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Sample records for human blood increases

  1. Camphor induces cold and warm sensations with increases in skin and muscle blood flow in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaka, Tomohiko; Kimura, Shoji; Kashiwayanagi, Makoto; Iwamoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Application of camphor to the skin has been empirically thought to improve blood circulation. However, camphor's effects on blood circulation to the skin and on thermal sensation have not been well elucidated. In this study, we examined its effects on the quality of sensation as well as on skin and muscle blood flow in human. Nine adults (average age 37±9.4 years) participated in the study. Petroleum jelly containing 5%, 10%, 20% camphor, or 2% menthol was separately applied to the skin on the medial side of one forearm of each subject. Just after the application, camphor at each concentration induced a cold sensation in a dose-dependent manner. Within 10 min, each subject reported that the cold sensation had faded, after which it was replaced by a warm sensation. As reported previously, a cold sensation was induced by application of 2% menthol, but the subjects did not adapt to that sensation. In addition, menthol did not induce a warm sensation at all. Application of menthol has been shown to increase blood flow in the skin. Finally, we measured blood flow in skin and muscle after the application of camphor or menthol. Application of camphor or menthol separately induced increases in local blood flow in the skin and muscle. The present results indicate that camphor induces both cold and warm sensations and improves blood circulation.

  2. Microwave Energy Increases Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Yield in Human Whole Blood Due to Increased Sphingomyelin Transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Aristizabal Henao, Juan J; Ciobanu, Flaviu; Taha, Ameer Y; Stark, Ken D

    2015-09-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) by fingertip prick collection for fatty acid profiling are becoming increasingly popular due to ease of collection, minimal invasiveness and its amenability to high-throughput analyses. Herein, we assess a microwave-assisted direct transesterification method for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from DBS. Technical replicates of human whole blood were collected and 25-μL aliquots were applied to chromatography strips prior to analysis by a standard 3-h transesterification method or microwave-assisted direct transesterification method under various power (variable vs constant), time (1-5 min) and reagent (1-10% H2SO4 in methanol) conditions. In addition, a standard method was compared to a 5-min, 30-W power microwave in 1% H2SO4 method for FAME yield from whole blood sphingomyelin, and sphingomyelin standards alone and spiked in whole blood. Microwave-assisted direct transesterification yielded no significant differences in both quantitative (nmol/100 µL) and qualitative (mol%) fatty acid assessments after as little as 1.5- and 1-min reaction times, respectively, using the variable power method and 5% H2SO4 in methanol. However, 30-W power for 5 min increased total FAME yield of the technical replicates by 14%. This increase appears largely due to higher sphingomyelin-derived FAME yield of up to 109 and 399% compared to the standard method when determined from whole blood or pure standards, respectively. In conclusion, microwave-assisted direct transesterification of DBS achieved in as little as 1-min, and 5-min reaction times increase total fatty acids primarily by significantly improving sphingomyelin-derived fatty acid yield.

  3. A RAPID Method for Blood Processing to Increase the Yield of Plasma Peptide Levels in Human Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuffel, Pauline; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Hofmann, Tobias; Prinz, Philip; Scharner, Sophie; Körner, Jan L; Grötzinger, Carsten; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F; Stengel, Andreas

    2016-04-28

    Research in the field of food intake regulation is gaining importance. This often includes the measurement of peptides regulating food intake. For the correct determination of a peptide's concentration, it should be stable during blood processing. However, this is not the case for several peptides which are quickly degraded by endogenous peptidases. Recently, we developed a blood processing method employing Reduced temperatures, Acidification, Protease inhibition, Isotopic exogenous controls and Dilution (RAPID) for the use in rats. Here, we have established this technique for the use in humans and investigated recovery, molecular form and circulating concentration of food intake regulatory hormones. The RAPID method significantly improved the recovery for (125)I-labeled somatostatin-28 (+39%), glucagon-like peptide-1 (+35%), acyl ghrelin and glucagon (+32%), insulin and kisspeptin (+29%), nesfatin-1 (+28%), leptin (+21%) and peptide YY3-36 (+19%) compared to standard processing (EDTA blood on ice, p processing, while after standard processing 62% of acyl ghrelin were degraded resulting in an earlier peak likely representing desacyl ghrelin. After RAPID processing the acyl/desacyl ghrelin ratio in blood of normal weight subjects was 1:3 compared to 1:23 following standard processing (p = 0.03). Also endogenous kisspeptin levels were higher after RAPID compared to standard processing (+99%, p = 0.02). The RAPID blood processing method can be used in humans, yields higher peptide levels and allows for assessment of the correct molecular form.

  4. Increasing blood flow to exercising muscle attenuates systemic cardiovascular responses during dynamic exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Masashi; Ichinose-Kuwahara, Tomoko; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2015-11-15

    Reducing blood flow to working muscles during dynamic exercise causes metabolites to accumulate within the active muscles and evokes systemic pressor responses. Whether a similar cardiovascular response is elicited with normal blood flow to exercising muscles during dynamic exercise remains unknown, however. To address that issue, we tested whether cardiovascular responses are affected by increases in blood flow to active muscles. Thirteen healthy subjects performed dynamic plantarflexion exercise for 12 min at 20%, 40%, and 60% of peak workload (EX20, EX40, and EX60) with their lower thigh enclosed in a negative pressure box. Under control conditions, the box pressure was the same as the ambient air pressure. Under negative pressure conditions, beginning 3 min after the start of the exercise, the box pressure was decreased by 20, 45, and then 70 mmHg in stepwise fashion with 3-min step durations. During EX20, the negative pressure had no effect on blood flow or the cardiovascular responses measured. However, application of negative pressure increased blood flow to the exercising leg during EX40 and EX60. This increase in blood flow had no significant effect on systemic cardiovascular responses during EX40, but it markedly attenuated the pressor responses otherwise seen during EX60. These results demonstrate that during mild exercise, normal blood flow to exercising muscle is not a factor eliciting cardiovascular responses, whereas it elicits an important pressor effect during moderate exercise. This suggests blood flow to exercising muscle is a major determinant of cardiovascular responses during dynamic exercise at higher than moderate intensity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Sufentanil does not increase cerebral blood flow in healthy human volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, N.; Weinstabl, C.; Podreka, I.; Spiss, C.K.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of sufentanil on human cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied in seven unpremedicated, healthy volunteers 31 +/- 3.5 yr of age (mean +/- SD) and either sex. CBF (ml.100 g-1.min-1) was measured noninvasively with the 133Xe clearance technique and a scintillation camera before and after sufentanil 0.5 micrograms/kg administered intravenously. This technique provides values for global blood flow and for gray and white matter blood flow, and from 13 preselected regions in one hemisphere. After the administration of sufentanil, the volunteers were stimulated verbally in order to prevent their loss of consciousness and hypercarbia. Heart rate (HR), arterial pressure, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and end-tidal CO2 ETCO2 were recorded during the measurements. Neither global CBF (46.1 +/- 1.6 control and 43 +/- 1.9 after sufentanil, mean +/- SEM) nor gray (76.5 +/- 3.2 and 70.9 +/- 6.1) or white (22.7 +/- 1.5 and 24.2 +/- 1.6) matter blood flow changed significantly after sufentanil administration. As well, no significant differences in HR (72 +/- 4 control and 79 +/- 4 beats per min after sufentanil) and ETCO2 (39.8 +/- 1.4 and 41.1 +/- 1.1 mmHg) were observed. It is concluded that sufentanil has no significant effect on CBF in healthy human volunteers

  6. Extracellular Histones Increase Tissue Factor Activity and Enhance Thrombin Generation by Human Blood Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Travis J; Lysov, Zakhar; Swystun, Laura L; Dwivedi, Dhruva J; Zarychanski, Ryan; Fox-Robichaud, Alison E; Liaw, Patricia C

    2016-12-01

    Sepsis is characterized by systemic activation of inflammatory and coagulation pathways in response to infection. Recently, it was demonstrated that histones released into the circulation by dying/activated cells may contribute to sepsis pathology. Although the ability of extracellular histones to modulate the procoagulant activities of several cell types has been investigated, the influence of histones on the hemostatic functions of circulating monocytes is unknown. To address this, we investigated the ability of histones to modulate the procoagulant potential of THP-1 cells and peripheral blood monocytes, and examined the effects of plasmas obtained from septic patients to induce a procoagulant phenotype on monocytic cells. Tissue factor (TF) activity assays were performed on histone-treated THP-1 cells and blood monocytes. Exposure of monocytic cells to histones resulted in increases in TF activity, TF antigen, and phosphatidylserine exposure. Histones modulate the procoagulant activity via engagement of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and this effect was abrogated with inhibitory antibodies. Increased TF activity of histone-treated cells corresponded to enhanced thrombin generation in plasma determined by calibrated automated thrombography. Finally, TF activity was increased on monocytes exposed to plasma from septic patients, an effect that was attenuated in plasma from patients receiving unfractionated heparin (UFH). Our studies suggest that increased levels of extracellular histones found in sepsis contribute to dysregulated coagulation by increasing TF activity of monocytes. These procoagulant effects can be partially ameliorated in sepsis patients receiving UFH, thereby identifying extracellular histones as a potential therapeutic target for sepsis treatment.

  7. Characterization of innate lymphoid cells in human skin and blood demonstrates increase of NKp44+ ILC3 in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanova, Federica; Flutter, Barry; Tosi, Isabella; Grys, Katarzyna; Sreeneebus, Hemawtee; Perera, Gayathri K; Chapman, Anna; Smith, Catherine H; Di Meglio, Paola; Nestle, Frank O

    2014-04-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly appreciated as key regulators of tissue immunity. However, their role in human tissue homeostasis and disease remains to be fully elucidated. Here we characterize the ILCs in human skin from healthy individuals and from the inflammatory skin disease psoriasis. We show that a substantial proportion of IL-17A and IL-22 producing cells in the skin and blood of normal individuals and psoriasis patients are CD3-negative innate lymphocytes. Deep immunophenotyping of human ILC subsets showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of circulating NKp44+ ILC3 in the blood of psoriasis patients compared with healthy individuals or atopic dermatitis patients. More than 50% of circulating NKp44+ ILC3 expressed cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen, indicating their potential for skin homing. Analysis of skin tissue revealed a significantly increased frequency of total ILCs in the skin compared with blood. Moreover, the frequency of NKp44+ ILC3 was significantly increased in non-lesional psoriatic skin compared with normal skin. A detailed time course of a psoriasis patient treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor showed a close association between therapeutic response, decrease in inflammatory skin lesions, and decrease of circulating NKp44+ ILC3. Overall, data from this initial observational study suggest a potential role for NKp44+ ILC3 in psoriasis pathogenesis.

  8. Characterization of innate lymphoid cells (ILC) in human skin and blood demonstrates increase of NKp44+ ILC3 in psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Isabella; Grys, Katarzyna; Sreeneebus, Hemawtee; Perera, Gayathri K; Chapman, Anna; Smith, Catherine H; Di Meglio, Paola; Nestle, Frank O

    2013-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are increasingly appreciated as key regulators of tissue immunity. However, their role in human tissue homeostasis and disease remains to be fully elucidated. Here we characterise the ILC in human skin from healthy individuals and from the inflammatory skin disease psoriasis. We show that a substantial proportion of IL-17A and IL-22 producing cells in skin and blood of normal individuals and psoriasis patients are CD3 negative innate lymphocytes. Deep immunophenotyping of human ILC subsets showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of circulating NKp44+ ILC3 in blood of psoriasis patients compared to healthy individuals or atopic dermatitis patients. More than 50% of circulating NKp44+ ILC3 expressed cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen indicating their potential for skin homing. Analysis of skin tissue revealed a significantly increased frequency of total ILC in skin compared to blood. Moreover the frequency of NKp44+ ILC3 was significantly increased in non-lesional psoriatic skin compared to normal skin. A detailed time course of a psoriasis patient treated with anti-TNF showed a close association between therapeutic response, decrease in inflammatory skin lesions, and decrease of circulating NKp44+ ILC3. Overall, data from this initial observational study suggest a potential role for NKp44+ ILC3 in psoriasis pathogenesis. PMID:24352038

  9. Glucagon-like peptide-2 increases mesenteric blood flow in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremholm, Lasse; Hornum, Mads; Henriksen, Birthe Merete

    2008-01-01

    a significant association between IV and SC administration of synthetic GLP-2 and changes in mesenteric blood flow. An exponential dose-response relationship was observed after IV infusion. The meal-induced changes in mesenteric blood flow over time were similar to those obtained by SC GLP-2. Thus, our results......OBJECTIVE: Mesenteric blood flow is believed to be influenced by digestion and absorption of ingested macronutrients. We hypothesized that the intestinotrophic hormone, GLP-2 (glucagons-like peptide 2), may be involved in the regulation of mesenteric blood flow. Changes in mesenteric blood flow...... were measured by Doppler ultrasound scanning of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The aim of the study was to demonstrate the influence of GLP-2 on this flow, expressed as changes in resistance index (RI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A homogeneous group of 10 fasting healthy volunteers completed a 2-day...

  10. Increased preoperative collection of autologous blood with recombinant human erythropoietin therapy in tertiary care hospitals of Jammu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumkum Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To study whether the administration of recombinant human erythropoietin increases the amount of autologous blood that can be collected before orthopaedic surgery. Materials and Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of recombinant human erythropoietin in 68 adults scheduled for elective orthopedic procedures. The patients received either erythropoietin 600 units/kg of body weight or placebo intravenously every 5 th day prior to each phlebotomy for 21 days during which time up to 5 units of blood was collected. Patients were excluded from donation when their hematocrit values were less than 33%. All patients received iron sulphate 325mg orally 3 times daily. The mean number of units collected per patient was 4.33 ± 0.4 for erythropoietin group and 3.05± 0.71 for the placebo group. Results: The mean packed red cell volume donated by patients who received erythropoietin was 32% greater than that donated by patients who received placebo (196.3 vs. 169.4 ml, p<0.05. 68% in the placebo group and 9% of patients treated with erythropoietin were unable to donate ≥4 units. No adverse effects were attributed to erythropoietin. While participating in the study, complications developed in 2 patients one in each group necessitating their removal from the study. Conclusion: We conclude that recombinant human erythropoietin increases the ability of the patients about to undergo elective surgery to donate autologous blood units.

  11. Alpha adrenergic receptor blockade increases capillarisation and fractional O2 extraction and lowers blood flow in contracting human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P; Egginton, Stuart; Madsen, Mads

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of elevated basal shear stress on angiogenesis in humans, and the role of enhanced skeletal muscle capillarisation on blood flow and O2 extraction. METHODS: Limb haemodynamics and O2 extraction was measured at rest and during one-leg knee-extensor exercise (12 and 24W......) in 10 healthy untrained young men before and after 4 weeks treatment with an α1 receptor-antagonist (Terazosin, 1-2 mg day(-1) ). Corresponding biopsies were taken from the m. vastus lateralis. RESULTS: Resting leg blood flow was increased by 57% 6 hours following Terazosin treatment (P... basal capillary-to-fibre ratio was 1.69±0.08 and increased to 1.90±0.08 after treatment (Pblood flow and venous lactate levels lower (6-7%; P

  12. Standardized intermittent static exercise increases peritendinous blood flow in human leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Bülow, J; Kjaer, M

    1999-01-01

    . The radioactive isotope xenon-133 was injected just ventrally to the Achilles tendon 5 cm proximal to the tendon's insertion on the calcaneous. The disappearance of 133Xe was used to determine blood flow during intermittent static exercise of the calf muscle (1.5 s exercise/1.5 s rest) for 30 min at a workload...

  13. Increased bone marrow blood flow in sickle cell anemia demonstrated by thallium-201 and Tc-99m human albumin microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, J.H.; Rucknagel, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    Lower extremity vascularity in nine patients with sickle cell anemia was studied by intra-arterial /sup 99m/Tc human albumin microspheres or intravenous thallium-201. In eight patients, the normal pattern of greater muscle than bone activity was reversed with marked tracer localization in skeletal parts usually not visualized. In four cases, there were distinct focal abnormalities in the femurs and tibias which correlated with defects on /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid marrow scans. TC-99m pyrophosphate bone scans demonstrated normal uptake in the same areas. The scintigraphic findings indicate a markedly increased relative bone marrow blood flow

  14. Consumption of selenium-enriched broccoli increases cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo, a preliminary human intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L; Chen, Ronan K-Y; Lill, Ross E; Hedderley, Duncan I; Herath, Thanuja D; Matich, Adam J; McKenzie, Marian J

    2014-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient essential for human health, including immune function. Previous research indicates that Se supplementation may cause a shift from T helper (Th)1- to Th2-type immune responses. We aim to test the potential health promoting effects of Se-enriched broccoli. In a human trial, 18 participants consumed control broccoli daily for 3 days. After a 3-day wash-out period, the participants were provided with Se-enriched broccoli containing 200 μg of Se per serving for 3 days. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected at the start and end of each broccoli feeding period for analysis of total Se and measurement of cytokine production from PBMC stimulated with antigens ex vivo. Plasma Se content remained consistent throughout the control broccoli feeding period and the baseline of the Se-enriched broccoli period (1.22 μmol/L) and then significantly increased following 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding. Interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-22) production from PBMC significantly increased after 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding compared with baseline. This study indicates that consumption of Se-enriched broccoli may increase immune responses toward a range of immune challenges. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Venoconstrictor agents mobilize blood from different sources and increase intrathoracic filling during epidural anesthesia in supine humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton-Hicks, M.; Hoeck, A.S.; Stuehmeier, K.D.A.; Arndt, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of dihydroergotamine (DHE) and etilefrine hydrochloride (E) on the regional distribution of /sup 99m/Tc-marked erythrocytes during epidural anesthesia in eight supine men to determine if vasoactive agents with venoconstrictor action would enhance cardiac filling during epidural anesthesia. Radioactivity was recorded with a gamma camera, and its distribution determined in the thorax, abdomen, and limbs. Arterial and central venous pressure, heart rate, and calf volume by plethysmography were measured. During epidural anesthesia with a sensory block up to T4/5, DHE (7.5 micrograms/kg) reduced the radioactivity, i.e., blood volume, in both the innervated (-5.9 +/- 3.5%) and denervated muscle/skin (-16.9 +/- 7%) regions, and increased it in both the intrathoracic (+7.0 +/- 2.3%), and splanchnic vasculature (+4.2 +/- 3.2). In contrast, E (6 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1) decreased the blood volume most markedly in the splanchnic region (-5.4 +/- 0.7%) and increased it in the thorax (+2 +/- 0.6%). All these changes were statistically significant. The combined effects were estimated to be equivalent to a transfusion of nearly 1.01 of blood. Both drugs reversed the hypotensive action of epidural anesthesia. During epidural anesthesia, DHE preferentially constricted the capacitance vessels in skeletal muscle and skin irrespective of the state of innervation, whereas E preferentially constricted the splanchnic vasculature. In the doses used, the two agents replenished in an additive fashion the central circulation during epidural anesthesia

  16. Uncomplicated human type 2 diabetes is associated with meal-induced blood pressure lowering and cardiac output increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Mark M; Muskiet, Marcel H A; Tushuizen, Maarten E; Kwa, Kelly A A; Karemaker, John M; van Raalte, Daniël H; Diamant, Michaela

    2014-12-01

    Since many type 2 diabetes patients experience postprandial hypotension, the aim of this study was to unravel meal-related changes in systemic hemodynamics and autonomic nervous system (ANS)-balance. Forty-two age-matched males (15 type 2 diabetes; 12 metabolic syndrome; 15 controls) without overt autonomic neuropathy received a standardized high-fat mixed meal after an overnight fast. Hemodynamic variables were measured by finger plethysmography. Fourier analysis was used to calculate the low-/high-frequency (LF/HF)-ratio, a marker of autonomic nervous system-balance, and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS). Following the meal, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) decreased in type 2 diabetes patients only, paralleled by a significant decrement in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and an increase in cardiac index. All groups showed an increase in postprandial heart rate. Controls, but not metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes patients, showed a meal-related increase in LF/HF-ratio. When combining all study subjects, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was inversely correlated with changes in DBP, SVR, LF/HF-ratio and BRS. Based on these data, we hypothesize that in patients with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance hampers adequate meal-induced sympathetic activation, leading to a decrease in SVR and resulting in a postprandial drop in DBP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cigarette smoking increases white blood cell aggregation in whole blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, A B; Hill, A; Belch, J J

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect of chronic cigarette smoking on white blood cell aggregation, increased aggregation predisposes to microvascular occlusion and damage. Current smokers had significantly increased white blood cell aggregation when compared with non smokers. The presence of chronically activated white blood cells in current smokers may be relevant in the pathogenesis of ischaemic vascular disease.

  18. Physiological activation of the human cerebral cortex during auditory perception and speech revealed by regional increases in cerebral blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Friberg, L

    1988-01-01

    by measuring regional cerebral blood flow CBF after intracarotid Xenon-133 injection are reviewed with emphasis on tests involving auditory perception and speech, and approach allowing to visualize Wernicke and Broca's areas and their contralateral homologues in vivo. The completely atraumatic tomographic CBF...

  19. Chronic hypoxia increases arterial blood pressure and reduces adenosine and ATP induced vasodilatation in skeletal muscle in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Robach, P

    2014-01-01

    into the femoral artery at sea level and then after 8-12 days of residence at 4559 m above sea level. At sea level, the infusions were carried out while the subjects breathed room air, acute hypoxia (FI O2 = 0.11) and hyperoxia (FI O2 = 1); and at altitude (FI O2 = 0.21 and 1). Skeletal muscle P2Y2 receptor...... protein expression was determined in muscle biopsies after 4 weeks at 3454 m by Western blot. RESULTS: At altitude, mean arterial blood pressure was 13% higher (91 ± 2 vs. 102 ± 3 mmHg, P sea level and was unaltered by hyperoxic breathing. Baseline leg vascular conductance was 25% lower...... at altitude than at sea level (P sea level by 24 and 38%, during the low and high ATP doses...

  20. Quantification of photocatalytic oxygenation of human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Aryasomayajula; Thangaraj, Paul R; Kanuru, Chandrasekhar; Jayakumar, Albert; Gopal, Jayashree

    2014-04-01

    Photocatalytic oxygenation of human blood is an emerging concept based on the principle of photocatalytic splitting of water into oxygen and hydrogen. This communication reports: (i) a design of a photocatalytic cell (PC) that separates the blood from UV (incident) radiation source, (ii) a pH, temperature and flow controlled circuit designed for quantifying the oxygenation of human blood by photocatalysis and (iii) measuring the current efficacy of ITO/TiO2 nano thin films in oxygenating human blood in a dynamic circuit in real time. The average increase in oxygen saturation was around 5% above baseline compared to control (p<0.0005). We believe this is one of the first attempts to quantify photocatalytic oxygenation of human blood under controlled conditions. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased ICAM-1 Expression in Transformed Human Oral Epithelial Cells: Molecular Mechanism and Functional Role in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Adhesion and Lymphokine-Activated-Killer Cell Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, George T.-J.; Zhang, Xinli; Park, No-Hee

    2012-01-01

    The intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54) serves as a counter-receptor for the β2-integrins, LFA-1 and Mac-1, which are expressed on leukocytes. Although expression of ICAM-1 on tumor cells has a role in tumor progression and development, information on ICAM-1 expression and its role in oral cancer has not been established. Normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK), human papilloma virus (HPV)-immortalized human oral keratinocyte lines (HOK-16B, HOK-18A, and HOK-18C), and six human oral neoplastic cell lines (HOK-16B-BaP-T1, SCC-4, SCC-9, HEp-2, Tu-177 and 1483) were used to study ICAM-1 expression and its functional role in vitro. Our results demonstrated that NHOK express negligible levels of ICAM-1, whereas immortalized human oral keratinocytes and cancer cells express significantly higher levels of ICAM-1, except for HOK-16B-BaP-T1 and HEp-2. Altered mRNA half-lives did not fully account for the increased accumulation of ICAM-1 mRNA. Adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to epithelial cells correlated with cell surface ICAM-1 expression levels. This adhesion was inhibited by antibodies specific for either ICAM-1 or LFA-1/Mac-1, suggesting a role for these molecules in adhesion. In contrast, lymphokine-activated-killer (LAK) cell cytotoxic killing of epithelial cells did not correlate with ICAM-1 levels or with adhesion. Nonetheless, within each cell line, blocking of ICAM-1 or LFA-1/Mac-1 reduced LAK cells killing, suggesting that ICAM-1 is involved in mediating this killing. PMID:10938387

  2. Bone blood flow and metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kaskinoro, Kimmo

    2012-01-01

    Human bone blood flow and metabolism during physical exercise remains poorly characterised. In the present study we measured femoral bone blood flow and glucose uptake in young healthy subjects by positron emission tomography in three separate protocols. In six women, blood flow was measured...... in femoral bone at rest and during one leg intermittent isometric exercise with increasing exercise intensities. In nine men, blood flow in femur was determined at rest and during dynamic one leg exercise, and two other physiological perturbations: moderate systemic hypoxia (14 O(2) ) at rest and during...... exercise, and during intra-femoral infusion of high-dose adenosine. Bone glucose uptake was measured at rest and during dynamic one leg exercise in five men. The results indicate that isometric exercise increased femoral bone blood flow from rest (1.8 ± 0.6 ml/100g/min) to low intensity exercise (4.1 ± 1...

  3. Alanine increases blood pressure during hypotension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlay, L. A.; Maher, T. J.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of L-alanine administration on blood pressure (BP) during haemorrhagic shock was investigated using anesthetized rats whose left carotid arteries were cannulated for BP measurement, blood removal, and drug administration. It was found that L-alanine, in doses of 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, increased the systolic BP of hypotensive rats by 38 to 80 percent (while 100 mg/kg pyruvate increased BP by only 9.4 mmhg, not significantly different from saline). The results suggest that L-alanine might influence cardiovascular function.

  4. Pharmacovigilance: Tiens Slimming Tea Causes Increased Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... possible link between the constituents of the slimming tea and increased blood pressure and also provide evidence of other possible harmful effects that may occur with the use of the slimming tea. Keywords: Pharmacovigilance, hypertension, slimming tea. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research Vol.

  5. Emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, T M; Varnhagen, C K; Parent, M B

    2001-05-01

    Arousal enhances memory in human participants and this enhancing effect is likely due to the release of peripheral epinephrine. As epinephrine does not readily enter the brain, one way that peripheral epinephrine may enhance memory is by increasing circulating blood glucose levels. The present study investigated the possibility that emotionally arousing color pictures would improve memory and elevate blood glucose levels in human participants. Blood glucose levels were measured before, 15 min, and 30 min after male university students viewed 60 emotionally arousing or relatively neutral pictures. Participants viewed each picture for 6 s and then had 10 s to rate the arousal (emotional intensity) and valence (pleasantness) of each picture. A free-recall memory test was given 30 min after the last picture was viewed. Although the emotionally arousing and neutral picture sets were given comparable valence ratings, participants who viewed the emotionally arousing pictures rated the pictures as being more arousing, recalled more pictures, and had higher blood glucose levels after viewing the pictures than did participants who viewed the neutral pictures. These findings indicate that emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance memory, and that this effect is not due to differences in the degree of pleasantness of the stimuli. These findings support the possibility that increases in circulating blood glucose levels in response to emotional arousal may be part of the biological mechanism that allows emotional arousal to enhance memory. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  6. A brief history of human blood groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhud, Dariush D; Zarif Yeganeh, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of human blood groups, without doubt, has a history as old as man himself. There are at least three hypotheses about the emergence and mutation of human blood groups. Global distribution pattern of blood groups depends on various environmental factors, such as disease, climate, altitude, humidity etc. In this survey, the collection of main blood groups ABO and Rh, along with some minor groups, are presented. Several investigations of blood groups from Iran, particularly a large sampling on 291857 individuals from Iran, including the main blood groups ABO and Rh, as well as minor blood groups such as Duffy, Lutheran, Kell, KP, Kidd, and Xg, have been reviewed.

  7. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golino, Hudson Fernandes; Amaral, Liliany Souza de Brito; Duarte, Stenio Fernando Pimentel; Soares, Telma de Jesus; dos Reis, Luciana Araujo

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and waist hip ratio (WHR) using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women) from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42), misclassification (.19), and the higher pseudo R 2 (.43). This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25), misclassification (.16), and the higher pseudo R 2 (.46). This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power. PMID:24669313

  8. Predicting increased blood pressure using machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golino, Hudson Fernandes; Amaral, Liliany Souza de Brito; Duarte, Stenio Fernando Pimentel; Gomes, Cristiano Mauro Assis; Soares, Telma de Jesus; Dos Reis, Luciana Araujo; Santos, Joselito

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and waist hip ratio (WHR) using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women) from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42), misclassification (.19), and the higher pseudo R (2) (.43). This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25), misclassification (.16), and the higher pseudo R (2) (.46). This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power.

  9. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Fernandes Golino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI, waist (WC and hip circumference (HC, and waist hip ratio (WHR using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42, misclassification (.19, and the higher pseudo R2 (.43. This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25, misclassification (.16, and the higher pseudo R2 (.46. This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power.

  10. Effect of laser on human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalsamad, Amuna Nagash Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the effect of He-Ne (632.8 nm), N2 (337.1 nm), LED (450 nm) on the human blood, and blood component was studied by using CBC machine ( complete blood count) and UV -visible spectroscopy. Blood samples platoon A+ were collected and irradiated for different periods of time (10 minute, 20 minute, and 30 minute), to varied types of light source ( He- Ne laser and LED). Blood parameters of samples were measured by using complete Blood Count Machine (CBC). The absorption spectrum of blood samples were examined by using UV-visible spectrometer. The obtained results have shown different values of Complete Blood Counts and absorption spectrum due to different laser types and periods of time. We conclude that the laser light has clear effect on blood samples. (Author)

  11. Hyperlipidaemia is associated with increased insulin-mediated glucose metabolism, reduced fatty acid metabolism and normal blood pressure in transgenic mice overexpressing human apolipoprotein C1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, S.J.; Jong, M.C.; Que, I.; Dahlmans, V.E.H.; Pijl, H.; Radder, J.K.; Frölich, M.; Havekes, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis. Insulin resistance for glucose metabolism is associated with hyperlipidaemia and high blood pressure. In this study we investigated the effect of primary hyperlipidaemia on basal and insulin-mediated glucose and on non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) metabolism and mean arterial

  12. Tracking blood vessels in human forearms using visual servoing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth; Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Hansen, Morten

    compensation. By using images taken with near-infrared light to locate the blood vessels in a human forearm and using the same images to detects movements of the arm, this paper shows that it is possible make a robot arm, potentially equipped with a needle for drawing the blood, compensate for the movements......Drawing an average of more than 2 blood sample per Danish citizen per year increases the demand for an automatic blood sampling method. This paper presents a proof of concept to one of the main challenges in making a fully automated blood sampling procedure, namely: the patient movement...

  13. Exercise increases sphingoid base-1-phosphate levels in human blood and skeletal muscle in a time- and intensity-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baranowski, Marcin; Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U; Charmas, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates cardiovascular function and plays an important role in muscle biology. We have previously reported that cycling exercise increased plasma S1P. Here, we investigated the effect of exercise duration and intensity on plasma and skeletal muscle S1P lev...

  14. Skin Blood Perfusion and Oxygenation Colour Affect Perceived Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Ian D.; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I.

    2009-01-01

    Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice. PMID:19337378

  15. Effect of fluocinolone acetonide cream on human skin blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimoskey, J.E.; Holloway, A. Jr.; Flanagan, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    Blood flow rate was measured in the forearm skin of human subjects exposed to ultraviolet irradiation. Blood flow was determined by the 133 Xe disappearance technique 18 hr after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation with a Westinghouse RS sunlamp held 10 inches from the skin for 10 min. Ultraviolet irradiation caused skin blood flow to increase. Application of fluocinolone acetonide cream, 0.025 percent, 4 times in the 16 hr following UV irradiation had no effect on either control skin blood flow or the UV-induced hyperemia

  16. Short-Lived Human Umbilical Cord-Blood-Derived Neural Stem Cells Influence the Endogenous Secretome and Increase the Number of Endogenous Neural Progenitors in a Rat Model of Lacunar Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonska, Anna; Drela, Katarzyna; Wojcik-Stanaszek, Luiza; Janowski, Miroslaw; Zalewska, Teresa; Lukomska, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of severe disability, and lacunar stroke is related to cognitive decline and hemiparesis. There is no effective treatment for the majority of patients with stroke. Thus, stem cell-based regenerative medicine has drawn a growing body of attention due to the capabilities for trophic factor expression and neurogenesis enhancement. Moreover, it was shown in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model that even short-lived stem cells can be therapeutic, and we have previously observed that phenomenon indirectly. Here, in a rat model of lacunar stroke, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the positive therapeutic effects of short-lived human umbilical cord-blood-derived neural stem cells (HUCB-NSCs) through the distinct measurement of exogenous human and endogenous rat trophic factors. We have also evaluated neurogenesis and metalloproteinase activity as cellular components of therapeutic activity. As expected, we observed an increased proliferation and migration of progenitors, as well as metalloproteinase activity up to 14 days post transplantation. These changes were most prominent at the 7-day time point when we observed 30 % increases in the number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in HUCB-NSC transplanted animals. The expression of human trophic factors was present until 7 days post transplantation, which correlated well with the survival of the human graft. For these 7 days, the level of messenger RNA (mRNA) in the analyzed trophic factors was from 300-fold for CNTF to 10,000-fold for IGF, much higher compared to constitutive expression in HUCB-NSCs in vitro. What is interesting is that there was no increase in the expression of rat trophic factors during the human graft survival, compared to that in non-transplanted animals. However, there was a prolongation of a period of increased trophic expression until 14 days post transplantation, while, in non-transplanted animals, there was a

  17. Regulation of the skeletal muscle blood flow in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan; Saltin, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    In humans, skeletal muscle blood flow is regulated by an interaction between several locally formed vasodilators including nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins. In plasma, ATP is a potent vasodilator that stimulates the formation of NO and prostaglandins and very importantly can offset local...... concentration does not increase during exercise. In the skeletal muscle interstitium, there is a marked increase in the concentration of ATP and adenosine and this increase is tightly coupled to the increase in blood flow. The sources of interstitial ATP and adenosine are thought to be skeletal muscle cells...... hyperaemia whereas the role of ATP remains uncertain due to lack of specific purinergic receptor blockers for human use. The purpose of this review is to address the interaction between vasodilator systems and to discuss the multiple proposed roles of ATP in human skeletal muscle blood flow regulation...

  18. Transcriptome analysis in whole blood reveals increased microbial diversity in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Loohuis, Loes M.; Mangul, Serghei; Ori, Anil P.S.; Jospin, Guillaume; Koslicki, David; Yang, Harry Taegyun; Wu, Timothy; Boks, Marco P.; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Wiedau-Pazos, Martina; Cantor, Rita M.; Vos, De Willem M.; Kahn, René S.; Eskin, Eleazar; Ophoff, Roel A.

    2018-01-01

    The role of the human microbiome in health and disease is increasingly appreciated. We studied the composition of microbial communities present in blood across 192 individuals, including healthy controls and patients with three disorders affecting the brain: schizophrenia, amyotrophic lateral

  19. A Strategic Planning Tool for Increasing African American Blood Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Ashley; Spratling, Regena

    2018-05-01

    Historically, African Americans (AAs) have been underrepresented as blood donors. Having a lack of racially diverse blood donors contributes to transfusion complications, particularly in patients with sickle cell disease, who are both disproportionately AA and the recipients of frequent transfusions. Increasing AA blood donation is a complex public health issue. This review article serves to fill a gap in translating research regarding known hindrances and facilitators of AA blood donation to improve real-world donation practice and ultimately, patient outcomes. We incorporate findings from a literature review to develop a tool that blood centers, provider organizations, and patient advocacy groups can use to aid strategic planning efforts aimed at increasing AA blood donation.

  20. Haemopoietic progenitor cells in human peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, F.E.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation reported is to purify haemopoietic progenitor cells from human peripheral blood using density gradient centrifugation in order to isolate a progenitor cell fraction without immunocompetent cells. The purification technique of peripheral blood flow colony forming unit culture (CFU-c) by means of density gradient centrifugation and a combined depletion of various rosettes is described. The results of several 'in vitro' characteristics of purified CFU-c suspensions and of the plasma clot diffusion chamber culture technique are presented. Irradiation studies revealed that for both human bone marrow and peripheral blood the CFU-c were less radioresistant than clusters. Elimination of monocytes (and granulocytes) from the test suspensions induced an alteration in radiosensitivity pararmeters. The results obtained with the different techniques are described by analysing peripheral progenitor cell activity in myeloproliferative disorders. (Auth.)

  1. Exercise increases circulating GDF15 in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Kleinert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15 is a stress-sensitive circulating factor that regulates systemic energy balance. Since exercise is a transient physiological stress that has pleiotropic effects on whole-body energy metabolism, we herein explored the effect of exercise on a circulating GDF15 levels and b GDF15 release from skeletal muscle in humans. Methods: Seven healthy males either rested or exercised at 67% of their VO2max for 1 h and blood was sampled from the femoral artery and femoral vein before, during, and after exercise. Plasma GDF15 concentrations were determined in these samples. Results: Plasma GDF15 levels increased 34% with exercise (p < 0.001 and further increased to 64% above resting values at 120 min (p < 0.001 after the cessation of exercise. There was no difference between the arterial and venous GDF15 concentration before, during, and after exercise. During a resting control trial, GDF15 levels measured in the same subjects were unaltered. Conclusions: Vigorous submaximal exercise increases circulating GDF15 levels in humans, but skeletal muscle tissue does not appear to be the source. Keywords: Skeletal muscle, Growth differentiation factor 15, Recovery, Physical activity

  2. The determination of chromium-50 in human blood and its utilization for blood volume measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeisler, R.; Young, I.

    1986-01-01

    Possible relationships between insufficient blood volume increases during pregnancy and infant mortality could be established with an adequate measurement procedure. An accurate and precise technique for blood volume measurements has been found in the isotope dilution technique using chromium-51 as a label for red blood cells. However, in a study involving pregnant women, only stable isotopes can be used for labeling. Stable chromium-50 can be determined in total blood samples before and after dilution experiments by neutron activation analysis (NAA) or mass spectrometry. However, both techniques may be affected by insufficient sensitivity and contamination problems at the inherently low natural chromium concentrations to be measured in the blood. NAA procedures involving irradiations with highly thermalized neutrons at a fluence rate of 2x10 13 n/cm 2 xs and low background gamma spectrometry are applied to the analysis of total blood. Natural levels of chromium-50 in human and animal blood have been found to be <0.1 ng/mL; i.e., total chromium levels of <3 ng/mL. Based on the NAA procedure, a new approach to the blood volume measurement via chromium-50 isotope dilution has been developed which utilizes the ratio of the induced activities of chromium-51 to the iron-59 in three blood samples taken from each individual, namely blank, labeled and diluted labeled blood. (author)

  3. Exercise increases circulating GDF15 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinert, Maximilian; Clemmensen, Christoffer; Sjøberg, Kim Anker

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a stress-sensitive circulating factor that regulates systemic energy balance. Since exercise is a transient physiological stress that has pleiotropic effects on whole-body energy metabolism, we herein explored the effect of exercise on a......) circulating GDF15 levels and b) GDF15 release from skeletal muscle in humans. METHODS: Seven healthy males either rested or exercised at 67% of their VO2max for 1 h and blood was sampled from the femoral artery and femoral vein before, during, and after exercise. Plasma GDF15 concentrations were determined...... in these samples. RESULTS: Plasma GDF15 levels increased 34% with exercise (p exercise. There was no difference between the arterial and venous GDF15 concentration before, during, and after exercise. During...

