlebotomists. Conclusion: We showed that strict observance of the CLSI H03-A6 document can remarkably improve quality, although the various steps for collecting diagnostic blood specimens are not a gold standard, since they may still permit errors. Tourniquet

  12. Stability of SARS Coronavirus in Human Specimens and Environment and Its Sensitivity to Heating and UV Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU-MING DUAN; XIAO-PING DONG; SARS RESEARCH TEAM; XIN-SHENG ZHAO; RUI-FU WEN; JING-JING HUANG; GUO-HUA PI; SU-XIANG ZHANG; JUN HAN; SHENG-LI BI; LI RUAN

    2003-01-01

    The causal agent for SARS is considered as a novel coronavirus that has never been described both in human and animals previously. The stability of SARS coronavirus in human specimens and in environments was studied. Methods Using a SARS coronavirus strain CoV-P9,which was isolated from pharyngeal swab of a probable SARS case in Beijing, its stability in mimic human specimens and in mimic environment including surfaces of commonly used materials or in household conditions, as well as its resistances to temperature and UV irradiation were analyzed. A total of 106 TCID50 viruses were placed in each tested condition, and changes of the viral infectivity in samples after treatments were measured by evaluating cytopathic effect (CPE) in cell line Vero-E6 at 48 h after infectionn. Results The results showed that SARS coronavirus in the testing condition could survive in serum, 1:20 diluted sputum and feces for at least 96 h, whereas it could remain alive in urine for at least 72 h with a low level of infectivity. The survival abilities on the surfaces of eight different materials and in water were quite comparable, revealing reduction of infectivity after 72 to 96 h exposure. Viruses stayed stable at 4℃, at room temperature (20℃) and at 37℃ for at least 2 h without remarkable change in the infectious ability in cells, but were convened to be non-infectious after 90-, 60- and 30-min exposure at 56℃, at 67℃ and at 75℃, respectively. Irradiation of UV for 60 min on the virus in culture medium resulted in the destruction of viral infectivity at an undetectable level. Conclusion The survival ability of SARS coronavirus in human specimens and in environments seems to be relatively strong. Heating and UV irradiation can efficiently eliminate the viral infectivity.

  13. Development and Validation of a GC-MS Method for the Detection and Quantification of Clotiapine in Blood and Urine Specimens and Application to a Postmortem Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannocchi, Giulio; Pantano, Flaminia; Tittarelli, Roberta; Catanese, Miriam; Umani Ronchi, Federica; Busardò, Francesco Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Clotiapine is an atypical antipsychotic of the dibenzothiazepine class introduced in a few European countries since 1970, efficient in treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients. There is little published data on the therapeutic and toxic concentrations of this drug. Aims. The aim of the present study is the development and validation of a method that allows the detection and quantification of clotiapine in blood and urine specimens by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods. Validation was performed working on spiked postmortem blood and urine samples. Samples were extracted with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique at pH 8.5 with n-hexane/dichloromethane (85/15 v/v) and analysis was followed by GC-MS. Methadone-d9 was used as internal standard. Results. The limit of detection (LOD) was 1.2 and 1.3 ng/mL for urine and blood, respectively, while the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 3.9 and 4.3 ng/mL, respectively. Linearity, precision, selectivity, accuracy, and recovery were also determined. The method was applied to a postmortem case. The blood and urine clotiapine concentrations were 1.32 and 0.49 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions. A reliable GC-MS method for the detection and quantification of clotiapine in blood and urine samples has been developed and fully validated and then applied to a postmortem case. PMID:26236337

  14. Development and Validation of a GC-MS Method for the Detection and Quantification of Clotiapine in Blood and Urine Specimens and Application to a Postmortem Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Mannocchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Clotiapine is an atypical antipsychotic of the dibenzothiazepine class introduced in a few European countries since 1970, efficient in treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients. There is little published data on the therapeutic and toxic concentrations of this drug. Aims. The aim of the present study is the development and validation of a method that allows the detection and quantification of clotiapine in blood and urine specimens by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Methods. Validation was performed working on spiked postmortem blood and urine samples. Samples were extracted with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE technique at pH 8.5 with n-hexane/dichloromethane (85/15 v/v and analysis was followed by GC-MS. Methadone-d9 was used as internal standard. Results. The limit of detection (LOD was 1.2 and 1.3 ng/mL for urine and blood, respectively, while the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ was 3.9 and 4.3 ng/mL, respectively. Linearity, precision, selectivity, accuracy, and recovery were also determined. The method was applied to a postmortem case. The blood and urine clotiapine concentrations were 1.32 and 0.49 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions. A reliable GC-MS method for the detection and quantification of clotiapine in blood and urine samples has been developed and fully validated and then applied to a postmortem case.

  15. Blood pressure estimation in the human fetal descending aorta.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, P.C.; Mathews, V.J.; Loupas, T.; Stewart, P.A.; Clark, E.B.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Wladimiroff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to estimate fetal blood pressure non-invasively from two-dimensional color Doppler-derived aortic blood flow and diameter waveforms, and to compare the results with invasively derived human fetal blood pressures available from the literature. METHODS:

  16. Blood pressure estimation in the human fetal descending aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Struijk (Pieter); V.J. Mathews; T. Loupas; P.A. Stewart (Patricia); E.B. Clark; R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The objectives of this study were to estimate fetal blood pressure non-invasively from two-dimensional color Doppler-derived aortic blood flow and diameter waveforms, and to compare the results with invasively derived human fetal blood pressures available from the literature.

  17. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach: Part II. Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    Describes several experiments that explore the methodology available to the forensic serologist for typing a human bloodstain in the ABH grouping system. Presents ABO blood group of wet blood, Lattes Crust test procedure, and the absorption-elution procedure. Uses outdated blood; equipment requirements are minimal. (ML)

  18. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach: Part II. Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    Describes several experiments that explore the methodology available to the forensic serologist for typing a human bloodstain in the ABH grouping system. Presents ABO blood group of wet blood, Lattes Crust test procedure, and the absorption-elution procedure. Uses outdated blood; equipment requirements are minimal. (ML)

  19. Polychelated cryogels: hemoglobin adsorption from human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Kadir

    2017-02-01

    The separation and purification methods are extremely important for the hemoglobin (Hb) which is a crucial biomolecule. The adsorption technique is popular among these methods and the cryogels have been used quite much due to their macropores and interconnected flow channels. In this study, the Hb adsorption onto the Cu(II) immobilized poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-glycidyl methacrylate), poly(HEMA-GMA)-Cu(II), cryogels was investigated under different conditions (pH, interaction time, initial Hb concentration, temperature and ionic strength) to optimize adsorption conditions. The swelling test, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), surface area (BET), elemental and ICP-OES analysis were performed for the characterization of cryogels. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) molecule was used as a Cu(II)-chelating ligand. The Hb adsorption capacity of cryogels was determined as 193.8 mg Hb/g cryogel. The isolation of Hb from human blood was also studied under optimum adsorption conditions determined and the Hb (124.5 mg/g cryogel) was isolated. The adsorption model was investigated in the light of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models and it was determined to be more appropriate to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model.

  20. Blood culture collection through peripheral intravenous catheters increases the risk of specimen contamination among adult emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Wesley H; Speroff, Theodore; McNaughton, Candace D; Wright, Patty W; Miller, Geraldine; Johnson, James G; Daniels, Titus L; Talbot, Thomas R

    2012-05-01

    Five hundred five blood cultures collected through a peripheral intravenous catheter (PIV) in an emergency department were matched to cultures obtained by dedicated venipuncture from the same patient within 10 minutes. The relative risk of contamination for cultures collected through PIVs compared with dedicated venipuncture was 1.83 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-3.11).

  1. Ultrastructural characteristics of novel epithelial cell types identified in human pathologic liver specimens with chronic ductular reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, R; Desmet, V

    1992-06-01

    Previous immunohistochemical studies on human liver biopsies with chronic ductular reaction revealed the presence of "small cells" with bile-duct type cytokeratin profile in the periportal area. This study identified similar cells by electron microscopy. The authors studied 13 human liver specimens with various liver diseases, but all characterized by chronic ductular reaction. In all specimens, variable numbers of "small cells" with common epithelial characteristics were identified in the periportal area. They could be classified into three types. Type I cells showed an oval cell shape and oval nucleus, early or established formation of junctional complexes with adjacent cells, a full assortment of cytoplasmic organelles, and bundles of tonofilaments. Type II cells showed features of bile-duct cell differentiation, including lateral interdigitations, apical microvilli, basal pinocytotic vacuoles, and basement membrane formation. In contrast, type III cells displayed additional features indicating hepatocellular differentiation, such as a more prominent nucleus, formation of a hemicanaliculus, and glycogen rosettes. It is concluded that these small cells of epithelial nature display variable differentiation characteristics of either bile-duct type cells or hepatocytes. These findings support the existence of bipotential progenitor epithelial cells in human liver. They may have implications for liver regeneration and carcinogenesis.

  2. Maximizing Modern Distribution of Complex Anatomical Spatial Information: 3D Reconstruction and Rapid Prototype Production of Anatomical Corrosion Casts of Human Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianyi; Nie, Lanying; Li, Zeyu; Lin, Lijun; Tang, Lei; Ouyang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical corrosion casts of human specimens are useful teaching aids. However, their use is limited due to ethical dilemmas associated with their production, their lack of perfect reproducibility, and their consumption of original specimens in the process of casting. In this study, new approaches with modern distribution of complex anatomical…

  3. Before you analyze a human specimen, think quality, variability, and bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mark David; Dickherber, Anthony; Compton, Carolyn C

    2011-01-01

    Personalized medicine requires capabilities to detect and measure health-associated biomarkers with increasingly specific and sensitive methods, putting analytical chemists at the front lines of translational research. Analytical scientists must be upstream in the experimental design process because the analysis of a biospecimen (tissue, blood, etc.) presents technical and experimental design complexities. (To listen to a podcast about this feature, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at pubs.acs.org/page/ancham/audio/index.html.).

  4. Nocturnal variations in peripheral blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Christensen, H

    1991-01-01

    was associated with a 30-40% increase in blood flow rate and a highly significant decrease in mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate (P less than 0.001 for all). Approximately 100 min after the subjects went to sleep an additional blood flow rate increment (mean 56%) and a simultaneous significant decrease......Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit...... were used for measurement of blood flow rates. An automatic portable blood pressure recorder and processor unit was used for measurement of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate every 15 min. The change from upright to supine position at the beginning of the night period...

  5. Perfluoroalkyl substances in the blood of wild rats and mice from 47 prefectures in Japan: use of samples from nationwide specimen bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyasu, Sachi; Senthilkumar, Kurunthachalam; Yamazaki, Eriko; Yeung, Leo W Y; Guruge, Keerthi S; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2013-07-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the global distribution, persistence, fate, and toxicity of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). However, studies on PFASs in terrestrial mammals are scarce. Rats can be good sentinels of human exposure to toxicants because of their habitat, which is in close proximity to humans. Furthermore, exposure data measured for rats can be directly applied for risk assessment because many toxicological studies use rodent models. In this study, a nationwide survey of PFASs in the blood of wild rats as well as surface water samples collected from rats' habitats from 47 prefectures in Japan was conducted. In addition to known PFASs, combustion ion chromatography technique was used for analysis of total fluorine concentrations in the blood of rats. In total, 216 blood samples representing three species of wild rats (house rat, Norway rats, and field mice) were analyzed for 23 PFASs. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS; concentration range 80 % of the blood samples. Concentrations of several PFASs in rat blood were similar to those reported for humans. PFSAs (mainly PFOS) accounted for 45 % of total PFASs, whereas perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), especially PFUnDA and PFNA, accounted for 20 and 10 % of total PFASs, respectively. In water samples, PFCAs were the predominant compounds with PFOA and PFNA found in >90 % of the samples. There were strong correlations (p blood.

  6. Virtual Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paor, D. G.

    2009-12-01

    Virtual Field Trips have been around almost as long as the Worldwide Web itself yet virtual explorers do not generally return to their desktops with folders full of virtual hand specimens. Collection of real specimens on fields trips for later analysis in the lab (or at least in the pub) has been an important part of classical field geoscience education and research for generations but concern for the landscape and for preservation of key outcrops from wanton destruction has lead to many restrictions. One of the author’s favorite outcrops was recently vandalized presumably by a geologist who felt the need to bash some of the world’s most spectacular buckle folds with a rock sledge. It is not surprising, therefore, that geologists sometimes leave fragile localities out of field trip itineraries. Once analyzed, most specimens repose in drawers or bins, never to be seen again. Some end up in teaching collections but recent pedagogical research shows that undergraduate students have difficulty relating specimens both to their collection location and ultimate provenance in the lithosphere. Virtual specimens can be created using 3D modeling software and imported into virtual globes such as Google Earth (GE) where, they may be linked to virtual field trip stops or restored to their source localities on the paleo-globe. Sensitive localities may be protected by placemark approximation. The GE application program interface (API) has a distinct advantage over the stand-alone GE application when it comes to viewing and manipulating virtual specimens. When instances of the virtual globe are embedded in web pages using the GE plug-in, Collada models of specimens can be manipulated with javascript controls residing in the enclosing HTML, permitting specimens to be magnified, rotated in 3D, and sliced. Associated analytical data may be linked into javascript and localities for comparison at various points on the globe referenced by ‘fetching’ KML. Virtual specimens open up

  7. Digital image measurement of specimen deformation based on CCD cameras and Image J software: an application to human pelvic biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yongwei; Cheng, Liming; Yu, Guangrong; Lou, Yongjian; Yu, Yan; Chen, Bo; Ding, Zuquan

    2008-03-01

    A method of digital image measurement of specimen deformation based on CCD cameras and Image J software was developed. This method was used to measure the biomechanics behavior of human pelvis. Six cadaveric specimens from the third lumbar vertebra to the proximal 1/3 part of femur were tested. The specimens without any structural abnormalities were dissected of all soft tissue, sparing the hip joint capsules and the ligaments of the pelvic ring and floor. Markers with black dot on white background were affixed to the key regions of the pelvis. Axial loading from the proximal lumbar was applied by MTS in the gradient of 0N to 500N, which simulated the double feet standing stance. The anterior and lateral images of the specimen were obtained through two CCD cameras. Based on Image J software, digital image processing software, which can be freely downloaded from the National Institutes of Health, digital 8-bit images were processed. The procedure includes the recognition of digital marker, image invert, sub-pixel reconstruction, image segmentation, center of mass algorithm based on weighted average of pixel gray values. Vertical displacements of S1 (the first sacral vertebrae) in front view and micro-angular rotation of sacroiliac joint in lateral view were calculated according to the marker movement. The results of digital image measurement showed as following: marker image correlation before and after deformation was excellent. The average correlation coefficient was about 0.983. According to the 768 × 576 pixels image (pixel size 0.68mm × 0.68mm), the precision of the displacement detected in our experiment was about 0.018 pixels and the comparatively error could achieve 1.11\\perthou. The average vertical displacement of S1 of the pelvis was 0.8356+/-0.2830mm under vertical load of 500 Newtons and the average micro-angular rotation of sacroiliac joint in lateral view was 0.584+/-0.221°. The load-displacement curves obtained from our optical measure system

  8. The Relevance of a Novel Quantitative Assay to Detect up to 40 Major Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes Directly in Clinical Nasopharyngeal and Blood Specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Messaoudi

    Full Text Available For epidemiological and surveillance purposes, it is relevant to monitor the distribution and dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes. Conventional serotyping methods do not provide rapid or quantitative information on serotype loads. Quantitative serotyping may enable prediction of the invasiveness of a specific serotype compared to other serotypes carried. Here, we describe a novel, rapid multiplex real-time PCR assay for identification and quantification of the 40 most prevalent pneumococcal serotypes and the assay impacts in pneumonia specimens from emerging and developing countries. Eleven multiplex PCR to detect 40 serotypes or serogroups were optimized. Quantification was enabled by reference to standard dilutions of known bacterial load. Performance of the assay was evaluated to specifically type and quantify S. pneumoniae in nasopharyngeal and blood samples from adult and pediatric patients hospitalized with pneumonia (n = 664 from five different countries. Serogroup 6 was widely represented in nasopharyngeal specimens from all five cohorts. The most frequent serotypes in the French, South African, and Brazilian cohorts were 1 and 7A/F, 3 and 19F, and 14, respectively. When both samples were available, the serotype in blood was always present as carriage with other serotypes in the nasopharynx. Moreover, the ability of a serotype to invade the bloodstream may be linked to its nasopharyngeal load. The mean nasopharyngeal concentration of the serotypes that moved to the blood was 3 log-fold higher than the ones only found in the nasopharynx. This novel, rapid, quantitative assay may potentially predict some of the S. pneumoniae serotypes invasiveness and assessment of pneumococcal serotype distribution.

  9. 分析血液检验标本误差产生的原因%Analysis of the Cause of Error in Blood Test Specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴云

    2015-01-01

    目的对血液检验标本误差产生的原因进行研究分析,给出相应的处理方式。方法对2013~2014年我院的80例血液检验样本进行研究分析,采取调查问卷的方式来收集误差原因,给出针对性的处理措施。结果产生误差的原因有:(1)患者因素;(2)采集因素;(3)检验因素;(4)送检因素。结论血液检验标本误差的因素比较多,临床中如果对这些因素给予重视,积极的预防,将能够降低误差,提升检验质量。%ObjectiveTo analysis the reason of blood test specimens of error, and gives the corresponding processing method.Methods 80 cases of blood samples tested methods from 2013 to 2014 in our hospital to carry on the research analysis, take the questionnaire to collect the cause of error, gives the measures targeted processing.Results The reason of the result error: the factors of patients, the acquisition factors, the inspection factors; the inspection factors.Conclusion There are some factors to cause blood test specimens error, taking seriously, active prevention can reduce error and improve the quality of test.

  10. Bone blood flow and metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kaskinoro, Kimmo

    2012-01-01

    in femoral bone at rest and during one leg intermittent isometric exercise with increasing exercise intensities. In nine men, blood flow in femur was determined at rest and during dynamic one leg exercise, and two other physiological perturbations: moderate systemic hypoxia (14 O(2) ) at rest and during...... leg. In conclusion, resting femoral bone blood flow increases by physical exercise, but appears to level off with increasing exercise intensities. Moreover, while moderate systemic hypoxia does not change bone blood flow at rest or during exercise, intra-arterially administered adenosine during...

  11. Human Parvovirus 4 in Nasal and Fecal Specimens from Children, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Reber, Ulrike; Muth, Doreen; Herzog, Petra; Annan, Augustina; Ebach, Fabian; Sarpong, Nimarko; Acquah, Samuel; Adlkofer, Julia; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Panning, Marcus; Tannich, Egbert; May, Jürgen; Drosten, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Nonparenteral transmission might contribute to human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) infections in sub-Saharan Africa. PARV4 DNA was detected in 8 (0.83%) of 961 nasal samples and 5 (0.53%) of 943 fecal samples from 1,904 children in Ghana. Virus concentrations ≤6–7 log10 copies/mL suggest respiratory or fecal–oral modes of PARV4 transmission. PMID:23018024

  12. Human parvovirus 4 in nasal and fecal specimens from children, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Reber, Ulrike; Muth, Doreen; Herzog, Petra; Annan, Augustina; Ebach, Fabian; Sarpong, Nimarko; Acquah, Samuel; Adlkofer, Julia; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Panning, Marcus; Tannich, Egbert; May, Jürgen; Drosten, Christian; Eis-Hübinger, Anna Maria

    2012-10-01

    Nonparenteral transmission might contribute to human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) infections in sub-Saharan Africa. PARV4 DNA was detected in 8 (0.83%) of 961 nasal samples and 5 (0.53%) of 943 fecal samples from 1,904 children in Ghana. Virus concentrations ≤ 6-7 log(10) copies/mL suggest respiratory or fecal-oral modes of PARV4 transmission.

  13. The effectiveness of acetic acid wash protocol and the interpretation patterns of blood contaminated cervical cytology ThinPrep® specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora K Frisch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: ThinPrep® (TP cervical cytology, as a liquid-based method, has many benefits but also a relatively high unsatisfactory rate due to debris/lubricant contamination and the presence of blood. These contaminants clog the TP filter and prevent the deposition of adequate diagnostic cells on the slide. An acetic acid wash (AAW protocol is often used to lyse red blood cells, before preparing the TP slides. Design: From 23,291 TP cervical cytology specimens over a 4-month period, 2739 underwent AAW protocol due to initial unsatisfactory smear (UNS with scant cellularity due to blood or being grossly bloody. Randomly selected 2739 cervical cytology specimens which did not undergo AAW from the same time period formed the control (non-AAW group. Cytopathologic interpretations of AAW and non-AAW groups were compared using the Chi-square test. Results: About 94.2% of the 2739 cases which underwent AAW were subsequently satisfactory for evaluation with interpretations of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS 4.9% (135, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL 3.7% (102, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL 1% (28. From the 2739 control cases, 96.3% were satisfactory with ASCUS 5.5% (151, LSIL 5.1% (139, and HSIL 0.7% (19. The prevalence of ASCUS interpretations was similar (P = 0.33. Although there were 32% more HSIL interpretations in the AAW group (28 in AAW vs. 19 in non-AAW, the difference was statistically insignificant (P = 0.18. AAW category; however, had significantly fewer LSIL interpretations (P = 0.02. The percentage of UNS cases remained higher in the AAW group with statistical significance (P < 0.01. Conclusions: While AAW had a significantly higher percent of UNS interpretations, the protocol was effective in rescuing 94.2% of specimens which otherwise may have been reported unsatisfactory. This improved patient care by avoiding a repeat test. The prevalence of ASCUS and HSIL

  14. Photosensitized inactivation of infectious blood-borne human parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Millard M.; Sogandares-Bernal, Franklin M.; Matthews, James Lester

    1995-05-01

    Blood-borne viruses and protozoan parasites that are infectious to humans pose risk world-wide of infection transmission through blood and blood product transfusion. Blood-borne infectious viruses include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-I), which causes AIDS; hepatitis C virus, which can cause chronic hepatitis; and cytomegalovirus, which can be dangerous to immunocompromised patients, e.g., the newborn, transplant recipients, and AIDS patients. Infectious blood-borne protozoan parasites include Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas' disease, endemic throughout Central and South America; the Trypanosoma species causing African sleeping sickness endemic in Central Africa; and Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malignant and increasingly drug- resistant human malaria prevalent throughout the tropics. Some researchers have focused on using photosensitizers to inactivate HIV-I and other viruses in whole blood, packed red cells, and platelet concentrates without compromising blood product function. Our group previously has reported photosensitized in vitro inactivation of P. falciparum and the mouse malaria organism Plasmodium berghei in whole blood using hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) and of T. cruzi using benzoporphyrin derivatives BPDMA and BPDDA, dihematoporphyrin ether (DHE), and hydroxyethylvinyldeuteroporphyrin (HEVD). These results suggest that continued investigation is warranted to evaluate the potential for photosensitized inactivation of blood-borne parasites in blood banking.

  15. Evaluation of Culture Media for Isolation of Mycobacterium Species from Human Clinical Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Rahul; Kandi, Venkataramana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis has undergone a rapid change during last few years and a number of techniques for culture as well as molecular diagnosis have been used with their respective advantages and disadvantages. Sporadic studies have also reported the isolation of M. tuberculosis on standard blood agar (BA), which at one time was not considered as a suitable medium for mycobacterial culture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the routine use of 5% sheep BA in a mycobacteriology laboratory by comparing isolation rates and time for isolation of mycobacteria from pulmonary and extrapulmonary samples with those on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium. Material and Methods: BA with antibiotics was prepared and dispensed as slants in McCartney bottles. LJ was prepared and dispensed following the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) guidelines. A total of 500 suspected tuberculosis samples were inoculated on both media in duplicate, incubated at 370C, and observed daily until the appearance of growth. Results: Out of 500 inoculated samples, 99 showed growth on BA and 112 showed growth on LJ medium. Mean growth time on BA was less as compared to LJ medium. The contamination rate was found to be more on BA (7.2%) than on LJ (4.8%). Conclusions:  Mycobacterial growth time was less on BA as compared to LJ.  PMID:27733962

  16. Development of a quantitative Real-Time PCR for micrometastasis detection using CEA in peripheral blood and bone marrow specimens of gastric cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dardaei Alghalandis L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Gastric adenocarsinoma is the first leading fatal malignancy in Iran. Despite advances in novel therapeutics approaches for gastric cancer (GC patient, tumor dissemination via blood stream to distant organ is still the major cause of death. Therefore, there is urgent need to establish sensitive methods for early detection of disseminated tumor cells in peripheral blood (PB and bone marrow (BM specimens of gastric cancer patients. "n"nMethods: In the present study, we use Carcinoma Embryonic Antigen (CEA as a tumor marker and Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH as an internal control to detection and quantification of disseminated tumor cells in PB and BM specimens of affected individuals. Total RNA was extracted from AGS (gastric cancer cell line and CEA and GAPDH fragments were generated by reverse transcription. The amplified fragments were cloned into pTZ57R/T vector separately. Double cloning of these genes has done into one pTZ57R/T vector. Serial dilution of this recombinant plasmid is used to construct standard curve, each containing a known amount of input copy number. Total RNA was extracted from BP and BM specimens of 35 GC patients. cDNA of the specimens were synthesized by reverse

  17. Effect of collection, transport, processing and storage of blood specimens on the activity of lysosomal enzymes in plasma and leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burin M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of different conditions of collection, transport and storage on the quality of blood samples from normal individuals in terms of the activity of the enzymes ß-glucuronidase, total hexosaminidase, hexosaminidase A, arylsulfatase A and ß-galactosidase. The enzyme activities were not affected by the different materials used for collection (plastic syringes or vacuum glass tubes. In the evaluation of different heparin concentrations (10% heparin, 5% heparin, and heparinized syringe in the syringes, it was observed that higher doses resulted in an increase of at least 1-fold in the activities of ß-galactosidase, total hexosaminidase and hexosaminidase A in leukocytes, and ß-glucuronidase in plasma. When the effects of time and means of transportation were studied, samples that had been kept at room temperature showed higher deterioration with time (72 and 96 h before processing, and in this case it was impossible to isolate leukocytes from most samples. Comparison of heparin and acid citrate-dextrose (ACD as anticoagulants revealed that ß-glucuronidase and hexosaminidase activities in plasma reached levels near the lower normal limits when ACD was used. In conclusion, we observed that heparin should be used as the preferable anticoagulant when measuring these lysosomal enzyme activities, and we recommend that, when transport time is more than 24 h, samples should be shipped by air in a styrofoam box containing wet ice.

  18. Phenotype and functions of memory Tfh cells in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Nathalie; Bentebibel, Salah-Eddine; Ueno, Hideki

    2014-09-01

    Our understanding of the origin and functions of human blood CXCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells found in human blood has changed dramatically in the past years. These cells are currently considered to represent a circulating memory compartment of T follicular helper (Tfh) lineage cells. Recent studies have shown that blood memory Tfh cells are composed of phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets. Here, we review the current understanding of human blood memory Tfh cells and the subsets within this compartment. We present a strategy to define these subsets based on cell surface profiles. Finally, we discuss how increased understanding of the biology of blood memory Tfh cells may contribute insight into the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and the mode of action of vaccines.

  19. Direct determination of internal radiation dose in human blood

    OpenAIRE

    Tanır, Ayse Güneş; Güleç, Özge

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the internal radiation dose using a human blood sample. In the literature, there is no process that allows the direct measurement of the internal radiation dose received by a person. The luminescence counts from a blood sample having a laboratory-injected radiation dose and the waste blood of the patient injected with a radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic purposes were both measured. The decay and dose-response curves were plotted for the different doses...

  20. Evaluation of the effect of horse blood supplemented with human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of horse blood supplemented with ..... proportion of lighter pupae (<22 mg) produced by the flies fed human blood .... Vreysen, M.J., Saleh, K.M., Ali, M.Y., Abdulla, A.M., Zhu, Z.R., Juma, K.G., ...

  1. Tracking blood vessels in human forearms using visual servoing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth; Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Hansen, Morten

    compensation. By using images taken with near-infrared light to locate the blood vessels in a human forearm and using the same images to detects movements of the arm, this paper shows that it is possible make a robot arm, potentially equipped with a needle for drawing the blood, compensate for the movements...

  2. [How human sciences can help to understand blood donation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danic, B

    2003-06-01

    In France, the necessity of managing sanitary risks associated with blood transfusion has induced a strong medicalization of blood collection. Practicing this activity of transfusion medicine confronts the professional with problems which the medical science is not sufficient to answer: curbs and motivations for donating, seasonal and geographic fluctuations in blood collection, sense of pre-donation interview, individual or collective contestings of guidelines for blood collection. From recent sociological works on donation in France, especially on blood donation, this paper suggests reporting the complexity of blood donation thought process and the necessity to refer to human and social sciences to approach it in a best way. Understanding the gift should help professionals to communicate not only on the promotion of blood donation, but also on the risk and its management.

  3. Inhibition of uptake of adenosine into human blood platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, J.P.M.; Sixma, J.J.; Trieschnigg, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    Adenosine transport into human blood platelets is mediated by two independent systems with different affinities. Both systems transport only purine nucleosides and no pyrimidine nucleosides. In experiments with differently substituted purine nucleosides, purines and analogues, differences in carrier

  4. A novel ELISA test for laboratory diagnosis of Blastocystis spp. in human stool specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogruman-Al, Funda; Turk, Songul; Adiyaman-Korkmaz, Gulcan; Hananel, Amit; Levi, Lital; Kopelowitz, June; Babai, Oded; Gross, Shimon; Greenberg, Zvi; Herschkovitz, Yoav; Mumcuoglu, Ipek

    2015-02-01

    Detection of Blastocystis is routinely performed by microscopy, culture, and formyl-ether (ethyl acetate) concentration technique (FECT). Yet, these methods require special skilled personnel, are time consuming, and often involve processing that may cause misdiagnosis. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the usefulness of a newly introduced ELISA test for the detection of Blastocystis antigens in stool samples (CoproELISA(TM) Blastocystis, Savyon Diagnostics) as a proper alternative to currently used methods, especially microscopy. A cohort of 179 fresh/frozen clinical stool samples was tested by the ELISA test, and results were compared to consensus methods comprised of microscopic examination of Lugol's iodine staining, culture, and immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The new ELISA test was able to detect fewer than 10(3) cells, recognized subtypes 1, 2, 3, and 5 (comprising >95 % of human Blastocystis infections), and exhibited similar reactivity when comparing formalin-preserved samples to fresh/frozen samples. The test demonstrated 92 % sensitivity, 87 % specificity, and 89 % accuracy when culture, and IFA or microscopy consensus results were taken as reference. When the consensus was comprised of culture and IFA, the test demonstrated sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 82, 86, and 84 %, respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity of Lugol staining microscopy was only 18 %. This work presents a unique ELISA test that provides an alternative to the use of microscopy, currently most widely used method. The test enables high-throughput screening and diagnosis of Blastocystis, adaptation to automatic procedures.

  5. Various Statistical Methods in Use for Evaluating Human Malignant Gastric Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ventzeslav Enchev

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of certain statistical methods (comparison of means – independent samples t‐test, multiple linear regression analysis, multiple logistic regression analysis, analysis of clusters, etc. included in the SPSS Statistical Package used to classify the patients quantitatively evaluated after a subtotal resection of their stomachs. The group consisted of 40 patients subdivided into two groups: primary neoplasia of the stomach (20 patients, and corresponding lymphogenic deposits in the abdominal perigastric lymph nodes (20 patients. Paraffin‐embedded tissue sections (thickness 4–5µm prepared as consecutive hematoxylin‐eosin‐stained slides were morphometrically measured by a rotation of a graduated eyepiece‐micrometer; thus, we obtained the minor and major axes’ lengths of the elliptic nuclear profiles and the minor and major caliper diameters of the corresponding cellular profiles. These four variables were used to determine the dynamic changes in quantitative features of human gastric lesions when passing from normal histological structures, through hyperplastic processes (chronic gastritis, gastric precancer (ulcers and polyps with or without malignancy till the development of primary carcinomas and their corresponding lymphogeneous metastases. Besides the increased cytomorphometrical measures, we also noted an opportunity to classify the patients according to these data as well as to add to the knowledge of our consultation system for clinical aid and use, recently published in the literature.

  6. Bystander apoptosis in human cells mediated by irradiated blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinnikov, Volodymyr, E-mail: vlad.vinnikov@mail.ru [Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology of the National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine (Ukraine); Lloyd, David; Finnon, Paul [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards of the Health Protection Agency of the United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-01

    Following exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation, due to an accident or during radiotherapy, bystander signalling poses a potential hazard to unirradiated cells and tissues. This process can be mediated by factors circulating in blood plasma. Thus, we assessed the ability of plasma taken from in vitro irradiated human blood to produce a direct cytotoxic effect, by inducing apoptosis in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM), which mainly comprised G{sub 0}-stage lymphocytes. Plasma was collected from healthy donors' blood irradiated in vitro to 0-40 Gy acute {gamma}-rays. Reporter PBM were separated from unirradiated blood with Histopaque and held in medium with the test plasma for 24 h at 37 Degree-Sign C. Additionally, plasma from in vitro irradiated and unirradiated blood was tested against PBM collected from blood given 4 Gy. Apoptosis in reporter PBM was measured by the Annexin V test using flow cytometry. Plasma collected from unirradiated and irradiated blood did not produce any apoptotic response above the control level in unirradiated reporter PBM. Surprisingly, plasma from irradiated blood caused a dose-dependent reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter PBM. The yields of radiation-induced cell death in irradiated reporter PBM (after subtracting the respective values in unirradiated reporter PBM) were 22.2 {+-} 1.8% in plasma-free cultures, 21.6 {+-} 1.1% in cultures treated with plasma from unirradiated blood, 20.2 {+-} 1.4% in cultures with plasma from blood given 2-4 Gy and 16.7 {+-} 3.2% in cultures with plasma from blood given 6-10 Gy. These results suggested that irradiated blood plasma did not cause a radiation-induced bystander cell-killing effect. Instead, a reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter cells cultured with irradiated blood plasma has implications concerning oncogenic risk from mutated cells surviving after high dose in vivo irradiation (e.g. radiotherapy) and requires further study.

  7. Comparison of Ahlstrom grade 226, Munktell TFN, and Whatman 903 filter papers for dried blood spot specimen collection and subsequent HIV-1 load and drug resistance genotyping analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottinghaus, Erin; Bile, Ebi; Modukanele, Mosetsanagape; Maruping, Maruping; Mine, Madisa; Nkengasong, John; Yang, Chunfu

    2013-01-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) collected onto filter paper have eased the difficulty of blood collection in resource-limited settings. Currently, Whatman 903 (W-903) filter paper is the only filter paper that has been used for HIV load and HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) testing. We therefore evaluated two additional commercially available filter papers, Ahlstrom grade 226 (A-226) and Munktell TFN (M-TFN), for viral load (VL) testing and HIVDR genotyping using W-903 filter paper as a comparison group. DBS specimens were generated from 344 adult patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Botswana. The VL was measured with NucliSENS EasyQ HIV-1 v2.0, and genotyping was performed for those specimens with a detectable VL (≥ 2.90 log(10) copies/ml) using an in-house method. Bland-Altman analysis revealed a strong concordance in quantitative VL analysis between W-903 and A-226 (bias = -0.034 ± 0.246 log(10) copies/ml [mean difference ± standard deviation]) and W-903 and M-TFN (bias = -0.028 ± 0.186 log(10) copies/ml) filter papers, while qualitative VL analysis for virological failure determination, defined as a VL of ≥ 3.00 log(10) copies/ml, showed low sensitivities for A-266 (71.54%) and M-TFN (65.71%) filter papers compared to W-903 filter paper. DBS collected on M-TFN filter paper had the highest genotyping efficiency (100%) compared to W-903 and A-226 filter papers (91.7%) and appeared more sensitive in detecting major HIVDR mutations. DBS collected on A-226 and M-TFN filter papers performed similarly to DBS collected on W-903 filter paper for quantitative VL analysis and HIVDR detection. Together, the encouraging genotyping results and the variability observed in determining virological failure from this small pilot study warrant further investigation of A-226 and M-TFN filter papers as specimen collection devices for HIVDR monitoring surveys.

  8. Models of Human Metastatic Colon Cancer in Nude Mice Orthotopically Constructed by Using Histologically Intact Patient Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xinyu; Besterman, Jeffrey M.; Monosov, Ann; Hoffman, Robert M.

    1991-10-01

    There is an important need for clinically relevant animal models for human cancers. Toward this goal, histologically intact human colon-cancer specimens derived surgically from patients were implanted orthotopically to the colon or cecum of nude mice. We have observed extensive orthotopic growth in 13 of 20 cases of implanted patient colon tumors. These showed various growth patterns with subsequent regional, lymph-node, and liver metastasis, as well as general abdominal carcinomatosis. Thus, models for human colon cancer have been developed that show (i) local growth, (ii) abdominal metastasis, (iii) general abdominal carcinomatosis with extensive peritoneal seeding, (iv) lymph-node metastasis, (v) liver metastasis, and (vi) colonic obstruction. These models permit the passage of the tumors to form large cohorts. They will facilitate research into the biology of colon cancer metastatic capability and the development of new drugs active against metastatic cancer. These models may also predict the clinical course and the in vivo response to drugs of the cancer of individual patients.

  9. Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation colour affect perceived human health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D Stephen

    Full Text Available Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice.

  10. Good manufacturing practices (GMP) utilized on human blood irradiation process

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudio Boghi; Dorlivete M. Shitsuka; Marcos Alexandruk; Ricardo Shitsuka; Paulo Roberto Rela

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation of human blood is used to avoid the TA-GVHD (transfusion-associated graft-versus-host-disease), a rare but devastating adverse effect of leukocytes present in blood components for immunocompetent transfusion recipients. Usually this irradiation practice is performed to a physical elimination of lymphocytes. The implementation of the GMP will assure that the properly dose in a range of 25Gy to 50Gy will be delivered to the blood in the bag collected in a blood tissue bank. The stud...

  11. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Yuin-Han; Agarwal, Suneet; Park, In-Hyun; Urbach, Achia; Huo, Hongguang; Heffner, Garrett C; Kim, Kitai; Miller, Justine D; Ng, Kitwa; Daley, George Q

    2009-05-28

    Human dermal fibroblasts obtained by skin biopsy can be reprogrammed directly to pluripotency by the ectopic expression of defined transcription factors. Here, we describe the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells from CD34+ mobilized human peripheral blood cells using retroviral transduction of OCT4/SOX2/KLF4/MYC. Blood-derived human induced pluripotent stem cells are indistinguishable from human embryonic stem cells with respect to morphology, expression of surface antigens, and pluripotency-associated transcription factors, DNA methylation status at pluripotent cell-specific genes, and the capacity to differentiate in vitro and in teratomas. The ability to reprogram cells from human blood will allow the generation of patient-specific stem cells for diseases in which the disease-causing somatic mutations are restricted to cells of the hematopoietic lineage.

  12. Single genome amplification of proviral HIV-1 DNA from dried blood spot specimens collected during early infant screening programs in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seu, Lillian; Mwape, Innocent; Guffey, M Bradford

    2014-07-01

    The ability to evaluate individual HIV-1 virions from the quasispecies of vertically infected infants was evaluated in a field setting at the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia. Infant heel-prick blood specimens were spotted onto dried blood spot (DBS) filter paper cards at government health clinics. Nucleic acid was extracted and used as a template for HIV-1 proviral DNA detection by a commercial Amplicor HIV-1 PCR test (Roche, version 1.5). On samples that tested positive by commercial diagnostic assay, amplification of DNA was performed using an in-house assay of the 5' and 3' region of the HIV-1 genome. Additionally, fragments covering 1200 nucleotides within pol (full length protease and partial reverse transcriptase) and 1400 nucleotides within env (variable 1-variable 5 region) were further analyzed by single genome amplification (SGA). In summary, we have demonstrated an in-house assay for amplifying the 5' and 3' proviral HIV-1 DNA as well as pol and env proviral DNA fragments from DBS cards collected and analyzed entirely in Zambia. In conclusion, this study shows the feasibility of utilizing DBS cards to amplify the whole proviral HIV-1 genome as well as perform SGA on key HIV-1 genes.

  13. Distribution and survival of Borrelia miyamotoi in human blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Aaron M; Tonnetti, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi, the agent of relapsing fever, is a tick-borne spirochete first isolated in Japan in 1994. Since then, the spirochete has been detected in ticks globally, generally in the same vectors as the Lyme disease agent. Human infection has been reported in Russia, Europe, Japan, and the United States, as influenza-like febrile illness. In addition, two cases of meningoencephalitis caused by B. miyamotoi have also been reported in immunocompromised patients. Here we evaluate the ability of the spirochete to survive in human blood components stored under standard blood bank conditions. Freshly collected human whole blood was spiked with in vitro cultured B. miyamotoi or B. miyamotoi-infected mouse plasma and separated into red blood cells (RBCs), plasma, and platelets. Components were either injected into immunocompromised (SCID) or wild-type immunocompetent mice or cultured in vitro, right after separation and after storage at the appropriate conditions. Infection was monitored by microscopic observation, blood smears, and polymerase chain reaction. In vivo, all the SCID mice challenged with the components before storage and the RBCs stored for up to 42 days developed the infection. Wild-type mice also developed the infection when injected with prestorage samples from all components, while a lower number of mice were infected by RBCs stored for 42 days. In vitro, spirochetes grew in all samples but frozen plasma. This study demonstrated that B. miyamotoi can survive standard storage conditions of most human blood components, suggesting the possibility of transmission by blood transfusion. © 2015 AABB.

  14. Developmental validation of a novel lateral flow strip test for rapid identification of human blood (Rapid Stain Identification--Blood).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweers, Brett A; Old, Jennifer; Boonlayangoor, P W; Reich, Karl A

    2008-06-01

    Human blood is the body fluid most commonly encountered at crime scenes, and blood detection may aid investigators in reconstructing what occurred during a crime. In addition, blood detection can help determine which items of evidence should be processed for DNA-STR testing. Unfortunately, many common substances can cause red-brown stains that resemble blood. Furthermore, many current human blood detection methods are presumptive and prone to false positive results. Here, the developmental validation of a new blood identification test, Rapid Stain Identification--Blood (RSID--Blood), is described. RSID--Blood utilizes two anti-glycophorin A (red blood cell membrane specific protein) monoclonal antibodies in a lateral flow strip test format to detect human blood. We present evidence demonstrating that this test is accurate, reproducible, easy to use, and highly specific for human blood. Importantly, RSID--Blood does not cross-react with ferret, skunk, or primate blood and exhibits no high-dose hook effect. Also, we describe studies on the sensitivity, body fluid specificity, and species specificity of RSID--Blood. In addition, we show that the test can detect blood from a variety of forensic exhibits prior to processing for DNA-STR analysis. In conclusion, we suggest that RSID--Blood is effective and useful for the detection of human blood on forensic exhibits, and offers improved blood detection when compared to other currently used methods.

  15. Molecular tests for human papillomavirus (HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in liquid-based cytology specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigliotti Veronica S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laboratory detection of Human papillomavirus (HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology specimens is now based on identification of the DNA sequences unique to these infectious agents. However, current commercial test kits rely on nucleotide probe hybridization to determine DNA sequences, which may lead to diagnostic errors due to cross-reactivity. The aim of this study was to find a practical approach to perform automated Sanger DNA sequencing in clinical laboratories for validation of the DNA tests for these three infectious agents. Methods A crude proteinase K digestate of 5% of the cells collected in a liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology specimen was used for the detection of DNA molecules specific for HPV, C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae, and for preparation of materials suitable for direct automated DNA sequencing. Several sets of commercially available polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers were used to prepare nested PCR amplicons for direct DNA sequencing. Results Some variants of HPV-16 and HPV-31 were found to share an at least 34-base long sequence homology downstream of the GP5+ binding site, and all HPV-6 and HPV-11 variants shared an upstream 34-base sequence including part of the GP5+ primer. Accurate HPV genotyping frequently required more than 34-bases for sequence alignments to distinguish some of the HPV genotype variants with closely related sequences in this L1 gene hypervariable region. Using the automated Sanger DNA sequencing method for parallel comparative studies on split samples and to retest the residues of samples previously tested positive for C trachomatis and/or for N gonorrhoeae, we also found false-negative and false-positive results as reported by two commercial nucleic acid test kits. Conclusion Identification of a signature DNA sequence by the automated Sanger method is useful for validation of HPV genotyping and for molecular testing of

  16. Rapid and high-resolution imaging of human liver specimens by full-field optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yue; Gao, Wanrong; Zhou, Yuan; Guo, Yingcheng; Guo, Feng; He, Yong

    2015-11-01

    We report rapid and high-resolution tomographic en face imaging of human liver specimens by full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). First, the arrangement of the FF-OCT system was described and the performance of the system was measured. The measured axial and lateral resolutions of the system are 0.8 and 0.9 μm, respectively. The system has a sensitivity of ˜60 dB and can achieve an imaging rate of 7 fps and a penetration depth of ˜80 μm. The histological structures of normal liver can be seen clearly in the en face tomographic images, including central veins, cords of hepatocytes separated by sinusoidal spaces, and portal area (portal vein, the hepatic arteriole, and the bile duct). A wide variety of histological subtypes of hepatocellular carcinoma was observed in en face tomographic images, revealing notable cancerous features, including the nuclear atypia (enlarged convoluted nuclei), the polygonal tumor cells with obvious resemblance to hepatocytes with enlarged nuclei. In addition, thicker fibrous bands, which make the cytoplasmic plump vesicular nuclei indistinct, were also seen in the images. Finally, comparison between the portal vein in a normal specimen versus that seen in the rare type of cholangiocarcinoma was made. The results show that the cholangiocarcinoma presents with a blurred pattern of portal vein in the lateral direction and an aggregated distribution in the axial direction; the surrounding sinusoidal spaces and nuclei of cholangiocarcinoma are absent. The findings in this work may be used as additional signs of liver cancer or cholangiocarcinoma, demonstrating capacity of FF-OCT device for early cancer diagnosis and many other tumor-related studies in biopsy.

  17. The PAXgene(® tissue system preserves phosphoproteins in human tissue specimens and enables comprehensive protein biomarker research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Gündisch

    Full Text Available Precise quantitation of protein biomarkers in clinical tissue specimens is a prerequisite for accurate and effective diagnosis, prognosis, and personalized medicine. Although progress is being made, protein analysis from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues is still challenging. In previous reports, we showed that the novel formalin-free tissue preservation technology, the PAXgene Tissue System, allows the extraction of intact and immunoreactive proteins from PAXgene-fixed and paraffin-embedded (PFPE tissues. In the current study, we focused on the analysis of phosphoproteins and the applicability of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to the analysis of a variety of malignant and non-malignant human tissues. Using western blot analysis, we found that phosphoproteins are quantitatively preserved in PFPE tissues, and signal intensities are comparable to that in paired, frozen tissues. Furthermore, proteins extracted from PFPE samples are suitable for 2D-PAGE and can be quantified by ELISA specific for denatured proteins. In summary, the PAXgene Tissue System reliably preserves phosphoproteins in human tissue samples, even after prolonged fixation or stabilization times, and is compatible with methods for protein analysis such as 2D-PAGE and ELISA. We conclude that the PAXgene Tissue System has the potential to serve as a versatile tissue fixative for modern pathology.

  18. Improved detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei from non-blood clinical specimens using enrichment culture and PCR: narrowing diagnostic gap in resource-constrained settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellapragada, Chaitanya; Shaw, Tushar; D'Souza, Annet; Eshwara, Vandana Kalwaje; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic utility of enrichment culture and PCR for improved case detection rates of non-bacteraemic form of melioidosis in limited resource settings. Clinical specimens (n = 525) obtained from patients presenting at a tertiary care hospital of South India with clinical symptoms suggestive of community-acquired pneumonia, lower respiratory tract infections, superficial or internal abscesses, chronic skin ulcers and bone or joint infections were tested for the presence of Burkholderia pseudomallei using conventional culture (CC), enrichment culture (EC) and PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of CC and PCR were initially deduced using EC as the gold standard method. Further, diagnostic accuracies of all the three methods were analysed using Bayesian latent class modelling (BLCM). Detection rates of B. pseudomallei using CC, EC and PCR were 3.8%, 5.3% and 6%, respectively. Diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of CC and PCR were 71.4, 98.4% and 100 and 99.4%, respectively in comparison with EC as the gold standard test. With Bayesian latent class modelling, EC and PCR demonstrated sensitivities of 98.7 and 99.3%, respectively, while CC showed a sensitivity of 70.3% for detection of B. pseudomallei. An increase of 1.6% (95% CI: 1.08-4.32%) in the case detection rate of melioidosis was observed in the study population when EC and/or PCR were used in adjunct to the conventional culture technique. Our study findings underscore the diagnostic superiority of enrichment culture and/or PCR over conventional microbiological culture for improved case detection of melioidosis from non-blood clinical specimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Direct determination of radiation dose in human blood

    CERN Document Server

    Tanir, Ayse Gunes; Sahiner, Eren; Bolukdemir, Mustafa Hicabi; Koc, Kemal; Meric, Niyazi; Kelec, Sule Kaya

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose is to measure the internal radiation dose (ID) using human blood sample. In the literature, there is no process that allows the direct measurement of ID received by a person. This study has shown that it is possible to determine ID in human blood exposed to internal or external ionizing radiation treatment both directly and retrospectively. OSL technique was used to measure the total dose from the blood sample. OSL counts from the waste blood of the patient injected with a radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic or treatment purposes and from a blood sample having a laboratory-injected radiation dose were both used for measurements. The decay and dose-response curves (DRC) were plotted for different doses. The doses received by different blood aliquots have been determined by interpolating the natural luminescence counts to DRC. In addition, OSL counts from a healthy blood sample exposed to an external radiation source were measured. The blood aliquots were given different 0-200Gy beta doses and their ...

  20. Shipping blood to a central laboratory in multicenter clinical trials: effect of ambient temperature on specimen temperature, and effects of temperature on mononuclear cell yield, viability and immunologic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fink Jonathan H

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials of immunologic therapies provide opportunities to study the cellular and molecular effects of those therapies and may permit identification of biomarkers of response. When the trials are performed at multiple centers, transport and storage of clinical specimens become important variables that may affect lymphocyte viability and function in blood and tissue specimens. The effect of temperature during storage and shipment of peripheral blood on subsequent processing, recovery, and function of lymphocytes is understudied and represents the focus of this study. Methods Peripheral blood samples (n = 285 from patients enrolled in 2 clinical trials of a melanoma vaccine were shipped from clinical centers 250 or 1100 miles to a central laboratory at the sponsoring institution. The yield of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC collected before and after cryostorage was correlated with temperatures encountered during shipment. Also, to simulate shipping of whole blood, heparinized blood from healthy donors was collected and stored at 15°C, 22°C, 30°C, or 40°C, for varied intervals before isolation of PBMC. Specimen integrity was assessed by measures of yield, recovery, viability, and function of isolated lymphocytes. Several packaging systems were also evaluated during simulated shipping for the ability to maintain the internal temperature in adverse temperatures over time. Results Blood specimen containers experienced temperatures during shipment ranging from -1 to 35°C. Exposure to temperatures above room temperature (22°C resulted in greater yields of PBMC. Reduced cell recovery following cryo-preservation as well as decreased viability and immune function were observed in specimens exposed to 15°C or 40°C for greater than 8 hours when compared to storage at 22°C. There was a trend toward improved preservation of blood specimen integrity stored at 30°C prior to processing for all time points tested

  1. Feasibility of Using the Mosquito Blood Meal for Rapid and Efficient Human and Animal Virus Surveillance and Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Garver, Lindsey S; Bingham, Karen M; Hang, Jun; Jochim, Ryan C; Davidson, Silas A; Richardson, Jason H; Jarman, Richard G

    2015-12-01

    Mosquito blood meals taken from humans and animals potentially represent a useful source of blood for the detection of blood-borne pathogens. In this feasibility study, Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were fed with blood meals spiked with dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) and harvested at serial time points. These mosquitoes are not competent vectors, and the virus is not expected to replicate. Ingested blood was spotted on Whatman FTA cards and stored at room temperature. Mosquito abdomens were removed and stored at -80°C. Control blood meal aliquots were stored in vials or applied onto FTA cards. After 4 weeks of storage, the samples were extracted using beadbeating and QIAamp Viral RNA kit (Qiagen Sciences, Germantown, MD). Recovered viral RNA was analyzed by DENV-2 TaqMan RT-PCR assay and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Overall viral RNA recovery efficiency was 15% from the directly applied dried blood spots and approximately 20% or higher for dried blood spots made by blotting mosquito midgut on FTA cards. Viral RNA in mosquito-ingested blood decreases over time, but remains detectable 24 hours after blood feeding. The viral sequences in FTA-stored specimens can be maintained at room temperature. The strategy has the potential utility in expedited zoonotic virus discovery and blood-borne pathogen surveillance. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Mesenteric, coeliac and splanchnic blood flow in humans during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko, M J; Nielsen, H B; Skak, C

    1998-01-01

    blood flow as assessed by the Indocyanine Green dye-elimination technique. 3. Cycling increased arterial pressure, heart rate and cardiac output, while it reduced total vascular resistance. These responses were not altered in the postprandial state. During fasting, cycling increased mesenteric, coeliac......1. Exercise reduces splanchnic blood flow, but the mesenteric contribution to this response is uncertain. 2. In nineteen humans, superior mesenteric and coeliac artery flows were determined by duplex ultrasonography during fasting and postprandial submaximal cycling and compared with the splanchnic...... decreased by 51 and 31 % (0.49 +/- 0.07 and 0.96 +/- 0.28 l min-1). Splanchnic blood flow values assessed by duplex ultrasound and by dye-elimination techniques were correlated (r = 0.70; P exercise in humans, splanchnic resistance increases and blood flow is reduced following...

  3. Characterization of thermoplastic microfiltration chip for the separation of blood plasma from human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pin-Chuan; Chen, Chih-Chun; Young, Kung-Chia

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we developed a fully thermoplastic microfiltration chip for the separation of blood plasma from human blood. Spiral microchannels were manufactured on a PMMA substrate using a micromilling machine, and a commercial polycarbonate membrane was bonded between two thermoplastic substrates. To achieve an excellent bonding between the commercial membrane and the thermoplastic substrates, we used a two-step injection and curing procedure of UV adhesive into a ring-shaped structure around the microchannel to efficiently prevent leakage during blood filtration. We performed multiple filtration experiments using human blood to compare the influence of three factors on separation efficiency: hematocrit level (40%, 23.2%, and 10.9%), membrane pore size (5 μm, 2 μm, and 1 μm), and flow rate (0.02 ml/min, 0.06 ml/min, 0.1 ml/min). To prevent hemolysis, the pressure within the microchannel was kept below 0.5 bars throughout all filtration experiments. The experimental results clearly demonstrated the following: (1) The proposed microfiltration chip is able to separate white blood cells and red blood cells from whole human blood with a separation efficiency that exceeds 95%; (2) no leakage occurred during any of the experiments, thereby demonstrating the effectiveness of bonding a commercial membrane with a thermoplastic substrate using UV adhesive in a ring-shaped structure; (3) separation efficiency can be increased by using a membrane with smaller pore size, by using diluted blood with lower hematocrit, or by injecting blood into the microfiltration chip at a lower flow rate.

  4. Explore effect of detection time to analysis results of blood specimen of peripheral whole blood%探讨末梢全血标本的检测时间对血液分析结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡世坤

    2015-01-01

    Objective Explore effect of detection time to analysis results of blood specimen of peripheral whole blood.Methods Collection 32 cases of peripheral whole blood samples by blood analysis instrument. after blood Collection 5 , 10 , 30 minutes, continuous testing. Observation the change of important indexes of the blood test results of RBC, HCT, PLT, etc.Results After the draw blood 5, 10, 30 minutes , compared with 0 minutes, found the WBC, PLT, LYM % , NEN%, statistically significant difference, P < 0.05; draw blood after 5 minutes compared with 30 minutes, 10 minutes compared with 30 minutes, PLT there was statistically significant difference.Conclusions When using a professional instrument for testing, if immediately test the samples after draw blood, may affect some indicators, so test sample should be in 5 to 10 minutes.%目的:探讨末梢全血标本的检测时间对血液分析结果的影响。方法:用专用的血液分析仪器对32例末梢全血标本进行分别采血,采血之后的5、10、30分钟里连续进行检测,对血液结果中的RBC、HCT、PLT等重要指标的变化进行观察。结果:在采血之后的5、10、30分钟与0分钟进行比较,发现WBC、PLT、LYM%、NEN%的差异具有统计学意义,也就是P小于0.05,其他参数在统计学上无意义;采血后的5分钟和30分钟进行比较,10分钟与30分钟比较,P L T存在的差异在统计学上有意义,而其他参数见则无意义。结论:利用专业仪器进行末梢全血检测时,若在采集之后立刻对样本进行检测,那么会对有些指标产生影响,所以应在5到10分钟之内检测样本。

  5. Rheology of human blood plasma: Viscoelastic versus Newtonian behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Brust, M; Pan, L; Garcia, M; Arratia, P E; Wagner, C; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.078305

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the rheological characteristics of human blood plasma in shear and elongational flows. While we can confirm a Newtonian behavior in shear flow within experimental resolution, we find a viscoelastic behavior of blood plasma in the pure extensional flow of a capillary break-up rheometer. The influence of the viscoelasticity of blood plasma on capillary blood flow is tested in a microfluidic device with a contraction-expansion geometry. Differential pressure measurements revealed that the plasma has a pronounced flow resistance compared to that of pure water. Supplementary measurements indicate that the viscoelasticity of the plasma might even lead to viscoelastic instabilities under certain conditions. Our findings show that the viscoelastic properties of plasma should not be ignored in future studies on blood flow.

  6. Direct determination of internal radiation dose in human blood

    CERN Document Server

    Tanır, Ayse Güneş

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the internal radiation dose using a human blood sample. In the literature, there is no process that allows the direct measurement of the internal radiation dose received by a person. The luminescence counts from a blood sample having a laboratory-injected radiation dose and the waste blood of the patient injected with a radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic purposes were both measured. The decay and dose-response curves were plotted for the different doses. The doses received by the different blood aliquots can be determined by interpolating the luminescence counts to the dose-response curve. This study shows that the dose received by a person can be measured directly, simply and retrospectively by using only a very small amount of blood sample. The results will have important ramifications for the medicine and healthcare fields in particular. This will also be very important in cases of suspicion of radiation poisoning, malpractice and so on.

  7. Effect of Electrohydraulic Discharge on Viscosity of Human Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. El-Aragi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrohydraulic plasma discharge is a novel technology with high efficiency and high speed and can generate chemically active species like free radicals, ions, atoms, and metastables, accompanied by ultraviolet light emission and shock pressure waves. The aim of this work is to examine the effect of electrohydraulic discharge (EHD system on viscosity of the human blood after different exposure time. The voltage pulsation introduces electric field and temperature jump and at the same time leads to haemolysis of the blood cells. The ratio of blood viscosity under the influence of magnetic field to the viscosity in the absence of magnetic field is directly proportional to the applied magnetic field .

  8. Cardiac remodeling as a consequence of atrial fibrillation: An anatomical study of perfusion-fixed human heart specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher D Rolfes; Stephen A Howard; Ryan P Goff; Paul A Iaizzo

    2011-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation(AF)causes a continuum of atrial anatomical remodeling.Methods Using a library of perfusion-fixed human hearts,specimens with AF were compared to controls.During this preliminary assessment study,direct measurements were taken of atrial volume,pulmonary vein(PV)circumference,and left atrial(LA)wall thicknesses.Results Hearts with AF typically had larger atrial volumes,as well as a much larger variation in volume compared to controls(range of 59.6-227.1 mL in AF hearts compared to 65.1-115.9 mL in controls).For all hearts,right PVs were larger than left PVs(mean: 171.4±84.6 mm' for right and 118.2±50.1 mm2 for left P<0.005).LA wall thicknesses ranged from 0.7 mm to 3.1 min for both AF and control hearts.Conclusions Hearts with AF had a large range of sizes which is consistent with the progression of atrial remodeling during AF.The large range of thicknesses will influence the amount of energy needed to create transmural lesions during ablation procedures.

  9. Development of the Platysma Muscle and the Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System (Human Specimens at 8–17 Weeks of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. De la Cuadra-Blanco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy regarding the description of the different regions of the face of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS and its relationship with the superficial mimetic muscles. The purpose of this study is to analyze the development of the platysma muscle and the SMAS in human specimens at 8–17 weeks of development using an optical microscope. Furthermore, we propose to study the relationship of the anlage of the SMAS and the neighbouring superficial mimetic muscles. The facial musculature derives from the mesenchyme of the second arch and migrates towards the different regions of the face while forming premuscular laminae. During the 8th week of development, the cervical, infraorbital, mandibular, and temporal laminae are observed to be on the same plane. The platysma muscle derives from the cervical lamina and its mandibular extension enclosing the lower part of the parotid region and the cheek, while the SMAS derives from the upper region. During the period of development analyzed in this study, we have observed no continuity between the anlage of the SMAS and that of the superficial layer of the temporal fascia and the zygomaticus major muscle. Nor have we observed any structure similar to the SMAS in the labial region.

  10. Development of the Platysma Muscle and the Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System (Human Specimens at 8–17 Weeks of Development)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cuadra-Blanco, C.; Peces-Peña, M. D.; Carvallo-de Moraes, L. O.; Herrera-Lara, M. E.; Mérida-Velasco, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    There is controversy regarding the description of the different regions of the face of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and its relationship with the superficial mimetic muscles. The purpose of this study is to analyze the development of the platysma muscle and the SMAS in human specimens at 8–17 weeks of development using an optical microscope. Furthermore, we propose to study the relationship of the anlage of the SMAS and the neighbouring superficial mimetic muscles. The facial musculature derives from the mesenchyme of the second arch and migrates towards the different regions of the face while forming premuscular laminae. During the 8th week of development, the cervical, infraorbital, mandibular, and temporal laminae are observed to be on the same plane. The platysma muscle derives from the cervical lamina and its mandibular extension enclosing the lower part of the parotid region and the cheek, while the SMAS derives from the upper region. During the period of development analyzed in this study, we have observed no continuity between the anlage of the SMAS and that of the superficial layer of the temporal fascia and the zygomaticus major muscle. Nor have we observed any structure similar to the SMAS in the labial region. PMID:24396304

  11. Sympathetic reflex control of blood flow in human peripheral tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O

    1991-01-01

    Sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes are essential for the maintenance of arterial blood pressure in upright position. It has been generally believed that supraspinal sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes elicited by changes in baroreceptor activity play an important role. Recent studies on human...... sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes are blocked. Blood flow has been measure by the local 133Xe-technique. The results indicate the presence of spinal as well as supraspinal sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes to human peripheral tissues. Especially is emphasized the presence of a local sympathetic veno...

  12. 血站血液检验标本误差的原因及对策探讨%To explore the causes and Countermeasures of blood specimen error

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析我站血液检验标本出现误差的主要原因,同时提出切实可行的预防策略,以确保血液检验标本质量可靠。方法对我站在2010年12月-2013年12月间出现的70例血液检验标本误差予以回顾性分析,探究形成血液检验标本误差的原因,并提出相应解决对策以最大限度保证血液检验标本质量。结果造成我站70例血液检验标本出现误差的主要原因包括以下几方面:①血液样本采集原因,由于血站工作人员对于血液标本的采集过程的责任意识不强,严重忽视检验报告的重要性,主要包括抗凝管使用方法有误、血液检验标本用量标准不明确等;②献血者自身因素,献血者个体间存在差异及献血者未将采血前的相关活动及饮食情况告知采血工作人员、资料填报有误;③标本送检原因,标本储存环境不符合要求,标本在运送过程中遭受大幅度震动,造成血细胞破裂;④标本检验原因,标本处理不当和检测不及时。结论在血液检验过程中除献血者自身因素外,由于血站工作人员样本采集不当、标本送检及标本检验过程的不合理操作是导致误差的主要原因,因此要注重规范血液检验中各项操作,加强送检工作,才能提高血站血液检验的准确率。%Objective To analyze the main reason I stand blood test specimens of error, and put forward the prevention strategies, in order to ensure the quality of blood specimen. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 70 blood specimens for testing error appeared in 2010 December to 2013 December to our station, explore the formation error causes blood specimens, and put forward corresponding countermeasures to ensure maximum quality blood test specimens. Results The main causes of I stand 70 blood specimen errors include the following aspects: ①The blood sample collection, because the blood bank staff for the

  13. The DNA methylome of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yingrui; Zhu, Jingde; Tian, Geng

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in biological processes in human health and disease. Recent technological advances allow unbiased whole-genome DNA methylation (methylome) analysis to be carried out on human cells. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing at 24.7-fold coverage (12.3-fold per...... strand), we report a comprehensive (92.62%) methylome and analysis of the unique sequences in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the same Asian individual whose genome was deciphered in the YH project. PBMC constitute an important source for clinical blood tests world-wide. We found...... that 68.4% of CpG sites and 80% displayed allele-specific expression (ASE). These data demonstrate that ASM is a recurrent phenomenon and is highly correlated with ASE in human PBMCs. Together with recently reported similar studies, our study provides a comprehensive resource for future epigenomic...

  14. Distribution of TCDD in blood constituents of rats and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsing, J. M.; Weber, L. W.; Kettrup, A. A.; Rozman, Karl K.

    1995-10-01

    Whole blood or plasma from male human volunteers or pooled from male Sprague-Dawley rats was incubated with varying amounts of 3H-2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (3H-TCDD). Blood was separated into cellular, protein and lipoprotein fractions by centrifugation. The distribution of 3H-TCDD between lipoproteins and plasma proteins was independent of 3H-TCDD concentration in the range of 65 fmol-1 nmol/ml plasma. The distribution of 3H-TCDD between the various lipoprotein fractions depended only on their relative content of total cholesterol plus triglycerides. The partitioning of 3H- TCDD between lipoproteins and plasma proteins was inversely proportional, whereas the distribution between the cellular fraction and the lipoproteins was directly proportional to the total plasma cholesterol plus triglyceride content. As a consequence of species differences in blood composition, the major part of 3H-TCDD-associated radioactivity was recovered from lipoproteins in human blood but from erythrocytes in rat blood. A mathematical description of the distribution of TCDD between blood components is presented.

  15. Submucosa 1.0 x 0.1 mm in size is sufficient to count inflammatory cell numbers in human airway biopsy specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Hacken, NHT; Aleva, RM; Oosterhoff, Y; Smith, M; Kraan, J; Postma, DS; Timens, W

    1998-01-01

    Counting of inflammatory cells in human airway biopsy specimens is difficult because immunopositive cells are present in varying density in lung tissue. The goal of our study was to assess the minimal amount of tissue that is necessary for the counting of constant cell numbers. In bronchial biopsy s

  16. Prospective comparison of the detection rates of human enterovirus and parechovirus RT-qPCR and viral culture in different pediatric specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Crom, S C M; Obihara, C C; de Moor, R A; Veldkamp, E J M; van Furth, A M; Rossen, J W A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reverse-transcriptase quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become the gold standard for the diagnosis of human enterovirus (EV) and parechovirus (HPeV) infections. The detection rate of RT-qPCR in different pediatric body specimens has not been compared prospect

  17. Generation of red blood cells from human embryonic/induced pluripotent stem cells for blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Yasuhiro; Ma, Feng; Tsuji, Kohichiro

    2012-06-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is necessary for many patients with emergency or hematological disorders. However, to date the supply of RBCs remains labile and dependent on voluntary donations. In addition, the transmission of infectious disease via blood transfusion from unspecified donors remains a risk. Establishing a large quantity of safe RBCs would help to address this issue. Human embryonic stem (hES) cells and the recently established human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells represent potentially unlimited sources of donor-free RBCs for blood transfusion, as they can proliferate indefinitely in vitro. Extensive research has been done to efficiently generate transfusable RBCs from hES/iPS cells. Nevertheless, a number of challenges must be overcome before the clinical usage of hES/iPS cell-derived RBCs can become a reality.

  18. 28292份临床血液标本细菌培养结果%Bacterial culture results of 28 292 clinical blood specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔繁林; 储从家; 管新龙; 李杰芬; 杨宇溪

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution characteristics of pathogens isolated from clinical blood specimens from a hospital. Methods Bacteria isolated from 55 606 bottles of 28 292 blood specimens between 1999 and 2008 were cultured and identified by mimi VITAL Blood Culture Automation System and Bact/ALERT 3D System and VITEK 32 Automicrobic System,and the culture result was analysed statistically. Results In aerobic and anaerobic culture of 28 292 blood specimens,5 837 showed positive culture results, the positive rate was 20. 63%;Thepositive rate of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was 83. 50%(4 874/5 837) and 82. 30%(4 804/5 837)respectively. A total of 5 837 strains of 117 species of 43 genus were detected, Salmonella paratyphi A accounted for 4 486 stains (76. 85%). The distribution showed three peaks of bacterial detection were in the year of 2001 (1 263 strains) ,2004 (740 strains) and 2006 (713 strains). Gram-positive cocci were the main isolated bacteria , the ratio of grampositive cocci to gram-negative bacilli and fungi was 65. 73: 25. 30: 2. 74. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS) accounted for 37. 46% (493/1 316) of the detected bacteria except Salmonella spp. , and had a tendency of increasing gradually(x2 = 127. 81, P<0. 01 ). The isolation rate of fungus was increasing gradually(x2 = 29. 77, P<0. 01). The obligate anaerobes accounted for 0. 38%(22/5 837) of all isolated bacteria , and accounted for 1.67%(22/1 316) except Salmonella. Conclusion Performing both aerobic and anaerobic culture can enhance the positive detection rate. Constant detection of Salmonella paratyphi A and increasing tendency of opportunistic pathogens (CNS and fungus) should be paid much attention to.%目的 调查某院临床送检血液标本中病原菌的分布特征.方法 采用mimi VITAl全自动荧光血培养仪、Bact/ALERT 3D培养仪和VITEK32自动细菌鉴定仪对该院1999--2008年临床送检的28 292人份55 606瓶血标本进行培养

  19. Deep coverage mouse red blood cell proteome: a first comparison with the human red blood cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasini, Erica M; Kirkegaard, Morten; Salerno, Doris

    2008-01-01

    Mice have close genetic/physiological relationships to humans, breed rapidly, and can be genetically modified, making them the most used mammal in biomedical research. Because the red blood cell (RBC) is the sole gas transporter in vertebrates, diseases of the RBC are frequently severe; much...

  20. Does Every Cell Get Blood? Young Students' Discussions about Illustrations of Human Blood Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Anna-Karin; Karlsson, Karl-Goran

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study of how groups of young students discuss illustrations of human blood circulation. Transparency is not an innate quality of illustrations, visual information is always coded and interpretations are always related to culture and context. Results of this study are discussed with reference to Kress and van Leeuwens'…

  1. Mesenteric, coeliac and splanchnic blood flow in humans during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko, M J; Nielsen, H B; Skak, C;

    1998-01-01

    1. Exercise reduces splanchnic blood flow, but the mesenteric contribution to this response is uncertain. 2. In nineteen humans, superior mesenteric and coeliac artery flows were determined by duplex ultrasonography during fasting and postprandial submaximal cycling and compared with the splanchnic...... blood flow as assessed by the Indocyanine Green dye-elimination technique. 3. Cycling increased arterial pressure, heart rate and cardiac output, while it reduced total vascular resistance. These responses were not altered in the postprandial state. During fasting, cycling increased mesenteric, coeliac...... and splanchnic resistances by 76, 165 and 126 %, respectively, and it reduced corresponding blood flows by 32, 50 and 43 % (by 0.18 +/- 0.04, 0.42 +/- 0.03 and 0.60 +/- 0.04 l min-1). Postprandially, mesenteric and splanchnic vascular resistances decreased, thereby elevating regional blood flow, while...

  2. Laser-photophoretic migration and fractionation of human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjushiro, Hideaki; Tanahashi, Yuko; Watarai, Hitoshi

    2013-05-13

    Laser photophoretic migration behavior of human blood cells in saline solution was investigated under the irradiation of Nd:YAG laser beam (532 nm) in the absence and the presence of the flow in a fused silica capillary. Red blood cells (RBC) were migrated faster than white blood cells (WBC) and blood pellets to the direction of propagation of laser light. The observed photophoretic velocity of RBC was about 11 times faster than those of others. This was understood from the larger photophoretic efficiency of RBC than that of WBC, which was simulated based on the Mie scattering theory. Furthermore, it was found that, during the photophoretic migration, RBCs spontaneously orientated parallel to the migration direction so as to reduce the drag force. Finally, it was demonstrated that RBC and WBC were separated in a micro-channel flow system by the laser photophoresis.

  3. Direct determination of external radiation dose in human blood

    CERN Document Server

    Tanir, AG; Sahiner, E; Bolukdemir, MH; Koc, K; Meric, N; Keles, SK; Kucuk, O

    2014-01-01

    In this study it was shown that it is possible to determine radiation doses from external beam therapy both directly and retrospectively from a human blood sample. To the best of our knowledge no other studies exist on the direct measurement of doses received by a person from external beam therapy. Optically stimulated luminescence counts from a healthy blood sample exposed to an external radiation source were measured. Blood aliquots were given 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, 100 and 200Gy beta doses and their decay and dose-response curves were plotted. While the luminescence intensities were found to be relatively low for the doses smaller than 10Gy, they were measured considerably higher for doses greater than 10Gy. The dose received by the blood aliquots was determined by interpolating the luminescence counts of 10Gy to the dose-response curve. This study has important ramifications for healthcare, medicine and radiation protection

  4. Evolutionary aspects of ABO blood group in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Bonfanti, Carlo

    2015-04-15

    The antigens of the ABO blood group system (A, B and H determinants) are complex carbohydrate molecules expressed on red blood cells and on a variety of other cell lines and tissues. Growing evidence is accumulating that ABO antigens, beyond their key role in transfusion medicine, may interplay with the pathogenesis of many human disorders, including infectious, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases. In this narrative review, after succinct description of the current knowledge on the association between ABO blood groups and the most severe diseases, we aim to elucidate the particularly intriguing issue of the possible role of ABO system in successful aging. In particular, focus will be placed on studies evaluating the ABO phenotype in centenarians, the best human model of longevity.

  5. ACTIVATION OF HUMAN BLOOD MONONUCLEARS BY LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE OF DIFFERENT COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Zubova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS composition upon activation of human blood mononuclears was investigated, by measuring levels of pro-inflammatory TNFα and IL-6 cytokines released by the cells. It is shown that LPS from Rhodobacter capsulatus PG, in contrast to E. coli LPS, did not activate the target cells for synthesis of the cytokines.

  6. Expansion of human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Song; Chu, Pat; Hwang, William; Lodish, Harvey

    2010-10-08

    A recent Science paper reported a purine derivative that expands human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells in culture (Boitano et al., 2010) by antagonizing the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Major problems need to be overcome before ex vivo HSC expansion can be used clinically.

  7. Detecting multiple DNA human profile from a mosquito blood meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabêlo, K C N; Albuquerque, C M R; Tavares, V B; Santos, S M; Souza, C A; Oliveira, T C; Moura, R R; Brandão, L A C; Crovella, S

    2016-08-26

    Criminal traces commonly found at crime scenes may present mixtures from two or more individuals. The scene of the crime is important for the collection of various types of traces in order to find the perpetrator of the crime. Thus, we propose that hematophagous mosquitoes found at crime scenes can be used to perform genetic testing of human blood and aid in suspect investigation. The aim of the study was to obtain a single Aedes aegypti mosquito profile from a human DNA mixture containing genetic materials of four individuals. We also determined the effect of blood acquisition time by setting time intervals of 24, 48, and 72 h after the blood meal. STR loci and amelogenin were analyzed, and the results showed that human DNA profiles could be obtained from hematophagous mosquitos at 24 h following the blood meal. It is possible that hematophagous mosquitoes can be used as biological remains at the scene of the crime, and can be used to detect human DNA profiles of up to four individuals.

  8. Acinetobacter seifertii sp. nov., a member of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex isolated from human clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Alexandr; Krizova, Lenka; Maixnerova, Martina; Sedo, Ondrej; Brisse, Sylvain; Higgins, Paul G

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to define the taxonomic status of a phenetically distinct group of 16 strains that corresponds to Acinetobacter genomic species 'close to 13TU', a provisional genomic species of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) complex recognized by Gerner-Smidt and Tjernberg in 1993. These strains have been isolated in different countries since the early 1990s and were mostly recovered from human clinical specimens. They were compared with 45 reference strains representing the known taxa of the ACB complex using taxonomic methods relevant to the genus Acinetobacter. Based on sequence analysis of the concatenated partial sequences (2976 bp) of seven housekeeping genes, the 16 strains formed a tight and well-supported cluster (intracluster sequence identity of ≥98.4 %) that was clearly separated from the other members of the ACB complex (≤94.7 %). The species status of the group was supported by average nucleotide identity values of ≤91.7 % between the whole genome sequence of representative strain NIPH 973(T) (NCBI accession no. APOO00000000) and those of the other species. In addition, whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS analyses indicated the distinctness of the group at the protein level. Metabolic and physiological tests revealed several typical features of the group, although they did not allow its reliable differentiation from the other members of the ACB complex. We conclude that the 16 strains represent a distinct novel species, for which we propose the name Acinetobacter seifertii sp. nov. The type strain is NIPH 973(T) ( = CIP 110471(T) = CCUG 34785(T) = CCM 8535(T)).

  9. Quantification of viral genome in cord blood donors by real time PCR to investigate human herpesvirus type 8 active infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golchin, Neda; Kheirandish, Maryam; Sharifi, Zohreh; Samiee, Shahram; Kokhaei, Parviz; Pourpak, Zahra

    2015-12-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is one of the most important sources of hematopoietic stem cells which can be used for transplantation. The transplanted CB stem cells might cause infections in recipients. The aim of this study is to evaluate Human Herpes Virus8 (HHV8) as a Rhadinovirus among CB samples in order to assess safety of cord blood stem cells transplantation. To assess this aim, we surveyed 800 cord blood specimens by Real Time PCR.The overall HHV8 incidence in cord blood mononuclear cells was 1.38% and none of them was in lytic phase of HHV8. The authors suggest further HHV8 study on CB samples for transplantation.

  10. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in blood samples stored as high-salt lysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolg, J W; Lanciotti, R S; Wendlinger, M; Meyer, W A

    1990-09-01

    Blood samples to be tested for the presence of parasite DNA by using specific DNA probes are routinely stored in our laboratory as high-salt lysates (HSL). To safeguard against the risk of accidental infection with etiological agents such as the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) while manipulating large numbers of blood samples in preparation for DNA probing, we determined the residual infectivity of HIV-1 after exposure to HSL components. Both high-titer virus stocks or provirus-carrying cells, suspended either in tissue culture medium or freshly drawn blood, were completely inactivated upon contact with the HSL components. This was verified by the absence of any detectable HIV-1-specific antigen in the supernatants of long-term cultures and the absence of virus-specific DNA fragments after amplification by polymerase chain reaction with DNA from such cultures as target DNA. These results support the conclusion that the virus is in fact completely inactivated by contact with the HSL components, rendering blood specimens stored as HSL noninfectious in regard to HIV-1.

  11. Optoacoustic mapping of cerebral blood oxygenation in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Irene Y.; Richardson, C. Joan; Fonseca, Rafael A.; Robertson, Claudia S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2017-03-01

    Noninvasive, transcranial mapping, monitoring, and imaging are highly important for detection and management of cerebral abnormalities and neuroscience research. Mapping, imaging, and monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation are necessary for diagnostics and management of patients with traumatic brain injury, stroke, and other neurological conditions. We proposed to use optoacoustic technology for noninvasive, transcranial monitoring and imaging. In this work, we developed optoacoustic systems for mapping of cerebral blood oxygenation in humans and tested them in adults and neonates. The systems provide noninvasive, transcranial optoacoustic measurements in the transmission (forward) and reflection (backward) modes in the near infrared spectral range. Novel, ultra-sensitive probes were built for detection of optoacoustic signals and measurement of blood oxygenation in neonates and adults. Cerebral oxygenation was measured at different lateral sites from the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), a large central cerebral vein, located immediately beneath the midline of the human skull. In neonates, cerebral oxygenation was measured through open anterior and posterior fontanelles. Optoacoustic signal detection at different locations allowed for mapping of cerebral blood oxygenation. Our future studies will be focused on 3D mapping of cerebral blood oxygenation.

  12. Pleomorphic Structures in Human Blood Are Red Blood Cell-Derived Microparticles, Not Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Adam J.; Gray, Warren D.; Schroeder, Max; Yi, Hong; Taylor, Jeannette V.; Dillard, Rebecca S.; Ke, Zunlong; Wright, Elizabeth R.; Stephens, David; Roback, John D.; Searles, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are a common, life-saving therapy for many patients, but they have also been associated with poor clinical outcomes. We identified unusual, pleomorphic structures in human RBC transfusion units by negative-stain electron microscopy that appeared identical to those previously reported to be bacteria in healthy human blood samples. The presence of viable, replicating bacteria in stored blood could explain poor outcomes in transfusion recipients and have major implications for transfusion medicine. Here, we investigated the possibility that these structures were bacteria. Results Flow cytometry, miRNA analysis, protein analysis, and additional electron microscopy studies strongly indicated that the pleomorphic structures in the supernatant of stored RBCs were RBC-derived microparticles (RMPs). Bacterial 16S rDNA PCR amplified from these samples were sequenced and was found to be highly similar to species that are known to commonly contaminate laboratory reagents. Conclusions These studies suggest that pleomorphic structures identified in human blood are RMPs and not bacteria, and they provide an example in which laboratory contaminants may can mislead investigators. PMID:27760197

  13. Sb(V) reactivity with human blood components: redox effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Silvana; Aguilar, Luis; Mercado, Luis; Bravo, Manuel; Quiroz, Waldo

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the reactivity of Sb(V) in human blood. Sb(V) reactivity was determined using an HPLC-HG-AFS hyphenated system. Sb(V) was partially reduced to Sb(III) in blood incubation experiments; however, Sb(III) was a highly unstable species. The addition of 0.1 mol L(-1) EDTA prevented Sb(III) oxidation, thus enabling the detection of the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III). The transformation of Sb(V) to Sb(III) in human whole blood was assessed because the reduction of Sb(V) in human blood may likely generate redox side effects. Our results indicate that glutathione was the reducing agent in this reaction and that Sb(V) significantly decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio from 0.32 ± 0.09 to 0.07 ± 0.03. Moreover, the presence of 200 ng mL(-1) of Sb(V) increased the activity of superoxide dismutase from 4.4 ± 0.1 to 7.0 ± 0.4 U mL(-1) and decreased the activity of glutathione peroxidase from 62 ± 1 to 34 ± 2 nmol min(-1) mL(-1).

  14. Sb(V reactivity with human blood components: redox effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana López

    Full Text Available We assessed the reactivity of Sb(V in human blood. Sb(V reactivity was determined using an HPLC-HG-AFS hyphenated system. Sb(V was partially reduced to Sb(III in blood incubation experiments; however, Sb(III was a highly unstable species. The addition of 0.1 mol L(-1 EDTA prevented Sb(III oxidation, thus enabling the detection of the reduction of Sb(V to Sb(III. The transformation of Sb(V to Sb(III in human whole blood was assessed because the reduction of Sb(V in human blood may likely generate redox side effects. Our results indicate that glutathione was the reducing agent in this reaction and that Sb(V significantly decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio from 0.32 ± 0.09 to 0.07 ± 0.03. Moreover, the presence of 200 ng mL(-1 of Sb(V increased the activity of superoxide dismutase from 4.4 ± 0.1 to 7.0 ± 0.4 U mL(-1 and decreased the activity of glutathione peroxidase from 62 ± 1 to 34 ± 2 nmol min(-1 mL(-1.

  15. [A Nude Mouse Model for Human Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jiongcai; Liu, Hongyu; Chen, Qiang; Yang, Chongli; Zhang, Zhimei

    2000-03-01

    To evaluate the hematopoietic potentiality and the migration and homing routine of separated as well as cryopreserved umbilical cord blood hematopoietic cells, the BALB/cnu(+) mice were used to establish a murine model. This can prepare for the clinical transplantation and the establishment of a large-scale cord blood bank. The result indicated that the hydroxyethyl starch (HES) sedimentation and DMSO step-by-step cryopreservation procedure resulted in only less losses of hematopoietic progenitor cells and also unharmful to the hematopietic potentiality. We can found evidence for successful transplantation in each mouse which received (1.0 - 2.0) x 10(7) separated or cryopresered hematopoietic cells from cord blood, which lasted for about fifty days. The results demonstrated that (1) HES sedimentation and DMSO cryopreservation procedure can keep the hematopoietic potentiality of cord blood, and so can be used to clinical transplantation or establishment of a cord blood bank; (2) Rich hematopoietic stem cells in human cord blood can cross the xenogenetic barriers and successfully engraft mice; (3) The hematopoietic cells migrated among bone marrow, liver, spleen, lung and kidney in the mice and homed to bone marrow by the end. Cryopreservation may influence the adhesion molecule on the hematopoietic cells and the homing behaviour, but not influence their hematopoietic potentiality.

  16. Splanchnic blood flow and hepatic glucose production in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron, R; Kjaer, M; Simonsen, L

    2001-01-01

    The study examined the implication of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in regulation of splanchnic blood flow and glucose production in exercising humans. Subjects cycled for 40 min at 50% maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)) followed by 30 min at 70% VO(2 max) either with [angiotensin......-blockade group vs. the control group, hormones, metabolites, VO(2), and RER followed the same pattern of changes in ACE-blockade and control groups during exercise. Splanchnic blood flow (at rest: 1.67 +/- 0.12, ACE blockade; 1.59 +/- 0.18 l/min, control) decreased during moderate exercise (0.78 +/- 0.07, ACE...

  17. Comparison of Hemagglutination and Hemolytic Activity of Various Bacterial Clinical Isolates Against Different Human Blood Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRV, Rajkumar; Devaki, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Among the various pathogenic determinants shown by microorganisms hemagglutination and hemolysin production assume greater significance in terms of laboratory identification. This study evaluated the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of various bacterial isolates against different blood groups. One hundred and fifty bacterial strains, isolated from clinical specimens like urine, pus, blood, and other body fluids were tested for their hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity against human A, B, AB, and O group red blood cells. Among the 150 isolates 81 were Escherichia coli, 18 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 19 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were Pseudomonas spp, six were Proteus mirabilis, and the rest 16 were Staphylococcus aureus. Nearly 85% of the isolates agglutinated A group cells followed by B and AB group (59.3% and 60.6% respectively). Least number of isolates agglutinated O group cells (38.0%). When the hemolytic activity was tested, out of these 150 isolates 79 (52.6%) hemolyzed A group cells, 61 (40.6%) hemolyzed AB group cells, 46 (30.6%) hemolyzed B group cells, and 57 (38.6%) isolates hemolyzed O group cells. Forty-six percent of the isolates exhibited both hemagglutinating and hemolytic property against A group cells, followed by B and AB group cells (28.6% and 21.3% respectively). Least number of isolates i.e., 32 (21.3%) showed both the properties against O group cells. The isolates showed wide variation in their hemagglutination and hemolytic properties against different combinations of human blood group cells. The study highlights the importance of selection of the type of cells especially when human RBCs are used for studying the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates because these two properties are considered as characteristic of pathogenic strains. PMID:27014523

  18. Alterations in cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells in stored blood

    CERN Document Server

    Park, HyunJoo; Lee, SangYun; Kim, Kyoohyun; Sohn, Yong-Hak; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    The functionality and viability of stored human red blood cells (RBCs) is an important clinical issue in transfusion. To systematically investigate changes in stored whole blood, the hematological properties of individual RBCs were quantified in blood samples stored for various periods with and without a preservation solution called CPDA-1. With 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques, the optical measurements of the 3-D refractive index (RI) distributions and membrane fluctuations were done at the individual cell level. From the optical measurements, the morphological (volume, surface area and sphericity), biochemical (hemoglobin content and concentration), and mechanical parameters (dynamic membrane fluctuation) were simultaneously quantified to investigate the functionalities and their progressive alterations in stored RBCs. Our results show that the stored RBCs without CPDA-1 had a dramatic morphological transformation from discocytes to spherocytes within 2 weeks which was accompanied with significant ...

  19. The first report of the vanC₁ gene in Enterococcus faecium isolated from a human clinical specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingyue; Wang, Yue; Chen, Zhongju; Zhu, Xuhui; Tian, Lei; Sun, Ziyong

    2014-09-01

    The vanC₁ gene, which is chromosomally located, confers resistance to vancomycin and serves as a species marker for Enterococcus gallinarum. Enterococcus faecium TJ4031 was isolated from a blood culture and harbours the vanC₁gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed to detect vanXYc and vanTc genes. Only the vanXYc gene was found in the E. faecium TJ4031 isolate. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin and teicoplanin were 2 µg/mL and 1 µg/mL, respectively. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR results revealed that the vanC₁ and vanXYc genes were not expressed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and southern hybridisation results showed that the vanC₁ gene was encoded in the chromosome. E. faecalis isolated from animals has been reported to harbour vanC₁gene. However, this study is the first to report the presence of the vanC₁gene in E. faecium of human origin. Additionally, our research showed the vanC₁gene cannot serve as a species-specific gene of E. gallinarum and that it is able to be transferred between bacteria. Although the resistance marker is not expressed in the strain, our results showed that E. faecium could acquire the vanC₁gene from different species.

  20. 血液病毒核酸检测单独阳性标本研究%Study on NAT yield cases of donation blood specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田耘博; 黄霞; 秦伟斐; 李维; 毛伟; 廖红文; 段恒英; 何涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study nucleic acid testing (NAT) yield cases and to evaluate the different NAT methods. Methods Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) and NAT by transcription mediated amplification(TMA) were applied to test the blood of donation samples simultaneously. The NAT yield cases were rechecked with discriminated test (TMA) ,Hepatitis B serological markers detection and NAT by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Among 47004 specimens,108 NAT yield cases were screened out with negative ELISA test. Forty out of 108 cases were discriminated as HBV without HIV or HCV infection ,which ac-count for the NAT yield rate of 0.85‰. Nine out of 13 cases of HBV owned the same results with TMA and NAT. Two out of 30 cases without HBV infection were confirmed positive HBV infection by means of NAT(PCR) method. Moreover ,43 cases of positive HBV infection accepted the tests of various Hepatitis B serological markers ,which revealed the highest positive rate of HBcAb and uncertainty results of HBsAg on the contrary. Conclusion Most of NAT yield specimens had the chance to be occult HBV infec-tion (OBI),which might cause some differences in different NAT tests.%目的:对酶联免疫吸附检测(ELISA)阴性而核酸检测(NAT)阳性的NAT单独阳性献血标本进行研究分析,评价不同NAT方法检测结果的差异。方法对献血标本进行ELISA的同时,采用转录介导扩增技术(TMA)进行NAT。对NAT单独阳性标本分别进行NAT(TMA)鉴别检测,乙肝血清学标志物检测,HBsAg确证实验和基于聚合酶链式反应(PCR)的NAT。结果在47004例献血标本中,NAT(TMA)联检(HBV、HIV、HCV)出ELISA阴性的NAT阳性标本108例,其中40例鉴别检测为HBV,68例为鉴别阴性,未发现HIV和HCV,HBV的NAT的单阳性率为0.85‰。选取13例NAT(TMA)鉴别为HBV的标本中有9例NAT(PCR)也为HBV;选取30例NAT(TMA)鉴别阴性标本中有2例NAT(PCR)为HBV。选取鉴别阳性13

  1. Metabolism of novel opioid agonists U-47700 and U-49900 using human liver microsomes with confirmation in authentic urine specimens from drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotulski, Alex J; Mohr, Amanda L A; Papsun, Donna M; Logan, Barry K

    2017-06-13

    Recently, the number of adverse events, including death, involving novel opioids has continued to increase, providing additional and sustained challenges for forensic and medical communities. Identification of emerging novel opioids can be challenging, compounded by detection windows and unknown metabolic profiles. In this study, human liver microsomes were used for the generation of in vitro metabolic profiles of U-47700 and U-49900. Generated metabolites were analyzed via a SCIEX TripleTOF® 5600+ quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and resulting data files were processing using MetabolitePilot™. Characterized metabolites were verified in vivo by analysis of authentic human urine specimens collected after analytically confirmed cases of overdose involving U-47700 or U-49900. In total, four metabolites were identified and present in urine specimens for U-47700, and five metabolites for U-49900. N-Desmethyl-U-47700 was determined to be the primary metabolite of U-47700. Parent U-47700 was identified in all urine specimens. N-Desmethyl-U-47700 and N,N-didesmethyl-U-47700 were structurally confirmed for the first time during this study following acquisition of standard reference material. N-Desethyl-U-49900 was determined to be the primary metabolite of U-49900 following microsomal incubations, while N,N-didesethyl-N-desmethyl-U-49900 was the most abundant in a urine specimen. Similarities in metabolic transformation were identified between U-47700 and U-49900, resulting in a common metabolite and isomeric species. These phenomena should be considered in cases involving U-47700 or U-49900. This study is the first to map the metabolic profiles of U-47700 and U-49900 using human liver microsomes, as well as the first to report any literature involving U-49900 and analysis of case specimens. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Bioaccumulation of metals in human blood in industrially contaminated area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F, Akbar Jan; M. Ishaq; S. Khan; M. Shakirullah; S. M. Asim; I. Ahmad; Fazal Mabood

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metals were analyzed in different foods crops,milk,meat and blood samples collected from different age group subjects such as children (1-12 years),adolescent (12-18 years),adults (18-45 years) and old age (above 45 and 55 years for males and females,respectively) from polluted and relatively less polluted areas.The results revealed that the consumption of contaminatel food crops,meat and milk have significantly increased the concentrations of selected metals in the human blood.Cu,Zn and Mn concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the blood samples collected from the polluted area as compared to control area.Old people had accumulated high concentrations of metals as compared to the younger ones within the same area.Males accumulated higher concentrations of metals as compared to females.

  3. Blood flow and microdialysis in the human femoral head

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgehøj, Morten; Emmeluth, Claus; Overgaard, Søren

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If it would be possible to detect lack of flow and/or the development of ischemia in bone, we might have a way of predicting whether a broken bone will heal. We established microdialysis (MD) and laser Doppler (LD) flow measurement in the human femoral head in order to be able to detect...... ischemia and measure changes in blood flow. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 9 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty for primary osteoarthrosis, two MD catheters were inserted into the femoral head through two drill holes after the blood flow had been visualized by LD. Then primary samples were collected...... detected within 2 h of cessation of blood flow in most patients....

  4. Techniques in human airway inflammation - Quantity and morphology of bronchial biopsy specimens taken by forceps of three sizes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleva, RM; Kraan, J; Smith, M; ten Hacken, NHT; Postma, DS; Timens, W

    1998-01-01

    Background: In recent years, fiberoptic bronchoscopy has been introduced successfully in the research of bronchial asthma. Bronchial biopsy specimens obtained by this procedure are small, and an optimal biopsy technique is necessary to obtain high-quality tissue samples, as sufficient length of inta

  5. Techniques in human airway inflammation - Quantity and morphology of bronchial biopsy specimens taken by forceps of three sizes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleva, RM; Kraan, J; Smith, M; ten Hacken, NHT; Postma, DS; Timens, W

    1998-01-01

    Background: In recent years, fiberoptic bronchoscopy has been introduced successfully in the research of bronchial asthma. Bronchial biopsy specimens obtained by this procedure are small, and an optimal biopsy technique is necessary to obtain high-quality tissue samples, as sufficient length of inta

  6. The Scent of Blood: A Driver of Human Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, James K; Dietrich, Daniel R; Elbert, Thomas; Pause, Bettina M; Kübler, Lisa; Weierstall, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The scent of blood is potentially one of the most fundamental and survival-relevant olfactory cues in humans. This experiment tests the first human parameters of perceptual threshold and emotional ratings in men and women of an artificially simulated smell of fresh blood in contact with the skin. We hypothesize that this scent of blood, with its association with injury, danger, death, and nutrition will be a critical cue activating fundamental motivational systems relating to either predatory approach behavior or prey-like withdrawal behavior, or both. The results show that perceptual thresholds are unimodally distributed for both sexes, with women being more sensitive. Furthermore, both women and men's emotional responses to simulated blood scent divide strongly into positive and negative valence ratings, with negative ratings in women having a strong arousal component. For women, this split is related to the phase of their menstrual cycle and oral contraception (OC). Future research will investigate whether this split in both genders is context-dependent or trait-like.

  7. Correlation between blood adenosine metabolism and sleep in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Muñoz, M; Hernández-Muñoz, R; Suárez, J; Vidrio, S; Yááñez, L; Aguilar-Roblero, R; Rosenthal, L; Villalobos, L; Fernández-Cancino, F; Drucker-Colín, R; Chagoya De Sanchez, V

    1999-01-01

    Blood adenosine metabolism, including metabolites and metabolizing enzymes, was studied during the sleep period in human volunteers. Searching for significant correlations among biochemical parameters found: adenosine with state 1 of slow-wave sleep (SWS); activity of 5'-nucleotidase with state 2 of SWS; inosine and AMP with state 3-4 of SWS; and activity of 5'-nucleotidase and lactate with REM sleep. The correlations were detected in all of the subjects that presented normal hypnograms, but not in those who had fragmented sleep the night of the experiment. The data demonstrate that it is possible to obtain information of complex brain operations such as sleep by measuring biochemical parameters in blood. The results strengthen the notion of a role played by adenosine, its metabolites and metabolizing enzymes, during each of the stages that constitute the sleep process in humans.

  8. Implementation of good manufacturing practices (GMP) on human blood irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boghi, Claudio; Napolitano, Celia M.; Ferreira, Danilo C.; Rela, Paulo Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: cboghi@uol.com.br; cmnapoli@ipen.br; dancarde@ig.com.br; prela@ipen.br; Zarate, Herman S. [Comission Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: hzarate@cchen.cl

    2007-07-01

    The irradiation of human blood is used to avoid the TA-GVHD (transfusion-associated graft-versus-host-disease), a rare but devastating adverse effect of leukocytes present in blood components for a immuno-competent transfusion recipients. Usually this irradiation practice is performed to a physical elimination of lymphocytes. The implementation of the GMP will assure that the properly dose in a range of 25 Gy to 50 Gy will be delivered to the blood in the bag collected in a blood tissue bank. The studies to establish the GMP were developed under the guidelines of the standard ISO 11137 - Sterilization of health care products - Requirements for validation and routine control - Radiation sterilization. In this work, two dosimetric systems were used for dose mapping during the studies of irradiator qualification, loading pattern, irradiation process validation and auditing. The CaSO{sub 4}: Dy dosimeter presented difficulties concerning to uncertainty on dose measurement, stability, trace ability and calibration system. The PMMA and gafchromic dosimetric systems have shown a better performance and were adopted on establishment of GMP procedures. The irradiation tests have been done using a Gammacell 220 Irradiator. The developed GMP can be adapted for different types of gamma irradiators, allowing to set up a quality assurance program for blood irradiation. (author)

  9. Good manufacturing practices (GMP utilized on human blood irradiation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Boghi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation of human blood is used to avoid the TA-GVHD (transfusion-associated graft-versus-host-disease, a rare but devastating adverse effect of leukocytes present in blood components for immunocompetent transfusion recipients. Usually this irradiation practice is performed to a physical elimination of lymphocytes. The implementation of the GMP will assure that the properly dose in a range of 25Gy to 50Gy will be delivered to the blood in the bag collected in a blood tissue bank. The studies to establish the GMP were developed under the guidelines of the standard ISO 11137 - Sterilization of health care products - Requirements for validation and routine control - Radiation sterilization. In this work, two dosimetric systems were used for dose mapping during the studies of irradiator qualification, loading pattern, irradiation process validation and auditing. The CaSO4: Dy dosimeter presented difficulties concerning to uncertainty on dose measurement, stability, trace ability and calibration system. The PMMA and gafchromic dosimetric systems have shown a better performance and were adopted on establishment of GMP procedures. The irradiation tests have been done using a Gammacell 220 Irradiator. The developed GMP can be adapted for different types of gamma irradiators, allowing to set up a quality assurance program for blood irradiation.

  10. Sympathetic reflex control of blood flow in human peripheral tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O

    1991-01-01

    Sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes are essential for the maintenance of arterial blood pressure in upright position. It has been generally believed that supraspinal sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes elicited by changes in baroreceptor activity play an important role. Recent studies on human ...... to collision of normodromically and antidromically conducted impulses in efferent sympathetic vasoconstrictor fibers. The evidence obtained suggests that sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes to postural changes are complex and highly differentiated....

  11. The DNA methylome of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingrui Li

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays an important role in biological processes in human health and disease. Recent technological advances allow unbiased whole-genome DNA methylation (methylome analysis to be carried out on human cells. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing at 24.7-fold coverage (12.3-fold per strand, we report a comprehensive (92.62% methylome and analysis of the unique sequences in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from the same Asian individual whose genome was deciphered in the YH project. PBMC constitute an important source for clinical blood tests world-wide. We found that 68.4% of CpG sites and 80% displayed allele-specific expression (ASE. These data demonstrate that ASM is a recurrent phenomenon and is highly correlated with ASE in human PBMCs. Together with recently reported similar studies, our study provides a comprehensive resource for future epigenomic research and confirms new sequencing technology as a paradigm for large-scale epigenomics studies.

  12. Gene expression analysis in human breast cancer associated blood vessels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan T Jones

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is essential for solid tumour growth, whilst the molecular profiles of tumour blood vessels have been reported to be different between cancer types. Although presently available anti-angiogenic strategies are providing some promise for the treatment of some cancers it is perhaps not surprisingly that, none of the anti-angiogenic agents available work on all tumours. Thus, the discovery of novel anti-angiogenic targets, relevant to individual cancer types, is required. Using Affymetrix microarray analysis of laser-captured, CD31-positive blood vessels we have identified 63 genes that are upregulated significantly (5-72 fold in angiogenic blood vessels associated with human invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC of the breast as compared with blood vessels in normal human breast. We tested the angiogenic capacity of a subset of these genes. Genes were selected based on either their known cellular functions, their enriched expression in endothelial cells and/or their sensitivity to anti-VEGF treatment; all features implicating their involvement in angiogenesis. For example, RRM2, a ribonucleotide reductase involved in DNA synthesis, was upregulated 32-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels; ATF1, a nuclear activating transcription factor involved in cellular growth and survival was upregulated 23-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels and HEX-B, a hexosaminidase involved in the breakdown of GM2 gangliosides, was upregulated 8-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels. Furthermore, in silico analysis confirmed that AFT1 and HEX-B also were enriched in endothelial cells when compared with non-endothelial cells. None of these genes have been reported previously to be involved in neovascularisation. However, our data establish that siRNA depletion of Rrm2, Atf1 or Hex-B had significant anti-angiogenic effects in VEGF-stimulated ex vivo mouse aortic ring assays. Overall, our results provide proof-of-principle that our approach can identify a cohort of

  13. Concurrent genotyping of Helicobacter pylori virulence genes and human cytokine SNP sites using whole genome amplified DNA derived from minute amounts of gastric biopsy specimen DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borch Kurt

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial and cellular genotyping is becoming increasingly important in the diagnosis of infectious diseases. However, difficulties in obtaining sufficient amount of bacterial and cellular DNA extracted from the same human biopsy specimens is often a limiting factor. In this study, total DNA (host and bacterial DNA was isolated from minute amounts of gastric biopsy specimens and amplified by means of whole genome amplification using the multiple displacement amplification (MDA technique. Subsequently, MDA-DNA was used for concurrent Helicobacter pylori and human host cellular DNA genotyping analysis using PCR-based methods. Results Total DNA was isolated from gastric biopsy specimens of 12 subjects with gastritis and 16 control subjects having a normal mucosa. The DNA was amplified using a multiple displacement amplification (MDA kit. Next, concurrent genotyping was performed using H. pylori-specific virulence gene PCR amplification assays, pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rDNA and PCR characterisation of various host genes. This includes Interleukin 1-beta (IL1B and Interferon-gamma receptor (IFNGR1 SNP analysis, and Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN variable tandem repeats (VNTR in intron 2. Finally, regions of the vacA-gene were PCR amplified using M13-sequence tagged primers which allowed for direct DNA sequencing, omitting cloning of PCR amplicons. H. pylori specific multiplex PCR assays revealed the presence of H. pylori cagA and vacA genotypic variations in 11 of 12 gastritis biopsy specimens. Using pyrosequencing, 16S rDNA variable V3 region signatures of H. pylori were found in 11 of 12 individuals with gastritis, but in none of the control subjects. Similarly, IL1B and IFNGR1-SNP and IL1RN-VNTR patterns could be established in all individuals. Furthermore, sequencing of M13-sequence tagged vacA-PCR amplicons revealed the presence of highly diverse H. pylori vacA-s/i/m regions. Conclusion The PCR

  14. Unexpected similarities between the Schizosaccharomyces and human blood metabolomes, and novel human metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaleckis, Romanas; Ebe, Masahiro; Pluskal, Tomáš; Murakami, Itsuo; Kondoh, Hiroshi; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2014-10-01

    Metabolomics, a modern branch of chemical biology, provides qualitative and quantitative information about the metabolic states of organisms or cells at the molecular level. Here we report non-targeted, metabolomic analyses of human blood, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). We compared the blood metabolome to the previously reported metabolome of the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The two metabolomic datasets were highly similar: 101 of 133 compounds identified in human blood (75%) were also present in S. pombe, and 45 of 57 compounds enriched in red blood cells (RBCs) (78%) were also present in yeast. The most abundant metabolites were ATP, glutathione, and glutamine. Apart from these three, the next most abundant metabolites were also involved in energy metabolism, anti-oxidation, and amino acid metabolism. We identified fourteen new blood compounds, eight of which were enriched in RBCs: citramalate, GDP-glucose, trimethyl-histidine, trimethyl-phenylalanine, trimethyl-tryptophan, trimethyl-tyrosine, UDP-acetyl-glucosamine, UDP-glucuronate, dimethyl-lysine, glutamate methyl ester, N-acetyl-(iso)leucine, N-acetyl-glutamate, N2-acetyl-lysine, and N6-acetyl-lysine. Ten of the newly identified blood metabolites were also detected in S. pombe, and ten of the 14 newly identified blood metabolites were methylated or acetylated amino acids. Trimethylated or acetylated free amino acids were also abundant in white blood cells. It may be possible to investigate their physiological roles using yeast genetics.

  15. Polymorphism of the human vitronectin gene causes vitronectin blood type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, K; Hayashi, M; Oishi, N; Sakaki, Y

    1990-03-30

    Human blood plasma/sera are classified into three distinct vitronectin types based on the relative amount of the 75 kDa polypeptide to its cleavage product of 65 kDa. We asked whether the vitronectin blood types correlated with the polymorphism of the vitronectin gene. A portion of the vitronectin gene was amplified by using polymerase chain reaction and digested with a restriction enzyme PmaC I which may distinguish the base sequence causing the polymorphic change at the amino acid position 381. Amplified DNAs of the blood type I (75 kDa-rich), II (75/65 kDa-even), and III (65 kDa-rich) were shown to be resistant, moderately sensitive and completely sensitive to PmaC I, respectively. These results suggest that Thr at position 381 is essential for the cleavage of the vitronectin 75 kDa polypeptide and that three possible combinations of two codominant alleles of vitronectin determine three vitronectin blood types.