  4. Wearing an abdominal belt increases diastolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafacz, W; McGill, S M

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of wearing an abdominal belt on blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and heart rate during a variety of tasks. The belt was typical of the elastic type with suspenders and Velcro tabs for cinching the belt snug. The tasks performed included sitting at rest, sitting with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees, standing with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees (with and without holding an 11-kg weight), a trunk axial rotation task, and squat lifting. Blood pressure was monitored noninvasively with a FINAPRES blood pressure monitor. Twenty healthy men performed each task with and without the abdominal belt. Although no significant increases in mean systolic blood pressure or heart rate were found, there was a significant increase in diastolic blood pressure in all conditions. All people considering wearing an abdominal belt should also consider the risks and liability associated with the additional cardiovascular load, particularly heart attack and stroke.

  5. Age-dependent increase in green autofluorescence of blood ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Protective enzymes against oxidative ... School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, India ... provide evidence for an age dependent increase in the GAF of blood erythrocytes that is accentuated by depletion of.

  6. Lea blood group antigen on human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunstan, R.A.; Simpson, M.B.; Rosse, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    One- and two-stage radioligand assays were used to determine if human platelets possess the Lea antigen. Goat IgG anti-Lea antibody was purified by multiple adsorptions with Le(a-b-) human red blood cells, followed by affinity chromatography with synthetic Lea substance and labeling with 125 I. Human IgG anti-Lea antibody was used either in a two stage radioassay with 125 I-labeled mouse monoclonal IgG anti-human IgG as the second antibody or, alternatively, purified by Staph protein A chromatography, labeled with 125 I, and used in a one-stage radioassay. Platelets from donors of appropriate red blood cell phenotypes were incubated with the antisera, centrifuged through phthalate esters, and assayed in a gamma scintillation counter. Dose response and saturation curve analysis demonstrate the presence of Lewis a antigen on platelets from Lea+ donors. Furthermore, platelets from an Le(a-b-) donor incubated in Le (a+b-) plasma adsorb Lea antigen in a similar manner to red blood cells. The clinical significance of these antigens in platelet transfusion remains undefined

  7. Increased bone marrow blood flow in polycythemia vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathinen, R.; Lathinen, T.; Hyoedynmaa, S.

    1983-01-01

    Bone marrow blood flow was measured in polycythemia vera, in compensatory and in relative polycythemia with a 133 Xe washout method. In the treated polycythemia vera bone marrow blood flow was significantly increased compared with the age-matched controls. The fraction of blood flow entering the bone and flowing through the hematopoietic marrow was markedly increased in both the untreated and the treated polycythemia vera. Although the number of observations in compensatory and relative polycythemia was small, the results suggest that bone marrow blood flow is not markedly increased in these diseases. The results also suggest that in older patients the simple 133 Xe method may support the diagnosis of polycythemia vera. (orig.)

  8. Increased bone marrow blood flow in polycythemia vera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lathinen, R.; Lathinen, T.; Hyoedynmaa, S.

    1983-01-01

    Bone marrow blood flow was measured in polycythemia vera, in compensatory and in relative polycythemia with a /sup 133/Xe washout method. In the treated polycythemia vera bone marrow blood flow was significantly increased compared with the age-matched controls. The fraction of blood flow entering the bone and flowing through the hematopoietic marrow was markedly increased in both the untreated and the treated polycythemia vera. Although the number of observations in compensatory and relative polycythemia was small, the results suggest that bone marrow blood flow is not markedly increased in these diseases. The results also suggest that in older patients the simple /sup 133/Xe method may support the diagnosis of polycythemia vera.

  9. Goat Meat Does Not Cause Increased Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Sunagawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan/salt group (GY was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (p<0.01 than the CP and GM groups despite the fact that their diet consumption levels were similar. The body weight of animals in the CP, GM, and GS groups was similar while the animals in the GY group were significantly smaller (p<0.01. The blood pressure in the GM group was virtually the same as the CP group throughout the course of the experiment. In contrast, while the blood pressure of the animals in the GS and GY group from 15 to 19 weeks old was the same as the CP group, their blood pressures were significantly higher (p<0.01 after 20 weeks of age. The GY group tended to have lower blood pressure than the GS group. In experiment 2, in order to clarify whether or not the increase in blood pressure in the GS group and the GY group in experiment 1 was caused by an excessive intake of salt, the effects on blood pressure of a reduction of salt in diet were investigated. When amount of salt in the diet of the GS and GY group was reduced from 4% to 0.3%, the animal

  10. A blood-oxygenation-dependent increase in blood viscosity due to a static magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toru; Nagayama, Yuki; Tamura, Mamoru

    2004-01-01

    As the magnetic field of widely used MR scanners is one of the strongest magnetic fields to which people are exposed, the biological influence of the static magnetic field of MR scanners is of great concern. One magnetic interaction in biological subjects is the magnetic torque on the magnetic moment induced by biomagnetic substances. The red blood cell is a major biomagnetic substance, and the blood flow may be influenced by the magnetic field. However, the underlying mechanisms have been poorly understood. To examine the mechanisms of the magnetic influence on blood viscosity, we measured the time for blood to fall through a glass capillary inside and outside a 1.5 T MR scanner. Our in vitro results showed that the blood viscosity significantly increased in a 1.5 T MR scanner, and also clarified the mechanism of the interaction between red blood cells and the external magnetic field. Notably, the blood viscosity increased depending on blood oxygenation and the shear rate of the blood flow. Thus, our findings suggest that even a 1.5 T magnetic field may modulate blood flow

  11. Blood in the gastric lumen increases splanchnic blood flow and portal pressure in portal-hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Groszmann, R J

    1996-10-01

    In portal-hypertensive humans, portal blood flow and pressure increase after a meal. These hemodynamic changes may increase variceal rupture risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether blood in the stomach lumen increases splanchnic flow and portal pressure (PP) in portal-hypertensive rats. superior mesenteric artery flow and PP were measured in conscious, unrestrained, fasted partial portal vein-ligated rats with chronically implanted Doppler flow probes or portal vein catheters before and after gavage with heparinized, warmed blood from donor rats, air, standard meal, or empty tube. Percentage of changes in flow and pressure from baseline were significantly greater after gavage with blood (an increase of 22.6% +/- 3.5% and an increase of 16.4% +/- 3.1%, respectively) than empty tube (an increase of 3.4% +/- 0.6% and a decrease of 5.4% +/- 3.5%, respectively) (P empty tube (P calories probably contributes to these hemodynamic changes. In patients with variceal hemorrhage, blood in the stomach may increase the risk of persistent variceal bleeding or rebleeding.

  12. Goat meat does not cause increased blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Kishi, Tetsuya; Nagai, Ayako; Matsumura, Yuka; Nagamine, Itsuki; Uechi, Shuntoku

    2014-01-01

    While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g) were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP) was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan)/salt group (GY) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (pgoat meat does not cause increased blood pressure, rather the large amount of salt used in the preparation of goat meat dishes is responsible for the increase in blood pressure.

  13. Muscle blood flow at onset of dynamic exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rådegran, G; Saltin, B

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the temporal relationship between blood flow, blood pressure, and muscle contractions, we continuously measured femoral arterial inflow with ultrasound Doppler at onset of passive exercise and voluntary, one-legged, dynamic knee-extensor exercise in humans. Blood velocity and inflow increased (P dicrotic and diastolic blood pressure notches, respectively. Mechanical hindrance occurred (P dicrotic notch. The increase in blood flow (Q) was characterized by a one-component (approximately 15% of peak power output), two-component (approximately 40-70% of peak power output), or three-component exponential model (> or = 75% of peak power output), where Q(t) = Qpassive + delta Q1.[1 - e-(t - TD1/tau 1)]+ delta Q2.[1 - e-(t - TD2/tau 2)]+ delta Q3.[1 - e-(t - TD3/tau 3)]; Qpassive, the blood flow during passive leg movement, equals 1.17 +/- 0.11 l/min; TD is the onset latency; tau is the time constant; delta Q is the magnitude of blood flow rise; and subscripts 1-3 refer to the first, second, and third components of the exponential model, respectively. The time to reach 50% of the difference between passive and voluntary asymptotic blood flow was approximately 2.2-8.9 s. The blood flow leveled off after approximately 10-150 s, related to the power outputs. It is concluded that the elevation in blood flow with the first duty cycle(s) is due to muscle mechanical factors, but vasodilators initiate a more potent amplification within the second to fourth contraction.

  14. The blood DNA virome in 8,000 humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Moustafa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of the blood virome is important for the safety of blood-derived transfusion products, and for the identification of emerging pathogens. We explored non-human sequence data from whole-genome sequencing of blood from 8,240 individuals, none of whom were ascertained for any infectious disease. Viral sequences were extracted from the pool of sequence reads that did not map to the human reference genome. Analyses sifted through close to 1 Petabyte of sequence data and performed 0.5 trillion similarity searches. With a lower bound for identification of 2 viral genomes/100,000 cells, we mapped sequences to 94 different viruses, including sequences from 19 human DNA viruses, proviruses and RNA viruses (herpesviruses, anelloviruses, papillomaviruses, three polyomaviruses, adenovirus, HIV, HTLV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, parvovirus B19, and influenza virus in 42% of the study participants. Of possible relevance to transfusion medicine, we identified Merkel cell polyomavirus in 49 individuals, papillomavirus in blood of 13 individuals, parvovirus B19 in 6 individuals, and the presence of herpesvirus 8 in 3 individuals. The presence of DNA sequences from two RNA viruses was unexpected: Hepatitis C virus is revealing of an integration event, while the influenza virus sequence resulted from immunization with a DNA vaccine. Age, sex and ancestry contributed significantly to the prevalence of infection. The remaining 75 viruses mostly reflect extensive contamination of commercial reagents and from the environment. These technical problems represent a major challenge for the identification of novel human pathogens. Increasing availability of human whole-genome sequences will contribute substantial amounts of data on the composition of the normal and pathogenic human blood virome. Distinguishing contaminants from real human viruses is challenging.

  15. Net haemoglobin increase from reinfusion of refrigerated vs. frozen red blood cells after autologous blood transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashenden, M; Mørkeberg, Jakob Sehested

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES  Two main blood storage procedures can be used for storing red blood cells: refrigeration and freezing. Nevertheless, the efficiency of these procedures measured as the increase in haemoglobin after reinfusion compared with baseline has never been examined. The main...... objective was to examine which storage procedure yielded the largest increase in circulating haemoglobin after reinfusion compared to baseline. MATERIALS AND METHODS  Equal volumes of blood from 15 men were withdrawn and stored either frozen or refrigerated as packed red blood cells. Serial measures...... of circulating haemoglobin by carbon monoxide rebreathing provided an opportunity to monitor recovery from anaemia, as well as the net increase in circulating haemoglobin after transfusion. RESULTS  The post-thaw yield of haemoglobin in the bags was 72% after refrigerated storage compared with only 52% after...

  16. Regulation of bone blood flow in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Boushel, Robert; Hellsten, Ylva

    2018-01-01

    of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme, thus prostaglandin (PG) synthesis on femoral bone marrow blood flow by positron emission tomography in healthy young men at rest and during one leg dynamic exercise. In an additional group of healthy men, the role of adenosine (ADO) in the regulation of BBF during exercise......The mechanisms that regulate bone blood flow (BBF) in humans are largely unknown. Animal studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) could be involved and in the present study we investigated the effects of inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) alone and in combination with inhibition.......036), but did not affect BBF significantly during exercise (5.5±1.4 ml/100g/min, p=0.25). On the other hand, while combined NOS and COX inhibition did not cause any further reduction of blood flow at rest (0.6±0.2 ml/100g/min), the combined blockade reduced BBF during exercise by ~21%, to 5.0±1.8 ml/100g/min (p...

  17. Computational Analysis of Human Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panta, Yogendra; Marie, Hazel; Harvey, Mark

    2009-11-01

    Fluid flow modeling with commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is widely used to visualize and predict physical phenomena related to various biological systems. In this presentation, a typical human aorta model was analyzed assuming the blood flow as laminar with complaint cardiac muscle wall boundaries. FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume software, coupled with Solidworks, a modeling software, was employed for the preprocessing, simulation and postprocessing of all the models.The analysis mainly consists of a fluid-dynamics analysis including a calculation of the velocity field and pressure distribution in the blood and a mechanical analysis of the deformation of the tissue and artery in terms of wall shear stress. A number of other models e.g. T branches, angle shaped were previously analyzed and compared their results for consistency for similar boundary conditions. The velocities, pressures and wall shear stress distributions achieved in all models were as expected given the similar boundary conditions. The three dimensional time dependent analysis of blood flow accounting the effect of body forces with a complaint boundary was also performed.

  18. The Human Blood Metabolome-Transcriptome Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Katharina; Adamski, Jerzy; Gieger, Christian; Herder, Christian; Carstensen, Maren; Peters, Annette; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Roden, Michael; Strauch, Konstantin; Suhre, Karsten; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Prokisch, Holger; Theis, Fabian J.

    2015-01-01

    Biological systems consist of multiple organizational levels all densely interacting with each other to ensure function and flexibility of the system. Simultaneous analysis of cross-sectional multi-omics data from large population studies is a powerful tool to comprehensively characterize the underlying molecular mechanisms on a physiological scale. In this study, we systematically analyzed the relationship between fasting serum metabolomics and whole blood transcriptomics data from 712 individuals of the German KORA F4 cohort. Correlation-based analysis identified 1,109 significant associations between 522 transcripts and 114 metabolites summarized in an integrated network, the ‘human blood metabolome-transcriptome interface’ (BMTI). Bidirectional causality analysis using Mendelian randomization did not yield any statistically significant causal associations between transcripts and metabolites. A knowledge-based interpretation and integration with a genome-scale human metabolic reconstruction revealed systematic signatures of signaling, transport and metabolic processes, i.e. metabolic reactions mainly belonging to lipid, energy and amino acid metabolism. Moreover, the construction of a network based on functional categories illustrated the cross-talk between the biological layers at a pathway level. Using a transcription factor binding site enrichment analysis, this pathway cross-talk was further confirmed at a regulatory level. Finally, we demonstrated how the constructed networks can be used to gain novel insights into molecular mechanisms associated to intermediate clinical traits. Overall, our results demonstrate the utility of a multi-omics integrative approach to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying both normal physiology and disease. PMID:26086077

  19. The Human Blood Metabolome-Transcriptome Interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Bartel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems consist of multiple organizational levels all densely interacting with each other to ensure function and flexibility of the system. Simultaneous analysis of cross-sectional multi-omics data from large population studies is a powerful tool to comprehensively characterize the underlying molecular mechanisms on a physiological scale. In this study, we systematically analyzed the relationship between fasting serum metabolomics and whole blood transcriptomics data from 712 individuals of the German KORA F4 cohort. Correlation-based analysis identified 1,109 significant associations between 522 transcripts and 114 metabolites summarized in an integrated network, the 'human blood metabolome-transcriptome interface' (BMTI. Bidirectional causality analysis using Mendelian randomization did not yield any statistically significant causal associations between transcripts and metabolites. A knowledge-based interpretation and integration with a genome-scale human metabolic reconstruction revealed systematic signatures of signaling, transport and metabolic processes, i.e. metabolic reactions mainly belonging to lipid, energy and amino acid metabolism. Moreover, the construction of a network based on functional categories illustrated the cross-talk between the biological layers at a pathway level. Using a transcription factor binding site enrichment analysis, this pathway cross-talk was further confirmed at a regulatory level. Finally, we demonstrated how the constructed networks can be used to gain novel insights into molecular mechanisms associated to intermediate clinical traits. Overall, our results demonstrate the utility of a multi-omics integrative approach to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying both normal physiology and disease.

  20. Ghrelin administered spinally increases the blood glucose level in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-04-01

    Ghrelin is known as a regulator of the blood glucose homeostasis and food intake. In the present study, the possible roles of ghrelin located in the spinal cord in the regulation of the blood glucose level were investigated in ICR mice. We found that intrathecal (i.t.) injection with ghrelin (from 1 to 10 μg) caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. In addition, i.t. pretreatment with YIL781 (ghrelin receptor antagonist; from 0.1 to 5 μg) markedly attenuated ghrelin-induced hyperglycemic effect. The plasma insulin level was increased by ghrelin. The enhanced plasma insulin level by ghrelin was reduced by i.t. pretreatment with YIL781. However, i.t. pretreatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1; 5 μg) did not affect the ghrelin-induced hyperglycemia. Furthermore, i.t. administration with ghrelin also elevated the blood glucose level, but in an additive manner, in d-glucose-fed model. Our results suggest that the activation of ghrelin receptors located in the spinal cord plays important roles for the elevation of the blood glucose level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acrolein generation stimulates hypercontraction in isolated human blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, D.J.; Bhatnagar, A.; Cowley, H.R.; Johnson, G.H.; Wiechmann, R.J.; Sayre, L.M.; Trent, M.B.; Boor, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Increased risk of vasospasm, a spontaneous hyperconstriction, is associated with atherosclerosis, cigarette smoking, and hypertension-all conditions involving oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation. To test the role of the lipid peroxidation- and inflammation-derived aldehyde, acrolein, in human vasospasm, we developed an ex vivo model using human coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) blood vessels and a demonstrated acrolein precursor, allylamine. Allylamine induces hypercontraction in isolated rat coronary artery in a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity (SSAO) dependent manner. Isolated human CABG blood vessels (internal mammary artery, radial artery, saphenous vein) were used to determine: (1) vessel responses and sensitivity to acrolein, allylamine, and H 2 O 2 exposure (1 μM-1 mM), (2) SSAO dependence of allylamine-induced effects using SSAO inhibitors (semicarbazide, 1 mM; MDL 72274-E, active isomer; MDL 72274-Z, inactive isomer; 100 μM), (3) the vasoactive effects of two other SSAO amine substrates, benzylamine and methylamine, and (4) the contribution of extracellular Ca 2+ to hypercontraction. Acrolein or allylamine but not H 2 O 2 , benzylamine, or methylamine stimulated spontaneous and pharmacologically intractable hypercontraction in CABG blood vessels that was similar to clinical vasospasm. Allylamine-induced hypercontraction and blood vessel SSAO activity were abolished by pretreatment with semicarbazide or MDL 72274-E but not by MDL 72274-Z. Allylamine-induced hypercontraction also was significantly attenuated in Ca 2+ -free buffer. In isolated aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rat, allylamine-induced an SSAO-dependent contraction and enhanced norepinephrine sensitivity but not in Sprague-Dawley rat aorta. We conclude that acrolein generation in the blood vessel wall increases human susceptibility to vasospasm, an event that is enhanced in hypertension

  2. Sb(V reactivity with human blood components: redox effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana López

    Full Text Available We assessed the reactivity of Sb(V in human blood. Sb(V reactivity was determined using an HPLC-HG-AFS hyphenated system. Sb(V was partially reduced to Sb(III in blood incubation experiments; however, Sb(III was a highly unstable species. The addition of 0.1 mol L(-1 EDTA prevented Sb(III oxidation, thus enabling the detection of the reduction of Sb(V to Sb(III. The transformation of Sb(V to Sb(III in human whole blood was assessed because the reduction of Sb(V in human blood may likely generate redox side effects. Our results indicate that glutathione was the reducing agent in this reaction and that Sb(V significantly decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio from 0.32 ± 0.09 to 0.07 ± 0.03. Moreover, the presence of 200 ng mL(-1 of Sb(V increased the activity of superoxide dismutase from 4.4 ± 0.1 to 7.0 ± 0.4 U mL(-1 and decreased the activity of glutathione peroxidase from 62 ± 1 to 34 ± 2 nmol min(-1 mL(-1.

  3. Elevated blood lactate is associated with increased motor cortex excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Marinella; Alagona, Giovanna; Rapisarda, Giuseppe; Costanzo, Erminio; Calogero, Roberto Antonio; Perciavalle, Valentina; Perciavalle, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    No information has yet been provided about the influence of blood lactate levels on the excitability of the cerebral cortex, in particular, of the motor cortex. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of high blood lactate levels, induced with a maximal cycling or with an intravenous infusion, on motor cortex excitability. The study was carried out on 17 male athletes; all the subjects performed a maximal cycling test on a mechanically braked cycloergometer, whereas 6 of them were submitted to the intravenous infusion of a lactate solution (3 mg/kg in 1 min). Before the exercise or the injection, at the end, as well as 5 and 10 min after the conclusion, venous blood lactate was measured and excitability of the motor cortex was evaluated by using the transcranial magnetic stimulation. In both of these experimental conditions, it was observed that an increase of blood lactate is associated with a decrease of motor threshold, that is, an enhancement of motor cortex excitability. We conclude by hypothesizing that in the motor cortex the lactate could have a protective role against fatigue.

  4. Insight of Human Stroke from blood flow and blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Hu, Kun; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2003-03-01

    Stroke is is one of the leading cause of death and disability in the world. It is well believed that stroke is caused by the disturbance of cerebrovascular autoregulation. We investigate the blood flow on the left and right middle cerebral artery and beat-to-beat blood pressure simultaneously measured from the finger, for both subjects with stroke and healthy subjects. Synchronization technique is used to distinguish the difference between these two groups.

  5. Blood transfusion is associated with infection and increased resource utilization in combat casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, James R; Riddle, Mark S; Danko, Janine; Hayden, Rich; Petersen, Kyle

    2006-07-01

    Combat casualty care has made significant advances in recent years, including administration of blood products in far-forward locations. However, recent studies have shown blood transfusion to be a significant risk factor for infection and increased resource utilization in critically injured patients. We therefore sought to investigate the incidence of blood transfusion and its association with infection and resource utilization in combat casualties. Prospective data were collected and retrospectively reviewed on 210 critically injured patients admitted to the USNS Comfort over a 7-week period during the 2003 assault phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Patients were stratified by age, gender, and injury severity score (ISS). Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess blood transfusion and hematocrit (HCT) as independent risk factors for infection and intensive care unit (ICU) admission controlling for age, gender, and ISS. The study cohort had a mean age of 30 +/- 2 years, a mean ISS of 14 +/- 3, 84 per cent were male, and 88 per cent sustained penetrating trauma. Blood transfusion was required in 44 per cent (n = 93) of the study cohort. Transfused patients had a higher ISS (18 +/- 4 vs. 10 +/- 3, P transfused. Patients receiving blood transfusion had an increased infection rate (69% vs. 18%, P transfused and nontransfused patients. Multivariate binomial regression analysis identified blood transfusion and HCT as independent risk factors for infection (P blood transfusion as an independent risk factor for ICU admission (P blood transfusion. Blood transfusion is an independent risk factor for infection and increased resource utilization. Therefore, consideration should be given to the use of alternative blood substitutes and recombinant human erythropoietin in the treatment and management of combat casualties.

  6. Peridural anesthesia and the distribution of blood in supine humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, J.O.; Hoeck, A.S.; Stanton-Hicks, M.; Stuehmeier, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    To determine the effects of vasomotor tone on intrathoracic and splanchnic blood volume, the distribution of radioactively (/sup 99m/Tc) labeled erythrocytes was recorded by whole body scintigraphy before and during peridural anesthesia (PDA) in eight supine men. The radioactivity was recorded with a gamma camera and its distribution determined in the thorax, abdomen, and limbs. Arterial and central venous pressure, heart rate, and calf volume and flow also were measured. During PDA with a sensory block up to T4/5, radioactivity increased only in the denervated legs, whereas it decreased in all other regions, i.e., in the thorax, the innervated upper limbs, and in the splanchnic vasculature. However, in two of the subjects, after an initial decrease, splanchnic blood content increased while intrathoracic blood volume decreased further. The effects of PDA on thoracic and splanchnic filling could be duplicated by the sequestration of about 500-600 ml of blood in both legs. In supine humans high peridural anesthesia evokes the same decrease in intrathoracic blood volume as orthostasis. Potential circulatory collapse may ensue when the vasoconstrictor response fails in the splanchnic circulation

  7. Splanchnic blood flow and hepatic glucose production in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron, R; Kjaer, M; Simonsen, L

    2001-01-01

    The study examined the implication of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in regulation of splanchnic blood flow and glucose production in exercising humans. Subjects cycled for 40 min at 50% maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)) followed by 30 min at 70% VO(2 max) either with [angiotensin-converti......The study examined the implication of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in regulation of splanchnic blood flow and glucose production in exercising humans. Subjects cycled for 40 min at 50% maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)) followed by 30 min at 70% VO(2 max) either with [angiotensin......-converting enzyme (ACE) blockade] or without (control) administration of the ACE inhibitor enalapril (10 mg iv). Splanchnic blood flow was estimated by indocyanine green, and splanchnic substrate exchange was determined by the arteriohepatic venous difference. Exercise led to an approximately 20-fold increase (P ...-blockade group vs. the control group, hormones, metabolites, VO(2), and RER followed the same pattern of changes in ACE-blockade and control groups during exercise. Splanchnic blood flow (at rest: 1.67 +/- 0.12, ACE blockade; 1.59 +/- 0.18 l/min, control) decreased during moderate exercise (0.78 +/- 0.07, ACE...

  8. Increased Blood-Reelin-Levels in First Episode Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hornig

    Full Text Available Reelin is an extracellular glycoprotein involved in several functions of brain development, synaptogenesis and dendritic proliferation. Numerous studies found perturbation in the reelin system and altered serum reelin levels in neuropsychiatric patients using the western blot procedure. In the international literature, this is the first study that made use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to analyze serum reelin protein concentration quantitatively.In order to study possible alterations in reelin blood levels in schizophrenia, we analyzed this signal in schizophrenic patients with a first episode hallucinatory and paranoid syndrome and control subjects in a pilot study design.We found increased blood reelin protein concentration in schizophrenic patients compared to healthy controls.Our findings point to a relevant role of reelin metabolism in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.Reelin could be a biomarker for the course of disease or psychopharmacological treatment.We conclude that the reelin protein blood concentration might be a relevant signal with respect to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  9. Effects of Contrast Media on Blood Rheology: Comparison in Humans, Pigs, and Sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Alexandre; Durussel, Jean Jacques; Dufaux, Jacques; Penhouet, Laurence; Bailly, Anne Laure; Bonneau, Michel; Merland, Jean Jacques

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To compare whole blood viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation in humans, pigs, and sheep, before and after adding water-soluble iodinated contrast medium (CM). Methods: Two CMs were studied: iopromide (nonionic) and ioxaglate (ionic). The blood-CM viscosity was measured with a Couette viscometer. Erythrocyte aggregation was measured with an erythroaggregometer. Results: The blood-CM viscosity was increased up to +20% (relative to pure blood) with a CM concentration of 0%-10%. At CM concentrations from 10% to 50%, the viscosity decreased. The disaggregation shear stress was increased (relative to pure blood) at low CM concentration (0%-10%). When the CM concentration increased from 10% to 20%, the disaggregation shear stress was decreased, except with the pig blood-ioxaglate mixture. Conclusion: At low CM concentration the blood viscosity was increased in pig, sheep, and humans and the disaggregation shear stress was increased in pig and humans. The aggregation of sheep blood was too low to be detected by the erythroaggregometer. This rise can be explained by the formation of poorly deformable echinocytes. At higher CM concentration, the viscosity and the disaggregation shear stress decreased in relation to the blood dilution. We conclude that pig blood and sheep blood can both be used to study the effect of CM injection on blood viscosity. Nevertheless, the rheologic behavior of pig blood in terms of erythrocyte aggregation is closer to that of human blood than is sheep blood when mixed with CM. Pigs could thus be more suitable than sheep for in vivo studies of CM miscibility with blood during selective cannulation procedures

  10. Increased FXYD1 and PGC-1α mRNA after blood flow-restricted running is related to fibre type-specific AMPK signalling and oxidative stress in human muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Danny; Murphy, Robyn M; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-01-01

    AIM: This study explored the effects of blood flow restriction (BFR) on mRNA responses of PGC-1α (total, 1α1, and 1α4) and Na+ ,K+ -ATPase isoforms (NKA; α1-3 , β1-3 , and FXYD1) to an interval running session, and determined if these effects were related to increased oxidative stress, hypoxia......). A muscle sample was collected before (Pre) and after exercise (+0h, +3h) to quantify mRNA, indicators of oxidative stress (HSP27 protein in type I and II fibres, and catalase and HSP70 mRNA), metabolites, and α-AMPK Thr172 /α-AMPK, ACC Ser221 /ACC, CaMKII Thr287 /CaMKII, and PLBSer16 /PLB ratios in type I...... of oxidative stress and type-I fibre ACC Ser221 /ACC ratio, but dissociated from muscle hypoxia, lactate, and CaMKII signalling. CONCLUSION: Blood flow restriction augmented exercise-induced increases in muscle FXYD1 and PGC-1α mRNA in men. This effect was related to increased oxidative stress and fibre type...

  11. Human blood serum analysis using TRXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkadas, C.; Karydas, A.G.; Paradellis, T.

    2000-01-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence was applied in the analysis of a pool human blood serum sample, which was collected out of 100 healthy individuals during an ordinary day at a hospital in Athens. Direct measurements of 4 1 quantities were performed in a standard TRXRF module, but with the addition of a Mo filter after the cut-off reflector. In this way the exciting beam was further monochromatized leading to an improved peak to background ratio. The elements S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb were detected, with detection limits in the low ppb region for the elements of interest. The determined trace elements concentrations were found to be in very good agreement with values already reported in literature. For intercomparison a quantity of the same sample was freeze dried and measured in a secondary target assembly, in the form of pellets, giving almost identical results. The trace elements concentrations obtained can be considered as representative values for healthy population of Athens and therefore can be used as a monitor in order to associate the lack or excess of certain trace elements with pathological cases. (author)

  12. Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?

    OpenAIRE

    Seo-Young Cho; Axel Dreher; Eric Neumayer

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows. According to economic theory, there are two opposing effects of unknown magnitude. The scale effect of legalized prostitution leads to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking, while the substitution effect reduces demand for trafficked women as legal prostitutes are favored over trafficked ones. Our empirical analysis for a cross-section of up to 150 countries shows that th...

  13. Increase of body surface temperature and blood flow by theanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Takeo; Noguchi, Kenichi; Ando, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Suntheanine (Taiyo Kagaku Co.: Theanine) is the trade name for L-theanine which is a unique amino acid found almost solely in tea plants, responsible for the exotictaste of green tea. We investigated the effects of relate to relaxation, improves the taste of processed foods, radiation sensitization, and increase of body surface temperature in vivo study. The results of the present study confirmed, (1) Suntheanine is incorporated into the brain and induces the emission of α -waves an induced of relaxation. (2) Body surface temperature and blood flow on skin were increased after administration of Suntheanine. (3) There was effects of radiation sensitization in whole body irradiation of X-rays after Suntheanine IP injection on C3H mice. (4) Acute toxicity, subacute toxicity and mutagen testconfirm the safety Suntheanine in this study

  14. Isoforms of purified methyltransferase from human blood platelets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... purification from normal human blood platelets have not been investigated, hence, the aim of this study was to purify, characterise the enzyme from human blood platelets and determine its possible role in phospholipid transmethylation. The plasma membranes were purified by velocity and sucrose gradient centrifugation ...

  15. Prevalence of malaria and human blood factors among patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria has been and is still a major protozoan disease affecting the human population. Erythrocyte polymorphisms (mainly in blood groups and genotypes) influence the susceptibility to severe malaria. Aim: This study is aimed at assessing the prevalence malaria in relation to human blood factor and to ...

  16. Association of blood transfusion with increased mortality in myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatterjee, Saurav; Wetterslev, Jørn; Sharma, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    The benefit of blood transfusion in patients with myocardial infarction is controversial, and a possibility of harm exists.......The benefit of blood transfusion in patients with myocardial infarction is controversial, and a possibility of harm exists....

  17. YaAn earthquake increases blood pressure among hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanwei; Luo, Xiaoli; Zhang, Wen; Zhou, Liang; Wang, Hongyong; Zeng, Chunyu

    YaAn, a city in Sichuan province, China, was struck by a major earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale on April 20, 2013. This study sought to investigate the impact of YaAn earthquake on the blood pressure (BP) among hospitalized patients in the department of cardiology. We enrolled 52 hospitalized patients who were admitted to our hospital at least three days before the day of earthquake in 2013 (disaster group) as compared with 52 patients during April 20, 2014 (nondisaster group). BP was measured three times per day and the prescription of antihypertensive medicine was recorded. The earthquake induced a 3.3 mm Hg significant increase in the mean postdisaster systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the disaster group as compared with the nondisaster group. SBP at admission was positively associated with the elevated SBP in the logistic regression model (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.016-1.168, p = 0.015), but not other potential influencing factors, including antihypertensive medicine, sex, age, and body weight, excluding β-blockers. Patients with β-blockers prescription at the time of earthquake showed a blunt response to earthquake-induced SBP elevation than those who were taking other antihypertensive drugs (OR = 0.128, 95% CI: 0.019-0.876, p = 0.036). The YaAn earthquake induced significant increase in SBP even at a distance from the epicenter among hospitalized patients. The findings demonstrate that pure psychological components seem to be a cause of the pressor response and β-blockers might be better in controlling disaster-induced hypertension.

  18. Numerical simulation of human blood flow in microvessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaullah; Chughtai, I.R.; Nadeem, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this research, steady state flow of human blood in vascular system has been studied. Computational fluid dynamics has been used to predict pressure drop in human arteriole, artery, capillary, venule and vein. Viscosity of human blood has been treated in different ways by employing Newtonian, Power law and Herschel-Bulkley models. It has been observed that the Herschel-Bulkley model predicts the pressure gradients in all diameters reasonably whereas Newtonian and Power laws have their limitations. (author)

  19. Analysis of cytotoxic effects of nickel on human blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mohammad Hadi; Hosseini Shirazi, Seyed Farshad; Aghvami, Marjan; Salimi, Ahmad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2018-02-01

    Nickel compounds possess many applications in different industrial processes. Human beings are exposed to nickel commonly through occupational exposure and food. Although a few studies so far have investigated the effects of nickel compounds on human lymphocytes, the complete mechanism of cytotoxicity of this metal on human lymphocytes is yet to be determined. The intention of this paper was to determine the cytotoxicity mechanism of water soluble NiCl 2 toward human lymphocytes using the accelerated cytotoxicity mechanisms screening (ACMS) technique. Human lymphocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy subjects based on Ficoll-Paque PLUS standard method. For the assessment of cell viability, lymphocytes were incubated with 0.05-1 mM NiCl 2 for 12 h. Determination of mechanistic parameters was performed 2, 4 and 6 h after treatment of cells with ½ EC50 12h , EC50 12h and 2EC50 12h of NiCl 2 . Our results demonstrate that cytotoxicity of NiCl 2 on human lymphocytes is associated with increased ROS formation, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, glutathione depletion, lysosomal membrane damage, cellular proteolysis and activation of caspase-3 before cytotoxicity ensued.

  20. Thalidomide increases human keratinocyte migration and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasca, M R; O'Toole, E A; Palicharla, P; West, D P; Woodley, D T

    1999-11-01

    Thalidomide is reported to have therapeutic utility in the treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum, Behçet's disease, aphthous ulcers, and skin wounds. We investigated the effect of thalidomide on human keratinocyte proliferation and migration, two early and critical events in the re-epithelialization of skin wounds. Thalidomide at concentrations less than 1 microM did not affect keratinocyte viability. Using a thymidine incorporation assay, we found that thalidomide, at therapeutic concentrations, induced more than a 2. 5-fold increase in the proliferative potential of the cells. Keratinocyte migration was assessed by two independent motility assays: a colloidal gold assay and an in vitro scratch assay. At optimal concentrations, thalidomide increased keratinocyte migration on a collagen matrix more than 2-fold in the colloidal gold assay and more than 3-fold in the scratch assay over control. Although pro-migratory, thalidomide did not alter the level of metalloproteinase-9 secreted into culture medium. Thalidomide did, however, induce a 2-4-fold increase in keratinocyte-derived interleukin-8, a pro-migratory cellular autocrine factor. Human keratinocyte migration and proliferation are essential for re-epithelialization of skin wounds. Interleukin-8 increases human keratinocyte migration and proliferation and is chemotactic for keratinocytes. Therefore, thalidomide may modulate keratinocyte proliferation and motility by a chemokine-dependent pathway.

  1. Measurement of regional pulmonary blood volume in patients with increased pulmonary blood flow or pulmonary arterial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollmer, P.; Rozcovek, A.; Rhodes, C.G.; Allan, R.M.; Maseri, A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow and chronic pulmonary hypertension on regional pulmonary blood volume was measured in two groups of patients. One group of patients had intracardiac, left-to-right shunts without appreciable pulmonary hypertension, and the other consisted of patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome or primary pulmonary hypertension, i.e. patients with normal or reduced blood flow and severe pulmonary hypertension. A technique based on positron tomography was used to measure lung density (by transmission scanning) and regional pulmonary blood volume (after inhalation of /sup 11/CO). The distribution of pulmonary blood volume was more uniform in patients with chronic increase in pulmonary blood flow than in normal subjects. There were also indications of an absolute increase in intrapulmonary blood volume by about 15%. In patients with chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension, the distribution of pulmonary blood volume was also abnormally uniform. There was, however, no indication that overall intrapulmonary blood volume was substantially different from normal subjects. The abnormally uniform distribution of pulmonary blood volume can be explained by recruitment and/or dilatation of vascular beds. Intrapulmonary blood volume appears to be increased in patients with intracardiac, left-to-right shunts. With the development of pulmonary hypertension, intrapulmonary blood volume falls, which may be explained by reactive changes in the vasculature and/or obliteration of capillaries

  2. [Production of human proteins in the blood of transgenic animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massoud, M.; Bischoff, Rainer; Dalemans, W.; Pointu, H.; Attal, J.; Schultz, H.; Clesse, D.; Stinnakre, M.G.; Pavirani, A.; Houdebine, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    The human alpha 1-antitrypsin gene has been microinjected into rabbit embryos. A line of transgenic rabbits has thus been established. Human alpha 1-antitrypsin was found in the blood of transgenic animals at the concentration of 1 mg/ml plasma. The human protein was active and separable from its

  3. Quality Improvement Methodologies Increase Autologous Blood Product Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Ashley B.; Preston, Thomas J.; Fitch, Jill A.; Harrison, Sheilah K.; Hersey, Diane K.; Nicol, Kathleen K.; Naguib, Aymen N.; McConnell, Patrick I.; Galantowicz, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Whole blood from the heart–lung (bypass) machine may be processed through a cell salvaging device (i.e., cell saver [CS]) and subsequently administered to the patient during cardiac surgery. It was determined at our institution that CS volume was being discarded. A multidisciplinary team consisting of anesthesiologists, perfusionists, intensive care physicians, quality improvement (QI) professionals, and bedside nurses met to determine the challenges surrounding autologous blood delivery in its entirety. A review of cardiac surgery patients’ charts (n = 21) was conducted for analysis of CS waste. After identification of practices that were leading to CS waste, interventions were designed and implemented. Fishbone diagram, key driver diagram, Plan–Do–Study–Act (PDSA) cycles, and data collection forms were used throughout this QI process to track and guide progress regarding CS waste. Of patients under 6 kg (n = 5), 80% had wasted CS blood before interventions, whereas those patients larger than 36 kg (n = 8) had 25% wasted CS before interventions. Seventy-five percent of patients under 6 kg who had wasted CS blood received packed red blood cell transfusions in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit within 24 hours of their operation. After data collection and didactic education sessions (PDSA Cycle I), CS blood volume waste was reduced to 5% in all patients. Identification and analysis of the root cause followed by implementation of education, training, and management of change (PDSA Cycle II) resulted in successful use of 100% of all CS blood volume. PMID:24783313

  4. Similarity increases altruistic punishment in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussweiler, Thomas; Ockenfels, Axel

    2013-11-26

    Humans are attracted to similar others. As a consequence, social networks are homogeneous in sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and other characteristics--a principle called homophily. Despite abundant evidence showing the importance of interpersonal similarity and homophily for human relationships, their behavioral correlates and cognitive foundations are poorly understood. Here, we show that perceived similarity substantially increases altruistic punishment, a key mechanism underlying human cooperation. We induced (dis)similarity perception by manipulating basic cognitive mechanisms in an economic cooperation game that included a punishment phase. We found that similarity-focused participants were more willing to punish others' uncooperative behavior. This influence of similarity is not explained by group identity, which has the opposite effect on altruistic punishment. Our findings demonstrate that pure similarity promotes reciprocity in ways known to encourage cooperation. At the same time, the increased willingness to punish norm violations among similarity-focused participants provides a rationale for why similar people are more likely to build stable social relationships. Finally, our findings show that altruistic punishment is differentially involved in encouraging cooperation under pure similarity vs. in-group conditions.

  5. Salt, Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Changes in Human and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salt, Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Changes in Human and Experimental Studies – A Review. ... Some of the pathophysiological changes include cardiac hypertrophy and enhanced cardiac contractility, enhanced contraction of blood vessels and veins in response to constrictor agonists and diminished relaxation of ...

  6. Human growth hormone alters carbohydrate storage in blood and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-06-02

    Jun 2, 2015 ... is the key hormone to maintain the glucose ... homeostasis is tissue-specific.[3] ... Key words: Human growth hormone, blood glucose, hepatic glycogen, hypoglycaemia, ..... diabetic and glycogenolytic effect, which help.

  7. Degradation of blood in the human digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moerup, S.; Johansen, C.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of human faeces from patients suffering from intestinal bleeding have been studied by use of Moessbauer spectroscopy. It is shown that it is possible to follow the degradation of blood in the digestive tract. (Auth.)

  8. Exposure to Hedione Increases Reciprocity in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Berger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation among unrelated humans is frequently regarded as a defining feature in the evolutionary success of our species. Whereas, much research has addressed the strategic and cognitive mechanisms that underlie cooperation, investigations into chemosensory processes have received very limited research attention. To bridge that gap, we build on recent research that has identified the chemically synthesized odorant Hedione (HED as a ligand for the putative human pheromone receptor (VN1R1 expressed in the olfactory mucosa, and hypothesize that exposure to HED may increase reciprocity. Applying behavioral economics paradigms, the present research shows that exposure to the ligand causes differentiated behavioral effects in reciprocal punishments (Study 1 as well as rewards (Study 2, two types of behaviors that are frequently regarded as essential for the development and maintenance of cooperation.

  9. Exposure to Hedione Increases Reciprocity in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sebastian; Hatt, Hanns; Ockenfels, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Cooperation among unrelated humans is frequently regarded as a defining feature in the evolutionary success of our species. Whereas, much research has addressed the strategic and cognitive mechanisms that underlie cooperation, investigations into chemosensory processes have received very limited research attention. To bridge that gap, we build on recent research that has identified the chemically synthesized odorant Hedione (HED) as a ligand for the putative human pheromone receptor (VN1R1) expressed in the olfactory mucosa, and hypothesize that exposure to HED may increase reciprocity. Applying behavioral economics paradigms, the present research shows that exposure to the ligand causes differentiated behavioral effects in reciprocal punishments (Study 1) as well as rewards (Study 2), two types of behaviors that are frequently regarded as essential for the development and maintenance of cooperation. PMID:28512400

  10. Bystander apoptosis in human cells mediated by irradiated blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinnikov, Volodymyr, E-mail: vlad.vinnikov@mail.ru [Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology of the National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine (Ukraine); Lloyd, David; Finnon, Paul [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards of the Health Protection Agency of the United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-01

    Following exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation, due to an accident or during radiotherapy, bystander signalling poses a potential hazard to unirradiated cells and tissues. This process can be mediated by factors circulating in blood plasma. Thus, we assessed the ability of plasma taken from in vitro irradiated human blood to produce a direct cytotoxic effect, by inducing apoptosis in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM), which mainly comprised G{sub 0}-stage lymphocytes. Plasma was collected from healthy donors' blood irradiated in vitro to 0-40 Gy acute {gamma}-rays. Reporter PBM were separated from unirradiated blood with Histopaque and held in medium with the test plasma for 24 h at 37 Degree-Sign C. Additionally, plasma from in vitro irradiated and unirradiated blood was tested against PBM collected from blood given 4 Gy. Apoptosis in reporter PBM was measured by the Annexin V test using flow cytometry. Plasma collected from unirradiated and irradiated blood did not produce any apoptotic response above the control level in unirradiated reporter PBM. Surprisingly, plasma from irradiated blood caused a dose-dependent reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter PBM. The yields of radiation-induced cell death in irradiated reporter PBM (after subtracting the respective values in unirradiated reporter PBM) were 22.2 {+-} 1.8% in plasma-free cultures, 21.6 {+-} 1.1% in cultures treated with plasma from unirradiated blood, 20.2 {+-} 1.4% in cultures with plasma from blood given 2-4 Gy and 16.7 {+-} 3.2% in cultures with plasma from blood given 6-10 Gy. These results suggested that irradiated blood plasma did not cause a radiation-induced bystander cell-killing effect. Instead, a reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter cells cultured with irradiated blood plasma has implications concerning oncogenic risk from mutated cells surviving after high dose in vivo irradiation (e.g. radiotherapy) and requires further study.

  11. Bystander apoptosis in human cells mediated by irradiated blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnikov, Volodymyr; Lloyd, David; Finnon, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Following exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation, due to an accident or during radiotherapy, bystander signalling poses a potential hazard to unirradiated cells and tissues. This process can be mediated by factors circulating in blood plasma. Thus, we assessed the ability of plasma taken from in vitro irradiated human blood to produce a direct cytotoxic effect, by inducing apoptosis in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM), which mainly comprised G 0 -stage lymphocytes. Plasma was collected from healthy donors’ blood irradiated in vitro to 0–40 Gy acute γ-rays. Reporter PBM were separated from unirradiated blood with Histopaque and held in medium with the test plasma for 24 h at 37 °C. Additionally, plasma from in vitro irradiated and unirradiated blood was tested against PBM collected from blood given 4 Gy. Apoptosis in reporter PBM was measured by the Annexin V test using flow cytometry. Plasma collected from unirradiated and irradiated blood did not produce any apoptotic response above the control level in unirradiated reporter PBM. Surprisingly, plasma from irradiated blood caused a dose-dependent reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter PBM. The yields of radiation-induced cell death in irradiated reporter PBM (after subtracting the respective values in unirradiated reporter PBM) were 22.2 ± 1.8% in plasma-free cultures, 21.6 ± 1.1% in cultures treated with plasma from unirradiated blood, 20.2 ± 1.4% in cultures with plasma from blood given 2–4 Gy and 16.7 ± 3.2% in cultures with plasma from blood given 6–10 Gy. These results suggested that irradiated blood plasma did not cause a radiation-induced bystander cell-killing effect. Instead, a reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter cells cultured with irradiated blood plasma has implications concerning oncogenic risk from mutated cells surviving after high dose in vivo irradiation (e.g. radiotherapy) and requires further study.

  12. Increased nocturnal blood pressure in enuretic children with polyuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Anne; Mahler, Birgitte; Rittig, Soren; Djurhuus, Jens Christian

    2009-10-01

    We investigated the association between nocturnal blood pressure and urine production in children with enuresis. A total of 39 consecutive children with a mean age of 9.8 years (range 6.2 to 14.9) with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis completed a bladder diary, including 2 weeks of basic documentation and 2 with desmopressin titration from 120 to 240 microg sublingually. Arterial blood pressure was measured every 30 minutes during 24 hours and during 4 additional nights using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. Furthermore, 10 healthy children were recruited into the study who completed a bladder diary for 5 days while measuring arterial blood pressures with documentation of all intake and voided volumes. Patients with nocturnal polyuria had significantly higher nocturnal mean arterial pressure than patients without polyuria and controls (p polyuria than in children without polyuria. There was a significant positive correlation between average nocturnal mean arterial pressure and nocturnal urine volume in the whole study. The association between nocturnal blood pressure and urine volume, and the role of blood pressure should be investigated in a larger group of children with enuresis who have nocturnal polyuria.

  13. Nocturnal variations in peripheral blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Christensen, H

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage uni.......0001). The synchronism of the nocturnal subcutaneous hyperemia and the decrease in systemic mean arterial blood pressure point to a common, possibly central nervous or humoral, eliciting mechanism.......Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit...

  14. Amyloid β levels in human red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Kiko

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ is hypothesized to play a key role by oxidatively impairing the capacity of red blood cells (RBCs to deliver oxygen to the brain. These processes are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Although plasma Aβ has been investigated thoroughly, the presence and distribution of Aβ in human RBCs are still unclear. In this study, we quantitated Aβ40 and Aβ42 in human RBCs with ELISA assays, and provided evidence that significant amounts of Aβ could be detected in RBCs and that the RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. The RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. On the other hand, providing an antioxidant supplement (astaxanthin, a polar carotenoid to humans was found to decrease RBC Aβ as well as oxidative stress marker levels. These results suggest that plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 bind to RBCs (possibly with aging, implying a pathogenic role of RBC Aβ. Moreover, the data indicate that RBC Aβ40 and Aβ42 may constitute biomarkers of AD. As a preventive strategy, therapeutic application of astaxanthin as an Aβ-lowering agent in RBCs could be considered as a possible anti-dementia agent. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN42483402.

  15. Honey Bee Venom (Apis mellifera) Contains Anticoagulation Factors and Increases the Blood-clotting Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfagharian, Hossein; Mohajeri, Mohammad; Babaie, Mahdi

    2015-12-01

    Bee venom (BV) is a complex mixture of proteins and contains proteins such as phospholipase and melittin, which have an effect on blood clotting and blood clots. The mechanism of action of honey bee venom (HBV, Apis mellifera) on human plasma proteins and its anti-thrombotic effect were studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-coagulation effect of BV and its effects on blood coagulation and purification. Crude venom obtained from Apis mellifera was selected. The anti-coagulation factor of the crude venom from this species was purified by using gel filtration chromatography (sephadex G-50), and the molecular weights of the anti-coagulants in this venom estimated by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Blood samples were obtained from 10 rabbits, and the prothrombin time (PT) and the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) tests were conducted. The approximate lethal dose (LD) values of BV were determined. Crude BV increased the blood clotting time. For BV concentrations from 1 to 4 mg/mL, clotting was not observed even at more than 300 seconds, standard deviations (SDs) = ± 0.71; however, clotting was observed in the control group 13.8 s, SDs = ± 0.52. Thus, BV can be considered as containing anti-coagulation factors. Crude BV is composed 4 protein bands with molecular weights of 3, 15, 20 and 41 kilodalton (kDa), respectively. The LD50 of the crude BV was found to be 177.8 μg/mouse. BV contains anti-coagulation factors. The fraction extracted from the Iranian bees contains proteins that are similar to anti-coagulation proteins, such as phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and melittin, and that can increase the blood clotting times in vitro.

  16. Honey Bee Venom (Apis mellifera Contains Anticoagulation Factors and Increases the Blood-clotting Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zolfagharian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bee venom (BV is a complex mixture of proteins and contains proteins such as phospholipase and melittin, which have an effect on blood clotting and blood clots. The mechanism of action of honey bee venom (HBV, Apis mellifera on human plasma proteins and its anti-thrombotic effect were studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-coagulation effect of BV and its effects on blood coagulation and purification. Methods: Crude venom obtained from Apis mellifera was selected. The anti-coagulation factor of the crude venom from this species was purified by using gel filtration chromatography (sephadex G-50, and the molecular weights of the anti-coagulants in this venom estimated by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Blood samples were obtained from 10 rabbits, and the prothrombin time (PT and the partial thromboplastin time (PTT tests were conducted. The approximate lethal dose (LD values of BV were determined. Results: Crude BV increased the blood clotting time. For BV concentrations from 1 to 4 mg/mL, clotting was not observed even at more than 300 seconds, standard deviations (SDs = ± 0.71; however, clotting was observed in the control group 13.8 s, SDs = ± 0.52. Thus, BV can be considered as containing anti-coagulation factors. Crude BV is composed 4 protein bands with molecular weights of 3, 15, 20 and 41 kilodalton (kDa, respectively. The LD50 of the crude BV was found to be 177.8 μg/mouse. Conclusion: BV contains anti-coagulation factors. The fraction extracted from the Iranian bees contains proteins that are similar to anti-coagulation proteins, such as phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and melittin, and that can increase the blood clotting times in vitro.

  17. A simple method for human peripheral blood monocyte Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos C de Almeida

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a simple method using percoll gradient for isolation of highly enriched human monocytes. High numbers of fully functional cells are obtained from whole blood or buffy coat cells. The use of simple laboratory equipment and a relatively cheap reagent makes the described method a convenient approach to obtaining human monocytes.

  18. effects of septrin administration on blood cells parameters in humans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    honey

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... RESEARCH PAPER. EFFECTS OF SEPTRIN ADMINISTRATION ON BLOOD CELLS PARAMETERS IN. HUMANS. *1Onyebuagu P.C., 2Kiridi K. and 1Pughikumo D.T.. 1Department of Human Physiology, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa, Nigeria. 2Department of Radiology, Niger. Delta University, Bayelsa ...

  19. Application of dried blood spot cards to determine olive oil phenols (hydroxytyrosol metabolites) in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Las Hazas, María Carmen López; Motilva, Maria José; Piñol, Carme; Macià, Alba

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a fast and simple blood sampling and sample pre-treatment method based on the use of the dried blood spot (DBS) cards and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for the quantification of olive oil phenolic metabolites in human blood was developed and validated. After validation, the method was applied to determine hydroxytyrosol metabolites in human blood samples after the acute intake of an olive oil phenolic extract. Using the FTA DMPK-A DBS card under optimum conditions, with 20µL as the blood solution volume, 100µL of methanol/Milli-Q water (50/50, v/v) as the extraction solvent and 7 disks punched out from the card, the main hydroxytyrosol metabolites (hydroxytyrosol-3-O-sulphate and hydroxytyrosol acetate sulphate) were identified and quantified. The developed methodology allowed detecting and quantifying the generated metabolites at low μM levels. The proposed method is a significant improvement over existing methods to determine phenolic metabolites circulating in blood and plasma samples, thus making blood sampling possible with the volunteer pricking their own finger, and the subsequent storage of the blood in the DBS cards prior to chromatographic analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Low level dose induced chromosome aberrations in human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl-Rueling, J.

    1992-01-01

    Unstable structural aberrations in chromosomes of human blood lymphocytes cannot be used as biological dosemeters in the low dose range, when extrapolating from high doses using a linear dose response, as required by the original formula of the dual radiation action theory. A survey is given of experimental dose-response curves of chromosome aberrations, obtained in investigations not only by this institute, in cooperation with many other laboratories, but also by various authors in different areas of the world. The results are not compatible with the predicted linear dose relationships at in vivo dose ranges up to 30 mGy.y -1 . The aberration frequencies rise sharply with dose within the normal environmental exposure up to about twice that level. At higher doses, aberration frequencies increase less rapidly and reach a plateau. Some in vitro experiments of various authors with higher doses of low LET radiations, up to about 400 mGy have found dose responses with steps. (author)

  1. NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation time of human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Rosenthal, J.S.; Winston, A.; Stern, A.

    1988-01-01

    NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation times were studied as probes of water structure in human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions. Normal saline had a relaxation time of about 3000 ms while packed red blood cells had a relaxation time of about 500 ms. The relaxation time of a red blood cell suspension at 50% hematocrit was about 750 ms showing that surface charges and polar groups of the red cell membrane effectively structure extracellular water. Incubation of red cells in hypotonic saline increases relaxation time whereas hypertonic saline decreases relaxation time. Relaxation times varied independently of mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in a sample population. Studies with lysates and resealed membrane ghosts show that hemoglobin is very effective in lowering water-proton relaxation time whereas resealed membrane ghosts in the absence of hemoglobin are less effective than intact red cells. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 table

  2. Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K

    1996-01-01

    .0 (range 176.0-910.0) nmol/l in whole blood and 475.0 (range 360.0-1560.0) nmol/l in plasma-reduced whole blood, while it was undetectable in SAGM blood. Spontaneous histamine release increased in a time-dependent manner from a median of 6.7 (range 2.2-17.4) nmol/l at the time of storage to 175.0 (range 33...

  3. Hyperthyroidism increases brown fat metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahesmaa, Minna; Orava, Janne; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Soinio, Minna; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Noponen, Tommi; Kirjavainen, Anna; Iida, Hidehiro; Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Enerbäck, Sven; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are important regulators of brown adipose tissue (BAT) development and function. In rodents, BAT metabolism is up-regulated by thyroid hormones. The purpose of this article was to investigate the impact of hyperthyroidism on BAT metabolism in humans. This was a follow-up study using positron emission tomography imaging. Glucose uptake (GU) and perfusion of BAT, white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and thyroid gland were measured using [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and [15O]H2O and positron emission tomography in 10 patients with overt hyperthyroidism and in 8 healthy participants. Five of the hyperthyroid patients were restudied after restoration of euthyroidism. Supraclavicular BAT was quantified with magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography and energy expenditure (EE) with indirect calorimetry. Compared with healthy participants, hyperthyroid participants had 3-fold higher BAT GU (2.7±2.3 vs 0.9±0.1 μmol/100 g/min, P=.0013), 90% higher skeletal muscle GU (Phyperthyroidism, serum free T4 and free T3 were strongly associated with EE and lipid oxidation rates (Pmetabolism (PHyperthyroidism had no effect on BAT perfusion, whereas it stimulated skeletal muscle perfusion (P=.04). Thyroid gland GU did not differ between hyperthyroid and euthyroid study subjects. Hyperthyroidism increases GU in BAT independently of BAT perfusion. Hyperthyroid patients are characterized by increased skeletal muscle metabolism and lipid oxidation rates.

  4. Measurements of vitamin B12 in human blood serum using resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiminis, G.; Schartner, E. P.; Brooks, J. L.; Hutchinson, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin and its derivatives) deficiency has been identified as a potential modifiable risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Chronic deficiency of vitamin B12 has been significantly associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline. An effective and efficient method for measuring vitamin B12 concentration in human blood would enable ongoing tracking and assessment of this potential modifiable risk factor. In this work we present an optical sensor based on resonance Raman spectroscopy for rapid measurements of vitamin B12 in human blood serum. The measurement takes less than a minute and requires minimum preparation (centrifuging) of the collected blood samples.

  5. Increased susceptibility of blood type O individuals to develop anemia in Plasmodium vivax infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Sarah Stela; Milagres, Vanessa Gonçalves; Chaves, Daniel Gonçalves; Fontes, Cor Jesus Fernandes; Carvalho, Luzia Helena; Sousa, Tais Nobrega; Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de

    2017-06-01

    Plasmodium vivax has been reported to cause severe malaria, and one of the main resulting complications is anemia. Considering that P. vivax infects only young erythrocytes, anemia has been associated with the destruction of infected and non-infected erythrocytes. However, few studies have focused on understanding the relationship between the pathogenesis of P. vivax malaria and human genetic polymorphisms. Although ABO groups seem to influence the outcome of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the association between P. vivax and ABO blood groups has been minimally investigated. Thus, we investigate the correlation between ABO blood groups and anemia induced by P. vivax infection. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms at the ABO gene were genotyped by PCR-RFLP and Real-Time PCR in P. vivax-infected subjects. The ABO blood types were associated with the hematological data of the patients. Our main finding was that type O infected-individuals showed lower levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit compared to type A-infected individuals. The correlation between ABO blood groups and hemoglobin levels remained significant when a multiple linear regression was applied with the possible confounding effects of clinical-epidemiologic variables taken into account. The finding that type O individuals have a higher frequency of anemia is a first step to understand the mechanisms involved in malaria anemia, which could be associated to increased destruction of type O erythrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. SPECT Myocardial Blood Flow Quantitation Concludes Equivocal Myocardial Perfusion SPECT Studies to Increase Diagnostic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung-Ching; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Ing-Jou; Ku, Chi-Tai; Chen, Yen-Kung; Hsu, Bailing

    2016-01-01

    Recently, myocardial blood flow quantitation with dynamic SPECT/CT has been reported to enhance the detection of coronary artery disease in human. This advance has created important clinical applications to coronary artery disease diagnosis and management for areas where myocardial perfusion PET tracers are not available. We present 2 clinical cases that undergone a combined test of 1-day rest/dipyridamole-stress dynamic SPECT and ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT scans using an integrated imaging protocol and demonstrate that flow parameters are capable to conclude equivocal myocardial perfusion SPECT studies, therefore increasing diagnostic benefits to add value in making clinical decisions.

  7. Shape Memory of Human Red Blood Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    The human red cell can be deformed by external forces but returns to the biconcave resting shape after removal of the forces. If after such shape excursions the rim is always formed by the same part of the membrane, the cell is said to have a memory of its biconcave shape. If the rim can form anywhere on the membrane, the cell would have no shape memory. The shape memory was probed by an experiment called go-and-stop. Locations on the membrane were marked by spontaneously adhering latex spher...

  8. Radioprotective effect of antioxidants on human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingsuo; Gu Xuandi; Zhu Genbo; Feng Jixing; Su Liaoyuan

    1991-09-01

    By using an improved fluorometric method with 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) as fluorometric agent, the antiradiation effects of four kinds of antioxidants on 60 Co γ-ray irradiation inducing final products of lipid peroxides (LPO), i.e. malodialdehyde (MDA) content changes in human blood lymphocytes, were investigated with LPO value as an indicator. The results of the experiment were as following: (1)The radioprotective effect of exogenous antioxidants added to human blood lymphocytes on radiation-induced LPO damage of cellular membrane were remarkable; (2)The radioprotective beneficial sequences of four kinds of antioxidants were arranged like this: SOD > VE >VC, Se 4+ ; (3)Radioprotective effects of antioxidants on radiation-induced damage varied especially with the property of antioxidants, drug concentration, and pretreatment and monitoring time, etc., as well as irradiated dosage and various kinds of incubated cells. In addition, the mechanism of these antioxidants as radioprotectants on human blood lymphocytes is discussed in connection with LPO damage and radioprotection

  9. Hypoxemia increases serum interleukin-6 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, T; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Poulsen, T D

    1997-01-01

    Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL) 1 beta, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined in ten healthy men at sea level and during four days of altitude hypoxia (4350m above sea level). The mean (SD) arterial blood...

  10. Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cells Increase Tumor Growth Rates and Modify Tumor Physiology: Relevance for Therapeutic Targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagan, Jonathan, E-mail: jdpagan@uams.edu; Przybyla, Beata; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Gupta, Kalpna [Vascular Biology Center and Division of Hematology-Oncology Transplantation, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, MN 72223 (United States); Griffin, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2013-02-18

    Endothelial cell precursors from human peripheral blood have been shown to home to areas of neovascularization and may assist tumor growth by increasing or fortifying blood vessel growth. In the present study, the influence of these cells on tumor growth and physiology was investigated and the role of these cells as a therapeutic target or in determining treatment sensitivity was tested. After isolation from human blood and expansion in vitro, actively growing cells with verified endothelial phenotype (Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cell, BOEC) were injected i.v. into tumor bearing mice for three consecutive days. The growth rate was significantly enhanced in relatively small RERF human lung tumors (i.e., less than 150 mm{sup 3}) grown in immunocompromised mice by an average of 1.5-fold while it had no effect when injections were given to animals bearing larger tumors. There were no signs of toxicity or unwanted systemic effects. We also observed evidence of increased perfusion, vessel number, response to 15 Gy radiation and oxygenation in RERF tumors of animals injected with BOECs compared to control tumors. In addition, FSaII murine fibrosarcoma tumors were found to grow faster upon injection of BOECs. When FSaII tumors were subjected to a partial thermal ablation treatment using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) there was consistently elevated detection of fluorescently labeled and i.v. injected endothelial precursors in the tumor when analyzed with optical imaging and/or histological preparations. Importantly, we also observed that BOECs treated with the novel anti-angiogenic peptide anginex in-vitro, show decreased proliferation and increased sensitivity to radiation. In vivo, the normal increase in FSaII tumor growth induced by injected BOECs was blunted by the addition of anginex treatment. It appears that endothelial precursors may significantly contribute to tumor vessel growth, tumor progression and/or repair of tumor damage and may improve the

  11. Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cells Increase Tumor Growth Rates and Modify Tumor Physiology: Relevance for Therapeutic Targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagan, Jonathan; Przybyla, Beata; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat; Gupta, Kalpna; Griffin, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cell precursors from human peripheral blood have been shown to home to areas of neovascularization and may assist tumor growth by increasing or fortifying blood vessel growth. In the present study, the influence of these cells on tumor growth and physiology was investigated and the role of these cells as a therapeutic target or in determining treatment sensitivity was tested. After isolation from human blood and expansion in vitro, actively growing cells with verified endothelial phenotype (Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cell, BOEC) were injected i.v. into tumor bearing mice for three consecutive days. The growth rate was significantly enhanced in relatively small RERF human lung tumors (i.e., less than 150 mm 3 ) grown in immunocompromised mice by an average of 1.5-fold while it had no effect when injections were given to animals bearing larger tumors. There were no signs of toxicity or unwanted systemic effects. We also observed evidence of increased perfusion, vessel number, response to 15 Gy radiation and oxygenation in RERF tumors of animals injected with BOECs compared to control tumors. In addition, FSaII murine fibrosarcoma tumors were found to grow faster upon injection of BOECs. When FSaII tumors were subjected to a partial thermal ablation treatment using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) there was consistently elevated detection of fluorescently labeled and i.v. injected endothelial precursors in the tumor when analyzed with optical imaging and/or histological preparations. Importantly, we also observed that BOECs treated with the novel anti-angiogenic peptide anginex in-vitro, show decreased proliferation and increased sensitivity to radiation. In vivo, the normal increase in FSaII tumor growth induced by injected BOECs was blunted by the addition of anginex treatment. It appears that endothelial precursors may significantly contribute to tumor vessel growth, tumor progression and/or repair of tumor damage and may improve the

  12. Restrictive blood transfusion protocol in liver resection patients reduces blood transfusions with no increase in patient morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehry, John; Cannon, Robert; Scoggins, Charles R; Puffer, Lisa; McMasters, Kelly M; Martin, Robert C G

    2015-02-01

    Management of anemia in surgical oncology patients remains one of the key quality components in overall care and cost. Continued reports demonstrate the effects of hospital transfusion, which has been demonstrated to lead to a longer length of stay, more complications, and possibly worse overall oncologic outcomes. The hypothesis for this study was that a dedicated restrictive transfusion protocol in patients undergoing hepatectomy would lead to less overall blood transfusion with no increase in overall morbidity. A cohort study was performed using our prospective database from January 2000 to June 2013. September 2011 served as the separation point for the date of operation criteria because this marked the implementation of more restrictive blood transfusion guidelines. A total of 186 patients undergoing liver resection were reviewed. The restrictive blood transfusion guidelines reduced the percentage of patients that received blood from 31.0% before January 9, 2011 to 23.3% after this date (P = .03). The liver procedure that was most consistently associated with higher levels of transfusion was a right lobectomy (16%). Prior surgery and endoscopic stent were the 2 preoperative interventions associated with receiving blood. Patients who received blood before and after the restrictive period had similar predictive factors: major hepatectomies, higher intraoperative blood loss, lower preoperative hemoglobin level, older age, prior systemic chemotherapy, and lower preoperative nutritional parameters (all P blood did not have worse overall progression-free survival or overall survival. A restrictive blood transfusion protocol reduces the incidence of blood transfusions and the number of packed red blood cells transfused. Patients who require blood have similar preoperative and intraoperative factors that cannot be mitigated in oncology patients. Restrictive use of blood transfusions can reduce cost and does adversely affect patients undergoing liver resection

  13. 1-D blood flow modelling in a running human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Viktor; Halász, Gábor

    2017-07-01

    In this paper an attempt was made to simulate blood flow in a mobile human arterial network, specifically, in a running human subject. In order to simulate the effect of motion, a previously published immobile 1-D model was modified by including an inertial force term into the momentum equation. To calculate inertial force, gait analysis was performed at different levels of speed. Our results show that motion has a significant effect on the amplitudes of the blood pressure and flow rate but the average values are not effected significantly.

  14. Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Alonso, José; Calbet, José Al; Boushel, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive mechanisms may contribute to blood flow regulation, but the influence of temperature on perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs is not established. Blood temperature (TB ), blood flow and oxygen uptake (VO2 ) in the legs and arms were measured in 16 healthy...... humans during 90 min of leg and arm exercise and during exhaustive incremental leg or arm exercise. During prolonged exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was 4-fold higher than arm blood flow (ABF) in association with higher TB and limb VO2 . Leg and arm vascular conductance during exercise compared to rest...... was related closely to TB (R(2) = 0.91; P exercise, LBF increased in association with elevations in TB and limb VO2 whereas ABF, arm TB and VO2 remained largely unchanged. During...

  15. Shape memory of human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thomas M

    2004-05-01

    The human red cell can be deformed by external forces but returns to the biconcave resting shape after removal of the forces. If after such shape excursions the rim is always formed by the same part of the membrane, the cell is said to have a memory of its biconcave shape. If the rim can form anywhere on the membrane, the cell would have no shape memory. The shape memory was probed by an experiment called go-and-stop. Locations on the membrane were marked by spontaneously adhering latex spheres. Shape excursions were induced by shear flow. In virtually all red cells, a shape memory was found. After stop of flow and during the return of the latex spheres to the original location, the red cell shape was biconcave. The return occurred by a tank-tread motion of the membrane. The memory could not be eliminated by deforming the red cells in shear flow up to 4 h at room temperature as well as at 37 degrees C. It is suggested that 1). the characteristic time of stress relaxation is >80 min and 2). red cells in vivo also have a shape memory.

  16. Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K

    1996-01-01

    storage. Whole blood (six units), plasma-reduced whole blood (six units), and plasma- and buffy coat-reduced (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol) (SAGM) blood (six units) from unpaid healthy donors were stored in the blood bank for 35 days at 4 degrees C. Plasma histamine and total cell-bound histamine......Perioperative transfusion of whole blood has been shown to amplify trauma-induced immunosuppression, which could be attenuated by perioperative administration of histamine2 receptor antagonists. Supernatants from different blood products were, therefore, analysed for histamine content during.......0 (range 176.0-910.0) nmol/l in whole blood and 475.0 (range 360.0-1560.0) nmol/l in plasma-reduced whole blood, while it was undetectable in SAGM blood. Spontaneous histamine release increased in a time-dependent manner from a median of 6.7 (range 2.2-17.4) nmol/l at the time of storage to 175.0 (range 33...

  17. Caffeine and human cerebral blood flow: A positron emission tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, O.G.; Modell, J.G.; Hariharan, M.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to quantify the effect of caffeine on whole brain and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) in humans. A mean dose of 250 mg of caffeine produced approximately a 30% decrease in whole brain CBF; regional differences in caffeine effect were not observed. Pre-caffeine CBF strongly influenced the magnitude of the caffeine-induced decrease. Caffeine decreased p a CO 2 and increased systolic blood pressure significantly; the change in p a CO 2 did not account for the change in CBF. Smaller increases in diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine, and subjectively reported anxiety were also observed

  18. Circulating Glucagon 1-61 Regulates Blood Glucose by Increasing Insulin Secretion and Hepatic Glucose Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J.; Kuhre, Rune E.; Hornburg, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    that PG 1-61 dose-dependently increases levels of cAMP, through the glucagon receptor, and increases insulin secretion and protein levels of enzymes regulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. In rats, PG 1-61 increases blood glucose and plasma insulin and decreases plasma levels of amino acids in......Glucagon is secreted from pancreatic α cells, and hypersecretion (hyperglucagonemia) contributes to diabetic hyperglycemia. Molecular heterogeneity in hyperglucagonemia is poorly investigated. By screening human plasma using high-resolution-proteomics, we identified several glucagon variants, among...... which proglucagon 1-61 (PG 1-61) appears to be the most abundant form. PG 1-61 is secreted in subjects with obesity, both before and after gastric bypass surgery, with protein and fat as the main drivers for secretion before surgery, but glucose after. Studies in hepatocytes and in β cells demonstrated...

  19. Dopexamine increases internal mammary artery blood flow following coronary artery bypass grafting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, Michael J

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Vasoactive agents and inotropes influence conduit-coronary blood flow following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). It was hypothesized that dopexamine hydrochloride, a dopamine A-1 (DA-1) and beta(2) agonist would increase conduit-coronary blood flow. A prospective randomized double blind clinical trial was carried out to test this hypothesis. DA-1 receptors have previously been localized to human left ventricle. METHODS: Twenty-six American Society of Anaesthesiology class 2-3 elective coronary artery bypass graft patients who did not require inotropic support on separation from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were studied. According to a randomized allocation patients received either dopexamine (1 microg\\/kg per min) or placebo (saline) by intravenous infusion for 15 min. Immediately prior to and at 5,10 and 15 min of infusion, blood flow through the internal mammary and vein grafts (Transit time flow probes, Transonic Ltd.), heart rate, cardiac index, mean arterial pressure and pulmonary haemodynamics were noted. The data were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance. RESULTS: Low-dose dopexamine (1 microg\\/kg per min) caused a significant increase in mammary graft blood flow compared to placebo at 15 min of infusion (P=0.028, dopexamine group left internal mammary artery (LIMA) flow of 43.3+\\/-14.2 ml\\/min, placebo group LIMA flow at 26.1+\\/-16.3 ml\\/min). Dopexamine recipients demonstrated a non-significant trend to increased saphenous vein graft flow (P=0.059). Increased heart rate was the only haemodynamic change induced by dopexamine (P=0.004, dopexamine group at 85.2+\\/-9.6 beats\\/min and placebo group at 71.1+\\/-7.6 beats\\/min after 15 min of infusion). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that administration of dopexamine (1 microg\\/kg per min) was associated with a significant increase in internal mammary artery graft blood flow with mild increase in heart rate being the only haemodynamic change. Low-dose dopexamine may

  20. Does recombinant human Epo increase exercise capacity by means other than augmenting oxygen transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Robach, P; Boushel, R

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to test the hypothesis that administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) in humans increases maximal oxygen consumption by augmenting the maximal oxygen carrying capacity of blood. Systemic and leg oxygen delivery and oxygen uptake were studied during...... before rHuEpo treatment). Blood buffer capacity remained unaffected by rHuEpo treatment and hemodilution. The augmented hematocrit did not compromise peak cardiac output. In summary, in healthy humans, rHuEpo increases maximal oxygen consumption due to augmented systemic and muscular peak oxygen delivery....

  1. Blood-group-Ii-active gangliosides of human erythrocyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizi, T.; Childs, R.A.; Hakomori, S.-I.; Powell, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    More than ten new types of gangliosides, in addition to haematoside and sialosylparagloboside, were isolated from human erythrocyte membranes. These were separated by successive chromatographies on DAEA-Sephadex, on porous silica-gel columns and on thin-layer silica gel as acetylated compounds. Highly potent blood-group-Ii and moderate blood-group-H activities were demonstrated in some of the ganglioside fractions. The gangliosides incorporated into chlolesterol/phosphatidylcholine liposomes stoicheiometrically inhibited binding of anti-(blood-group-I and i) antibodies to a radioiodinated blood-group-Ii-active glycoprotein. The fraction with the highest blood-group-I activity, I(g) fraction, behaved like sialosyl-deca- to dodeca-glycosylceramides on t.l.c. Certain blood-group-I and most of the i-determinants were in partially or completely cryptic form and could be unmasked by sialidase treatment. Thus the I and i antigens, which are known to occur on internal structures of blood-group-ABH-active glycoproteins in secretions, also occur in the interior of the carbohydrate chains of erythrocyte gangliosides. (author)

  2. Genotoxic damage in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Falaq Naz

    2012-06-29

    Jun 29, 2012 ... Genotoxic damage in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes of oral ... catechol estrogens and quinines, via redox reactions causes oxidative damage to .... volume was prepared for each donor. About, 0.8 ml of cell sus .... duce the adverse effects of OCs, such as the reduction in the estrogen content.

  3. Sympathetic regulation of cerebral blood flow in humans : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laan, M.; van Dijk, J. M. C.; Elting, J. W. J.; Staal, M. J.; Absalom, A. R.

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regulated by vasomotor, chemical, metabolic, and neurogenic mechanisms. Even though the innervation of cerebral arteries is quite extensively described and reviewed in the literature, its role in regulation of CBF in humans remains controversial. We believe that

  4. Detecting multiple DNA human profile from a mosquito blood meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabêlo, K C N; Albuquerque, C M R; Tavares, V B; Santos, S M; Souza, C A; Oliveira, T C; Moura, R R; Brandão, L A C; Crovella, S

    2016-08-26

    Criminal traces commonly found at crime scenes may present mixtures from two or more individuals. The scene of the crime is important for the collection of various types of traces in order to find the perpetrator of the crime. Thus, we propose that hematophagous mosquitoes found at crime scenes can be used to perform genetic testing of human blood and aid in suspect investigation. The aim of the study was to obtain a single Aedes aegypti mosquito profile from a human DNA mixture containing genetic materials of four individuals. We also determined the effect of blood acquisition time by setting time intervals of 24, 48, and 72 h after the blood meal. STR loci and amelogenin were analyzed, and the results showed that human DNA profiles could be obtained from hematophagous mosquitos at 24 h following the blood meal. It is possible that hematophagous mosquitoes can be used as biological remains at the scene of the crime, and can be used to detect human DNA profiles of up to four individuals.

  5. Renal cortical and medullary blood flow responses to altered NO-availability in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, Mads; Vafaee, Manoucher; Møller, Michael Lehd

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to quantify regional renal blood flow in humans. In nine young volunteers on a controlled diet, the lower abdomen was CT-scanned and regional renal blood flow determined by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning using H(2)(15)O as tracer. Measurements were performed...... of one voxel were eliminated stepwise from the external surface of the VOI ('voxel peeling'), and the blood flow subsequently determined in each new, reduced VOI. Blood flow in the shrinking volumes of interest (VOIs) decreased as the number of cycles of voxel peeling increased. After 4-5 cycles, blood...... flow was not reduced further by additional voxel peeling. This volume-insensitive flow was measured to be 2.30 ±0.17 ml·(g·min)(-1) during the control period; it increased during infusion of glyceryl nitrate to 2.97 ±0.18 ml·(g·min)(-1) (p...

  6. Optoacoustic measurements of human placenta and umbilical blood oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanovskaya, T. N.; Petrov, I. Y.; Petrov, Y.; Patrikeeva, S. L.; Ahmed, M. S.; Hankins, G. D. V.; Prough, D. S.; Esenaliev, R. O.

    2016-03-01

    Adequate oxygenation is essential for normal embryogenesis and fetal growth. Perturbations in the intrauterine oxidative environment during pregnancy are associated with several pathophysiological disorders such as pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. We proposed to use optoacoustic technology for monitoring placental and fetal umbilical blood oxygenation. In this work, we studied optoacoustic monitoring of oxygenation in placenta and umbilical cord blood ex vivo using technique of placenta perfusion. We used a medical grade, nearinfrared, tunable, optoacoustic system developed and built for oxygenation monitoring in blood vessels and in tissues. First, we calibrated the system for cord blood oxygenation measurements by using a CO-Oximeter (gold standard). Then we performed validation in cord blood circulating through the catheters localized on the fetal side of an isolated placental lobule. Finally, the oxygenation measurements were performed in the perfused placental tissue. To increase or decrease blood oxygenation, we used infusion of a gas mixture of 95% O2 + 5% CO2 and 95% N2 + 5% CO2, respectively. In placental tissue, up to four cycles of changes in oxygenation were performed. The optoacoustically measured oxygenation in circulating cord blood and in placental lobule closely correlated with the actual oxygenation data measured by CO-Oximeter. We plan to further test the placental and cord blood oxygenation monitoring with optoacoustics in animal and clinical studies.