  16. Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Stephen J; Lane, Kevin; Birkholz, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many individuals have been exposed to organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) through food, water, air, dermal exposure, and/or vertical transmission. Due to enterohepatic reabsorption and affinity to adipose tissue, OCPs are not efficiently eliminated from the human body and may accrue in tissues. Many epidemiological studies demonstrate significant exposure-disease relationships suggesting OCPs can alter metabolic function and potentially lead to illness. There is limited study of interventions to facilitate OCP elimination from the human body. This study explored the efficacy of induced perspiration as a means to eliminate OCPs. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS) were collected from 20 individuals. Analysis of 23 OCPs was performed using dual-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detectors. Results. Various OCPs and metabolites, including DDT, DDE, methoxychlor, endrin, and endosulfan sulfate, were excreted into perspiration. Generally, sweat samples showed more frequent OCP detection than serum or urine analysis. Many OCPs were not readily detected in blood testing while still being excreted and identified in sweat. No direct correlation was found among OCP concentrations in the blood, urine, or sweat compartments. Conclusions. Sweat analysis may be useful in detecting some accrued OCPs not found in regular serum testing. Induced perspiration may be a viable clinical tool for eliminating some OCPs.

  17. Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Genuis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many individuals have been exposed to organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs through food, water, air, dermal exposure, and/or vertical transmission. Due to enterohepatic reabsorption and affinity to adipose tissue, OCPs are not efficiently eliminated from the human body and may accrue in tissues. Many epidemiological studies demonstrate significant exposure-disease relationships suggesting OCPs can alter metabolic function and potentially lead to illness. There is limited study of interventions to facilitate OCP elimination from the human body. This study explored the efficacy of induced perspiration as a means to eliminate OCPs. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS were collected from 20 individuals. Analysis of 23 OCPs was performed using dual-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detectors. Results. Various OCPs and metabolites, including DDT, DDE, methoxychlor, endrin, and endosulfan sulfate, were excreted into perspiration. Generally, sweat samples showed more frequent OCP detection than serum or urine analysis. Many OCPs were not readily detected in blood testing while still being excreted and identified in sweat. No direct correlation was found among OCP concentrations in the blood, urine, or sweat compartments. Conclusions. Sweat analysis may be useful in detecting some accrued OCPs not found in regular serum testing. Induced perspiration may be a viable clinical tool for eliminating some OCPs.

  18. A novel integrated strategy for detection of human bocavirus based on a heminested PCR assay combined with boiling lysis method of samples in human specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Yao, Qing; Ma, Jing; Li, Jianning; Zhang, Qian; Yang, Yi; Li, Fang; Sun, Yuning

    2014-07-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) has been shown to be associated with acute respiratory tract infection in children. The aim of the work was to develop a novel integrated strategy for human bocavirus detection: heminested PCR assay combined with boiling lysis method of samples. The detection limit of the heminested PCR assay was 1.2 copies of a recombinant DNA plasmid, and no cross-reaction with other respiratory viruses or bacteria was observed. By using the integrated strategy, a total of 202 secretions of the lower respiratory tract of children with acute respiratory diseases were collected and tested. The samples were treated and lysed in boiling lysis buffer rather than extracting viral DNA from secretions, then these sample lysates could be templates and tested by heminested PCR assay, and the amplification of HBoV DNA was detected by using agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that, only 7 samples were found to be positive by conventional single-round PCR; importantly, the other new 41 samples were positive by heminested PCR assay. Additionally, the genomic viral DNA was extracted from all positive and some negative specimens, amplified, and sequenced. The results were perfectly consistent with those of the integrated strategy. Taken together, these results suggest that the novel integrated strategy (heminested PCR assay combined with boiling lysis method of samples) is a convenient, sensitive, cost-effective and reliable detective method for HBoV detection and will have broad application prospects in clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Deep coverage mouse red blood cell proteome: a first comparison with the human red blood cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Erica M; Kirkegaard, Morten; Salerno, Doris; Mortensen, Peter; Mann, Matthias; Thomas, Alan W

    2008-07-01

    Mice have close genetic/physiological relationships to humans, breed rapidly, and can be genetically modified, making them the most used mammal in biomedical research. Because the red blood cell (RBC) is the sole gas transporter in vertebrates, diseases of the RBC are frequently severe; much research has therefore focused on RBC and cardiovascular disorders of mouse and humans. RBCs also host malaria parasites. Recently we presented an in-depth proteome for the human RBC. Here we present directly comparable data for the mouse RBC as membrane-only, soluble-only, and combined membrane-bound/soluble proteomes (comprising, respectively, 247, 232, and 165 proteins). All proteins were identified, validated, and categorized in terms of subcellular localization, protein family, and function, and in comparison with the human RBC, were classified as orthologs, family-related, or unique. Splice isoforms were identified, and polypeptides migrating with anomalous apparent molecular weights were grouped into putatively ubiquitinated or partially degraded complexes. Overall there was close concordance between mouse and human proteomes, confirming the unexpected RBC complexity. Several novel findings in the human proteome have been confirmed here. This comparison sheds light on several open issues in RBC biology and provides a departure point for more comprehensive understanding of RBC function.

  20. Optoelectronic investigation of nanodiamond interactions with human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficek, M.; Wróbel, M. S.; Wasowicz, M.; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.

    2016-03-01

    We present optoelectronic investigation of in vitro interactions of whole human blood with different nanodiamond biomarkers. Plasmo-chemical modifications of detonation nanodiamond particles gives the possibility for controlling their surface for biological applications. Optical investigations reveal the biological activity of nanodiamonds in blood dependent on its surface termination. We compare different types of nanodiamonds: commercial non-modified detonation nanodiamonds, and nanodiamonds modified by MW PACVD method with H2-termination, and chemically modified nanodiamond with O2-termination. The absorption spectra, and optical microscope investigations were conducted. The results indicate haemocompatibility of non-modified detonation nanodiamond as well as modified nanodiamonds, which enables their application for drug delivery, as well as sensing applications.

  1. NI-24IMPROVING BIOBANKED SPECIMEN QUALITY: LABEL-FREE MICROSCOPIC ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN BRAIN TUMOR BIOPSIES PRIOR TO BIOBANKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschbacher, Jennifer; Georges, Joseph; Zehri, Aqib; Mooney, Michael; Carlson, Elizabeth; Nichols, Joshua; Farhat, Kalil; Anderson, Trent; Preul, Mark; Jensen, Kendall; Nakaji, Peter

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Biobanked brain tumor specimens share a critical shortcoming: the inability to efficiently screen tissue specimens prior to banking, potentially leading to storage of poor-quality samples. Standard histologic approaches to evaluate cellularity of tissue, such as frozen sectioning, may alter molecular characteristics and damage tissue for downstream analyses. Here, utilizing a novel ex vivo approach, we evaluate the feasibility of interrogating tissue cellularity and cytoarchitecture with label-free confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM) prior to biobanking. METHODS: Biopsies from patients with intracranial neoplasms (n = 3 for each; glioma, meningioma, pituitary adenoma, and schwannoma) were transported to the pathology department and placed in ice-cold saline. Samples were immediately positioned on the stage of our pathology-based Zeiss LSM710 confocal microscope and visualized with CRM. CRM images were evaluated for tumor cellularity, architecture and morphology, and then compared to corresponding permanent sections. RESULTS: CRM could contrast cellularity and stroma in all samples, as compared to corresponding permanent sections. Additionally, CRM contrasted vasculature and regions of necrosis in glioblastomas, tumor architecture in meningiomas and schwannomas, and sheets of neoplastic cells in pituitary ademonas. DISCUSSION: We found confocal reflectance microscopy to be a simple approach to screening biospecimens prior to biobanking. CRM quickly generated distinct ex vivo microscopic images from biopsies without tissue processing or application of exogenous dyes. CRM contrasted histopathological features present in our samples, and produced images that could be digitally stored and recalled with the matched specimen in the biobank. In our previous studies, we reported CRM did not alter the molecular integrity of fresh biopsies from brain tumor animal models. We hypothesize that wider use of this technique could improve the quality of banked tissue.

  2. Simultaneous determination and validated quantification of human insulin and its synthetic analogues in human blood serum by immunoaffinity purification and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Cornelius; Thomas, Andreas; Thevis, Mario; Stratmann, Bernd; Quester, Wulf; Tschoepe, Diethelm; Madea, Burkhard; Musshoff, Frank

    2012-10-01

    Possible fatal complications of human insulin and its synthetic analogues like hypoglycemia require precise classification and quantitative determination of these drugs both for clinical purposes as well as for forensic toxicologists. A procedure was developed for the identification and quantification of human insulin and different long-acting as well as short-acting synthetic insulins in human blood serum specimens. After an immunoaffinity purification step and separation by liquid chromatography, the insulins were characterized by their five- or sixfold protonated molecule ions and diagnostic product ions. Clinical samples of 207 diabetic and 50 non-diabetic patients after the administration of human insulin or oral antidiabetics and forensic samples were analyzed for human/synthetic insulin concentrations. The method was validated according to international guidelines. Limits of detection of the insulins ranged between 1.3 and 2.8 μU/ml. Recoveries ranged between 33.2 % and 51.7 %. Precision data was in accordance with international guidelines. Clinical samples showed concentrations of human insulin lower than 301 μU/ml. Our liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry procedure allows unambiguous identification and quantification of the intact human insulin and its intact synthetic analogues Humalog®, Novolog®, Apidra®, Lantus®, and Levemir® in human blood serum in clinical and overdose cases. The assay could be successfully tested in patients with diabetes mellitus on therapy with insulins or oral antidiabetics.

  3. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of human rhino- and enteroviruses in clinical specimens by real-time PCR with locked nucleic Acid probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterback, Riikka; Tevaluoto, Tuire; Ylinen, Tiina; Peltola, Ville; Susi, Petri; Hyypiä, Timo; Waris, Matti

    2013-12-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) and human enteroviruses (HEVs) are significant respiratory pathogens. While HRV infections are restricted to the respiratory tract, HEV infections may spread to secondary target organs. The method of choice for sensitive specific detection of these viruses is reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with primers targeting the conserved 5' noncoding region of the viral RNA. On the other hand, sequence similarities between HRVs and HEVs complicate their differential detection. In this study, we describe the use of locked nucleic acid (LNA) analogues in short double-dye probes which contained only two selectively HRV- or HEV-specific bases. The double-stranded DNA dye BOXTO (4-[6-(benzoxazole-2-yl-(3-methyl-)-2,3-dihydro-(benzo-1,3-thiazole)-2-methylidene)]-1-methyl-quinolinium chloride) was used with the LNA probes in a tricolor real-time PCR assay to allow specific detection of HRVs (probes labeled with 6-carboxyfluorescein [FAM] [green]) and HEVs (Cy5 [red]) with additional melting curve analysis (BOXTO [yellow]). The functionality of the probes was validated in PCR and RT-PCR assays using plasmids containing viral cDNA, quantified viral RNA transcripts, cultivated rhino- and enterovirus prototypes, and clinical specimens. Of 100 HRV and 63 HEV prototypes, the probes correctly identified all HEVs except one that produced only a BOXTO signal. Among 118 clinical specimens with sequencing results, concordant results were obtained for 116 specimens. Two specimens were reactive with both probes, but sequencing yielded only a single virus. Real-time PCR with LNA probes allowed sensitive group-specific identification of HRVs and HEVs and would enable relative copy number determination. The assay is suitable for rapid and accurate differential detection of HRVs and HEVs in a diagnostic laboratory setting.

  4. Distribution of Blood Groups(ABO between Symptomatic & Asymptomatic Human Leishmania Infantum Infection in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Molaie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: According to the hypothesis that leishmania parasites can be escaped from immune system covered by blood group antigens (ABO to prevent its recognition by the immune system. The aim of this study was to show the associated blood groups with symptomatic or asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum in human. Methods: In this cross-sectional study the population was divided into two groups. The first group included 54 patients with kala-azar (antibody against Leishmania titers ≥1:3200 by TDA with clinical specificity and the second group consisted of 45 subjects infected with Leishmania infantum (Leishmania antibody titers of1: 800 and 1:1600 by DAT method and non-specific symptoms. The distribution of the 4 main blood groups ABO type, sex, age, presence or absence of symptoms, clinical signs, and response to Glucantim therapy and DAT results were evaluated. Data were analyzed by chi-square test. Results: Most of the patients in group 1 were blood group A (37% and the lowest number of blood group were B (12.8%. In the second group, most of the ABO blood group A (42.2% and lowest in the ABO blood group AB (8.9%.There was no significant association between blood groups and clinical symptoms (p>0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that there is no association between blood group and incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic kala-azar. Key words: Leishmania Infantum, Kala-azar, Blood Group, Human

  5. ZIP8 expression in human proximal tubule cells, human urothelial cells transformed by Cd+2 and As+3 and in specimens of normal human urothelium and urothelial cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ajjimaporn Amornpan; Botsford Tom; Garrett Scott H; Sens Mary; Zhou Xu; Dunlevy Jane R; Sens Donald A; Somji Seema

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background ZIP8 functions endogenously as a Zn+2/HCO3- symporter that can also bring cadmium (Cd+2) into the cell. It has also been proposed that ZIP8 participates in Cd-induced testicular necrosis and renal disease. In this study real-time PCR, western analysis, immunostaining and fluorescent localization were used to define the expression of ZIP8 in human kidney, cultured human proximal tubule (HPT) cells, normal and malignant human urothelium and Cd+2 and arsenite (As+3) transform...

  6. Application of blood culture bottles for culturing vitreous specimen in endophthalmitis cases%血培养瓶在眼内炎患者玻璃体标本细菌培养中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟娟; 黎铧; 孔蕾; 胡竹林

    2011-01-01

    目的 对比研究采用血培养瓶和传统培养基对眼内炎患者玻璃体标本的细菌培养的方法及效果.方法回顾性分析我院2008年至2010年所诊治的眼内炎患者102例(102眼),平均年龄(35.6±8.5)岁.所有患者均行玻璃体切割术,术中收集玻璃体腔液样本,分别注入血培养瓶和肉汤管(传统培养基)中进行培养,对培养结果及阳性率进行统计分析.结果血培养瓶细菌培养阳性率为60.8%(62例),传统培养基细菌培养阳性率为31.4%(32例).葡萄球菌是最常见的致病菌,两种培养基阳性率分别为24.19% (15/62)、25.00% (8/32).结论将玻璃体腔液直接注入血培养瓶中进行细菌培养,操作方便,细菌培养阳性率高于传统培养方法,值得推广.%Objective To study the application of blood culture bottles and conventional culture for culturing vitreous specimens in endophthalmitis cases. Methods With 102 eyes of 102 patients with mean age of 35.6 years with endophthalmitis presenting from 2008 to 2010 were retrospectively studied. Vitreous fluid specimens of these patients were cultured in blood culture bottles and conventional culture. The positive rate and culture results were analyzed. Resolts Vitreous specimens yielded positive was60.8%(62 cases)with blood culture botUes,3l.4% (32 cases)with conventional culture. The most common organism was Staphyiococcus epidermidis, the positive rates were 24.19% (15/62) and 25. 00% (8/32) in two cultures. Conclusions The direct inoculation of vitreous specimens into the blood culture bottles is easy to perform,with a high yield positive rate. It may be an alternative way to conventional culture media for culturing vitreous specimen in infectious endophthalmitis.

  7. Human Umbilical Cord Blood for Transplantation Therapy in Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Sandra A; Franzese, Nick; Staples, Meaghan; Weinbren, Nathan L; Babilonia, Monica; Patel, Jason; Merchant, Neil; Simancas, Alejandra Jacotte; Slakter, Adam; Caputo, Mathew; Patel, Milan; Franyuti, Giorgio; Franzblau, Max H; Suarez, Lyanne; Gonzales-Portillo, Chiara; Diamandis, Theo; Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Tajiri, Naoki; Sanberg, Paul R; Kaneko, Yuji; Miller, Leslie W; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2013-07-01

    Cell-based therapy is a promising therapy for myocardial infarction. Endogenous repair of the heart muscle after myocardial infarction is a challenge because adult cardiomyocytes have a limited capacity to proliferate and replace damaged cells. Pre-clinical and clinical evidence has shown that cell based therapy may promote revascularization and replacement of damaged myocytes after myocardial infarction. Adult stem cells can be harvested from different sources including bone marrow, skeletal myoblast, and human umbilical cord blood cells. The use of these cells for the repair of myocardial infarction presents various advantages over other sources of stem cells. Among these are easy harvesting, unlimited differentiation capability, and robust angiogenic potential. In this review, we discuss the milestone findings and the most recent evidence demonstrating the therapeutic efficacy and safety of the transplantation of human umbilical cord blood cells as a stand-alone therapy or in combination with gene therapy, highlighting the importance of optimizing the timing, dose and delivery methods, and a better understanding of the mechanisms of action that will guide the clinical entry of this innovative treatment for ischemic disorders, specifically myocardial infarction.

  8. Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown in the Aging Human Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, Axel; Barnes, Samuel R.; Sweeney, Melanie D.; Halliday, Matthew R.; Sagare, Abhay P.; Zhao, Zhen; Toga, Arthur W.; Jacobs, Russell E.; Liu, Collin Y.; Amezcua, Lilyana; Harrington, Michael G.; Chui, Helena C.; Law, Meng; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits entry of blood-derived products, pathogens and cells into the brain that is essential for normal neuronal functioning and information processing. Post-mortem tissue analysis indicates BBB damage in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The timing of BBB breakdown remains, however, elusive. Using an advanced dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging protocol with high spatial and temporal resolutions to quantify regional BBB permeability in the living human brain, we show an age-dependent BBB breakdown in the hippocampus, a region critical for learning and memory that is affected early in AD. The BBB breakdown in the hippocampus and its CA1 and dentate gyrus subdivisions worsened with mild cognitive impairment that correlated with injury to BBB-associated pericytes, as shown by the cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Our data suggest that BBB breakdown is an early event in the aging human brain that begins in the hippocampus and may contribute to cognitive impairment. PMID:25611508

  9. Gene Expression Analysis of an EGFR Indirectly Related Pathway Identified PTEN and MMP9 as Reliable Diagnostic Markers for Human Glial Tumor Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Comincini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the mRNA levels of five EGFR indirectly related genes, EGFR, HB-EGF, ADAM17, PTEN, and MMP9, have been assessed by Real-time PCR in a panel of 37 glioblastoma multiforme specimens and in 5 normal brain samples; as a result, in glioblastoma, ADAM17 and PTEN expression was significantly lower than in normal brain samples, and, in particular, a statistically significant inverse correlation was found between PTEN and MMP9 mRNA levels. To verify if this correlation was conserved in gliomas, PTEN and MMP9 expression was further investigated in an additional panel of 16 anaplastic astrocytoma specimens and, in parallel, in different human normal and astrocytic tumor cell lines. In anaplastic astrocytomas PTEN expression was significantly higher than in glioblastoma multiforme, but no significant correlation was found between PTEN and MMP9 expression. PTEN and MMP9 mRNA levels were also employed to identify subgroups of specimens within the different glioma malignancy grades and to define a gene expression-based diagnostic classification scheme. In conclusion, this gene expression survey highlighted that the combined measurement of PTEN and MMP9 transcripts might represent a novel reliable tool for the differential diagnosis of high-grade gliomas, and it also suggested a functional link involving these genes in glial tumors.

  10. Human papillomavirus genotyping after denaturation of specimens for Hybrid Capture 2 testing: feasibility study for the HPV persistence and progression cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMere, Brandon J; Kornegay, Janet; Fetterman, Barbara; Sadorra, Mark; Shieh, Jen; Castle, Philip E

    2007-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping could be clinically useful, depending on the results of large, prospective studies like the HPV persistence and progression (PaP) cohort. The cohort is based on genotyping and follow-up of Hybrid Capture-positive women at Kaiser Permanente, Northern California. HPV DNA testing by Hybrid Capture 2 requires denaturation with alkali, possibly damaging the DNA for optimal PCR-based genotyping. A feasibility study was conducted on paired aliquots of anonymized specimens from 100 women with low-grade intraepithelial lesion cytology. Test aliquots were left in denaturant for 10 or 18h at 4 degrees C and then neutralized; comparison aliquots were not denatured but diluted to match the timing, temperature, concentration and salt conditions of the treated specimens. The masked aliquots were tested using a commercialized PCR-based assay that detects of 37 HPV genotypes. There was no overall effect of treatment on test positivity or number of types. HPV16 was marginally more likely to be detected in untreated versus treated aliquots (P=0.09) but HPV45 was marginally more likely to be detected in treated than untreated aliquots (P=0.07), suggesting that these differences represented chance (intra-test variability). It can be concluded that residual Hybrid Capture-positive specimens can be genotyped by PCR after Hybrid Capture 2 processing.

  11. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  12. 78 FR 32668 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Changes to an Approved Application: Biological Products: Human Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Changes to an Approved Application: Biological Products: Human Blood and Blood Components Intended for Transfusion or for Further Manufacture'' dated June 2013. The draft guidance document provides manufacturers of licensed Whole Blood and blood components intended for......

  13. Amyloid β levels in human red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Kiko

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ is hypothesized to play a key role by oxidatively impairing the capacity of red blood cells (RBCs to deliver oxygen to the brain. These processes are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Although plasma Aβ has been investigated thoroughly, the presence and distribution of Aβ in human RBCs are still unclear. In this study, we quantitated Aβ40 and Aβ42 in human RBCs with ELISA assays, and provided evidence that significant amounts of Aβ could be detected in RBCs and that the RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. The RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. On the other hand, providing an antioxidant supplement (astaxanthin, a polar carotenoid to humans was found to decrease RBC Aβ as well as oxidative stress marker levels. These results suggest that plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 bind to RBCs (possibly with aging, implying a pathogenic role of RBC Aβ. Moreover, the data indicate that RBC Aβ40 and Aβ42 may constitute biomarkers of AD. As a preventive strategy, therapeutic application of astaxanthin as an Aβ-lowering agent in RBCs could be considered as a possible anti-dementia agent. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN42483402.

  14. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells from blood cells of healthy donors and patients with acquired blood disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from somatic cells hold promise to develop novel patient-specific cell therapies and research models for inherited and acquired diseases. We and others previously reprogrammed human adherent cells, such as postnatal fibroblasts to iPS cells, which resemble adherent embryonic stem cells. Here we report derivation of iPS cells from postnatal human blood cells and the potential of these pluripotent cells for disease modeling. Multiple human iPS ...

  15. Difficulty of ABO blood group specimen phenotype and gene detection%疑难 ABO 血型标本的表型与相应等位基因的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the analysis of difficult specimens of ABO blood group and its allele detection ,for clinical encounter difficulty provide reliable blood specimens of ABO blood group identification method .Methods Se‐lected during August 2013 to August 2014 working in the hospital each department makes clinical patient blood samples from 9 cases ,first of all ,according to the conventional blood detection techniques for ABO serological test ,determine ABO positive and negative stereotypes ,again using guanidine hydrochloride/proteinase K cracking after extraction of ETDA anticoagulant treatment of peripheral vein for DNA extraction ,then using the method of polymerase chain reac‐tion sequence specific primers (PCR SSP) ABO blood group 9 cases of blood sample genotyping detection .Results 9 cases of clinical serological phenotype for patients :AxB in 2 cases ,AB ,and 1 case ,and A and B ,and 1 case ,Ax in 2 ca‐ses ,B ,and 3 cases ,9 cases of patients with genotype ,respectively is :A/B 4 cases ,2 cases of A/O ,B/O 3 cases ,meas‐ured by PCR‐SSP genotype is consistent with the results of serological phenotype .Conclusion Using the method of polymerase chain reaction sequence specific primers (PCR SSP) ABO blood group identification results of serological method for positive and negative don't finalize the design difficulty of blood specimens tested genotypes ,to accurately determine the patient's blood group antigen ,for clinical patients with complicated ABO blood group provide guarantee for safe and effective blood scheme .%目的:探讨分析疑难ABO血型标本与其等位基因的检测,为临床遇到的疑难ABO血型标本提供可靠的血型鉴定方法。方法选取2013年8月到2014年8月期间在笔者就职医院各科室送检的临床病人血液样本9例,首先按照常规血型检测技术进行ABO血型血清学试验,确定ABO正反定型,再采用盐酸胍/蛋白酶K裂解提取法对ETDA抗凝处理后的静脉外周

  16. Microdialysis in the femoral head of the minipig and in a blood cloth of human blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgehøj, Morten Foged; Emmeluth, Claus; Overgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Microdialysis can detect ischemia in soft tissue. In a previous study, we have shown the development of ischemia in the femoral head removed from patients undergoing total hip replacement. That study also raised some methodological questions that this study tries to answer: what...... is happening in the dead space around the catheter in the drill canal, and is there an equilibrium period after the insertion of the catheter? Material and methods In an ex-vivo study using 5 syringes with 5 mL human blood, a microdialysis catheter was inserted and microdialysis was performed over 3 h....... In an in-vivo study, a drill hole was made in the proximal part of the femur in 6 mature Göttingen minipigs and microdialysis was performed over 3 h. The pigs were kept normoventilated during the experiment. Results The ex-vivo microdialysis results showed that lactate kept a steady level and glucose...

  17. PCR amplification of Bartonella koehlerae from human blood and enrichment blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitschwerdt Edward B

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cats appear to be the primary reservoir host for Bartonella koehlerae, an alpha Proteobacteria that is most likely transmitted among cat populations by fleas (Ctenocephalides felis. Bartonella koehlerae has caused endocarditis in a dog and in one human patient from Israel, but other clinically relevant reports involving this bacterium are lacking. Despite publication of numerous, worldwide epidemiological studies designed to determine the prevalence of Bartonella spp. bacteremia in cats, B. koehlerae has never been isolated using conventional blood agar plates. To date, successful isolation of B. koehlerae from cats and from the one human endocarditis patient has consistently required the use of chocolate agar plates. Results In this study, Bartonella koehlerae bacteremia was documented in eight immunocompetent patients by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing, either prior to or after enrichment blood culture using Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium. Presenting symptoms most often included fatigue, insomnia, joint pain, headache, memory loss, and muscle pain. Four patients were also infected with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II. After molecular documentation of B. koehlerae infection in these patients, a serological test was developed and serum samples were tested retrospectively. Bartonella koehlerae antibodies were not detected (titers B. koehlerae antibody titers of 1:64 or greater. Conclusions Although biased by a study population consisting of individuals with extensive arthropod and animal exposure, the results of this study suggest that B. koehlerae bacteremia is more common in immunocompetent people than has been previously suspected. Future studies should more thoroughly define modes of transmission and risk factors for acquiring infection with B. koehlerae. In addition, studies are needed to determine if B. koehlerae is a cause or cofactor in the development of arthritis, peripheral

  18. Real-time polymerase chain reaction with melting analysis of positive blood culture specimens in bloodstream infections: diagnostic value and turnaround time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, Silvia; Gherardi, Giovanni; De Florio, Lucia; Avola, Alessandra; Crea, Francesca; Riva, Elisabetta; Vitali, Massimiliano Andrea; Galluzzo, Sara; Dicuonzo, Giordano

    2013-01-01

    A Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with melting analysis was devised to target bacterial and fungal genes together with the most prevalent antimicrobial resistance genes in 250 positive blood culture broths. This method allowed the blood culture cultivated pathogens to be classified into clinically relevant groups such as Enterobacteriaceae, oxidase-positive bacilli, oxidase-positive coccobacilli, S. aureus and yeast. Enterococci and streptococci could be distinguished from CoNS only by the Gram stain. Gram-positive bacilli were discriminated from Gram-positive cocci by Gram stain. Furthermore, the most important antimicrobial resistant genes such as mecA, vanA, bla TEM , bla SHV and bla CTX-M could be identified. All results were obtained with a turnaround time of three hours from the moment of blood culture positivity compared to 24-72 hours for phenotypic methods. In conclusion, the proposed approach can allow the clinician to implement proper early management of sepsis patients.

  19. Copper(II) complexes encapsulated in human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, R P; De Flora, A; Rizzarelli, E; Santoro, A M; Tabbí, G; Tonetti, M

    1995-09-01

    Copper(II) complexes were encapsulated in human red blood cells in order to test their possible use as antioxidant drugs by virtue of their labile character. ESR spectroscopy was used to verify whether encapsulation in red blood cells leads to the modification of such complexes. With copper(II) complexes bound to dipeptides or tripeptides, an interaction with hemoglobin was found to be present, the hemoglobin having a strong coordinative site formed by four nitrogen donor atoms. Instead, with copper(II) complexes with TAD or PheANN3, which have the greatest stability. ESR spectra always showed the original species. Only the copper(II) complex with GHL gave rise to a complicated behavior, which contained signals from iron(III) species probably coming from oxidative processes. Encapsulation of all copper(II) complexes in erythrocytes caused a slight oxidative stress, compared to the unloaded and to the native cells. However, no significant differences were observed in the major metabolic properties (GSH, glycolytic rate, hexose monophosphate shunt, Ca(2+)-ATPase) of erythrocytes loaded with different copper(II) complexes, with the exception of methemoglobin levels, which were markedly increased in the case of [Cu(GHL)H-1] compared to [Cu(TAD)]. This latter finding suggests that methemoglobin formation can be affected by the type of complex used for encapsulation, depending on the direct interaction of the copper(II) complex with hemoglobin.

  20. Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cell Transplantation in Neuroregenerative Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa R. Galieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available At present there is no effective treatment of pathologies associated with the death of neurons and glial cells which take place as a result of physical trauma or ischemic lesions of the nervous system. Thus, researchers have high hopes for a treatment based on the use of stem cells (SC, which are potentially able to replace dead cells and synthesize neurotrophic factors and other molecules that stimulate neuroregeneration. We are often faced with ethical issues when selecting a source of SC. In addition to precluding these, human umbilical cord blood (hUCB presents a number of advantages when compared with other sources of SC. In this review, we consider the key characteristics of hUCB, the results of various studies focused on the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ischemic (stroke and traumatic injuries of the nervous system and the molecular mechanisms of hUCB-derived mononuclear and stem cells.

  1. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Alexandra; Olmer, Ruth; Schwanke, Kristin; Wunderlich, Stephanie; Merkert, Sylvia; Hess, Christian; Zweigerdt, Robert; Gruh, Ina; Meyer, Johann; Wagner, Stefan; Maier, Lars S; Han, Dong Wook; Glage, Silke; Miller, Konstantin; Fischer, Philipp; Schöler, Hans R; Martin, Ulrich

    2009-10-02

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may represent an ideal cell source for future regenerative therapies. A critical issue concerning the clinical use of patient-specific iPSCs is the accumulation of mutations in somatic (stem) cells over an organism's lifetime. Acquired somatic mutations are passed onto iPSCs during reprogramming and may be associated with loss of cellular functions and cancer formation. Here we report the generation of human iPSCs from cord blood (CB) as a juvenescent cell source. CBiPSCs show characteristics typical of embryonic stem cells and can be differentiated into derivatives of all three germ layers, including functional cardiomyocytes. For future therapeutic production of autologous and allogeneic iPSC derivatives, CB could be routinely harvested for public and commercial CB banks without any donor risk. CB could readily become available for pediatric patients and, in particular, for newborns with genetic diseases or congenital malformations.

  2. Manipulation on human red blood cells with femtosecond optical tweezers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zhou; Haifeng Yang; Jianke Di; Enlan Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Different types of femtosecond optical tweezers have become a powerful tool in the modern biological field. However, how to control the irregular targets, including biological cells, using femtosecond optical tweezers remains to be explored. In this study, human red blood cells (hRBCs) are manipulated with femtosecond optical tweezers, and their states under different laser powers are investigated. The results indicate that optical potential traps only can capture the edge of hRBCs under the laser power from 1.4 to 2.8 mW, while it can make hRBCs turn over with the laser power more than 2.8 roW. It is suggested that femtosecond optical tweezers could not only manipulate biological cells, but also subtly control its states by adjusting the laser power.

  3. Regulation of the skeletal muscle blood flow in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan; Saltin, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    In humans, skeletal muscle blood flow is regulated by an interaction between several locally formed vasodilators including nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins. In plasma, ATP is a potent vasodilator that stimulates the formation of NO and prostaglandins and very importantly can offset local...... sympathetic vasoconstriction. ATP is released into plasma from erythrocytes and endothelial cells and the plasma concentration increases in both the feeding artery and the vein draining the contracting skeletal muscle. Adenosine also stimulates the formation of NO and prostaglandins, but the plasma adenosine...... and endothelial cells. In the interstitium, both ATP and adenosine stimulate the formation of NO and prostaglandins, but ATP has also been suggested to induce vasoconstriction and stimulate afferent nerves that signal to increase sympathetic nerve activity. Adenosine has been shown to contribute to exercise...

  4. Prevalence of genes encoding pyrogenic toxin superantigens and exfoliative toxins among strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from blood and nasal specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Karsten; Friedrich, Alexander W; Lubritz, Gabriele; Weilert, Maria; Peters, Georg; Von Eiff, Christof

    2003-01-01

    A total of 429 different Staphylococcus aureus isolates encompassing 219 blood isolates and 210 isolates taken from anterior nares were systematically searched by two multiplex PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassays (PCR-DEIA) for exfoliative toxin (ET) genes eta and etb, as well as for the classical members o

  5. Comparison of DNA extraction kits for detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in spiked human whole blood using real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Podnecky

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is endemic in northern Australia and Southeast Asia and can cause severe septicemia that may lead to death in 20% to 50% of cases. Rapid detection of B. pseudomallei infection is crucial for timely treatment of septic patients. This study evaluated seven commercially available DNA extraction kits to determine the relative recovery of B. pseudomallei DNA from spiked EDTA-containing human whole blood. The evaluation included three manual kits: the QIAamp DNA Mini kit, the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit, and the High Pure PCR Template Preparation kit; and four automated systems: the MagNAPure LC using the DNA Isolation Kit I, the MagNAPure Compact using the Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit I, and the QIAcube using the QIAamp DNA Mini kit and the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit. Detection of B. pseudomallei DNA extracted by each kit was performed using the B. pseudomallei specific type III secretion real-time PCR (TTS1 assay. Crossing threshold (C T values were used to compare the limit of detection and reproducibility of each kit. This study also compared the DNA concentrations and DNA purity yielded for each kit. The following kits consistently yielded DNA that produced a detectable signal from blood spiked with 5.5×10(4 colony forming units per mL: the High Pure PCR Template Preparation, QIAamp DNA Mini, MagNA Pure Compact, and the QIAcube running the QIAamp DNA Mini and QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kits. The High Pure PCR Template Preparation kit yielded the lowest limit of detection with spiked blood, but when this kit was used with blood from patients with confirmed cases of melioidosis, the bacteria was not reliably detected indicating blood may not be an optimal specimen.

  6. Ex vivo expansion of human peripheral blood progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabannon, C; Herrera-Rodriguez, D; Bardin, F; Mouren, M; Novakovitch, G; Blaise, D; Maraninchi, D; Mannoni, P

    1995-01-01

    Culture of human hematopoietic progenitors on a large scale could lead to several clinical applications within the near future, including the production of differentiated and functional cells, the increase in the number of early progenitors, especially stem cells, with such use as gene transfer, or the improvement of grafts used to limit the hematological toxicity associated with high-dose chemotherapy. In this case, one can still distinguish different objectives: improvement of grafts that contain low numbers of progenitors because of prior chemotherapies or because of marrow involvement for example, and qualitative changes in the graft content that would allow to envision the disappearance, or the further reduction, in the duration of absolute neutropenia that follows delivery of high dose chemotherapy ("nadir rescue"), despite substitution of mobilized blood cells to marrow cells and the in vivo use of hematopoietic growth factors. Additional advantages may be related to tumor purging in autologous expanded cells, and to the change in the ratio between hematopoietic progenitors and immunocompetent cells in allogeneic expanded populations. Therefore it appears that in vitro expansion currently raises two types of questions: the first ones are related to the definition of clinical or biological endpoints to be achieved, the second ones are related to "bioengineering", and deal with the efficiency and safety of progenitor cell cultures to be used for clinical applications. We here present preliminary results preparing future pilot clinical studies with ex vivo cultured human hematopoietic cells.

  7. Human red blood cells deformed under thermal fluid flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Ji-Jinn; Chan, Vincent; Feng, Zhi-Qin; Liu, Kuo-Kang

    2006-03-01

    The flow-induced mechanical deformation of a human red blood cell (RBC) during thermal transition between room temperature and 42.0 degrees C is interrogated by laser tweezer experiments. Based on the experimental geometry of the deformed RBC, the surface stresses are determined with the aid of computational fluid dynamics simulation. It is found that the RBC is more deformable while heating through 37.0 degrees C to 42.0 degrees C, especially at a higher flow velocity due to a thermal-fluid effect. More importantly, the degree of RBC deformation is irreversible and becomes softer, and finally reaches a plateau (at a uniform flow velocity U > 60 microm s(-1)) after the heat treatment, which is similar to a strain-hardening dominated process. In addition, computational simulated stress is found to be dependent on the progression of thermotropic phase transition. Overall, the current study provides new insights into the highly coupled temperature and hydrodynamic effects on the biomechanical properties of human erythrocyte in a model hydrodynamic flow system.

  8. The distribution and antimicrobial resistance analysis of pathogens isolated from blood specimens of neonates%新生儿血培养病原菌分布及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李响新; 胡型忠; 陈秀平; 项领

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨新生儿血培养病原菌分布及耐药性,为临床合理使用抗菌药提供依据.方法:对我院新生儿科2009年6月-2011年6月的血培养细菌分布及耐药性进行回顾性分析.结果:1868例新生儿血培养标本共检出细菌210株,阳性率为11.2%.细菌以凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌为主(160株,占76.2%),革兰阴性杆菌仅23株占11.0%,以大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌为主.葡萄球菌属对青霉素的敏感率最低为7.7%,苯唑西林为31.4%;粪肠球菌对万古霉素、替考拉宁100.0%敏感;革兰阴性杆菌对阿莫西林的敏感率<30.0%,抗菌活性较好的药物是哌拉西林/他唑巴坦、亚胺培南和美罗培南.结论:新生儿血培养病原菌以凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌为主,其耐药性强,因此,加强血培养的检测和药敏试验对指导临床医师合理使用抗菌药非常有必要.%Objective: To investigate distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogens causing neonatal septicemia, and to provide references for clinical treatment. Methods: The data of distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogens collected from blood specimens of neonatal sepsis patients from June 2009 to June 2011 in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Re-S;lltS: 210 pathogenic strains were isolated from 1868 blood specimens, and the positive rate was 11. 2%. The strains of coagu-lase - negative staphylococci ( CNS) were the most frequent detected isolates, accounting for 76. 2% . Only 23 gram - negative strains were isolated, accounting for 11.0% , while escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae ranked in top two. Staphylococci showed the lowest susceptibility rate against penicillin was 7. 7% while oxacillin was 31. 4%. All the Enterococcus strains were susceptible to teicoplanin and vancomycin. The susceptibility rate of Gram - negative bacteria to amoxicillin was lower than 30% , whereas piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem and meropenem maintained

  9. Genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV and co-infections in cervical cytologic specimens from two outpatient gynecological clinics in a region of southeast Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egea-Cortines Marcos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV genotype distribution and co-infection occurrence was studied in cervical cytologic specimens from Murcia Region, (southeast Spain, to obtain information regarding the possible effect of the ongoing vaccination campaign against HPV16 and HPV18. Methods A total of 458 cytologic specimens were obtained from two outpatient gynecological clinics. These included 288 normal benign (N/B specimens, 56 atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASC-US, 75 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL and 39 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL. HPV genotyping was performed using PCR and tube array hybridization. Results The most frequent genotype found was HPV16 (14.9% in N/B; 17.9% in ASC-US; 29.3% in LSIL and 33.3% HSIL. Distribution of other genotypes was heavily dependent on the cytologic diagnoses. Co-infections were found in 15.3% of N/B, 10.7% of ASC-US, 48% of LSIL and 25.6% of HSIL cases (significantly different at p Conclusion HPV vaccination might prevent 34.6% and 35.8% of LSIL and HSIL, respectively. Co-infection rate is dependent on both cytologic diagnosis and HPV genotype. Moreover, genotypes belonging to A5, A7 and A9 species are more often found as co-infections than genotype pertaining to A6 species. This suggests that phylogenetically related genotypes might have in common similar grades of dependency for cervical epithelium colonization.

  10. Erythropoietic Potential of CD34+ Hematopoietic Stem Cells from Human Cord Blood and G-CSF-Mobilized Peripheral Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglian Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cell (RBC supply for transfusion has been severely constrained by the limited availability of donor blood and the emergence of infection and contamination issues. Alternatively, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs from human organs have been increasingly considered as safe and effective blood source. Several methods have been studied to obtain mature RBCs from CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells via in vitro culture. Among them, human cord blood (CB and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized adult peripheral blood (mPB are common adult stem cells used for allogeneic transplantation. Our present study focuses on comparing CB- and mPB-derived stem cells in differentiation from CD34+ cells into mature RBCs. By using CD34+ cells from cord blood and G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood, we showed in vitro RBC generation of artificial red blood cells. Our results demonstrate that CB- and mPB-derived CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells have similar characteristics when cultured under the same conditions, but differ considerably with respect to expression levels of various genes and hemoglobin development. This study is the first to compare the characteristics of CB- and mPB-derived erythrocytes. The results support the idea that CB and mPB, despite some similarities, possess different erythropoietic potentials in in vitro culture systems.

  11. Raising the standard: changes to the Australian Code of Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) for human blood and blood components, human tissues and human cellular therapy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Craig; Velickovic, Zlatibor; Brown, Ross; Larsen, Stephen; Macpherson, Janet L; Gibson, John; Rasko, John E J

    2014-04-01

    In Australia, manufacture of blood, tissues and biologicals must comply with the federal laws and meet the requirements of the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) Manufacturing Principles as outlined in the current Code of Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP). The Therapeutic Goods Order (TGO) No. 88 was announced concurrently with the new cGMP, as a new standard for therapeutic goods. This order constitutes a minimum standard for human blood, tissues and cellular therapeutic goods aimed at minimising the risk of infectious disease transmission. The order sets out specific requirements relating to donor selection, donor testing and minimisation of infectious disease transmission from collection and manufacture of these products. The Therapeutic Goods Manufacturing Principles Determination No. 1 of 2013 references the human blood and blood components, human tissues and human cellular therapy products 2013 (2013 cGMP). The name change for the 2013 cGMP has allowed a broadening of the scope of products to include human cellular therapy products. It is difficult to directly compare versions of the code as deletion of some clauses has not changed the requirements to be met, as they are found elsewhere amongst the various guidelines provided. Many sections that were specific for blood and blood components are now less prescriptive and apply to a wider range of cellular therapies, but the general overall intent remains the same. Use of 'should' throughout the document instead of 'must' allows flexibility for alternative processes, but these systems will still require justification by relevant logical argument and validation data to be acceptable to TGA. The cGMP has seemingly evolved so that specific issues identified at audit over the last decade have now been formalised in the new version. There is a notable risk management approach applied to most areas that refer to process justification and decision making. These requirements commenced on 31 May 2013 and a 12 month

  12. 人体解剖标本陈列室开放的实践与探索%Exploration and Practice to open Human Anatomy Specimen Showroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The opening of the body specimen showroom is the need of experimental teaching reform and development is also the need to play the social function fully. In order to make full use of the resources,improve the quality of anatomy experiment teaching; educate high quality sports talent, propaganda popular science knowledge. This paper discussed the construction situation of the human body specimen showroom,open form and specific problems in the process of open and the solving measures.%人体解剖标本陈列室开放是实验教学改革和发展的需要,也是发挥社会功能的需要。为使资源得到充分利用,提高解剖学实验教学质量,培养高素质体育人才,宣传科普知识,就人体标本陈列室的建设情况、开放形式及在开放过程中存在的具体问题和解决措施进行了探讨。

  13. Rapid detection of Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: use of a simple DNA extraction procedure and nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabodonirina, M; Raffenot, D; Cotte, L; Boibieux, A; Mayençon, M; Bayle, G; Persat, F; Rabatel, F; Trepo, C; Peyramond, D; Piens, M A

    1997-11-01

    We report on the development of a rapid nested PCR protocol for the detection of Pneumocystis carinii DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens in which the protocol included the use of a commercially available DNA extraction kit (GeneReleaser). GeneReleaser enabled us to obtain amplification-ready DNA within 20 min without requiring the purification of the DNA. The nested PCR was performed with the primers pAZ102-E, pAZ102-H, and pAZ102-L2 (A. E. Wakefield, F. J. Pixley, S. Banerji, K. Sinclair, R. F. Miller, E. R. Moxon, and J. M. Hopkin, Lancet 336:451-453, 1990.). Results were obtained in about 4 h with the adoption of denaturation, annealing, and extension steps shortened to 20 seconds. The sensitivity of the nested PCR was tested with a P. carinii cyst suspension and was found to be less than one cyst (one to eight nuclei). The detection limit was the same with the use of GeneReleaser or proteinase K-phenol chloroform for DNA extraction. The nested PCR assay was prospectively compared with staining with Giemsa and methenamine silver stains for the detection of P. carinii in 127 BAL samples from 105 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients investigated for acute respiratory illness. Twenty-five BAL specimens (20%) were positive by staining and the nested PCR and 25 (20%) were negative by staining and positive by the nested PCR. These 25 BAL specimens with conflicting results were obtained from 23 patients, 82% of whom were receiving prophylactic therapy against P. carinii pneumonia (PCP). Only two patients were diagnosed with possible PCP. The final diagnosis was not PCP for 20 patients who were considered to be colonized or to have a low level of infection. This colonization is not of clinical importance but is of epidemiological importance. Our rapid, simple, and sensitive amplification protocol may be performed in clinical laboratories for the routine diagnosis of PCP with BAL specimens.

  14. Novel, high-yield red blood cell production methods from CD34-positive cells derived from human embryonic stem, yolk sac, fetal liver, cord blood, and peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Emmanuel; Qiu, Caihong; Bouhassira, Eric E

    2012-08-01

    The current supply of red blood cells expressing rare blood groups is not sufficient to cover all the existing transfusion needs for chronically transfused patients, such as sickle cell disease homozygous carriers, because of alloimmunization. In vitro production of cultured red blood cells is slowly emerging as a possible complement to the existing collection-based red blood cell procurement system. The yield of cultured red blood cells can theoretically be maximized by amplifying the stem, progenitor, or precursor compartment. Here, we combined methods designed to expand these three compartments to optimize the yield of cultured red blood cells and found that exposing CD34(+) cells to a short pulse of cytokines favorable for erythroid differentiation prior to stem cell expansion followed by progenitor expansion produced the highest yield of erythroid cells. This novel serum-free red blood cell production protocol was efficient on CD34(+) cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, 6-8-week yolk sacs, 16-18-week fetal livers, cord blood, and peripheral blood. The yields of cells obtained with these new protocols were larger by an order of magnitude than the yields observed previously. Globin expression analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that these expansion protocols generally yielded red blood cells that expressed a globin profile similar to that expected for the developmental age of the CD34(+) cells.

  15. Additive fiber-cerclages in proximal humeral fractures stabilized by locking plates: no effect on fracture stabilization and rotator cuff function in human shoulder specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Christine; Hurschler, Christof; Rechi, Louise; Vosshenrich, Rolf; Lill, Helmut

    2009-08-01

    The effect of additive fiber-cerclages in proximal humeral fractures stabilized by locking plates on fracture stabilization and rotator cuff function is unclear. Here it was assessed in a human cadaver study. 24 paired human shoulder specimens were harvested from median 77-year-old (range 66-85) female donors. An unstable 3-part fracture model with an intact rotator cuff was developed. 1 specimen of each pair received an additive fiber-cerclage of the rotator cuff after plate fixation, and the other one received a plate fixation without an additive fiber-cerclage. Force-controlled hydraulic cylinders were used to simulate physiological rotator cuff tension, while a robot-assisted shoulder simulator performed 4 relevant cases of load: (1) axial loading at 0 degrees, (2) glenohumeral abduction at 60 degrees, (3) internal rotation at 0 degrees abduction, and (4) external rotation at 0 degrees abduction, and imitated hanging arm weight during loading without affecting joint kinematics. A 3-dimensional real-time interfragmentary motion analysis was done in fracture gaps between the greater tuberosity and the head, as well as subcapital. The capacity of the rotator cuff to strain was analyzed with an optical system. Interfragmentary motion was similar between the groups with and without fiber-cerclages, in both fracture gaps and in any of the cases of load. Cerclages did not impair the capacity of the rotator cuff to strain. INTERPRETATION; Provided that unstable 3-part fractures are reduced and stabilized anatomically by a locking plate, additive fiber-cerclages do not reduce interfragmentary motion. Additive fiber-cerclages may be necessary in locking plate osteosyntheses of multiple-fractured greater tuberosities or lesser tuberosity fractures that cannot be fixed sufficiently by the plate.

  16. Good agreements between self and clinician-collected specimens for the detection of human papillomavirus in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Lopes Mandu de Campos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Women infected with human papillomavirus (HPV are at a higher risk of developing cervical lesions. In the current study, self and clinician-collected vaginal and cervical samples from women were processed to detect HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR with PGMY09/11 primers. HPV genotypes were determined using type-specific PCR. HPV DNA detection showed good concordance between self and clinician-collected samples (84.6%; kappa = 0.72. HPV infection was found in 30% women and genotyping was more concordant among high-risk HPV (HR-HPV than low-risk HPV (HR-HPV. HPV16 was the most frequently detected among the HR-HPV types. LR-HPV was detected at a higher frequency in self-collected; however, HR-HPV types were more frequently identified in clinician-collected samples than in self-collected samples. HPV infections of multiple types were detected in 20.5% of clinician-collected samples and 15.5% of self-collected samples. In this study, we demonstrated that the HPV DNA detection rate in self-collected samples has good agreement with that of clinician-collected samples. Self-collected sampling, as a primary prevention strategy in countries with few resources, could be effective for identifying cases of HR-HPV, being more acceptable. The use of this method would enhance the coverage of screening programs for cervical cancer.

  17. Metagenomics Study of Viral Pathogens in Undiagnosed Respiratory Specimens and Identification of Human Enteroviruses at a Thailand Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanfei; Fernandez, Stefan; Yoon, In-Kyu; Simasathien, Sriluck; Watanaveeradej, Veerachai; Yang, Yu; Marte-Salcedo, Omely A.; Shuck-Lee, Deidra J.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Hang, Jun; Jarman, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous pathogens cause respiratory infections with similar symptoms. Routine diagnostics detect only a limited number of pathogens, leaving a gap in respiratory illness etiology surveillance. This study evaluated next-generation sequencing for unbiased pathogen identification. Respiratory samples collected in Thailand, Philippines, Bhutan, and Nepal, that were negative by several molecular and immunofluorescence assays, underwent viral cultivation. Samples which demonstrated cytopathic effect in culture (N = 121) were extracted and tested by Luminex xTAG respiratory viral panel (RVP) assay and deep sequencing by Roche 454 FLX Titanium system. Using RVP assay, 52 (43%) samples were positive for enterovirus or rhinovirus and another three were positive for respiratory syncytial virus B, parainfluenza 4, and adenovirus. Deep sequencing confirmed the Luminex assay results and identified additional viral pathogens. Human enteroviruses, including Enterovirus A type 71 and 12 types of Enterovirus B (EV-B) were identified from a hospital in Bangkok. Phylogenetic and recombination analysis showed high correlation of VP1 gene-based phylogeny with genome-wide phylogeny and the frequent genetic exchange among EV-B viruses. The high number and diversity of enteroviruses in the hospital in Bangkok suggests prevalent existence. The metagenomic approach used in our study enabled comprehensive diagnoses of respiratory viruses. PMID:27352877

  18. Computational lipidology: predicting lipoprotein density profiles in human blood plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Hübner

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring cholesterol levels is strongly recommended to identify patients at risk for myocardial infarction. However, clinical markers beyond "bad" and "good" cholesterol are needed to precisely predict individual lipid disorders. Our work contributes to this aim by bringing together experiment and theory. We developed a novel computer-based model of the human plasma lipoprotein metabolism in order to simulate the blood lipid levels in high resolution. Instead of focusing on a few conventionally used predefined lipoprotein density classes (LDL, HDL, we consider the entire protein and lipid composition spectrum of individual lipoprotein complexes. Subsequently, their distribution over density (which equals the lipoprotein profile is calculated. As our main results, we (i successfully reproduced clinically measured lipoprotein profiles of healthy subjects; (ii assigned lipoproteins to narrow density classes, named high-resolution density sub-fractions (hrDS, revealing heterogeneous lipoprotein distributions within the major lipoprotein classes; and (iii present model-based predictions of changes in the lipoprotein distribution elicited by disorders in underlying molecular processes. In its present state, the model offers a platform for many future applications aimed at understanding the reasons for inter-individual variability, identifying new sub-fractions of potential clinical relevance and a patient-oriented diagnosis of the potential molecular causes for individual dyslipidemia.