  7. The DNA methylome of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yingrui; Zhu, Jingde; Tian, Geng

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in biological processes in human health and disease. Recent technological advances allow unbiased whole-genome DNA methylation (methylome) analysis to be carried out on human cells. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing at 24.7-fold coverage (12.3-fold per...... strand), we report a comprehensive (92.62%) methylome and analysis of the unique sequences in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the same Asian individual whose genome was deciphered in the YH project. PBMC constitute an important source for clinical blood tests world-wide. We found...... research and confirms new sequencing technology as a paradigm for large-scale epigenomics studies....

  8. Increase of cerebral blood flow at high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A

    1992-01-01

    but rather somewhat sharpened over five days at almost 4000 meters of altitude. This, along with other evidence, shows that CBF does not in itself adapt to chronic hypoxia. Nevertheless, a decrease in CBF is seen over days at constant altitude primarily due to increase in the hematocrit. The cerebral...

  9. Pleomorphic Structures in Human Blood Are Red Blood Cell-Derived Microparticles, Not Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Adam J; Gray, Warren D; Schroeder, Max; Yi, Hong; Taylor, Jeannette V; Dillard, Rebecca S; Ke, Zunlong; Wright, Elizabeth R; Stephens, David; Roback, John D; Searles, Charles D

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are a common, life-saving therapy for many patients, but they have also been associated with poor clinical outcomes. We identified unusual, pleomorphic structures in human RBC transfusion units by negative-stain electron microscopy that appeared identical to those previously reported to be bacteria in healthy human blood samples. The presence of viable, replicating bacteria in stored blood could explain poor outcomes in transfusion recipients and have major implications for transfusion medicine. Here, we investigated the possibility that these structures were bacteria. Flow cytometry, miRNA analysis, protein analysis, and additional electron microscopy studies strongly indicated that the pleomorphic structures in the supernatant of stored RBCs were RBC-derived microparticles (RMPs). Bacterial 16S rDNA PCR amplified from these samples were sequenced and was found to be highly similar to species that are known to commonly contaminate laboratory reagents. These studies suggest that pleomorphic structures identified in human blood are RMPs and not bacteria, and they provide an example in which laboratory contaminants may can mislead investigators.

  10. Empirical modelling to predict the refractive index of human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, M.; Saghir, M. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Optical techniques used for the measurement of the optical properties of blood are of great interest in clinical diagnostics. Blood analysis is a routine procedure used in medical diagnostics to confirm a patient’s condition. Measuring the optical properties of blood is difficult due to the non-homogenous nature of the blood itself. In addition, there is a lot of variation in the refractive indices reported in the literature. These are the reasons that motivated the researchers to develop a mathematical model that can be used to predict the refractive index of human blood as a function of concentration, temperature and wavelength. The experimental measurements were conducted on mimicking phantom hemoglobin samples using the Abbemat Refractometer. The results analysis revealed a linear relationship between the refractive index and concentration as well as temperature, and a non-linear relationship between refractive index and wavelength. These results are in agreement with those found in the literature. In addition, a new formula was developed based on empirical modelling which suggests that temperature and wavelength coefficients be added to the Barer formula. The verification of this correlation confirmed its ability to determine refractive index and/or blood hematocrit values with appropriate clinical accuracy.

  11. Empirical modelling to predict the refractive index of human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahya, M; Saghir, M Z

    2016-01-01

    Optical techniques used for the measurement of the optical properties of blood are of great interest in clinical diagnostics. Blood analysis is a routine procedure used in medical diagnostics to confirm a patient’s condition. Measuring the optical properties of blood is difficult due to the non-homogenous nature of the blood itself. In addition, there is a lot of variation in the refractive indices reported in the literature. These are the reasons that motivated the researchers to develop a mathematical model that can be used to predict the refractive index of human blood as a function of concentration, temperature and wavelength. The experimental measurements were conducted on mimicking phantom hemoglobin samples using the Abbemat Refractometer. The results analysis revealed a linear relationship between the refractive index and concentration as well as temperature, and a non-linear relationship between refractive index and wavelength. These results are in agreement with those found in the literature. In addition, a new formula was developed based on empirical modelling which suggests that temperature and wavelength coefficients be added to the Barer formula. The verification of this correlation confirmed its ability to determine refractive index and/or blood hematocrit values with appropriate clinical accuracy. (paper)

  12. Exosomes derived from human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells stimulates rejuvenation of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Jin; Yoo, Sae Mi; Park, Hwan Hee; Lim, Hye Jin; Kim, Yu-Lee; Lee, Seunghee; Seo, Kwang-Won; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2017-11-18

    Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) play an important role in cutaneous wound healing, and recent studies suggested that MSC-derived exosomes activate several signaling pathways, which are conducive in wound healing and cell growth. In this study, we investigated the roles of exosomes that are derived from USC-CM (USC-CM Exos) in cutaneous collagen synthesis and permeation. We found that USC-CM has various growth factors associated with skin rejuvenation. Our in vitro results showed that USC-CM Exos integrate in Human Dermal Fibroblasts (HDFs) and consequently promote cell migration and collagen synthesis of HDFs. Moreover, we evaluated skin permeation of USC-CM Exos by using human skin tissues. Results showed that Exo-Green labeled USC-CM Exos approached the outermost layer of the epidermis after 3 h and gradually approached the epidermis after 18 h. Moreover, increased expressions of Collagen I and Elastin were found after 3 days of treatment on human skin. The results showed that USC-CM Exos is absorbed into human skin, it promotes Collagen I and Elastin synthesis in the skin, which are essential to skin rejuvenation and shows the potential of USC-CM integration with the cosmetics or therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Autologous Transfusion of Stored Red Blood Cells Increases Pulmonary Artery Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinciroli, Riccardo; Stowell, Christopher P.; Wang, Lin; Yu, Binglan; Fernandez, Bernadette O.; Feelisch, Martin; Mietto, Cristina; Hod, Eldad A.; Chipman, Daniel; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Zapol, Warren M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Transfusion of erythrocytes stored for prolonged periods is associated with increased mortality. Erythrocytes undergo hemolysis during storage and after transfusion. Plasma hemoglobin scavenges endogenous nitric oxide leading to systemic and pulmonary vasoconstriction. Objectives: We hypothesized that transfusion of autologous blood stored for 40 days would increase the pulmonary artery pressure in volunteers with endothelial dysfunction (impaired endothelial production of nitric oxide). We also tested whether breathing nitric oxide before and during transfusion could prevent the increase of pulmonary artery pressure. Methods: Fourteen obese adults with endothelial dysfunction were enrolled in a randomized crossover study of transfusing autologous, leukoreduced blood stored for either 3 or 40 days. Volunteers were transfused with 3-day blood, 40-day blood, and 40-day blood while breathing 80 ppm nitric oxide. Measurements and Main Results: The age of volunteers was 41 ± 4 years (mean ± SEM), and their body mass index was 33.4 ± 1.3 kg/m2. Plasma hemoglobin concentrations increased after transfusion with 40-day and 40-day plus nitric oxide blood but not after transfusing 3-day blood. Mean pulmonary artery pressure, estimated by transthoracic echocardiography, increased after transfusing 40-day blood (18 ± 2 to 23 ± 2 mm Hg; P transfusing 3-day blood (17 ± 2 to 18 ± 2 mm Hg; P = 0.5). Breathing nitric oxide decreased pulmonary artery pressure in volunteers transfused with 40-day blood (17 ± 2 to 12 ± 1 mm Hg; P Transfusion of autologous leukoreduced blood stored for 40 days was associated with increased plasma hemoglobin levels and increased pulmonary artery pressure. Breathing nitric oxide prevents the increase of pulmonary artery pressure produced by transfusing stored blood. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01529502). PMID:25162920

  14. Regulation of increased blood flow (hyperemia) to muscles during exercise: a hierarchy of competing physiological needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J; Casey, Darren P

    2015-04-01

    This review focuses on how blood flow to contracting skeletal muscles is regulated during exercise in humans. The idea is that blood flow to the contracting muscles links oxygen in the atmosphere with the contracting muscles where it is consumed. In this context, we take a top down approach and review the basics of oxygen consumption at rest and during exercise in humans, how these values change with training, and the systemic hemodynamic adaptations that support them. We highlight the very high muscle blood flow responses to exercise discovered in the 1980s. We also discuss the vasodilating factors in the contracting muscles responsible for these very high flows. Finally, the competition between demand for blood flow by contracting muscles and maximum systemic cardiac output is discussed as a potential challenge to blood pressure regulation during heavy large muscle mass or whole body exercise in humans. At this time, no one dominant dilator mechanism accounts for exercise hyperemia. Additionally, complex interactions between the sympathetic nervous system and the microcirculation facilitate high levels of systemic oxygen extraction and permit just enough sympathetic control of blood flow to contracting muscles to regulate blood pressure during large muscle mass exercise in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Computed aided system for separation and classification of the abnormal erythrocytes in human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wąsowicz, Michał; Grochowski, Michał; Kulka, Marek; Mikołajczyk, Agnieszka; Ficek, Mateusz; Karpieńko, Katarzyna; Cićkiewicz, Maciej

    2017-12-01

    The human peripheral blood consists of cells (red cells, white cells, and platelets) suspended in plasma. In the following research the team assessed an influence of nanodiamond particles on blood elements over various periods of time. The material used in the study consisted of samples taken from ten healthy humans of various age, different blood types and both sexes. The markings were leaded by adding to the blood unmodified diamonds and oxidation modified. The blood was put under an impact of two diamond concentrations: 20μl and 100μl. The amount of abnormal cells increased with time. The percentage of echinocytes as a result of interaction with nanodiamonds in various time intervals for individual specimens was scarce. The impact of the two diamond types had no clinical importance on red blood cells. It is supposed that as a result of longlasting exposure a dehydratation of red cells takes place, because of the function of the cells. The analysis of an influence of nanodiamond particles on blood elements was supported by computer system designed for automatic counting and classification of the Red Blood Cells (RBC). The system utilizes advanced image processing methods for RBCs separation and counting and Eigenfaces method coupled with the neural networks for RBCs classification into normal and abnormal cells purposes.

  16. The transcriptional landscape of age in human peripheral blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Peters (Marjolein); R. Joehanes (Roby); L.C. Pilling (Luke); C. Schurmann (Claudia); K.N. Conneely (Karen N.); J.E. Powell (Joseph); E. Reinmaa (Eva); G.L. Sutphin (George L.); A. Zhernakova (Alexandra); K. Schramm (Katharina); Y.A. Wilson (Yana A.); S. Kobes (Sayuko); T. Tukiainen (Taru); Y.F.M. Ramos (Yolande); H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); M. Fornage (Myriam); Y. Liu (YongMei); S.A. Gharib (Sina); B.E. Stranger (Barbara); P.L. de Jager (Philip); A. Aviv (Abraham); D. Levy (Daniel); J. Murabito (Joanne); P.J. Munson (Peter J.); T. Huan (Tianxiao); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); J. van Rooij (Jeroen); L. Stolk (Lisette); L. Broer (Linda); M.M.P.J. Verbiest (Michael); M. Jhamai (Mila); P.P. Arp (Pascal); A. Metspalu (Andres); L. Tserel (Liina); L. Milani (Lili); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); P. Peterson (Pärt); S. Kasela (Silva); V. Codd (Veryan); A. Peters (Annette); C.K. Ward-Caviness (Cavin K.); C. Herder (Christian); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); M. Roden (Michael); P. Singmann (Paula); S. Zeilinger (Sonja); T. Illig (Thomas); G. Homuth (Georg); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); H. Völzke (Henry); L. Steil (Leif); T. Kocher (Thomas); A. Murray (Anna); D. Melzer (David); H. Yaghootkar (Hanieh); S. Bandinelli; E.K. Moses (Eric); J.W. Kent (Jack); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M.P. Johnson (Matthew); S. Williams-Blangero (Sarah); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); A.F. McRae (Allan F.); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); I. Hovatta (Iiris); M. Perola (Markus); S. Ripatti (Samuli); V. Salomaa (Veikko); A.K. Henders (Anjali); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); A.K. Smith (Alicia K.); D. Mehta (Divya); E.B. Binder (Elisabeth B.); K.M. Nylocks (K. Maria); E.M. Kennedy (Elizabeth M.); T. Klengel (Torsten); J. Ding (Jingzhong); A. Suchy-Dicey (Astrid); D. Enquobahrie; J. Brody (Jennifer); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); Y.-D.I. Chen (Yii-Der I.); J.J. Houwing-Duistermaat (Jeanine); M. Kloppenburg (Margreet); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); Q. Helmer (Quinta); W. den Hollander (Wouter); S. Bean (Shannon); T. Raj (Towfique); N. Bakhshi (Noman); Q.P. Wang (Qiao Ping); L.J. Oyston (Lisa J.); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); R.P. Tracy (Russell); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); S.T. Turner (Stephen); J. Blangero (John); I. Meulenbelt (Ingrid); K.J. Ressler (Kerry); J. Yang (Jian); L. Franke (Lude); J. Kettunen (Johannes); P.M. Visscher (Peter); G.G. Neely (G. Gregory); R. Korstanje (Ron); R.L. Hanson (Robert L.); H. Prokisch (Holger); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Esko (Tõnu); A. Teumer (Alexander); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); A.D. Johnson (Andrew D.); M.A. Nalls (Michael); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); M.R. Cookson (Mark); R.J. Gibbs (Raphael J.); J. Hardy (John); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); A.B. Zonderman (Alan B.); A. Dillman (Allissa); B. Traynor (Bryan); C. Smith (Colin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); M.E. Weale (Michael); R. O'Brien (Richard); R. Johnson (Robert); R. Walker (Robert); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); S. Arepalli (Sampath); M. Ryten (Mina); A. Singleton

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDisease incidences increase with age, but the molecular characteristics of ageing that lead to increased disease susceptibility remain inadequately understood. Here we perform a whole-blood gene expression meta-analysis in 14,983 individuals of European ancestry (including replication)

  17. The transcriptional landscape of age in human peripheral blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Marjolein J.; Joehanes, Roby; Pilling, Luke C.; Schurmann, Claudia; Conneely, Karen N.; Powell, Joseph; Reinmaa, Eva; Sutphin, George L.; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Schramm, Katharina; Wilson, Yana A.; Kobes, Sayuko; Tukiainen, Taru; Ramos, Yolande F.; Goering, Harald H. H.; Fornage, Myriam; Liu, Yongmei; Gharib, Sina A.; Stranger, Barbara E.; De Jager, Philip L.; Aviv, Abraham; Levy, Daniel; Murabito, Joanne M.; Munson, Peter J.; Huan, Tianxiao; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van Rooij, Jeroen; Stolk, Lisette; Broer, Linda; Verbiest, Michael M. P. J.; Jhamai, Mila; Arp, Pascal; Metspalu, Andres; Tserel, Liina; Milani, Lili; Samani, Nilesh J.; Peterson, Paert; Kasela, Silva; Codd, Veryan; Peters, Annette; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K.; Herder, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Roden, Michael; Singmann, Paula; Zeilinger, Sonja; Westra, Harm-Jan; Franke, Lude

    2015-01-01

    Disease incidences increase with age, but the molecular characteristics of ageing that lead to increased disease susceptibility remain inadequately understood. Here we perform a whole-blood gene expression meta-analysis in 14,983 individuals of European ancestry (including replication) and identify

  18. Growth of human T lymphocyte colonies from whole blood: culture requirements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, S.J.; Wilson, F.D.; Greenberg, B.R.; Shifrine, M.

    1982-01-01

    Growth of human lymphocyte colonies from whole blood following stimulation with PHA, Con A, or PPD is described. Individual colony cells were identified as T lymphocytes on the basis of surface marker and enzyme cytochemical characterizations. Colony formation increased as a power function over a wide range of cell concentrations above a critical minimal concentration. The whole blood culture system eliminates possible selective effects of lymphocyte colony techniques utilizing gradient-enriched lymphocyte fractions and more closely approximates the in vivo milieu. The whole blood colony method is more sensitive for the detection of low-level radiation effects on lymphocytes than widely used tests that measure 3 H-thymidine incorporation. In preliminary studies, researchers used the whole blood method to determine the relative radiosensitivity of lymphocytes from humans with various hematopoietic disorders, and observed abnormalities in mitogen responsiveness and colony formation in some of the patient groups. This method has wide application for studies in cellular and clinical immunology

  19. Captopril improves tumor nanomedicine delivery by increasing tumor blood perfusion and enlarging endothelial gaps in tumor blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Ting; Tuo, Yanyan; Jin, Kai; Luo, Zimiao; Shi, Wei; Mei, Heng; Hu, Yu; Pang, Zhiqing; Jiang, Xinguo

    2017-12-01

    Poor tumor perfusion and unfavorable vessel permeability compromise nanomedicine drug delivery to tumors. Captopril dilates blood vessels, reducing blood pressure clinically and bradykinin, as the downstream signaling moiety of captopril, is capable of dilating blood vessels and effectively increasing vessel permeability. The hypothesis behind this study was that captopril can dilate tumor blood vessels, improving tumor perfusion and simultaneously enlarge the endothelial gaps of tumor vessels, therefore enhancing nanomedicine drug delivery for tumor therapy. Using the U87 tumor xenograft with abundant blood vessels as the tumor model, tumor perfusion experiments were carried out using laser Doppler imaging and lectin-labeling experiments. A single treatment of captopril at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly increased the percentage of functional vessels in tumor tissues and improved tumor blood perfusion. Scanning electron microscopy of tumor vessels also indicated that the endothelial gaps of tumor vessels were enlarged after captopril treatment. Immunofluorescence-staining of tumor slices demonstrated that captopril significantly increased bradykinin expression, possibly explaining tumor perfusion improvements and endothelial gap enlargement. Additionally, imaging in vivo, imaging ex vivo and nanoparticle distribution in tumor slices indicated that after a single treatment with captopril, the accumulation of 115-nm nanoparticles in tumors had increased 2.81-fold with a more homogeneous distribution pattern in comparison to non-captopril treated controls. Finally, pharmacodynamics experiments demonstrated that captopril combined with paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles resulted in the greatest tumor shrinkage and the most extensive necrosis in tumor tissues among all treatment groups. Taken together, the data from the present study suggest a novel strategy for improving tumor perfusion and enlarging blood vessel permeability simultaneously in order to improve

  20. Systems biology of coagulation initiation: kinetics of thrombin generation in resting and activated human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash S Chatterjee

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Blood function defines bleeding and clotting risks and dictates approaches for clinical intervention. Independent of adding exogenous tissue factor (TF, human blood treated in vitro with corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI, to block Factor XIIa will generate thrombin after an initiation time (T(i of 1 to 2 hours (depending on donor, while activation of platelets with the GPVI-activator convulxin reduces T(i to ∼20 minutes. Since current kinetic models fail to generate thrombin in the absence of added TF, we implemented a Platelet-Plasma ODE model accounting for: the Hockin-Mann protease reaction network, thrombin-dependent display of platelet phosphatidylserine, VIIa function on activated platelets, XIIa and XIa generation and function, competitive thrombin substrates (fluorogenic detector and fibrinogen, and thrombin consumption during fibrin polymerization. The kinetic model consisting of 76 ordinary differential equations (76 species, 57 reactions, 105 kinetic parameters predicted the clotting of resting and convulxin-activated human blood as well as predicted T(i of human blood under 50 different initial conditions that titrated increasing levels of TF, Xa, Va, XIa, IXa, and VIIa. Experiments with combined anti-XI and anti-XII antibodies prevented thrombin production, demonstrating that a leak of XIIa past saturating amounts of CTI (and not "blood-borne TF" alone was responsible for in vitro initiation without added TF. Clotting was not blocked by antibodies used individually against TF, VII/VIIa, P-selectin, GPIb, protein disulfide isomerase, cathepsin G, nor blocked by the ribosome inhibitor puromycin, the Clk1 kinase inhibitor Tg003, or inhibited VIIa (VIIai. This is the first model to predict the observed behavior of CTI-treated human blood, either resting or stimulated with platelet activators. CTI-treated human blood will clot in vitro due to the combined activity of XIIa and XIa, a process enhanced by platelet activators and which proceeds

  1. Egg beater as centrifuge: isolating human blood plasma from whole blood in resource-poor settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Amy P; Gupta, Malancha; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S; Whitesides, George M

    2008-12-01

    This paper demonstrates that a hand-powered egg beater can be modified to serve as a centrifuge for separating plasma from human whole blood. Immunoassays used to diagnose infectious diseases often require plasma from whole blood, and obtaining plasma typically requires electrically-powered centrifuges, which are not widely available in resource-limited settings. Human whole blood was loaded into polyethylene (PE) tubing, and the tubing was attached to the paddle of an egg beater. Spinning the paddle pelleted the blood cells to the distal end of the PE tubing; the plasma remained as the supernatant. A cholesterol assay (run on patterned paper) demonstrated the suitability of this plasma for use in diagnostic assays. The physics of the system was also analyzed as a guide for the selection of other rotating systems for use in centrifugation. Egg beaters, polyethylene tubing, and paper are readily available devices and supplies that can facilitate the use of point-of-care diagnostics at sites far from centralized laboratory facilities.

  2. Transcriptome analysis of Neisseria meningitidis in human whole blood and mutagenesis studies identify virulence factors involved in blood survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Echenique-Rivera

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available During infection Neisseria meningitidis (Nm encounters multiple environments within the host, which makes rapid adaptation a crucial factor for meningococcal survival. Despite the importance of invasion into the bloodstream in the meningococcal disease process, little is known about how Nm adapts to permit survival and growth in blood. To address this, we performed a time-course transcriptome analysis using an ex vivo model of human whole blood infection. We observed that Nm alters the expression of ≈30% of ORFs of the genome and major dynamic changes were observed in the expression of transcriptional regulators, transport and binding proteins, energy metabolism, and surface-exposed virulence factors. In particular, we found that the gene encoding the regulator Fur, as well as all genes encoding iron uptake systems, were significantly up-regulated. Analysis of regulated genes encoding for surface-exposed proteins involved in Nm pathogenesis allowed us to better understand mechanisms used to circumvent host defenses. During blood infection, Nm activates genes encoding for the factor H binding proteins, fHbp and NspA, genes encoding for detoxifying enzymes such as SodC, Kat and AniA, as well as several less characterized surface-exposed proteins that might have a role in blood survival. Through mutagenesis studies of a subset of up-regulated genes we were able to identify new proteins important for survival in human blood and also to identify additional roles of previously known virulence factors in aiding survival in blood. Nm mutant strains lacking the genes encoding the hypothetical protein NMB1483 and the surface-exposed proteins NalP, Mip and NspA, the Fur regulator, the transferrin binding protein TbpB, and the L-lactate permease LctP were sensitive to killing by human blood. This increased knowledge of how Nm responds to adaptation in blood could also be helpful to develop diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to control the devastating

  3. Sympathetic reflex control of blood flow in human peripheral tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O

    1991-01-01

    Sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes are essential for the maintenance of arterial blood pressure in upright position. It has been generally believed that supraspinal sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes elicited by changes in baroreceptor activity play an important role. Recent studies on human...... sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes are blocked. Blood flow has been measure by the local 133Xe-technique. The results indicate the presence of spinal as well as supraspinal sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes to human peripheral tissues. Especially is emphasized the presence of a local sympathetic veno...... skeletal muscle, cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues of the limbs indicate that the situation is more complex. Measurements have been carried out during acute as well as chronic sympathetic denervation. Spinal sympathetic reflex mechanisms have been evaluated in tetraplegic patients, where supraspinal...

  4. Novel Approach for Ensuring Increased Validity in Home Blood Pressure Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg; Bertelsen, Olav Wedege

    This paper proposes a novel technique to increase the validity of home blood pressure monitoring by using various sensor technologies as part of an intelligent environment platform in the home of the user. A range of recommendations exists on how to obtain a valid blood pressure but with the devi......This paper proposes a novel technique to increase the validity of home blood pressure monitoring by using various sensor technologies as part of an intelligent environment platform in the home of the user. A range of recommendations exists on how to obtain a valid blood pressure...

  5. Blood flow in the peritendinous space of the human Achilles tendon during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Bülow, J; Kjaer, M

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated blood flow in the peritendinous space of the human Achilles tendon during rest and 40-min dynamical contraction of m. triceps surae. In 10 healthy volunteers 133Xe was injected in to the peritendinous space just ventrally to the Achilles tendon 2 and 5 cm proximal to the calc......This study evaluated blood flow in the peritendinous space of the human Achilles tendon during rest and 40-min dynamical contraction of m. triceps surae. In 10 healthy volunteers 133Xe was injected in to the peritendinous space just ventrally to the Achilles tendon 2 and 5 cm proximal....... Lymph drainage from the area was found to be negligible both during rest and exercise. We conclude that dynamical calf muscle contractions result in increased peritendinous blood flow at the Achilles tendon in humans....

  6. Implementation of good manufacturing practices (GMP) on human blood irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boghi, Claudio; Napolitano, Celia M.; Ferreira, Danilo C.; Rela, Paulo Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: cboghi@uol.com.br; cmnapoli@ipen.br; dancarde@ig.com.br; prela@ipen.br; Zarate, Herman S. [Comission Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: hzarate@cchen.cl

    2007-07-01

    The irradiation of human blood is used to avoid the TA-GVHD (transfusion-associated graft-versus-host-disease), a rare but devastating adverse effect of leukocytes present in blood components for a immuno-competent transfusion recipients. Usually this irradiation practice is performed to a physical elimination of lymphocytes. The implementation of the GMP will assure that the properly dose in a range of 25 Gy to 50 Gy will be delivered to the blood in the bag collected in a blood tissue bank. The studies to establish the GMP were developed under the guidelines of the standard ISO 11137 - Sterilization of health care products - Requirements for validation and routine control - Radiation sterilization. In this work, two dosimetric systems were used for dose mapping during the studies of irradiator qualification, loading pattern, irradiation process validation and auditing. The CaSO{sub 4}: Dy dosimeter presented difficulties concerning to uncertainty on dose measurement, stability, trace ability and calibration system. The PMMA and gafchromic dosimetric systems have shown a better performance and were adopted on establishment of GMP procedures. The irradiation tests have been done using a Gammacell 220 Irradiator. The developed GMP can be adapted for different types of gamma irradiators, allowing to set up a quality assurance program for blood irradiation. (author)

  7. Laser-photophoretic migration and fractionation of human blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monjushiro, Hideaki; Tanahashi, Yuko; Watarai, Hitoshi, E-mail: watarai@chem.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2013-05-13

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •RBCs were migrated faster than WBCs and blood pellets by laser photophoresis. •Photophoretic efficiency of RBC and WBC was simulated by the Mie scattering theory. •Spontaneous orientation of RBC parallel to the migration direction was elucidated. •Laser photophoretic separation of RBC and WBC was possible in a tip flow system. -- Abstract: Laser photophoretic migration behavior of human blood cells in saline solution was investigated under the irradiation of Nd:YAG laser beam (532 nm) in the absence and the presence of the flow in a fused silica capillary. Red blood cells (RBC) were migrated faster than white blood cells (WBC) and blood pellets to the direction of propagation of laser light. The observed photophoretic velocity of RBC was about 11 times faster than those of others. This was understood from the larger photophoretic efficiency of RBC than that of WBC, which was simulated based on the Mie scattering theory. Furthermore, it was found that, during the photophoretic migration, RBCs spontaneously orientated parallel to the migration direction so as to reduce the drag force. Finally, it was demonstrated that RBC and WBC were separated in a micro-channel flow system by the laser photophoresis.

  8. Laser-photophoretic migration and fractionation of human blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monjushiro, Hideaki; Tanahashi, Yuko; Watarai, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •RBCs were migrated faster than WBCs and blood pellets by laser photophoresis. •Photophoretic efficiency of RBC and WBC was simulated by the Mie scattering theory. •Spontaneous orientation of RBC parallel to the migration direction was elucidated. •Laser photophoretic separation of RBC and WBC was possible in a tip flow system. -- Abstract: Laser photophoretic migration behavior of human blood cells in saline solution was investigated under the irradiation of Nd:YAG laser beam (532 nm) in the absence and the presence of the flow in a fused silica capillary. Red blood cells (RBC) were migrated faster than white blood cells (WBC) and blood pellets to the direction of propagation of laser light. The observed photophoretic velocity of RBC was about 11 times faster than those of others. This was understood from the larger photophoretic efficiency of RBC than that of WBC, which was simulated based on the Mie scattering theory. Furthermore, it was found that, during the photophoretic migration, RBCs spontaneously orientated parallel to the migration direction so as to reduce the drag force. Finally, it was demonstrated that RBC and WBC were separated in a micro-channel flow system by the laser photophoresis

  9. Implementation of good manufacturing practices (GMP) on human blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boghi, Claudio; Napolitano, Celia M.; Ferreira, Danilo C.; Rela, Paulo Roberto; Zarate, Herman S.

    2007-01-01

    The irradiation of human blood is used to avoid the TA-GVHD (transfusion-associated graft-versus-host-disease), a rare but devastating adverse effect of leukocytes present in blood components for a immuno-competent transfusion recipients. Usually this irradiation practice is performed to a physical elimination of lymphocytes. The implementation of the GMP will assure that the properly dose in a range of 25 Gy to 50 Gy will be delivered to the blood in the bag collected in a blood tissue bank. The studies to establish the GMP were developed under the guidelines of the standard ISO 11137 - Sterilization of health care products - Requirements for validation and routine control - Radiation sterilization. In this work, two dosimetric systems were used for dose mapping during the studies of irradiator qualification, loading pattern, irradiation process validation and auditing. The CaSO 4 : Dy dosimeter presented difficulties concerning to uncertainty on dose measurement, stability, trace ability and calibration system. The PMMA and gafchromic dosimetric systems have shown a better performance and were adopted on establishment of GMP procedures. The irradiation tests have been done using a Gammacell 220 Irradiator. The developed GMP can be adapted for different types of gamma irradiators, allowing to set up a quality assurance program for blood irradiation. (author)

  10. Human erythrovirus B19 and blood transfusion - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsyan, A; Candotti, D

    2007-08-01

    Erythrovirus (parvovirus) B19 (B19) is a common human pathogen. It is a non-enveloped single-strand DNA virus packaging its genome in small tight capsids consisting of viral VP1 and VP2 proteins. It is now accepted that B19 is a relatively quickly evolving virus having diverged in several genetic variants recently identified. The main route of B19 transmission is respiratory, with a majority of infections occurring during childhood and manifesting as erythema infectiousum. B19 can also be transmitted vertically and via blood transfusion and organ transplantation. The majority of adult populations show immunological evidence of previous exposure to B19. Although the immune response is able to clear infection and provide life-long protection against B19, recent data suggest that in some, if not the majority, of individuals the acute phase of infection is followed by viral persistence in the blood or other tissues regardless of the host's immunocompetence. Transmission of B19 by blood and blood products and its resistance to common viral inactivation methods raises several blood safety questions, still unanswered. The diversity of B19 strains and the ability of the virus to persist in the presence of specific antibodies raise the issue of transmissibility by transfusion not so much to immunocompetent recipients but rather to the large proportion of recipients in whom there is some degree of immunodeficiency. The ability of the virus to reactivate in immunodeficient recipients may create difficulties in differentiating between transfusion transmission and reactivation.

  11. Good manufacturing practices (GMP utilized on human blood irradiation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Boghi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation of human blood is used to avoid the TA-GVHD (transfusion-associated graft-versus-host-disease, a rare but devastating adverse effect of leukocytes present in blood components for immunocompetent transfusion recipients. Usually this irradiation practice is performed to a physical elimination of lymphocytes. The implementation of the GMP will assure that the properly dose in a range of 25Gy to 50Gy will be delivered to the blood in the bag collected in a blood tissue bank. The studies to establish the GMP were developed under the guidelines of the standard ISO 11137 - Sterilization of health care products - Requirements for validation and routine control - Radiation sterilization. In this work, two dosimetric systems were used for dose mapping during the studies of irradiator qualification, loading pattern, irradiation process validation and auditing. The CaSO4: Dy dosimeter presented difficulties concerning to uncertainty on dose measurement, stability, trace ability and calibration system. The PMMA and gafchromic dosimetric systems have shown a better performance and were adopted on establishment of GMP procedures. The irradiation tests have been done using a Gammacell 220 Irradiator. The developed GMP can be adapted for different types of gamma irradiators, allowing to set up a quality assurance program for blood irradiation.

  12. Detection of endotoxins and other pyrogens using human whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennrich, S; Fischer, M; Hartung, T; Lexa, P; Montag-Lessing, T; Sonntag, H G; Weigandt, M; Wendel, A

    1999-01-01

    When cells of the immune system, i.e. primarily blood monocytes and macrophages, come into contact with pyrogens (fever-inducing contaminations) they release mediators transmitting the fever reaction through the organism to the thermoregulatory centres of the brain. The new test discussed here exploits this reaction for the detection of pyrogens: human whole blood taken from healthy volunteers is incubated in the presence of the test sample. If there is pyrogen contamination, the endogenous pyrogen interleukin-1 is released, which is then determined by ELISA. According to the pharmacopoeia, the rabbit pyrogen test determines the fever reaction following injection of a test sample. In comparison, the new whole blood assay is more sensitive, less expensive and determines the reaction of the targeted species. Compared to the well established in vitro alternative, i.e. the limulus amebocyte lysate assay (LAL), the new blood assay is not restricted to endotoxins of gram-negative bacteria, it is not affected by endotoxin-binding blood proteins and it reflects the potency of different endotoxin preparations in mammals. Here, interim results of the ongoing optimization and pre-validation are reported and the present state of the evaluation for biological and pharmaceutical drugs are presented.

  13. Deep coverage mouse red blood cell proteome: a first comparison with the human red blood cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasini, Erica M; Kirkegaard, Morten; Salerno, Doris

    2008-01-01

    Mice have close genetic/physiological relationships to humans, breed rapidly, and can be genetically modified, making them the most used mammal in biomedical research. Because the red blood cell (RBC) is the sole gas transporter in vertebrates, diseases of the RBC are frequently severe; much...... proteome have been confirmed here. This comparison sheds light on several open issues in RBC biology and provides a departure point for more comprehensive understanding of RBC function....

  14. The pulmonary vasculature in a neonatal porcine model with increased pulmonary blood flow and pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbøg, Elisabeth Vidstid; Steinbruchel, Daniel Andreas; Thomsen, Anne Bloch

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertension and hyperperfusion of the pulmonary vascular bed in the setting of congenital cardiac malformations may lead to progressive pulmonary vascular disease. To improve the understanding of the basic mechanisms of this disease, there is a need for clinically relevant animal....... By three months of age, nearly all shunts had closed spontaneously, and haemodynamics were normal. Ligation of the left pulmonary artery resulted in a normal total pulmonary blood flow, despite only the right lung being perfused, and a 33% increase in systolic pulmonary arterial pressure...... in humans. Elevated circulating levels of endothelin were associated with abnormal haemodynamics rather than abnormal pathology. These findings could be valuable for future studies on the pathogenesis of hypertensive pulmonary vascular disease associated with congenital cardiac malformations....

  15. Metabolic control of muscle blood flow during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2003-01-01

    that combined blockade of NOS and PGI2, and NOS and cytochrome P450, both attenuate exercise-induced hyperemia in humans. Combined vasodilator blockade studies offer the potential to uncover important interactions and compensatory vasodilator responses. The signaling pathways that link metabolic events evoked...... to exert control of muscle vasodilation. Adenosine, nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin (PGI2), and endothelial-derived hyperpolarization factor (EDHF) are possible mediators of muscle vasodilation during exercise. In humans, adenosine has been shown to contribute to functional hyperemia as blood flow...... by muscle contraction to vasodilatory signals in the local vascular bed remains an important area of study....

  16. The effect of increased centrifugation temperature on the quality of red-blood-cell concentrates of automated whole blood processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinigel, C; Rummler, S; Barz, D

    2013-10-01

    There are manual and automated methods to separate whole blood (WB) available. The Atreus whole blood processing system is an automated method, which combines centrifugation and expression of components into a single device. A major difference to conventional methods is that centrifugation temperature is not controlled at 22°C. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of increased centrifugation temperatures on the quality of red-blood-cell concentrates (RCC) after active cooling of WB prior to processing. A total of 28 WB were processed: 16 at centrifugation temperatures of up to 28°C (1st protocol) and 12 at 34°C (2nd protocol). RCC quality parameters were tested weekly for 42 days. Red-blood-cell concentrates (RCC) quality complied with the European and German guidelines. Haemolysis was not significantly different throughout storage. Significant statistical differences were detected between both protocols in potassium concentration at the end of storage and in ATP levels at the day of processing. Centrifugation temperatures of up to 34°C are well tolerated by the red blood cells with minimal interference with the RCC quality parameters. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  17. Using an integrated automated system to optimize retention and increase frequency of blood donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, J Garrett; Hall, Robert F

    2010-07-01

    This study examines the impact of an integrated, automated phone system to reinforce retention and increase frequency of donations among blood donors. Cultivated by incorporating data results over the past 7 years, the system uses computerized phone messaging to contact blood donors with individualized, multilevel notifications. Donors are contacted at planned intervals to acknowledge and recognize their donations, informed where their blood was sent, asked to participate in a survey, and reminded when they are eligible to donate again. The report statistically evaluates the impact of the various components of the system on donor retention and blood donations and quantifies the fiscal advantages to blood centers. By using information and support systems provided by the automated services and then incorporating the phlebotomists and recruiters to reinforce donor retention, both retention and donations will increase. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  18. Ezetimibe Increases Endogenous Cholesterol Excretion in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Ostlund, Richard E

    2017-05-01

    Ezetimibe improves cardiovascular outcomes when added to optimum statin treatment. It lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and percent intestinal cholesterol absorption, but the exact cardioprotective mechanism is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the dominant effect of ezetimibe is to increase the reverse transport of cholesterol from rapidly mixing endogenous cholesterol pool into the stool. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel trial in 24 healthy subjects with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 100 to 200 mg/dL, we measured cholesterol metabolism before and after a 6-week treatment period with ezetimibe 10 mg/d or placebo. Plasma cholesterol was labeled by intravenous infusion of cholesterol-d 7 in a lipid emulsion and dietary cholesterol with cholesterol-d 5 and sitostanol-d 4 solubilized in oil. Plasma and stool samples collected during a cholesterol- and phytosterol-controlled metabolic kitchen diet were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Ezetimibe reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption efficiency 30±4.3% (SE, P <0.0001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 19.8±1.9% ( P =0.0001). Body cholesterol pool size was unchanged, but fecal endogenous cholesterol excretion increased 66.6±12.2% ( P <0.0001) and percent cholesterol excretion from body pools into the stool increased 74.7±14.3% ( P <0.0001), whereas plasma cholesterol turnover rose 26.2±3.6% ( P =0.0096). Fecal bile acids were unchanged. Ezetimibe increased the efficiency of reverse cholesterol transport from rapidly mixing plasma and tissue pools into the stool. Further work is needed to examine the potential relation of reverse cholesterol transport and whole body cholesterol metabolism to coronary events and the treatment of atherosclerosis. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01603758. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Preanalytical Biases in the Measurement of Human Blood Sphingolipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brunkhorst

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of blood sphingolipids is an emerging topic in clinical science. The objective of this study was to determine preanalytical biases that typically occur in clinical and translational studies and that influence measured blood sphingolipid levels. Therefore, we collected blood samples from four healthy male volunteers to investigate the effect of storage conditions (time, temperature, long-term storage, freeze–thaw cycles, blood drawing (venous or arterial sampling, prolonged venous compression, and sample preparation (centrifugation, freezing on sphingolipid levels measured by LC-MS/MS. Our data show that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P and sphinganine 1-phosphate (SA1P were upregulated in whole blood samples in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. Increased centrifugation at higher speeds led to lower amounts of S1P and SA1P. All other preanalytical biases did not significantly alter the amounts of S1P and SA1P. Further, in almost all settings, we did not detect differences in (dihydroceramide levels. In summary, besides time-, temperature-, and centrifugation-dependent changes in S1P and SA1P levels, sphingolipids in blood remained stable under practically relevant preanalytical conditions.