  19. Cerebral blood flow during static exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogers, H B; Schroeder, T; Secher, N H

    1990-01-01

    voluntary contraction (MVC) and utilized alternate legs. CBF (measured by the 133Xe clearance technique) was expressed by a noncompartmental flow index (ISI). Heart rate and mean arterial pressure increased from resting values of 73 (55-80) beats/min and 88 (74-104) mmHg to 106 (86-138) beats/min and 124......Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined in humans at rest and during four consecutive unilateral static contractions of the knee extensors. Each contraction was maintained for 3 min 15 s with the subjects in a semisupine position. The contractions corresponded to 8, 16, 24, and 32% of the maximal...... resistance increased from 1.5 (1.0-2.2) to 2.4 (1.4-3.0) mmHg. 100 g.min.ml-1 (P less than 0.025) at 32% of MVC. There was no difference in CBF between the two hemispheres at rest or during exercise. In contrast to dynamic leg exercise, static leg exercise is not associated with an increase in global CBF...

  20. Human Papilloma Virus prevalence and type-specific relative contribution in invasive cervical cancer specimens from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloveras Belén

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer represents an important global public health problem. It is the 2nd most common cancer among women worldwide. Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection is now well-established as a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer (ICC development. Only a few studies on HPV prevalence and type-specific distribution in ICC have been conducted in Italy. Aim To describe the prevalence of HPV and the HPV type-specific distribution in ICC cases identified in Rome, Italy. Methods 140 paraffin embedded tissue blocks of primary ICC diagnosed between 2001 and 2006 were identified at the Regina Elena Cancer Institute in Rome (Italy. HPV was detected through amplification of HPV DNA using SPF-10 HPV broad-spectrum primers followed by DEIA and then genotyping by LiPA25 (version 1. Results 134 cases were considered suitable for HPV DNA detection after histological evaluation; and overall, 90.3% (121/134 HPV prevalence was detected. 111 cases had a single HPV type, 4 cases had an uncharacterized type (HPVX and 6 cases had multiple HPV infections. The five most common single HPV types among positive cases were: HPV16 (71/121; 58.7%, HPV18 (12/121; 9.9%, HPV31, HPV45 and HPV58 (5/121; 4.1% each. 2 (1.5% of the single infections and 2 (1.5% of the multiple infections contained low risk types. Statistically significant differences in the relative contribution of HPV18 were found when comparing squamous cell carcinomas with adenocarcinomas. Conclusions HPV16 and HPV18 accounted for almost 70% of all the HPV positive ICC cases. The study provides baseline information for further evaluation on the impact of recently introduced HPV vaccines in Italy.

  1. National ethics guidance in Sub-Saharan Africa on the collection and use of human biological specimens: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchi, Francis; Little, Madison T

    2016-10-22

    Ethical and regulatory guidance on the collection and use of human biospecimens (HBS) for research forms an essential component of national health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where rapid advances in genetic- and genomic-based technologies are fueling clinical trials involving HBS and the establishment of large-scale biobanks. An extensive multi-level search for publicly available ethics regulatory guidance was conducted for each SSA country. A second review documented active trials listed in the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform as of January 2015 in which HBS collection was specified in the protocol. Findings were combined to determine the extent to which countries that are study sites for HBS-related research are supported by regulatory guidance language on the collection, use, ownership and storage of biospecimens. Of the 49 SSA countries, 29 had some form of national ethics guidance, yet only 17 provided language relating to HBS-related research, with specific guidance on consent (14), ownership (6), reuse (10), storage (9), and export/import/transfer (13). Ten countries accounted for 84 % of the active clinical trials involving the collection of HBS in SSA. All except one of these countries were found to have some national guidance in the form of regulations, codes of ethics, and/or standard operating procedures; however, only seven of the ten offered any language specific to HBS. Despite the fact that the bulk of registered clinical trials in SSA involving HBS, as well as existing and proposed sites for biorepositories under the H3Africa Initiative, are currently situated in countries with the most complete ethics and regulatory guidance, variability in the regulations themselves may create challenges for planned and future pan-African collaborations and may require legislative action at the national level to revise. Countries in SSA that still lack regulatory guidance on HBS will require extensive health system strengthening in

  2. Epidemiological data of different human papillomavirus genotypes in cervical specimens of HIV-1-infected women without history of cervical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videla, Sebastian; Darwich, Laila; Cañadas, Maria Paz; Paredes, Roger; Tarrats, Antoni; Castella, Eva; Llatjos, Mariona; Bofill, Margarita; Clotet, Bonaventura; Sirera, Guillem

    2009-02-01

    To study the epidemiology of different human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in cervical samples of HIV-1-infected women with normal Papanicolau smears. : Retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort. We selected HIV-1-infected women with 2 consecutive normal Papanicolau smears at baseline and at least 1 baseline and 1 follow-up cervical sample. HPV infection was assessed by second-generation hybrid capture (HC-2) and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR). HPV genotypes were determined by mPCR. From a cohort of 139 women followed up to 4 years, 93 women meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed. The mean period between samples was 20 months (range, 6-44 months). HPV baseline prevalence was 63% [59/93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 53% to 73%] using polymerase chain reaction and 41% (38/93; 95% CI, 31% to 51%) using HC-2, P = 0.007 (kappa, 0.45; P = 0.001). The most prevalent high oncogenic risk genotypes (HR-HPV) were HPV-16 (28%), HPV-33 (18%), HPV-52 (12%), HPV-58 (11%), and HPV-39 (11%). Infection with multiple HPV genotypes was detected in >40% of women. HPV infection persisted at follow-up in 86% (51/59; 95% CI, 77% to 95%) by polymerase chain reaction and 76% (29/38; 95% CI, 62% to 90%) by HC-2. HPV infection persisted in 55% of women with samples available beyond 3 years. The actuarial probabilities of clearance and incidence of HPV infection at 36 months were 16% and 45%, respectively. HPV infection is highly prevalent and persistent among HIV-1-infected women with normal Papanicolau smears. HR-HPV genotypes other than HPV-16 (HPV-33, HPV-52) are frequently detected in HIV-infected women. mPCR provides better surveillance of HPV infection than HC-2 methods.

  3. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Human Papillomavirus in Healthy Skin Specimens Collected from Rural Anyang, China, 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qiuju; Li, Jingjing; Pan, Yaqi; Liu, Fangfang; He, Zhonghu; Liu, Mengfei; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Chanyuan; Abliz, Amir; Shen, Na; Hang, Dong; Xu, Zhongyao; Wang, Qiyan; Ning, Tao; Guo, Chuanhai; Liang, Yongmei; Xu, Ruiping; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2016-06-01

    Skin infections with cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) have been linked to the development of non-melanoma skin cancer, in which mucosal HPV may also play a crucial role. However, systematic investigations of the distribution and associated factors of HPV infection in healthy skin of the general population are scarce. HPV DNA from palmar exfoliated cells of 2,087 individuals was detected by FAP6085/64 and SPF1/GP6+ primers followed by sequencing. A total of 338 papillomavirus types were detected, with HPV-3, HPV-57, and HPV-49 being the most dominant types. The overall prevalence for HPV DNA on skin was 79.92% and for alpha-, beta-, and gamma-HPV were 27.07%, 38.76%, and 29.56%, respectively. Having multiple lifetime sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio 1.60), being a migrant worker (adjusted odds ratio 2.05, reference: farmers), and frequent bathing (Ptrend = 0.001) were associated with alpha-HPV DNA presence. Advancing age increased the detection risk of beta-HPV (Ptrend = 0.001). Higher education (Ptrend = 0.017) and frequent bathing (Ptrend = 0.001) were positively related to gamma-HPV positivity. This study demonstrates that alpha-HPV commonly exists on healthy skin of the general population in rural China, and alpha- and gamma-HPV infections are related to certain behaviors, different from beta-HPV infection. These findings are crucial to better understanding the biology of HPV infection and may be suggestive of the potential transmission of these viruses.

  4. Combining cell lines to optimize isolation of human enterovirus from clinical specimens: report of 25 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prim, Núria; Rodríguez, Graciela; Margall, Núria; Del Cuerpo, Margarita; Trallero, Gloria; Rabella, Núria

    2013-01-01

    Cell culture is still the gold standard for the diagnosis of human enteroviruses (HEVs) although molecular techniques are required for detection of some serotypes. Due to the diversity of HEVs, a single cell line is not susceptible to all serotypes, and several lines are required to optimize the isolation of HEVs. In this study, the results of HEV isolation during the last 25 years are reported. A total of 1,192 HEVs were isolated and isolation rates varied depending on the cell line used. MRC5 cells yielded the best results (70.7%), followed by A549 cells (52.6%), RD cells (37.5%), and HEp-2 cells (29.7%). A total of 521 HEVs were characterized, and HEV-B was the most frequent species (81%). Polioviruses (PV) and HEV-A were isolated less frequently (17% and 1%, respectively). None of the cell lines detected all the enteroviruses. MRC5 cells were the most susceptible for isolation of echoviruses (85.7%) and PVs (85.4%), whereas HEp2 was the most susceptible for Coxsackieviruses B (82.6%). Some serotypes were isolated in one cell line only. 40.5% of echoviruses were isolated in MRC5 cells whereas 42.3% and 23.9% of Coxsackieviruses B were isolated in RD cells and HEp2 cells, respectively. Although A549 cells did not achieve the best performance for any enterovirus serotypes, they isolated 52.6% of the total HEVs. In view of these results, MRC5 cells, A549 cells, and RD cells should be combined to optimize isolation of HEVs. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Archetypal and rearranged sequences of human polyomavirus JC transcription control region in peripheral blood leukocytes and in cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappi, S; Azzi, A; De Santis, R; Leoncini, F; Sterrantino, G; Mazzotta, F; Mecocci, L

    1999-04-01

    Two forms of human polyomavirus JC (JCV) genome are known based upon the structure of the transcriptional control region (TCR) of the virus: the archetypal form, which is commonly detected in urine, and the rearranged form, which was first detected in brain tissue from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) patients. The latter actually includes a group of TCR variants that, relative to the former, are characterized by various deletions and/or duplications. The aim of this study was to establish whether or not a correlation exists among the TCR type, the spreading of the virus within the host and its ability to cause PML. JCV TCR sequences from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from various groups of patients were compared. JCV with archetypal TCR was detected in CSF and PBL specimens from patients without neurological disorders or who eventually received a diagnosis of a non-PML neurological disorder. Rearranged TCR sequences were detected in all the CSF and PBL specimens from PML patients. The high similarity observed between the TCR structure detected in PBL and CSF specimens from individual patients could strengthen the hypothesis that PBL has a role in spreading JCV to the brain. Moreover, heterogeneous TCR patterns have been shown in individual PBL specimens from PML patients. This supports the hypothesis that, in PBL, JCV may replicate and undergo rearrangements of the TCR. The detection of JCV DNA by PCR in CSF independently from PML, although rare, could suggest that this assay is not sufficient for a virological diagnosis of PML. Further studies are required to assess the usefulness of quantitative assays or TCR typing in combination with PCR for diagnostic purposes.

  6. Mapping blood flow directionality in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hong; Do, Won-Joon; Choi, Seung Hong; Zhao, Tiejun; Bae, Kyongtae Ty

    2016-07-01

    Diffusion properties of tissue are often expressed on the basis of directional variance, i.e., diffusion tensor imaging. In comparison, common perfusion-weighted imaging such as arterial spin labeling yields perfusion in a scalar quantity. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of mapping cerebral blood flow directionality using alternate ascending/descending directional navigation (ALADDIN), a recently-developed arterial spin labeling technique with sensitivity to blood flow directions. ALADDIN was applied along 3 orthogonal directions to assess directional blood flow in a vector form and also along 6 equally-spaced directions to extract blood flow tensor matrix (P) based on a blood flow ellipsoid model. Tensor elements (eigenvalues, eigenvectors, etc) were calculated to investigate characteristics of the blood flow tensor, in comparison with time-of-flight MR angiogram. While the directions of the main eigenvectors were heterogeneous throughout the brain, regional clusters of blood flow directionality were reproducible across subjects. The technique could show heterogeneous blood flow directionality within and around brain tumor, which was different from that of the contralateral normal side. The proposed method is deemed to provide information of blood flow directionality, which has not been demonstrated before. The results warrant further studies to assess changes in the directionality map as a function of scan parameters, to understand the signal sources, to investigate the possibility of mapping local blood perfusion directionality, and to evaluate its usefulness for clinical diagnosis.

  7. Transient receptor potential canonical type 3 channels and blood pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Baumunk, Daniel; Krause, Hans;

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) cation channels are involved in the regulation of blood pressure, but this has not been studied using human renal tissue. We tested the hypothesis that the expression of TRPC3 in human renal tissue is associated with blood...

  8. 3D Computer Simulations of Pulsatile Human Blood Flows in Vessels and in the Aortic Arch: Investigation of Non-Newtonian Characteristics of Human Blood

    CERN Document Server

    Sultanov, Renat A; Engelbrekt, Brent; Blankenbecler, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Methods of Computational Fluid Dynamics are applied to simulate pulsatile blood flow in human vessels and in the aortic arch. The non-Newtonian behaviour of the human blood is investigated in simple vessels of actual size. A detailed time-dependent mathematical convergence test has been carried out. The realistic pulsatile flow is used in all simulations. Results of computer simulations of the blood flow in vessels of two different geometries are presented. For pressure, strain rate and velocity component distributions we found significant disagreements between our results obtained with realistic non-Newtonian treatment of human blood and widely used method in literature: a simple Newtonian approximation. A significant increase of the strain rate and, as a result, wall sear stress distribution, is found in the region of the aortic arch. We consider this result as theoretical evidence that supports existing clinical observations and those models not using non-Newtonian treatment underestimate the risk of disru...

  9. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms... permit any blood bank or similar establishment to ship blood products in interstate commerce. (b)...

  10. Evaluation of Existing Methods for Human Blood mRNA Isolation and Analysis for Large Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Anke; Paroni, Federico; Günther, Kathrin; Dharmadhikari, Gitanjali; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Kelm, Sørge; Maedler, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    Aims Prior to implementing gene expression analyses from blood to a larger cohort study, an evaluation to set up a reliable and reproducible method is mandatory but challenging due to the specific characteristics of the samples as well as their collection methods. In this pilot study we optimized a combination of blood sampling and RNA isolation methods and present reproducible gene expression results from human blood samples. Methods The established PAXgeneTM blood collection method (Qiagen)...

  11. Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Using Sendai Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Filipa A C; Pedersen, Roger A; Vallier, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the efficient isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from circulating blood via density gradient centrifugation and subsequent generation of integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells are cultured for 9 days to allow expansion of the erythroblast population. The erythroblasts are then used to derive human induced pluripotent stem cells using Sendai viral vectors, each expressing one of the four reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc.

  12. Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K

    1996-01-01

    Perioperative transfusion of whole blood has been shown to amplify trauma-induced immunosuppression, which could be attenuated by perioperative administration of histamine2 receptor antagonists. Supernatants from different blood products were, therefore, analysed for histamine content during...... storage. Whole blood (six units), plasma-reduced whole blood (six units), and plasma- and buffy coat-reduced (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol) (SAGM) blood (six units) from unpaid healthy donors were stored in the blood bank for 35 days at 4 degrees C. Plasma histamine and total cell-bound histamine...... content at donation, and histamine concentration in samples drawn from the units on days 0, 2, 5, 9, 14, 21, 28 and 35 were analysed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Median plasma histamine concentration was 4.8 (range 1.9-14.3) nmol/l (n = 18). Median total cell-bound histamine content was 417...

  13. Distribution and concentration of cyclosporin in human blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, K.; Britton, K; Biggs, J.

    1984-01-01

    In patients receiving cyclosporin to minimise graft versus host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, whole blood cyclosporin concentration was roughly twice the serum concentration when blood was separated at 37 degrees C. In turn, blood separation at 37 degrees C resulted in a doubling of serum cyclosporin concentration compared with separation at room temperature. In vitro studies showed that the latter phenomenon was due to a temperature dependent partitioning of cyclospor...

  14. Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K;

    1996-01-01

    storage. Whole blood (six units), plasma-reduced whole blood (six units), and plasma- and buffy coat-reduced (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol) (SAGM) blood (six units) from unpaid healthy donors were stored in the blood bank for 35 days at 4 degrees C. Plasma histamine and total cell-bound histamine......Perioperative transfusion of whole blood has been shown to amplify trauma-induced immunosuppression, which could be attenuated by perioperative administration of histamine2 receptor antagonists. Supernatants from different blood products were, therefore, analysed for histamine content during.......0 (range 176.0-910.0) nmol/l in whole blood and 475.0 (range 360.0-1560.0) nmol/l in plasma-reduced whole blood, while it was undetectable in SAGM blood. Spontaneous histamine release increased in a time-dependent manner from a median of 6.7 (range 2.2-17.4) nmol/l at the time of storage to 175.0 (range 33...

  15. Changes in the human blood coagulating system during prolonged hypokinesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, L. M.; Anashkin, O. D.

    1978-01-01

    Changes in the coagulating system of the blood were studied in six subjects during prolonged hypokinesia. Thrombogenic properties of the blood rose in all cases on the 8th day. These changes are explained by stress reaction due to unusual conditions for a healthy person. Changes in the blood coagulating system in the group subjected to physical exercise and without it ran a practically parallel course. Apparently physical exercise is insufficient to prevent such changes that appear in the coagulating system of the blood during prolonged hypokinesia.

  16. Stability of human chorionic gonadotropin and its alpha subunit in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C V; Hussa, R O; Carman, F R; Rinke, M L; Cook, C L; Yussman, M A

    1983-05-01

    The stability of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and its alpha-subunit in whole blood, plasma, and serum under a variety of sample handling conditions commonly encountered in clinics, hospital wards, physician's offices, and clinical service laboratories was investigated with the use of radioreceptor assay, radioimmunoassays, as well as hormone integrity determinations. The results clearly demonstrate that hCG and its alpha-subunit are stable in unfrozen whole blood, plasma, and serum for at least 6 days and in frozen plasma and serum samples for at least 6 months. Repeated freezing and thawing of the samples during this period had no effect. Separation of plasma or serum from erythrocytes is not needed for at least 12 hours. Hemolysis in samples resulted in a 20% to 30% decrease in hCG and its alpha-subunit levels, which may be attributable to sample dilution.

  17. 21 CFR 640.5 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.5 Section 640.5 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.5 Testing the blood. All laboratory tests shall be made on a specimen of blood taken from the donor at the time of collecting the unit...

  18. Cytokine modulation of human blood viscosity from vivax malaria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Edson Fredulin; Cantarini, Déborah Giovanna; Siqueira, Renan; Ribeiro, Elton Brito; Braga, Érika Martins; Honório-França, Adenilda Cristina; França, Eduardo Luzía

    2016-06-01

    Malaria is a major infectious disease in several countries and is caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. In vivax malaria patients, inflammatory processes occur, as well as changes in cytokines and blood flow. The present study analyzed the cytokine modulation of blood viscosity from patients infected with Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax). Blood samples were collected from 42 non-infected individuals (control group) and 37 individuals infected with P. vivax. The IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNFα, TGF-β and IL-17 cytokine concentrations in the serum were assessed, and the blood rheological properties were determined. The analysis of blood viscosity for shear rates revealed that the blood viscosity of the infected patients was significantly greater than that of the non-infected individuals. The viscosity of the blood was greater in the infected individuals than in the non-infected subjects. The serum from individuals with P. vivax infections exhibited higher IFN-γ and IL-17 concentrations and lower TGF-β levels. Incubation of the blood from infected individuals with IL-17 or IL-17 associated with IFN-γ reduced the viscosity to rates equivalent to the blood from non-infected individuals. Independently of cytokine modulation, no correlation was found between the parasitemia and blood viscosity of the infected patients. These data suggest that the alterations of blood viscosity are relevant as an auxiliary tool for the clinical diagnosis of disease. In malaria, erythrocytes are more sensitive to osmotic shock, and the reduction of viscosity by IL-17 may be related to a possible immunomodulator agent during infection.

  19. Chromosome aberrations in human blood lymphocytes exposed to energetic protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Megumi; George, Ms Kerry; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    During space flight, astronauts are exposed to space radiation consisting of high-energy protons, high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei, as well as secondary particles that are generated when the primary particles penetrate the spacecraft shielding. Secondary particles have a higher LET value than primary protons and are therefore expected to have a higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE). To investigate this theory, we exposed human peripheral blood lymphocytes to protons with energies of 250 MeV, 800MeV, 2 GeV, or 2.5 GeV. LET values for these protons ranged from 0.4 to 0.2 keV/µm. and doses ranged from 0.2 to 3 Gy. Over this energy range the probability of nuclear reaction leading to secondary radiation, and the multiplicity of reaction products such as neutrons and mesons increases substantially. The effect of aluminum and polyethylene shielding was also assessed using the 2 GeV and 2.5GeV proton beams. After exposure lymphocytes were stimulated to divide and chromosomes were collected from cells in the first G2 and metaphase cell cycle after exposure using a chemical induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique. Dose response data for chromosome damage was analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting technique. Selected samples were also analyzed with multicolor FISH (mFISH) and multicolor banding FISH (mBAND) techniques. Data indicates that the dose response for simple-type exchanges is similar for proton and gamma exposure, whereas protons induce higher yields of complex exchanges that are energy dependent. RBE values will be presented for each proton energy, and the effects of shielding and possible cytogenetic signatures of proton exposure will be discussed.

  20. Contribution of endothelial nitric oxide to blood pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Alfredo; Shibao, Cyndya; Diedrich, André; Choi, Leena; Pohar, Bojan; Jordan, Jens; Paranjape, Sachin; Farley, Ginnie; Biaggioni, Italo

    2007-01-01

    Impaired endothelial-derived NO (eNO) is invoked in the development of many pathological conditions. Systemic inhibition of NO synthesis, used to assess the importance of NO to blood pressure (BP) regulation, increases BP by approximately 15 mm Hg. This approach underestimates the importance of eNO, because BP is restrained by baroreflex mechanisms and does not account for a role of neurally derived NO. To overcome these limitations, we induced complete autonomic blockade with trimethaphan in 17 normotensive healthy control subjects to eliminate baroreflex mechanisms and contribution of neurally derived NO. Under these conditions, the increase in BP reflects mostly blockade of tonic eNO. N(G)-Monomethyl-l-arginine (250 microg/kg per minute IV) increased mean BP by 6+/-3.7 mm Hg (from 77 to 82 mm Hg) in intact subjects and by 21+/-8.4 mm Hg (from 75 to 96 mm Hg) during autonomic blockade. We did not find a significant contribution of neurally derived NO to BP regulation after accounting for baroreflex buffering. To further validate this approach, we compared the effect of NOS inhibition during autonomic blockade in 10 normotensive individuals with that of 6 normotensive smokers known to have endothelial dysfunction but who were otherwise normal. As expected, normotensive smokers showed a significantly lower increase in systolic BP during selective eNO blockade (11+/-4.5 versus 30+/-2.3 mm Hg in normotensive individuals; Pstates. Our results suggest that eNO is one of the most potent metabolic determinants of BP in humans, tonically restraining it by approximately 30 mm Hg.

  1. Chromosome Aberration in Human Blood Lymphocytes Exposed to Energetic Protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, M.; George, Kerry A.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2008-01-01

    During space flight, astronauts are exposed to a space radiation consisting of high-energy protons, high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei, as well as secondary particles that are generated when the primary particles penetrate the spacecraft shielding. Secondary particles have a higher LET value than primary protons and therefore expected to have a higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE). To investigate this theory, we exposed human peripheral blood lymphocytes to protons with energies of 250 MeV, 800MeV, 2 GeV, or 2.5 GeV. LET values for these protons ranged from 0.4 to 0.2 keV/micrometer. and doses ranged from 0.2 to 3 Gy. Over this energy the probability of nuclear reaction leading to secondary radiation, and the multiplicity of reaction produces such as neutrons and mesons increases substantially. The effect of aluminum and polyethylene shielding was also assessed using the 2 GeV and 2.5GeV proton beams. After exposure lymphocytes were stimulated to divide and chromosomes were collected from cells in the first G2 and metaphase cell cycle after exposure using a chemical induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique. Dose response data for chromosome damage was analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting technique. Selected samples were also analyzed with multicolor FISH (mFISH) and multicolor banding FISH (mBAND) techniques. Data indicates that the dose response for simple-type exchanges is similar for proton and gamma exposure, whereas protons induce higher yields of complex exchanges that are LET dependent. RBE values will be presented for each proton energy, and the effects of shielding and possible cytogenetic signatures of proton exposure will be discussed.

  2. Characterization of Microvesicles Released from Human Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Bach Nguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Extracellular vesicles (EVs are spherical fragments of cell membrane released from various cell types under physiological as well as pathological conditions. Based on their size and origin, EVs are classified as exosome, microvesicles (MVs and apoptotic bodies. Recently, the release of MVs from human red blood cells (RBCs under different conditions has been reported. MVs are released by outward budding and fission of the plasma membrane. However, the outward budding process itself, the release of MVs and the physical properties of these MVs have not been well investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the formation process, isolation and characterization of MVs released from RBCs under conditions of stimulating Ca2+ uptake and activation of protein kinase C. Methods: Experiments were performed based on single cell fluorescence imaging, fluorescence activated cell sorter/flow cytometer (FACS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The released MVs were collected by differential centrifugation and characterized in both their size and zeta potential. Results: Treatment of RBCs with 4-bromo-A23187 (positive control, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, or phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate (PMA in the presence of 2 mM extracellular Ca2+ led to an alteration of cell volume and cell morphology. In stimulated RBCs, exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS and formation of MVs were observed by using annexin V-FITC. The shedding of MVs was also observed in the case of PMA treatment in the absence of Ca2+, especially under the transmitted bright field illumination. By using SEM, AFM and DLS the morphology and size of stimulated RBCs, MVs were characterized. The sizes of the two populations of MVs were 205.8 ± 51.4 nm and 125.6 ± 31.4 nm, respectively. Adhesion of stimulated RBCs and MVs was observed. The zeta potential of MVs was determined in the range from - 40 mV to - 10 m

  3. Optoacoustic measurements of human placenta and umbilical blood oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanovskaya, T. N.; Petrov, I. Y.; Petrov, Y.; Patrikeeva, S. L.; Ahmed, M. S.; Hankins, G. D. V.; Prough, D. S.; Esenaliev, R. O.

    2016-03-01

    Adequate oxygenation is essential for normal embryogenesis and fetal growth. Perturbations in the intrauterine oxidative environment during pregnancy are associated with several pathophysiological disorders such as pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. We proposed to use optoacoustic technology for monitoring placental and fetal umbilical blood oxygenation. In this work, we studied optoacoustic monitoring of oxygenation in placenta and umbilical cord blood ex vivo using technique of placenta perfusion. We used a medical grade, nearinfrared, tunable, optoacoustic system developed and built for oxygenation monitoring in blood vessels and in tissues. First, we calibrated the system for cord blood oxygenation measurements by using a CO-Oximeter (gold standard). Then we performed validation in cord blood circulating through the catheters localized on the fetal side of an isolated placental lobule. Finally, the oxygenation measurements were performed in the perfused placental tissue. To increase or decrease blood oxygenation, we used infusion of a gas mixture of 95% O2 + 5% CO2 and 95% N2 + 5% CO2, respectively. In placental tissue, up to four cycles of changes in oxygenation were performed. The optoacoustically measured oxygenation in circulating cord blood and in placental lobule closely correlated with the actual oxygenation data measured by CO-Oximeter. We plan to further test the placental and cord blood oxygenation monitoring with optoacoustics in animal and clinical studies.

  4. Computational Biomechanics of Human Red Blood Cells in Hematological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejin; Li, He; Chang, Hung-Yu; Lykotrafitis, George; Em Karniadakis, George

    2017-02-01

    We review recent advances in multiscale modeling of the biomechanical characteristics of red blood cells (RBCs) in hematological diseases, and their relevance to the structure and dynamics of defective RBCs. We highlight examples of successful simulations of blood disorders including malaria and other hereditary disorders, such as sickle-cell anemia, spherocytosis, and elliptocytosis.

  5. Sex differences of human cortical blood flow and energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Rodell, Anders

    2017-01-01

    cortex. Women had significant decreases of cerebral blood flow as function of age in frontal and parietal lobes. Young women had significantly higher cerebral blood flow than men in frontal and temporal lobes, but these differences had disappeared at age 65. The absent sex difference of cerebral energy...

  6. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells from blood cells of healthy donors and patients with acquired blood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhaohui; Zhan, Huichun; Mali, Prashant; Dowey, Sarah; Williams, Donna M; Jang, Yoon-Young; Dang, Chi V; Spivak, Jerry L; Moliterno, Alison R; Cheng, Linzhao

    2009-12-24

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from somatic cells hold promise to develop novel patient-specific cell therapies and research models for inherited and acquired diseases. We and others previously reprogrammed human adherent cells, such as postnatal fibroblasts to iPS cells, which resemble adherent embryonic stem cells. Here we report derivation of iPS cells from postnatal human blood cells and the potential of these pluripotent cells for disease modeling. Multiple human iPS cell lines were generated from previously frozen cord blood or adult CD34(+) cells of healthy donors, and could be redirected to hematopoietic differentiation. Multiple iPS cell lines were also generated from peripheral blood CD34(+) cells of 2 patients with myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) who acquired the JAK2-V617F somatic mutation in their blood cells. The MPD-derived iPS cells containing the mutation appeared normal in phenotypes, karyotype, and pluripotency. After directed hematopoietic differentiation, the MPD-iPS cell-derived hematopoietic progenitor (CD34(+)CD45(+)) cells showed the increased erythropoiesis and gene expression of specific genes, recapitulating features of the primary CD34(+) cells of the corresponding patient from whom the iPS cells were derived. These iPS cells provide a renewable cell source and a prospective hematopoiesis model for investigating MPD pathogenesis.

  7. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  8. Human blood rheology in MEMS-based microneedles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, P.; Johnston, C. R.

    2005-02-01

    MEMS-based microneedles have the potential to revolutionize biomedical/biotechnology applications by providing precise transdermal drug delivery and localized blood sampling. In this paper, we propose a novel theory-based model that predicts drift velocity of blood-flow through the microchannels embedded in the microneedles. The profile of blood flow in the microneedles is determined by solving the conservation of momentum equation of the liquid phase, coupled with the force balance equations at the liquid-air interface. For the first time, this work enables accurate calculation/prediction of the velocity profile of the blood flow through a vertical in-plane microneedle, considering the effect of surface tension forces which are the most prominent forces. In order to withdraw blood samples from capillaries in the dermis layer, the length of our MEMS-based in-plane microneedle has been set at 600 μm with the micro-channel thickness chosen to be 35 μm, to avoid deformation of red blood cells. Blood flow through microneedles has been computed analytically using the proposed formulation. The results are then verified by a commercial finite element simulation tool "ANSYS".

  9. Sodium and potassium changes in blood bank stored human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallas, C H

    1979-01-01

    Storage of red cells for three weeks at 4 C under blood bank conditions resulted in a rise in intracellular Na+ and a fall in intracellular K+ with concomitant opposite changes in Na+ and K+ levels in the suspending plasma. A decline in red blood cell ATP during the storage period did not appear to be contributing to the changes. Increasing red blood cell ATP to levels 2 to 3 times normal did not prevent the cation changes from occurring. When assayed at 37 C in the presence of added Mg++, ouabain-sensitive membrane ATPase activity and kinetics of activation by Na+ were unaffected by the three week period of cold storage. However, when assayed at 4 C without added Mg++, simulating the conditions of storage, ATPase activity was negligible. Sodium and potassium did not change when red blood cells with normal ATP content were stored at 20 to 24 C even in the absence of added Mg++. Thus, a major cause for the development of cation changes in the red blood cell during blood bank storage in the temperature which inhibits membrane ATPase, allowing cations to leak unopposed into and out of the red blood cells.

  10. Formation and blood supply of the large intestine in human neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haina N.I.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the large intestine has been carried out on 24 specimens of human newborns. It has been established that the form and size of the neonates large intestine demonstrated a sidnificant individual variability. The hepatic and splenic flexures of the colon had different relations with the inferior border of the liver and spleen.

  11. [The structure of the developing blood vessels of the neocortical anlage of the human embryo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzhevskiĭ, D E; Omel'chenko, N V; Smirnov, E B; Petrova, E S

    2000-01-01

    Using light and electron microscopy the structure of blood vessels of neocortical anlage of human 7-12 embryos was studied. It was shown that at the early stage of formation of intraorgan vascular network the wall of blood vessels of ventricular zone successively differentiate, which is characterized by the appearance of second layer of cells (pericytes), accumulation of basement membrane components, widening of the zone of contacts between endotheliocytes and establishment of the contacts with bipolar cells of neocortex anlage. The morphological data obtained assist in comprehension of physiological aspects of formation of blood brain barrier and regulation of blood flow in human embryonal neocortex.

  12. In vitro differentiation of human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    May H. Hasan

    2016-08-05

    Aug 5, 2016 ... hepatocyte-like cells were detected on day 21 and increased on day 28. Protein ... MSCs can be a promising source of cell therapy for intractable liver diseases. ..... blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells by DNA microarray.

  13. Blood-Brain Transfer of Pittsburgh Compound B in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert eGjedde

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the labeled form, the Pittsburgh compound B (2-(4’-{N-methyl-[11C]}methyl-aminophenyl-6-hydroxybenzothiazole,[11C]PiB, is used as a biomarker for positron emission tomography (PET of brain □-amyloiddeposition in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The permeability of [11C]PiB in the blood-brain barrier is held tobe high but the permeability-surface area product and extraction fractions in patients or healthy volunteersare not known. We used PET to determine the clearance associated with the unidrectional blood-braintransfer of [11C]PiB and the corresponding cerebral blood flow rates in frontal lobe, whole cerebral cortex,and cerebellum of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and healthy volunteers. Regional cerebral blood flowrates differed significantly between the two groups, but regional and whole-brain permeability-surface areaproducts were identical, in agreement with the observation that numerically, but insignificantly, unidirectionalblood-brain clearances are lower and extraction fractions higher in the patients. The evidence of unchangedpermeability-surface area products in the patients implies that blood flow changes can be deduced from theunidirectional blood-brain clearances of [11C]PiB in the patients.

  14. Melanin and blood concentration in human skin studied by multiple regression analysis: experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, M.; Yamada, Y.; Itoh, M.; Yatagai, T.

    2001-09-01

    Knowledge of the mechanism of human skin colour and measurement of melanin and blood concentration in human skin are needed in the medical and cosmetic fields. The absorbance spectrum from reflectance at the visible wavelength of human skin increases under several conditions such as a sunburn or scalding. The change of the absorbance spectrum from reflectance including the scattering effect does not correspond to the molar absorption spectrum of melanin and blood. The modified Beer-Lambert law is applied to the change in the absorbance spectrum from reflectance of human skin as the change in melanin and blood is assumed to be small. The concentration of melanin and blood was estimated from the absorbance spectrum reflectance of human skin using multiple regression analysis. Estimated concentrations were compared with the measured one in a phantom experiment and this method was applied to in vivo skin.

  15. Forensic Identification of Human Blood: comparison of two one-step presumptive tests for blood screening of crime scene samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Belchior Andrade

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood is the most common body fluid found at crime scenes. One-step presumptive tests have been designed as a rapid immunological test for the qualitative detection of human hemoglobin in stool samples (faecal occult blood their usefulness for forensic purposes has been demonstrated before. In this study we compare Hexagon OBTI kit and FOB One-step Bioeasy kit sensitivity in the analysis of diluted blood samples. With Hexagon OBTI, positive test results are achieved in whole blood dilutions up to 1:1.000. Sensitivity decreased with aged samples, if samples were not stored under low temperatures regardless of which presumptive test is used. Whole blood tests must take into consideration that “hook” effect may interfere. Comparing both tests, OBTI Hexagon Kit is more sensible to detect diluted blood, showing a wider detection window in all conditions. This is interesting when analyzing forensic samples as forensic analysts usually do not know about the history of the analyzed sample before its collection.

  16. Evaluation of an Immunoassay-Based Algorithm for Screening and Identification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium Antigens in Human Faecal Specimens from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousry Hawash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An immunoassay-based algorithm, involving three commercial kits, was introduced and evaluated for screening and identification of Giardia/Cryptosporidium antigens in human stool specimens. Initially, Giardia/Cryptosporidium Chek kit (TechLab, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, was adopted for screening. The ELISA-positive reactions were subsequently characterised by RIDA Quick Giardia and RIDA Quick Cryptosporidium immunochromatographic kits (R-Biopharm. A gold standard test comprising PCR and microscopy was used for preparing control samples. Performance of individual kits was tested against these samples which included 50 Giardia-positive, 40 Cryptosporidium-positive, and 70 Cryptosporidium/Giardia-negative. For Cryptosporidium, specificities of the ELISA and RIDA Quick Cryptosporidium kits were 95.71% and 100%, respectively. Both kits demonstrated sensitivity of 95%. For Giardia, the ELISA and RIDA Quick Giardia kits showed sensitivities of 100% and 97.5%, respectively. Specificities obtained by the ELISA and RIDA Quick Giardia were 95.7% and 100%, respectively. Based on the results of two reference PCRs, on 250 random samples, the algorithm exhibited sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 97.06%, 100.00%, 100.00%, and 98.91%, respectively. In conclusion, this immunoassay-based algorithm can be used as routine test in diagnostic laboratories for screening and identification of a large number of samples.

  17. Evaluation of a Probe-Based PCR-ELISA System for Simultaneous Semi Quantitative Detection and Genotyping of Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) Infection in Clinical Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talkhabifard, Majid; Javid, Naeme; Moradi, Abdolvahab; Ghaemi, Amir; Tabarraei, Alijan

    2017-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a common opportunistic pathogen that causes serious complications in immunosuppressed patients and infected newborns. In this study, PCR-ELISA was optimized for semi-quantitative detection of infection in clinical specimens and simultaneous genotyping of glycoprotein B for 4 major genotypes, due to its significance. During DIG-labeling PCR, a pair of primers amplifies a fragment of variable region of the glycoprotein B encoding sequence. Under optimized conditions, labeled Target amplicons hybridize to biotinated specific probes and are detected in an ELISA system. PCR-ELISA system showed specific performance with detection limit of approximately 100 copies of CMV DNA. The linear correlation was observed between the PCR-ELISA results (OD) and logarithmic scale of CMV (r=0.979). Repeatability of PCR-ELISA detection system for intra-assay and inter-assay was evaluated for negative and positive samples. In optimized conditions of hybridization, differentiation between genotypes of glycoprotein B was feasible using genotype-specific probes in PCR-ELISA genotyping system. In comparison with sequencing method, genotyping system was confirmed with kappa index of 1. PCR-ELISA is proposed as an applicable and reliable technique for semi-quantitative diagnosis and typing of the infection. This technique is flexible to apply in a variety of molecular fields.

  18. Bioavailability of natural carotenoids in human skin compared to blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Martina C; Darvin, Maxim E; Vollert, Henning; Lademann, Jürgen

    2010-10-01

    Skin functions and structure are significantly influenced by nutrients. Antioxidants protect the supportive layer of the skin against any damaging irradiation effects and the action of free radicals. A lack of suitable methods means that the pharmacokinetic properties of systemically applied carotenoids transferred into the skin remain poorly understood. In this study, a natural kale extract or placebo oil were given orally to 22 healthy volunteers for 4 weeks. Carotenoid bioaccessibility was evaluated using non-invasive resonance Raman spectroscopy on the palm and forehead skin. For the analysis of the blood serum, the standard HPLC method was used. The blood and skin levels of the carotenoids increased significantly during the study but compared to the blood serum values, increases in skin were delayed and depended on the dermal area as well as on the carotenoid. Lycopene, measured as being low in the extract, increases more in the skin compared to the blood indicating that the natural mixture of the extract stabilizes the antioxidative network in the skin. After supplementation had ended, the carotenoids decreased much faster in the blood than in the skin. The delayed decrease in the skin may indicate a peripheral buffer function of the skin for carotenoids.

  19. Intracellular trehalose improves the survival of human red blood cells by freeze-drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hui; LIU Baolin; HUA Zezhao; LI Chuan; WU Zhengzheng

    2007-01-01

    Freeze-drying of human red blood cells has a potential important application for blood transfusion.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects ofintracellular trehalose on the survival of red blood cells after freeze-drying and rehydration.Fresh red blood cells were incubated in trehalose solutions of various concentrations at 37℃ for 7 h following freeze-drying.Polyvinylpyrrolidone,Trehalose,sodium citrate,and human serum albumin were used as extracellular protective agents for the freeze-drying of red blood cells.The results indicated that the intracellular trehalose concentration was increased with increasing concentration of extracellular trehalose solution,and the maximum concen tration of intracellular trehalose reached 35 mmol/L.The viability of freeze-dried red blood cells increased with the increment of intracellular trehalose concentration.

  20. 2001-2010年血培养病原菌变迁及耐药性分析%Distribution and drug resistance of pathogens in blood culture specimens from 2001 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彩林; 孙自镛; 朱旭慧; 李丽; 张培; 陈中举; 田磊; 王斌; 朱琴

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨同济医院2001 -2010年血培养病原菌的分布及耐药性变迁.方法 以全自动血培养仪进行血液培养;API或VITEK-2 Compact细菌鉴定系统进行细菌鉴定;抗菌药物敏感性试验采用K-B法.结果 医院血培养病原菌以革兰阳性菌为主,但其构成比显著下降,2001-2005年占63.7%,2006-2010年下降至58.0%;革兰阴性杆菌构成比由33.6%上升至36.3%;真菌由2.7%上升至5.7%;总体耐药率呈上升趋势.结论 2001-2010年医院血培养病原菌分布及耐药性发生明显变迁,病原菌对临床常用抗菌药物有较高的耐药性.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the distribution and drug resistance changes of pathogens from blood culture specimens in Tongji Hospital from 2001 to 2010. METHODS Automatic blood culture system was applied for blood culture-, API or VITEK2 Compact bacterial identification system was used for identification of bacteria) antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method. RESULTS Gram-positive cocci were predominant among pathogens from blood culture, but the proportion decreased from 63. 7% in 2001 - 2005 to 58. 0% in 2006 - 2010s the proportion of gram-negative bacilli increased from 33. 6% to 36. 3% I the proportion of fungi increased from 2. 7% to 5. 7%. The overall resistance rate showed upward trend. CONCLUSION Pathogens from blood culture samples in 2001 - 2010 show significant changes in the distribution and the resistance. Pathogens have relatively high resistance to antimicrobials commonly used in clinical practice.

  1. Effects of midazolam on cerebral blood flow in human volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, A.; Juge, O.; Morel, D.

    1982-06-01

    The effects of intravenously administered midazolam on cerebral blood flow were evaluated in eight healthy volunteers using the /sup 133/Xe inhalation technique. Six minutes after an intravenous dose of 0.15 mg/kg midazolam, the cerebral blood flow decreased significantly (P less than 0.001) from a value of 40.6 +/- 3.3 to a value of 27.0 +/- 5.0 ml . 100 g-1 . min-1. Cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) increased from 2.8 +/- 0.2 to 3.9 to 0.6 mmHg/(ml . 100 g-1 . min-1)(P less than 0.001). Mean arterial blood pressure decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) from 117 +/- 8 to 109 +/- 9 mmHg and arterial carbon dioxide tension increased from 33.9 +/- 2.3 to 38.6 +/- 3.2 mmHg (P less than 0.05). Arterial oxygen tension remained stable throughout the study, 484 +/- 95 mmHg before the administration of midazolam and 453 +/- 76 mmHg after. All the subjects slept after the injection of the drug and had anterograde amnesia of 24.5 +/- 5 min. The decrease in mean arterial blood pressure was probably not important since it remained in the physiologic range for cerebral blood flow autoregulation. The increase in arterial carbon dioxide tension observed after the midazolam injection may have partially counteracted the effect of this new benzodiazepine on cerebral blood flow. Our data suggest that midazolam might be a safe agent to use for the induction of anethesia in neurosurgical patients with intracranial hypertension.

  2. Influence of Artificial Sweetener on Human Blood Glucose Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Skokan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners, such as saccharin or cyclamic acid are synthetically manufactured sweetenings. Known for their low energetic value they serve especially diabetic and adipose patients as sugar substitutes. It has been hypothesized that the substitution of sugar with artificial sweeteners may induce a decrease of the blood glucose. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of this hypothesis by comparing the influence of regular table sugar and artificial sweeteners on the blood glucose concentration. In this pilot-study 16 patients were included suffering from adiposity, pre-diabetes and hypertension. In the sense of a cross-over design, three test trials were performed at intervals of several weeks. Each trial was followed by a test free interval. Within one test trial each patient consumed 150 ml test solution (water that contained either 6 g of table sugar (“Kandisin” with sweetener free serving as control group. Tests were performed within 1 hr after lunch to ensure conditions comparable to patients having a desert. Every participant had to determine their blood glucose concentration immediately before and 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after the intake of the test solution. For statistics an analysis of variance was performed. The data showed no significant changes in the blood glucose concentration. Neither the application of sugar (F4;60 = 1.645; p = .175 nor the consumption of an artificial sweetener (F2.068;31.023 = 1.551; p > .05 caused significant fluctuations in the blood sugar levels. Over a time frame of 60 minutes in the control group a significant decrease of the blood sugar concentration was found (F2.457;36.849 = 4.005; p = .020 as a physiological reaction during lunch digestion.

  3. 37 CFR 2.59 - Filing substitute specimen(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing substitute specimen(s..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.59 Filing substitute specimen(s). (a... specimen(s), the applicant must: (1) For an amendment to allege use under § 2.76, verify by affidavit...

  4. Cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism during human endotoxemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Strauss, Gitte Irene; Qvist, Jesper;

    2002-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), has been suggested to mediate septic encephalopathy through an effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism. The effect of an intravenous bolus of endotoxin on global CBF, metabolism, and net flux of cytokines...... and catecholamines was investigated in eight healthy young volunteers. Cerebral blood flow was measured by the Kety-Schmidt technique at baseline (during normocapnia and voluntary hyperventilation for calculation of subject-specific cerebrovascular CO reactivity), and 90 minutes after an intravenous bolus...

  5. Reduced blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle in ageing humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Hellsten, Ylva

    2016-01-01

    consequences of ageing and physical inactivity can be challenging; yet, observations from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the effects of physical activity have provided some insight. Physical activity has the potential to offset the age-related decline in blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle...... and the ability for functional sympatholysis; an attenuation of the vasoconstrictor effect of sympathetic nervous activity. These vascular adaptations with physical activity are likely to be an effect of improved nitric oxide and ATP signaling. Collectively, precise matching of blood flow and O2 delivery to meet...

  6. Transcriptome analysis of Neisseria meningitidis in human whole blood and mutagenesis studies identify virulence factors involved in blood survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Echenique-Rivera

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available During infection Neisseria meningitidis (Nm encounters multiple environments within the host, which makes rapid adaptation a crucial factor for meningococcal survival. Despite the importance of invasion into the bloodstream in the meningococcal disease process, little is known about how Nm adapts to permit survival and growth in blood. To address this, we performed a time-course transcriptome analysis using an ex vivo model of human whole blood infection. We observed that Nm alters the expression of ≈30% of ORFs of the genome and major dynamic changes were observed in the expression of transcriptional regulators, transport and binding proteins, energy metabolism, and surface-exposed virulence factors. In particular, we found that the gene encoding the regulator Fur, as well as all genes encoding iron uptake systems, were significantly up-regulated. Analysis of regulated genes encoding for surface-exposed proteins involved in Nm pathogenesis allowed us to better understand mechanisms used to circumvent host defenses. During blood infection, Nm activates genes encoding for the factor H binding proteins, fHbp and NspA, genes encoding for detoxifying enzymes such as SodC, Kat and AniA, as well as several less characterized surface-exposed proteins that might have a role in blood survival. Through mutagenesis studies of a subset of up-regulated genes we were able to identify new proteins important for survival in human blood and also to identify additional roles of previously known virulence factors in aiding survival in blood. Nm mutant strains lacking the genes encoding the hypothetical protein NMB1483 and the surface-exposed proteins NalP, Mip and NspA, the Fur regulator, the transferrin binding protein TbpB, and the L-lactate permease LctP were sensitive to killing by human blood. This increased knowledge of how Nm responds to adaptation in blood could also be helpful to develop diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to control the devastating

  7. Cobalt uptake and binding in human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Lars Ole; Brown, Anthony M; Harbak, Henrik; Kristensen, Berit I; Bennekou, Poul

    2011-04-15

    The basal uptake and cytoplasmic binding of cobalt was studied in human red cells using (57)Co as tracer. The basal uptake is linear with time, at a rate of about 10 μmol (l cells)(-1) h(-1) at 100 μM [Co(2+)](o), and is almost irreversible, as there is hardly any efflux into excess EDTA. Ionophore A23187 mediates a rapid equilibration of Co(2+) across the cell membrane leading to a marked accumulation, reflecting effective cytoplasmic buffering. The fraction (α(Co)) of total cell cobalt being present as free, ionized Co(2+) is estimated at α(Co)=0.01 from the equilibrium distribution of cobalt, and also from the initial slope of the cobalt buffering curve. The cobalt accumulation is similar in fed and ATP-depleted cells. The buffering curve for [Co(T)](c) can be fitted by a Michaelis type function with B(max)=24 mmol (l cells)(-1) and half-saturation at 240 μM [Co(2+)](c). The tracer influx curves are adequately fitted by single exponentials, whereas the net influx curves all require at least double exponential fits, probably due to non-stationary A23187 kinetics. The rate of tracer influx decreases with increasing cobalt concentration, and increases with delayed addition of (57)Co tracer during net uptake. This might be explained by an 'auto-inhibition' by cobalt. The kinetics for A23187-mediated net and tracer influx of (54)Mn is very similar to that of (57)Co, whereas the net influx of (65)Zn can be fitted by single exponentials. In cobalt-loaded cells the cobalt is partly reversibly bound, being releasable by excess extracellular EGTA in the presence of A23187, and partly tightly bound, remaining in the cells even at high ionophore concentrations. The tightly bound fraction builds up over time, and is larger and develops earlier in fed cells compared to ATP-depleted cells. However, all cell cobalt appears to exchange with (57)Co during tracer influx. It is speculated that oxidation of Co(2+) to Co(3+) could lead to the high affinity binding. Tight binding

  8. A Laboratory Exercise to Determine Human ABO Blood Type by Noninvasive Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael P.; Detzel, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and their association with diseases and nondisease phenotypes is of growing importance in human biology studies. In this laboratory exercise, students determine the genetic basis for their ABO blood type; however, no blood is drawn. Students isolate genomic DNA from buccal mucosa cells that are present…

  9. Determination of telmisartan in human blood plasma: Part I: Immunoassay development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempen, C.M.; Gläsle-Schwarz, Liane; Kunz, Ulrich; Karst, U.

    2006-01-01

    Telmisartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist and a known drug against high blood pressure. In this report, the development of a new and rapid analytical technique, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of telmisartan in human blood plasma is described. The

  10. A Laboratory Exercise to Determine Human ABO Blood Type by Noninvasive Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael P.; Detzel, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and their association with diseases and nondisease phenotypes is of growing importance in human biology studies. In this laboratory exercise, students determine the genetic basis for their ABO blood type; however, no blood is drawn. Students isolate genomic DNA from buccal mucosa cells that are present…

  11. Life table analysis of Cimex hemipterus F. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) reared on different types of human blood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abd Rahim, Abd Hafis; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the development time of each immature stage and total development time of Cimex hemipterus reared on human blood type A, B, O and AB, and to compare survivorship and fecundity of Cimex...