  20. Endurance exercise training increases peripheral vascular response in human fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, K; Shimoda, M; Maeda, J; Takemiya, T

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify whether peripheral vascular response to alteration of transmural pressure is changed by endurance exercise training. The healthy male subjects (training group; n = 6) performed endurance exercise training that consisted of cycle ergometer exercise 5 d.week-1 and 30 min.d-1 for a period of 8 weeks. Changes in the peripheral vascular response to alteration of transmural pressure in the human finger were measured by a differential digital photoplethysmogram (DeltaDPG) and blood pressure during passive movement of the arm to different vertical hand positions relative to heart level. Following 8 weeks of endurance training, percent changes in DeltaDPG from heart level in the training group increased significantly (mean +/- SD, -48.1 +/- 7. 3 to -58.7 +/- 9.3% at the lowered position, 46.1 +/- 13.4 to 84.6 +/- 8.8% at the elevated position, ppressure, also significantly changed in the training group over the 8 weeks (5.6 +/- 1.3 to 2.7 +/- 1.6 mV. V-1.s-1.mmHg-1 at the lowered position, 30.0 +/- 12.4 to 54.4 +/- 18. 9 mV.V-1.s-1.mmHg-1 at the elevated position ). Maximal oxygen uptake (V.O2 max) was significantly increased in the training group. On the other hand, the control group (n = 6) showed no significant changes in all parameters for 8 weeks. Therefore these results suggest that endurance exercise training induces an increase in peripheral vascular response to alteration of transmural pressure in the human finger.

  1. Ethanol-induced increase in portal blood glow: Role of adenosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orrego, H.; Carmichael, F.J.; Saldivia, V.; Giles, H.G.; Sandrin, S.; Israel, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism by which ethanol induces an increase in portal vein blood flow was studied in rats using radiolabeled microspheres. Ethanol by gavage resulted in an increase of 50-70% in portal vein blood flow. The ethanol-induced increase in portal blood flow was suppressed by the adenosine receptor blocker 8-phenyltheophylline. By itself, 8-phenyltheophylline was without effect on cardiac output or portal blood flow. Adenosine infusion resulted in a dose-dependent increase in portal blood flow. This adenosine-induced increase in portal blood flow was inhibited by 8-phenyltheophylline in a dose-dependent manner. Both alcohol and adenosine significantly reduced preportal vascular resistance by 40% and 60%, respectively. These effects were fully suppressed by 8-phenyltheophylline. It is concluded that adenosine is a likely candidate to mediate the ethanol-induced increase in portal vein blood flow. It is suggested that an increase in circulating acetate and liver hypoxia may mediate the effects of alcohol by increasing tissue and interstitial adenosine levels

  2. Sleep deprivation increases blood pressure in healthy normotensive elderly and attenuates the blood pressure response to orthostatic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Lanfranchi, Paola A; Prince, François; Filipini, Daniel; Carrier, Julie

    2011-03-01

    To determine how aging affects the impact of sleep deprivation on blood pressure at rest and under orthostatic challenge. Subjects underwent a night of sleep and 24.5 h of sleep deprivation in a crossover counterbalanced design. Sleep laboratory. Sixteen healthy normotensive men and women: 8 young adults (mean 24 years [SD 3.1], range 20-28 years) and 8 elderly adults (mean 64.1 years [SD 3.4], range 60-69 years). Sleep deprivation. Brachial cuff arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured in semi-recumbent and upright positions. These measurements were compared across homeostatic sleep pressure conditions and age groups. Sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in elderly but not young adults. Moreover, sleep deprivation attenuated the systolic blood pressure orthostatic response in both age groups. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation alters the regulatory mechanisms of blood pressure and might increase the risk of hypertension in healthy normotensive elderly.

  3. Mastication induces long-term increases in blood perfusion of the trigeminal principal nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, A; Manara, R; Conforti, R; Paccone, A; Secondulfo, C; Lorusso, L; Sbordone, L; Di Salle, F; Monda, M; Tedeschi, G; Esposito, F

    2015-12-17

    Understanding mechanisms for vessel tone regulation within the trigeminal nuclei is of great interest because some headache syndromes are due to dysregulation of such mechanisms. Previous experiments on animal models suggest that mastication may alter neuron metabolism and blood supply in these nuclei. To investigate this hypothesis in humans, arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure blood perfusion within the principal trigeminal nucleus (Vp) and in the dorsolateral-midbrain (DM, including the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus) in healthy volunteers, before and immediately after a mastication exercise consisting of chewing a gum on one side of the mouth for 1 h at 1 bite/s. The side preference for masticating was evaluated with a chewing test and the volume of the masseter muscle was measured on T1-weighted MRI scans. The results demonstrated that the mastication exercise caused a perfusion increase within the Vp, but not in the DM. This change was correlated to the preference score for the side where the exercise took place. Moreover, the basal Vp perfusion was correlated to the masseter volume. These results indicate that the local vascular tone of the trigeminal nuclei can be constitutively altered by the chewing practice and by strong or sustained chewing. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. SGLT2 Protein Expression Is Increased in Human Diabetic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxin X.; Levi, Jonathan; Luo, Yuhuan; Myakala, Komuraiah; Herman-Edelstein, Michal; Qiu, Liru; Wang, Dong; Peng, Yingqiong; Grenz, Almut; Lucia, Scott; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; D'Agati, Vivette D.; Koepsell, Hermann; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Rosenberg, Avi Z.; Levi, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    There is very limited human renal sodium gradient-dependent glucose transporter protein (SGLT2) mRNA and protein expression data reported in the literature. The first aim of this study was to determine SGLT2 mRNA and protein levels in human and animal models of diabetic nephropathy. We have found that the expression of SGLT2 mRNA and protein is increased in renal biopsies from human subjects with diabetic nephropathy. This is in contrast to db-db mice that had no changes in renal SGLT2 protein expression. Furthermore, the effect of SGLT2 inhibition on renal lipid content and inflammation is not known. The second aim of this study was to determine the potential mechanisms of beneficial effects of SGLT2 inhibition in the progression of diabetic renal disease. We treated db/db mice with a selective SGLT2 inhibitor JNJ 39933673. We found that SGLT2 inhibition caused marked decreases in systolic blood pressure, kidney weight/body weight ratio, urinary albumin, and urinary thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances. SGLT2 inhibition prevented renal lipid accumulation via inhibition of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein-β, pyruvate kinase L, SCD-1, and DGAT1, key transcriptional factors and enzymes that mediate fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. SGLT2 inhibition also prevented inflammation via inhibition of CD68 macrophage accumulation and expression of p65, TLR4, MCP-1, and osteopontin. These effects were associated with reduced mesangial expansion, accumulation of the extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin and type IV collagen, and loss of podocyte markers WT1 and synaptopodin, as determined by immunofluorescence microscopy. In summary, our study showed that SGLT2 inhibition modulates renal lipid metabolism and inflammation and prevents the development of nephropathy in db/db mice. PMID:28196866

  5. Effects of midazolam on cerebral blood flow in human volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, A.; Juge, O.; Morel, D.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of intravenously administered midazolam on cerebral blood flow were evaluated in eight healthy volunteers using the 133 Xe inhalation technique. Six minutes after an intravenous dose of 0.15 mg/kg midazolam, the cerebral blood flow decreased significantly (P less than 0.001) from a value of 40.6 +/- 3.3 to a value of 27.0 +/- 5.0 ml . 100 g-1 . min-1. Cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) increased from 2.8 +/- 0.2 to 3.9 to 0.6 mmHg/(ml . 100 g-1 . min-1)(P less than 0.001). Mean arterial blood pressure decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) from 117 +/- 8 to 109 +/- 9 mmHg and arterial carbon dioxide tension increased from 33.9 +/- 2.3 to 38.6 +/- 3.2 mmHg (P less than 0.05). Arterial oxygen tension remained stable throughout the study, 484 +/- 95 mmHg before the administration of midazolam and 453 +/- 76 mmHg after. All the subjects slept after the injection of the drug and had anterograde amnesia of 24.5 +/- 5 min. The decrease in mean arterial blood pressure was probably not important since it remained in the physiologic range for cerebral blood flow autoregulation. The increase in arterial carbon dioxide tension observed after the midazolam injection may have partially counteracted the effect of this new benzodiazepine on cerebral blood flow. Our data suggest that midazolam might be a safe agent to use for the induction of anethesia in neurosurgical patients with intracranial hypertension

  6. Heme oxygenase-1 gene expression modulates angiotensin II-induced increase in blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liming; Quan, Shuo; Nasjletti, Alberto; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal; Abraham, Nader G

    2004-06-01

    The heme-heme oxygenase (HO) system has been implicated in the regulation of vascular reactivity and blood pressure. This study examines the notion that overexpression of HO decreases pressor responsiveness to angiotensin II (Ang II). Five-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats received an intraleft ventricular injection of approximately 5x10(9) cfu/mL of retroviruses containing human HO-1 sense (LSN-HHO-1), rat HO-1 antisense (LSN-RHO-1-AS), or control retrovirus (LXSN). Three months later, rats were instrumented with femoral arterial and venous catheters for mean arterial pressure (MAP) determination and Ang II administration, respectively. Rats injected with LSN-HHO-1, but not with LXSN, expressed human HO-1 mRNA and protein in several tissues. BP increased with administration of Ang II in rats expressing and not expressing human HO-1. However, the Ang II-induced pressor response (mm Hg) in LSN-HHO-1 rats (16+/-3, 27+/-3, and 38+/-3 at 0.5, 2, and 10 ng) was surpassed (PHHO-1 rats with the HO inhibitor tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP) enhanced (P<0.05) the Ang II-induced pressor response to a level not different from that observed in LXSN rats. Rats injected with LSN-RHO-1-AS showed a decrease in renal HO-1 protein expression and HO activity relative to control LXSN rats. Administration of Ang II (0.1 to 2 ng) caused small (4 to 5 mm Hg) but significant increases in MAP in rats injected with LSN-RHO-1-AS (P<0.05) compared with rats injected with LXSN. These data demonstrate that overexpression of HO-1 brings about a reduction in pressor responsiveness to Ang II, which is most likely due to increased generation of an HO-1 product, presumably CO, with the ability to inhibit vascular reactivity to constrictor stimuli.

  7. The DNA methylome of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingrui Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays an important role in biological processes in human health and disease. Recent technological advances allow unbiased whole-genome DNA methylation (methylome analysis to be carried out on human cells. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing at 24.7-fold coverage (12.3-fold per strand, we report a comprehensive (92.62% methylome and analysis of the unique sequences in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from the same Asian individual whose genome was deciphered in the YH project. PBMC constitute an important source for clinical blood tests world-wide. We found that 68.4% of CpG sites and 80% displayed allele-specific expression (ASE. These data demonstrate that ASM is a recurrent phenomenon and is highly correlated with ASE in human PBMCs. Together with recently reported similar studies, our study provides a comprehensive resource for future epigenomic research and confirms new sequencing technology as a paradigm for large-scale epigenomics studies.

  8. Sumatriptan increases the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected individuals and healthy blood donors in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    2000-01-01

    responsible for regulation of the intracellular levels of cAMP. In a preliminary study sumatriptan increased the proliferative responses of PBMC to a polyclonal activator in vitro in 9 of 10 HIV-seropositive individuals (p=0.007), and in 7 of 9 healthy blood donors (p=0.05). This was probably due...... of the intracellular second messenger adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) has been shown to cause impaired proliferative capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HIV-infected individuals in vitro. Sumatriptan, a 5HT1d receptor agonist, inhibits the activity of adenylyl cyclases, the enzymes...

  9. Blood Transfusion During Total Ankle Arthroplasty Is Associated With Increased In-Hospital Complications and Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Michael A; Huntley, Samuel R; Baker, Dustin K; Smith, Kenneth S; Hudson, Parke W; McGwin, Gerald; Ponce, Brent A; Johnson, Michael D

    2018-04-01

    Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is an increasingly used, effective treatment for end-stage ankle arthritis. Although numerous studies have associated blood transfusion with complications following hip and knee arthroplasty, its effects following TAA are largely unknown. This study uses data from a large, nationally representative database to estimate the association between blood transfusion and inpatient complications and hospital costs following TAA. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 2004 to 2014, 25 412 patients who underwent TAA were identified, with 286 (1.1%) receiving a blood transfusion. Univariate analysis assessed patient and hospital factors associated with blood transfusion following TAA. Patients requiring blood transfusion were more likely to be female, African American, Medicare recipients, and treated in nonteaching hospitals. Average length of stay for patients following transfusion was 3.0 days longer, while average inpatient cost was increased by approximately 50%. Patients who received blood transfusion were significantly more likely to suffer from congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, hypothyroidism, coagulation disorder, or anemia. Acute renal failure was significantly more common among patients receiving blood transfusion ( P < .001). Blood transfusions following TAA are infrequent and are associated with multiple medical comorbidities, increased complications, longer hospital stays, and increased overall cost. Level III: Retrospective, comparative study.

  10. A new strategy for umbilical cord blood collection developed at the first Colombian public cord blood bank increases total nucleated cell content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Diana; Triviño, Lady; Galindo, Cristian; Franco, Leidy; Salguero, Gustavo; Camacho, Bernardo; Perdomo-Arciniegas, Ana-María

    2017-09-01

    The total nucleated cell dosage of umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an important factor in determining successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after a minimum human leukocyte antigen donor-recipient match. The northern South American population is in need of a new-generation cord blood bank that cryopreserves only units with high total nucleated cell content, thereby increasing the likelihood of use. Colombia set up a public cord blood bank in 2014; and, as a result of its research for improving high total nucleated cell content, a new strategy for UCB collection was developed. Data from 2933 collected and 759 cryopreserved cord blood units between 2014 and 2015 were analyzed. The correlation of donor and collection variables with cellularity was evaluated. Moreover, blood volume, cell content, CD34+ count, clonogenic capacity, and microbial contamination were assessed comparing the new method, which combines in utero and ex utero techniques, with the conventional strategies. Multivariate analysis confirmed a correlation between neonatal birth weight and cell content. The new collection method increased total nucleated cell content in approximately 26% and did not alter pre-cryopreservation and post-thaw cell recovery, viability, or clonogenic ability. Furthermore, it showed a remarkably low microbial contamination rate (1.2%). The strategy for UCB collection developed at the first Colombian public cord blood bank increases total nucleated cell content and does not affect unit quality. The existence of this bank is a remarkable breakthrough for Latin-American patients in need of this kind of transplantation. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  11. Gene expression analysis in human breast cancer associated blood vessels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan T Jones

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is essential for solid tumour growth, whilst the molecular profiles of tumour blood vessels have been reported to be different between cancer types. Although presently available anti-angiogenic strategies are providing some promise for the treatment of some cancers it is perhaps not surprisingly that, none of the anti-angiogenic agents available work on all tumours. Thus, the discovery of novel anti-angiogenic targets, relevant to individual cancer types, is required. Using Affymetrix microarray analysis of laser-captured, CD31-positive blood vessels we have identified 63 genes that are upregulated significantly (5-72 fold in angiogenic blood vessels associated with human invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC of the breast as compared with blood vessels in normal human breast. We tested the angiogenic capacity of a subset of these genes. Genes were selected based on either their known cellular functions, their enriched expression in endothelial cells and/or their sensitivity to anti-VEGF treatment; all features implicating their involvement in angiogenesis. For example, RRM2, a ribonucleotide reductase involved in DNA synthesis, was upregulated 32-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels; ATF1, a nuclear activating transcription factor involved in cellular growth and survival was upregulated 23-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels and HEX-B, a hexosaminidase involved in the breakdown of GM2 gangliosides, was upregulated 8-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels. Furthermore, in silico analysis confirmed that AFT1 and HEX-B also were enriched in endothelial cells when compared with non-endothelial cells. None of these genes have been reported previously to be involved in neovascularisation. However, our data establish that siRNA depletion of Rrm2, Atf1 or Hex-B had significant anti-angiogenic effects in VEGF-stimulated ex vivo mouse aortic ring assays. Overall, our results provide proof-of-principle that our approach can identify a cohort of

  12. Aluminum induces lipid peroxidation and aggregation of human blood platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.J.C. Neiva

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al3+ intoxication is thought to play a major role in the development of Alzheimer's disease and in certain pathologic manifestations arising from long-term hemodialysis. Although the metal does not present redox capacity, it can stimulate tissue lipid peroxidation in animal models. Furthermore, in vitro studies have revealed that the fluoroaluminate complex induces diacylglycerol formation, 43-kDa protein phosphorylation and aggregation. Based on these observations, we postulated that Al3+-induced blood platelet aggregation was mediated by lipid peroxidation. Using chemiluminescence (CL of luminol as an index of total lipid peroxidation capacity, we established a correlation between lipid peroxidation capacity and platelet aggregation. Al3+ (20-100 µM stimulated CL production by human blood platelets as well as their aggregation. Incubation of the platelets with the antioxidants nor-dihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA (100 µM and n-propyl gallate (NPG (100 µM, inhibitors of the lipoxygenase pathway, completely prevented CL and platelet aggregation. Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA (100 µM, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase pathway, was a weaker inhibitor of both events. These findings suggest that Al3+ stimulates lipid peroxidation and the lipoxygenase pathway in human blood platelets thereby causing their aggregation

  13. Complete genes may pass from food to human blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spisák, Sándor; Solymosi, Norbert; Ittzés, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Our bloodstream is considered to be an environment well separated from the outside world and the digestive tract. According to the standard paradigm large macromolecules consumed with food cannot pass directly to the circulatory system. During digestion proteins and DNA are thought to be degraded...... into small constituents, amino acids and nucleic acids, respectively, and then absorbed by a complex active process and distributed to various parts of the body through the circulation system. Here, based on the analysis of over 1000 human samples from four independent studies, we report evidence that meal......-derived DNA fragments which are large enough to carry complete genes can avoid degradation and through an unknown mechanism enter the human circulation system. In one of the blood samples the relative concentration of plant DNA is higher than the human DNA. The plant DNA concentration shows a surprisingly...

  14. Whole blood microculture assay of human lymphocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, J L; Han, T

    1976-11-01

    A whole blood microculture assay is described for measuring lymphocyte reactivity to mitogenic and antigenic stimulants. This assay employs heparinized whole blood, serum-free culture medium, microtiter plates, and a Multiple Automated Sample Harvester (MASH). When this assay is compared to other leukocyte assays, its major advantages include (1) the utilization of fewer lymphocytes per microculture, thuus reducing the amount of blood required per test while increasing the number of test agents and replicate cultures which can be employed in any given experiment; (2) the conservation of mitogens, antigens, drugs, enzymes, hormones, lymphokines, and other test agents, some of which are either expensive of difficult to prepare in large quantities; (3) the elimination of lymphocyte isolation and purification procedures which may disrupt the relative proportion of T cells, B cells and antigen-processing cells; and (4) the application of an automated harvester which simplifies and expedites procedures required for processing cells for liquid scintillation counting.

  15. Increasing arterial blood pressure with norepinephrine does not improve microcirculatory blood flow: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubin, Arnaldo; Pozo, Mario O.; Casabella, Christian A.; Palizas, Fernando; Murias, Gaston; Moseinco, Miriam C.; Kanoore Edul, Vanina S.; Estenssoro, Elisa; Ince, Can

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Our goal was to assess the effects of titration of a norepinephrine infusion to increasing levels of mean arterial pressure (MAP) on sublingual microcirculation. Methods Twenty septic shock patients were prospectively studied in two teaching intensive care units. The patients were

  16. Functional dilatation and medial remodeling of the renal artery in response to chronic increased blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roan, Jun-Neng; Yeh, Chin-Yi; Chiu, Wen-Cheng; Lee, Chou-Hwei; Chang, Shih-Wei; Jiangshieh, Ya-Fen; Tsai, Yu-Chuan; Lam, Chen-Fuh

    2011-01-01

    Renal blood flow (RBF) is tightly regulated by several intrinsic pathways in maintaining optimal kidney blood supply. Using a rat model of aortocaval (AC) fistula, we investigated remodeling of the renal artery following prolonged increased blood flow. An AC fistula was created in the infrarenal aorta of anesthetized rats, and changes of blood flow in the renal artery were assessed using an ultrasonic flow probe. Morphological changes and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in the remodeled renal artery were analyzed. Blood flow in the renal artery increased immediately after creation of AC fistula, but normal RBF was restored 8 weeks later. The renal artery dilated significantly 8 weeks after operation. Expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinase-2 was upregulated shortly after blood flow increase, and returned to baseline levels after 3 weeks. Histological sections showed luminal dilatation with medial thickening and endothelial cell-to-smooth muscle cell attachments in the remodeled renal artery. Increased RBF was accommodated by functional dilatation and remodeling in the medial layer of the renal artery in order to restore normal blood flow. Our results provide important mechanistic insight into the intrinsic regulation of the renal artery in response to increased RBF. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Optoelectronic investigation of nanodiamond interactions with human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficek, M.; Wróbel, M. S.; Wasowicz, M.; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.

    2016-03-01

    We present optoelectronic investigation of in vitro interactions of whole human blood with different nanodiamond biomarkers. Plasmo-chemical modifications of detonation nanodiamond particles gives the possibility for controlling their surface for biological applications. Optical investigations reveal the biological activity of nanodiamonds in blood dependent on its surface termination. We compare different types of nanodiamonds: commercial non-modified detonation nanodiamonds, and nanodiamonds modified by MW PACVD method with H2-termination, and chemically modified nanodiamond with O2-termination. The absorption spectra, and optical microscope investigations were conducted. The results indicate haemocompatibility of non-modified detonation nanodiamond as well as modified nanodiamonds, which enables their application for drug delivery, as well as sensing applications.

  18. Characterization of Microvesicles Released from Human Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Bach Nguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Extracellular vesicles (EVs are spherical fragments of cell membrane released from various cell types under physiological as well as pathological conditions. Based on their size and origin, EVs are classified as exosome, microvesicles (MVs and apoptotic bodies. Recently, the release of MVs from human red blood cells (RBCs under different conditions has been reported. MVs are released by outward budding and fission of the plasma membrane. However, the outward budding process itself, the release of MVs and the physical properties of these MVs have not been well investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the formation process, isolation and characterization of MVs released from RBCs under conditions of stimulating Ca2+ uptake and activation of protein kinase C. Methods: Experiments were performed based on single cell fluorescence imaging, fluorescence activated cell sorter/flow cytometer (FACS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The released MVs were collected by differential centrifugation and characterized in both their size and zeta potential. Results: Treatment of RBCs with 4-bromo-A23187 (positive control, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, or phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate (PMA in the presence of 2 mM extracellular Ca2+ led to an alteration of cell volume and cell morphology. In stimulated RBCs, exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS and formation of MVs were observed by using annexin V-FITC. The shedding of MVs was also observed in the case of PMA treatment in the absence of Ca2+, especially under the transmitted bright field illumination. By using SEM, AFM and DLS the morphology and size of stimulated RBCs, MVs were characterized. The sizes of the two populations of MVs were 205.8 ± 51.4 nm and 125.6 ± 31.4 nm, respectively. Adhesion of stimulated RBCs and MVs was observed. The zeta potential of MVs was determined in the range from - 40 mV to - 10 m

  19. Seroprevalence of human parvovirus B19 in healthy blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Gupta, R M; Sen, Sourav; Sarkar, R S; Philip, J; Kotwal, Atul; Sumathi, S H

    2013-07-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is an emerging transfusion transmitted infection. Although parvovirus B19 infection is connected with severe complications in some recipients, donor screening is not yet mandatory. To reduce the risk of contamination, plasma-pool screening and exclusion of highly viraemic donations are recommended. In this study the prevalence of parvovirus B19 in healthy blood donors was detected by ELISA. A total of 1633 samples were screened for IgM and IgG antibodies against parvovirus B19 by ELISA. The initial 540 samples were screened for both IgM and IgG class antibodies and remaining 1093 samples were screened for only IgM class antibodies by ELISA. Net prevalence of IgM antibodies to human parvovirus B19 in our study was 7.53% and prevalence of IgG antibodies was 27.96%. Dual positivity (IgG and IgM) was 2.40%. The seroprevalence of human parvovirus B19 among blood donor population in our study is high, and poses an adverse transfusion risk especially in high-risk group of patients who have no detectable antibodies to B19. Studies with large sample size are needed to validate these results.

  20. Circulating Glucagon 1-61 Regulates Blood Glucose by Increasing Insulin Secretion and Hepatic Glucose Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai J. Wewer Albrechtsen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon is secreted from pancreatic α cells, and hypersecretion (hyperglucagonemia contributes to diabetic hyperglycemia. Molecular heterogeneity in hyperglucagonemia is poorly investigated. By screening human plasma using high-resolution-proteomics, we identified several glucagon variants, among which proglucagon 1-61 (PG 1-61 appears to be the most abundant form. PG 1-61 is secreted in subjects with obesity, both before and after gastric bypass surgery, with protein and fat as the main drivers for secretion before surgery, but glucose after. Studies in hepatocytes and in β cells demonstrated that PG 1-61 dose-dependently increases levels of cAMP, through the glucagon receptor, and increases insulin secretion and protein levels of enzymes regulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. In rats, PG 1-61 increases blood glucose and plasma insulin and decreases plasma levels of amino acids in vivo. We conclude that glucagon variants, such as PG 1-61, may contribute to glucose regulation by stimulating hepatic glucose production and insulin secretion.

  1. Biomaterials trigger endothelial cell activation when co-incubated with human whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herklotz, Manuela; Hanke, Jasmin; Hänsel, Stefanie; Drichel, Juliane; Marx, Monique; Maitz, Manfred F; Werner, Carsten

    2016-10-01

    Endothelial cell activation resulting from biomaterial contact or biomaterial-induced blood activation may in turn also affect hemostasis and inflammatory processes in the blood. Current in vitro hemocompatibility assays typically ignore these modulating effects of the endothelium. This study describes a co-incubation system of human whole blood, biomaterial and endothelial cells (ECs) that was developed to overcome this limitation. First, human endothelial cells were characterized in terms of their expression of coagulation- and inflammation-relevant markers in response to various activators. Subsequently, their capacity to regulate hemostasis as well as complement and granulocyte activation was monitored in a hemocompatibility assay. After blood contact, quiescent ECs exhibited anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. When they were co-incubated with surfaces exhibiting pro-coagulant or pro-inflammatory characteristics, the ECs down-regulated coagulation but not complement or leukocyte activation. Analysis of intracellular levels of the endothelial activation markers E-selectin and tissue factor showed that co-incubation with model surfaces and blood significantly increased the activation state of ECs. Finally, the coagulation- and inflammation-modulating properties of the ECs were tested after blood/biomaterial exposure. Pre-activation of ECs by biomaterials in the blood induced a pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory state of the ECs, wherein the pro-coagulant response was higher for biomaterial/blood pre-activated ECs than for TNF-α-pre-activated cells. This work provides evidence that biomaterials, even without directly contacting the endothelium, affect the endothelial activation state with and have consequences for plasmatic and cellular reactions in the blood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased postdialysis systolic blood pressure is associated with extracellular overhydration in hemodialysis outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongnuch, Arkom; Campbell, Neil; Stern, Edward; El-Kateb, Sally; Fuentes, Laura; Davenport, Andrew

    2015-02-01

    Recently, intradialytic hypertension was reported to be associated with increased mortality for hemodialysis patients. To determine whether volume status plays a role in dialysis-associated hypertension, we prospectively audited 531 patients that had volume assessments measured by multiple-frequency bioelectrical impedance during their midweek dialysis session. Mean pre- and postdialysis weights were 73.2 vs 71.7 kg, and systolic blood pressures (SBPs) 140.5 vs. 130.3 mm Hg, respectively. Patients were divided into groups based on a fall in SBP of 20 mm Hg or more (32%), an increased SBP of 10 mm Hg or more (18%), and a stable group (50%). There were no differences in patient demographics, dialysis prescriptions, predialysis weight, total body (TBW), and extracellular (ECW) and intracellular water (ICW). However, the change in weight was significantly less in the increased blood pressure group (1.01 kg vs. stable 1.65, and 1.7 hypotensive). The ratio of ECW to TBW was significantly higher in the increased blood pressure group, particularly post dialysis (39.1 vs. stable 38.7% and fall in blood pressure group 38.7%). ECW overhydration was significantly greater in the increased blood pressure group post dialysis (0.7 (0.17 to 1.1) vs. stable 0.39 (-0.2 to 0.95) and fall in blood pressure group 0.38 (-0.19 to 0.86) liter). We found that patients who had increased blood pressure post dialysis had greater hydration status, particularly ECW. Thus, patients who increase their blood pressure post dialysis should have review of target weight, consideration of lowering the post-dialysis weight, and may benefit from increasing dialysis session time or frequency.

  3. Erythropoetin treatment can increase 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgegård, G; Sandhagen, B

    2001-01-01

    Some patients experience an improved well-being during treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin even with an unchanged Hb level. We have hypothesized that this may not be only a placebo effect. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in red blood cells increases in response to anaemia/hypoxia and causes a shift of the oxygen dissociation curve, allowing a more effective oxygen delivery. We have investigated red cell 2,3-DPG concentrations during erythropoietin treatment in healthy volunteers as a mediator of a possible physiological explanation. Thirteen healthy subjects with no iron deficiency were recruited and randomly assigned to a treatment group comprising five males and three females and a control group including three males and two females. The treatment group was treated with erythropoietin (Recormon), 20 IE/kg subcutaneously three times/week for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected at each injection day and 10 days after the last injection and at corresponding times in the control group. B-Hb, red cell 2,3-DPG and P50 were measured by standard techniques and oxygen-releasing capacity was calculated. due to the sampling (26 ml each time, three times/week) the mean Hb level was lowered from 140.5 +/- 5.9 to 128.6 +/- 10.4 g/L in the control group whereas the erythropoietin treatment group maintained a mean Hb level of about 142 g/L (plevel curve as well as that for oxygen releasing capacity also differed significantly between the two groups (p levels. treatment with erythropoietin causes an increase in red cell 2,3-DPG levels.

  4. Renal cortical and medullary blood flow responses to altered NO availability in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damkjær, Mads; Vafaee, Manoucher; Møller, Michael L; Braad, Poul Erik; Petersen, Henrik; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Bie, Peter

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify regional renal blood flow in humans. In nine young volunteers on a controlled diet, the lower abdomen was CT-scanned, and regional renal blood flow was determined by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning using H(2)(15)O as tracer. Measurements were performed at baseline, during constant intravenous infusion of nitric oxide (NO) donor glyceryl nitrate and after intravenous injection of NO synthase inhibitor N(ω)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). Using the CT image, the kidney pole areas were delineated as volumes of interest (VOI). In the data analysis, tissue layers with a thickness of one voxel were eliminated stepwise from the external surface of the VOI (voxel peeling), and the blood flow subsequently was determined in each new, reduced VOI. Blood flow in the shrinking VOIs decreased as the number of cycles of voxel peeling increased. After 4-5 cycles, blood flow was not reduced further by additional voxel peeling. This volume-insensitive flow was measured to be 2.30 ± 0.17 ml·g tissue(-1)·min(-1) during the control period; it increased during infusion of glyceryl nitrate to 2.97 ± 0.18 ml·g tissue(-1)·min(-1) (P blood flow was 4.67 ± 0.31 ml·g tissue(-1)·min(-1) during control, unchanged by glyceryl nitrate, and decreased after L-NMMA [3.48 ± 0.23 ml·(g·min)(-1), P renal medullary region in which the measured blood flow is 1) low, 2) independent of reduction in the VOI, and 3) reactive to changes in systemic NO supply. The technique seems to provide indices of renal medullary blood flow in humans.

  5. Oxygen affinity and Bohr effect responses to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in equine and human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    diBella, G; Scandariato, G; Suriano, O; Rizzo, A

    1996-05-01

    The dependence of blood oxygen affinity and the Bohr effect on the concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) in erythrocytes was investigated in 24 trotter horses and 24 healthy men. The oxygen tension at half saturation and standard conditions (P50st at pH 7.4, PCO2(40) mmHg and 37 degrees C) and the carbon dioxide or fixed-acid-induced Bohr effect (dlogP50/dpH) were determined. Samples of fresh blood and blood depleted of or enriched with DPG were studied. In the absence of measurable DPG, the equine and human blood had similar mean (SD) values of P50st (16.6 [0.6] and 16.2 [0.7] mmHg, respectively). In both species these values increased with increasing DPG, but the response of equine blood was significantly lower, at least up to physiological values (P50st = 24.6 [0.6] and 26.2 [0.7]) mmHg; DPG = 14([1.8] and 12.8 [1.2] mumol gHb-1, respectively, in fresh blood). For concentrations above 20 to 25 mumol gHb-1 of DPG the difference between the values of P50st in the two species tended to decrease because the response in human blood reached a plateau. The interactions between the Bohr effect and the concentration of DPG showed that in the horses, as in the men, the level of DPG played an important role in governing the relative magnitude of carbon dioxide and fixed acid factors. The difference between them, which is associated with the oxylabile carbamino binding, was greatest in DPG-depleted blood, but whereas in the men the difference was suppressed by an above normal DPG concentration, in the horses it was still measurable.

  6. Direct RNA-based detection of CTX-M β-lactamases in human blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Claudia; Makarewicz, Oliwia; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Brandt, Christian; Pletz, Mathias W

    2015-05-01

    Bloodstream infections with ESBL-producers are associated with increased mortality, which is due to delayed appropriate treatment resulting in clinical failure. Current routine diagnostics for detection of bloodstream infections consists of blood culture followed by species identification and susceptibility testing. In attempts to improve and accelerate diagnostic procedures, PCR-based methods have been developed. These methods focus on species identification covering only a limited number of ESBL coding genes. Therefore, they fail to cover the steadily further evolving genetic diversity of clinically relevant β-lactamases. We have recently designed a fast and novel RNA targeting method to detect and specify CTX-M alleles from bacterial cultures, based on an amplification-pyrosequencing approach. We further developed this assay towards a diagnostic tool for clinical use and evaluated its sensitivity and specificity when applied directly to human blood samples. An optimized protocol for mRNA isolation allows detection of specific CTX-M groups from as little as 100 CFU/mL blood via reverse transcription, amplification, and pyrosequencing directly from human EDTA blood samples as well as from pre-incubated human blood cultures with a turnaround time for test results of <7 h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Paper-based device for rapid typing of secondary human blood groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miaosi; Then, Whui Lyn; Li, Lizi; Shen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We report the use of bioactive paper for typing of secondary human blood groups. Our recent work on using bioactive paper for human blood typing has led to the discovery of a new method for identifying haemagglutination of red blood cells. The primary human blood groups, i.e., ABO and RhD groups, have been successfully typed with this method. Clinically, however, many secondary blood groups can also cause fatal blood transfusion accidents, despite the fact that the haemagglutination reactions of secondary blood groups are generally weaker than those of the primary blood groups. We describe the design of a user-friendly sensor for rapid typing of secondary blood groups using bioactive paper. We also present mechanistic insights into interactions between secondary blood group antibodies and red blood cells obtained using confocal microscopy. Haemagglutination patterns under different conditions are revealed for optimization of the assay conditions.

  8. Combined inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandins reduces human skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Langberg, Henning; Gemmer, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The vascular endothelium is an important mediator of tissue vasodilatation, yet the role of the specific substances, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PG), in mediating the large increases in muscle perfusion during exercise in humans is unclear. Quadriceps microvascular blood flow......, respectively (P exercise in humans. These findings demonstrate an important synergistic role of NO and PG for skeletal muscle vasodilatation and hyperaemia during muscular contraction....... was quantified by near infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green in six healthy humans during dynamic knee extension exercise with and without combined pharmacological inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) and PG by L-NAME and indomethacin, respectively. Microdialysis was applied to determine interstitial release...

  9. Exponential increase in postprandial blood-glucose exposure with increasing carbohydrate loads using a linear carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marran, K J; Davey, B; Lang, A; Segal, D G

    2013-04-10

    Postprandial glucose excursions contribute significantly to average blood glucose, glycaemic variability and cardiovascular risk. Carbohydrate counting is a method of insulin dosing that balances carbohydrate load to insulin dose using a fixed ratio. Many patients and current insulin pumps calculate insulin delivery for meals based on a linear carbohydrate-to-insulin relationship. It is our hypothesis that a non-linear relationship exists between the amounts of carbohydrate consumed and the insulin required to cover it. To document blood glucose exposure in response to increasing carbohydrate loads on fixed carbohydrate-to-insulin ratios. Five type 1 diabetic subjects receiving insulin pump therapy with good control were recruited. Morning basal rates and carbohydrate- to-insulin ratios were optimised. A Medtronic glucose sensor was used for 5 days to collect data for area-under-the-curve (AUC) analysis, during which standardised meals of increasing carbohydrate loads were consumed. Increasing carbohydrate loads using a fixed carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio resulted in increasing glucose AUC. The relationship was found to be exponential rather than linear. Late postprandial hypoglycaemia followed carbohydrate loads of >60 g and this was often followed by rebound hyperglycaemia that lasted >6 hours. A non-linear relationship exists between carbohydrates consumed and the insulin required to cover them. This has implications for control of postprandial blood sugars, especially when consuming large carbohydrate loads. Further studies are required to look at the optimal ratios, duration and type of insulin boluses required to cover increasing carbohydrate loads.

  10. Immunosuppressive activity of human cord-blood lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, T.M.; Davis, P.A.; Curtiss, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    It is now known that the role of plasma lipoproteins is multifunctional. More recently it has been shown that lipoproteins may regulate immune responses as well. Low-density lipoproteins carrying apolipoprotein B (apoB) are known to suppress phytohemagglutinin (PHA) activated lymphocytes by inhibiting DNA synthesis. More recently, an immunoregulatory role has been described for another apolipoprotein, apoE, which is found in low quantities in normal plasma. In these studies with human umbilical-cord blood the authors were intrigued by two factors: the low level of LDL and hence apoB, and the elevated quantity of apoE. This study examines the hypothesis that apoE may regulate lymphocyte function in the human fetus

  11. Simple, accurate equations for human blood O2 dissociation computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severinghaus, J W

    1979-03-01

    Hill's equation can be slightly modified to fit the standard human blood O2 dissociation curve to within plus or minus 0.0055 fractional saturation (S) from O less than S less than 1. Other modifications of Hill's equation may be used to compute Po2 (Torr) from S (Eq. 2), and the temperature coefficient of Po2 (Eq. 3). Variations of the Bohr coefficient with Po2 are given by Eq. 4. S = (((Po2(3) + 150 Po2)(-1) x 23,400) + 1)(-1) (1) In Po2 = 0.385 In (S-1 - 1)(-1) + 3.32 - (72 S)(-1) - 0.17(S6) (2) DELTA In Po2/delta T = 0.058 ((0.243 X Po2/100)(3.88) + 1)(-1) + 0.013 (3) delta In Po2/delta pH = (Po2/26.6)(0.184) - 2.2 (4) Procedures are described to determine Po2 and S of blood iteratively after extraction or addition of a defined amount of O2 and to compute P50 of blood from a single sample after measuring Po2, pH, and S.

  12. Phenylephrine-induced elevations in arterial blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; Wilson, Thad E.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that phenylephrine-induced elevations in blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans, blood pressure was elevated via steady-state infusion of three doses of phenylephrine HCl in 10 healthy subjects in both normothermic and heat stress conditions. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature by 0.5 degrees C, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), heart rate, and cardiac output and decreased total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR; all P blood pressure (MAP; P > 0.05). At the highest dose of phenylephrine, the increase in MAP and TPR from predrug baselines was significantly attenuated during the heat stress [DeltaMAP 8.4 +/- 1.2 mmHg; DeltaTPR 0.96 +/- 0.85 peripheral resistance units (PRU)] compared with normothermia (DeltaMAP 15.4 +/- 1.4 mmHg, DeltaTPR 7.13 +/- 1.18 PRU; all P blood pressure, as well as the slope of the relationship between heart rate and systolic blood pressure, respectively, was similar between thermal conditions (each P > 0.05). These data suggest that phenylephrine-induced elevations in MAP are attenuated in heat-stressed humans without affecting baroreflex control of MSNA or heart rate.

  13. Infrared spectra in monitoring biochemical parameters of human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, S; Singh, R A; Jain, N

    2012-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is gaining recognition as a promising method. The infrared spectra of selected regions (2000-400cm -1 ) of blood tissue samples are reported. Present study related to the role of spectral peak fitting in the study of human blood and quantitative interpretations of infrared spectra based on chemometrics. The spectral variations are interpreted in terms of the biochemical and pathological processes involved. The mean RNA/DNA ratio of fitted intensities and analytical area as calculated from the transmittance peaks at 1121cm -1 /1020cm -1 is found to be 0.911A.U and 2.00A.U. respectively. The ratio of 1659cm -1 /1544cm -1 (amide-I/amide-II) bands is found to shed light on the change in the DNA content. The ratio of amide-I/amide-II is almost unity (≅1.054) for blood spectra. The deviation from unity is an indication of DNA absorption from the RBC cells. The total phosphate content has found to be 25.09A.U. The level for glycogen/phosphate ratio (areas under peaks 1030cm -1 /1082cm -1 ) is found to be 0.286A.U. The ratio of unsaturated and saturated carbonyl compounds (C=O) in blood samples is in form of esters and the analytical areas under the spectral peaks at 1740cm -1 and 1731cm -1 for unsaturated esters and saturated esters respectively found to be 0.618A.U.

  14. The in-vitro study of human blood leukemic cells by pulsed NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkarnaen, M.; Munawir; Wibowo, Tono; Suyitno, Gogot

    1983-01-01

    The diagram of leukemic cells in human blood has been studied by using the NMR longitudinal relaxation technique. The observation was treated in whole blood, serum and blood cell. Every result was compared with previous observation and show that the values of the proton longitudinal relaxation in the leukemic whole blood almost twice or more that of normal blood, while in the serum and the blood cell, the values are nearly the same. (author)

  15. Susceptibility and response of human blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Loon Wong

    Full Text Available Human blood monocytes play a central role in dengue infections and form the majority of virus infected cells in the blood. Human blood monocytes are heterogeneous and divided into CD16(- and CD16(+ subsets. Monocyte subsets play distinct roles during disease, but it is not currently known if monocyte subsets differentially contribute to dengue protection and pathogenesis. Here, we compared the susceptibility and response of the human CD16(- and CD16(+ blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue virus in vitro. We found that both monocyte subsets were equally susceptible to dengue virus (DENV2 NGC, and capable of supporting the initial production of new infective virus particles. Both monocyte subsets produced anti-viral factors, including IFN-α, CXCL10 and TRAIL. However, CD16(+ monocytes were the major producers of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to dengue virus, including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, 3 and 4. The susceptibility of both monocyte subsets to infection was increased after IL-4 treatment, but this increase was more profound for the CD16(+ monocyte subset, particularly at early time points after virus exposure. These findings reveal the differential role that monocyte subsets might play during dengue disease.

  16. Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, José; Calbet, José A L; Boushel, Robert; Helge, Jørn W; Søndergaard, Hans; Munch-Andersen, Thor; van Hall, Gerrit; Mortensen, Stefan P; Secher, Niels H

    2015-10-01

    What is the central question of this study? Temperature-sensitive mechanisms are thought to contribute to blood-flow regulation, but the relationship between exercising and non-exercising limb perfusion and blood temperature is not established. What is the main finding and its importance? The close coupling among perfusion, blood temperature and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non-exercising extremities across different exercise modalities and activity levels and the tight association between limb vasodilatation and increases in plasma ATP suggest that both temperature- and metabolism-sensitive mechanisms are important for the control of human limb perfusion, possibly by activating ATP release from the erythrocytes. Temperature-sensitive mechanisms may contribute to blood-flow regulation, but the influence of temperature on perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs is not established. Blood temperature (TB ), blood flow and oxygen uptake (V̇O2) in the legs and arms were measured in 16 healthy humans during 90 min of leg and arm exercise and during exhaustive incremental leg or arm exercise. During prolonged exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was fourfold higher than arm blood flow (ABF) in association with higher TB and limb V̇O2. Leg and arm vascular conductance during exercise compared with rest was related closely to TB (r(2) = 0.91; P exercise, LBF increased in association with elevations in TB and limb V̇O2, whereas ABF, arm TB and V̇O2 remained largely unchanged. During incremental arm exercise, both ABF and LBF increased in relationship to similar increases in V̇O2. In 12 trained males, increases in femoral TB and LBF during incremental leg exercise were mirrored by similar pulmonary artery TB and cardiac output dynamics, suggesting that processes in active limbs dominate central temperature and perfusion responses. The present data reveal a close coupling among perfusion, TB and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non

  17. Caffeine and human cerebral blood flow: A positron emission tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, O.G.; Modell, J.G.; Hariharan, M. (Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to quantify the effect of caffeine on whole brain and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) in humans. A mean dose of 250 mg of caffeine produced approximately a 30% decrease in whole brain CBF; regional differences in caffeine effect were not observed. Pre-caffeine CBF strongly influenced the magnitude of the caffeine-induced decrease. Caffeine decreased p{sub a}CO{sub 2} and increased systolic blood pressure significantly; the change in p{sub a}CO{sub 2} did not account for the change in CBF. Smaller increases in diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine, and subjectively reported anxiety were also observed.

  18. Kidney Mass Reduction Leads to l-Arginine Metabolism-Dependent Blood Pressure Increase in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Samyuktha Muralidharan; Seebeck, Petra; Fingerhut, Ralph; Huang, Ji; Ming, Xiu-Fen; Yang, Zhihong; Verrey, François

    2018-02-25

    Uninephrectomy (UNX) is performed for various reasons, including kidney cancer or donation. Kidneys being the main site of l-arginine production in the body, we tested whether UNX mediated kidney mass reduction impacts l-arginine metabolism and thereby nitric oxide production and blood pressure regulation in mice. In a first series of experiments, we observed a significant increase in arterial blood pressure 8 days post-UNX in female and not in male mice. Further experimental series were performed in female mice, and the blood pressure increase was confirmed by telemetry. l-citrulline, that is used in the kidney to produce l-arginine, was elevated post-UNX as was also asymmetric dimethylarginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase that competes with l-arginine and is a marker for renal failure. Interestingly, the UNX-induced blood pressure increase was prevented by supplementation of the diet with 5% of the l-arginine precursor, l-citrulline. Because l-arginine is metabolized in the kidney and other peripheral tissues by arginase-2, we tested whether the lack of this metabolic pathway also compensates for decreased l-arginine production in the kidney and/or for local nitric oxide synthase inhibition and consecutive blood pressure increase. Indeed, upon uninephrectomy, arginase-2 knockout mice (Arg-2 -/- ) neither displayed an increase in asymmetric dimethylarginine and l-citrulline plasma levels nor a significant increase in blood pressure. UNX leads to a small increase in blood pressure that is prevented by l-citrulline supplementation or arginase deficiency, 2 measures that appear to compensate for the impact of kidney mass reduction on l-arginine metabolism. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  19. Increased Cord Blood Betatrophin Levels in the Offspring of Mothers with Gestational Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shimin; Zhao, Yue; Du, Caiqi; Yuan, Guandou; Ning, Qin; McCormick, Kenneth; Luo, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Aim Exposing a fetus to hyperglycemia can increase the risk for later-life metabolic disorders. Betatrophin has been proposed as a key regulator of pancreatic beta cell proliferation and lipid regulation. Highly responsive to nutritional signals, serum betatrophin concentrations have been found to be altered by various physiological and pathological conditions. We hypothesized that betatrophin levels are increased in the cord blood in offspring exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study including 54 mothers who underwent uncomplicated Cesarean delivery in a university hospital. Maternal gestational glucose concentration was determined at 24–48 weeks gestation after a 75-g OGTT. Cord blood and placental tissue was collected immediately post delivery. Metabolic parameters were determined in the Clinical Laboratory. Cord blood betatrophin levels were assayed using a commercially available ELISA kit. Placental mitochondrial content was determined by real-time PCR. Results Cord blood betatrophin levels were increased in the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) group compared with the normoglycemic group. Furthermore, betatrophin levels were positively correlated with maternal gestational 2h post-OGTT glucose, cord blood insulin, HOMA-IR, and inversely correlated with placental mitochondrial content. Conclusions Cord blood betatrophin may function as a potential biomarker of maternal intrauterine hyperglycemia and fetal insulin resistance, which may presage for long-term metabolic impact of GDM on offspring. PMID:27196053

  20. Silencing of Atp2b1 increases blood pressure through vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young-Bin; Lim, Ji Eun; Ji, Su-Min; Lee, Hyeon-Ju; Park, So-Yon; Hong, Kyung-Won; Lim, Mihwa; McCarthy, Mark I; Lee, Young-Ho; Oh, Bermseok

    2013-08-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified 30 genetic loci that regulate blood pressure, increasing our understanding of the cause of hypertension. However, it has been difficult to define the causative genes at these loci due to a lack of functional analyses. In this study, we aimed to validate the candidate gene ATP2B1 in 12q21, variants near which have the strongest association with blood pressure in Asians and Europeans. ATP2B1 functions as a calcium pump to fine-tune calcium concentrations - necessary for repolarization following muscular contractions. We silenced Atp2b1 using an siRNA complex, injected into mouse tail veins. In treated mice, blood pressure rose and the mesenteric arteries increased in wall : lumen ratio. Moreover, the arteries showed enhanced myogenic responses to pressure, and contractile responses to phenylephrine increased compared with the control, suggesting that blood pressure is regulated by ATP2B1 through the contraction and dilation of the vessel, likely by controlling calcium concentrations in the resting state. These results support that ATP2B1 is the causative gene in the blood pressure-associated 12q21 locus and demonstrate that ATP2B1 expression in the vessel influences blood pressure.

  1. Damage of chromosoms under irradiation of human blood lymphocytes and development of bystander effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemetun, O V

    2016-12-01

    the research the distribution of radiation induced damages among chromosomes and their bands in irra diated in vitro human blood lymphocytes and in unirradiated bystander cells.Material and methods of research: cultivation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes by semi micromethod D.A. Hungerford, modeling of radiation induced bystander effect in mixed cultures consisting of irradiated in vitro and non irradiated blood lymphocytes from persons of different gender, GTG staining of metaphase chromosomes and their cytogenetic analysis. Break points in chromosomes under the formation of aberrations were identified in exposed in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocytes in doses 0.25 Gy (95 breaks in 1248 cells) and 1.0 Gy (227 breaks in 726 cells) and in non irradiated bystander cells under their joint cultivation with irradiated in vitro human lymphocytes (51 breaks in 1137 cells at irradiation of adjacent populations of lymphocytes in dose 0.25 Gy and 75 breaks in 1321 cells at irradiation of adjacent population of lymphocytes in a dose 1.0 Gy). The distribution of injuries among the chromo somes and their bands was investigated. in radiation exposed in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocytes as well as in bystander cells the fre quency of damaged bands and number of breaks which localized in them exceeded the control value (p chromosomes were damaged according to their relative length. Location of bands with increasing number of breaks coincided with the «hot spots» of chromosome damage following irradiation and fragile sites. More sensitive to damage were G negative euchromatin chromosome bands, in which were localized 82 88 % breaks. Damageability of telomeric regions in the irradiated cells had no significant difference from the control, while in bystander cells was lower than control value (p < 0.05). O. V. Shemetun.

  2. Enhancement of Toxic Substances Clearance from Blood Equvalent Solution and Human Whole Blood through High Flux Dialyzer by 1 MHz Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiran M. B.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodialysis is a process of removing waste and excess fluid from blood when kidneys cannot function efficiently. It often involves diverting blood to the filter of the dialysis machin to be cleared of toxic substances. Fouling of pores in dialysis membrane caused by adhesion of plasma protein and other toxins will reduce the efficacy of the filtre. Objective: In This study, the influence of pulsed ultrasound waves on diffusion and the prevention of fouling in the filter membrane were investigated. Material and Methods: Pulsed ultrasound waves with frequency of 1 MHz at an intensity of 1 W/cm2 was applied to the high flux (PES 130 filter. Blood and blood equivalent solutions were passed through the filter in separate experimental setups. The amount of Creatinine, Urea and Inulin cleared from both blood equvalent solution and human whole blood passed through High Flux (PES 130 filter were measured in the presence and absence of ultrasound irradiation. Samples were taken from the outlet of the dialyzer every five minutes and the clearance of each constituent was calculated. Results: Statistical analysis of the blood equvalent solution and whole blood indicated the clearance of Urea and Inulin in the presence of ultrasound increased (p<0.05, while no significant effects were observed for Creatinine. Conclusion: It may be concluded that ultrasound, as a mechanical force, can increase the rate of clearance of some toxins (such as middle and large molecules in the hemodialysis process.

  3. Enhancement of Toxic Substances Clearance from Blood Equvalent Solution and Human Whole Blood through High Flux Dialyzer by 1 MHz Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiran, M.B.; Barzegar Marvasti, M.; Shakeri-Zadeh, A.; Shahidi, M.; Tabkhi, N.; Farkhondeh, F.; Kalantar, E.; Asadinejad, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hemodialysis is a process of removing waste and excess fluid from blood when kidneys cannot function efficiently. It often involves diverting blood to the filter of the dialysis machin to be cleared of toxic substances. Fouling of pores in dialysis membrane caused by adhesion of plasma protein and other toxins will reduce the efficacy of the filtre. Objective: In This study, the influence of pulsed ultrasound waves on diffusion and the prevention of fouling in the filter membrane were investigated. Material and Methods: Pulsed ultrasound waves with frequency of 1 MHz at an intensity of 1 W/cm2 was applied to the high flux (PES 130) filter. Blood and blood equivalent solutions were passed through the filter in separate experimental setups. The amount of Creatinine, Urea and Inulin cleared from both blood equvalent solution and human whole blood passed through High Flux (PES 130) filter were measured in the presence and absence of ultrasound irradiation. Samples were taken from the outlet of the dialyzer every five minutes and the clearance of each constituent was calculated. Results: Statistical analysis of the blood equvalent solution and whole blood indicated the clearance of Urea and Inulin in the presence of ultrasound increased (p<0.05), while no significant effects were observed for Creatinine. Conclusion: It may be concluded that ultrasound, as a mechanical force, can increase the rate of clearance of some toxins (such as middle and large molecules) in the hemodialysis process. PMID:28580332

  4. Determination of natural in vivo noble-gas concentrations in human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yama Tomonaga

    Full Text Available Although the naturally occurring atmospheric noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe possess great potential as tracers for studying gas exchange in living beings, no direct analytical technique exists for simultaneously determining the absolute concentrations of these noble gases in body fluids in vivo. In this study, using human blood as an example, the absolute concentrations of all stable atmospheric noble gases were measured simultaneously by combining and adapting two analytical methods recently developed for geochemical research purposes. The partition coefficients determined between blood and air, and between blood plasma and red blood cells, agree with values from the literature. While the noble-gas concentrations in the plasma agree rather well with the expected solubility equilibrium concentrations for air-saturated water, the red blood cells are characterized by a distinct supersaturation pattern, in which the gas excess increases in proportion to the atomic mass of the noble-gas species, indicating adsorption on to the red blood cells. This study shows that the absolute concentrations of noble gases in body fluids can be easily measured using geochemical techniques that rely only on standard materials and equipment, and for which the underlying concepts are already well established in the field of noble-gas geochemistry.

  5. Coupling between the blood lactate-to-pyruvate ratio and MCA Vmean at the onset of exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Madsen, Camilla A; Nielsen, Henning B

    2009-01-01

    Activation-induced increase in cerebral blood flow is coupled to enhanced metabolic activity, maybe with brain tissue redox state and oxygen tension as key modulators. To evaluate this hypothesis at the onset of exercise in humans, blood was sampled at 0.1 to 0.2 Hz from the radial artery and right...... internal jugular vein, while middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA V(mean)) was recorded. Both the arterial and venous lactate-to-pyruvate ratio increased after 10 s (P capillary...... state and oxygenation as potential modulators of an increase in cerebral blood flow at the onset of exercise....

  6. Increased brainstem perfusion, but no blood-brain barrier disruption, during attacks of migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal M; Christensen, Casper E

    2017-01-01

    symptoms are related to the headache phase of migraine. Animal studies suggest that cortical spreading depression, the likely mechanism of migraine aura, causes disruption of the blood-brain barrier and noxious stimulation of trigeminal afferents leading to activation of brainstem nuclei and triggering...... of migraine headache. We used the sensitive and validated technique of dynamic contrast-enhanced high-field magnetic resonance imaging to simultaneously investigate blood-brain barrier permeability and tissue perfusion in the brainstem (at the level of the lower pons), visual cortex, and brain areas......-free day. The mean time from attack onset to scanning was 7.6 h. We found increased brainstem perfusion bilaterally during migraine with aura attacks. Perfusion also increased in the visual cortex and posterior white matter following migraine aura. We found no increase in blood-brain barrier permeability...

  7. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets....... The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg......, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver funtion were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended...

  8. Distinction of Fly Artifacts from Human Blood using Immunodetection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, David B; Acca, Gillian; Fink, Marc; Brogan, Rebecca; Chen, Dorothy; Schoeffield, Andrew

    2018-02-21

    Insect stains produced by necrophagous flies are indistinguishable morphologically from human bloodstains. At present, no diagnostic tests exist to overcome this deficiency. As the first step toward developing a chemical test to recognize fly artifacts, polyclonal antisera were generated in rats against three distinct antigenic sequences of fly cathepsin D-like proteinase, an enzyme that is structurally distinct in cyclorrhaphous Diptera from other animals. The resulting rat antisera bound to artifacts produced by Protophormia terraenovae and synthetic peptides used to generate the polyclonal antisera, but not with any type of mammalian blood tested in immunoassays. Among the three antisera, anti-md3 serum displayed the highest reactivity for fly stains, demonstrated cross-reactivity for all synthetic peptides representing antigenic sequences of the mature fly enzyme, and bound artifacts originating from the fly digestive tract. Further work is needed to determine whether the antisera are suitable for non-laboratory conditions. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Trace-element measurement in human blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidian, M.R.; Ebrahimi-Fakhar, F.

    1992-01-01

    It is conceivable that some essential elements such as zinc, iron, calcium, copper, phosphorus, selenium, etc., have a major impact on biological and metabolical functions in the human body. The concentration of these elements is normally very minute and changes within a naturally set tolerance. The accurate measurement of these elements in biological samples, such as in blood, is one of the objectives of medical physics in diagnosis. There are many sophisticated methods to measure the accurate amount of each element in biological samples. The methods used in this project are a combination of proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). The PIXE and NAA are fast and reliable techniques for multielement analysis at the level of parts per million and less

  10. Calculation of the uptake of CO into the human blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zankl, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    CO is a toxic substance mainly because, due to its high hemoglobin affinity, it inhibits oxygen transport in the human blood. This process must be quantified in order to establish limiting CO concentrations for garages, road tunnels, places of work, and for purpose of accident analysis. The medical information given is based on literature and is considered only as an introduction for non-experts. The emphasis of the work was on the development of a computer program by which the influence also of variable air CO concentrations and sea levels can be calculated. The program is available at the author's institute along with detailed calculations and results not considered in this publication.

  11. PCR amplification of Bartonella koehlerae from human blood and enrichment blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitschwerdt Edward B

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cats appear to be the primary reservoir host for Bartonella koehlerae, an alpha Proteobacteria that is most likely transmitted among cat populations by fleas (Ctenocephalides felis. Bartonella koehlerae has caused endocarditis in a dog and in one human patient from Israel, but other clinically relevant reports involving this bacterium are lacking. Despite publication of numerous, worldwide epidemiological studies designed to determine the prevalence of Bartonella spp. bacteremia in cats, B. koehlerae has never been isolated using conventional blood agar plates. To date, successful isolation of B. koehlerae from cats and from the one human endocarditis patient has consistently required the use of chocolate agar plates. Results In this study, Bartonella koehlerae bacteremia was documented in eight immunocompetent patients by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing, either prior to or after enrichment blood culture using Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium. Presenting symptoms most often included fatigue, insomnia, joint pain, headache, memory loss, and muscle pain. Four patients were also infected with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II. After molecular documentation of B. koehlerae infection in these patients, a serological test was developed and serum samples were tested retrospectively. Bartonella koehlerae antibodies were not detected (titers B. koehlerae antibody titers of 1:64 or greater. Conclusions Although biased by a study population consisting of individuals with extensive arthropod and animal exposure, the results of this study suggest that B. koehlerae bacteremia is more common in immunocompetent people than has been previously suspected. Future studies should more thoroughly define modes of transmission and risk factors for acquiring infection with B. koehlerae. In addition, studies are needed to determine if B. koehlerae is a cause or cofactor in the development of arthritis, peripheral

  12. Membrane transport of anandamide through resealed human red blood cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, I.N.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of resealed red blood cell membranes (ghosts) allows the study of the transport of a compound in a nonmetabolizing system with a biological membrane. Transmembrane movements of anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, arachidonoylethanolamide) have been studied by exchange efflux experiments...... at 0°C and pH 7.3 with albumin-free and albumin-filled human red blood cell ghosts. The efflux kinetics is biexponential and is analyzed in terms of compartment models. The distribution of anandamide on the membrane inner to outer leaflet pools is determined to be 0.275 ± 0.023, and the rate constant...... of unidirectional flux from inside to outside is 0.361 ± 0.023 s. The rate constant of unidirectional flux from the membrane to BSA in the medium ([BSA]) increases with the square root of [BSA] in accordance with the theory of an unstirred layer around ghosts. Anandamide passed through the red blood cell membrane...

  13. Increasing Organizational Effectiveness through Better Human Resource Planning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Edgar H.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the increasing importance of human resource planning and development for organizational effectiveness, and examines how the major components of a human resource planning and development system should be coordinated for maximum effectiveness. Available from Alfred P. Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,…

  14. Volume-dependent K+ transport in rabbit red blood cells comparison with oxygenated human SS cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rohil, N.; Jennings, M.L.

    1989-07-01

    In this study the volume-dependent or N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive K+ influx and efflux were measured with the tracer 86Rb+ in rabbit red blood cells. The purpose of the work was to examine the rabbit as a potential model for cell volume regulation in human SS red blood cells and also to investigate the relationship between the NEM-reactive sulfhydryl group(s) and the signal by which cell swelling activates the transport. Ouabain-resistant K+ efflux and influx increase nearly threefold in cells swollen hypotonically by 15%. Pretreatment with 2 mM NEM stimulates efflux 5-fold and influx 10-fold (each measured in an isotonic medium). The ouabain-resistant K+ efflux was dependent on the major anion in the medium. The anion dependence of K+ efflux in swollen or NEM-stimulated cells was as follows: Br- greater than Cl- much greater than NO3- = acetate. The magnitudes of both the swelling- and the NEM-stimulated fluxes are much higher in young cells (density separated but excluding reticulocytes) than in older cells. Swelling- or NEM-stimulated K+ efflux in rabbit red blood cells was inhibited 50% by 1 mM furosemide, and the inhibitory potency of furosemide was enhanced by extracellular K+, as is known to be true for human AA and low-K+ sheep red blood cells. The swelling-stimulated flux in both rabbit and human SS cells has a pH optimum at approximately 7.4. We conclude that rabbit red blood cells are a good model for swelling-stimulated K+ transport in human SS cells.

  15. Anopheles Midgut Epithelium Evades Human Complement Activity by Capturing Factor H from the Blood Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ayman; Barroso, Marta; Miettinen, Tiera; Meri, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    Hematophagous vectors strictly require ingesting blood from their hosts to complete their life cycles. Exposure of the alimentary canal of these vectors to the host immune effectors necessitates efficient counteractive measures by hematophagous vectors. The Anopheles mosquito transmitting the malaria parasite is an example of hematophagous vectors that within seconds can ingest human blood double its weight. The innate immune defense mechanisms, like the complement system, in the human blood should thereby immediately react against foreign cells in the mosquito midgut. A prerequisite for complement activation is that the target cells lack complement regulators on their surfaces. In this work, we analyzed whether human complement is active in the mosquito midgut, and how the mosquito midgut cells protect themselves against complement attack. We found that complement remained active for a considerable time and was able to kill microbes within the mosquito midgut. However, the Anopheles mosquito midgut cells were not injured. These cells were found to protect themselves by capturing factor H, the main soluble inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway. Factor H inhibited complement on the midgut cells by promoting inactivation of C3b to iC3b and preventing the activity of the alternative pathway amplification C3 convertase enzyme. An interference of the FH regulatory activity by monoclonal antibodies, carried to the midgut via blood, resulted in increased mosquito mortality and reduced fecundity. By using a ligand blotting assay, a putative mosquito midgut FH receptor could be detected. Thereby, we have identified a novel mechanism whereby mosquitoes can tolerate human blood. PMID:25679788

  16. Anopheles midgut epithelium evades human complement activity by capturing factor H from the blood meal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Khattab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hematophagous vectors strictly require ingesting blood from their hosts to complete their life cycles. Exposure of the alimentary canal of these vectors to the host immune effectors necessitates efficient counteractive measures by hematophagous vectors. The Anopheles mosquito transmitting the malaria parasite is an example of hematophagous vectors that within seconds can ingest human blood double its weight. The innate immune defense mechanisms, like the complement system, in the human blood should thereby immediately react against foreign cells in the mosquito midgut. A prerequisite for complement activation is that the target cells lack complement regulators on their surfaces. In this work, we analyzed whether human complement is active in the mosquito midgut, and how the mosquito midgut cells protect themselves against complement attack. We found that complement remained active for a considerable time and was able to kill microbes within the mosquito midgut. However, the Anopheles mosquito midgut cells were not injured. These cells were found to protect themselves by capturing factor H, the main soluble inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway. Factor H inhibited complement on the midgut cells by promoting inactivation of C3b to iC3b and preventing the activity of the alternative pathway amplification C3 convertase enzyme. An interference of the FH regulatory activity by monoclonal antibodies, carried to the midgut via blood, resulted in increased mosquito mortality and reduced fecundity. By using a ligand blotting assay, a putative mosquito midgut FH receptor could be detected. Thereby, we have identified a novel mechanism whereby mosquitoes can tolerate human blood.

  17. Arterial Blood Pressure Induces Transient C4b-Binding Protein in Human Saphenous Vein Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupreishvili, Koba; Meischl, Christof; Vonk, Alexander B A; Stooker, Wim; Eijsman, Leon; Blom, Anna M; Quax, Paul H A; van Hinsbergh, Victor W M; Niessen, Hans W M; Krijnen, Paul A J

    2017-05-01

    Complement is an important mediator in arterial blood pressure-induced vein graft failure. Previously, we noted activation of cell protective mechanisms in human saphenous veins too. Here we have analyzed whether C4b-binding protein (C4bp), an endogenous complement inhibitor, is present in the vein wall. Human saphenous vein segments obtained from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 55) were perfused in vitro at arterial blood pressure with either autologous blood for 1, 2, 4, or 6 hr or with autologous blood supplemented with reactive oxygen species scavenger N-acetylcysteine. The segments were subsequently analyzed quantitatively for presence of C4bp and complement activation product C3d using immunohistochemistry. Perfusion induced deposition of C3d and C4bp within the media of the vessel wall, which increased reproducibly and significantly over a period of 4 hr up to 3.8% for C3d and 81% for C4bp of the total vessel area. Remarkably after 6 hr of perfusion, the C3d-positive area decreased significantly to 1.3% and the C4bp-positive area to 19% of the total area of the vein. The areas positive for both C4bp and C3d were increased in the presence of N-acetylcysteine. Exposure to arterial blood pressure leads to a transient presence of C4bp in the vein wall. This may be part of a cell-protective mechanism to counteract arterial blood pressure-induced cellular stress and inflammation in grafted veins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A possible human counterpart of the principle of increasing entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Y.; An, K.N.; Yang, G.; Huang, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that the principle of increasing entropy holds for isolated natural systems that contain non-adaptive molecules. Here we present, for the first time, an experimental evidence for a possible human counterpart of the principle in an isolated social system that involves adaptive humans. Our work shows that the human counterpart is valid even though interactions among humans in social systems are distinctly different from those among molecules in natural systems. Thus, it becomes possible to understand social systems from this natural principle, at least to some extent.

  19. Transcranial direct current stimulation transiently increases the blood-brain barrier solute permeability in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Da Wi; Khadka, Niranjan; Fan, Jie; Bikson, Marom; Fu, Bingmei M.

    2016-03-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive electrical stimulation technique investigated for a broad range of medical and performance indications. Whereas prior studies have focused exclusively on direct neuron polarization, our hypothesis is that tDCS directly modulates endothelial cells leading to transient changes in blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability (P) that are highly meaningful for neuronal activity. For this, we developed state-of-the-art imaging and animal models to quantify P to various sized solutes after tDCS treatment. tDCS was administered using a constant current stimulator to deliver a 1mA current to the right frontal cortex of rat (approximately 2 mm posterior to bregma and 2 mm right to sagittal suture) to obtain similar physiological outcome as that in the human tDCS application studies. Sodium fluorescein (MW=376), or FITC-dextrans (20K and 70K), in 1% BSA mammalian Ringer was injected into the rat (SD, 250-300g) cerebral circulation via the ipsilateral carotid artery by a syringe pump at a constant rate of ~3 ml/min. To determine P, multiphoton microscopy with 800-850 nm wavelength laser was applied to take the images from the region of interest (ROI) with proper microvessels, which are 100-200 micron below the pia mater. It shows that the relative increase in P is about 8-fold for small solute, sodium fluorescein, ~35-fold for both intermediate sized (Dex-20k) and large (Dex-70k) solutes, 10 min after 20 min tDCS pretreatment. All of the increased permeability returns to the control after 20 min post treatment. The results confirmed our hypothesis.

  20. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauson Anne-Helene

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets. The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver function were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended to increase (P = 0.07 with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters.

  1. Exposure to bisphenol A from drinking canned beverages increases blood pressure: randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sanghyuk; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used in plastic bottles and inner coating of beverage cans, and its exposure is almost ubiquitous. BPA has been associated with hypertension and decreased heart rate variability in the previous studies. The aim of the present study was to determine whether increased BPA exposure from consumption of canned beverage actually affects blood pressure and heart rate variability. We conducted a randomized crossover trial with noninstitutionalized adults, who were aged ≥60 years and recruited from a local community center. A total of 60 participants visited the study site 3 times, and they were provided the same beverage in 2 glass bottles, 2 cans, or 1 can and 1 glass bottle at a time. The sequence of the beverage was randomized. We then measured urinary BPA concentration, blood pressure, and heart rate variability 2 hours after the consumption of each beverage. The paired t test and mixed model were used to compare the differences. The urinary BPA concentration increased after consuming canned beverages by >1600% compared with that after consuming glass bottled beverages. Systolic blood pressure adjusted for daily variance increased by ≈4.5 mm Hg after consuming 2 canned beverages compared with that after consuming 2 glass bottled beverages, and the difference was statistically significant. The parameters of the heart rate variability did not show statistically significant differences.The present study demonstrated that consuming canned beverage and consequent increase of BPA exposure increase blood pressure acutely. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Delay in blood sampling for routine newborn screening is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2015-01-01

    for this association. Therefore, we investigated whether the increased risk can be explained by other risk factors for schizophrenia. METHODS: A case-control design was applied. A total of 846 cases with schizophrenia were selected from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register. One control was selected for each case......BACKGROUND: The Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank, containing dried blood spot samples from all newborn in Denmark, is a unique source of data that can be utilized for analyses of genetic and environmental exposures related to schizophrenia and other mental disorders. In previous analyses, we have...... found that early and late blood sampling, compared to sampling at day 5, was associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. As delay in sampling of blood for neonatal screening cannot in itself influence the risk of schizophrenia, it must be seen as a proxy for unknown underlying causes responsible...

  3. Scheduled transplantation of human umbilical cord blood to severe combined immunodeficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianqiu; Yang Yunfang; Jin Zhijun; Cai Jianming; Yang Rujun; Xiang Yingsong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To explore a new method for developing the efficiency of human umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells engraftment, and further understand the growth characteristic of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in vivo. Methods: Sublethally irradiated severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice were transplanted i.v. with UCB cells which had been cryo-preserved at -80 degree C. The human cells in recipient mice were detected by flow cytometry and CFU-GM assay. Results: In contrast to the single transplantation, scheduled engraftment of similar numbers of UCB cells resulted in a proportionally obvious increase in the percentages of CD45 + , CD34 + cells produced in SCID mouse bone marrow (BM). When the donor cells were reduced to 20 percent, an identical reconstitution of both hematopoietic and part of immunologic functions was achieved. Conclusion: Scheduled engraftment improves the repopulating ability of HSC, which would provide a novel way for clinical cord blood engraftment in adult objects

  4. Coronary and muscle blood flow during physical exercise in humans; heterogenic alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Majerczak, Joanna; Duda, Krzysztof; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    In this review, we present the relation between power generation capabilities and pulmonary oxygen uptake during incremental cycling exercise in humans and the effect of exercise intensity on the oxygen cost of work. We also discuss the importance of oxygen delivery to the working muscles as a factor determining maximal oxygen uptake in humans. Subsequently, we outline the importance of coronary blood flow, myocardial oxygen uptake and myocardial metabolic stability for exercise tolerance. Finally, we describe mechanisms of endothelium-dependent regulation of coronary and skeletal muscle blood flow, dysregulation of which may impair exercise capacity and increase the cardiovascular risk of exercise. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

  5. Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non‐exercising human limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbet, José A. L.; Boushel, Robert; Helge, Jørn W.; Søndergaard, Hans; Munch‐Andersen, Thor; van Hall, Gerrit; Mortensen, Stefan P.; Secher, Niels H.

    2015-01-01

    New Findings What is the central question of this study? Temperature‐sensitive mechanisms are thought to contribute to blood‐flow regulation, but the relationship between exercising and non‐exercising limb perfusion and blood temperature is not established. What is the main finding and its importance? The close coupling among perfusion, blood temperature and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non‐exercising extremities across different exercise modalities and activity levels and the tight association between limb vasodilatation and increases in plasma ATP suggest that both temperature‐ and metabolism‐sensitive mechanisms are important for the control of human limb perfusion, possibly by activating ATP release from the erythrocytes. Temperature‐sensitive mechanisms may contribute to blood‐flow regulation, but the influence of temperature on perfusion to exercising and non‐exercising human limbs is not established. Blood temperature (T B), blood flow and oxygen uptake (V˙O2) in the legs and arms were measured in 16 healthy humans during 90 min of leg and arm exercise and during exhaustive incremental leg or arm exercise. During prolonged exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was fourfold higher than arm blood flow (ABF) in association with higher T B and limb V˙O2. Leg and arm vascular conductance during exercise compared with rest was related closely to T B (r 2 = 0.91; P exercise, LBF increased in association with elevations in T B and limb V˙O2, whereas ABF, arm T B and V˙O2 remained largely unchanged. During incremental arm exercise, both ABF and LBF increased in relationship to similar increases in V˙O2. In 12 trained males, increases in femoral T B and LBF during incremental leg exercise were mirrored by similar pulmonary artery T B and cardiac output dynamics, suggesting that processes in active limbs dominate central temperature and perfusion responses. The present data reveal a close coupling among perfusion, T B and aerobic metabolism

  6. Post-Weaning Protein Malnutrition Increases Blood Pressure and Induces Endothelial Dysfunctions in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siman, Fabiana D. M.; Silveira, Edna A.; Meira, Eduardo F.; da Costa, Carlos P.; Vassallo, Dalton V.; Padilha, Alessandra S.

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition during critical periods in early life may increase the subsequent risk of hypertension and metabolic diseases in adulthood, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effects of post-weaning protein malnutrition on blood pressure and vascular reactivity in aortic rings (conductance artery) and isolated-perfused tail arteries (resistance artery) from control (fed with Labina®) and post-weaning protein malnutrition rats (offspring that received a diet with low protein content for three months). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate increased in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. In the aortic rings, reactivity to phenylephrine (10−10–3.10−4 M) was similar in both groups. Endothelium removal or L-NAME (10−4 M) incubation increased the response to phenylephrine, but the L-NAME effect was greater in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. The protein expression of the endothelial nitric oxide isoform increased in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. Incubation with apocynin (0.3 mM) reduced the response to phenylephrine in both groups, but this effect was higher in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, suggesting an increase of superoxide anion release. In the tail artery of the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, the vascular reactivity to phenylephrine (0.001–300 µg) and the relaxation to acetylcholine (10−10–10−3 M) were increased. Post-weaning protein malnutrition increases blood pressure and induces vascular dysfunction. Although the vascular reactivity in the aortic rings did not change, an increase in superoxide anion and nitric oxide was observed in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. However, in the resistance arteries, the increased vascular reactivity may be a potential mechanism underlying the increased blood pressure observed in this model. PMID:22529948

  7. Neurobehavioral deficits and increased blood pressure in school-age children prenatally exposed to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2010-01-01

    -Binet Copying Recall Test). These associations corresponded to a developmental delay of 1.5-2 years. Prenatal pesticide exposure was also significantly associated with an average increase of 3.6 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and a slight decrease in body mass index of 1.1 kg/m2. Inclusion of the pilot data...

  8. Increased blood pressure can reduce fatigue of thenar muscles paralyzed after spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, JE; Ribot-Ciscar, E; Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, CK

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether increases in blood pressure, and presumably muscle perfusion pressure, improve the endurance of thenar muscles paralyzed chronically by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Resting mean arterial pressure (MAP) was low in all eight subjects (64 +/- 2 mmHg).

  9. Biochemical analysis of CTLA-4 immunoreactive material from human blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennert Kate

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CTLA-4 was initially described as a membrane-bound molecule that inhibited lymphocyte activation by interacting with B7.1 and B7.2 molecules on antigen presenting cells. Alternative splicing of mRNA encoding the CTLA-4 receptor leads to the production of a molecule (sCTLA-4 that lacks a membrane anchor and is therefore secreted into the extracellular space. Despite studies finding that people with autoimmune disease more frequently express high levels of sCTLA-4 in their blood than apparently healthy people, the significance of these findings is unclear. Methods Molecules isolated from blood using CTLA-4 specific antibodies were analyzed with ligand binding assays, mass spectroscopy, and biochemical fractionation in an effort to increase our understanding of CTLA-4 immunoreactive material. Results Mass spectroscopy analysis of the molecules recognized by multiple CTLA-4-specific antibodies failed to identify any CTLA-4 protein. Even though these molecules bind to the CTLA-4 receptors B7.1 and B7.2, they also exhibit properties common to immunoglobulins. Conclusion We have identified molecules in blood that are recognized by CTLA-4 specific antibodies but also exhibit properties of immunoglobulins. Our data indicates that what has been called sCTLA-4 is not a direct product of the CTLA-4 gene, and that the CTLA-4 protein is not part of this molecule. These results may explain why the relationship of sCTLA-4 to immune system activity has been difficult to elucidate.