  12. Bone-Like Hydroxyapatite Formation in Human Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Anatoly T.; Larionov, Peter M.; Ivanova, Alexandra S.; Zaikovskii, Vladimir I.; Chernyavskiy, Mikhail A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prove the mechanism of mineralization, when hydroxyapatite (HAP) is formed in blood plasma. These observations were substantiated by in vitro simulation of HAP crystallization in the plasma of healthy adults in a controllable quasi-physiological environment (T = 37°C, pH = 7.4) and at concentrations of dissolved Ca…

  13. The transcriptional landscape of age in human peripheral blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Peters (Marjolein); R. Joehanes (Roby); L.C. Pilling (Luke); C. Schurmann (Claudia); K.N. Conneely (Karen N.); J.E. Powell (Joseph); E. Reinmaa (Eva); G.L. Sutphin (George L.); A. Zhernakova (Alexandra); K. Schramm (Katharina); Y.A. Wilson (Yana A.); S. Kobes (Sayuko); T. Tukiainen (Taru); Y.F.M. Ramos (Yolande); H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); M. Fornage (Myriam); Y. Liu (Yongmei); S.A. Gharib (Sina); B.E. Stranger (Barbara); P.L. de Jager (Philip); A. Aviv (Abraham); D. Levy (Daniel); J. Murabito (Joanne); P.J. Munson (Peter J.); T. Huan (Tianxiao); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (Andre G.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); J. van Rooij (Jeroen); L. Stolk (Lisette); L. Broer (Linda); M.M.P.J. Verbiest (Michael); M. Jhamai (Mila); P.P. Arp (Pascal); A. Metspalu (Andres); L. Tserel (Liina); L. Milani (Lili); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); P. Peterson (Pärt); S. Kasela (Silva); V. Codd (Veryan); A. Peters (Annette); C.K. Ward-Caviness (Cavin K.); C. Herder (Christian); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); M. Roden (Michael); P. Singmann (Paula); S. Zeilinger (Sonja); T. Illig (Thomas); G. Homuth (Georg); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); H. Völzke (Henry); L. Steil (Leif); T. Kocher (Thomas); A. Murray (Anna); D. Melzer (David); H. Yaghootkar (Hanieh); S. Bandinelli; E.K. Moses (Eric); J.W. Kent (Jack); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M.P. Johnson (Matthew); S. Williams-Blangero (Sarah); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); A.F. McRae (Allan F.); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); I. Hovatta (Iiris); M. Perola (Markus); S. Ripatti (Samuli); V. Salomaa (Veikko); A.K. Henders (Anjali); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); A.K. Smith (Alicia K.); D. Mehta (Divya); E.B. Binder (Elisabeth B.); K.M. Nylocks (K. Maria); E.M. Kennedy (Elizabeth M.); T. Klengel (Torsten); J. Ding (Jingzhong); A. Suchy-Dicey (Astrid); D. Enquobahrie; J. Brody (Jennifer); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); Y.-D.I. Chen (Yii-Der I.); J.J. Houwing-Duistermaat (Jeanine); M. Kloppenburg (Margreet); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); Q. Helmer (Quinta); W. den Hollander (Wouter); S. Bean (Shannon); T. Raj (Towfique); N. Bakhshi (Noman); Q.P. Wang (Qiao Ping); L.J. Oyston (Lisa J.); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); R.P. Tracy (Russell); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); S.T. Turner (Stephen); J. Blangero (John); I. Meulenbelt (Ingrid); K.J. Ressler (Kerry); J. Yang (Jian); L. Franke (Lude); J. Kettunen (Johannes); P.M. Visscher (Peter); G.G. Neely (G. Gregory); R. Korstanje (Ron); R.L. Hanson (Robert L.); H. Prokisch (Holger); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Esko (Tõnu); A. Teumer (Alexander); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); A.D. Johnson (Andrew D.); M.A. Nalls (Michael); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); M.R. Cookson (Mark); R.J. Gibbs (Raphael J.); J. Hardy (John); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); A.B. Zonderman (Alan B.); A. Dillman (Allissa); B. Traynor (Bryan); C. Smith (Colin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); M.E. Weale (Michael); R. O'Brien (Richard); R. Johnson (Robert); R. Walker (Robert); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); S. Arepalli (Sampath); M. Ryten (Mina); A. Singleton

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDisease incidences increase with age, but the molecular characteristics of ageing that lead to increased disease susceptibility remain inadequately understood. Here we perform a whole-blood gene expression meta-analysis in 14,983 individuals of European ancestry (including replication) a

  14. The transcriptional landscape of age in human peripheral blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Marjolein J; Joehanes, Roby; Pilling, Luke C; Schurmann, Claudia; Conneely, Karen N; Powell, Joseph; Reinmaa, Eva; Sutphin, George L; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Schramm, Katharina; Wilson, Yana A; Kobes, Sayuko; Tukiainen, Taru; Ramos, Yolande F; Göring, Harald H H; Fornage, Myriam; Liu, Yongmei; Gharib, Sina A; Stranger, Barbara E; De Jager, Philip L; Aviv, Abraham; Levy, Daniel; Murabito, Joanne M; Munson, Peter J; Huan, Tianxiao; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van Rooij, Jeroen; Stolk, Lisette; Broer, Linda; Verbiest, Michael M P J; Jhamai, Mila; Arp, Pascal; Metspalu, Andres; Tserel, Liina; Milani, Lili; Samani, Nilesh J; Peterson, Pärt; Kasela, Silva; Codd, Veryan; Peters, Annette; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K; Herder, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Roden, Michael; Singmann, Paula; Zeilinger, Sonja; Illig, Thomas; Homuth, Georg; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Völzke, Henry; Steil, Leif; Kocher, Thomas; Murray, Anna; Melzer, David; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Bandinelli, Stefania; Moses, Eric K; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Johnson, Matthew P; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Westra, Harm-Jan; McRae, Allan F; Smith, Jennifer A; Kardia, Sharon L R; Hovatta, Iiris; Perola, Markus; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Henders, Anjali K; Martin, Nicholas G; Smith, Alicia K; Mehta, Divya; Binder, Elisabeth B; Nylocks, K Maria; Kennedy, Elizabeth M; Klengel, Torsten; Ding, Jingzhong; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Brody, Jennifer; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der I; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Slagboom, P Eline; Helmer, Quinta; den Hollander, Wouter; Bean, Shannon; Raj, Towfique; Bakhshi, Noman; Wang, Qiao Ping; Oyston, Lisa J; Psaty, Bruce M; Tracy, Russell P; Montgomery, Grant W; Turner, Stephen T; Blangero, John; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ressler, Kerry J; Yang, Jian; Franke, Lude; Kettunen, Johannes; Visscher, Peter M; Neely, G Gregory; Korstanje, Ron; Hanson, Robert L; Prokisch, Holger; Ferrucci, Luigi; Esko, Tonu; Teumer, Alexander; van Meurs, Joyce B J; Johnson, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    Disease incidences increase with age, but the molecular characteristics of ageing that lead to increased disease susceptibility remain inadequately understood. Here we perform a whole-blood gene expression meta-analysis in 14,983 individuals of European ancestry (including replication) and identify

  15. Metabolic control of muscle blood flow during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2003-01-01

    During muscle contraction, several mechanisms regulate blood flow to ensure a close coupling between muscle oxygen delivery and metabolic demand. No single factor has been identified to constitute the primary metabolic regulator, yet there are signal transduction pathways between skeletal muscle...

  16. The transcriptional landscape of age in human peripheral blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Marjolein J.; Joehanes, Roby; Pilling, Luke C.; Schurmann, Claudia; Conneely, Karen N.; Powell, Joseph; Reinmaa, Eva; Sutphin, George L.; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Schramm, Katharina; Wilson, Yana A.; Kobes, Sayuko; Tukiainen, Taru; Ramos, Yolande F.; Goering, Harald H. H.; Fornage, Myriam; Liu, Yongmei; Gharib, Sina A.; Stranger, Barbara E.; De Jager, Philip L.; Aviv, Abraham; Levy, Daniel; Murabito, Joanne M.; Munson, Peter J.; Huan, Tianxiao; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van Rooij, Jeroen; Stolk, Lisette; Broer, Linda; Verbiest, Michael M. P. J.; Jhamai, Mila; Arp, Pascal; Metspalu, Andres; Tserel, Liina; Milani, Lili; Samani, Nilesh J.; Peterson, Paert; Kasela, Silva; Codd, Veryan; Peters, Annette; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K.; Herder, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Roden, Michael; Singmann, Paula; Zeilinger, Sonja; Illig, Thomas; Homuth, Georg; Grabe, Hans-Joergen; Voelzke, Henry; Steil, Leif; Kocher, Thomas; Murray, Anna; Melzer, David; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Bandinelli, Stefania; Moses, Eric K.; Kent, Jack W.; Curran, Joanne E.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Westra, Harm-Jan; Mcrae, Allan F.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Hovatta, Iiris; Perola, Markus; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Henders, Anjali K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Smith, Alicia K.; Mehta, Divya; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Nylocks, K. Maria; Kennedy, Elizabeth M.; Klengel, Torsten; Ding, Jingzhong; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Brody, Jennifer; Rotter, Jerome I.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Slagboom, P. Eline; Helmer, Quinta; den Hollander, Wouter; Bean, Shannon; Raj, Towfique; Bakhshi, Noman; Wang, Qiao Ping; Oyston, Lisa J.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Tracy, Russell P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Turner, Stephen T.; Blangero, John; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ressler, Kerry J.; Yang, Jian; Franke, Lude; Kettunen, Johannes; Visscher, Peter M.; Neely, G. Gregory; Korstanje, Ron; Hanson, Robert L.; Prokisch, Holger; Ferrucci, Luigi; Esko, Tonu; Teumer, Alexander; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Johnson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Disease incidences increase with age, but the molecular characteristics of ageing that lead to increased disease susceptibility remain inadequately understood. Here we perform a whole-blood gene expression meta-analysis in 14,983 individuals of European ancestry (including replication) and identify

  17. The transcriptional landscape of age in human peripheral blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Peters (Marjolein); R. Joehanes (Roby); L.C. Pilling (Luke); C. Schurmann (Claudia); K.N. Conneely (Karen N.); J.E. Powell (Joseph); E. Reinmaa (Eva); G.L. Sutphin (George L.); A. Zhernakova (Alexandra); K. Schramm (Katharina); Y.A. Wilson (Yana A.); S. Kobes (Sayuko); T. Tukiainen (Taru); Y.F.M. Ramos (Yolande); H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); M. Fornage (Myriam); Y. Liu (Yongmei); S.A. Gharib (Sina); B.E. Stranger (Barbara); P.L. de Jager (Philip); A. Aviv (Abraham); D. Levy (Daniel); J. Murabito (Joanne); P.J. Munson (Peter J.); T. Huan (Tianxiao); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); J. van Rooij (Jeroen); L. Stolk (Lisette); L. Broer (Linda); M.M.P.J. Verbiest (Michael); M. Jhamai (Mila); P.P. Arp (Pascal); A. Metspalu (Andres); L. Tserel (Liina); L. Milani (Lili); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); P. Peterson (Pärt); S. Kasela (Silva); V. Codd (Veryan); A. Peters (Annette); C.K. Ward-Caviness (Cavin K.); C. Herder (Christian); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); M. Roden (Michael); P. Singmann (Paula); S. Zeilinger (Sonja); T. Illig (Thomas); G. Homuth (Georg); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); H. Völzke (Henry); L. Steil (Leif); T. Kocher (Thomas); A. Murray (Anna); D. Melzer (David); H. Yaghootkar (Hanieh); S. Bandinelli; E.K. Moses (Eric); J.W. Kent (Jack); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M.P. Johnson (Matthew); S. Williams-Blangero (Sarah); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); A.F. McRae (Allan F.); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); I. Hovatta (Iiris); M. Perola (Markus); S. Ripatti (Samuli); V. Salomaa (Veikko); A.K. Henders (Anjali); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); A.K. Smith (Alicia K.); D. Mehta (Divya); E.B. Binder (Elisabeth B.); K.M. Nylocks (K. Maria); E.M. Kennedy (Elizabeth M.); T. Klengel (Torsten); J. Ding (Jingzhong); A. Suchy-Dicey (Astrid); D. Enquobahrie; J. Brody (Jennifer); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); Y.-D.I. Chen (Yii-Der I.); J.J. Houwing-Duistermaat (Jeanine); M. Kloppenburg (Margreet); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); Q. Helmer (Quinta); W. den Hollander (Wouter); S. Bean (Shannon); T. Raj (Towfique); N. Bakhshi (Noman); Q.P. Wang (Qiao Ping); L.J. Oyston (Lisa J.); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); R.P. Tracy (Russell); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); S.T. Turner (Stephen); J. Blangero (John); I. Meulenbelt (Ingrid); K.J. Ressler (Kerry); J. Yang (Jian); L. Franke (Lude); J. Kettunen (Johannes); P.M. Visscher (Peter); G.G. Neely (G. Gregory); R. Korstanje (Ron); R.L. Hanson (Robert L.); H. Prokisch (Holger); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Esko (Tõnu); A. Teumer (Alexander); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); A.D. Johnson (Andrew D.); M.A. Nalls (Michael); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); M.R. Cookson (Mark); R.J. Gibbs (Raphael J.); J. Hardy (John); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); A.B. Zonderman (Alan B.); A. Dillman (Allissa); B. Traynor (Bryan); C. Smith (Colin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); M.E. Weale (Michael); R. O'Brien (Richard); R. Johnson (Robert); R. Walker (Robert); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); S. Arepalli (Sampath); M. Ryten (Mina); A. Singleton

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDisease incidences increase with age, but the molecular characteristics of ageing that lead to increased disease susceptibility remain inadequately understood. Here we perform a whole-blood gene expression meta-analysis in 14,983 individuals of European ancestry (including replication) a

  18. Extraction of human genomic DNA from whole blood using a magnetic microsphere method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Rui; Li, Shengying

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of molecular biology and the life sciences, magnetic extraction is a simple, automatic, and highly efficient method for separating biological molecules, performing immunoassays, and other applications. Human blood is an ideal source of human genomic DNA. Extracting genomic DNA by traditional methods is time-consuming, and phenol and chloroform are toxic reagents that endanger health. Therefore, it is necessary to find a more convenient and efficient method for obtaining human genomic DNA. In this study, we developed urea-formaldehyde resin magnetic microspheres and magnetic silica microspheres for extraction of human genomic DNA. First, a magnetic microsphere suspension was prepared and used to extract genomic DNA from fresh whole blood, frozen blood, dried blood, and trace blood. Second, DNA content and purity were measured by agarose electrophoresis and ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The human genomic DNA extracted from whole blood was then subjected to polymerase chain reaction analysis to further confirm its quality. The results of this study lay a good foundation for future research and development of a high-throughput and rapid extraction method for extracting genomic DNA from various types of blood samples.

  19. Transcriptional Profiling of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Exposed to Bacillus anthracis in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, are attributed to poly- γ-D-glutamate acid (PGA) capsule, lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET) [10-12]. These toxins...M, Hellman M, Muhie S, et al. (2013) Transcriptional Profiling of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Exposed to Bacillus anthracis in vitro...author and source are credited. Transcriptional Profiling of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Exposed to Bacillus anthracis in vitro Rasha

  20. Modeling of human colonic blood flow for a novel artificial anal sphincter system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZAN; Guo-zheng YAN; Hua LIU

    2008-01-01

    A novel artificial anal sphincter system has been developed to simulate the normal physiology of the human anorectum. With the goal of engineering a safe and reliable device, the model of human colonic blood flow has been built and the relationship between the colonic blood flow rate and the operating occlusion pressure of the anorectum is achieved. The tissue ischemia is analyzed based on constitutive relations for human anorectum. The results suggest that at the planned operating occlusion pressure of less than 4 kPa the artificial anal sphincter should not risk the vaseularity of the human colon.

  1. 49 CFR 219.205 - Specimen collection and handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specimen collection and handling. 219.205 Section... § 219.205 Specimen collection and handling. (a) General. Urine and blood specimens must be obtained, marked, preserved, handled, and made available to FRA consistent with the requirements of this subpart...

  2. 血液需氧培养病原菌分布与耐药性分析%Distribution and drug resistance of pathogens cultured from aerobic blood specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂斌; 王剑; 袁秀兰

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To retrospectively analyze the distribution of the pathogens isolated from blood culture specimens within threes years and understand the change of drug resistance so as to provide basis for the clinical use of drugs. METHODS A total of 3380 blood aerobic specimens were collected from the patients who enrolled the hospital from Jan 2009 to Dec 2011, VERSATREK-48 type of automated blood culture system was adopted to perform the bacterial culture, the bacterial identification and drug susceptibility testing were carried out with HX-21 microorganism analyzer, the K-B method was employed to supplement the drug susceptibility testing. RESULTS Of 3380 blood culture specimens, a total of 505 strains of pathogens were isolated with the isolation rate of 14. 94%. There were 244 (48. 32%) strains of gram-negative bacteria, 237 (46. 93%) strains of gram-positive bacteria, and 24(4. 75%) strains of fungi. The common coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 24. 75%, 16. 83%, and 10. 89%, respectively. The detection rates of the ESBLs-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae were 55. 29% and 36. 00% , respectively. The detection rates of the methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci were 40. 0% and 76.80%, respectively. The detection rate of the pathogens was highest in the department of neurology (155strains, 30. 69%), followed by the department of respiratory medicine (21. 39%), and department of neonates (20.79%). The drug resistance rate of the gram-negative bacteria was higher than 90. 00%, the drug resistance rates of the gram-positive bacteria to vancomycin and linezolid were 0%. The drug resistance rates of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis to 5-fluorocytosine were 0%, and the drug resistance rates to flucon-azole were 6. 67% and 20. 00% , respectively. CONCLUSION The Staphylococcus spp are the main pathogens isolated from the blood culture specimens, the

  3. The DNA methylome of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yingrui; Zhu, Jingde; Tian, Geng;

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in biological processes in human health and disease. Recent technological advances allow unbiased whole-genome DNA methylation (methylome) analysis to be carried out on human cells. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing at 24.7-fold coverage (12.3-fold pe...

  4. Development of a multiplex RT-PCR for simultaneous diagnosis of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayakar, Seetha; Pillai, Heera R; Thulasi, Vineetha P; Nair, Radhakrishnan R

    2016-12-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) are ubiquitous respiratory viral pathogens. They belong to the family Paramyxoviridae (subfamily Pneumovirinae) and is responsible for acute respiratory tract infections in children, elderly and immunocompromised patients. We designed and tested a multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) as a cost-effective alternative to real-time PCR and cell culture based detection for HMPV and HRSV. The newly developed PCR was used to screen nasal/throat swab samples from 356 patients with suspected acute respiratory infection attending the Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. The method was compared with a commercially available kit employing real time PCR, for its sensitivity and specificity. 53 (14.9 %) samples were positive for at least one tested pathogen by mRT-PCR. All except one among the positive samples showed similar pathogen profile when tested using real time PCR. 8 (15.1 %) among these 53 were positive for HRSVA, 33 (62.3 %) positive for HRSVB and 12 (22.6 %) were positive for HMPV. 17 (32.7 %) samples showed co-infections in them. Sensitivity and specificity of the mRT-PCR was comparable to that of the commercial kit. Our findings indicate that this newly developed mRT-PCR can be used as a cost-effective alternative for laboratory diagnosis of HMPV/HRSV infection and will significantly reduce diagnostic costs for these viruses in clinical settings.

  5. [239Pu and chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okladnikova, N D; Osovets, S V; Kudriavtseva, T I

    2009-01-01

    The genome status in somatic cells was assessed using the chromosomal aberration (CA) test in peripheral blood lymphocytes from 194 plutonium workers exposed to occupational radiation mainly from low-transportable compounds of airborne 230Pu. Pu body burden at the time of cytogenetic study varied from values close to the method sensitivity to values multiply exceeding the permissible level. Standard (routine) methods of peripheral blood lymphocytes cultivation were applied. Chromatid- and chromosomal-type structural changes were estimated. Aberrations were estimated per 100 examined metaphase cells. The quantitative relationship between the CA frequency and Pu body burden and the absorbed dose to the lung was found. Mathematical processing of results was carried out based on the phenomenological model. The results were shown as theoretical and experimental curves. The threshold of the CA yield was 0.43 +/- 0.03 kBq (Pu body burden) and 6.12 +/- 1.20 cGy (absorbed dose to the lung).

  6. Mucosal adaptation to aspirin induced gastric damage in humans. Studies on blood flow, gastric mucosal growth, and neutrophil activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konturek, J W; Dembinski, A; Stoll, R; Domschke, W; Konturek, S J

    1994-01-01

    The gastropathy associated with the ingestion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin is a common side effect of this class of drugs, but the precise mechanisms by which they cause mucosal damage have not been fully explained. During continued use of an injurious substance, such as aspirin, the extent of gastric mucosal damage decreases and this phenomenon is named gastric adaptation. To assess the extent of mucosal damage by aspirin and subsequent adaptation the effects of 14 days of continuous, oral administration of aspirin (2 g per day) to eight healthy male volunteers was studied. To estimate the rate of mucosal damage, gastroscopy was performed before (day 0) and at days 3, 7, 14 of aspirin treatment. Gastric microbleeding and gastric mucosal blood flow were measured using laser Doppler flowmeter and mucosal biopsy specimens were taken for the estimation of tissue DNA synthesis and RNA and DNA concentration. In addition, the activation of neutrophils in peripheral blood was assessed by measuring their ability to associate with platelets. Aspirin induced acute damage mainly in gastric corpus, reaching at day 3 about 3.5 on the endoscopic Lanza score but lessened to about 1.5 at day 14 pointing to the occurrence of gastric adaptation. Mucosal blood flow increased at day 3 by about 50% in the gastric corpus and by 88% in the antrum. The in vitro DNA synthesis and RNA concentration, an index of mucosal growth, were reduced at day 3 but then increased to reach about 150% of initial value at the end of aspirin treatment. It is concluded that the treatment with aspirin in humans induces gastric adaptation to this agent, which entails the increase in mucosal blood flow, the rise in neutrophil activation, and the enhancement in mucosal growth. PMID:7959223

  7. Viscoelastic behaviour of human blood and polyacrylamide model fluids for heart valve testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerche, Dietmar; Vlastos, Georgios; Koch, Brigitte; Pohl, Manfred; Affeld, Klaus

    1993-06-01

    New heart valves and other cardiovascular assist systems have to be tested for hydrodynamic performance. In place of human blood simple model fluids like glycerol solutions are employed often due to ethical and practical reasons. But blood exhibits complex non-Newtonian and viscoelastic behaviour. Rheological blood properties are reviewed based on literature and own experimental results. Furthermore we studied polymer solutions with respect to blood-like flow behaviour. Rheology was assessed by means of the low shear rotational viscometer (LS 40, Mettler-Toledo, Switzerland) under stationary and dynamic shear conditions (variation of frequency and angular displacement).

  8. Measurements of vitamin B12 in human blood serum using resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiminis, G.; Schartner, E. P.; Brooks, J. L.; Hutchinson, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin and its derivatives) deficiency has been identified as a potential modifiable risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Chronic deficiency of vitamin B12 has been significantly associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline. An effective and efficient method for measuring vitamin B12 concentration in human blood would enable ongoing tracking and assessment of this potential modifiable risk factor. In this work we present an optical sensor based on resonance Raman spectroscopy for rapid measurements of vitamin B12 in human blood serum. The measurement takes less than a minute and requires minimum preparation (centrifuging) of the collected blood samples.

  9. Study of terahertz-radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeluts, A A; Esaulkov, M N; Kosareva, O G; Solyankin, P M; Shkurinov, A P [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gapeyev, A B; Pashovkin, T N [Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Matyunin, S N [Section of Applied Problems at the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nazarov, M M [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Cherkasova, O P [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-28

    We have carried out the studies aimed at assessing the effect of terahertz radiation on DNA molecules in human blood leukocytes. Genotoxic testing of terahertz radiation was performed in three different oscillation regimes, the blood leukocytes from healthy donors being irradiated for 20 minutes with the mean intensity of 8 – 200 μW cm{sup -2} within the frequency range of 0.1 – 6.5 THz. Using the comet assay it is shown that in the selected regimes such radiation does not induce a direct DNA damage in viable human blood leukocytes. (biophotonics)

  10. Simulation of Local Blood Flow in Human Brain under Altered Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Sung; Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan

    2003-01-01

    In addition to the altered gravitational forces, specific shapes and connections of arteries in the brain vary in the human population (Cebral et al., 2000; Ferrandez et al., 2002). Considering the geometric variations, pulsatile unsteadiness, and moving walls, computational approach in analyzing altered blood circulation will offer an economical alternative to experiments. This paper presents a computational approach for modeling the local blood flow through the human brain under altered gravity. This computational approach has been verified through steady and unsteady experimental measurements and then applied to the unsteady blood flows through a carotid bifurcation model and an idealized Circle of Willis (COW) configuration under altered gravity conditions.

  11. Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, M.; Bilal, M.; Anwar, S.; Rehman, A.; Ahmed, M.

    2013-03-01

    We present the optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra were acquired from 18 blood serum samples using a laser at 532 nm as the excitation source. A multivariate regression model based on partial least-squares regression is developed that uses Raman spectra to predict dengue infection with leave-one-sample-out cross validation. The prediction of dengue infection by our model yields correlation coefficient r2 values of 0.9998 between the predicted and reference clinical results. The model was tested for six unknown human blood sera and found to be 100% accurate in accordance with the clinical results.

  12. Controlled Environment Specimen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2014-01-01

    Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking an environme...

  13. Blood transcriptome based biomarkers for human circadian phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Emma E; Möller-Levet, Carla S; Poh, Norman; Santhi, Nayantara; Archer, Simon N; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders both require assessment of circadian phase of the brain’s circadian pacemaker. The gold-standard univariate method is based on collection of a 24-hr time series of plasma melatonin, a suprachiasmatic nucleus-driven pineal hormone. We developed and validated a multivariate whole-blood mRNA-based predictor of melatonin phase which requires few samples. Transcriptome data were collected under normal, sleep-deprivation and abnormal sleep-timing conditions to assess robustness of the predictor. Partial least square regression (PLSR), applied to the transcriptome, identified a set of 100 biomarkers primarily related to glucocorticoid signaling and immune function. Validation showed that PLSR-based predictors outperform published blood-derived circadian phase predictors. When given one sample as input, the R2 of predicted vs observed phase was 0.74, whereas for two samples taken 12 hr apart, R2 was 0.90. This blood transcriptome-based model enables assessment of circadian phase from a few samples. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20214.001 PMID:28218891

  14. Pattern of distribution of blood group antigens on human epidermal cells during maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Buschard, Karsten; Hakomori, Sen-Itiroh

    1984-01-01

    The distribution in human epidermis of A, B, and H blood group antigens and of a precursor carbohydrate chain, N-acetyl-lactosamine, was examined using immunofluorescence staining techniques. The material included tissue from 10 blood group A, 4 blood group B, and 9 blood group O persons. Murine...... on the lower spinous cells whereas H antigen was seen predominantly on upper spinous cells or on the granular cells. Epithelia from blood group A or B persons demonstrated A or B antigens, respectively, but only if the tissue sections were trypsinized before staining. In such cases A or B antigens were found...... monoclonal antibodies were used to identify H antigen (type 2 chain) and N-acetyl-lactosamine. Human antisera were used to identify A and B antigens. In all groups N-acetyl-lactosamine and H antigen were found on the cell membranes of the spinous cell layer. N-acetyl-lactosamine was present mainly...

  15. Evaluation of combined near-IR spectroscopic (NIRS)-IVUS imaging as a means to detect lipid-rich plaque burden in human coronary autopsy specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jimmy L.; Grainger, Stephanie J.; Greiner, Cherry A.; Hendricks, Michael J.; Goode, Meghan M.; Saybolt, Matthew D.; Wilensky, Robert L.; Madden, Sean P.; Muller, James E.

    2016-02-01

    Intracoronary near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can identify lipid in the coronary arteries, but lacks depth resolution. A novel catheter is currently in clinical use that combines NIRS with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), which provides depth-resolved structural information via the IVUS modality. A measure designated as lipid-rich plaque burden (LRPB) has been proposed as a means to interpret the combined acoustic and optical information of NIRS-IVUS. LRPB is defined as the area created by the intersection of the NIRS lipid-rich arc with the corresponding IVUS-measured plaque burden. We determined the correlation in human coronary autopsy specimens between LRPB, a measure of lipid presence and extent available via intravascular imaging in patients, and the area of lipid-rich plaque as determined by the gold-standard of histology. Fifteen artery segments from 8 human autopsy hearts were imaged with the NIRS-IVUS system (TVC Imaging System, Infraredx Inc., Burlington, MA). Arteries were imaged in a specialty fixture that assured accurate co-registration between imaging and histology. The arteries were then fixed and divided into 2 mm blocks for histological staining. Pathological contouring of lipid-rich areas was performed on the stained thin sections for 54 lipid-rich blocks. Computation of LRPB was performed on transverse NIRS-IVUS frames corresponding to the histologic sections. The quantified LRPB was frequently higher than the lipid-rich plaque area determined by histology, because the region denoted by the EEL and lumen within the NIRS lipid-rich arc is not entirely comprised of lipid. Overall, a moderate to strong correlation (R = 0.73) was found between LRPB determined by NIRS-IVUS imaging and the lipid-rich plaque area determined by histology. LRPB, which can be measured in patients with NIRS-IVUS imaging, corresponds to the amount of lipid-rich plaque in a coronary artery. LRPB should be evaluated in prospective clinical trials for its ability to

  16. Effect of Tamarindus indica L. leaves' fluid extract on human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, J C; Garcia-Diaz, J; Perez-Rosés, R; De la Vega, J; Rodríguez-Amado, J; Morris-Quevedo, H J

    2014-01-01

    Tamarind leaves are edible; however, their saponin content could be toxic to human blood cells. In this article, the effect of tamarind leaf fluid extract (TFE) on human blood cells was evaluated by using several tests. Results revealed that TFE did not cause significant haemolysis on human red blood cells even at the lowest evaluated concentration (20 mg/mL). Blood protein denaturalisation ratio was consistently lower than in control at TFE concentrations greater than 40 mg/mL. Erythrocyte membrane damage caused by the action of oxidative H2O2 displayed a steady reduction with increasing TFE concentrations. In the reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement by using flow cytometry assay, leucocyte viability was over 95% at tested concentrations, and a high ROS inhibition was also recorded. Protective behaviour found in TFE should be attributed to its polyphenol content. Thus, tamarind leaves can be regarded as a potential source of interesting phytochemicals.

  17. Measurement of human blood viscosity by an electromagnetic spinning sphere viscometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Koji; Abumiya, Takeo; Sakai, Keiji; Hirano, Miki; Osanai, Toshiya; Shichinohe, Hideo; Nakayama, Naoki; Kazumata, Ken; Aida, Toshimitsu; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2016-08-01

    We herein applied an electromagnetic spinning sphere (EMS) viscometer to the measurement of human blood viscosity for the first time. We collected blood samples from 100 healthy outpatient volunteers in order to analyse viscosity dependence on blood cell parameters and on the shear rate with a simple approximation formula [ηi (γ)\\, = Ai γ(- pi) + η0]. Viscosity dependence on blood cell parameters was relatively high at a high shear rate, but became lower as the shear rate decreased. The approximation formula with appropriate parameters of Ai and pi nearly faithfully reproduced actual blood rheological behaviour with a standard deviation of 1.5%. The distributions of Ai and pi values were broad, suggesting that the pattern of viscosity dependence on the shear rate varied with individual differences. The results obtained using the EMS viscometer suggest that blood viscosity values are individual-specific and actual individual measurements are important for understanding rheological conditions.

  18. DTPA complexation of bismuth in human blood serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montavon, G; Le Du, A; Champion, J; Rabung, T; Morgenstern, A

    2012-07-28

    The in vivo(212)Pb/(212)Bi generator is promising for application in targeted alpha therapy (TAT) of cancer. One main limitation of its therapeutic application is due to potential release of (212)Bi from the radioconjugate upon radioactive decay of the mother nuclide (212)Pb, potentially leading to irradiation of healthy tissue. The objective of the present work is to assess whether the chelate CHX-A''-DTPA (N-(2-aminoethyl)-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N',N''-pentaacetic acid) bound to a biological carrier molecule may be able to re-complex released (212)Bi under in vivo conditions to limit its translocation from the target site. CHX-A''-DTPA was bound to bovine gamma globulin (BGG) to mimic a model conjugate and the stability of the Bi-CHX-A''-DTPA-BGG conjugate was studied in blood serum by ultrafiltration. TRLFS experiments using Cm(III) as a fluorescent probe demonstrated that linking CHX-A''-DTPA to BGG does not affect the coordination properties of the ligand. Furthermore, comparable stability constants were observed between Bi(III) and free CHX-A''-DTPA, BGG-bound CHX-A''-DTPA and DTPA. The complexation constants determined between Bi(III) and the chelate molecules are sufficiently high to allow ultra trace amounts of the ligand to efficiently compete with serum transferrin controlling Bi(III) speciation in blood plasma conditions. Nevertheless, CHX-A''-DTPA is not able to complex Bi(III) generated in blood serum because of the strong competition between Bi(III) and Fe(II) for the ligand. In other words, CHX-A''-DTPA is not "selective" enough to limit Bi(iii) release in the body when applying the (212)Pb/(212)Bi in vivo generator.

  19. Biochemical analysis of CTLA-4 immunoreactive material from human blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennert Kate

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CTLA-4 was initially described as a membrane-bound molecule that inhibited lymphocyte activation by interacting with B7.1 and B7.2 molecules on antigen presenting cells. Alternative splicing of mRNA encoding the CTLA-4 receptor leads to the production of a molecule (sCTLA-4 that lacks a membrane anchor and is therefore secreted into the extracellular space. Despite studies finding that people with autoimmune disease more frequently express high levels of sCTLA-4 in their blood than apparently healthy people, the significance of these findings is unclear. Methods Molecules isolated from blood using CTLA-4 specific antibodies were analyzed with ligand binding assays, mass spectroscopy, and biochemical fractionation in an effort to increase our understanding of CTLA-4 immunoreactive material. Results Mass spectroscopy analysis of the molecules recognized by multiple CTLA-4-specific antibodies failed to identify any CTLA-4 protein. Even though these molecules bind to the CTLA-4 receptors B7.1 and B7.2, they also exhibit properties common to immunoglobulins. Conclusion We have identified molecules in blood that are recognized by CTLA-4 specific antibodies but also exhibit properties of immunoglobulins. Our data indicates that what has been called sCTLA-4 is not a direct product of the CTLA-4 gene, and that the CTLA-4 protein is not part of this molecule. These results may explain why the relationship of sCTLA-4 to immune system activity has been difficult to elucidate.

  20. Influence of insufficient blood specimens volume on the detection results of coagulation tests in SD rats%SD 大鼠标本血量不足对凝血四项检测结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟青新; 黄爱军; 钱丽萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨大鼠的最佳抗凝比,分析标本血量不足对凝血四项检测结果的影响。方法60只大鼠分成2组,按真空采血法采集空腹12 h腹主动脉血液。第一组20只,用于全血细胞测定。全自动血液细胞计数仪检测红细胞压积(hematocrit,HCT),血小板计数(platelet,PLT)。第二组40只,每只鼠采2管血,按抗凝比[枸橼酸钠抗凝剂与全血的比例(V∶V)]分成1∶9(对照组)及1∶5(实验组),1∶8(实验组)及1∶7(实验组),离心获乏血小板血浆。全自动血凝分析仪检测凝血四项:凝血酶原时间(prothrombin time,PT)、活化部分凝血活酶时间(activated partial thromboplatin time,APTT)、凝血酶时间(thrombin time,TT)、纤维蛋白原(Fibrinogen,FIB)。结果 SD大鼠HCT(%)为41.7±2.9,PLT(×109/L)为1114±173。随着抗凝比的增大,PT、APTT、TT延长,FIB减小。与对照组相比:1∶8实验组,差异无统计学意义。1∶7实验组,除TT差异有统计学意义外,另3项指标差异无统计学意义。1∶5实验组,差异有统计学意义。结论凝血四项的结果受抗凝比的影响。1∶9是大鼠最佳抗凝比,1∶8尚可。大鼠有其独特的生理特性。为大鼠的相关研究提供了基础的科学数据和基本的理论依据。%Objective To explore the best anticoagulant ratio in SD rats .To analyse the influence of insufficient blood specimens volume on coagulation tests .Methods 60 rats were divided into 2 groups.According to the method of vacuum blood, collect abdominal aortic blood after fasting 12 hours.The first group 20 rats were used only for routine blood test.Fully automatic hematology analyzer detected hematocrit and platelet .The second group 40 rats were used for coagulation test .Every rat was collected 2 blood specimens with different anticoagulant ratio [ the proportion of sodium citrate anticoagulation and the

  1. Procoagulant control strategies for the human blood clotting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurino, Marco; Menara, Tommaso; Stella, Alessandro; Betta, Monica; Landi, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes the comparison between two drug control strategies to hemophilia A. To emulate blood clotting and the pathological condition of hemophilia, a mathematical model composed by 14 ordinary differential equations is considered. We adopt a variable structure non-linear PID approach and a Model Predictive Control in order to control the dosage of procoagulant factor used in the treatment of hemophiliac patient. The two control actions are sampled for a practical application. Finally, we discuss and compare the results of the two control approaches, introducing a suited control index (eINR).

  2. 6505份血培养病原菌分布及耐药分析%Distribution and Drug Resistance Analysis of Pathogen Isolated from 6 505 Blood Culture Specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘耀婷; 周庭银

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the antibiotic resistance and distribution of pathogens bacteria isolated from 6 505 blood culture specimens and to provide a basic for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods Blood samples were detected by VERSA TREK and BACKET9120 automated blood culture system, and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed with Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method,results were analysed by WHONET5. 3 software. Results Among 6 505 samples, 469 were blood culture positive, 256 gram-negative bacteria strains accounted for 54. 58% , mainly Escherichia coli, Klebsiel-la, Pneumoniae and Acinetobacler baumanmi;104 gram-postive bacteria strains accounted for 22. 17%, 37 fungi strains accounted for 7.89%. Imipenem, meropenem against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae effect of good, Vancomycin, teicoplanin,and nitrofurantoin remained highly sensitive to the gram positive bacteria. Conclusion Gram-negative bacteria were the main bacteria in blood culture, the species from which was quite complicated, and the drug resistance was high. Strengthen blood culture pathogens and drug resistance monitoring, for the rational use of antimicrobial drugs, prevent the e-mergence of new drug-resistant strains.%目的 了解长征医院2009年8月~2011年8月血培养病原菌构成比、分布及耐药特点,为临床抗感染治疗提供依据.方法 血培养采用VersaTrek和BACKET9120全自动血培养仪,鉴定用VITEK2-compact细菌鉴定仪进行病原菌的培养分离与鉴定;药敏采用K-B法;WHONET5.3软件进行统计分析.结果6 505份血培养标本中,469份血培养阳性,分离菌以革兰阴性杆菌为主,共256株,占54.58%;革兰阳性球菌104株,占22.17%;真菌37株,占7.89%.检出细菌前三位:大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌和鲍曼不动杆菌.亚胺培南与美洛培南对大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌作用效果较好,万古霉素、利奈唑胺对阳性菌100%敏感,其余抗菌药物均有

  3. The application of silicon sol-gel technology to forensic blood substitute development: Mimicking aspects of whole human blood rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotesbury, Theresa; Illes, Mike; Wilson, Paul; Vreugdenhil, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Solution-gelation chemistry has promising applications in forensic synthetic blood substitute development. This research offers a silicon-based sol-gel approach to creating stable materials that share similar rheological properties to that of whole human blood samples. Room temperature, high water content, silicon sol-gels were created using the organosilane precursors 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and tetraethylorthosilicate along with various concentrations of filler and pigment. Shear-thinning non-Newtonian properties were observed within most formulations of the presented materials. The effects of colloidal concentration, temperature, age and filler addition on the viscosity of the sol-gels were investigated. SEM-EDS analysis was used to identify the behavior of the fillers within the film and support their inclusion for basic bloodstain pattern simulation. A final proposed candidate sol-gel was assessed using a previously reported passive drip simulation test on a hard, dry surface and passed. This works represents encouraging development in providing safe material alternatives to using whole human blood for forensic training and research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Assessment of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Mirtazapine in Human Blood Lymphocytes Using Micronucleus Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Norizadeh tazehkand

    2015-02-01

    Results: MN formation was not significantly induced at 24- and 48-h treatment periods when compared with control but Nuclear division index (NDI significantly decreased at all concentrations for two treatment periods. Conclusion: Mirtazapine was not genetoxic but was cytotoxic in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. According to this study mirtazapine has cytotoxic effects on human's cells.

  5. The transcriptional landscape of age in human peripheral blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Marjolein J.; Joehanes, Roby; Pilling, Luke C.; Schurmann, Claudia; Conneely, Karen N.; Powell, Joseph; Reinmaa, Eva; Sutphin, George L.; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Schramm, Katharina; Wilson, Yana A.; Kobes, Sayuko; Tukiainen, Taru; Nalls, Michael A.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Cookson, Mark R.; Gibbs, Raphael J.; Hardy, John; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Zonderman, Alan B.; Dillman, Allissa; Traynor, Bryan; Smith, Colin; Longo, Dan L.; Trabzuni, Daniah; Troncoso, Juan; van der Brug, Marcel; Weale, Michael E.; O'Brien, Richard; Johnson, Robert; Walker, Robert; Zielke, Ronald H.; Arepalli, Sampath; Ryten, Mina; Singleton, Andrew B.; Ramos, Yolande F.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Fornage, Myriam; Liu, Yongmei; Gharib, Sina A.; Stranger, Barbara E.; De Jager, Philip L.; Aviv, Abraham; Levy, Daniel; Murabito, Joanne M.; Munson, Peter J.; Huan, Tianxiao; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van Rooij, Jeroen; Stolk, Lisette; Broer, Linda; Verbiest, Michael M. P. J.; Jhamai, Mila; Arp, Pascal; Metspalu, Andres; Tserel, Liina; Milani, Lili; Samani, Nilesh J.; Peterson, Pärt; Kasela, Silva; Codd, Veryan; Peters, Annette; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K.; Herder, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Roden, Michael; Singmann, Paula; Zeilinger, Sonja; Illig, Thomas; Homuth, Georg; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Völzke, Henry; Steil, Leif; Kocher, Thomas; Murray, Anna; Melzer, David; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Bandinelli, Stefania; Moses, Eric K.; Kent, Jack W.; Curran, Joanne E.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Westra, Harm-Jan; McRae, Allan F.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Hovatta, Iiris; Perola, Markus; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Henders, Anjali K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Smith, Alicia K.; Mehta, Divya; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Nylocks, K Maria; Kennedy, Elizabeth M.; Klengel, Torsten; Ding, Jingzhong; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Brody, Jennifer; Rotter, Jerome I.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Slagboom, P. Eline; Helmer, Quinta; den Hollander, Wouter; Bean, Shannon; Raj, Towfique; Bakhshi, Noman; Wang, Qiao Ping; Oyston, Lisa J.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Tracy, Russell P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Turner, Stephen T.; Blangero, John; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ressler, Kerry J.; Yang, Jian; Franke, Lude; Kettunen, Johannes; Visscher, Peter M.; Neely, G. Gregory; Korstanje, Ron; Hanson, Robert L.; Prokisch, Holger; Ferrucci, Luigi; Esko, Tonu; Teumer, Alexander; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Johnson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Disease incidences increase with age, but the molecular characteristics of ageing that lead to increased disease susceptibility remain inadequately understood. Here we perform a whole-blood gene expression meta-analysis in 14,983 individuals of European ancestry (including replication) and identify 1,497 genes that are differentially expressed with chronological age. The age-associated genes do not harbor more age-associated CpG-methylation sites than other genes, but are instead enriched for the presence of potentially functional CpG-methylation sites in enhancer and insulator regions that associate with both chronological age and gene expression levels. We further used the gene expression profiles to calculate the ‘transcriptomic age' of an individual, and show that differences between transcriptomic age and chronological age are associated with biological features linked to ageing, such as blood pressure, cholesterol levels, fasting glucose, and body mass index. The transcriptomic prediction model adds biological relevance and complements existing epigenetic prediction models, and can be used by others to calculate transcriptomic age in external cohorts. PMID:26490707

  6. Ultrasonic monitoring of droplets' evaporation: Application to human whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, D; Ferrandis, J Y; Brutin, D

    2016-09-01

    During a colloidal droplet evaporation, a sol-gel transition can be observed and is described by the desiccation time τD and the gelation time τG. These characteristic times, which can be linked to viscoelastic properties of the droplet and to its composition, are classically rated by analysis of mass droplet evolution during evaporation. Even if monitoring mass evolution versus time seems straightforward, this approach is very sensitive to environmental conditions (vibrations, air flow…) as mass has to be evaluated very accurately using ultra-sensitive weighing scales. In this study we investigated the potentialities of ultrasonic shear reflectometry to assess τD and τG in a simple and reliable manner. In order to validate this approach, our study has focused on blood droplets evaporation on which a great deal of work has recently been published. Desiccation and gelation times measured with shear ultrasonic reflectometry have been perfectly correlated to values obtained from mass versus time analysis. This ultrasonic method which is not very sensitive to environmental perturbations is therefore very interesting to monitor the drying of blood droplets in a simple manner and is more generally suitable for complex fluid droplets evaporation investigation.

  7. Cobalt uptake and binding in human red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lars Ole; Brown, Anthony M; Harbak, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The basal uptake and cytoplasmic binding of cobalt was studied in human red cells using (57)Co as tracer. The basal uptake is linear with time, at a rate of about 10 µmol (l cells)(-1) h(-1) at 100 µM [Co(2+)](o), and is almost irreversible, as there is hardly any efflux into excess EDTA. Ionophore...

  8. Human growth hormone alters carbohydrate storage in blood and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-06-02

    Jun 2, 2015 ... ... which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the ... of granivorous species, such as the chicken ... dominant in carnivorous avian species.[1] The ... Studies in humans and animal models show ..... rabbits over expressing growth hormone develop acromegaly and.

  9. The Plasmodium falciparum blood stages acquire factor H family proteins to evade destruction by human complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Thiago F A; Flammersfeld, Ansgar; Ngwa, Che J; Kiesow, Meike; Fischer, Rainer; Zipfel, Peter F; Skerka, Christine; Pradel, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    The acquisition of regulatory proteins is a means of blood-borne pathogens to avoid destruction by the human complement. We recently showed that the gametes of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum bind factor H (FH) from the blood meal of the mosquito vector to assure successful sexual reproduction, which takes places in the mosquito midgut. While these findings provided a first glimpse of a complex mechanism used by Plasmodium to control the host immune attack, it is hitherto not known, how the pathogenic blood stages of the malaria parasite evade destruction by the human complement. We now show that the human complement system represents a severe threat for the replicating blood stages, particularly for the reinvading merozoites, with complement factor C3b accumulating on the surfaces of the intraerythrocytic schizonts as well as of free merozoites. C3b accumulation initiates terminal complement complex formation, in consequence resulting in blood stage lysis. To inactivate C3b, the parasites bind FH as well as related proteins FHL-1 and CFHR-1 to their surface, and FH binding is trypsin-resistant. Schizonts acquire FH via two contact sites, which involve CCP modules 5 and 20. Blockage of FH-mediated protection via anti-FH antibodies results in significantly impaired blood stage replication, pointing to the plasmodial complement evasion machinery as a promising malaria vaccine target.

  10. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  11. Systems biology of coagulation initiation: kinetics of thrombin generation in resting and activated human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash S Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Blood function defines bleeding and clotting risks and dictates approaches for clinical intervention. Independent of adding exogenous tissue factor (TF, human blood treated in vitro with corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI, to block Factor XIIa will generate thrombin after an initiation time (T(i of 1 to 2 hours (depending on donor, while activation of platelets with the GPVI-activator convulxin reduces T(i to ∼20 minutes. Since current kinetic models fail to generate thrombin in the absence of added TF, we implemented a Platelet-Plasma ODE model accounting for: the Hockin-Mann protease reaction network, thrombin-dependent display of platelet phosphatidylserine, VIIa function on activated platelets, XIIa and XIa generation and function, competitive thrombin substrates (fluorogenic detector and fibrinogen, and thrombin consumption during fibrin polymerization. The kinetic model consisting of 76 ordinary differential equations (76 species, 57 reactions, 105 kinetic parameters predicted the clotting of resting and convulxin-activated human blood as well as predicted T(i of human blood under 50 different initial conditions that titrated increasing levels of TF, Xa, Va, XIa, IXa, and VIIa. Experiments with combined anti-XI and anti-XII antibodies prevented thrombin production, demonstrating that a leak of XIIa past saturating amounts of CTI (and not "blood-borne TF" alone was responsible for in vitro initiation without added TF. Clotting was not blocked by antibodies used individually against TF, VII/VIIa, P-selectin, GPIb, protein disulfide isomerase, cathepsin G, nor blocked by the ribosome inhibitor puromycin, the Clk1 kinase inhibitor Tg003, or inhibited VIIa (VIIai. This is the first model to predict the observed behavior of CTI-treated human blood, either resting or stimulated with platelet activators. CTI-treated human blood will clot in vitro due to the combined activity of XIIa and XIa, a process enhanced by platelet activators and which proceeds

  12. NMR metabolomics of human blood and urine in disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Iola F; Diaz, Sílvia O; Gil, Ana M

    2014-05-01

    This paper reviews the main applications of NMR metabolomics of blood and urine in disease research, over the last 5 years. The broad range of disease types addressed attests the increasing interest within the academic and medical communities to explore the recognised potential of metabolomics to (1) provide insight into underlying disease pathogenesis and (2) unveil new metabolic markers for disease diagnosis and follow up. Importantly, most recent studies reveal an increasing awareness of possible limitations and pitfalls of the metabolomics approach, together with efforts for improved study design and statistical validation, which are crucial requisites for the sound development of NMR metabolomics and its progress into the clinical setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of metabolites of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in human urine specimens: 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD, a prevalent metabolite of LSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poch, G K; Klette, K L; Hallare, D A; Manglicmot, M G; Czarny, R J; McWhorter, L K; Anderson, C J

    1999-03-05

    Seventy-four urine specimens previously found to contain lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were analyzed by a new procedure for the LSD metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (O-H-LSD) using a Finnigan LC-MS-MS system. This procedure proved to be less complex, shorter to perform and provides cleaner chromatographic characteristics than the method currently utilized by the Navy Drug Screening Laboratories for the extraction of LSD from urine by GC-MS. All of the specimens used in the study screened positive for LSD by radioimmunoassay (Roche Abuscreen). Analysis by GC-MS revealed detectable amounts of LSD in all of the specimens. In addition, isolysergic diethylamide (iso-LSD), a byproduct of LSD synthesis, was quantitated in 64 of the specimens. Utilizing the new LC-MS-MS method, low levels of N-desmethyl-LSD (nor-LSD), another identified LSD metabolite, were detected in some of the specimens. However, all 74 specimens contained O-H-LSD at significantly higher concentrations than LSD, iso-LSD, or nor-LSD alone. The O-H-LSD concentration ranged from 732 to 112 831 pg/ml (mean, 16340 pg/ml) by quantification with an internal standard. The ratio of O-H-LSD to LSD ranged from 1.1 to 778.1 (mean, 42.9). The presence of O-H-LSD at substantially higher concentrations than LSD suggests that the analysis for O-H-LSD as the target analyte by employing LC-MS-MS will provide a much longer window of detection for the use of LSD than the analysis of the parent compound, LSD.

  14. Cerebral blood volume in humans by NIRS and PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Frank; Knudsen, Gitte M.; Rostrup, Egill; Ide, Kojiro; Secher, Niels H.; Paulson, Olaf B.

    1998-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) determined changes in the cerebral blood volume (CBV) were compared to those obtained by positron emission tomography (PET) in five healthy volunteers (2 females). Two NIRS optodes were placed on the left forehead and NIRS-CBV was derived from the sum of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. CBV changes were induced by hyperventilation and inhalation of 6% CO2. After 2 min inhalation of labeled carbon monoxide, data were sampled during 8 min for both PET- and NIRS-CBV as well as for the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). The region of interest for PET-CBV was `banana-shaped' with boundaries corresponding to the position of the NIRS optodes on the transmission scan and to a depth of approximately 2 cm. During hyperventilation, PaCO2 decreased from 5.2 (4.6 - 5.8) to 4.6 (4.2 - 4.9) kPa and equally PET-CBV (from 3.9 (2.5 - 5.2) to 3.6 (3.0 - 4.8) ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and NIRS-CBV were reduced (by -0.14 [-0.38 - 0.50] ml (DOT) 100 g-1). During hypercapnia PaCO2 increased to 6.0 (5.9 - 7.0) kPa accompanied by parallel changes in PET- (to 4.5 (3.9 - 4.9) ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and NIRS-CBV (by 0.04 [-0.02 - 0.30] ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and the two variables were correlated (r equals 0.78, p arterial carbon dioxide tension, the cerebral blood volumes determined by near infrared spectroscopy and by positron emission tomography change in parallel but the change in NIRS-CBV is small compared to that obtained by PET.

  15. Effects of Aged Stored Autologous Red Blood Cells on Human Endothelial Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanias, Tamir; Triulzi, Darrel; Donadee, Chenell; Barge, Suchitra; Badlam, Jessica; Jain, Shilpa; Belanger, Andrea M.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: A major abnormality that characterizes the red cell “storage lesion” is increased hemolysis and reduced red cell lifespan after infusion. Low levels of intravascular hemolysis after transfusion of aged stored red cells disrupt nitric oxide (NO) bioavailabity, via accelerated NO scavenging reaction with cell-free plasma hemoglobin. The degree of intravascular hemolysis post-transfusion and effects on endothelial-dependent vasodilation responses to acetylcholine have not been fully characterized in humans. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of blood aged to the limits of Food and Drug Administration–approved storage time on the human microcirculation and endothelial function. Methods: Eighteen healthy individuals donated 1 U of leukopheresed red cells, divided and autologously transfused into the forearm brachial artery 5 and 42 days after blood donation. Blood samples were obtained from stored blood bag supernatants and the antecubital vein of the infusion arm. Forearm blood flow measurements were performed using strain-gauge plethysmography during transfusion, followed by testing of endothelium-dependent blood flow with increasing doses of intraarterial acetylcholine. Measurements and Main Results: We demonstrate that aged stored blood has higher levels of arginase-1 and cell-free plasma hemoglobin. Compared with 5-day blood, the transfusion of 42-day packed red cells decreases acetylcholine-dependent forearm blood flows. Intravascular venous levels of arginase-1 and cell-free plasma hemoglobin increase immediately after red cell transfusion, with more significant increases observed after infusion of 42-day-old blood. Conclusions: We demonstrate that the transfusion of blood at the limits of Food and Drug Administration–approved storage has a significant effect on the forearm circulation and impairs endothelial function. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01137656) PMID:26222884

  16. Lidocaine action and conformational changes in cytoskeletal protein network in human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, E; Hamada, N; Shindo, J

    1995-11-03

    The mechanism of action of lidocaine, which is commonly used clinically as a local anesthetic, was studied in human red blood cells. The influx of [14C]lidocaine through the cell membrane induced reversible transformation of human red blood cells from discocytes to stomatocytes. This change in shape depended on the lidocaine concentration and required both ATP and carbonic anhydrase. The lidocaine-induced shape change occurred as a result of spectrin aggregation, which altered the intracellular environment of the human red blood cells, mediated by carbonic anhydrase and activation of vacuolar type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase). Lidocaine controlled the influx of 22Na into the human red blood cells in a concentration-dependent manner. When incubated in media containing 6-chloro-9-[(4-diethylamino)-1-methyl-butyl]amino-2-methoxyacridine (mepacrine), an inhibitor of Na+ channels, human red blood cells changed shape from discocytes to stomatocytes and the intracellular pH decreased. This phenomenon was very similar to the shape change induced by lidocaine. These results suggest that the mode of action of lidocaine is related to a conformational change in the cytoskeletal protein network.