  10. Delay in blood sampling for routine newborn screening is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Hollegaard, Mads Villiam; Hougaard, David Michael; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Petersen, Liselotte

    2015-03-01

    The Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank, containing dried blood spot samples from all newborn in Denmark, is a unique source of data that can be utilized for analyses of genetic and environmental exposures related to schizophrenia and other mental disorders. In previous analyses, we have found that early and late blood sampling, compared to sampling at day 5, was associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. As delay in sampling of blood for neonatal screening cannot in itself influence the risk of schizophrenia, it must be seen as a proxy for unknown underlying causes responsible for this association. Therefore, we investigated whether the increased risk can be explained by other risk factors for schizophrenia. A case-control design was applied. A total of 846 cases with schizophrenia were selected from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register. One control was selected for each case, matched on sex and exact date of birth. Both early and late blood sampling was associated with increased risk for schizophrenia. Compared to blood sampling at day 5, sampling at days 0 to 4 after birth was associated with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.46 (95% CI 1.15-1.87) for development of schizophrenia, and sampling at days 6 to 9 and at days 10 to 53 was associated with an IRR of 1.5 (95% CI 1.13-1.98) and 3.00 (95% CI 1.59-5.67), respectively. After adjusting the estimates for place of birth, both parents' psychiatric illness, maternal and paternal age, parents' country of origin, child admission, and parental education and income, the estimates were slightly different. Thus, blood collection at 0-4days was associated with an IRR of 1.27 (95% CI 0.94-1.71), 6-9days 1.31 (95% CI 0.94-1.84) and 10+days 3.52 (95% CI 1.50 to 8.24). After adjusting risk estimates for well-known risk factors, delay in sampling of blood for neonatal screening was associated with unexplained increased risk of schizophrenia. Thus, a key finding is that age at test is a proxy for unobserved risk factors

  11. Degradation and Stabilization of Peptide Hormones in Human Blood Specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizu Yi

    Full Text Available Plasma hormone peptides, including GLP-1, GIP, Glucagon, and OXM, possess multiple physiological roles and potential therapeutic and diagnostic utility as biomarkers in the research of metabolic disorders. These peptides are subject to proteolytic degradation causing preanalytical variations. Stabilization for accurate quantitation of these active peptides in ex vivo blood specimens is essential for drug and biomarker development. We investigated the protease-driven instability of these peptides in conventional serum, plasma, anticoagulated whole blood, as well as whole blood and plasma stabilized with protease inhibitors. The peptide was monitored by both time-course Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-to-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI -TOF MS and Ab-based assay (ELISA or RIA. MS enabled the identification of proteolytic fragments. In non-stabilized blood samples, the results clearly indicated that dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV removed the N-terminal two amino acid residues from GLP-1, GIP and OXM(1-37 and not-yet identified peptidase(s cleave(s the full-length OXM(1-37 and its fragments. DPP-IV also continued to remove two additional N-terminal residues of processed OXM(3-37 to yield OXM(5-37. Importantly, both DPP-IV and other peptidase(s activities were inhibited efficiently by the protease inhibitors included in the BD P800* tube. There was preservation of GLP-1, GIP, OXM and glucagon in the P800 plasma samples with half-lives > 96, 96, 72, and 45 hours at room temperature (RT, respectively. In the BD P700* plasma samples, the stabilization of GLP-1 was also achieved with half-life > 96 hours at RT. The stabilization of these variable peptides increased their utility in drug and/or biomarker development. While stability results of GLP-1 obtained with Ab-based assay were consistent with those obtained by MS analysis, the Ab-based results of GIP, Glucagon, and OXM did not reflect the time-dependent degradations revealed by MS

  12. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of young, college student blood donors about Human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Anju; Sonker, Atul; Chaudhary, Rajendra K

    2014-01-01

    Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country's blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore the levels of knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV in young college student blood donors. The results showed that the proportion of participants with comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was lesser than expected. Increase in education level and male gender was found to be significantly associated with high HIV-related knowledge. The responses on the different aspects of HIV-related attitude were also varied and there is still stigma associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) even in the educated groups. There was a spectrum of myths and misperceptions emphasizing the need of education that recognizes the social context of attitude towards HIV. Results from this study may contribute to the development of appropriate educational and training material for this group of donors which in turn, may assist in achieving the elusive goal of safe blood supply in future.

  13. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of young, college student blood donors about Human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dubey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country′s blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore the levels of knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV in young college student blood donors. Results: The results showed that the proportion of participants with comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was lesser than expected. Increase in education level and male gender was found to be significantly associated with high HIV-related knowledge. The responses on the different aspects of HIV-related attitude were also varied and there is still stigma associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS even in the educated groups. Discussion: There was a spectrum of myths and misperceptions emphasizing the need of education that recognizes the social context of attitude towards HIV. Results from this study may contribute to the development of appropriate educational and training material for this group of donors which in turn, may assist in achieving the elusive goal of safe blood supply in future.

  14. Intravaginal Administration of Sildenafil Citrate Increases Blood Flow in the Bovine Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzięcioł Michał

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sildenafil citrate administrated intravaginaly on the blood flow in the bovine uterus during dioestrus. Uterine blood flow was examined in six healthy adult cows. Sildenafil was administrated intravaginaly to each co w between the 6th and 8th d of the ovarian cycle, in the form of vaginal suppositories containing 100 mg of active substance at a dose of 100, 200, or 300 mg per animal. Uterine perfusion was estimated by the colour Doppler examination, and obtained results were analysed with the Pixel Flux Software (Chameleon, Germany. Moreover, cardiovascular parameters were also evaluated. Animals were examined before and five times after drug application (two times at 15 min intervals, and three times at 2 h intervals. A placebo suppository was also given to the cows. The analysis of the intensity and velocity of blood flow in the uterus proved that sildenafil administrated intravaginaly significantly increased blood flow in the uterus and the effect of increased perfusion was observed for 4 h and 30 min after administration. The effect of increased uterine perfusion was observed after low as well as high doses of sildenafil. Significant changes in the cardio-vascular parameters were not detected. There were no changes in the uterine perfusion as well as in cardiovascular parameters after placebo administration.

  15. Magnesium enhances exercise performance via increasing glucose availability in the blood, muscle, and brain during exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Ying Chen

    Full Text Available Glucose mobilization and utilization in the periphery and central nervous system are important during exercise and are responsible for exercise efficacy. Magnesium (Mg is involved in energy production and plays a role in exercise performance. This study aimed to explore the effects of Mg on the dynamic changes in glucose and lactate levels in the muscle, blood and brain of exercising rats using a combination of auto-blood sampling and microdialysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with saline or magnesium sulfate (MgSO4, 90 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min before treadmill exercise (20 m/min for 60 min. Our results indicated that the muscle, blood, and brain glucose levels immediately increased during exercise, and then gradually decreased to near basal levels in the recovery periods of both groups. These glucose levels were significantly enhanced to approximately two-fold (P<0.05 in the Mg group. Lactate levels in the muscle, blood, and brain rapidly and significantly increased in both groups during exercise, and brain lactate levels in the Mg group further elevated (P<0.05 than those in the control group during exercise. Lactate levels significantly decreased after exercise in both groups. In conclusion, Mg enhanced glucose availability in the peripheral and central systems, and increased lactate clearance in the muscle during exercise.

  16. Increased DNA damage in blood cells of rat treated with lead as assessed by comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arif

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that oxidative stress is the key player in the pathogenesis of lead-induced toxicity. The present study investigated lead induced oxidative DNA damage, if any in rat blood cells by alkaline comet assay. Lead was administered intraperitoneally to rats at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for 5 days consecutively. Blood collected on day six from sacrificed lead-treated rats was used to assess the extent of DNA damage by comet assay which entailed measurement of comet length, olive tail moment, tail DNA (% and tail length. The results showed that treatment with lead significantly increased DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, our data suggests that lead treatment is associated with oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in rat blood cells which could be used as an early bio-marker of lead-toxicity.

  17. Cigarette smoking impairs nitric oxide-mediated cerebral blood flow increase: Implications for Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Toda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral blood flow is mainly regulated by nitrergic (parasympathetic, postganglionic nerves and nitric oxide (NO liberated from endothelial cells in response to shear stress and stretch of vasculature, whereas sympathetic vasoconstrictor control is quite weak. On the other hand, peripheral vascular resistance and blood flow are mainly controlled by adrenergic vasoconstrictor nerves; endothelium-derived NO and nitrergic nerves play some roles as vasodilator factors. Cigarette smoking impairs NO synthesis in cerebral vascular endothelial cells and nitrergic nerves leading to interference with cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in the brain. Smoking-induced cerebral hypoperfusion is induced by impairment of synthesis and actions of NO via endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/neuronal NOS (nNOS inhibition and by increased production of oxygen radicals, resulting in decreased actions of NO on vascular smooth muscle. Nicotine acutely and chronically impairs the action of endothelial NO and also inhibits nitrergic nerve function in chronic use. Impaired cerebral blood supply promotes the synthesis of amyloid β that accelerates blood flow decrease. This vicious cycle is thought to be one of the important factors involving in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Quitting smoking is undoubtedly one of the important ways to prevent and delay the genesis or slow the progress of impaired cognitive function and AD.

  18. Reduced blood flow increases the in vivo ammonium ion concentration in the RIF-1 tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinidis, Ioannis; Gamcsik, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies from our laboratory have suggested that pooling of ammonium in tumor tissues may be caused by its inefficient removal due to the poor vasculature commonly found in tumors. The purpose of these experiments was to validate the relationship between tumor ammonium ion concentration and tumor blood flow, and to determine whether large concentrations of ammonium ion detected by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are either produced within the tumor or simply imported into the tumor through the blood stream. Methods and Materials: To test this hypothesis, we reduced blood flow in subcutaneously grown Radiation Induced Fibrosarcoma-1 (RIF-1) tumors, either by creating partial ischemia with a bolus injection of hydralazine or by occlusion with surgical sutures. 14 N and 31 P NMR spectroscopy were used to detect the presence of ammonium, and to assess the bioenergetic status of the tumors, respectively. Results: A correlation between ammonium ion concentration and (PCr(P i )) ratio was established for untreated tumors. An increase in the in vivo tumor ammonium ion concentration was observed for every tumor that experienced a reduction in blood flow caused by either hydralazine injection or suture ligation. Changes in ammonium ion concentration paralleled changes in the bioenergetics of hydralazine-treated tumors. Conclusion: Our results support the hypothesis that a reduction in tumor blood flow is responsible for the accumulation of ammonium in tumors, and that detected ammonium originated from within the tumor

  19. Restrictive use of perioperative blood transfusion does not increase complication rates in microvascular breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Anne C; Barandun, Marina; Cha, Jieun; Zhong, Toni; Hofer, Stefan O P

    2016-08-01

    With increasing appreciation of the possible adverse effects of peri-operative blood transfusion, restrictive policies regarding use of blood products have been adopted in many surgical specialties. Although microvascular breast reconstruction has become a routine procedure, high peri-operative transfusion rates continue to be reported in the literature. In this study we examine the impact of our restrictive approach on blood transfusion rates and postoperative complications in patients undergoing microvascular blood transfusion. A retrospective review of patients undergoing microvascular breast reconstruction with abdominal flaps at a single institution was performed. Patient age and body mass index as well as type, timing and laterality of reconstruction was recorded. Pre-operative and post-operative hemoglobin and hematocrit were recorded. Peri-operative blood transfusion rates were calculated. Post-operative complication rates were compared between patients with higher and lower post-operative hemoglobin levels. Five hundred and twelve patients were included in this study. The peri-operative transfusion rate was 0.98% in this series. There was no significant difference between transfusion rates in unilateral and bilateral reconstructions (0.68 vs 1.36% p = 0.08) or immediate and delayed reconstructions (1.02 vs 0.51% p = 0.72 and 1.01 vs 1.60% p = 0.09 for unilateral and bilateral respectively). Lower post-operative hemoglobin levels were not associated with increased flap related, surgical or medical complications rates. A restrictive approach to peri-operative blood transfusion can be safely adopted in microvascular breast reconstruction without compromising flap viability or overall complication rates. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. SSRIs increase risk of blood transfusion in patients admitted for hip surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermien Janneke Schutte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that an increased bleeding tendency can be caused by Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI use. We aimed to investigate the occurrence and risk of blood transfusion in SSRI users compared to non-SSRI users in a cohort of patients admitted for hip-surgery. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent planned or emergency hip surgery from 1996 to 2011 in the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam. Primary outcome measure was risk of blood transfusion. Secondary outcome measures were pre- and postoperative hemoglobin level. Multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: One-hundred and fourteen SSRI users were compared to 1773 non-SSRI users. Risk of blood transfusion during admission was increased for SSRI users in multivariate analyses (OR 1.7 [95% CI 1.1-2.5]. Also, pre-operative hemoglobin levels were lower in SSRI users (7.8 ± 1.0 mmol/L compared to non-SSRI users (8.0 ± 1.0 mmol/L (p  =  0.042, as were postoperative hemoglobin levels (6.2 ± 1.0 mmol/L vs. 6.4 ± 1.0 mmol/L respectively (p  =  0.017. CONCLUSIONS: SSRI users undergoing hip surgery have an increased risk for blood transfusion during admission, potentially explained by a lower hemoglobin level before surgery. SSRI use should be considered as a potential risk indicator for increased blood loss in patients admitted for hip surgery. These results need to be confirmed in a prospective study.

  1. Influence of cerebrovascular resistance on the dynamic relationship between blood pressure and cerebral blood flow in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirl, J D; Tzeng, Y C; Monteleone, B J; Ainslie, P N

    2014-06-15

    We examined the hypothesis that changes in the cerebrovascular resistance index (CVRi), independent of blood pressure (BP), will influence the dynamic relationship between BP and cerebral blood flow in humans. We altered CVRi with (via controlled hyperventilation) and without [via indomethacin (INDO, 1.2 mg/kg)] changes in PaCO2. Sixteen subjects (12 men, 27 ± 7 yr) were tested on two occasions (INDO and hypocapnia) separated by >48 h. Each test incorporated seated rest (5 min), followed by squat-stand maneuvers to increase BP variability and improve assessment of the pressure-flow dynamics using linear transfer function analysis (TFA). Beat-to-beat BP, middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv), posterior cerebral artery velocity (PCAv), and end-tidal Pco2 were monitored. Dynamic pressure-flow relations were quantified using TFA between BP and MCAv/PCAv in the very low and low frequencies through the driven squat-stand maneuvers at 0.05 and 0.10 Hz. MCAv and PCAv reductions by INDO and hypocapnia were well matched, and CVRi was comparably elevated (P flow dynamics. These findings are consistent with the concept of CVRi being a key factor that should be considered in the correct interpretation of cerebral pressure-flow dynamics as indexed using TFA metrics. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Levels of PCBs, DDT, DDE and DDD in Italian human blood samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocca, C. La; Abate, V.; Alivernini, S.; Iacovella, N.; Mantovani, A.; Turrio-Baldassarri, L. [Ist. Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Silvestroni, L.; Spera, G. [Dept. of Medical Pathophysiology, Univ. (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    The environmental contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is effecting the exposure of the general population in a direct way through air inhalation, ingestion of particulate matter and dermal absorption and, most of all, in an indirect way through diet. Diet represents, in fact, the main way of human exposure to PCBs. PCBs have potential teratogenic, carcinogenic, hormonal and immunological effects. An association between endometriosis and high levels of PCB in plasma has also been reported3. Moreover, some congeners (PCB 105, PCB 118, PCB 153) have effects on thyroid hormones in animal models, although the PCB dose used in these experiments was an order of magnitude higher than the estimated human exposure. Humans are, however, exposed to a complex mixtures of PCB congeners. In this study identification and quantification of 60 PCB congeners and 3 chlorinated pesticides in human whole blood samples are presented. The subjects examined in this pilot study were a small group of patients with possible endocrine-related problems and unknown specific exposure. The aim of this study was to increase the present understanding about the distribution of the PCBs in human whole blood. The levels of DDT and metabolites were measured as well, since these compounds are consistently reported to contribute to the whole body burden of persistent chlorinated compounds, together with PCBs.

  3. Cerebral blood volume changes in cats with acute increased intracranial pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Takashi; Kano, Mitsumasa; Ikeda, Takuya.

    1984-01-01

    We measured the changes in cerebral blood volume in cats with increased intracranial pressure with a high-speed CT scanner, employing contrast effects by the iodine agent. In acute increased intracranial pressure caused by raising the extradural pressure by 20 mmHg, cerebral blood volume showed a significant decrease by 32% in comparison with that at normal intracranial pressure. There was also a tendency that a decline of iodine was delayed with time at increased intracranial pressure than that at normal pressure. This was supposed to be a delay of cerebral circulation due to venous congestion. This experimental model and measuring method provide the changes in CBV in the same individual without any tedious procedure, and therefore this is a reliable method with respect to precision. (author)

  4. Increased cerebral blood flow in MELAS shown by Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, N.J.; Tsay, D.G.; Liu, R.S.; Li, J.Y.; Kong, K.W.; Kwok, C.G.; Strauss, H.W.

    2000-01-01

    We report cerebral SPECT studies on two siblings with the syndrome of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT was performed 8, 19 and 30 days after a stroke-like episode in one case and 10 days after a stroke-like episode, 6 h after a partial seizure and as a follow-up study in the other. Increased blood flow was seen in both these patients with stroke-like episodes due to MELAS. The cause of the increased blood flow is uncertain, but it may be related to the decreased pH created by local increase in lactic acid. (orig.)

  5. Radiological Diagnosis of Recirculatory Congenital Heart Disease with Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartusevichiene, A.; Rulevichius, A.; Dobrovolskis, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    The number of patients with congenital diseases is increasing therefore early diagnosis of these diseases is of crucial importance. Radiological diagnostics of recirculatory congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow, i.e. atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricle septal defect (VSD), ductus arteriosus (Botalli) persistence (DAP) and atrioventricular communication (AVC) have been analysed. Recirculatory congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow (ASD, VSD, DAP)radiologically causes similar lung, lung roots and pulmonary arterial changes. After the radiomorphological and radiofunctional examination of chest organs the following symptoms of the disease were defined: all the patients had hypervolemy, enlarged structural lungs roots, enlarged pulmonary arterial arch. These radiofunctional symptoms help to differentiate congenital heart diseases case by case. (author). 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  6. Fine structural alterations of the blood vessels in the delayed radionecrosis of the human brain and its pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, H [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1981-05-01

    The blood vessels in the delayed radionecrosis of the human brain were studied under light and electron microscopes. Microscopically, the blood vessels demonstrated characteristic findings such as fibrinoid necrosis, hyalinized thickened vessels, perivascular fibrosis and thrombosed vessels. Electron microscopy revealed the formation of fenestrae, separation of endothelial cells, increased pinocytotic vesicles as well as the initial thrombus formation. Our results strongly verified that vascular alterations are primary in the pathogenesis of radionecrosis whereas the parenchymal changes are secondary.

  7. Chlorinated Flavonoids Modulate the Inflammatory Process in Human Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Carina; Ribeiro, Daniela; Soares, Tânia; Tomé, Sara M; Silva, Artur M S; Lima, José L F C; Fernandes, Eduarda; Freitas, Marisa

    2017-08-01

    Flavonoids are known to react with neutrophil-generated hypochlorous acid (HOCl) at inflammation loci to form stable mono- and dichlorinated products. Some of these products have been shown to retain or even enhance their inflammatory potential, but further information is required in a broader approach to inflammatory mechanisms. In that sense, we performed an integrated evaluation on the anti-inflammatory potential of a panel of novel chlorinated flavonoids and their parent compounds, in several steps of the complex inflammatory cascade, namely, in the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2, and in the production of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)], and the chemokine, IL-8, as well as in the production of reactive species, using human whole blood as a representative in vitro model, establishing, whenever possible, a structure-activity relationship. Although luteolin was the most active compound, chlorinated flavonoids demonstrated a remarkable pattern of activity for the resolution of the inflammatory processes. Our results demonstrated that 6-chloro-3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone deserves scientific attention due to its ability to modulate the reactive species and cytokines/chemokine production. In this regard, the therapeutic potential of flavonoids' metabolites, and in this particular case the chlorinated flavonoids, should not be neglected.

  8. [The effect of work-related stress on the occurrence of increased blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaj, A; Cybulski, J; Kułakowski, P; Makowska, E; Rezler, J; Lange, J; Gorzkowska, J; Abramowski, S

    In 546 officials the arterial blood pressure was measured twice at the beginning and at the end of a working day, filling also an inquiry form. As hypertension systolic BP over 160 mm Hg (21.3 kPa) or more, and diastolic BP 96 mm Hg (12.7 kPa) or more were accepted. In 90 subjects (16.5%) above normal pressure values were found. Hypertension had been diagnosed previously in 50 subjects in this group (55.5%) but only 13 of them (26%) were treated systematically. Excessive stress of work was complained of by 62.6% of the subjects. Increased blood pressure was found significantly more frequently in the group perceiving excessive stress of work (19.9%) as compared to those not experiencing this stress (10.8%, p less than 0.1). In the group in managerial posts these proportions were 24.8% and 14.4% respectively (p less than 0.1). Blood pressure rise to abnormal levels during the working day occurred also significantly more frequently in the group experiencing it this was noted only in 1.6% of cases (p less than 0.5). The knowledge of own hypertension was very low in this group. These results indicate the necessity of increasing prophylactic measures in the form of greater frequency of control measurements of the blood pressure, better health education, and limitation of stress situations in working environment.

  9. Fetal blood vessel count increases in compensation of hypoxia in premature placentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kartini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Prematurity refers to live births before 37 weeks of gestation, wherein the baby is born before the body and its organ systems achieve perfect maturity, and this disorder is still a global problem. The high incidence of prematurity is a problem in developing and also in developed countries. Certain conditions accompanying pregnancies like preeclampsia, infection, and placental insufficiency, may trigger uterine hypoxia, causing premature birth. The placental condition is related to the intra-uterine fetal condition. In prolonged placental hypoxia, there occurs a compensatory mechanism, i.e. an increase in placental angiogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia on fetal blood vessel count as compensatory mechanism for tissue hypoxia. Methods An observational-analytical cross-sectional design using paraffin blocks of conserved premature placentas, comprising 31 samples of hypoxic premature placentas and 28 samples of non-hypoxic premature placentas, selected using non-random consecutive sampling. The samples were made into slides and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for assessment of histological structure, including fetal blood vessel count and integrity, villus conditions, syncytiotrophoblastic nuclear changes, and syncytiotrophoblastic nuclear aggregation. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the difference of blood vessel count between groups. Results Assessment of histological structure showed a significant increase in fetal blood vessel count in the hypoxic group [8.00 (5-15] as compared with the non-hypoxic group [7.50 (3-15]. Conclusion The hypoxia in premature placentas caused an increase in the number of fetal blood vessels as a form of compensation for disturbed oxygen homeostasis.

  10. Fetal blood vessel count increases in compensation of hypoxia in premature placentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kartini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Prematurity refers to live births before 37 weeks of gestation, wherein the baby is born before the body and its organ systems achieve perfect maturity, and this disorder is still a global problem. The high incidence of prematurity is a problem in developing and also in developed countries. Certain conditions accompanying pregnancies like preeclampsia, infection, and placental insufficiency, may trigger uterine hypoxia, causing premature birth. The placental condition is related to the intra-uterine fetal condition. In prolonged placental hypoxia, there occurs a compensatory mechanism, i.e. an increase in placental angiogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia on fetal blood vessel count as compensatory mechanism for tissue hypoxia. METHODS An observational-analytical cross-sectional design using paraffin blocks of conserved premature placentas, comprising 31 samples of hypoxic premature placentas and 28 samples of non-hypoxic premature placentas, selected using non-random consecutive sampling. The samples were made into slides and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for assessment of histological structure, including fetal blood vessel count and integrity, villus conditions, syncytiotrophoblastic nuclear changes, and syncytiotrophoblastic nuclear aggregation. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the difference of blood vessel count between groups. RESULTS Assessment of histological structure showed a significant increase in fetal blood vessel count in the hypoxic group [8.00 (5-15] as compared with the non-hypoxic group [7.50 (3-15]. CONCLUSION The hypoxia in premature placentas caused an increase in the number of fetal blood vessels as a form of compensation for disturbed oxygen homeostasis.

  11. Distribution of primaquine in human blood: Drug-binding to alpha 1-glycoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, E.; Frischer, H.

    1990-01-01

    To clarify the distribution of the antimalarial primaquine in human blood, we measured the drug separately in the liquid, cellular, and ultrafiltrate phases. Washed red cells resuspended at a hematocrit of 0.4 were exposed to a submaximal therapeutic level of 250 ng/ml of carbon 14-labeled primaquine. The tracer was recovered quantitatively in separated plasma and red cells. Over 75% of the total labeled drug was found in red cells suspended in saline solution, but only 10% to 30% in red cells suspended in plasma. The plasma effect was not mediated by albumin. Studies with alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, an agent that displaces AGP-bound drugs, and cord blood known to have decreased AGP established that primaquine binds to physiologic amounts of the glycoprotein in plasma. Red cell primaquine concentration increased linearly as AGP level fell and as the free drug fraction rose. We suggest that clinical blood levels of primaquine include the red cell fraction or whole blood level because (1) erythrocytic primaquine is a sizable and highly variable component of the total drug in blood; (2) this component reflects directly the free drug in plasma, and inversely the extent of binding to AGP; (3) the amount of free primaquine may influence drug transport into specific tissues in vivo; and (4) fluctuations of AGP, an acute-phase reactant that increases greatly in patients with malaria and other infections, markedly affect the partition of primaquine in blood. Because AGP binds many basic drugs, unrecognized primaquine-drug interactions may exist

  12. Focal increase of blood flow in the cerebral cortex of man during vestibular stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Olsen, T S; Roland, P E

    1985-01-01

    This study is an attempt to reveal projection areas for vestibular afferents to the human brain. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured over 254 cortical regions during caloric vestibular stimulation with warm water (44 degrees C). rCBF was measured when the external auditory...... meatus was irrigated with water at body temperature as a control to vestibular stimulation. During vestibular stimulation there was only a single cortical area, located in the superior temporal region, which showed a consistent focal activation in the hemisphere contralateral to the stimulated side...... stimulation that gives rise to the associated conscious vestibular sensation of vertigo....

  13. Increased Peripheral Blood Pro-Inflammatory/Cytotoxic Lymphocytes in Children with Bronchiectasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Hodge

    Full Text Available Bronchiectasis (BE in children is common in some communities including Indigenous children in Australia. Relatively little is known about the nature of systemic inflammation in these children, especially the contribution of specific pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets: T-cells, natural killer (NK cells and NKT-like cells. We have shown that these cells produce increased cytotoxic (granzyme b and perforin and inflammatory (IFNγ and TNFα mediators in several adult chronic lung diseases and hypothesised that similar changes would be evident in children with BE.Intracellular cytotoxic mediators perforin and granzyme b and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured in T cell subsets, NKT-like and NK cells from blood and bronchoalveolar samples from 12 children with BE and 10 aged-matched control children using flow cytometry.There was a significant increase in the percentage of CD8+ T cells and T and NKT-like subsets expressing perforin/granzyme and IFNγ and TNFα in blood in BE compared with controls. There was a further increase in the percentage of pro-inflammatory cytotoxic T cells in Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous children. There was no change in any of these mediators in BAL.Childhood bronchiectasis is associated with increased systemic pro-inflammatory/cytotoxic lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. Future studies need to examine the extent to which elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytotoxic cells predict future co-morbidities.

  14. The increased concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in red blood cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, J; Skotnicka-Fedorowicz, B; Lisiecka, A; Siński, M; Abramczyk, P

    1997-12-01

    It has been recognised that high haemoglobin oxygen capacity is essential for the development of high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. In the present study we have found increased concentration of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in red blood cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of Okamoto-Aoki strain. As 2,3-DPG is the major factor decreasing haemoglobin affinity to oxygen, our finding suggests that at given value of pO2 oxygen delivery to the tissue of SHR would be increased. Therefore increased concentration of 2,3-DPG in red blood cells of SHR would be of the pathophysiological meaning by promoting autoregulatory increase in total vascular resistance in this strain of rats. The mechanism responsible for enhanced synthesis of 2,3-DPG in SHR remains unclear. Intracellular alkalosis due to either hypocapnia and/or an enhanced activity of Na+/H+ antiporter occurring in SHR are the most plausible explanations for the above finding.

  15. Arsenic exposure from drinking water is associated with decreased gene expression and increased DNA methylation in peripheral blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameer, Syeda Shegufta [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Engström, Karin [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Metals & Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Hossain, Mohammad Bakhtiar [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Concha, Gabriela [Science Department, Risk Benefit Assessment Unit, National Food Agency, Uppsala (Sweden); Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Metals & Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Broberg, Karin, E-mail: Karin.broberg@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Metals & Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-04-15

    Background: Exposure to inorganic arsenic increases the risk of cancer and non-malignant diseases. Inefficient arsenic metabolism is a marker for susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. Arsenic may alter gene expression, possibly by altering DNA methylation. Objectives: To elucidate the associations between arsenic exposure, gene expression, and DNA methylation in peripheral blood, and the modifying effects of arsenic metabolism. Methods: The study participants, women from the Andes, Argentina, were exposed to arsenic via drinking water. Arsenic exposure was assessed as the sum of arsenic metabolites in urine (U-As), using high performance liquid-chromatography hydride-generation inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry, and arsenic metabolism efficiency was assessed by the urinary fractions (%) of the individual metabolites. Genome-wide gene expression (N = 80 women) and DNA methylation (N = 93; 80 overlapping with gene expression) in peripheral blood were measured using Illumina DirectHyb HumanHT-12 v4.0 and Infinium Human-Methylation 450K BeadChip, respectively. Results: U-As concentrations, ranging 10–1251 μg/L, was associated with decreased gene expression: 64% of the top 1000 differentially expressed genes were down-regulated with increasing U-As. U-As was also associated with hypermethylation: 87% of the top 1000 CpGs were hypermethylated with increasing U-As. The expression of six genes and six individual CpG sites were significantly associated with increased U-As concentration. Pathway analyses revealed enrichment of genes related to cell death and cancer. The pathways differed somewhat depending on arsenic metabolism efficiency. We found no overlap between arsenic-related gene expression and DNA methylation for individual genes. Conclusions: Increased arsenic exposure was associated with lower gene expression and hypermethylation in peripheral blood, but with no evident overlap. - Highlights: • Women exposed to inorganic arsenic were studied for

  16. Blood-brain transfer of Pittsburgh compound B in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Albert; Aanerud, Joel; Braendgaard, Hans

    2013-01-01

    -brain barrier is held to be high but the permeability-surface area product and extraction fractions in patients or healthy volunteers are not known. We used PET to determine the clearance associated with the unidrectional blood-brain transfer of [(11)C]PiB and the corresponding cerebral blood flow rates...... with the observation that numerically, but insignificantly, unidirectional blood-brain clearances are lower and extraction fractions higher in the patients. The evidence of unchanged permeability-surface area products in the patients implies that blood flow changes can be deduced from the unidirectional blood......In the labeled form, the Pittsburgh compound B (2-(4'-{N-methyl-[(11)C]}methyl-aminophenyl)-6-hydroxy-benzothiazole, [(11)C]PiB), is used as a biomarker for positron emission tomography (PET) of brain β-amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The permeability of [(11)C]PiB in the blood...

  17. Investigation of the proteins relaxation time in human blood serum; Badania relaksacyjne bialek surowicy krwi II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blicharska, B.; Klauza, M. [Inst. Fizyki, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland); Kuliszkiewicz-Janus, M. [Akademia Medyczna, Wroclaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the results of human blood serum proteins relaxation time measurements by means of NMR method are presented. The measurements have been done for three samples of human blood: i/laudably ii/leukemia iii/granulomas. The dependences of the relaxation time on the temperature are also presented. 3 refs, 4 figs.

  18. Light-scattering properties of undiluted human blood subjected to simple shear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Kolkman, R.G.M.; de Mul, F.F.M.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed into the effect of simple shear on the light-scattering properties of undiluted human blood. Undiluted human blood was enclosed between two glass plates with an adjustable separation between 30 and 120 mm and with one plate moving parallel to the other.

  19. RNA/DNA co-analysis from human menstrual blood and vaginal secretion stains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Claus; Hanson, E; Anjos, M J

    2014-01-01

    housekeeping genes for their suitability as reference genes. Six menstrual blood and six vaginal secretion stains, two dilution series (1/4-1/64 pieces of a menstrual blood/vaginal swab) and, optionally, bona fide or mock casework samples of human or non-human origin were analyzed by 24 participating...

  20. Transient receptor potential canonical type 3 channels and blood pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Baumunk, Daniel; Krause, Hans

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) cation channels are involved in the regulation of blood pressure, but this has not been studied using human renal tissue. We tested the hypothesis that the expression of TRPC3 in human renal tissue is associated with blood...

  1. Effect of increased HoxB4 on human megakaryocytic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Yiming; Sullenbarger, Brent; Lasky, Larry C.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → HoxB4 overexpression in human TF1 cells increased the expression of CD61 and CD41a. → HoxB4 fusion protein enhanced megakaryocytic development of CD34 + cord blood cells. → Ectopic HoxB4 increased Tpo receptor expression and decreased c-Myb expression. → HoxB4 RNA silencing increased c-Myb expression and decreased Fli-1 expression. -- Abstract: In order to produce clinically useful quantities of platelets ex vivo we may need to firstly enhance early self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and/or megakaryocyte (Mk) progenitors. The homeodomain transcription factor HoxB4 has been shown to be an important regulator of stem cell renewal and hematopoiesis; however, its effect on megakaryopoiesis is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of HoxB4 overexpression or RNA silencing on megakaryocytic development in the human TF1 progenitor cell line; we then used recombinant tPTD-HoxB4 fusion protein to study the effect of exogenous HoxB4 on megakaryocytic development of human CD34 positively-selected cord blood cells. We found that ectopic HoxB4 in TF1 cells increased the antigen expression of CD61and CD41a, increased the gene expression of thrombopoietin receptor (TpoR), Scl-1, Cyclin D1, Fog-1 and Fli-1 while it decreased c-Myb expression. HoxB4 RNA silencing in TF1 cells decreased the expression of CD61 and CD41a and decreased Fli-1 expression while it increased the expression of c-Myb. Recombinant tPTD-HoxB4 fusion protein increased the percentages and absolute numbers of CD41a and CD61 positive cells during megakaryocytic differentiation of CD34 positively-selected cord blood cells and increased the numbers of colony-forming unit-megakaryocyte (CFU-Mk). Adding tPTD-HoxB4 fusion protein increased the gene expression of TpoR, Cyclin D1, Fog-1 and Fli-1 while it inhibited c-Myb expression. Our data suggest that increased HoxB4 enhanced early megakaryocytic development in human TF1 cells and CD34 positively-selected cord

  2. Effect of increased HoxB4 on human megakaryocytic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yiming [Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Program in Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Sullenbarger, Brent [Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Lasky, Larry C., E-mail: Lasky.4@osu.edu [Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Program in Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} HoxB4 overexpression in human TF1 cells increased the expression of CD61 and CD41a. {yields} HoxB4 fusion protein enhanced megakaryocytic development of CD34{sup +} cord blood cells. {yields} Ectopic HoxB4 increased Tpo receptor expression and decreased c-Myb expression. {yields} HoxB4 RNA silencing increased c-Myb expression and decreased Fli-1 expression. -- Abstract: In order to produce clinically useful quantities of platelets ex vivo we may need to firstly enhance early self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and/or megakaryocyte (Mk) progenitors. The homeodomain transcription factor HoxB4 has been shown to be an important regulator of stem cell renewal and hematopoiesis; however, its effect on megakaryopoiesis is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of HoxB4 overexpression or RNA silencing on megakaryocytic development in the human TF1 progenitor cell line; we then used recombinant tPTD-HoxB4 fusion protein to study the effect of exogenous HoxB4 on megakaryocytic development of human CD34 positively-selected cord blood cells. We found that ectopic HoxB4 in TF1 cells increased the antigen expression of CD61and CD41a, increased the gene expression of thrombopoietin receptor (TpoR), Scl-1, Cyclin D1, Fog-1 and Fli-1 while it decreased c-Myb expression. HoxB4 RNA silencing in TF1 cells decreased the expression of CD61 and CD41a and decreased Fli-1 expression while it increased the expression of c-Myb. Recombinant tPTD-HoxB4 fusion protein increased the percentages and absolute numbers of CD41a and CD61 positive cells during megakaryocytic differentiation of CD34 positively-selected cord blood cells and increased the numbers of colony-forming unit-megakaryocyte (CFU-Mk). Adding tPTD-HoxB4 fusion protein increased the gene expression of TpoR, Cyclin D1, Fog-1 and Fli-1 while it inhibited c-Myb expression. Our data suggest that increased HoxB4 enhanced early megakaryocytic development in human TF1 cells and CD34

  3. Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Using Sendai Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Filipa A C; Pedersen, Roger A; Vallier, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the efficient isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from circulating blood via density gradient centrifugation and subsequent generation of integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells are cultured for 9 days to allow expansion of the erythroblast population. The erythroblasts are then used to derive human induced pluripotent stem cells using Sendai viral vectors, each expressing one of the four reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc.

  4. Increased blood-brain transfer in a rabbit model of acute liver failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, M.E.; Schafer, D.F.; Molnar, P.; Jones, E.A.; Blasberg, R.G.; Patlak, C.S.; Waggoner, J.; Fenstermacher, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The blood-to-brain transfer of [ 14 C]alpha-aminoisobutyric acid was investigated by quantitative autoradiography in normal rabbits and rabbits with acute liver failure induced by the selective hepatotoxin galactosamine. The blood-to-brain transfer of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid was similar in control animals and animals 2 and 7 h after galactosamine injections, but was increased five- to tenfold in certain gray-matter areas of the brain in animals 11 and 18 h after galactosamine treatment. No detectable differences in white-matter uptake of [ 14 C]alpha-aminoisobutyric acid were found between the control and treated groups. The increase in alpha-aminoisobutyric acid transfer within the gray-matter areas suggested that a general or nonspecific increase in brain capillary permeability occurred in these areas. No clinical signs of early hepatic encephalopathy were observed in the treated rabbits, except for 1 animal from the 18-h postgalactosamine group. Thus, enhanced blood-brain transfer of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid preceded the development of overt hepatic encephalopathy. The distribution of radioactivity after the intravenous administration of [ 14 C]galactosamine showed that virtually none of the hepatotoxin localized in the brain, suggesting that the drug itself does not have a direct effect upon the blood-brain barrier or the brain. The increased uptake of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid at 11 and 18 h implies that the transfer of other solutes would also be enhanced, that central nervous system homeostasis would be compromised, and that the resulting changes in brain fluid composition could contribute to or cause hepatic encephalopathy

  5. Differential Influence of Distinct Components of Increased Blood Pressure on Cardiovascular OutcomesR3

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Susan; Gupta, Deepak K.; Claggett, Brian; Sharrett, A. Richey; Shah, Amil M.; Skali, Hicham; Takeuchi, Madoka; Ni, Hanyu; Solomon, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation in blood pressure (BP) increases risk for all cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, the extent to which different indices of BP elevation may be associated to varying degrees with different cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. We studied 13,340 participants (aged 54±6 years, 56% women, 27% black) of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study who were free of baseline cardiovascular disease. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compare the relative contributions of systol...