  17. Estimation of cerebral blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S F; Stadeager, Carsten Preben; Siemkowicz, E

    1990-01-01

    /kg/min). The cortical CBF was found between 14 and 211 ml 100 g-1.min-1 with mean 42 ml 100 g-1.min-1 and mean white matter CBF equal to 27 ml 100 g-1.min-1. It is suggested that the external cardiac massage in humans may be of poor efficacy in terms of brain revival. Cortical CBF after long-lasting cardiopulmonary...

  18. Post-prandial rise of microvesicles in peripheral blood of healthy human donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suštar, Vid; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Stukelj, Roman; Frank, Mojca; Ogorevc, Eva; Janša, Rado; Mam, Keriya; Veranič, Peter; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika

    2011-03-21

    Microvesicles isolated from body fluids are membrane - enclosed fragments of cell interior which carry information on the status of the organism. It is yet unclear how metabolism affects the number and composition of microvesicles in isolates from the peripheral blood. To study the post - prandial effect on microvesicles in isolates from the peripheral blood of 21 healthy donors, in relation to blood cholesterol and blood glucose concentrations. The average number of microvesicles in the isolates increased 5 hours post - prandially by 52%; the increase was statistically significant (p = 0.01) with the power P = 0.68, while the average total blood cholesterol concentration, average low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (LDL-C) and average high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (HDL-C) all remained within 2% of their fasting values. We found an 11% increase in triglycerides (p = 0.12) and a 6% decrease in blood glucose (p microvesicles negatively correlated with the post - fasting total cholesterol concentration (r = - 0.46, p = 0.035) while the difference in the number of microvesicles in the isolates between post - prandial and post - fasting states negatively correlated with the respective difference in blood glucose concentration (r = - 0.39, p = 0.05). In a population of healthy human subjects the number of microvesicles in isolates from peripheral blood increased in the post - prandial state. The increase in the number of microvesicles was affected by the fasting concentration of cholesterol and correlated with the decrease in blood glucose.

  19. Blood flow in the peritendinous space of the human Achilles tendon during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Bülow, J; Kjaer, M

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated blood flow in the peritendinous space of the human Achilles tendon during rest and 40-min dynamical contraction of m. triceps surae. In 10 healthy volunteers 133Xe was injected in to the peritendinous space just ventrally to the Achilles tendon 2 and 5 cm proximal...... to the calcaneal insertion of the tendon, respectively. Blood flow 5 cm proximal to the Achilles tendon insertion was found to increase 4-fold from rest to exercise whereas the exercise induced increase in blood flow was less pronounced, only 2.5-fold, when measured 2 cm proximal to the Achilles tendon insertion....... Lymph drainage from the area was found to be negligible both during rest and exercise. We conclude that dynamical calf muscle contractions result in increased peritendinous blood flow at the Achilles tendon in humans....

  20. Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Alonso, José; Calbet, José A. L.; Boushel, Robert

    2015-01-01

    NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Temperature-sensitive mechanisms are thought to contribute to blood-flow regulation, but the relationship between exercising and non-exercising limb perfusion and blood temperature is not established. What is the main finding and its...... importance? The close coupling among perfusion, blood temperature and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non-exercising extremities across different exercise modalities and activity levels and the tight association between limb vasodilatation and increases in plasma ATP suggest that both temperature......- and metabolism-sensitive mechanisms are important for the control of human limb perfusion, possibly by activating ATP release from the erythrocytes.  Temperature-sensitive mechanisms may contribute to blood-flow regulation, but the influence of temperature on perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human...

  1. RNA/DNA co-analysis from human menstrual blood and vaginal secretion stains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Claus; Hanson, E; Anjos, M J;

    2014-01-01

    The European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP) organized a fourth and fifth collaborative exercise on RNA/DNA co-analysis for body fluid identification and STR profiling. The task was to identify dried menstrual blood and vaginal secretion stains using specific RNA biomarkers, and additionally test 3...... housekeeping genes for their suitability as reference genes. Six menstrual blood and six vaginal secretion stains, two dilution series (1/4-1/64 pieces of a menstrual blood/vaginal swab) and, optionally, bona fide or mock casework samples of human or non-human origin were analyzed by 24 participating...... laboratories, using RNA extraction or RNA/DNA co-extraction methods. Two novel menstrual blood mRNA multiplexes were used: MMP triplex (MMP7, MMP10, MMP11) and MB triplex (MSX1, LEFTY2, SFRP4) in conjunction with a housekeeping gene triplex (B2M, UBC, UCE). Two novel mRNA multiplexes and a HBD1 singleplex were...

  2. Identification of RBC and WBC Count in Human Blood Using ARM Based Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Dodda Basavanagoud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth in microelectronics and crunching RISC in the field of bio-medical sciences incorporated of soft tools to diagnose various parameters of human fluids. Conventional method of blood sample analysis makes use of laboratory technique of titration, which is operator-dependent and results in lot of errors depending on the skill of the technician. In order to eliminate the human errors involved in the conventional method, in this paper an attempt has been made to present a capillary centrifuge technique driven by high speed DC motor fed by Morgan chopper and controlled by powerful ARM processor. It results in accurate analysis of the blood samples. The various techniques involved in accurate sensing of speed using timer and generation of firing pulses to thyristor in the Morgan chopper is judiciously achieved. This paper clearly brings out the advantages of the proposed blood measurement technique which effectively gives blood analysis faster and at a low cost.

  3. Intracellular Immunization of Human Fetal Cord Blood Stem/Progenitor Cells with a Ribozyme Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mang; Leavitt, Mark C.; Maruyama, Midori; Yamada, Osamu; Young, Dennis; Ho, Anthony D.; Wong-Staal, Flossie

    1995-01-01

    Successful treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection may ultimately require targeting of hematopoietic stem cells. Here we used retroviral vectors carrying the ribozyme gene to transduce CD34^+ cells from human fetal cord blood. Transduction and ribozyme expression had no apparent adverse effect on cell differentiation and/or proliferation. The macrophage-like cells, differentiated from the stem/progenitor cells in vitro, expressed the ribozyme gene and resisted infection by a macrophage tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1. These results suggest the feasibility of stem cell gene therapy for human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

  4. Potent innate immune response to pathogenic leptospira in human whole blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga G A Goris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. The bacteria enter the human body via abraded skin or mucous membranes and may disseminate throughout. In general the clinical picture is mild but some patients develop rapidly progressive, severe disease with a high case fatality rate. Not much is known about the innate immune response to leptospires during haematogenous dissemination. Previous work showed that a human THP-1 cell line recognized heat-killed leptospires and leptospiral LPS through TLR2 instead of TLR4. The LPS of virulent leptospires displayed a lower potency to trigger TNF production by THP-1 cells compared to LPS of non-virulent leptospires. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the host response and killing of virulent and non-virulent Leptospira of different serovars by human THP-1 cells, human PBMC's and human whole blood. Virulence of each leptospiral strain was tested in a well accepted standard guinea pig model. Virulent leptospires displayed complement resistance in human serum and whole blood while in-vitro attenuated non-virulent leptospires were rapidly killed in a complement dependent manner. In vitro stimulation of THP-1 and PBMC's with heat-killed and living leptospires showed differential serovar and cell type dependence of cytokine induction. However, at low, physiological, leptospiral dose, living virulent complement resistant strains were consistently more potent in whole blood stimulations than the corresponding non-virulent complement sensitive strains. At higher dose living virulent and non-virulent leptospires were equipotent in whole blood. Inhibition of different TLRs indicated that both TLR2 and TLR4 as well as TLR5 play a role in the whole blood cytokine response to living leptospires. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, in a minimally altered system as human whole blood, highly virulent Leptospira are potent inducers of the cytokine response.

  5. Haemostatic chitosan coated gauze: in vitro interaction with human blood and in-vivo effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Pogorielov, M.; Kalinkevich, O.; Deineka, V.; Garbuzova, V.; Solodovnik, A.; Kalinkevich, A.; Kalinichenko, T.; Gapchenko, A.; Sklyar, A.; Danilchenko, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chitosan and its derivates are widely used for biomedical application due to antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and tissue repair induced properties. Chitosan-based materials also used as a haemostatic agent but influence of different molecular weight and concentration of chitosan on biological response of blood cells is still not clear. The aim of this research was to evaluate interaction between human blood cells and various forms of chitosan-based materials with dif...

  6. Determinants of ABH expression on human blood platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooling, Laura L W; Kelly, Kathleen; Barton, James; Hwang, Debbie; Koerner, Theodore A W; Olson, John D

    2005-04-15

    Platelets express ABH antigens, which can adversely effect platelet transfusion recovery and survival in ABH-incompatible recipients. To date, there has been no large, comprehensive study comparing specific donor factors with ABH expression on platelet membranes and glycoconjugates. We studied ABH expression in 166 group A apheresis platelet donors by flow cytometry, Western blotting, and thin layer chromatography relative to donor age, sex, A1/A2 subgroup, and Lewis phenotype. Overall, A antigen on platelet membranes, glycoproteins, and glycosphingolipids was linked to an A1 red blood cell (RBC) phenotype. Among A1 donors, platelet ABH varied significantly between donors (0%-87%). Intradonor variability, however, was minimal, suggesting that platelet ABH expression is a stable, donor-specific characteristic, with 5% of A1 donors typing as either ABH high- or low-expressers. Group A2 donors, in contrast, possessed a Bombay-like phenotype, lacking both A and H antigens. Unlike RBCs, ABH expression on platelets may be determined primarily by H-glycosyltransferase (FUT1) activity. Identification of A2 and A1 low expressers may increase the availability and selection of crossmatched and HLA-matched platelets. Platelets from group A2 may also be a superior product for patients undergoing A/O major mismatch allogeneic progenitor cell transplantation.

  7. Temporal variations of adenosine metabolism in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagoya de Sánchez, V; Hernández-Muñoz, R; Suárez, J; Vidrio, S; Yáñez, L; Aguilar-Roblero, R; Oksenberg, A; Vega-González, A; Villalobos, L; Rosenthal, L; Fernández-Cancino, F; Drucker-Colín, R; Díaz-Muñoz, M

    1996-08-01

    Eight diurnally active (06:00-23:00 h) subjects were adapted for 2 days to the room conditions where the experiments were performed. Blood sampling for adenosine metabolites and metabolizing enzymes was done hourly during the activity span and every 30 min during sleep. The results showed that adenosine and its catabolites (inosine, hypoxanthine, and uric acid), adenosine synthesizing (S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and 5'-nucleotidase), degrading (adenosine deaminase) and nucleotide-forming (adenosine kinase) enzymes as well as adenine nucleotides (AMP, ADP, and ATP) undergo statistically significant fluctuations (ANOVA) during the 24 h. However, energy charge was invariable. Glucose and lactate chronograms were determined as metabolic indicators. The same data analyzed by the chi-square periodogram and Fourier series indicated ultradian oscillatory periods for all the metabolites and enzymatic activities determined, and 24-h oscillatory components for inosine, hypoxanthine, adenine nucleotides, glucose, and the activities of SAH-hydrolase, 5'-nucleotidase, and adenosine kinase. The single cosinor method showed significant oscillatory components exclusively for lactate. As a whole, these results suggest that adenosine metabolism may play a role as a biological oscillator coordinating and/or modulating the energy homeostasis and physiological status of erythrocytes in vivo and could be an important factor in the distribution of purine rings for the rest of the organism.

  8. Expansion in bioreactors of human progenitor populations from cord blood and mobilized peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zant, G; Rummel, S A; Koller, M R; Larson, D B; Drubachevsky, I; Palsson, M; Emerson, S G

    1994-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) and mobilized peripheral blood (MPB) provide an alternate source to bone marrow for transplantation. Expansion in vitro of stem/progenitor cell populations from these sources may provide adult-sized grafts otherwise not attainable because of the limited cell numbers available in the case of UCB or because of numerous rounds of apheresis required for sufficient MPB cells. We asked whether continuous perfusion culture could be employed in ex vivo expansion to produce clinically relevant numbers of stem/progenitor cells from these sources. To evaluate MPB, 1-10 million leukocytes, from patients who had received either granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or cyclophosphamide and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), were inoculated into bioreactors, with or without irradiated, allogeneic stroma. The growth factor combination in the perfusion medium consisted of interleukin-3 (IL-3), stem cell factor (SCF), GM-CSF and erythropoietin (Epo). Under the best conditions tested, total cell numbers, granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM), and long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) populations were expanded by about 50-, 80-, and 20-fold, respectively, over 14 days. At low cell inocula (1 million), the presence of stroma enhanced the expansion of total cells and CFU-GM but not of LTC-IC. When SCF was not included in the medium, both total cells and CFU-GM expanded to a much lesser extent, but again the expansion of LTC-IC was not affected. At the higher cell inoculum (10 million), expansions of total cells and CFU-GM were equivalent with or without stroma. To evaluate UCB, cells were placed into bioreactors with or without irradiated, allogeneic stroma, and the bioreactors were perfused with medium containing the four standard growth factors. After 6-14 days, in several independent experiments, 20-24 million cells were harvested from bioreactors perfused with SCF-containing medium, irrespective of the

  9. Blood groups and human groups: collecting and calibrating genetic data after World War Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangham, Jenny

    2014-09-01

    Arthur Mourant's The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups (1954) was an "indispensable" reference book on the "anthropology of blood groups" containing a vast collection of human genetic data. It was based on the results of blood-grouping tests carried out on half-a-million people and drew together studies on diverse populations around the world: from rural communities, to religious exiles, to volunteer transfusion donors. This paper pieces together sequential stages in the production of a small fraction of the blood-group data in Mourant's book, to examine how he and his colleagues made genetic data from people. Using sources from several collecting projects, I follow how blood was encountered, how it was inscribed, and how it was turned into a laboratory resource. I trace Mourant's analytical and representational strategies to make blood groups both credibly 'genetic' and understood as relevant to human ancestry, race and history. In this story, 'populations' were not simply given, but were produced through public health, colonial and post-colonial institutions, and by the labour and expertise of subjects, assistants and mediators. Genetic data were not self-evidently 'biological', but were shaped by existing historical and geographical identities, by political relationships, and by notions of kinship and belonging.

  10. Purification of human genomic DNA from whole blood using sodium perchlorate in place of phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, M B; Paulus-Thomas, J E

    1989-08-01

    We have developed a new, rapid method for the extraction of human genomic DNA from whole blood samples. Traditionally, genomic DNA has been extracted from blood by overnight proteinase K digestion of lysed peripheral lymphocytes followed by phenol/chloroform extraction. In addition to being time consuming, the use of phenol involves inherent risks due to the toxic nature of the reagent. Our method for the extraction of DNA from whole blood uses sodium perchlorate and chloroform instead of phenol with a significant time savings realized as well as fewer hazards to the technician. Furthermore, DNA prepared by this new method is an excellent substrate for restriction endonuclease digestion and Southern hybridization analysis.

  11. Measuring cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells over blood storage using quantitative phase imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoo; Lee, Sangyun; Ji, Misuk; Kim, Kyoohyun; Son, Yonghak; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Yongkeun

    2016-10-01

    The functionality and viability of stored human red blood cells (RBCs) is an important clinical issue in transfusions. To systematically investigate changes in stored whole blood, the hematological properties of individual RBCs were quantified in blood samples stored for various periods with and without a preservation solution called citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-1 (CPDA-1). With 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques, the optical measurements for 3-D refractive index (RI) distributions and membrane fluctuations were done at the individual cell level. From the optical measurements, the morphological (volume, surface area and sphericity), biochemical (hemoglobin content and concentration), and mechanical parameters (dynamic membrane fluctuation) were simultaneously quantified to investigate the functionalities and progressive alterations of stored RBCs. Our results show that stored RBCs without CPDA-1 had a dramatic morphological transformation from discocytes to spherocytes within two weeks which was accompanied by significant decreases in cell deformability and cell surface area, and increases in sphericity. However, the stored RBCs with CPDA-1 maintained their morphology and deformability for up to 6 weeks.

  12. Inhibitors of serotonin reuptake and specific imipramine binding in human blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brusov, O.S.; Fomenko, A.M.; Katasonov, A.B.; Lidemann, R.R.

    1985-12-01

    This paper describes a method of extraction of endogenous inhibitors of specific IMI binding and of 5-HT reuptake, from human blood plasma and the heterogeneity of these compounds is demonstrated. Specific binding was determined as the difference between binding of /sup 3/H-IMI in the absence and in the presence of 50 microM IMI. Under these conditions, specific binding amounted to 70-80% of total binding of /sup 3/H-IMI. It is shown that extract obtained from human blood contains a material which inhibits dose-dependently both 5-HT reuptake and specific binding of /sup 3/H-IMI. Gel-chromatography of extracts of human blood plasma on Biogel P-2 is also shown.

  13. Blood or spores? A cautionary note on interpreting cellular debris on human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, A; Stefanelli, S; Caccianiga, M; Rizzi, A; Bertoglio, B; Sforza, C; Cattaneo, C

    2015-07-01

    The identification of red blood cells on both skeletal human remains and decomposed corpses is of remarkable importance in forensic sciences, irrespective of its diagnostic value; their presence is often perplexing and difficult to interpret especially when in the context of decomposition and taphonomical variables. Some clinical research has focused on the morphological changes of red blood cells over time by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but no research has investigated whether botanical structures can be confused for red blood cells. Since some literature has recently presumed the detection of erythrocyte-like cells on skeletal remains (even ancient) as surely erythrocytes, and most have never taken into consideration the chance of an origin different from blood, such as botanical, the present study aims at verifying the possibility of confusion between erythrocytes and botanical cells by applying SEM analysis and at highlighting the pitfalls in this particular issue through a test submitted to pathologists and natural scientists asked to discriminate between red blood cells and different vegetal structures (60 images obtained by SEM analysis). The results showed that although there are diagnostic features useful in identifying red blood cells from botanical structures, some spores resulted very similar to decaying red blood cells, which calls for attention and great caution when studying decomposed human remains.

  14. Lead shot from hunting as a source of lead in human blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Poul [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)]. E-mail: poj@dmu.dk; Pedersen, Henning Sloth [Primary Health Care Center, DK-3900 Nuuk (Greenland); Asmund, Gert [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Riget, Frank [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-07-15

    This study investigates the relationship between the intake of birds hunted with lead shot and the lead concentration in human blood. Fifty adult men from Nuuk, Greenland took part in the study. From September 2003 to June 2004 they regularly gave blood samples and recorded how many birds they ate. We found a clear relationship between the number of bird meals and blood lead and also a clear seasonal variation. The concentration was highest in mid-winter when bird consumption is at its highest. Blood lead was low (15 {mu}g/L, mean concentration) among the participants reporting not eating birds. Among those reporting to eat birds regularly, blood lead was significantly higher, up to 128 {mu}g/L (mean concentration). Concentrations depended on the frequency of bird meals: the more the bird meals, the higher the resulting blood lead. This clear relationship points to lead shot as the dominating lead source to people in Greenland. - Birds hunted with lead shot and consumed are a source of lead in human blood.

  15. Computational study of thermal effects of large blood vessels in human knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xu; He, Zhi Zhu; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to present a comprehensive investigation on the thermal effects of large blood vessels of human knee joint during topical cooling and fomentation treatment. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis by taking full use of the anatomical CAD model of human knee joint was developed to accurately simulate the treatment process. Based on the classical Pennes bio-heat transfer equation, the time evolution of knee joint's temperature distribution and heat flux from large blood vessels was obtained. In addition, we compared several influencing factors and obtained some key conclusions which cannot be easily acquired through clinical experiments. The results indicated that the thermal effects of large blood vessels could remarkably affect the temperature distribution of knee joint during treatment process. Fluctuations of blood flow velocity and metabolic heat production rate affect little on the thermal effects of large blood vessels. Changing the temperature of blood and regimes of treatment could effectively regulate this phenomenon, which is important for many physiological activities. These results provide a guideline to the basic and applied research for the thermally significant large blood vessels in the knee organism.

  16. New polymorphic variants of human blood clotting factor IX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surin, V.L.; Luk`yanenko, A.V.; Tagiev, A.F.; Smirnova, O.V. [Hematological Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Plutalov, O.V.; Berlin, Yu.A. [Shemyakin Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-04-01

    The polymorphism of Alu-repeats, which are located in the introns of the human factor IX gene (copies 1-3), was studied. To identify polymorphic variants, direct sequencing of PCR products that contained appropriate repeats was used. In each case, 20 unrelated X chromosomes were studied. A polymorphic Dra I site was found near the 3{prime}-end of Alu copy 3 within the region of the polyA tract. A PCR-based testing system with internal control of restriction hydrolysis was suggested. Testing 81 unrelated X chromosomes revealed that the frequency of the polymorphic Dra I site is 0.23. Taq I polymorphism, which was revealed in Alu copy 4 of factor IX gene in our previous work, was found to be closely linked to Dra I polymorphism. Studies in linkage between different types of polymorphisms of the factor IX gene revealed the presence of a rare polymorphism in intron a that was located within the same minisatellite region as the known polymorphic insertion 50 bp/Dde I. However, the size of the insertion in our case was 26 bp. Only one polymorphic variant was found among over 150 unrelated X chromosomes derived from humans from Moscow and its vicinity. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Genomics and museum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Michael W

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 25 years ago, Allan Wilson and colleagues isolated DNA sequences from museum specimens of kangaroo rats (Dipodomys panamintinus) and compared these sequences with those from freshly collected animals (Thomas et al. 1990). The museum specimens had been collected up to 78 years earlier, so the two samples provided a direct temporal comparison of patterns of genetic variation. This was not the first time DNA sequences had been isolated from preserved material, but it was the first time it had been carried out with a population sample. Population geneticists often try to make inferences about the influence of historical processes such as selection, drift, mutation and migration on patterns of genetic variation in the present. The work of Wilson and colleagues was important in part because it suggested a way in which population geneticists could actually study genetic change in natural populations through time, much the same way that experimentalists can do with artificial populations in the laboratory. Indeed, the work of Thomas et al. (1990) spawned dozens of studies in which museum specimens were used to compare historical and present-day genetic diversity (reviewed in Wandeler et al. 2007). All of these studies, however, were limited by the same fundamental problem: old DNA is degraded into short fragments. As a consequence, these studies mostly involved PCR amplification of short templates, usually short stretches of mitochondrial DNA or microsatellites. In this issue, Bi et al. (2013) report a breakthrough that should open the door to studies of genomic variation in museum specimens. They used target enrichment (exon capture) and next-generation (Illumina) sequencing to compare patterns of genetic variation in historic and present-day population samples of alpine chipmunks (Tamias alpinus) (Fig. 1). The historic samples came from specimens collected in 1915, so the temporal span of this comparison is nearly 100 years.

  18. Human Blood Autoantibodies in the Detection of Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola H Negm

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common malignancy in the western world. Early detection and diagnosis of all cancer types is vital to improved prognosis by enabling early treatment when tumours should be both resectable and curable. Sera from 3 different cohorts; 42 sera (21 CRC and 21 matched controls from New York, USA, 200 sera from Pittsburgh, USA (100 CRC and 100 controls and 20 sera from Dundee, UK (10 CRC and 10 controls were tested against a panel of multiple tumour-associated antigens (TAAs using an optimised multiplex microarray system. TAA specific IgG responses were interpolated against the internal IgG standard curve for each sample. Individual TAA specific responses were examined in each cohort to determine cutoffs for a robust initial scoring method to establish sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivity and specificity of combinations of TAAs provided good discrimination between cancer-positive and normal serum. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the sample sets tested against a panel of 32 TAAs were 61.1% and 80.9% respectively for 6 antigens; p53, AFP, K RAS, Annexin, RAF1 and NY-CO16. Furthermore, the observed sensitivity in Pittsburgh sample set in different clinical stages of CRC; stage I (n = 19, stage II (n = 40, stage III (n = 34 and stage IV (n = 6 was similar (73.6%, 75.0%, 73.5% and 83.3%, respectively, with similar levels of sensitivity for right and left sided CRC. We identified an antigen panel of sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection of CRC, based upon serum profiling of autoantibody response using a robust multiplex antigen microarray technology. This opens the possibility of a blood test for screening and detection of early colorectal cancer. However this panel will require further validation studies before they can be proposed for clinical practice.

  19. Cerebral blood oxygenation changes induced by visual stimulation in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Rudiger; Obrig, Hellmuth; Ruben, Jan; Villringer, Kersten; Thiel, Andreas; Bernarding, Johannes; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Villringer, Arno

    1996-10-01

    We examined local changes of cerebral oxygenation in response to visual stimuli by means of near infrared spectroscopy. A sharply outlined colored moving stimulus which is expected to evoke a broad activation of the striate and prestriate cortex was presented to sixteen healthy subjects. Six of these subjects were also exposed to a colored stationary and a gray stationary stimulus. In two subjects the colored moving stimulus was tested against the colored stationary with an optode position presumably over area V5/MT. As a control condition, subjects performed a simple finger opposition task. Since the calcarine fissure varies greatly with respect to bony landmarks, optodes were positioned individually according to 3D reconstructed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Concentration changes in oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and deoxyhemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) were continuously monitored with a temporal resolution of 1 s, using an NIRO 500. In response to the visual stimulus, the grand average across all sixteen subjects resulted in a significant increase in oxy-Hb of 0.33 +/- 0.09 arbitrary units mirrored by a significant decrease in deoxy-Hb of -0.18 +/- 0.02 arbitrary units, while the motor control condition elicited no significant changes in any parameters. When the near infrared spectroscopy probes were positioned over area V5/MT, the drop of deoxy-Hb associated with the moving stimulus was significantly more pronounced than with the stationary stimulus in both subjects examined. No significant differences between the visual stimuli were observed at the optode position close to the calcarine fissure. The oxygenation changes observed in this study are consistent with the pattern we have reported for motor activation. They are in line with physiological considerations and functional MRI studies relying on blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast.

  20. Formation of gamma-glutamylpropargylglycylglycine from propargylglycine in human blood and erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagamine N

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-Glutamylpropargylglycylglycine (gamma-Glu-PPG-Gly was isolated as a metabolite of propargylglycine (2-amino-4-pentynoic acid, a natural and synthetic inhibitor of cystathionine gamma-lyase from human blood incubated with D,L-propargylglycine in the presence of L-glutamate and glycine, and identified by fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry, indicating that human blood can metabolize propargylglycine to gamma-Glu-PPG-Gly. When whole blood was incubated with 2 mM D,L-propargylglycine in the presence of 10 mM L-glutamate and 10 mM glycine at 37 degrees C for 16h, 0.094+/-0.013 micromol of gamma-Glu-PPG-Gly was formed per ml of whole blood. When erythrocytes were incubated under the same conditions for 16h, 0.323+/-0.060 micromol of gamma-Glu-PPG-Gly was formed per ml of erythrocytes, suggesting a large contribution of erythrocytes to gamma-Glu-PPG-Gly formation in whole blood. The apparent Km value of gamma-Glu-PPG-Gly formation in human erythrocytes for D,L-propargylglycine was 0.32 mM. The observed rate of gamma-Glu-PPG-Gly formation and the Km value for D,L-propargylglycine suggest that metabolism of propargylglycine to gamma-Glu-PPG-Gly can play a definite biological role in human subjects who are loaded with propargylglycine.

  1. Feasibility of Using the Mosquito Blood Meal for Rapid and Efficient Human and Animal Virus Surveillance and Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yu; Garver, Lindsey S.; Bingham, Karen M.; Hang, Jun; Jochim, Ryan C.; Davidson, Silas A.; Richardson, Jason H.; Jarman, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito blood meals taken from humans and animals potentially represent a useful source of blood for the detection of blood-borne pathogens. In this feasibility study, Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were fed with blood meals spiked with dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) and harvested at serial time points. These mosquitoes are not competent vectors, and the virus is not expected to replicate. Ingested blood was spotted on Whatman FTA cards and stored at room temperature. Mosquito abdomens were re...

  2. Detection of Site-Specific Blood Flow Variation in Humans during Running by a Wearable Laser Doppler Flowmeter

    OpenAIRE

    Wataru Iwasaki; Hirofumi Nogami; Satoshi Takeuchi; Masutaka Furue; Eiji Higurashi; Renshi Sawada

    2015-01-01

    Wearable wireless physiological sensors are helpful for monitoring and maintaining human health. Blood flow contains abundant physiological information but it is hard to measure blood flow during exercise using conventional blood flowmeters because of their size, weight, and use of optic fibers. To resolve these disadvantages, we previously developed a micro integrated laser Doppler blood flowmeter using microelectromechanical systems technology. This micro blood flowmeter is wearable and cap...

  3. Extraction of high quality genomic DNA from microsamples of human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H W; Cheng, J; Caddy, B

    1994-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for extracting human genomic DNA from microsamples of blood has been developed. This method used sodium perchlorate, chloroform, polymerised silica gel and a dumbbell-shape tube, instead of proteinase K and phenol. The entire process took less than two hours, and high molecular weight DNA, in high yield and purity, was obtained from a few microlitres of human blood. DNA prepared in this way can be easily digested with restriction endonucleases and has been employed for DNA profiling and the polymerase chain reaction.

  4. Characterization of Adherent Nonhematopoietic Cells Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安小惠; 蔡国平

    2003-01-01

    To confirm and characterize the adherent fibroblast-like progenitors in human umbilical cord blood, we isolated mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood by Ficoll-Hypaque.Two main morphologically different kinds of cells were formed by culturing the cells in collagen-coated 24-well plastic dishes and flasks.One type was the adherent fibroblast-like cells, while the other was loosely adherent clonally expanded round cells.Our experiments demonstrate that the adherent fibroblast-like cells possess multilineage potential, including the ability to differentiate into endothelial-like cells and to express the mesenchymal cell marker.

  5. Establishing a cell biology platform: isolation and preservation of human blood products

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Genética Molecular e Biomedicina The use of human primary cells provide researchers in different areas with irrefutable more biologically relevant data than using cell lines or animal blood cells. The work was performed in the scope of the Cell Biology Services @ CEDOC, aiming to provide viable and trustful human primary cells and products. We had three main objectives: protocol optimizations for blood cell isolation, culture and cryopre...

  6. [Exploration on human blood type case in teaching practice of genetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Yan; Li, Xiao-Ying; Huai, Cong; Wang, Shi-Ming; Qiao, Shou-Yi; Lu, Da-Ru

    2013-08-01

    Blood type, which harbors abundant genetics meaning, is one of the most common phenotypes in human life. With the development of science and technology, its significance is unceasingly updated and new finding is increasingly emerging, which constantly attracts people to decipher the heredity mechanism of blood type. In addition to four main associated contents, i.e., Mendelian inheritance, genetic linkage, gene mutations, and chromosome abnormalities, the blood type case also covers many other aspects of the genetics knowledge. Based on the genetic knowledge context, we can interest the students and improve the teaching output in genetic teaching practice by combining with explaining ABO blood type case and heredity mechanism, expanding leucocyte groups, and introducing infrequent blood type such as Bombay blood, Rh and MN. By carrying out the related experimental teaching, we could drive the student to integrate theory with practice. In genetic experimental teaching, 80% of the students chose this optional experiment, molecular identification of ABO blood type, and it greatly interested them. Using appropriate blood type case in teaching related knowledge, organizing PPT exhi-bition and the debating discussion activities, it could provide opportunities for student to propose their own opinions, guide the student to thinking deeply, and develop their abilities to analyze and solve problem. Afterwards, students will gain in-depth comprehension about the fundamental knowledge of genetics.

  7. [Detection of human parvovirus B19, human bocavirus and human parvovirus 4 infections in blood samples among 95 patients with liver disease in Nanjing by nested PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Rui; Zhou, Wei-Min; Liu, Xi-Jun; Wang, Yue; Lou, Yong-Liang; Tan, Wen-Jie

    2013-04-01

    To analyze the infection of human parvovirus B19, human bocavirus (HBoV) and human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) in blood samples among patients with liver disease in Nanjing by molecular detection. Nested PCR assays were designed and validated to detect B19, HBoV and PARV4, respectively. The assays were used to screen three parvoviruses in blood samples from 95 patients with different liver disease in Nanjing. The parvovirus infection was analyzed statistically. The detection limits were 10 copies of genomic DNA equivalents per reaction for each assays and the good specificity were observed. The frequency of B19 and HBoV were 2/95 (2.1%) and 9/95 (9.5%) in blood samples respectively. No PARV4 was detected. HBoV was detected in 3/5 patients with drug-induced hepatitis. Both B19 and HBoV infection were detected in blood from patients with liver disease.

  8. Investigation of variation in gene expression profiling of human blood by extended principle component analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human peripheral blood is a promising material for biomedical research. However, various kinds of biological and technological factors result in a large degree of variation in blood gene expression profiles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human peripheral blood samples were drawn from healthy volunteers and analysed using the Human Genome U133Plus2 Microarray. We applied a novel approach using the Principle Component Analysis and Eigen-R(2 methods to dissect the overall variation of blood gene expression profiles with respect to the interested biological and technological factors. The results indicated that the predominating sources of the variation could be traced to the individual heterogeneity of the relative proportions of different blood cell types (leukocyte subsets and erythrocytes. The physiological factors like age, gender and BMI were demonstrated to be associated with 5.3% to 9.2% of the total variation in the blood gene expression profiles. We investigated the gene expression profiles of samples from the same donors but with different levels of RNA quality. Although the proportion of variation associated to the RNA Integrity Number was mild (2.1%, the significant impact of RNA quality on the expression of individual genes was observed. CONCLUSIONS: By characterizing the major sources of variation in blood gene expression profiles, such variability can be minimized by modifications to study designs. Increasing sample size, balancing confounding factors between study groups, using rigorous selection criteria for sample quality, and well controlled experimental processes will significantly improve the accuracy and reproducibility of blood transcriptome study.

  9. Self-collection of vaginal specimens for human papillomavirus testing in cervical cancer prevention (MARCH): a community-based randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Lorincz, Attila Tibor; Cruz-Valdez, Aurelio; Salmerón, Jorge; Uribe, Patricia; Velasco-Mondragón, Eduardo; Nevarez, Pilar Hernandez; Acosta, Rodrigo Diaz; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2011-11-26

    Vaginal self-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing could increase rates of screening participation. In clinic-based settings, vaginal HPV testing is at least as sensitive as cytology for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse; however, effectiveness in home settings is unknown. We aimed to establish the relative sensitivity and positive predictive value for HPV screening of vaginal samples self-collected at home as compared with clinic-based cervical cytology. We did a community-based, randomised equivalence trial in Mexican women of low socioeconomic status aged 25-65 years. Participants came from 540 medically underserved, predominantly rural communities in Morelos, Guerrero, and the state of Mexico. Our primary endpoint was CIN 2 or worse, detected by colposcopy. We used a computer-generated randomisation sequence to randomly allocate patients to HPV screening or cervical cytology. Eight community nurses who were masked to patient allocation received daily lists of the women's names and addresses, and did the assigned home visits. We referred women with positive results in either test to colposcopy. We did per-protocol and intention-to-screen analyses. This trial was registered with the Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Mexico, INSP number 590. 12,330 women were randomly allocated to HPV screening and 12,731 to cervical cytology; 9202 women in the HPV screening group adhered to the protocol, as did 11,054 in the cervical cytology group. HPV prevalence was 9·8% (95% CI 9·1-10·4) and abnormal cytology rate was 0·38% (0·23-0·45). HPV testing identified 117·4 women with CIN 2 or worse per 10,000 (95·2-139·5) compared with 34·4 women with CIN 2 or worse per 10,000 (23·4-45·3) identified by cytology; the relative sensitivity of HPV testing was 3·4 times greater (2·4-4·9). Similarly, HPV testing detected 4·2 times (1·9-9·2) more invasive cancers than did cytology (30·4 per 10,000 [19·1-41·7] vs 7·2

  10. The relative test performance characteristics of two commercial assays for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in paraffin-fixed human biopsy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broukhanski George

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Seeplex™ TB Detection-2 assay (Rockville, MD is a nested endpoint PCR for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC targets IS6110 and MPB64 that utilizes dual priming oligonucleotide technology. When used to detect the presence of MTBC DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens, the sensitivity and specificity of this assay is equivalent to a labor-intensive traditional endpoint PCR assay and is more sensitive than a commercial real-time PCR assay.

  11. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JL Bump; RF Luther

    2006-02-09

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments.

  12. 21 CFR 866.2900 - Microbiological specimen collection and transport device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices... microbiological specimen collection and transport device is a specimen collecting chamber intended for...

  13. Microdevice for plasma separation from whole human blood using bio-physical and geometrical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Siddhartha; Kumar, Y. V. BalaVarun; Agrawal, Amit; Prabhakar, Amit; Joshi, Suhas S.

    2016-01-01

    In this research work, we present a simple and efficient passive microfluidic device for plasma separation from pure blood. The microdevice has been fabricated using conventional photolithography technique on a single layer of polydimethylsiloxane, and has been extensively tested on whole blood and enhanced (upto 62%) hematocrit levels of human blood. The microdevice employs elevated dimensions of about 100 μm; such elevated dimensions ensure clog-free operation of the microdevice and is relatively easy to fabricate. We show that our microdevice achieves almost 100% separation efficiency on undiluted blood in the flow rate range of 0.3 to 0.5 ml/min. Detailed biological characterization of the plasma obtained from the microdevice is carried out by testing: proteins by ultra-violet spectrophotometric method, hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) hormone, and conducting random blood glucose test. Additionally, flow cytometry study has also been carried on the separated plasma. These tests attest to the high quality of plasma recovered. The microdevice developed in this work is an outcome of extensive experimental research on understanding the flow behavior and separation phenomenon of blood in microchannels. The microdevice is compact, economical and effective, and is particularly suited in continuous flow operations. PMID:27279146

  14. Association between the ABO blood group and the human intestinal microbiota composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkivuokko Harri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mucus layer covering the human intestinal epithelium forms a dynamic surface for host-microbial interactions. In addition to the environmental factors affecting the intestinal equilibrium, such as diet, it is well established that the microbiota composition is individually driven, but the host factors determining the composition have remained unresolved. Results In this study, we show that ABO blood group is involved in differences in relative proportion and overall profiles of intestinal microbiota. Specifically, the microbiota from the individuals harbouring the B antigen (secretor B and AB differed from the non-B antigen groups and also showed higher diversity of the Eubacterium rectale-Clostridium coccoides (EREC and Clostridium leptum (CLEPT -groups in comparison with other blood groups. Conclusions Our novel finding indicates that the ABO blood group is one of the genetically determined host factors modulating the composition of the human intestinal microbiota, thus enabling new applications in the field of personalized nutrition and medicine.

  15. A duplex PCR for rapid and simultaneous detection of Brucella spp. in human blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnejad, Reza; Mohamadi, Mozafar; Piranfar, Vahbeh; Mortazavi, Seied Mojtaba; Kachuei, Reza

    2013-06-01

    To design a duplex PCR for rapid and simultaneous detection of Brucella species. in human blood samples. Fifty-two peripheral bloods samples were collected from suspicious patients with brucellosis. Following DNA extraction, PCR assay were performed, using three primers that could simultaneously identify and differentiate three major species of pathogenic Brucella in humans and animals. Of the 52 peripheral bloods samples tested, 25 sample (48%) showed positive reactions in PCR. Twelve samples were positive for Brucella abortus 39 (B. abortus 39) (23%), 13 for Brucella melitensis 39 (B. melitensis 39) (25%) and 0 for Brucella ovis 39 (B. ovis 39) (0%). This work demonstrates that in case where specific primers were utilized, duplex PCR has proved to be a simple, fast, and relatively inexpensive method for simultaneous detection of important species of Brucella in clinical samples. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of Chlorpyrifos in Human Blood by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Dai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of chlorpyrifos in human blood samples. The chlorpyrifos and parathion (internal standard in human blood were extracted with a mixed solvent of hexane and acetonitrile. Chlorpyrifos was well separated from the internal standard. The linear range of chlorpyrifos was 0.01–2 μg/ml in blood. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were estimated at 0.002 and 0.01 μg/ml, respectively. The inter- and intra-day precisions, accuracy, and recovery were assessed to verify this method. The results showed that the developed method is rapid, sensitive, and reliable. It is suitable for the determination of chlorpyrifos in forensic toxicological analysis and clinical diagnosis.

  17. A duplex PCR for the rapid and simultaneous detection of Brucella spp. in human blood samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Mirnejad; Mozafar mohamadi; Vahbeh Piranfar; Seied Mojtaba Mortazavi; Reza Kachuei

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To design a duplex PCR for rapid and simultaneous detection of Brucella species. in human blood samples. Methods: Fifty-two peripheral bloods samples were collected from suspicious patients with brucellosis. Following DNA extraction, PCR assay were performed, using three primers that could simultaneously identify and differentiate three major species of pathogenic Brucella in humans and animals. Results: Of the 52 peripheral bloods samples tested, 25 sample (48%) showed positive reactions in PCR. Twelve samples were positive for Brucella abortus (B. abortus) (23%), 13 for Brucella melitensis (B. melitensis) (25%) and 0 for Brucella ovis (B. ovis) (0%). Conclusions: This work de=monstrates that in case where specific primers were utilized, duplex PCR has proved to be a simple, fast, and relatively inexpensive method for simultaneous detection of important species of Brucella in clinical samples.

  18. Blood cleaner on-chip design for artificial human kidney manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwanpayak N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available N Suwanpayak1, MA Jalil2, MS Aziz3, FD Ismail3, J Ali3, PP Yupapin11Nanoscale Science and Engineering Research Alliance (N'SERA, Advanced Research Center for Photonics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Ibnu Sina Institute of Fundamental Science Studies (IIS, 3Institute of Advanced Photonics Science, Nanotechnology Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, MalaysiaAbstract: A novel design of a blood cleaner on-chip using an optical waveguide known as a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. By controlling some suitable parameters, the optical vortices (gradient optical fields/wells can be generated and used to form the trapping tools in the same way as optical tweezers. In operation, the trapping force is formed by the combination between the gradient field and scattering photons by using the intense optical vortices generated within the PANDA ring resonator. This can be used for blood waste trapping and moves dynamically within the blood cleaner on-chip system (artificial kidney, and is performed within the wavelength routers. Finally, the blood quality test is exploited by the external probe before sending to the destination. The advantage of the proposed kidney on-chip system is that the unwanted substances can be trapped and filtered from the artificial kidney, which can be available for blood cleaning applications.Keywords: optical trapping, blood dialysis, blood cleaner, human kidney manipulation

  19. Nuclear thyroid hormone receptor binding in human mononuclear blood cells after goitre resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L E; Blichert-Toft, M

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear thyroxine and triiodothyronine receptor-binding in human mononuclear blood cells were examined in 14 euthyroid persons prior to and 1, 6, 24 and 53 weeks after goitre resection. One week after resection decreased serum T3 from 1.47 nmol/l to 1.14 nmol/l (P less than 0.05), FT4I from 103 a...

  20. Effect of high-pressure helium on latex-induced activated chemiluminescence of human blood leucocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurin-Kuz'min, A Yu; Vdovin, A V

    2003-09-01

    High-pressure helium reduces the latex-induced activated chemiluminescence of diluted human blood. This effect is more noticeable, when lucigenin rather than luminol is used as the activator of chemiluminescence. The effect lessens in the presence of Mg2+ but not Ca2+. The data suggest the association of this effect with actin polymerization in leucocytes phagocytosing the latex particles.

  1. Immunomodulatory capacity of fungal proteins on the cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurink, P.V.; Lull Noguera, C.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wichers, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Immunomodulation by fungal compounds can be determined by the capacity of the compounds to influence the cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC). These activities include mitogenicity, stimulation and activation of immune effector cells. Eight mushroom strains (Agaric

  2. Low Temperature Irradiation Applied to Neutron Activation Analysis of Mercury In Human Whole Blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.

    1966-02-15

    The distribution of mercury in human whole blood has been studied by means of neutron activation analysis. During the irradiation procedure the samples were kept at low temperature by freezing them in a cooling device in order to prevent interferences caused by volatilization and contamination. The mercury activity was separated by means of distillation and ion exchange techniques.

  3. High-protein and high-carbohydrate breakfasts differentially change the transcriptome of human blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, M.J. van; Blom, W.A.M.; Ommen, B. van; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Application of transcriptomics technology in human nutrition intervention studies would allow for genome-wide screening of the effects of specific diets or nutrients and result in biomarker profiles. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the potential of gene expression profiling in blood c

  4. Evidence for the existence of mammalian acetoacetate decarboxylase: with special reference to human blood serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenburg, Gerard J. van; Koorevaar, Gerrit

    In this article evidence is presented for the existence of mammalian acetoacetate decarboxylase (acetoacetate carboxy-lyase: E.G. 4.1.1.4). From experiments with human blood serum the presence of a non-ultrafiltrable activator, accelerating the decomposition of acetoacetate into acetone and carbon

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and inter-arm blood pressure difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the association between cardiovascular risk factors and inter-arm blood pressure difference(IAD) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) infection,and to confirm as to whether HIV infection promotes atherosclerosis. Methods 41 HAART-naive HIV infected-patients and 43 healthy people were

  6. Study on Speciation of Pr(III) in Human Blood Plasma by Computer Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Speciation of Pr(III) in human blood plasma has been investigated by computer simulation. The speciation and distribution of Pr(III) has been obtained. It has been found that most of Pr(III) is bound to phosphate and to form precipitate. The results obtained are in accord with experimental observations.

  7. Evidence for the existence of mammalian acetoacetate decarboxylase: with special reference to human blood serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenburg, Gerard J. van; Koorevaar, Gerrit

    1972-01-01

    In this article evidence is presented for the existence of mammalian acetoacetate decarboxylase (acetoacetate carboxy-lyase: E.G. 4.1.1.4). From experiments with human blood serum the presence of a non-ultrafiltrable activator, accelerating the decomposition of acetoacetate into acetone and carbon d

  8. Proteins involved in the Vroman effect during exposure of human blood plasma to glass and polyethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turbill, P.; Beugeling, T.; Poot, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The amounts of fibrinogen adsorbed to glass from various human blood plasmas have been measured as a function of time. The plasmas were 11 single donor plasmas, pooled plasma, a single donor high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK)-deficient plasma and HMWK-deficient plasma, which had been reconstitut

  9. CD133(+) human umbilical cord blood stem cells enhance angiogenesis in experimental chronic hepatic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhafif, Nagwa; El Baz, Hanan; Hammam, Olfat; Hassan, Salwa; Salah, Faten; Mansour, Wafaa; Mansy, Soheir; Yehia, Hoda; Zaki, Ahmed; Magdy, Ranya

    2011-01-01

    The in vivo angiogenic potential of transplanted human umbilical cord blood (UCB) CD133(+) stem cells in experimental chronic hepatic fibrosis induced by murine schistosomiasis was studied. Enriched cord blood-derived CD133(+) cells were cultured in primary medium for 3 weeks. Twenty-two weeks post-Schistosomiasis infection in mice, after reaching the chronic hepatic fibrotic stage, transplantation of stem cells was performed and mice were sacrificed 3 weeks later. Histopathology and electron microscopy showed an increase in newly formed blood vessels and a decrease in the fibrosis known for this stage of the disease. By immunohistochemical analysis the newly formed blood vessels showed positive expression of the human-specific angiogenic markers CD31, CD34 and von Willebrand factor. Few hepatocyte-like polygonal cells showed positive expression of human vascular endothelial growth factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase. The transplanted CD133(+) human stem cells primarily enhanced hepatic angiogenesis and neovascularization and contributed to repair in a paracrine manner by creating a permissive environment that enabled proliferation and survival of damaged cells rather than by direct differentiation to hepatocytes. A dual advantage of CD133(+) cell therapy in hepatic disease is suggested based on its capability of hematopoietic and endothelial differentiation.

  10. Nocturnal variations in subcutaneous blood flow rate in lower leg of normal human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Jørgensen, B;

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate was measured in the lower leg of 22 normal human subjects over 12- to 20-h ambulatory conditions. The 133Xe washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit were used. The tracer depot was applied on the medial aspect...

  11. Combined inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandins reduces human skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Langberg, Henning; Gemmer, Carsten;

    2002-01-01

    The vascular endothelium is an important mediator of tissue vasodilatation, yet the role of the specific substances, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PG), in mediating the large increases in muscle perfusion during exercise in humans is unclear. Quadriceps microvascular blood flow was quanti...

  12. A human genotyping trial to estimate the post-feeding time from mosquito blood meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroshige, Yuuji; Hara, Masaaki; Nagai, Atsushi; Hikitsuchi, Tomoyuki; Umeda, Mitsuo; Kawajiri, Yumi; Nakayama, Koji; Suzuki, Koichi; Takada, Aya; Ishii, Akira; Yamamoto, Toshimichi

    2017-01-01

    Mosquitoes occur almost worldwide, and females of some species feed on blood from humans and other animals to support ovum maturation. In warm and hot seasons, such as the summer in Japan, fed mosquitoes are often observed at crime scenes. The current study attempted to estimate the time that elapsed since feeding from the degree of human DNA digestion in mosquito blood meals and also to identify the individual human sources of the DNA using genotyping in two species of mosquito: Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes albopictus. After stereomicroscopic observation, the extracted DNA samples were quantified using a human DNA quantification and quality control kit and were genotyped for 15 short tandem repeats using a commercial multiplexing kit. It took about 3 days for the complete digestion of a blood meal, and genotyping was possible until 2 days post-feeding. The relative peak heights of the 15 STRs and DNA concentrations were useful for estimating the post-feeding time to approximately half a day between 0 and 2 days. Furthermore, the quantitative ratios derived from STR peak heights and the quality control kit (Q129/Q41, Q305/Q41, and Q305/Q129) were reasonably effective for estimating the approximate post-feeding time after 2-3 days. We suggest that this study may be very useful for estimating the time since a mosquito fed from blood meal DNA, although further refinements are necessary to estimate the times more accurately.

  13. Can Genomic Amplification of Human Telomerase Gene and C-MYC in Liquid-Based Cytological Specimens Be Used as a Method for Opportunistic Cervical Cancer Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kun; Eurasian, Menglan; Zhang, Jieqing; Wei, Yuluan; Zheng, Qian; Ye, Hongtao; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of five methods including the ThinPrep cytological test (TCT), liquid-based cytology, the human papillomavirus (HPV) test, detection of the TERC and C-MYC genes and visual inspection with acetic acid/Lugol's iodine (VIA/VILI) for opportunistic cervical cancer screening, and to explore whether genomic amplification of the human telomerase gene and C-MYC in liquid-based cytological specimens can be used as a method for opportunistic cervical cancer screening. Data were collected prospectively from 1,010 consecutive patients who visited the gynecology clinic and agreed to participate in opportunistic cervical cancer screening at our institution from November 2010 to July 2011. The five methods mentioned above were used for the screening in all cases. The histopathological diagnosis served as the gold standard for the evaluation. A comparison between the five screening methods for the diagnosis of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II and III) was performed for their sensitivity, specificity, false-positive rate, false-negative rate, accuracy rate, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio. A comprehensive comparison of the different combination programs for screening was performed according to the analysis of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve area. The accuracy of the five screening methods for the diagnosis of high-grade CIN (CIN II and III) was compared in the different age groups. A joint model for the diagnosis using different combinations of the five methods was developed according to the analysis by the SAS 8.0 software. The model was used to evaluate the accuracy of the different combination programs for the diagnosis of high-grade CIN, and the results were confirmed by the histopathological examination. The sensitivity and specificity of the single screen method (TCT, HPV test, detection of the TERC and C-MYC genes, and VIA/VILI method) for CIN II was 80.9, 70.2, 72.3, 76.6, and 72

  14. Specimen Holder For Flammability Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Fixture holds sheet specimens for flammability tests. Frame and clamps designed to minimize local overstress on specimen. Heat capacity of fixture low, interfering less with interpretation of results of test by drawing less heat away from specimen. Accepts films, fabrics, foams, and other sheets, rigid or flexible. Specimens thin or thick, or of variable thickness. Bent to accommodate curved rigid specimens. Also used for such other tests as particle-impact tests.

  15. Diagnosis of human fascioliasis by stool and blood techniques: update for the present global scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Coma, S; Bargues, M D; Valero, M A

    2014-12-01

    Before the 1990s, human fascioliasis diagnosis focused on individual patients in hospitals or health centres. Case reports were mainly from developed countries and usually concerned isolated human infection in animal endemic areas. From the mid-1990s onwards, due to the progressive description of human endemic areas and human infection reports in developing countries, but also new knowledge on clinical manifestations and pathology, new situations, hitherto neglected, entered in the global scenario. Human fascioliasis has proved to be pronouncedly more heterogeneous than previously thought, including different transmission patterns and epidemiological situations. Stool and blood techniques, the main tools for diagnosis in humans, have been improved for both patient and survey diagnosis. Present availabilities for human diagnosis are reviewed focusing on advantages and weaknesses, sample management, egg differentiation, qualitative and quantitative diagnosis, antibody and antigen detection, post-treatment monitoring and post-control surveillance. Main conclusions refer to the pronounced difficulties of diagnosing fascioliasis in humans given the different infection phases and parasite migration capacities, clinical heterogeneity, immunological complexity, different epidemiological situations and transmission patterns, the lack of a diagnostic technique covering all needs and situations, and the advisability for a combined use of different techniques, at least including a stool technique and a blood technique.

  16. Identification and validation of suitable endogenous reference genes for gene expression studies in human peripheral blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Renee J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression studies require appropriate normalization methods. One such method uses stably expressed reference genes. Since suitable reference genes appear to be unique for each tissue, we have identified an optimal set of the most stably expressed genes in human blood that can be used for normalization. Methods Whole-genome Affymetrix Human 2.0 Plus arrays were examined from 526 samples of males and females ages 2 to 78, including control subjects and patients with Tourette syndrome, stroke, migraine, muscular dystrophy, and autism. The top 100 most stably expressed genes with a broad range of expression levels were identified. To validate the best candidate genes, we performed quantitative RT-PCR on a subset of 10 genes (TRAP1, DECR1, FPGS, FARP1, MAPRE2, PEX16, GINS2, CRY2, CSNK1G2 and A4GALT, 4 commonly employed reference genes (GAPDH, ACTB, B2M and HMBS and PPIB, previously reported to be stably expressed in blood. Expression stability and ranking analysis were performed using GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Results Reference genes were ranked based on their expression stability and the minimum number of genes needed for nomalization as calculated using GeNorm showed that the fewest, most stably expressed genes needed for acurate normalization in RNA expression studies of human whole blood is a combination of TRAP1, FPGS, DECR1 and PPIB. We confirmed the ranking of the best candidate control genes by using an alternative algorithm (NormFinder. Conclusion The reference genes identified in this study are stably expressed in whole blood of humans of both genders with multiple disease conditions and ages 2 to 78. Importantly, they also have different functions within cells and thus should be expressed independently of each other. These genes should be useful as normalization genes for microarray and RT-PCR whole blood studies of human physiology, metabolism and disease.

  17. Damage of chromosoms under irradiation of human blood lymphocytes and development of bystander effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemetun, O V

    2016-12-01

    the research the distribution of radiation induced damages among chromosomes and their bands in irra diated in vitro human blood lymphocytes and in unirradiated bystander cells.Material and methods of research: cultivation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes by semi micromethod D.A. Hungerford, modeling of radiation induced bystander effect in mixed cultures consisting of irradiated in vitro and non irradiated blood lymphocytes from persons of different gender, GTG staining of metaphase chromosomes and their cytogenetic analysis. Break points in chromosomes under the formation of aberrations were identified in exposed in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocytes in doses 0.25 Gy (95 breaks in 1248 cells) and 1.0 Gy (227 breaks in 726 cells) and in non irradiated bystander cells under their joint cultivation with irradiated in vitro human lymphocytes (51 breaks in 1137 cells at irradiation of adjacent populations of lymphocytes in dose 0.25 Gy and 75 breaks in 1321 cells at irradiation of adjacent population of lymphocytes in a dose 1.0 Gy). The distribution of injuries among the chromo somes and their bands was investigated. in radiation exposed in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocytes as well as in bystander cells the fre quency of damaged bands and number of breaks which localized in them exceeded the control value (p bystander effect, chromosomes were damaged according to their relative length. Location of bands with increasing number of breaks coincided with the «hot spots» of chromosome damage following irradiation and fragile sites. More sensitive to damage were G negative euchromatin chromosome bands, in which were localized 82 88 % breaks. Damageability of telomeric regions in the irradiated cells had no significant difference from the control, while in bystander cells was lower than control value (p < 0.05). O. V. Shemetun.

  18. Biotin-avidin sandwich elisa with specific human isotypes IgG1 and IgG4 for Culicidae mosquito blood meal identification from an epizootic yellow fever area in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Marassá

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With a view toward investigating the feeding behavior of Culicidae mosquitoes from an area of epizootic yellow fever transmission in the municipalities of Garruchos and Santo Antônio das Missões, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, specimens were collected by aspiration from September 2005 to April 2007. The engorged females were submitted to blood meal identification by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. A total of 142 blood-engorged samples were examined for human or monkey blood through species-specific IgG. Additional tests for specificity utilizing isotypes IgG1 and IgG4 of human monoclonal antibodies showed that only anti-human IgG1 was effective in recognizing blood meals of human origin. The results indicated a significant difference (p = 0.027 in detection patterns in samples of Haemagogus leucocelaenus recorded from human blood meals at Santo Antônio das Missões, which suggests some degree of exposure, since it was an area where epizootic outbreaks have been reported.

  19. High-throughput miRNA profiling of human melanoma blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rass Knuth

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA (miRNA signatures are not only found in cancer tissue but also in blood of cancer patients. Specifically, miRNA detection in blood offers the prospect of a non-invasive analysis tool. Methods Using a microarray based approach we screened almost 900 human miRNAs to detect miRNAs that are deregulated in their expression in blood cells of melanoma patients. We analyzed 55 blood samples, including 20 samples of healthy individuals, 24 samples of melanoma patients as test set, and 11 samples of melanoma patients as independent validation set. Results A hypothesis test based approch detected 51 differentially regulated miRNAs, including 21 miRNAs that were downregulated in blood cells of melanoma patients and 30 miRNAs that were upregulated in blood cells of melanoma patients as compared to blood cells of healthy controls. The tets set and the independent validation set of the melanoma samples showed a high correlation of fold changes (0.81. Applying hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis we found that blood samples of melanoma patients and healthy individuals can be well differentiated from each other based on miRNA expression analysis. Using a subset of 16 significant deregulated miRNAs, we were able to reach a classification accuracy of 97.4%, a specificity of 95% and a sensitivity of 98.9% by supervised analysis. MiRNA microarray data were validated by qRT-PCR. Conclusions Our study provides strong evidence for miRNA expression signatures of blood cells as useful biomarkers for melanoma.

  20. Modelling of Specimen Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    the plate center. An end load of 1.0 MPa was applied. 1 2 3 Modelling of Specimen Fracture – Final Report 11 TR-13-47 Figure 2.5: Crack Geometry Figure...Christopher Bayley DRDC Atlantic Dockyard Laboratory Pacific CFB Esquimalt, Building 199 PO Box 17000, Station Forces Victoria, British Columbia Canada...q The weighting function, q , can be any arbitrary function within the J-integral domain, and must be zero on the domain boundary . An easy function

  1. Labeling of Patient Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    noted during the event that the actu.al number of near miss incidmts reported monthly was low due to laboratory personnel performing rounds each...specimens never leaves label and if moved it is labeled), All orders in system and all near misses and errors reported to patient safety Purchase/Install...Meeting 14 Aug 09, 1400 in lab break room thru out Develop TICK sheet to track near misses .JDI Ms. Clark Clinics will provide toPS 1st working day of

  2. Further insight into the roles of the glycans attached to human blood protein C inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Wei; Parry, Simon; Ubhayasekera, Wimal

    2010-01-01

    or absence of 6 amino acids at the amino-terminus. In this study we have verified that such heterogeneity exists in PCI purified from single individuals, and that individuals of two different ethnicities possess a similar PCI pattern, verifying that the micro-heterogeneity is conserved among humans......Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a 57-kDa glycoprotein that exists in many tissues and secretions in human. As a member of the serpin superfamily of proteins it displays unusually broad protease specificity. PCI is implicated in the regulation of a wide range of processes, including blood coagulation......, fertilization, prevention of tumors and pathogen defence. It has been reported that PCI isolated from human blood plasma is highly heterogeneous, and that this heterogeneity is caused by differences in N-glycan structures, N-glycosylation occupancy, and the presence of two forms that differ by the presence...

  3. Two small lymphocyte subpopulations in human peripheral blood. I. Purification and surface marker profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Hokland, P; Heron, I

    1978-01-01

    By means of simple rosette sedimentation methods two subsets from human peripheral blood lymphocytes have been isolated: (1) (E, Fc)- and (2) (E, Ig)-. The first subset was obtained by centrifuging suspensions of macrophage-depleted PBL in which E and EA rosettes had been allowed to form simultan......By means of simple rosette sedimentation methods two subsets from human peripheral blood lymphocytes have been isolated: (1) (E, Fc)- and (2) (E, Ig)-. The first subset was obtained by centrifuging suspensions of macrophage-depleted PBL in which E and EA rosettes had been allowed to form...... of small subsets of human lymphocytes are effective and easy to perform and might be used to purify cells for functional studies. Udgivelsesdato: 1978-null...

  4. Effects of heliogeophysical disturbances on fluid properties of blood in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varakin, Yu. Ya.; Ionova, V. G.; Sazanova, E. A.; Sergeenko, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    The hypothesis is tested stating that the possible causes of the biotropic effects in the human organism during heliogeophysical disturbances are an increase in catecholamine levels in blood and changes in blood-aggregative properties. The detected effects are statistically significant and indicate the possibility of the direct influence of physical processes during disturbances on blood cells. Physical processes, presumably determining the shifts in human organism, are discussed. It is supposed that, during the initial phase of the storm, one of the physical mechanisms of action of the external weak periodic signals appearing upon the noise can be stochastic resonance. Data is presented indicating that the second and the third harmonics of brain nervous structures resonance may be actually caused by the first harmonics of oscillations of the ionosphere Alfven resonator that are able to synchronize or desynchronize the electromagnetic oscillation rhythms of blood cells. The possibility of direct influence of the electromagnetic field fluctuations on the dynamics of aggregation and disaggregation processes of platelets and erythrocytes in the blood stream during the development of the storm proper is discussed.

  5. Normal variations in the isotopic composition of metabolically relevant transition metals in human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heghe, L.; Cloquet, C.; Vanhaecke, F.

    2012-04-01

    Cu, Fe and Zn are transition metals with great catalytic, structural and regulating importance in the human body. Hence, an aberrant metabolism of these elements can have serious implications on the health of a person. It is assumed that, due to differences in isotope fractionation, the isotopic composition of these elements in whole blood of patients can be different from that in blood of healthy subjects. Therefore, isotopic analysis of the element affected by the disease can be a promising approach for early diagnosis. A method for isotopic analysis of Cu, Fe and Zn in human whole blood was developed. The simultaneous chromatographic isolation of these elements and the conditions for isotope ratio measurement via multi-collector ICP - mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) were optimized. So far, only whole blood of supposedly healthy volunteers (reference population) was analyzed. Results for Fe confirmed the known differences in isotopic composition between male and female blood. It is also shown that other parameters can have influence as well, e.g., the isotopic composition of Zn seems to be governed by the diet.

  6. Early human herpes virus type 6 reactivation in umbilical cord blood allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirrone, Frank; Ippoliti, Cindy; Wang, Hanhan; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Gergis, Usama; Mayer, Sebastian; Shore, Tsiporah; van Besien, Koen

    2016-11-01

    Human herpes virus type 6 can reactivate in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and has been associated with serious sequelae such as delayed engraftment and an increased risk of developing acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). This study investigated human herpes virus type 6 (HHV-6) reactivation within 60 days of transplantation in stem cell transplants utilizing single umbilical cord blood, double umbilical cord blood, or umbilical cord blood plus haploidentical stem cells. Of 92 patients, 60 (65%) had HHV-6 reactivation. Reactivation was not significantly influenced by any patient characteristics, disease characteristics, or by stem cell source (umbilical cord blood only versus haploidentical plus umbilical cord blood). We did not observe any impact of HHV-6 reactivation on neutrophil or platelet count recovery or on relapse-free survival. HHV-6 reactivation was associated with subsequent development of prerelapse acute GVHD (HR = 3.00; 95% CI, 1.4 to 6.4; p = 0.004).

  7. Lactation-Related MicroRNA Expression in Microvesicles of Human Umbilical Cord Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Jing; Wang, Chen-Meiyi; Wang, Yi-Ting; Qiao, Hai; Fang, Liao-Qiong; Wang, Zhi-Biao

    2016-11-24

    BACKGROUND The complex process by which lactation is initiated upon neonate delivery remains incompletely understood. Microvesicles (MVs) can transmit microRNAs (miRNAs) into recipient cells to influence cell function, and recent studies have identified miRNAs essential for mammary gland development and lactation. This study aimed to investigate the expression of lactation-related miRNAs in MVs isolated from human umbilical cord blood immediately after delivery. MATERIAL AND METHODS Umbilical cord blood samples were collected from 70 healthy pregnant women, and MVs were isolated through differential centrifugation and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Western blotting, and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Lactation-related miRNAs were screened using bioinformatics tools for miRNA target prediction, gene ontology, and signaling pathway analyses. miRNA PCR arrays were used for miRNA expression analysis, and the results were validated by real-time PCR. Upon exposure of HBL-100 human mammary epithelial cells to MVs, MV uptake was examined by fluorescence confocal microscopy and b-casein secretion was detected by ELISA. RESULTS Spherical MVs extracted from umbilical cord blood expressed CD63 and had an average diameter of 167.0±77.1 nm. We profiled 337 miRNAs in human umbilical cord blood MVs and found that 85 were related to lactation by bioinformatics analysis. The 25 most differentially expressed lactation-related miRNAs were validated by real-time PCR. MV uptake by HBL-100 cells was after 4 h in culture, and significantly increased secretion of β-casein was observed after 96 h from cells exposed to MVs (PUmbilical cord blood MVs contain many lactation-related miRNAs and can induce β-casein production by HBL-100 cells in vitro. Thus, umbilical cord blood MVs may mediate secretion of β-casein through miRNAs, thereby playing an important role in fetal-maternal crosstalk.

  8. Human Excretion of Bisphenol A: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Genuis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bisphenol A (BPA is an ubiquitous chemical contaminant that has recently been associated with adverse effects on human health. There is incomplete understanding of BPA toxicokinetics, and there are no established interventions to eliminate this compound from the human body. Using 20 study participants, this study was designed to assess the relative concentration of BPA in three body fluids—blood, urine, and sweat—and to determine whether induced sweating may be a therapeutic intervention with potential to facilitate elimination of this compound. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems and analyzed for various environmental toxicants including BPA. Results. BPA was found to differing degrees in each of blood, urine, and sweat. In 16 of 20 participants, BPA was identified in sweat, even in some individuals with no BPA detected in their serum or urine samples. Conclusions. Biomonitoring of BPA through blood and/or urine testing may underestimate the total body burden of this potential toxicant. Sweat analysis should be considered as an additional method for monitoring bioaccumulation of BPA in humans. Induced sweating appears to be a potential method for elimination of BPA.

  9. Study of human blood and hemocomponents irradiated by low angle x ray scattering (LAXS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Nivia G. Villela; Barroso, Regina C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada e Termodinamica], e-mail: nitatag@gmail.com; Mota, Carla L.S.; Almeida, Andre P.; Azeredo, Soraia R.; Braz, Delson [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear], e-mail: delson@lin.ufrj.br

    2009-07-01

    Irradiation of blood and blood components is currently practiced in developed and in a few developing countries. The main purpose of this process is the prevention of graft versus host disease in immunodeficient patients. The Food and Drug Administration recommends a dose range of 15 Gy to 25 Gy for these blood components. When x-ray photons are scattered from biological samples, their angular distribution shows one or more peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks are characteristic for the investigated samples. Due to its wide range of biological and medical applications, low-angle x-ray scattering has attracted the attention of many authors. Thus in this present work was studied the possible variations in scattering profiles due to the irradiation when the gender of patients was considered. Fresh blood specimens were obtained from volunteers using vacutainer tubes containing EDTA, at the Dr. Eliel Figueiredo Laboratory, Rio de Janeiro. All the samples were lyophilized for 48 hours in a freeze drier in order to remove the water. The scattering measurements were carried out in e-2e reflection geometry using a powder diffractometer Shimadzu XRD- 6000. The measured characterization parameters for LAXS were associated with epidemiological data (gender). The mean values of the different parameters were compared using the Students's t-test for each characterization parameters. The scattering profiles from plasma and formed elements are characterized by the presence of two peaks in the forward direction of scattering. For epidemiological data (gender) analyzed was not found significant changes in the mostly of characterization parameters (p>0.05). (author)

  10. Differentiation of human umbilical cord blood stem cells into hepatocytes in vivo and in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Peng Tang; Min Zhang; Xu Yang; Li-Min Chen; Yang Zeng

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the condition and potentiality of human umbilical cord blood stem cells (HUCBSC) to differentiate into hepatocytes in vivo or in vitro.METHODS: In a cell culture study of human umbilical cord blood stem cell (HUCBSC) differentiation, human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (HUCBMNC) were separated by density gradient centrifugation.Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and the supernatant of fetal liver were added in the inducing groups. Only FGF was added in the control group. The expansion and differentiation of HUCBMNC in each group were observed. Human alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and albumin (ALB) were detected by immunohistochemistry. In the animal experiments, the survival SD rats with acute hepatic injury after carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) injection 48 h were randomly divided into three groups. The rats in group A were treated with human umbilical cord blood serum. The rats in group B were treated with HUCBMNC transplantation. The rats in group C were treated with HUCBMNC transplantation followed by intraperitoneal cyclophosphamide for 7 d.The rats were killed at different time points after the treatment and the liver tissue was histopathologically studied and human AFP and ALB detected by immunohistochemistry. The human X inactive-specific transcript gene fragment in the liver tissue was amplified by PCR to find human DNA.RESULTS: The results of cell culture showed that adherent cells were stained negative for AFP or ALB in control group. However, the adherent cells in the inducing groups stained positive for AFP or ALB. The result of animal experiment showed that no human AFP or ALB positive cells present in the liver tissue of group A (control group). However, many human AFP or ALB positive cells were scattered around sinus hepaticus and the central veins of hepatic lobules and in the portal area in group B and group C after one month. The fragment of human X chromagene could be detected in the liver tissue of

  11. Determination of organic chemicals in human whole blood: Preliminary method development for volatile organics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, P.H.; Boggess, K.E.; Hosenfeld, J.M. (Midwest Research Institute, Kansas City, MO (USA)); Remmers, J.C.; Breen, J.J.; Robinson, P.E.; Stroup, C. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA))

    1988-05-01

    Extensive commercial, industrial, and domestic use of volatile organic chemicals, virtually assures that the general population will be exposed to some level of this class of chemicals. Because blood interacts with the respiratory system and is a major component of the body, it is likely that the analysis of blood will show exposure to volatile organics. Monitoring of the blood in conjunction with monitoring of xenobiotic levels in urine and adipose tissue is an effective way to assess the total body burden resulting from exposure to a chemical. This article introduces a method for the detection and confirmation of selected volatile organics at parts-per-trillion (ppt) levels in whole human blood. Intended for routine use, the method consists of a dynamic headspace purge of water-diluted blood where a carrier gas sweeps the surface of the sample and removes a quantifiable amount of the volatile organics from the blood and into an adsorbent trap. The organics are thermally desorbed from the adsorbent trap and onto the analytical column in a gas-chromatographic/mass-spectrometric (GC/MS) system where limited mass-scan data are taken for qualitative and quantitative identification. Method validation results and limited population-survey results are also presented here.

  12. Abnormal whole blood thrombi in humans with inherited platelet receptor defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis J Castellino

    Full Text Available To delineate the critical features of platelets required for formation and stability of thrombi, thromboelastography and platelet aggregation measurements were employed on whole blood of normal patients and of those with Bernard-Soulier Syndrome (BSS and Glanzmann's Thrombasthenia (GT. We found that separation of platelet activation, as assessed by platelet aggregation, from that needed to form viscoelastic stable whole blood thrombi, occurred. In normal human blood, ristocetin and collagen aggregated platelets, but did not induce strong viscoelastic thrombi. However, ADP, arachidonic acid, thrombin, and protease-activated-receptor-1 and -4 agonists, stimulated both processes. During this study, we identified the genetic basis of a very rare double heterozygous GP1b deficiency in a BSS patient, along with a new homozygous GP1b inactivating mutation in another BSS patient. In BSS whole blood, ADP responsiveness, as measured by thrombus strength, was diminished, while ADP-induced platelet aggregation was normal. Further, the platelets of 3 additional GT patients showed very weak whole blood platelet aggregation toward the above agonists and provided whole blood thrombi of very low viscoelastic strength. These results indicate that measurements of platelet counts and platelet aggregability do not necessarily correlate with generation of stable thrombi, a potentially significant feature in patient clinical outcomes.

  13. Abnormal whole blood thrombi in humans with inherited platelet receptor defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellino, Francis J; Liang, Zhong; Davis, Patrick K; Balsara, Rashna D; Musunuru, Harsha; Donahue, Deborah L; Smith, Denise L; Sandoval-Cooper, Mayra J; Ploplis, Victoria A; Walsh, Mark

    2012-01-01

    To delineate the critical features of platelets required for formation and stability of thrombi, thromboelastography and platelet aggregation measurements were employed on whole blood of normal patients and of those with Bernard-Soulier Syndrome (BSS) and Glanzmann's Thrombasthenia (GT). We found that separation of platelet activation, as assessed by platelet aggregation, from that needed to form viscoelastic stable whole blood thrombi, occurred. In normal human blood, ristocetin and collagen aggregated platelets, but did not induce strong viscoelastic thrombi. However, ADP, arachidonic acid, thrombin, and protease-activated-receptor-1 and -4 agonists, stimulated both processes. During this study, we identified the genetic basis of a very rare double heterozygous GP1b deficiency in a BSS patient, along with a new homozygous GP1b inactivating mutation in another BSS patient. In BSS whole blood, ADP responsiveness, as measured by thrombus strength, was diminished, while ADP-induced platelet aggregation was normal. Further, the platelets of 3 additional GT patients showed very weak whole blood platelet aggregation toward the above agonists and provided whole blood thrombi of very low viscoelastic strength. These results indicate that measurements of platelet counts and platelet aggregability do not necessarily correlate with generation of stable thrombi, a potentially significant feature in patient clinical outcomes.

  14. A New Chemical Approach to Human ABO Histo-Blood Group Type 2 Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Hara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new chemical approach to synthesizing human ABO histo-blood type 2 antigenic determinants was developed. N-Phthaloyl-protected lactosaminyl thioglycoside derived from lactulose via the Heyns rearrangement was employed to obtain a type 2 core disaccharide. Use of this scheme lowered the overall number of reaction steps. Stereoselective construction of the α-galactosaminide/galactoside found in A- and B-antigens, respectively, was achieved by using a unique di-tert-butylsilylene-directed α-glycosylation method. The proposed synthetic scheme provides an alternative to existing procedures for preparing ABO blood group antigens.

  15. Influence of the renin-angiotensin system on human forearm blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadeager, C; Hesse, B; Henriksen, O;

    1990-01-01

    Although angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor agent in all tissues, including the human forearm, equivocal effects on forearm blood flow (FBF) have been found after angiotensin blockade. In 13 healthy Na(+)-depleted subjects FBF was measured by the 133Xe washout technique; subcutaneous...... and muscle blood flows were determined separately. FBF was measured during supine rest, after the arm was lowered, and during lower body negative pressure (LBNP). The measurements were repeated during intra-arterial saralasin infusion in six subjects and after intravenous administration of enalapril in seven...

  16. SIMPLE EXTRACTION OF GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE IN HUMAN WHOLE BLOOD BY HEADSPACE SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a simple method for the extraction of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in human whole blood using headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME). The procedure involves the conversion of GHB to gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) with acid catalysis; gamma-valerolactone (GVL) was used as internal standard (IS). After heating a vial containing a whole blood sample with GHB and IS at 80℃ for 5 min in the presence of H3PO4 solution, a Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane -coated fiber was exposed to t...

  17. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from peripheral blood using the STEMCCA lentiviral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Andreia Gianotti; Rozelle, Sarah S; Sullivan, Spencer; Mills, Jason A; Park, Seon-Mi; Smith, Brenden W; Iyer, Amulya M; French, Deborah L; Kotton, Darrell N; Gadue, Paul; Murphy, George J; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo

    2012-10-31

    Through the ectopic expression of four transcription factors, Oct4, Klf4, Sox2 and cMyc, human somatic cells can be converted to a pluripotent state, generating so-called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)(1-4). Patient-specific iPSCs lack the ethical concerns that surround embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and would bypass possible immune rejection. Thus, iPSCs have attracted considerable attention for disease modeling studies, the screening of pharmacological compounds, and regenerative therapies(5). We have shown the generation of transgene-free human iPSCs from patients with different lung diseases using a single excisable polycistronic lentiviral Stem Cell Cassette (STEMCCA) encoding the Yamanaka factors(6). These iPSC lines were generated from skin fibroblasts, the most common cell type used for reprogramming. Normally, obtaining fibroblasts requires a skin punch biopsy followed by expansion of the cells in culture for a few passages. Importantly, a number of groups have reported the reprogramming of human peripheral blood cells into iPSCs(7-9). In one study, a Tet inducible version of the STEMCCA vector was employed(9), which required the blood cells to be simultaneously infected with a constitutively active lentivirus encoding the reverse tetracycline transactivator. In contrast to fibroblasts, peripheral blood cells can be collected via minimally invasive procedures, greatly reducing the discomfort and distress of the patient. A simple and effective protocol for reprogramming blood cells using a constitutive single excisable vector may accelerate the application of iPSC technology by making it accessible to a broader research community. Furthermore, reprogramming of peripheral blood cells allows for the generation of iPSCs from individuals in which skin biopsies should be avoided (i.e. aberrant scarring) or due to pre-existing disease conditions preventing access to punch biopsies. Here we demonstrate a protocol for the generation of human iPSCs from

  18. Mutations in the Na-Cl cotransporter reduce blood pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, D N; Simon, D B; Nelson-Williams, C; Farhi, A; Finberg, K; Burleson, L; Gill, J R; Lifton, R P

    2001-06-01

    The relationship between salt homeostasis and blood pressure has remained difficult to establish from epidemiological studies of the general population. Recently, mendelian forms of hypertension have demonstrated that mutations that increase renal salt balance lead to higher blood pressure, suggesting that mutations that decrease the net salt balance might have the converse effect. Gitelman's syndrome, caused by loss of function mutations in the Na-Cl cotransporter of the distal convoluted tubule (NCCT), features inherited hypokalemic alkalosis with so-called "normal" blood pressure. We hypothesized that the mild salt wasting of Gitelman's syndrome results in reduced blood pressure and protection from hypertension. We have formally addressed this question through the study of 199 members of a large Amish kindred with Gitelman's syndrome. Through genetic testing, family members were identified as inheriting 0 (n=60), 1 (n=113), or 2 (n=26) mutations in NCCT, permitting an unbiased assessment of the clinical consequences of inheriting these mutations by comparison of the phenotypes of relatives with contrasting genotypes. The results demonstrate high penetrance of hypokalemic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalciuria in patients inheriting 2 mutant NCCT alleles. In addition, the NCCT genotype was a significant predictor of blood pressure, with homozygous mutant family members having significantly lower age- and gender-adjusted systolic and diastolic blood pressures than those of their wild-type relatives. Moreover, both homozygote and heterozygote subjects had significantly higher 24-hour urinary Na(+) than did wild-type subjects, reflecting a self-selected higher salt intake. Finally, heterozygous children, but not adults, had significantly lower blood pressures than those of the wild-type relatives. These findings provide formal demonstration that inherited mutations that impair renal salt handling lower blood pressure in humans.

  19. Rudimentary study on humanization of porcine red blood cells: Enzymatic removal of galactose-α1,3-galactose antigen from porcine red blood cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The serological and biochemical characterization of porcine red blood cells (pRBCs) are similar to human red blood cells. Porcine erythrocytes are considered as an alternative source for human blood transfusion. But there exist galactose-α1,3-galactose antigens (Galα1,3Galβ1, 4GalNAc-R, abbreviated αGal antigen) on pRBCs, which can induce anti-(Gal antibodies in human serum. The (Galepitopes are the major antigen responsible for hyperacute rejection in xenotransfusion. In this study, recombined soybean α-galactosidase (rSα-GalE) was usedto remove the (Gal antigens from pPRCs for humanization. The results showed that (Gal antigen was cleared by rSα-GalE and the structure and function of rSα-GalE treated pRBC were normal.

  20. Validation studies of an immunochromatographic 1-step test for the forensic identification of human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochmeister, M N; Budowle, B; Sparkes, R; Rudin, O; Gehrig, C; Thali, M; Schmidt, L; Cordier, A; Dirnhofer, R

    1999-05-01

    An immunochromatographic 1-step test for the detection of fecal occult blood was evaluated for applicability for the forensic identification of human blood in stained material. The following experiments were conducted: 1) determination of the sensitivity and specificity of the assay; 2) evaluation of different extraction media for bloodstains (sterile water, Tris buffer pH 7.5 provided in the test kit, 5% ammonia); 3) analysis of biological samples subjected to a variety of environmental insults; and 4) evaluation of casework samples. This immunochromatographic 1-step occult blood test is specific for human (primate) hemoglobin and is at least an order of magnitude more sensitive than previous methods for detecting human hemoglobin in bloodstains. The antigen is insensitive to a variety of environmental insults, except for exposure to certain detergents and household bleaches and prolonged exposure to certain preparations of luminol. The entire assay can be conducted in field testing conditions within minutes. When in the laboratory the supernatant from a DNA extraction is used for the assay, there is essentially no consumption of DNA for determining the presence of human hemoglobin in a forensic sample. The data demonstrate that this test is robust and suitable for forensic analyses.

  1. Study of OH● Radicals in Human Serum Blood of Healthy Individuals and Those with Pathological Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Linert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The human body is constantly under attack from free radicals that occur as part of normal cell metabolism, and by exposure to environmental factors such as UV light, cigarette smoke, environmental pollutants and gamma radiation. The resulting “Reactive Oxygen Species” (ROS circulate freely in the body with access to all organs and tissues, which can have serious repercussions throughout the body. The body possesses a number of mechanisms both to control the production of ROS and to cope with free radicals in order to limit or repair damage to tissues. Overproduction of ROS or insufficient defense mechanisms leads to a dangerous disbalance in the organism. Thereby several pathomechanisms implicated in over 100 human diseases, e.g., cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes mellitus, physiological disease, aging, etc., can be induced. Thus, a detailed investigation on the quantity of oxygen radicals, such as hydroxyl radicals (OH● in human serum blood, and its possible correlation with antioxidant therapy effects, is highly topical. The subject of this study was the influence of schizophrenia on the amount of OH● in human serum blood. The radicals were detected by fluorimetry, using terephthalic acid as a chemical trap. For all experiments the serum blood of healthy people was used as a control group.

  2. PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB in human blood and milk from German mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittsiepe, J.; Schrey, P.; Lemm, F.; Wilhelm, M. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, Abt. fuer Hygiene, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin (Germany); Fuerst, P. [Chemisches Landes- und Staatliches Veterinaeruntersuchungsamt, Muenster (Germany); Kraft, M. [Ministerium fuer Umwelt und Naturschutz, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, Duesseldorf (Germany); Eberwein, G. [Landesumweltamt Nordrhein-Westfalen, Essen (Germany); Winneke, G. [Medizinisches Inst. fuer Umwelthygiene an der Heinrich-Heine Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Human biomonitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofuranes (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is done by analyzing both blood and milk samples. With reference to calculation of Toxicity Equivalents (TEq) as published by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1998 determination of 17 PCDD/F congeners together with 4 non- and 8 mono-ortho PCB congeners is the preferred method. In contrast to data on PCDD/F only little is known on background levels of dioxin-like PCB in human blood or milk samples. In the present study we report on PCDD/F and PCB levels in human blood samples of pregnant women living in an industrialized area of Germany and of human milk samples from the same women taken in the first weeks after birth. The investigations demonstrate the current background levels found in Germany, make a contribution for the assessment of preand postnatal exposure of infants and show correlations between the two matrices.

  3. 人体解剖学标本制作过程中值得注意的几个问题%Several Issues on the Process of Preparing Specimens for Human Anatomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闾四平; 江宇贤

    2009-01-01

    的实验教学需要一批高质量的人体标本,这就要求解剖技术人员具备扎实的理论知识和精湛的制作技术,科学设计,精心制作.并在制作过程中做到整体宜粗、局部作细、区分主次、合理取舍.还要根据学科建设和教学需要,着眼现实,规划长远.保证既有充足的教学材料,又不至于浪费资源,以加强教学效果,提高教学质量.%Experimental teaching of Human Anatomy is'based on a number of high-quality body speci-mens. A technician engaged in anatomy is required to have a solid theoretical knowledge and super production technology, which should make every body specimen scientifically and carefully. Making body specimens should be rough to do as a whole, but it should be careful to do from the sectional visual angle. It should be al-so in accordance with the development of college, the subject construction and the current requirements of teaching. Not only should it be to ensure plentiful teaching materials, but also treasure resources, in order to enhance teaching effectiveness and improve the quality of teaching.

  4. "Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antibodies among Volunteer Blood Donors "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Moniri

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The transfusion transmitted infections are potentially dangerous complications of transfusion therapy in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of transmissible infections in blood donor population in Kashan, Iran. A total of 600 consecutive sera were tested for CMV-IgM antibody, HBsAg, hepatitis B core (HBc antibody, hepatitis C (HCV antibody, and HIV antibody with standard methods. Of the sera tested, 14 specimens (2.3% were CMV-IgM positive. The frequency of seropositive revealed no significant differences between male and female donors. The frequency rates of CMV-IgM seropositive tests tend to decline with increasing the age. There was no relation between the frequency rates of CMV-IgM seropositive with the educational level, socioeconomic status, marital status, urban dweller and rural resident patients. The prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV antibody was 0.5%, 0.5%, and 0%, respectively. These findings implied important clinical applications because detection of CMV positive sera may reduce the risk for transmission of CMV in blood transfusion and thereby decrease the risk on CMV-induced complications.

  5. Method for breast cancer diagnosis by phase spectrophotometry of human blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintser, Ozar P.; Oliinychenko, B. P.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of breast cancer diagnostics by means of phase structure measurements of laser radiation transformed by human blood plasma samples. The theoretical fundamentals of polarization filtration method for direct phase shifts measurements of microscopic images are provided. The optical model of polycrystalline networks of blood plasma proteins is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order), correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts between the orthogonal components of the amplitude in the points of laser images of blood plasma smears and pathological changes in the mammary gland tissue. The diagnostic criteria of breast cancer nascency are determined.

  6. Membrane transport of anandamide through resealed human red blood cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, I.N.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of resealed red blood cell membranes (ghosts) allows the study of the transport of a compound in a nonmetabolizing system with a biological membrane. Transmembrane movements of anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, arachidonoylethanolamide) have been studied by exchange efflux experiments...... at 0°C and pH 7.3 with albumin-free and albumin-filled human red blood cell ghosts. The efflux kinetics is biexponential and is analyzed in terms of compartment models. The distribution of anandamide on the membrane inner to outer leaflet pools is determined to be 0.275 ± 0.023, and the rate constant...... of unidirectional flux from inside to outside is 0.361 ± 0.023 s. The rate constant of unidirectional flux from the membrane to BSA in the medium ([BSA]) increases with the square root of [BSA] in accordance with the theory of an unstirred layer around ghosts. Anandamide passed through the red blood cell membrane...

  7. Detection of some anaemia types in human blood smears using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsalamony, Hany A.

    2016-08-01

    The identification process based on measuring the level of haemoglobin and the classification of red blood cells using microscopic examination of blood smears is the principal way to diagnose anaemia. This paper presents a proposed algorithm for detecting some anaemia types like sickle and elliptocytosis and trying to count them with healthy ones in human red blood smears based on the circular Hough transform and some morphological tools. Some cells with unknown shapes (not platelets or white cells) also have been detected. The extracted data from the detection process has been analyzed by neural network. The experimental results have demonstrated high accuracy, and the proposed algorithm has achieved the highest detection of around 98.9% out of all the cells in 27 microscopic images. Effectiveness rates up to 100%, 98%, and 99.3% have been achieved by using neural networks for sickle, elliptocytosis and cells with unknown shapes, respectively.

  8. Expression of CD44v6 gene in normal human peripheral blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Song; Dong-Sheng Zhang; Jie Zheng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if CD44v6 could be used as a molecular marker of cancer progression and metastasis through the detection of CD44v6 gene expression in normal human peripheral blood.METHODS: RNA was extracted from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 50 healthy donors, the expression of CD44v6 was investigated using reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).RESULTS: CD44v6 mRNA was detected in 58% of healthy volunteers under the proper controls.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the measurement of CD44v6 expression in peripheral blood by RT-PCR is not suitable for detection of circulating tumor cells.

  9. Viral infection triggers rapid differentiation of human blood monocytes into dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wanqiu; Gibbs, James S; Lu, Xiuju; Brooke, Christopher B; Roy, Devika; Modlin, Robert L; Bennink, Jack R; Yewdell, Jonathan W

    2012-03-29

    Surprisingly little is known about the interaction of human blood mononuclear cells with viruses. Here, we show that monocytes are the predominant cell type infected when peripheral blood mononuclear cells are exposed to viruses ex vivo. Remarkably, infection with vesicular stomatitis virus, vaccinia virus, and a variety of influenza A viruses (including circulating swine-origin virus) induces monocytes to differentiate within 18 hours into CD16(-)CD83(+) mature dendritic cells with enhanced capacity to activate T cells. Differentiation into dendritic cells does not require cell division and occurs despite the synthesis of viral proteins, which demonstrates that monocytes counteract the capacity of these highly lytic viruses to hijack host cell biosynthetic capacity. Indeed, differentiation requires infectious virus and viral protein synthesis. These findings demonstrate that monocytes are uniquely susceptible to viral infection among blood mononuclear cells, with the likely purpose of generating cells with enhanced capacity to activate innate and acquired antiviral immunity.

  10. Determination of organic chemicals in human whole blood: preliminary method development for volatile organics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, P.H.; Boggess, K.E.; Hosenfeld, J.M.; Remmers, J.C.; Breen, J.J.; Robinson, P.E.; Stroup, C.

    1988-04-01

    This article introduces a method for the detection and confirmation of selected volatile organics at parts-per-trillion (ppt) levels in whole human blood. Intended for routine use, the method consists of a dynamic headspace purge of water-diluted blood where a carrier gas sweeps the surface of the sample and removes a quantifiable amount of the volatile organics from the blood and into an adsorbent trap. The organics are thermally desorbed form the adsorbent trap and onto the analytical column in a gas-chromatographic/mass-spectrometric (GC/MS) system where limited mass-scan data are taken for qualitative and quantitative identification. The method can be employed for compounds normally defined as volatile organics, such as those on the EPA priority-pollutant-volatiles list. Method validation results and limited population-survey results are also presented here.

  11. [Achievement of the noninvasive measurement for human blood glucose with NIR diffusion reflectance spectrum method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-yan; Ding, Dong; Song, Li-qiang; Gu, Lin-na; Yang, Peng; Tang, Yu-guo

    2005-06-01

    The noninvasive measurement of human blood glucose was achieved with NIR diffusion reflectance spectrum method. The thumb fingertip NIR diffusion reflectance spectra of six different age healthy volunteers were collected using Nexus-870 and its NIR fiber port smart accessory. The test was implemented with changing the blood glucose concentration for the limosis and satiation of every volunteer. The calibration model was set up using PLS method with the smoothing, baseline correction and first derivatives pretreatment spectrum in the 7500-8500 cm(-1) region for single volunteer, the same age combination and that of different age. When the spectrum was obtained, the actual blood glucose value of every spectrun sample was demarcated using ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The correlation between the calibration value and true value for single volunteer is better than that for the combination of volunteers, the correlative coefficients are all over 0.90471, RMSECs are all less than 0.171.

  12. Doppler standard deviation imaging for clinical monitoring of in vivo human skin blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yonghua; Chen, Zhongping; Saxer, Christopher; Shen, Qimin; Xiang, Shaohua; Boer, Johannes F. de; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2000-09-15

    We used a novel phase-resolved optical Doppler tomographic (ODT) technique with very high flow-velocity sensitivity (10 {mu}m/s) and high spatial resolution (10 {mu}m) to image blood flow in port-wine stain (PWS) birthmarks in human skin. In addition to the regular ODT velocity and structural images, we use the variance of blood flow velocity to map the PWS vessels. Our device combines ODT and therapeutic systems such that PWS blood flow can be monitored in situ before and after laser treatment. To the authors' knowledge this is the first clinical application of ODT to provide a fast semiquantitative evaluation of the efficacy of PWS laser therapy in situ and in real time. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

  13. Comparison of corneal epitheliotrophic capacities among human platelet lysates and other blood derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Jung; Sun, Yi-Chen; Christopher, Karen; Pai, Amy Shih-I; Lu, Chia-Ju; Hu, Fung-Rong; Lin, Szu-Yuan; Chen, Wei-Li

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the corneal epitheliotropic abilities of two commercialized human platelet lysates (HPLs) and to compare the results with other blood derivatives, including human peripheral serum (HPS) and bovine fetal serum (FBS). Methods In vitro, human corneal epithelial cells were incubated in various concentrations (0%, 3%, 5% and 10%) of blood derivatives. Two commercialized HPLs, including UltraGRO TM (Helios, Atlanta, GA) and PLTMax (Mill Creek, Rochester, MI), were tested and compared with HPS and FBS. Scratch-induced directional wounding assay was performed to evaluate cellular migration. MTS assay was used to evaluate cellular proliferation. Cellular differentiation was examined by scanning electron microscopy, inverted microscopy and transepithelial electrical resistance. Sprague-Dawley rats were used to evaluate the effects of the blood derivatives on corneal epithelial wound healing in vivo. Different blood derivatives were applied topically every 2 hours for 2 days after corneal epithelial debridement. The concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor -β1 (TGF-β1), fibronectin, platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB), PDGF-BB, and hyaluronic acid in different blood derivatives were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results In vitro experiments demonstrated statistically comparable epitheliotropic characteristics in cellular proliferation, migration, and differentiation for the two commercialized HPLs compared to FBS and HPS. Cells cultured without any serum were used as control group. The epitheliotropic capacities were statistically higher in the two commercialized HPLs compared to the control group (p<0.05). Among the different concentrations of blood derivatives, the preparations with 3% yielded better outcomes compared to 5% and 10%. In rats, HPLs also caused improved but not statistically significant wound healing compared to HPS. All the blood derivatives had better wound healing

  14. Signals Analysis and Clinical Validation of Blood and Oxygen Data in Human Brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Kai-yang; LIU Li-jun; WANG Xiang; QIN Zhao; XIE Ze-ping

    2005-01-01

    With a self-made near-infrared analytical instrument to blood and oxygen parameters in human brain, 80 cases in which 20 are healthy persons and 30are anaesthetised cases and others are patients with heart function lack is taken to examine, and the data of blood and oxygen in brain tissue were collected and analyzed by the method of power spectrum and correlation function. The results indicate that: (1) The average brain oxygen saturation of healthy persons and anaesthetised cases is about 80%, in accord with normal parameter of physiology. Contrastively, the average brain oxygen saturation of patients with heart function lack is 72. 8%, which is obviously less than that of healthy persons and anaesthetised cases. The probability of medical statistics is less than 0. 01. (2) The shapes of wave of brain blood and oxygen for the healthy person and the anaesthetised case reveal small periodical fluctuations with stable shape and base line, and the trend of increase or decrease of blood and oxygen parameters in brain tissue is synchronous and a phase reversal, but for the patient with heart function lack in a brain oxygen lack state, the shapes of wave are irregular. This is a hint that near infrared light passing through tissue can reflect the intuitionistic change of brain blood and oxygen parameters. (3) The power spectra of brain blood and oxygen for the healthy person and the anaesthetised case has a clear main peak, narrow bandwidth and perfect superposition each other, but the power spectra for the patient with heart function lack in a brain oxygen lack state is on the contrary. (4) The average cross correlation coefficient of brain blood and oxygen for healthy persons and anaesthetised cases is -0. 9825±0. 1027 close to -1. But the average cross correlation coefficient for patients with heart function lack in a brain oxygen lack state is merely -0. 8923± 0. 1035 which is obviously greater than -1 and the probability of medical statistics is less than 0. 01

  15. Fibrin glue from stored human plasma. An inexpensive and efficient method for local blood bank preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotnitz, W D; Mintz, P D; Avery, N; Bithell, T C; Kaul, S; Nolan, S P

    1987-08-01

    European surgeons have used fibrin glue extensively during thoracic, cardiovascular, and general surgical operations. Until now, however, it has been available only as a commercial preparation made from pooled human plasma, and it has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States because of a high associated risk of hepatitis and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Methods of obtaining fibrinogen, an essential component of fibrin glue, from cryoprecipitate or fresh frozen plasma have been published recently. However, the cryoprecipitate method results in relatively low concentrations of fibrinogen, which can reduce glue effectiveness. The fresh frozen plasma method is more expensive and does not meet the standards of the American Association of Blood Banks for the "closed" system required for safe handling and management of blood component products. Both the cryoprecipitate and the fresh frozen plasma methods result in waste of unstable clotting factors. These factors are necessary to replace human plasma clotting deficiencies but are not necessary for the production of fibrin glue. The authors have developed an efficient, high-concentration blood bank method for producing and maintaining a local supply of a safer and less expensive but equally effective material derived from stored human plasma. This material is produced using approved blood bank techniques for a "closed" system in blood component production, thus reducing the risks of contamination and infection, and its fibrinogen concentration is higher than that of standard cryoprecipitate. The cost of 1 unit of this fibrin glue is comparable to that for 1 unit of cryoprecipitate and less than that for 1 unit of fresh frozen plasma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Type specimen studies in Pleurotus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, Ronald H.; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard

    1999-01-01

    An epitype specimen is designated for Pleurotus cornucopiae. Morphological examination of Mexican material and the type specimen of P. opuntiae showed that the distribution of this species includes North Africa and the highlands of Mexico. The type specimen of Lentinus (Pleurotus) eugrammus reveals

  17. Conformal cytocompatible ferrite coatings facilitate the realization of a nanovoyager in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, Pooyath Lekshmy; Sai, Ranajit; Chandorkar, Yashoda; Basu, Bikramjit; Shivashankar, Srinivasrao; Ghosh, Ambarish

    2014-01-01

    Controlled motion of artificial nanomotors in biological environments, such as blood, can lead to fascinating biomedical applications, ranging from targeted drug delivery to microsurgery and many more. In spite of the various strategies used in fabricating and actuating nanomotors, practical issues related to fuel requirement, corrosion, and liquid viscosity have limited the motion of nanomotors to model systems such as water, serum, or biofluids diluted with toxic chemical fuels, such as hydrogen peroxide. As we demonstrate here, integrating conformal ferrite coatings with magnetic nanohelices offer a promising combination of functionalities for having controlled motion in practical biological fluids, such as chemical stability, cytocompatibility, and the generated thrust. These coatings were found to be stable in various biofluids, including human blood, even after overnight incubation, and did not have significant influence on the propulsion efficiency of the magnetically driven nanohelices, thereby facilitating the first successful "voyage" of artificial nanomotors in human blood. The motion of the "nanovoyager" was found to show interesting stick-slip dynamics, an effect originating in the colloidal jamming of blood cells in the plasma. The system of magnetic "nanovoyagers" was found to be cytocompatible with C2C12 mouse myoblast cells, as confirmed using MTT assay and fluorescence microscopy observations of cell morphology. Taken together, the results presented in this work establish the suitability of the "nanovoyager" with conformal ferrite coatings toward biomedical applications.

  18. Assessment of malathion and its effects on leukocytes in human blood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Udita; Gaur, Mulayam Singh; Tiwari, Rajeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the present paper, we report a reproducible, cost effective, fast response method for detection of malathion and its effects on leukocytes in different human blood groups. Spectroscopic methods (UV-Vis spectrometry) and Fourier transform infrared coupled with solid phase extraction were applied for analyzing malathion content in human blood plasma. The spiking levels of malathion in the range of 0.1-1.7 µg/mL were extracted from blood plasma samples using SPE. The present active functional groups (C = O; P-O-C; -OH; P = S) were also characterized. The recovery rate of malathion was 80%±4.5%. The calculated correlation coefficient was 0.9799, indicating the linearity of the results. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were (0.1-1.7) µg/mL and (0.3-1.5) µg/mL, respectively. Malathion <1.0 µg/mL showed no significant change while higher levels of malathion exposure (1.5 µg/mL and 3.0 µg/mL) reduced the number of white blood cells. In conclusion, the spectroscopic results may be useful to understand the mechanism of other pesticides such as methyl parathion and parathion.

  19. Quantification of mitochondrial DNA in human blood cells using an automated detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, C; Mohamed, S A; Klueter, H; Hamann, K; von Wurmb, N; Oehmichen, M

    2000-09-11

    The 4977 bp deletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) accumulates in postmitotic tissues with advancing age. The purpose of our study was to detect and quantify these deletion even in blood cells with a high turnover activity. Whole venous blood, isolated human platelets and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from 10 unrelated donors aged 20-71 years and total DNA was extracted. PCR was performed for total and mutated mtDNA using two different primer pairs and two fluorogenic probes labeled with the fluorescent dyes FAM and VIC. Specific PCR products were generated, detected and quantified in a real-time PCR. The amplification products of total and deleted mtDNA could be detected in each sample and did not exhibit any differences in the amount of the deleted mtDNA in whole blood, human platelets or PBMCs. Our data did not show any accumulation of the 4977 bp deletion with increasing age as it was observed for several other tissues.

  20. Derivation of blood-brain barrier endothelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, Ethan S; Azarin, Samira M; Kay, Jennifer E; Nessler, Randy A; Wilson, Hannah K; Al-Ahmad, Abraham; Palecek, Sean P; Shusta, Eric V

    2012-08-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is crucial to the health of the brain and is often compromised in neurological disease. Moreover, because of its barrier properties, this endothelial interface restricts uptake of neurotherapeutics. Thus, a renewable source of human BBB endothelium could spur brain research and pharmaceutical development. Here we show that endothelial cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) acquire BBB properties when co-differentiated with neural cells that provide relevant cues, including those involved in Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The resulting endothelial cells have many BBB attributes, including well-organized tight junctions, appropriate expression of nutrient transporters and polarized efflux transporter activity. Notably, they respond to astrocytes, acquiring substantial barrier properties as measured by transendothelial electrical resistance (1,450 ± 140 Ω cm2), and they possess molecular permeability that correlates well with in vivo rodent blood-brain transfer coefficients.

  1. Two small lymphocyte subpopulations in human peripheral blood. I. Purification and surface marker profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Hokland, P; Heron, I

    1978-01-01

    By means of simple rosette sedimentation methods two subsets from human peripheral blood lymphocytes have been isolated: (1) (E, Fc)- and (2) (E, Ig)-. The first subset was obtained by centrifuging suspensions of macrophage-depleted PBL in which E and EA rosettes had been allowed to form simultan......By means of simple rosette sedimentation methods two subsets from human peripheral blood lymphocytes have been isolated: (1) (E, Fc)- and (2) (E, Ig)-. The first subset was obtained by centrifuging suspensions of macrophage-depleted PBL in which E and EA rosettes had been allowed to form...... population' was shown to be highly variable as judged by the surface markers applied after 4 days of culture, and it is suggested that Null cells contain a number of immature lymphoid cells that may acquire their surface marker during culture. It is concluded that the methods described for purification...

  2. Determination of metformin and its prodrugs in human and rat blood by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Kristiina M; Rautio, Jarkko; Leppänen, Jukka; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka

    2009-10-15

    Simple and specific hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method with ultraviolet (UV) detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of highly water-soluble metformin and its more lipophilic prodrugs in human and rat blood samples. The sample preparation was accomplished by precipitating proteins with acetonitrile, which enabled the direct injection of supernatants to the HPLC. Chromatographic separation was performed on an analytical normal phase silica column using a mixture of 0.01 M ammonium acetate pH 5.0 and acetonitrile (40:60, v/v) as a mobile phase at flow rate of 1 ml/min and at the wavelength of 235 nm. The method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, and analyte stability. The UV-HILIC method was suitable for detecting both metformin and one of its more lipophilic prodrugs simultaneously in human and rat blood samples.

  3. Inhibition of pseudoperoxiadse activity of human red blood cell hemoglobin by methocarbamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minai-Tehrani, Dariush; Toofani, Sara; Yazdi, Fatemeh; Minai-Tehrani, Arash; Mollasalehi, Hamidreza; Bakhtiari Ziabari, Kourosh

    2017-01-01

    After red blood cells lysis, hemoglobin is released to blood circulation. Hemoglobin is carried in blood by binding to haptoglobin. In normal individuals, no free hemoglobin is observed in the blood, because most of the hemoglobin is in the form of haptoglobin complex. In some diseases that are accompanied by hemolysis, the amount of released hemoglobin is higher than its complementary haptoglobin. As a result, free hemoglobin appears in the blood, which is a toxic compound for these patients and may cause renal failure, hypertensive response and risk of atherogenesis. Free hemoglobin has been determined to have peroxidase activity and considered a pseudoenzyme. In this study, the effect of methocarbamol on the peroxidase activity of human hemoglobin was investigated. Our results showed that the drug inhibited the pseudoenzyme by un-competitive inhibition. Both Km and Vmax decreased by increasing the drug concentration. Ki and IC50 values were determined as 6 and 10mM, respectively. Docking results demonstrated that methocarbamol did not attach to heme group directly. A hydrogen bond linked NH2 of carbamate group of methocarbamol to the carboxyl group of Asp126 side chain. Two other hydrogen bonds could be also observed between hydroxyl group of the drug and Ser102 and Ser133 residues of the pseudoenzyme.

  4. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of young, college student blood donors about Human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dubey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country′s blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore the levels of knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV in young college student blood donors. Results: The results showed that the proportion of participants with comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was lesser than expected. Increase in education level and male gender was found to be significantly associated with high HIV-related knowledge. The responses on the different aspects of HIV-related attitude were also varied and there is still stigma associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS even in the educated groups. Discussion: There was a spectrum of myths and misperceptions emphasizing the need of education that recognizes the social context of attitude towards HIV. Results from this study may contribute to the development of appropriate educational and training material for this group of donors which in turn, may assist in achieving the elusive goal of safe blood supply in future.

  5. Differentiation of Human Cord Blood and Stromal Derived Stem Cells into Neuron Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Pamukçu Baran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The most basic properties of stem cells are the capacities to self-renew indefinitely and to differentiate into multiple cell or tissue types. Umbilical cord blood has been utilized for human hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as an alternative source to bone marrow.The experiments show that Wharton’s jelly cells are easily attainable and can be expanded in vitro, maintained in culture, and induced to differentiate into neural cells. Almost recent studies it has been discovered that the cord blood-derived cells can differantiate not only to blood cells but also to various somatic cells like neuron or muscle cell with the signals taken from the envoirenment.Interestingly, neural cells obtained from umbilical cord blood show a relatively high spontaneous differentiation into oligodendrocytes, Embryonic stem cells proliferate indefinitely and can differentiate spontaneously into all tissue types.It has been shown that embryonic stem cells can be induced to differentiate into neurons and glia by treatment with retinoic acid or basic fibroblast growth factor. It has been studied that the diseases as Motor Neuron Disease, Parkinson, Alzheimer and degeneration of medulla spinalis and also paralysises could be treated with transplantation of cord blood-dericed stem cells.

  6. Real-time monitoring of human blood clotting using a lateral excited film bulk acoustic resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Wang, Jingjng; Wang, Peng; Guo, Qiuquan; Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Jilong

    2017-04-01

    Frequent assay of hemostatic status is an essential issue for the millions of patients using anticoagulant drugs. In this paper, we presented a micro-fabricated film bulk acoustic sensor for the real-time monitoring of blood clotting and the measurement of hemostatic parameters. The device was made of an Au/ZnO/Si3N4 film stack and excited by a lateral electric field. It operated under a shear mode resonance with the frequency of 1.42 GHz and had a quality factor of 342 in human blood. During the clotting process of blood, the resonant frequency decreased along with the change of blood viscosity and showed an apparent step-ladder curve, revealing the sequential clotting stages. An important hemostatic parameter, prothrombin time, was quantitatively determined from the frequency response for different dilutions of the blood samples. The effect of a typical anticoagulant drug (heparin) on the prothrombin time was exemplarily shown. The proposed sensor displayed a good consistency and clinical comparability with the standard coagulometric methods. Thanks to the availability of direct digital signals, excellent potentials of miniaturization and integration, the proposed sensor has promising application for point-of-care coagulation technologies.

  7. Resistance artery creatine kinase mRNA and blood pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamat, Fares A; Oudman, Inge; Ris-Stalpers, Carrie; Afink, Gijs B; Keijser, Remco; Clark, Joseph F; van Montfrans, Gert A; Brewster, Lizzy M

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension remains the main risk factor for cardiovascular death. Environmental and biological factors are known to contribute to the condition, and circulating creatine kinase was reported to be the main predictor of blood pressure in the general population. This was proposed to be because of high resistance artery creatine kinase-BB rapidly regenerating ATP for vascular contractility. Therefore, we assessed whether creatine kinase isoenzyme mRNA levels in human resistance arteries are associated with blood pressure. We isolated resistance-sized arteries from omental fat donated by consecutive women undergoing uterine fibroid surgery. Blood pressure was measured in the sitting position. Vessels of 13 women were included, 6 normotensive and 7 hypertensive, mean age 42.9 years (SE, 1.6) and mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure, 144.8 (8.0)/86.5 (4.3) mm Hg. Arteriolar creatine kinase isoenzyme mRNA was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Normalized creatine kinase B mRNA copy numbers, ranging from 5.2 to 24.4 (mean, 15.0; SE, 1.9), showed a near-perfect correlation with diastolic blood pressure (correlation coefficient, 0.9; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.0) and were well correlated with systolic blood pressure, with a 90% relative increase in resistance artery creatine kinase B mRNA in hypertensives compared with normotensives, normalized copy numbers were, respectively, 19.3 (SE, 2.0) versus 10.1 (SE, 2.1), P=0.0045. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence suggesting that resistance artery creatine kinase mRNA expression levels concur with blood pressure levels, almost doubling with hypertension. These findings add to the evidence that creatine kinase might be involved in the vasculature's pressor responses.

  8. Expiratory muscle loading increases intercostal muscle blood flow during leg exercise in healthy humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulos, Dimitris; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Cherouveim, Evgenia; Andrianopoulos, Vasilis; Roussos, Charis; Zakynthinos, Spyros

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether expiratory muscle loading induced by the application of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during exercise in healthy subjects causes a reduction in quadriceps muscle blood flow in favor of the blood flow to the intercostal muscles. We hypothesized that, during exercise with EFL quadriceps muscle blood flow would be reduced, whereas intercostal muscle blood flow would be increased compared with exercise without EFL. We initially performed an incremental exercise test on eight healthy male subjects with a Starling resistor in the expiratory line limiting expiratory flow to ∼ 1 l/s to determine peak EFL exercise workload. On a different day, two constant-load exercise trials were performed in a balanced ordering sequence, during which subjects exercised with or without EFL at peak EFL exercise workload for 6 min. Intercostal (probe over the 7th intercostal space) and vastus lateralis muscle blood flow index (BFI) was calculated by near-infrared spectroscopy using indocyanine green, whereas cardiac output (CO) was measured by an impedance cardiography technique. At exercise termination, CO and stroke volume were not significantly different during exercise, with or without EFL (CO: 16.5 vs. 15.2 l/min, stroke volume: 104 vs. 107 ml/beat). Quadriceps muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (5.4 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.043) lower compared with exercise without EFL (7.6 nM/s), whereas intercostal muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (3.5 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.021) greater compared with that recorded during control exercise (0.4 nM/s). In conclusion, increased respiratory muscle loading during exercise in healthy humans causes an increase in blood flow to the intercostal muscles and a concomitant decrease in quadriceps muscle blood flow. PMID:20507965

  9. The Relationship between Levels of PCBs and Pesticides in Human Hair and Blood: Preliminary Results

    OpenAIRE

    Covaci, Adrian; Altshul, Larisa M.; Hauser, Russ B.

    2004-01-01

    Human hair as a biologic measure of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has some advantages over the more commonly used blood and adipose tissue samples. However, one of the primary limitations is the difficulty in distinguishing between exogenous and endogenous contamination. In addition, there are currently no standardized methods for hair sample collection, washing, and chemical analysis. There is also very limited information describing the correlation between levels of organ...

  10. Finite volume numerical solution to a blood flow problem in human artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti Budiawan, Inge; Mungkasi, Sudi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we solve a one dimensional blood flow model in human artery. This model is of a non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equation system which can generate either continuous or discontinuous solution. We use the Lax–Friedrichs finite volume method to solve this model. Particularly, we investigate how a pulse propagates in human artery. For this simulation, we give a single sine wave with a small time period as an impluse input on the left boundary. The finite volume method is successful in simulating how the pulse propagates in the artery. It detects the positions of the pulse for the whole time period.

  11. A high confidence, manually validated human blood plasma protein reference set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenk, Susann; Schoenhals, Gary J; de Souza, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    sources, including the HUPO PPP dataset. CONCLUSION: Superior instrumentation combined with rigorous validation criteria gave rise to a set of 697 plasma proteins in which we have very high confidence, demonstrated by an exceptionally low false peptide identification rate of 0.29%.......BACKGROUND: The immense diagnostic potential of human plasma has prompted great interest and effort in cataloging its contents, exemplified by the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) Plasma Proteome Project (PPP) pilot project. Due to challenges in obtaining a reliable blood plasma protein list...

  12. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells with high efficiency from human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Gu, Qi; Hao, Jie; Bai, Donghui; Liu, Lei; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Liu, Zhonghua; Wang, Liu; Zhou, Qi

    2013-10-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for regenerative medicine. Generating iPSCs from immunologically immature newborn umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCBMCs) is of great significance. Here we report generation of human iPSCs with great efficiency from UCBMCs using a dox-inducible lentiviral system carrying four Yamanaka factors. We generated these cells by optimizing the existing iPSC induction protocol. The UCBMC-derived iPSCs (UCB-iPSCs) have characteristics that are identical to pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). This study highlights the use of UCBMCs to generate highly functional human iPSCs that could accelerate the development of cell-based regenerative therapy for patients suffering from various diseases.

  13. A stable and reproducible human blood-brain barrier model derived from hematopoietic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Cecchelli

    Full Text Available The human blood brain barrier (BBB is a selective barrier formed by human brain endothelial cells (hBECs, which is important to ensure adequate neuronal function and protect the central nervous system (CNS from disease. The development of human in vitro BBB models is thus of utmost importance for drug discovery programs related to CNS diseases. Here, we describe a method to generate a human BBB model using cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells. The cells were initially differentiated into ECs followed by the induction of BBB properties by co-culture with pericytes. The brain-like endothelial cells (BLECs express tight junctions and transporters typically observed in brain endothelium and maintain expression of most in vivo BBB properties for at least 20 days. The model is very reproducible since it can be generated from stem cells isolated from different donors and in different laboratories, and could be used to predict CNS distribution of compounds in human. Finally, we provide evidence that Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway mediates in part the BBB inductive properties of pericytes.

  14. Cytogenetic and oxidative alterations after exposure of cultured human whole blood cells to lithium metaborate dehydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelikezen, Fatih Çağlar; Toğar, Başak; Özgeriş, Fatma Betül; İzgi, Mehmet Sait; Türkez, Hasan

    2016-08-01

    Boron compounds have an ability of supporting antioxidant properties in human and animal tissues. Lithium metaborate dihydrate (LiBO2·2H2O; LMD) is commonly used in nonlinear optic materials, cellular phones and pagers. But, there are limited data on the genotoxic and antioxidant effects of LMD in cultured human whole blood cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate for the genotoxicity and antioxidant/oxidant activity of LMD on human whole blood lymphocytes (n = 5). LMD was applied at various concentrations (0-1,280 µg/ml) to cultured blood samples. Antioxidant/oxidant activity was evaluated by measuring the total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity levels. Micronuclei and chromosomal aberration tests were used in genotoxicity studies. Our results clearly revealed that all tested concentrations of LMD were found to be non-genotoxic when compared to that of the control group. In addition, LMD exhibited antioxidant activities at low concentrations. In addition the TOS levels were not changed at all concentrations of LMD. Consequently, our results clearly demonstrated that LMD is non-genotoxic and it has an important antioxidant potential in vitro.

  15. Human Blood-Vessel-Derived Stem Cells for Tissue Repair and Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Wen Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multipotent stem/progenitor cells with similar developmental potentials have been independently identified from diverse human tissue/organ cultures. The increasing recognition of the vascular/perivascular origin of mesenchymal precursors suggested blood vessels being a systemic source of adult stem/progenitor cells. Our group and other laboratories recently isolated multiple stem/progenitor cell subsets from blood vessels of adult human tissues. Each of the three structural layers of blood vessels: intima, media, and adventitia has been found to include at least one precursor population, that is, myogenic endothelial cells (MECs, pericytes, and adventitial cells (ACs, respectively. MECs and pericytes efficiently regenerate myofibers in injured and dystrophic skeletal muscles as well as improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction. The applications of ACs in vascular remodeling and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis have been examined. Our recent finding that MECs and pericytes can be purified from cryogenically banked human primary muscle cell culture further indicates their potential applications in personalized regenerative medicine.

  16. No Distinction of Orthology/Paralogy between Human and Chimpanzee Rh Blood Group Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Takashi; Kim, Choong-Gon; Blancher, Antoine; Saitou, Naruya

    2016-02-12

    On human (Homo sapiens) chromosome 1, there is a tandem duplication encompassing Rh blood group genes (Hosa_RHD and Hosa_RHCE). This duplication occurred in the common ancestor of humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and gorillas, after splitting from their common ancestor with orangutans. Although several studies have been conducted on ape Rh blood group genes, the clear genome structures of the gene clusters remain unknown. Here, we determined the genome structure of the gene cluster of chimpanzee Rh genes by sequencing five BAC (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome) clones derived from chimpanzees. We characterized three complete loci (Patr_RHα, Patr_RHβ, and Patr_RHγ). In the Patr_RHβ locus, a short version of the gene, which lacked the middle part containing exons 4-8, was observed. The Patr_RHα and Patr_RHβ genes were located on the locations corresponding to Hosa_RHD and Hosa_RHCE, respectively, and Patr_RHγ was in the immediate vicinity of Patr_RHβ. Sequence comparisons revealed high sequence similarity between Patr_RHβ and Hosa_RHCE, while the chimpanzee Rh gene closest to Hosa_RHD was not Patr_RHα but rather Patr_RHγ. The results suggest that rearrangements and gene conversions frequently occurred between these genes and that the classic orthology/paralogy dichotomy no longer holds between human and chimpanzee Rh blood group genes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. Phenotypic and functional characteristics of dendritic cells derived from human peripheral blood monocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ling-ling; ZHANG Zhe; ZHENG Jie-sheng; SHENG Ji-fang; LIU Ke-zhou

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study is aimed at developing a simple and easy way to generate dendritic cells (DCs) from human peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) in vitro. Methods: PBMCs were isolated directly from white blood cell rather than whole blood and purified by patching methods (collecting the attached cell and removing the suspension cell). DCs were then generated by culturing PBMCs for six days with 30 ng/ml recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) and 20 ng/ml recombinant human interleukin-4 (rhIL-4) in vitro. On the sixth day, TNF-alpha (TNFα) 30 ng/ml was added into some DC cultures, which were then incubated for two additional days. The morphology was monitored by light microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy, and the phenotypes were determined by flow cytometry. Autologous mixed leukocyte reactions (MLR) were used to characterize DC function after TNFα or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulations for 24 h. Results: After six days of culture, the monocytes developed significant dendritic morphology and a portion of cells expressed CD 1 a, CD80 and CD86, features of DCs. TNFα treatment induced DCs maturation and up-regulation of CD80, CD86 and CD83. Autologous MLR demonstrated that these DCs possess potent T-cell stimulatory capacity. Conclusion: This study developed a simple and easy way to generate DCs from PBMCs exposed to rhGM-CSF and rhIL-4. The DCs produced by this method acquired morphologic and antigenic characteristics of DCs.

  18. Immunomodulation by α(1)-proteinase inhibitor: lack of chemotactic effects of recombinant human α(1)-proteinase inhibitor from yeast on human peripheral blood granulocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Mosheimer, Birgit; Alzner, Reinhard; Wiedermann, Christian J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Recombinant α(1)-proteinase inhibitor, clinically developed for inhalative augmentation therapy in patients with α(1)-proteinase inhibitor deficiency or cystic fibrosis, may directly contribute to leukocyte accumulation as it may function as a chemoattractant. The migratory effects of yeast-derived human recombinant α(1)-proteinase inhibitor on human peripheral blood neutrophils and eosinophils were therefore tested in vitro. Materials and Methods: Human peripheral blood leukocy...

  19. Cocaine analytes in human hair: evaluation of concentration ratios in different cocaine sources, drug-user populations and surface-contaminated specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropero-Miller, Jeri D; Huestis, Marilyn A; Stout, Peter R

    2012-07-01

    Hair specimens were analyzed for cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BE), cocaethylene (CE) and norcocaine (NCOC) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Drug-free hair was contaminated in vitro with COC from different sources with varied COC analyte concentrations. Results were compared to COC analyte concentrations in drug users' hair following self-reported COC use (Street) and in hair from participants in controlled COC administration studies (Clinical) on a closed clinical research unit. Mean ± standard error analyte concentrations in Street drug users' hair were COC 27,889 ± 7,846 (n = 38); BE 8,132 ± 2,523 (n = 38); CE 901 ± 320 (n = 20); NCOC 345 ± 72 pg/mg (n = 32). Mean percentages to COC concentration were BE 29%, CE 3% and NCOC 1%. Concentrations in hair were lower for Clinical participants. COC contamination with higher CE, BE or NCOC content produced significantly higher concentrations (P = 0.0001) of all analytes. CE/COC and NCOC/COC ratios did not improve differentiation of COC use from COC contamination. COC concentrations in illicit and pharmaceutical COC affect concentrations in contaminated hair. Criteria for distinguishing COC use from contamination under realistic concentrations were not significantly improved by adding CE and NCOC criteria to COC cutoff concentration and BE/COC ratio criteria. Current criteria for COC hair testing in many forensic drug-testing laboratories may not effectively discriminate between COC use and environmental COC exposure.

  20. Productive infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by feline immunodeficiency virus: implications for vector development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J; Power, C

    1999-03-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus causing immune suppression and neurological disease in cats. Like primate lentiviruses, FIV utilizes the chemokine receptor CXCR4 for infection. In addition, FIV gene expression has been demonstrated in immortalized human cell lines. To investigate the extent and mechanism by which FIV infected primary and immortalized human cell lines, we compared the infectivity of two FIV strains, V1CSF and Petaluma, after cell-free infection. FIV genome was detected in infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and macrophages at 21 and 14 days postinfection, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis of FIV-infected human PBMC indicated that antibodies to FIV p24 recognized 12% of the cells. Antibodies binding the CCR3 chemokine receptor maximally inhibited infection of human PBMC by both FIV strains compared to antibodies to CXCR4 or CCR5. Reverse transcriptase levels increased in FIV-infected human PBMC, with detection of viral titers of 10(1.3) to 10(2.1) 50% tissue culture infective doses/10(6) cells depending on the FIV strain examined. Cell death in human PBMC infected with either FIV strain was significantly elevated relative to uninfected control cultures. These findings indicate that FIV can productively infect primary human cell lines and that viral strain specificity should be considered in the development of an FIV vector for gene therapy.

  1. Studies of biological properties of Uncaria tomentosa extracts on human blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bors, Milena; Michałowicz, Jaromir; Pilarski, Radosław; Sicińska, Paulina; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Bukowska, Bożena

    2012-08-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC is a lignified climbing plant from South and Central America, which (under the name of "vilcacora" or "cat's claw") has become highly popular in many countries due to its proven immunostimmulatory and anti-inflammatory activities and also with respect to its anticancer and antioxidative effects. There are insufficient data on the mechanism of U. tomentosa action on normal blood mononuclear cells. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of ethanol and aqueous extracts from bark and leaves of Uncaria tomentosa on the structure and function of human mononuclear cells and to find out whether the kind of extractant used modulates biological activity of the extracts studied. Plant material consisted of four different extracts: (1) ethanol extract from leaves, (2) aqueous extract from leaves, (3) ethanol extract from bark and (4) aqueous extract from bark. The effect of these extracts on protein damage as well as on free-radical formation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was analyzed. Moreover, changes in viability, size, and granularity as well as apoptotic alterations in human blood mononuclear cells exposed to U. tomentosa extracts were investigated. The oxidative changes were observed in mononuclear blood cells exposed to both ethanol and aqueous extracts obtained from bark and leaves. Moreover, in the cells studied the extracts from U. tomentosa induced apoptosis and a decrease in viability of mononuclear blood cells, with the exception of aqueous extract from leaves. Additionally, no statistically significant changes in the cell size were observed both for aqueous extracts from leaves and bark. Changes in the blood mononuclear cell granularity were observed at 250 μg/mL for all extracts examined. The strongest changes were observed for the ethanol extract of the bark, which increased cell granularity at 50 μg/mL and changed cell size at 100 μg/mL. The conducted research showed differences in biological activity

  2. A Pilot Clinical Study to Investigate the Human Whole Blood Spectrum Characteristics in the Sub-THz Region

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, Tzu-Fang; Gao, Hao-Cheng; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2014-01-01

    We have conducted a pilot clinical study to not only investigate the THz spectra of ex-vivo fresh human whole blood of 28 patients following 8-hours fasting guideline, but also to find out the critical blood ingredients of which the concentration dominantly affects those THz spectra. A great difference between the THz absorption properties of human blood among different people was observed, while the difference can be up to ~15% of the averaged absorption coefficient of the 28 samples. Our pilot clinical study indicates that triglyceride and red blood cell were two dominant factors to have significant clinically defined negative correlation to the sub-THz absorption coefficients.

  3. Human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B genotypes in blood of AIDS patients: lack of association with either the viral DNA load in leukocytes or presence of retinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, C; Handfield, J; Toma, E; Lalonde, R; Bergeron, M G; Boivin, G

    1999-09-01

    It has been suggested that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) glycoprotein B (gB) genotypes could be used as a marker for viral virulence in patients with AIDS. The present study was designed to evaluate a possible association between specific gB genotypes, the presence of HCMV retinitis, and the HCMV viral load. Fifty-four blood samples were obtained from 54 HIV- and HCMV-infected patients. Twenty-seven of these patients were asymptomatic for HCMV, whereas the other 27 patients had been diagnosed recently with HCMV retinitis. HCMV gB genotyping was carried out by using restriction enzyme analysis of PCR-amplified PMNL extracts. Determination of the HCMV viral load in the same specimens was carried out using a quantitative-PCR. HCMV gB genotype 2 was found more frequently than other genotypes in PCR-amplified polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) of patients with AIDS (P < 0.05) but not more frequently in samples from patients with HCMV retinitis. No significant association was found between any HCMV gB genotypes and the viral load in blood. In conclusion, the actual HCMV gB genotyping system using PMNL provides no additional benefit over the viral load in blood for identification of HIV-infected subjects at risk of HCMV disease.

  4. Seminal vesicles and urinary bladder as sites of aromatization of androgens in men, evidenced by a CYP19A1-driven luciferase reporter mouse and human tissue specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Leena; Rantakari, Pia; Sjögren, Klara; Salminen, Anu; Lauren, Eve; Kallio, Jenny; Damdimopoulou, Pauliina; Boström, Minna; Boström, Peter J; Pakarinen, Pirjo; Zhang, FuPing; Kujala, Paula; Ohlsson, Claes; Mäkelä, Sari; Poutanen, Matti

    2013-04-01

    The human CYP19A1 gene is expressed in various tissues by the use of tissue-specific promoters, whereas the rodent cyp19a1 gene is expressed mainly in the gonads and brain. We generated a transgenic mouse model containing a >100-kb 5' region of human CYP19A1 gene connected to a luciferase reporter gene. The luciferase activity in mouse tissues mimicked the CYP19A1 gene expression pattern in humans. Interestingly, the reporter gene activity was 16 and 160 times higher in the urinary bladder and seminal vesicles, respectively, as compared with the activity in the testis. Accordingly, CYP19A1 gene and P450arom protein expression was detected in those human tissues. Moreover, the data revealed that the expression of CYP19A1 gene is driven by promoters PII, I.4, and I.3 in the seminal vesicles, and by promoters PII and I.4 in the urinary bladder. Furthermore, the reporter gene expression in the seminal vesicles was androgen dependent: Castration decreased the expression ∼20 times, and testosterone treatment restored it to the level of an intact mouse. This reporter mouse model facilitates studies of tissue-specific regulation of the human CYP19A1 gene, and our data provide evidence for seminal vesicles as important sites for estrogen production in males.

  5. Human and great ape red blood cells differ in plasmalogen levels and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely John J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmalogens are ether phospholipids required for normal mammalian developmental, physiological, and cognitive functions. They have been proposed to act as membrane antioxidants and reservoirs of polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as influence intracellular signaling and membrane dynamics. Plasmalogens are particularly enriched in cells and tissues of the human nervous, immune, and cardiovascular systems. Humans with severely reduced plasmalogen levels have reduced life spans, abnormal neurological development, skeletal dysplasia, impaired respiration, and cataracts. Plasmalogen deficiency is also found in the brain tissue of individuals with Alzheimer disease. Results In a human and great ape cohort, we measured the red blood cell (RBC levels of the most abundant types of plasmalogens. Total RBC plasmalogen levels were lower in humans than bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas, but higher than orangutans. There were especially pronounced cross-species differences in the levels of plasmalogens with a C16:0 moiety at the sn-1 position. Humans on Western or vegan diets had comparable total RBC plasmalogen levels, but the latter group showed moderately higher levels of plasmalogens with a C18:1 moiety at the sn-1 position. We did not find robust sex-specific differences in human or chimpanzee RBC plasmalogen levels or composition. Furthermore, human and great ape skin fibroblasts showed only modest differences in peroxisomal plasmalogen biosynthetic activity. Human and chimpanzee microarray data indicated that genes involved in plasmalogen biosynthesis show cross-species differential expression in multiple tissues. Conclusion We propose that the observed differences in human and great ape RBC plasmalogens are primarily caused by their rates of biosynthesis and/or turnover. Gene expression data raise the possibility that other human and great ape cells and tissues differ in plasmalogen levels. Based on the phenotypes of humans and

  6. Characterization of a Hemoglobin Adduct from Ethyl Vinyl Ketone Detected in Human Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Henrik; Motwani, Hitesh V; Osterman Golkar, Siv; Törnqvist, Margareta

    2015-11-16

    Electrophiles have the ability to form adducts to nucleophilic sites in proteins and DNA. Internal exposure to such compounds thus constitutes a risk for toxic effects. Screening of adducts using mass spectrometric methods by adductomic approaches offers possibilities to detect unknown electrophiles present in tissues. Previously, we employed untargeted adductomics to detect 19 unknown adducts to N-terminal valine in hemoglobin (Hb) in human blood. This article describes the characterization of one of these adducts, which was identified as the adduct from ethyl vinyl ketone (EVK). The mean adduct level was 40 ± 12 pmol/g Hb in 12 human blood samples; adduct levels from acrylamide (AA) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) were quantified for comparison. Using l-valine p-nitroanilide (Val-pNA), introduced as a model of the N-terminal valine, the rate of formation of the EVK adduct was studied, and the rate constant determined to 200 M(-1)h(-1) at 37 °C. In blood, the reaction rate was too fast to be feasibly measured, EVK showing a half-life adduct was found to be unstable, with a half-life of 7.6 h. From the mean adduct level measured in human blood, a daily dose (area under the concentration-time-curve, AUC) of 7 nMh EVK was estimated. The AUC of AA from intake via food is about 20 times higher. EVK is naturally present in a wide range of foods and is also used as a food additive. Most probably, naturally formed EVK is a major source to observed adducts. Evaluation of available toxicological data and information on occurrence of EVK indicate that further studies of EVK are motivated. This study illustrates a quantitative strategy in the initial evaluation of the significance of an adduct detected through adduct screening.

  7. A virtual infection model quantifies innate effector mechanisms and Candida albicans immune escape in human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Hünniger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans bloodstream infection is increasingly frequent and can result in disseminated candidiasis associated with high mortality rates. To analyze the innate immune response against C. albicans, fungal cells were added to human whole-blood samples. After inoculation, C. albicans started to filament and predominantly associate with neutrophils, whereas only a minority of fungal cells became attached to monocytes. While many parameters of host-pathogen interaction were accessible to direct experimental quantification in the whole-blood infection assay, others were not. To overcome these limitations, we generated a virtual infection model that allowed detailed and quantitative predictions on the dynamics of host-pathogen interaction. Experimental time-resolved data were simulated using a state-based modeling approach combined with the Monte Carlo method of simulated annealing to obtain quantitative predictions on a priori unknown transition rates and to identify the main axis of antifungal immunity. Results clearly demonstrated a predominant role of neutrophils, mediated by phagocytosis and intracellular killing as well as the release of antifungal effector molecules upon activation, resulting in extracellular fungicidal activity. Both mechanisms together account for almost [Formula: see text] of C. albicans killing, clearly proving that beside being present in larger numbers than other leukocytes, neutrophils functionally dominate the immune response against C. albicans in human blood. A fraction of C. albicans cells escaped phagocytosis and remained extracellular and viable for up to four hours. This immune escape was independent of filamentation and fungal activity and not linked to exhaustion or inactivation of innate immune cells. The occurrence of C. albicans cells being resistant against phagocytosis may account for the high proportion of dissemination in C. albicans bloodstream infection. Taken together, iterative experiment

  8. Gene expression signatures in the peripheral blood after radiosurgery of human cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabel-du Bois, Angelika [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Dept. of RadioOncology, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Wagner-Ecker, Mechthild; Schwager, Christian; Wirkner, Ute; Huber, Peter E. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Milker-Zabel, Stefanie; Debus, Juergen [Dept. of RadioOncology, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Abdollahi, Amir [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Dept. of RadioOncology, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Center of Cancer Systems Biology, Tufts Univ. School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: To unravel biological mechanisms potentially resulting in the obliteration process after radiosurgery (RS) of human cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) by investigating molecular signatures on the transcriptomic level in peripheral blood of patients. Patients and Methods: Venous blood samples were obtained at definite points of time before and after RS. The samples were tested for radiation-induced changes regarding biological markers (mRNA) using cDNA and oligo-microarray technology. The corresponding expression profiles were correlated with clinical data and obliteration signs in radiologic imaging. Results: The proof of principle that RS outcome can be successfully correlated with transcriptomics of cellular blood components as disease parameter was demonstrated. The authors identified 76 differentially regulated genes (p < 0.001) after RS. Interestingly, in particular genes with known roles in antiangiogenic and procoagulative pathways were identified as potentially relevant. In particularly, the authors found a significant downregulation of neuropilin-2, protein C inhibitor and cyclin-dependent kinase 6. They also found that low pretreatment blood mRNA levels of TLR4 (toll-like receptor 4) and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) correlated with fast obliteration of AVMs. Conclusion: The authors report on a novel technique for molecular biological analysis of blood from patients with cerebral AVM treated with RS. Differential regulation of genes in peripheral blood was successfully correlated with RS and time to obliteration of AVMs. The identified genes indicate a potential new methodology to monitor RS, which may result in an individualized therapy and optimized follow-up. (orig.)

  9. Viral latency in blood and saliva of simian foamy virus-infected humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Rua

    Full Text Available Simian foamy viruses (SFV are widespread retroviruses among non-human primates (NHP. SFV actively replicate in the oral cavity and can be transmitted to humans through NHP bites, giving rise to a persistent infection. We aimed at studying the natural history of SFV infection in human. We have analyzed viral load and gene expression in 14 hunters from Cameroon previously shown to be infected with a gorilla SFV strain. Viral DNA could be detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR targeting the pol-in region, in most samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs (7.1 ± 6.0 SFV DNA copies/105 PBMCs and saliva (2.4 ± 4.3 SFV DNA copies/105 cells derived from the hunters. However, quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR revealed the absence of SFV viral gene expression in both PBMCs and saliva, suggesting that SFV was latent in the human samples. Our study demonstrates that a latent infection can occur in humans and persist for years, both in PBMCs and saliva. Such a scenario may contribute to the putative lack of secondary human-to-human transmissions of SFV.

  10. Generation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor protein-deficient blood cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xuan; Braunstein, Evan M; Ye, Zhaohui; Liu, Cyndi F; Chen, Guibin; Zou, Jizhong; Cheng, Linzhao; Brodsky, Robert A

    2013-11-01

    PIG-A is an X-linked gene required for the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors; thus, PIG-A mutant cells have a deficiency or absence of all GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs). Acquired mutations in hematopoietic stem cells result in the disease paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and hypomorphic germline PIG-A mutations lead to severe developmental abnormalities, seizures, and early death. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can differentiate into cell types derived from all three germ layers, providing a novel developmental system for modeling human diseases. Using PIG-A gene targeting and an inducible PIG-A expression system, we have established, for the first time, a conditional PIG-A knockout model in human iPSCs that allows for the production of GPI-AP-deficient blood cells. PIG-A-null iPSCs were unable to generate hematopoietic cells or any cells expressing the CD34 marker and were defective in generating mesodermal cells expressing KDR/VEGFR2 (kinase insert domain receptor) and CD56 markers. In addition, PIG-A-null iPSCs had a block in embryonic development prior to mesoderm differentiation that appears to be due to defective signaling through bone morphogenetic protein 4. However, early inducible PIG-A transgene expression allowed for the generation of GPI-AP-deficient blood cells. This conditional PIG-A knockout model should be a valuable tool for studying the importance of GPI-APs in hematopoiesis and human development.

  11. Adaptation of blood flow during the rest to work transition in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, J K; Hughson, R L

    1999-07-01

    Beat-by-beat measurements show that limb blood flow rises rapidly and in a biphasic manner at the onset of rhythmic exercise in humans. In this review the time course of change in limb flow with the onset of exercise is described and the mechanisms that may or may not contribute to its regulation are discussed. The pumping action of contracting skeletal muscle appears to form an important regulator of increasing flow with the first contraction. However, evidence from human studies suggests that vasodilation begins with the first contraction. Whether this early dilation is regulated by neural recruitment of motor fibers and/or muscle contraction per se is discussed, but the mechanism(s) remains unclear. Finally, the contribution of endothelial-derived relaxation factors to the exponential increase in flow at the exercise onset is examined. Based on studies in humans with intra-arterial infusion of blocking drugs, neither acetylcholine, nitric oxide, nor prostaglandins appear to be essential for a normal dynamic flow response on going from rest to exercise. Overall, evidence from human studies supports the hypothesis that the rate of increase in blood flow during rhythmic voluntary exercise is closely coupled to motor unit recruitment with dilation beginning at the first contraction.

  12. Differentiation of human menstrual blood-derived endometrial mesenchymal stem cells into oocyte-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dongmei; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Qiuwan; Chen, Yifei; Xiang, Charlie

    2016-11-01

    Human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (EnSCs) derived from menstrual blood are a unique stem cell source. Evidence suggests that EnSCs exhibit a multi-lineage potential and have attracted extensive attention in regenerative medicine. However, the potential of EnSCs to differentiate into germline cells in vitro remains unclear. In this study, EnSCs were induced to differentiate into germ cells in a differentiation medium supplemented with 20% human follicular fluid. Our results demonstrated that EnSCs derived from human menstrual blood form oocyte-like cells and express germ cell markers. The induced cell aggregates contained not only oocyte-like structures but also cells expressing follicle stimulating hormone receptor and luteotropic hormone receptor, and produced estrogen and progesterone regulated by gonodatropin, suggesting that granulosa-like and theca-like cells were also induced. We further found that granulosa cells promote the development of oocyte-like cells and activate the induction of blastocyst-like structures derived from EnSCs. In conclusion, EnSCs may potentially represent an in vitro system for the investigation of human folliculogenesis.

  13. Targeted Application of Human Genetic Variation Can Improve Red Blood Cell Production from Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giani, Felix C; Fiorini, Claudia; Wakabayashi, Aoi; Ludwig, Leif S; Salem, Rany M; Jobaliya, Chintan D; Regan, Stephanie N; Ulirsch, Jacob C; Liang, Ge; Steinberg-Shemer, Orna; Guo, Michael H; Esko, Tõnu; Tong, Wei; Brugnara, Carlo; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Weiss, Mitchell J; Zon, Leonard I; Chou, Stella T; French, Deborah L; Musunuru, Kiran; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2016-01-07

    Multipotent and pluripotent stem cells are potential sources for cell and tissue replacement therapies. For example, stem cell-derived red blood cells (RBCs) are a potential alternative to donated blood, but yield and quality remain a challenge. Here, we show that application of insight from human population genetic studies can enhance RBC production from stem cells. The SH2B3 gene encodes a negative regulator of cytokine signaling and naturally occurring loss-of-function variants in this gene increase RBC counts in vivo. Targeted suppression of SH2B3 in primary human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells enhanced the maturation and overall yield of in-vitro-derived RBCs. Moreover, inactivation of SH2B3 by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in human pluripotent stem cells allowed enhanced erythroid cell expansion with preserved differentiation. Our findings therefore highlight the potential for combining human genome variation studies with genome editing approaches to improve cell and tissue production for regenerative medicine.

  14. Identification of a novel population of human cord blood cells with hematopoietic and chondrocytic potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karen E JAY; Anne ROULEAU; T Michael UNDERHILL; Mickie BHATIA

    2004-01-01

    With the exception of mature erythrocytes, cells within the human hematopoietic system are characterized by the cell surface expression of the pan-leukocyte receptor CD45. Here, we identify a novel subset among mononuclear cord blood cells depleted of lineage commitment markers (Lin-) that are devoid of CD45 expression. Surprisingly, functional examination of Lin-CD45- cells also lacking cell surface CD34 revealed they were capable of multipotential hematopoietic progenitor capacity. Co-culture with mouse embryonic limb bud cells demonstrated that Lin-CD45-CD34- cells were capable of contributing to cartilage nodules and differentiating into human chondrocytes. BMP-4, a mesodermal factor known to promote chondrogenesis, significantly augmented Lin-CD45-CD34- differentiation into chondrocytes.Moreover, unlike CD34+ human hematopoietic stem cells, Lin-CD45-CD34- cells were unable to proliferate or survive in liquid cultures, whereas single Lin-CD45-CD34- cells were able to chimerize the inner cell mass (ICM) of murine blastocysts and proliferate in this embryonic environment. Our study identifies a novel population of Lin-CD45-CD34-cells capable of commitment into both hematopoietic and chondrocytic lineages, suggesting that human cord blood may provide a more ubiquitous source of tissue with broader developmental potential than previously appreciated.

  15. Blood group astrology - why the AB0 blood groups do not determine the human character nor the appropriate nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Gajšek Grbec

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AB0 blood groups are inherited markers on blood cells. Since their discovery, there were numerous attempts to be attributed a wide variety of biological functions they don’t possess. The purpose of this article is primarily to inform the professional, as well as lay public that the theory of healthy nutrition based on AB0 blood groups represents nothing more than a pseudoscience used for mass exploitation and commercial purposes. ABO blood groups were attributed such characteristics by naturopathic doctor Peter D'Adamo, who on the basis of false methods and erroneous assumptions wrote a bestseller "Eat Right For Your Type". It claims that the blood groupsAB0 represent a "key to the functioning of our immune system" and that the blood group based diet represents a “key to the health of every man”. As in the case of nutrition based on the ABO blood groups, the scientific knowledge in the field of immunohematology is misused to mislead the lay public, we are obliged to explain the real meaning and the role of blood groups in health and disease, the misuse of blood groups in relation to healthy nutrition.

  16. Comparison of microscopy, real-time PCR and a rapid immunoassay for the detection of Giardia lamblia in human stool specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, T.; Lankamp, P.; van Belkum, A.; Kooistra-Smid, M.; van Zwet, A.

    2007-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is one of the most common intestinal parasites worldwide, with microscopy being the diagnostic reference standard for use with human stools. However, microscopy is time-consuming, labour-intensive and lacks sensitivity when single stools are examined. In the present study, microscopy

  17. Comparison of microscopy, real-time PCR and a rapid immunoassay for the detection of Giardia lamblia in human stool specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, T.; Lankamp, P.; van Belkum, A.; Kooistra-Smid, M.; van Zwet, A.

    2007-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is one of the most common intestinal parasites worldwide, with microscopy being the diagnostic reference standard for use with human stools. However, microscopy is time-consuming, labour-intensive and lacks sensitivity when single stools are examined. In the present study,

  18. Differentiation and tumorigenicity of neural stem cells from human cord blood mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xiang; Changming Wang; Jingzhou Wang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of differentiating into a variety of tissues and exhibit low immunogenicity.OBJECTIVE:To investigate isolation and in vitro cultivation methods of human cord blood MSCs,to observe expression of neural stem cell (NSC) marker mRNA under induction,and to detect tumorigenicity in animals.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A cell biological,in vitro trial and a randomized,controlled,in vivo experiment were performed at the Department of Neurology,Daping Hospital at the Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA from August 2006 to May 2008.MATERIALS:Umbilical cord blood was collected from full-term-delivery fetus at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of DapJng Hospital,China.Eighteen BALB/C nu/nu nude mice were randomly assigned to three groups:back subcutaneous,cervical subcutaneous,and control,with 6 mice in each group.METHODS:Monocytes were isolated from heparinized human cord blood samples by density gradient centrifugation and then adherent cultivated in vitro to obtain MSC clones.After the cord blood MSCs were cultured for 7 days with nerve growth factor and retinoic acid to induce differentiation into NSCs,the cells (adjusted density of 1×10~7/mL) were prepared into cell suspension.In the back subcutaneous and cervical subcutaneous groups,nude mice were hypodermically injected with a 0.5-mL cell suspension into the back and cervical regions,respectively.In the control group,nude mice received a subcutaneous injection of 0.5 mL physiological saline into the back or cervical regions,respectively.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Cellular morphology was observed by inverted microscopy,cultured cord blood MSCs were examined by flow cytometry,expression of nestin and musashi-1 mRNA was detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction prior to and after induction,and tumorigenicity following cord blood MSC transplantation was assayed by hematoxylin-eosin staining.RESULTS:Following adherent cultivation

  19. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2 Seropositivity among Blood Donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank, South Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchenna Tweteise, Patience; Natukunda, Bernard; Bazira, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2) are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP); HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) antibodies among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in South Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2014. Methodology. Consecutive blood samples of 368 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples reactive on a first HTLV-1/2 ELISA were further retested in duplicate using the same ELISA. Of the three hundred and sixty-eight blood donors (229 (62.2%) males and 139 (37.8%) females), only two male donors aged 20 and 21 years were HTLV-1/2 seropositive, representing a prevalence of 0.54%. Conclusion. HTLV-1/2 prevalence is low among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Studies among other categories of people at risk for HTLV 1/2 infection should be carried out.

  20. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2 Seropositivity among Blood Donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank, South Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patience Uchenna Tweteise

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2 are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP; HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2 antibodies among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in South Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2014. Methodology. Consecutive blood samples of 368 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Samples reactive on a first HTLV-1/2 ELISA were further retested in duplicate using the same ELISA. Of the three hundred and sixty-eight blood donors (229 (62.2% males and 139 (37.8% females, only two male donors aged 20 and 21 years were HTLV-1/2 seropositive, representing a prevalence of 0.54%. Conclusion. HTLV-1/2 prevalence is low among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Studies among other categories of people at risk for HTLV 1/2 infection should be carried out.

  1. Transcriptional Activity of Human Endogenous Retroviruses in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Balestrieri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs have been implicated in human physiology and in human pathology. A better knowledge of the retroviral transcriptional activity in the general population and during the life span would greatly help the debate on its pathologic potential. The transcriptional activity of four HERV families (H, K, W, and E was assessed, by qualitative and quantitative PCR, in PBMCs from 261 individuals aged from 1 to 80 years. Our results show that HERV-H, HERV-K, and HERV-W, but not HERV-E, are transcriptionally active in the test population already in the early childhood. In addition, the transcriptional levels of HERV-H, HERV-K, and HERV-W change significantly during the life span, albeit with distinct patterns. Our results, reinforce the hypothesis of a physiological correlation between HERVs activity and the different stages of life in humans. Studies aiming at identifying the factors, which are responsible for these changes during the individual’s life, are still needed. Although the observed phenomena are presumably subjected to great variability, the basal transcriptional activity of each individual, also depending on the different ages of life, must be carefully considered in all the studies involving HERVs as causative agents of disease.

  2. Correlation of Wissler Human Thermal Model Blood Flow and Shiver Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Makinen, Janice; Cognata, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The Wissler Human Thermal Model (WHTM) is a thermal math model of the human body that has been widely used to predict the human thermoregulatory response to a variety of cold and hot environments. The model has been shown to predict core temperature and skin temperatures higher and lower, respectively, than in tests of subjects in crew escape suit working in a controlled hot environments. Conversely the model predicts core temperature and skin temperatures lower and higher, respectively, than in tests of lightly clad subjects immersed in cold water conditions. The blood flow algorithms of the model has been investigated to allow for more and less flow, respectively, for the cold and hot case. These changes in the model have yielded better correlation of skin and core temperatures in the cold and hot cases. The algorithm for onset of shiver did not need to be modified to achieve good agreement in cold immersion simulations

  3. Isolation of labile Fcgamma-receptors from human peripheral blood lymphocytes and production of an antiserum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandilands, G P; Peel, M G; Froebel, K S; Belch, J J; MacSween, R N

    1985-05-01

    In this study, we have isolated membranelabile Fcgamma-receptors (i.e. FcgammaR I) from normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes and have produced a rabbit antiserum to this protein. Using this antiserum, we have shown that membrane-labile and membrane-stable (i.e. FcgammaR II) Fcgamma-receptors are antigenically distinct and that these two forms of the receptors probably coexist on the same lymphocyte subpopulation. Moreover, it was apparent that lymphocyte FcgammaR Is are distinct from FcgammaRs expressed on other cell types (e.g. monocytes, polymorphs and spermatozoa). Preliminary evidence does suggest, however, that human platelets express an FcgammaR which is antigenically similar to human lymphocyte FcgammaR I.

  4. Chlorobenzenes, lindane and dieldrin induce apoptotic alterations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (in vitro study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałowicz, Jaromir; Mokra, Katarzyna; Rosiak, Karolina; Sicińska, Paulina; Bukowska, Bożena

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we have assessed apoptotic effect of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, lindane and dieldrin on human peripheral blood lymphocytes. We observed an increase in ROS formation and a decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential in the cells incubated with low concentrations of all compounds studied, in particular lindane and dieldrin. ROS formation and changes in mitochondrial transmembrane potential may have influenced caspase-3 activation, a crucial enzyme in the apoptotic process. Moreover, chlorobenzenes, and in particular lindane and dieldrin changed cells' membrane permeability and induced phosphatidylserine translocation, which confirmed that they are capable of inducing apoptosis in human lymphocytes. Apoptotic changes in human lymphocytes provoked by biologically relevant concentrations of these substances suggest that they may disturb function of immunological system especially among people occupationally exposed to their action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensitivity of PCR assays for murine gammaretroviruses and mouse contamination in human blood samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ling Lee

    Full Text Available Gammaretroviruses related to murine leukemia virus (MLV have variously been reported to be present or absent in blood from chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME patients and healthy controls. Using subjects from New York State, we have investigated by PCR methods whether MLV-related sequences can be identified in nucleic acids isolated from whole blood or from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs or following PBMC culture. We have also passaged the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP following incubation with plasma from patients and controls and assayed nucleic acids for viral sequences. We have used 15 sets of primers that can effectively amplify conserved regions of murine endogenous and exogenous retrovirus sequences. We demonstrate that our PCR assays for MLV-related gag sequences and for mouse DNA contamination are extremely sensitive. While we have identified MLV-like gag sequences following PCR on human DNA preparations, we are unable to conclude that these sequences originated in the blood samples.

  6. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation to induced blood pressure changes in human experimental and clinical sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni R; Bailey, Damian M; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Møller, Kirsten

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that dynamic cerebral autoregulation to spontaneous fluctuations in blood pressure is enhanced following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion, a human experimental model of early sepsis, whereas by contrast it is impaired in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. In this study, we hypothesized that this pattern of response would be identical during induced changes in blood pressure. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was assessed in nine healthy volunteers and six septic patients. The healthy volunteers underwent a 4-h intravenous infusion of LPS (total dose: 2 ng kg(-1) ). Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, arterial transducer) and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv, transcranial Doppler ultrasound) were recorded continuously during thigh-cuff deflation-induced changes in MAP for the determination of a modified rate of regulation (RoR). This was performed before and after LPS infusion in healthy volunteers, and within 72 h following clinical diagnosis of sepsis in patients. In healthy volunteers, thigh-cuff deflation caused a MAP reduction of 16 (13-20) % at baseline and 18 (16-20) % after LPS, while the MAP reduction was 12 (11-13) % in patients (Psepsis, they remain inconclusive with regard to more advanced stages of disease, because thigh-cuff deflation failed to induce sufficient MAP reductions in patients. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Healthcare performance and the effects of the binaural beats on human blood pressure and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Calvin

    2008-01-01

    Binaural beats are the differences in two different frequencies (in the range of 30-1000 Hz). Binaural beats are played through headphones and are perceived by the superior olivary nucleus of each hemisphere of the brain. The brain perceives the binaural beat and resonates to its frequency (frequency following response). Once the brain is in tune with the binaural beat it produces brainwaves of that frequency altering the listener's state of mind. In this experiment, the effects of the beta and theta binaural beat on human blood pressure and pulse were studied. Using headphones, three sounds were played for 7 minutes each to 12 participants: the control,- the sound of a babbling brook (the background sound to the two binaural beats), the beta binaural beat (20 Hz), and the theta binaural beat (7 Hz). Blood pressure and pulse were recorded before and after each sound was played. Each participant was given 2 minutes in-between each sound. The results showed that the control and the two binaural beats did not affect the 12 participant's blood pressure or pulse (p > 0.05). One reason for this may be that the sounds were not played long enough for the brain to either perceive and/or resonate to the frequency. Another reason why the sounds did not affect blood pressure and pulse may be due to the participant's age since older brains may not perceive the binaural beats as well as younger brains.

  8. Examination of blood clobazam levels and several pupillary measures in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzan, J A; Needham, T E; Honigberg, I L; Vallner, J J; Stewart, J T; Brown, W J; Jun, H W

    1979-08-01

    The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was administered to 15 subjects before initiation of the experiment. Three subgroups of five subjects were defined by computing the unweighted sum of the state and trait anxiety scores. A 40-mg dose of clobazam, a 1.5-benzodiazepine, was administered to each subject and repeated with two additional dosage forms following a 2-week washout period. Blood samples were withdrawn, and blood levels were determined by fluorometric analysis. Additionally, pupillary measures of critical flicker fusion, constriction, and dilation in response to a cognitive task were obtained at 0, 2, 4, and 6 hr. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that blood levels were, as expected, statistically different over time and dosage form. The pupillary constriction mirrored the blood levels in statistical patterns. The pupillary measure of cognition related to the anxiety state after the performance effects of the cognitive task were statistically removed. The results suggest that clobazam has less immediate human effect than does diazepam.

  9. Dual effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract on human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Lin, Juan; Li, Jing; Zhang, Jian-Hong; Sun, Xue-Min; Zeng, Cheng-Ming

    2009-02-01

    Extracts from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba have been used in Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Today, various standardized preparations from G. biloba leaf extract have been developed. G. biloba leaf extract, which contains flavonoids and terpenoids as the major biologically active components, has become one of the most popular and commonly used herbal remedies due to its wide spectrum of beneficial effects on health. In this study, we investigated the effects of G. biloba leaf extract on the properties of human red blood cells in the presence and absence of amyloid peptide (Abeta25-35), peroxide and hypotonic stress. The results suggest that G. biloba leaf extract has a dual action, both protective and disruptive, on red blood cells, depending on whether an exogenous stress is present. G. biloba leaf extract has a protective role on red blood cells against Abeta- and hypotonic pressure-induced haemolysis, peroxide-induced lipoperoxidation, as well as glutathione consumption and methaemoglobin formation. On the other hand, G. biloba leaf extract also exhibited damage to red blood cells by increasing cell fragility, changing cellular morphology and inducing glutathione consumption and methaemoglobin formation, especially when applied at high doses. These anti- and pro-oxidative activities of polyphenolic substances are thought to be involved in the dual function of G. biloba leaf extract. The results of this study suggest that high doses of herbal remedies and dietary supplements can be toxic to cells.

  10. Magnetic characterization of human blood in the atherosclerotic process in coronary arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janus, B. [Institute of Environmental Engineering PAS, ul. SkLodowskiej-Curie 34, 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Bucko, M.S., E-mail: michal.bucko@helsinki.f [Institute of Environmental Engineering PAS, ul. SkLodowskiej-Curie 34, 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Division of Geophysics and Astronomy, P.O. Box 64, Gustaf Haellstroemin katu 2, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Chrobak, A. [University of Silesia, Institute of Physics, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Wasilewski, J. [3rd Chair and Clinical Ward of Cardiology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Silesian Centre of Heart Diseases, ul. Szpitalna 2, 41-800 Zabrze (Poland); Zych, M. [Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jagiellonska 4, 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland)

    2011-03-15

    In the last decades there has been an increasing interest in biomagnetism-a field of biophysics concerned with the magnetic properties of living organisms. Biomagnetism focuses on the measurement of magnetic properties of biological samples in the clinical environment. Progress in this field can provide new data for the understanding of the pathomechanism of atherosclerosis and support the diagnostic options for the evaluation and treatment of atherothrombotic complications. Lyophilized human blood samples from patients with atherosclerotic lesions (calcium scoring (CS) CS>0) and without atherosclerotic lesions (CS=0) were magnetically investigated. Magnetic measurements (performed in room and low temperature) indicated significant magnetic differences between these two groups of patients. Atherosclerotic blood samples are characterized by higher concentration of ferrimagnetic particles (magnetite and/or maghemite) and significant changes in the superparamagnetic behaviour. This research presents that magnetometry, in combination with medical research can lead to a better understanding of iron physiology in the atherosclerotic process. - Research Highlights: {yields}Blood samples are characterized by higher concentration of ferrimagnetic particles. {yields}Atherosclerotic blood samples consist of larger superparamagnetic clusters. {yields}Superparamagnetic particles in pathological samples are considered to be magnetite. {yields}The formation of ferrimagnetic particles is favoured in the atherosclerotic patients. {yields}Magnetite may play a role in the progression of atherosclerosis.

  11. Screening of specific binding peptide targeting blood vessel of human esophageal cancer in vivo in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHI Min; WU Kai-chun; HAO Zhi-ming; GUO Chang-cun; YAO Jia-yin

    2011-01-01

    Background Cancer of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction remains a virulent malignancy with poor prognosis. Rapid progresses were made in chemotherapeutic agents and the development of molecular markers allowed better identification of candidates for targeted therapy. This study aimed to identify the candidate peptides used for anti-angiogenic therapy of esophageal cancer by in vivo screening C7C peptide library for peptides binding specifically to blood vessels of human esophageal cancer.Methods The phage displayed C7C peptide library was injected intravenously into mice bearing human esophageal tumor xenografts under renal capsule. After 5 rounds of screening, 13 clones were picked up individually and sequenced.During each round of screening, titers of phage recovery were calculated from tumor xenograft and control tissues.Homing of these 9 peptides to tumor vessel was detected by calculating phage titers in the tumor xenograft and control tissues (lung and spleen) after each phage was injected into mice model, and compared with the distribution of phage M13 and Ⅷ-related antigen in tumor xenograft by immunohistochemical staining. Comparisons among groups of data were made using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Bonferroni multiple comparisons test.Results The number of phage recovered from tumor tissue of each round increased gradually in tumor group while decreased in control groups (P <0.01 in tumor and spleen, P <0.05 in lung). Immunohistochemical staining showed similar staining pattern with M13 antib