  6. Multiple distinct stimuli increase measured nucleosome occupancy around human promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuong D Pham

    Full Text Available Nucleosomes can block access to transcription factors. Thus the precise localization of nucleosomes relative to transcription start sites and other factor binding sites is expected to be a critical component of transcriptional regulation. Recently developed microarray approaches have allowed the rapid mapping of nucleosome positions over hundreds of kilobases (kb of human genomic DNA, although these approaches have not yet been widely used to measure chromatin changes associated with changes in transcription. Here, we use custom tiling microarrays to reveal changes in nucleosome positions and abundance that occur when hormone-bound glucocorticoid receptor (GR binds to sites near target gene promoters in human osteosarcoma cells. The most striking change is an increase in measured nucleosome occupancy at sites spanning ∼1 kb upstream and downstream of transcription start sites, which occurs one hour after addition of hormone, but is lost at 4 hours. Unexpectedly, this increase was seen both on GR-regulated and GR-non-regulated genes. In addition, the human SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling factor (a GR co-activator was found to be important for increased occupancy upon hormone treatment and also for low nucleosome occupancy without hormone. Most surprisingly, similar increases in nucleosome occupancy were also seen on both regulated and non-regulated promoters during differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cells and upon activation of human CD4+ T-cells. These results indicate that dramatic changes in chromatin structure over ∼2 kb of human promoters may occur genomewide and in response to a variety of stimuli, and suggest novel models for transcriptional regulation.

  7. Dopamine Increases CD14+CD16+ Monocyte Transmigration across the Blood Brain Barrier: Implications for Substance Abuse and HIV Neuropathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Tina M; Williams, Dionna W; Lopez, Lillie; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Cheney, Laura; Gaskill, Peter J; Veenstra, Mike; Anastos, Kathryn; Morgello, Susan; Berman, Joan W

    2017-06-01

    In human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) infected individuals, substance abuse may accelerate the development and/or increase the severity of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). It is proposed that CD14 + CD16 + monocytes mediate HIV entry into the central nervous system (CNS) and that uninfected and infected CD14 + CD16 + monocyte transmigration across the blood brain barrier (BBB) contributes to the establishment and propagation of CNS HIV viral reservoirs and chronic neuroinflammation, important factors in the development of HAND. The effects of substance abuse on the frequency of CD14 + CD16 + monocytes in the peripheral circulation and on the entry of these cells into the CNS during HIV neuropathogenesis are not known. PBMC from HIV infected individuals were analyzed by flow cytometry and we demonstrate that the frequency of peripheral blood CD14 + CD16 + monocytes in HIV infected substance abusers is increased when compared to those without active substance use. Since drug use elevates extracellular dopamine concentrations in the CNS, we examined the effects of dopamine on CD14 + CD16 + monocyte transmigration across our in vitro model of the human BBB. The transmigration of this monocyte subpopulation is increased by dopamine and the dopamine receptor agonist, SKF 38393, implicating D1-like dopamine receptors in the increase in transmigration elicited by this neurotransmitter. Thus, elevated extracellular CNS dopamine may be a novel common mechanism by which active substance use increases uninfected and HIV infected CD14 + CD16 + monocyte transmigration across the BBB. The influx of these cells into the CNS may increase viral seeding and neuroinflammation, contributing to the development of HIV associated neurocognitive impairments.

  8. A virtual infection model quantifies innate effector mechanisms and Candida albicans immune escape in human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Hünniger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans bloodstream infection is increasingly frequent and can result in disseminated candidiasis associated with high mortality rates. To analyze the innate immune response against C. albicans, fungal cells were added to human whole-blood samples. After inoculation, C. albicans started to filament and predominantly associate with neutrophils, whereas only a minority of fungal cells became attached to monocytes. While many parameters of host-pathogen interaction were accessible to direct experimental quantification in the whole-blood infection assay, others were not. To overcome these limitations, we generated a virtual infection model that allowed detailed and quantitative predictions on the dynamics of host-pathogen interaction. Experimental time-resolved data were simulated using a state-based modeling approach combined with the Monte Carlo method of simulated annealing to obtain quantitative predictions on a priori unknown transition rates and to identify the main axis of antifungal immunity. Results clearly demonstrated a predominant role of neutrophils, mediated by phagocytosis and intracellular killing as well as the release of antifungal effector molecules upon activation, resulting in extracellular fungicidal activity. Both mechanisms together account for almost [Formula: see text] of C. albicans killing, clearly proving that beside being present in larger numbers than other leukocytes, neutrophils functionally dominate the immune response against C. albicans in human blood. A fraction of C. albicans cells escaped phagocytosis and remained extracellular and viable for up to four hours. This immune escape was independent of filamentation and fungal activity and not linked to exhaustion or inactivation of innate immune cells. The occurrence of C. albicans cells being resistant against phagocytosis may account for the high proportion of dissemination in C. albicans bloodstream infection. Taken together, iterative experiment

  9. Increased brainstem perfusion, but no blood-brain barrier disruption, during attacks of migraine with aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal M; Christensen, Casper E; Younis, Samaira; Wolfram, Frauke; Cramer, Stig P; Larsson, Henrik B W; Ashina, Messoud

    2017-06-01

    See Moskowitz (doi:10.1093/brain/awx099) for a scientific commentary on this article.The migraine aura is characterized by transient focal cortical disturbances causing dramatic neurological symptoms that are usually followed by migraine headache. It is currently not understood how the aura symptoms are related to the headache phase of migraine. Animal studies suggest that cortical spreading depression, the likely mechanism of migraine aura, causes disruption of the blood-brain barrier and noxious stimulation of trigeminal afferents leading to activation of brainstem nuclei and triggering of migraine headache. We used the sensitive and validated technique of dynamic contrast-enhanced high-field magnetic resonance imaging to simultaneously investigate blood-brain barrier permeability and tissue perfusion in the brainstem (at the level of the lower pons), visual cortex, and brain areas of the anterior, middle and posterior circulation during spontaneous attacks of migraine with aura. Patients reported to our institution to undergo magnetic resonance imaging during the headache phase after presenting with typical visual aura. Nineteen patients were scanned during attacks and on an attack-free day. The mean time from attack onset to scanning was 7.6 h. We found increased brainstem perfusion bilaterally during migraine with aura attacks. Perfusion also increased in the visual cortex and posterior white matter following migraine aura. We found no increase in blood-brain barrier permeability in any of the investigated regions. There was no correlation between blood-brain barrier permeability, brain perfusion, and time from symptom onset to examination or pain intensity. Our findings demonstrate hyperperfusion in brainstem during the headache phase of migraine with aura, while the blood-brain barrier remains intact during attacks of migraine with aura. These data thus contradict the preclinical hypothesis of cortical spreading depression-induced blood-brain barrier

  10. The secondary biogenic radiation of gamma-irradiated human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.M.; Surkenova, G.N.; Budagovskij, A.V.; Gudi, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    The sample of blood freshly taken from healthy men were gamma-irradiated with a dose of 10 Gy. It was shown that after the treatment the blood gained the capacity to emit secondary biogenic radiation. Emission lasted for some hours, passed through quartz-glass curette and was revealed by stimulating influence on biological detector (sprouting seeds)

  11. Botulinum toxin A and B raise blood flow and increase survival of critically ischemic skin flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Dennis F; Schweizer, Riccardo; Zhang, Shengye; Kamat, Pranitha; Contaldo, Claudio; Rieben, Robert; Eberli, Daniel; Giovanoli, Pietro; Erni, Dominique; Plock, Jan A

    2013-10-01

    Botulinum toxin (BTX) A and B are commonly used for aesthetic indications and in neuromuscular disorders. New concepts seek to prove efficacy of BTX for critical tissue perfusion. Our aim was to evaluate BTX A and B in a mouse model of critical flap ischemia for preoperative and intraoperative application. BTX A and B were applied on the vascular pedicle of an axial pattern flap in mice preoperatively or intraoperatively. Blood flow, tissue oxygenation, tissue metabolism, flap necrosis rate, apoptosis assay, and RhoA and eNOS expression were endpoints. Blood-flow measurements 1 d after the flap operation revealed a significant reduction to 53% in the control group, while flow was maintained or increased in all BTX groups (103%-129%). Over 5 d all BTX groups showed significant increase in blood flow to 166-187% (P < 0.01). Microdialysis revealed an increase of glucose and reduced lactate/pyruvate ratio and glycerol levels in the flap tissue of all BTX groups. This resulted in significantly improved tissue survival in all BTX groups compared with the control group (62% ± 10%; all P < 0.01): BTX A preconditioning (84% ± 5%), BTX A application intraoperatively (88% ± 4%), BTX B preconditioning (91% ± 4%), and intraoperative BTX B treatment (92% ± 5%). This was confirmed by TUNEL assay. Immunofluorescence demonstrated RhoA and eNOS expression in BTX groups. All BTX applications were similarly effective, despite pharmacologic dissimilarities and different timing. In conclusion, we were able to show on a vascular, tissue, cell, and molecular level that BTX injection to the feeding arteries supports flap survival through ameliorated blood flow and oxygen delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cardiovascular reactivity to video game predicts subsequent blood pressure increases in young men: The CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovitz, J H; Raczynski, J M; Wallace, D; Chettur, V; Chesney, M A

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between heightened reactivity of blood pressure (BP) during stress and 5-year changes in blood pressure and hypertensive status, using the CARDIA study. A total of 3364 participants (910 white men, 909 white women, 678 black men, and 867 black women), initially 20 to 32 years old and normotensive, were included. Cardiovascular reactivity to psychological stressors (video game and star-tracing tasks for 3 minutes, cold pressor test for 1 minute) was measured in 1987-1988. We then examined reactivity as a predictor of significant BP change (> or = 8 mm Hg, thought to represent a clinically significant increase) over the next 5 years. Logistic regression models were used to control for potential covariates. Significant BP change and the development of hypertension (BP greater than 140/90 or taking medication for hypertension) over the 5-year follow-up were examined in separate analyses. Increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) reactivity to the video game was associated with a significant 5-year SBP increase among the entire cohort, independent of resting SBP (p men but not for women. Reactivity to the star-tracing task or the cold pressor test did not predict significant BP change. Among black men only, new hypertensives (N = 36) had greater diastolic blood pressure (DBP) reactivity to the video game (p = .01). Although BP reactivity to all physical and mental stressors used in this study did not consistently predict 5-year change in BP in this young cohort, the results indicate that reactivity to a video game stressor predicts 5-year change in BP and early hypertension among young adult men. These findings are consistent with other studies showing the usefulness of stressors producing a primarily beta-adrenergic response in predicting BP change and hypertension. The results may be limited by the shortened initial rest and recovery periods used in the CARDIA protocol.

  13. Increases in core temperature counterbalance effects of haemoconcentration on blood viscosity during prolonged exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Michael J; Krippes, Taylor; Kolkhorst, Fred W; Williams, Alexander T; Cabrales, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of exercise-induced haemoconcentration and hyperthermia on blood viscosity. What is the main finding and its importance? Exercise-induced haemoconcentration, increased plasma viscosity and increased blood aggregation, all of which increased blood viscosity, were counterbalanced by increased red blood cell (RBC) deformability (e.g. RBC membrane shear elastic modulus and elongation index) caused by the hyperthermia. Thus, blood viscosity remained unchanged following prolonged moderate-intensity exercise in the heat. Previous studies have reported that blood viscosity is significantly increased following exercise. However, these studies measured both pre- and postexercise blood viscosity at 37 °C even though core and blood temperatures would be expected to have increased during the exercise. Consequently, the effect of exercise-induced hyperthermia on mitigating change in blood viscosity may have been missed. The purpose of this study was to isolate the effects of exercise-induced haemoconcentration and hyperthermia and to determine their combined effects on blood viscosity. Nine subjects performed 2 h of moderate-intensity exercise in the heat (37 °C, 40% relative humidity), which resulted in significant increases from pre-exercise values for rectal temperature (from 37.11 ± 0.35 to 38.76 ± 0.13 °C), haemoconcentration (haematocrit increased from 43.6 ± 3.6 to 45.6 ± 3.5%) and dehydration (change in body weight = -3.6 ± 0.7%). Exercise-induced haemoconcentration significantly (P blood viscosity by 9% (from 3.97 to 4.33 cP at 300 s(-1)), whereas exercise-induced hyperthermia significantly decreased blood viscosity by 7% (from 3.97 to 3.69 cP at 300 s(-1)). When both factors were considered together, there was no overall change in blood viscosity (from 3.97 to 4.03 cP at 300 s(-1)). The effects of exercise-induced haemoconcentration, increased plasma

  14. Fructose containing sugars do not raise blood pressure or uric acid at normal levels of human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Rippe, James M

    2015-02-01

    The impact of fructose, commonly consumed with sugars by humans, on blood pressure and uric acid has yet to be defined. A total of 267 weight-stable participants drank sugar-sweetened milk every day for 10 weeks as part of their usual, mixed-nutrient diet. Groups 1 and 2 had 9% estimated caloric intake from fructose or glucose, respectively, added to milk. Groups 3 and 4 had 18% of estimated caloric intake from high fructose corn syrup or sucrose, respectively, added to the milk. Blood pressure and uric acid were determined prior to and after the 10-week intervention. There was no effect of sugar type on either blood pressure or uric acid (interaction P>.05), and a significant time effect for blood pressure was noted (Pfructose at the 50th percentile level, whether consumed as pure fructose or with fructose-glucose-containing sugars, does not promote hyperuricemia or increase blood pressure. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Ex vivo irradiation of human blood to determine DNA damage using molecular techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, Angel; Agapito, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Biological dosimetry is the assessment of absorbed dose in individuals exposed to ionizing radiation from blood samples based on the radiation induced damage in cellular DNA. The aim of this study was to determine the damage in the DNA through the assessment of an experimental ex vivo assay using irradiated samples of human blood cells. For this purpose, blood samples were irradiated at low doses (<100 mGy) considering the following parameters: blood volume (3mL), temperature (37 °C) and incubation time (0.5, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h). Dose values were: 0, 12.5, 25 and 50 mGy using Cesium -137 gamma rays at 662 keV and a dose rate of 38.46 mGy/h. The qualitative damage in the genomic DNA was determined using agarose gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the p53 gene in a sequence of 133 pb of exon 7, related to the protein that acts in the cell repair process. The results of the qualitative analysis showed no degradation of genomic DNA; also an increase in the DNA concentration was observed up to the fourth hour of incubation, finding maximum values for all doses in the two samples. As a conclusion, the effects of ionizing radiation at doses used in this experiment do not generate a detectable damage, by means of molecular techniques such as those used in the present study. (authors).

  16. Effect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet R Olthof

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Betaine (trimethylglycine lowers plasma homocysteine, a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, studies in renal patients and in obese individuals who are on a weight-loss diet suggest that betaine supplementation raises blood cholesterol; data in healthy individuals are lacking. Such an effect on cholesterol would counteract any favourable effect on homocysteine. We therefore investigated the effect of betaine, of its precursor choline in the form of phosphatidylcholine, and of the classical homocysteine-lowering vitamin folic acid on blood lipid concentrations in healthy humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured blood lipids in four placebo-controlled, randomised intervention studies that examined the effect of betaine (three studies, n = 151, folic acid (two studies, n = 75, and phosphatidylcholine (one study, n = 26 on plasma homocysteine concentrations. We combined blood lipid data from the individual studies and calculated a weighted mean change in blood lipid concentrations relative to placebo. Betaine supplementation (6 g/d for 6 wk increased blood LDL cholesterol concentrations by 0.36 mmol/l (95% confidence interval: 0.25-0.46, and triacylglycerol concentrations by 0.14 mmol/l (0.04-0.23 relative to placebo. The ratio of total to HDL cholesterol increased by 0.23 (0.14-0.32. Concentrations of HDL cholesterol were not affected. Doses of betaine lower than 6 g/d also raised LDL cholesterol, but these changes were not statistically significant. Further, the effect of betaine on LDL cholesterol was already evident after 2 wk of intervention. Phosphatidylcholine supplementation (providing approximately 2.6 g/d of choline for 2 wk increased triacylglycerol concentrations by 0.14 mmol/l (0.06-0.21, but did not affect cholesterol concentrations. Folic acid supplementation (0.8 mg/d had no effect on lipid concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Betaine supplementation increased blood LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol

  17. Increased blood BDNF in healthy individuals with a family history of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Søndergaard, Mia H Greisen; Koefoed, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    The brain-derive neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play an important role in the course of depression. We aimed to study the associations between peripheral whole blood BDNF levels in healthy individuals with and without a family history of depression. BDNF levels were significantly increased...... in healthy individuals with (n = 76), compared with healthy individuals without (n = 39) a family history of depression and persisted after adjustment for age and gender differences. Higher BDNF levels were associated with increasing age and seasonality. A family history of depression may contribute...... to an elevation of peripheral BDNF levels in healthy individuals....

  18. Susceptibility contrast imaging of CO2-induced changes in the blood volume of the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H B; Toft, P B

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate changes in the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in human subjects during rest and hypercapnia by MR imaging, and to compare the results from contrast-enhanced and noncontrast-enhanced susceptibility-weighted imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five healthy volunteers (aged...... to be in accordance with results obtained by other methods. Noncontrast functional MR (fMR) imaging showed signal increases in gray matter, but also inconsistent changes in some white matter regions. CONCLUSION: In this experiment, contrast-enhanced imaging seemed to show a somewhat higher sensitivity towards changes...

  19. Sympathetic influence on cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Secher, Niels H

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the possibility that autonomic activity influences cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism during exercise in humans. Apart from cerebral autoregulation, the arterial carbon dioxide tension, and neuronal activation, it may be that the autonomic nervous system influences CBF...... perfusion and reduces the near-infrared determined cerebral oxygenation at rest, but not during exercise associated with an increased cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO(2)), suggesting competition between CMRO(2) and sympathetic control of CBF. CMRO(2) does not change during even intense handgrip...

  20. The effects of compound danshen dripping pills and human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplant after acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Yi; Chunju, Yuan; Qi, Ai; Liuxia, Deng; Guolong, Yu

    2014-04-01

    The low frequency of survival of stem cells implanted in the myocardium after acute myocardial infarction may be caused by inflammation and oxidative stress in the myocardial microenvironment. We evaluated the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine, Compound Danshen Dripping Pills, on the cardiac microenvironment and cardiac function when used alone or in combination with human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplant after acute myocardial infarction. After surgically induced acute myocardial infarction, rabbits were treated with Compound Danshen Dripping Pills alone or in combination with human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplant. Evaluation included histology, measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening, leukocyte count, count of green fluorescent protein positive cells, superoxide dismutase activity, and malondialdehyde content. Combination treatment with Compound Danshen Dripping Pills and human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplant significantly increased the survival of implanted cells, inhibited cardiac cell apoptosis, decreased oxidative stress, decreased the inflammatory response, and improved cardiac function. Rabbits treated with either Compound Danshen Dripping Pills or human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells alone had improvement in these effects compared with untreated control rabbits. Combination therapy with Compound Danshen Dripping Pills and human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells may improve cardiac function and morphology after acute myocardial infarction.

  1. Longer repetition duration increases muscle activation and blood lactate response in matched resistance training protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Cesar Martins-Costa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzed the effect of different repetition durations on electromyographic and blood lactate responses of the bench press exercise. Fifteen recreationally trained male volunteers completed two training protocols, matched for intensity (% one-repetition maximum; 1RM, number of sets, number of repetitions, and rest intervals. One of the protocols was performed with a repetition duration of 4 s (2 s concentric: 2 s eccentric; 2:2 protocol, whereas the second protocol had a repetition duration of 6 s (2 s concentric: 4 s eccentric; 2:4 protocol. The results showed higher normalized integrated electromyography (pectoralis major and triceps brachii for the 2:4 protocol. Blood lactate concentration was also higher in the 2:4 protocol across all sets. These results show that adding 2 s to the eccentric action in matched training protocols increases muscle activation and blood lactate response, which reinforces the notion that increasing repetition duration is an alternative load progression in resistance training.

  2. High Dietary Iron and Radiation Exposure Increase Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Blood and Liver of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Theriot, Corey A.; Wu, Honglu; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure and increased iron (Fe) status independently cause oxidative damage that can result in protein, lipid, and DNA oxidation. During space flight astronauts are exposed to both increased radiation and increased Fe stores. Increased body Fe results from a decrease in red blood cell mass and the typically high Fe content of the food system. In this study we investigated the combined effects of radiation exposure (0.375 Gy of Cs-137 every other day for 16 days for a total of 3 Gy) and high dietary Fe (650 mg Fe/kg diet compared to 45 mg Fe/kg for controls) in Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8/group). Liver and serum Fe were significantly increased in the high dietary Fe groups. Likewise, radiation treatment increased serum ferritin and Fe concentrations. These data indicate that total body Fe stores increase with both radiation exposure and excess dietary Fe. Hematocrit decreased in the group exposed to radiation, providing a possible mechanism for the shift in Fe indices after radiation exposure. Markers of oxidative stress were also affected by both radiation and high dietary Fe, evidenced by increased liver glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and serum catalase as well as decreased serum GPX. We thus found preliminary indications of synergistic effects of radiation exposure and increased dietary Fe, warranting further study. This study was funded by the NASA Human Research Project.

  3. Driving environment in Iran increases blood pressure even in healthy taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Navadeh Khodadadi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Nowadays, driving is an unseparated part of our new modern lifestyle; and we are exposed to this environment all the days for several hours whether as drivers or as riders. Many reports indicated that Iran is on the top rank of automobile-related morbidity and mortality among developed and even many developing countries that can be due to dangerous driving habits in Iran. We designed this study to find out if environment of driving have clinically important effects on blood pressure (BP and how strong is the effect. We also examined if there were any predictors for the BP rises in driving time.
    • METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 31 healthy male taxi drivers were included through a multistage proportional sampling method in winter and spring 2007. They were referred to the clinic of hypertension in Shafa Hospital, Kerman. A trained nurse measured the BPs. She also did set up the Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor (ABPM on the drivers’ left arms for BP recording every 30 minutes during the day. Based on the diurnal recorded BPs, the subjects were allocated into normotensive and hypertensive (systolic BP > 135 or diastolic BP > 85mmHg groups. The difference among the clinic BPs and the driving BPs was examined by t-test in Stata version 8, followed by a multivariate analysis for exploring the main predictors for BP rises in driving time.
    • RESULTS: Both mean systolic and mean diastolic BPs were significantly increased from 116.85 (SE 2.28 and 74.44 (SE 2.22 mmHg in clinic to 138.64 (SE 2.77 and 95.70 (SE 2.55 mmHg during driving, respectively (P = 0.0001. Pulse pressure remained constant (P = 0.87. The difference between clinic's and driving time measurements was higher in hypertensive group. Those with higher systolic blood pressures in clinic had more frequent and higher BP rises in driving time (P = 0.02.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Driving

    • Inner ocular blood flow responses to an acute decrease in blood pressure in resting humans

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Ikemura, Tsukasa; Kashima, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Miyaji, Akane; Hayashi, Naoyuki

      2015-01-01

      Whether inner ocular vessels have an autoregulatory response to acute fluctuations in blood pressure is unclear. We tried to examine the validity of acute hypotension elicited by thigh-cuff release as to assess the dynamic autoregulation in the ocular circulation. Blood flow velocity in the superior nasal and inferior temporal retinal arterioles, and in the retinal and choroidal vasculature were measured with the aid of laser speckle flowgraphy before and immediately after an acute decrease in blood pressure in 20 healthy subjects. Acute hypotension was induced by a rapid release of bilateral thigh occlusion cuffs that had been inflated to 220 mmHg for 2 min. The ratio of the relative change in retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity to the relative change in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was calculated. Immediately after cuff release, the MAP and blood flows in the all ocular target vessels decreased significantly from the baseline values obtained before thigh-cuff release. The ratio of the relative change in inner ocular blood flow velocity to that in the MAP exceeded 1% / %mmHg. An explicit dynamic autoregulation in inner ocular vessels cannot be demonstrated in response to an acute hypotension induced by the thigh-cuff release technique. (paper)

    • Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-derived short-term blood pressure variability is increased in Cushing's syndrome.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rebellato, Andrea; Grillo, Andrea; Dassie, Francesca; Sonino, Nicoletta; Maffei, Pietro; Martini, Chiara; Paoletta, Agostino; Fabris, Bruno; Carretta, Renzo; Fallo, Francesco

      2014-11-01

      Cushing's syndrome is associated with high cardiovascular morbility and mortality. Blood pressure (BP) variability within a 24-h period is increasingly recognized as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. The aim of our study was to investigate the short-term BP variability indices in Cushing's syndrome. Twenty-five patients with Cushing's syndrome (mean age 49 ± 13 years, 4 males; 21 Cushing's disease and 4 adrenal adenoma patients) underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors. Cushing patients were divided into 8 normotensive (NOR-CUSH) and 17 hypertensive (HYP-CUSH) patients and were compared with 20 normotensive (NOR-CTR) and 20 hypertensive (HYP-CTR) age-, sex-, and BMI-matched control subjects. Short-term BP variability was derived from ABPM and calculated as the following: (1) standard deviation (SD) of 24-h, daytime, and nighttime BP; (2) 24-h weighted SD of BP; and (3) average real variability (ARV), i.e., the average of the absolute differences between consecutive BP measurements over 24 h. In comparison with controls, patients with Cushing's syndrome, either normotensive or hypertensive, had higher 24-h and daytime SD of BP, as well as higher 24-h weighted SD and ARV of BP (P = 0.03 to P CUSH or between HYP-CTR and HYP-CUSH subgroups. ABPM-derived short-term BP variability is increased in Cushing's syndrome, independent of BP elevation. It may represent an additional cardiovascular risk factor in this disease. The role of excess cortisol in BP variability has to be further clarified.

    • Increasing the predictive accuracy of amyloid-β blood-borne biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Watt, Andrew D; Perez, Keyla A; Faux, Noel G; Pike, Kerryn E; Rowe, Christopher C; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Salvado, Olivier; Masters, Colin L; Villemagne, Victor L; Barnham, Kevin J

      2011-01-01

      Diagnostic measures for Alzheimer's disease (AD) commonly rely on evaluating the levels of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of affected individuals. These levels are often combined with levels of an additional non-Aβ marker to increase predictive accuracy. Recent efforts to overcome the invasive nature of CSF collection led to the observation of Aβ species within the blood cellular fraction, however, little is known of what additional biomarkers may be found in this membranous fraction. The current study aimed to undertake a discovery-based proteomic investigation of the blood cellular fraction from AD patients (n = 18) and healthy controls (HC; n = 15) using copper immobilized metal affinity capture and Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Three candidate biomarkers were observed which could differentiate AD patients from HC (ROC AUC > 0.8). Bivariate pairwise comparisons revealed significant correlations between these markers and measures of AD severity including; MMSE, composite memory, brain amyloid burden, and hippocampal volume. A partial least squares regression model was generated using the three candidate markers along with blood levels of Aβ. This model was able to distinguish AD from HC with high specificity (90%) and sensitivity (77%) and was able to separate individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who converted to AD from MCI non-converters. While requiring further characterization, these candidate biomarkers reaffirm the potential efficacy of blood-based investigations into neurodegenerative conditions. Furthermore, the findings indicate that the incorporation of non-amyloid markers into predictive models, function to increase the accuracy of the diagnostic potential of Aβ.

    • Increased expression of beta 2-microglobulin and histocompatibility antigens on human lymphoid cells induced by interferon

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Hokland, M; Heron, I; Berg, K

      1982-01-01

      Normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes were incubated in the presence of different concentrations of interferon for various incubation periods. Subsequently, the amount of beta 2-Microglobulin and HLA-A, B and C surface antigens was estimated by means of quantitative immunofluorescence (flow...... cytofluorometry) and by a radioimmunoassay for beta 2-Microglobulin. It was found that the amounts of these MHC antigens increased in a dose and time-dependent way after interferon treatment. Furthermore, the influence of different temperatures on this IFN-induced increase in beta 2-Microglobulin was gradually...

    • Human disc degeneration is associated with increased MMP 7 expression.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Le Maitre, C L; Freemont, A J; Hoyland, J A

      2006-01-01

      During intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, normal matrix synthesis decreases and degradation of disc matrix increases. A number of proteases that are increased during disc degeneration are thought to be involved in its pathogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP 7) (Matrilysin, PUMP-1) is known to cleave the major matrix molecules found within the IVD, i.e., the proteoglycan aggrecan and collagen type II. To date, however, it is not known how its expression changes with degeneration or its exact location. We investigated the localization of MMP 7 in human, histologically graded, nondegenerate, degenerated and prolapsed discs to ascertain whether MMP 7 is up-regulated during disc degeneration. Samples of human IVD tissue were fixed in neutral buffered formalin, embedded in paraffin, and sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin to score the degree of morphological degeneration. Immunohistochemistry was performed to localize MMP 7 in 41 human IVDs with varying degrees of degeneration. We found that the chondrocyte-like cells of the nucleus pulposus and inner annulus fibrosus were MMP 7 immunopositive; little immunopositivity was observed in the outer annulus. Nondegenerate discs showed few immunopositive cells. A significant increase in the proportion of MMP 7 immunopositive cells was seen in the nucleus pulposus of discs classified as showing intermediate levels of degeneration and a further increase was seen in discs with severe degeneration. Prolapsed discs showed more MMP 7 immunopositive cells compared to nondegenerated discs, but fewer than those seen in cases of severe degeneration.

    • Predictive Virtual Infection Modeling of Fungal Immune Evasion in Human Whole Blood.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Prauße, Maria T E; Lehnert, Teresa; Timme, Sandra; Hünniger, Kerstin; Leonhardt, Ines; Kurzai, Oliver; Figge, Marc Thilo

      2018-01-01

      Bloodstream infections by the human-pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata increasingly occur in hospitalized patients and are associated with high mortality rates. The early immune response against these fungi in human blood comprises a concerted action of humoral and cellular components of the innate immune system. Upon entering the blood, the majority of fungal cells will be eliminated by innate immune cells, i.e., neutrophils and monocytes. However, recent studies identified a population of fungal cells that can evade the immune response and thereby may disseminate and cause organ dissemination, which is frequently observed during candidemia. In this study, we investigate the so far unresolved mechanism of fungal immune evasion in human whole blood by testing hypotheses with the help of mathematical modeling. We use a previously established state-based virtual infection model for whole-blood infection with C. albicans to quantify the immune response and identified the fungal immune-evasion mechanism. While this process was assumed to be spontaneous in the previous model, we now hypothesize that the immune-evasion process is mediated by host factors and incorporate such a mechanism in the model. In particular, we propose, based on previous studies that the fungal immune-evasion mechanism could possibly arise through modification of the fungal surface by as of yet unknown proteins that are assumed to be secreted by activated neutrophils. To validate or reject any of the immune-evasion mechanisms, we compared the simulation of both immune-evasion models for different infection scenarios, i.e., infection of whole blood with either C. albicans or C. glabrata under non-neutropenic and neutropenic conditions. We found that under non-neutropenic conditions, both immune-evasion models fit the experimental data from whole-blood infection with C. albicans and C. glabrata . However, differences between the immune-evasion models could be observed for the

    • Predictive Virtual Infection Modeling of Fungal Immune Evasion in Human Whole Blood

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Maria T. E. Prauße

      2018-03-01

      Full Text Available Bloodstream infections by the human-pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata increasingly occur in hospitalized patients and are associated with high mortality rates. The early immune response against these fungi in human blood comprises a concerted action of humoral and cellular components of the innate immune system. Upon entering the blood, the majority of fungal cells will be eliminated by innate immune cells, i.e., neutrophils and monocytes. However, recent studies identified a population of fungal cells that can evade the immune response and thereby may disseminate and cause organ dissemination, which is frequently observed during candidemia. In this study, we investigate the so far unresolved mechanism of fungal immune evasion in human whole blood by testing hypotheses with the help of mathematical modeling. We use a previously established state-based virtual infection model for whole-blood infection with C. albicans to quantify the immune response and identified the fungal immune-evasion mechanism. While this process was assumed to be spontaneous in the previous model, we now hypothesize that the immune-evasion process is mediated by host factors and incorporate such a mechanism in the model. In particular, we propose, based on previous studies that the fungal immune-evasion mechanism could possibly arise through modification of the fungal surface by as of yet unknown proteins that are assumed to be secreted by activated neutrophils. To validate or reject any of the immune-evasion mechanisms, we compared the simulation of both immune-evasion models for different infection scenarios, i.e., infection of whole blood with either C. albicans or C. glabrata under non-neutropenic and neutropenic conditions. We found that under non-neutropenic conditions, both immune-evasion models fit the experimental data from whole-blood infection with C. albicans and C. glabrata. However, differences between the immune-evasion models could be

    • Increased blood pressure later in life may be associated with perinatal n-3 fatty acid deficiency.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Armitage, James A; Pearce, Adrian D; Sinclair, Andrew J; Vingrys, Algis J; Weisinger, Richard S; Weisinger, Harrison S

      2003-04-01

      Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Previous work in both animals and humans with high blood pressure has demonstrated the antihypertensive effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), although it is not known whether these nutrients are effective in preventing hypertension. The predominant n-3 PUFA in the mammalian nervous system, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is deposited into synaptic membranes at a high rate during the perinatal period, and recent observations indicate that the perinatal environment is important for the normal development of blood pressure control. This study investigated the importance of perinatal n-3 PUFA supply in the control of blood pressure in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Pregnant rat dams were fed semisynthetic diets that were either deficient in (DEF) or supplemented with (CON) n-3 PUFA. Offspring were fed the same diets as their mothers until 9 wk; then, half of the rats from each group were crossed over to the opposite diet creating four groups, i.e., CON-CON; CON-DEF; DEF-DEF, DEF-CON. Mean arterial blood pressures (MAP) were measured directly, at 33 wk of age, by cannulation of the femoral artery. The phospholipid fatty acid profile of the hypothalamic region was determined by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. The tissue phospholipid fatty acid profile reflected the diet that the rats were consuming at the time of testing. Both groups receiving DEF after 9 wk of age (i.e., DEF-DEF and CON-DEF) had similar profiles with a reduction in DHA levels of 30%, compared with rats receiving CON (i.e., CON-CON and DEF-CON). DEF-DEF rats had significantly raised MAP compared with all other groups, with differences as great as 17 mm Hg. DEF-CON rats had raised MAP compared with CON-CON rats, and DEF-DEF rats had higher MAP than CON-DEF rats, despite the fact that their respective fatty acid profiles were not different. These findings indicate that inadequate levels of DHA in the perinatal

    • Blood cell oxidative stress precedes hemolysis in whole blood-liver slice co-cultures of rat, dog, and human tissues

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Vickers, Alison E.M.; Sinclair, John R.; Fisher, Robyn L.; Morris, Stephen R.; Way, William

      2010-01-01

      A novel in vitro model to investigate time-dependent and concentration-dependent responses in blood cells and hemolytic events is studied for rat, dog, and human tissues. Whole blood is co-cultured with a precision-cut liver slice. Methimazole (MMI) was selected as a reference compound, since metabolism of its imidazole thione moiety is linked with hematologic disorders and hepatotoxicity. An oxidative stress response occurred in all three species, marked by a decline in blood GSH levels by 24 h that progressed, and preceded hemolysis, which occurred at high MMI concentrations in the presence of a liver slice with rat (≥ 1000 μM at 48 h) and human tissues (≥ 1000 μM at 48 h, ≥ 750 μM at 72 h) but not dog. Human blood-only cultures exhibited a decline of GSH levels but minimal to no hemolysis. The up-regulation of liver genes for heme degradation (Hmox1 and Prdx1), iron cellular transport (Slc40a1), and GSH synthesis and utilization (mGST1 and Gclc) were early markers of the oxidative stress response. The up-regulation of the Kupffer cell lectin Lgals3 gene expression indicated a response to damaged red blood cells, and Hp (haptoglobin) up-regulation is indicative of increased hemoglobin uptake. Up-regulation of liver IL-6 and IL-8 gene expression suggested an activation of an inflammatory response by liver endothelial cells. In summary, MMI exposure led to an oxidative stress response in blood cells, and an up-regulation of liver genes involved with oxidative stress and heme homeostasis, which was clearly separate and preceded frank hemolysis.

    • Wetting and spreading of human blood: Recent advances and applications

      OpenAIRE

      Smith , F.R. ,; Brutin , David

      2018-01-01

      International audience; Investigation of the physical phenomena involved in blood interactions with real surfaces present new exciting challenges. The fluid mechanical properties of such a fluid is singular due its non-Newtonian and complex behaviour, depending on the surrounding ambient conditions and the donor/victim's blood biological properties. The fundamental research on the topic remains fairly recent; although it finds applications in fields such as forensic science, with bloodstain p...

    • Reducing consistency in human realism increases the uncanny valley effect; increasing category uncertainty does not.

      Science.gov (United States)

      MacDorman, Karl F; Chattopadhyay, Debaleena

      2016-01-01

      Human replicas may elicit unintended cold, eerie feelings in viewers, an effect known as the uncanny valley. Masahiro Mori, who proposed the effect in 1970, attributed it to inconsistencies in the replica's realism with some of its features perceived as human and others as nonhuman. This study aims to determine whether reducing realism consistency in visual features increases the uncanny valley effect. In three rounds of experiments, 548 participants categorized and rated humans, animals, and objects that varied from computer animated to real. Two sets of features were manipulated to reduce realism consistency. (For humans, the sets were eyes-eyelashes-mouth and skin-nose-eyebrows.) Reducing realism consistency caused humans and animals, but not objects, to appear eerier and colder. However, the predictions of a competing theory, proposed by Ernst Jentsch in 1906, were not supported: The most ambiguous representations-those eliciting the greatest category uncertainty-were neither the eeriest nor the coldest. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    • Human lactoferrin increases Helicobacter pylori internalisation into AGS cells.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Coray, Dorien S; Heinemann, Jack A; Tyrer, Peter C; Keenan, Jacqueline I

      2012-05-01

      Helicobacter pylori has high global infection rates and can cause other undesirable clinical manifestations such as duodenal ulcer (DU) and gastric cancer (GC). Frequencies of re-infection after therapeutic clearance and rates of DU versus GC vary geographically and differ markedly between developed and developing countries, which suggests additional factors may be involved. The possibility that, in vivo, lactoferrin (Lf) may play a subtle role in modulating micronutrient availability or bacterial internalisation with implications for disease etiology is considered. Lf is an iron binding protein produced in mammals that has antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. Some bacteria that regularly colonise mammalian hosts have adapted to living in high Lf environments and we investigated if this included the gastric pathogen H. pylori. We found that H. pylori was able to use iron from fully iron-saturated human Lf (hLf) whereas partially iron-saturated hLf (apo) did not increase H. pylori growth. Instead, apo-hLf increased adherence to and internalisation of bacteria into cultured epithelial cells. By increasing internalisation, we speculate that apo-human lactoferrin may contribute to H. pylori's ability to persistence in the human stomach, an observation that potentially has implications for the risk of H. pylori-associated disease.

    • Mercury in human brain, blood, muscle and toenails in relation to exposure: an autopsy study

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Morild Inge

      2007-10-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background The main forms of mercury (Hg exposure in the general population are methylmercury (MeHg from seafood, inorganic mercury (I-Hg from food, and mercury vapor (Hg0 from dental amalgam restorations. While the distribution of MeHg in the body is described by a one compartment model, the distribution of I-Hg after exposure to elemental mercury is more complex, and there is no biomarker for I-Hg in the brain. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationships between on the one hand MeHg and I-Hg in human brain and other tissues, including blood, and on the other Hg exposure via dental amalgam in a fish-eating population. In addition, the use of blood and toenails as biological indicator media for inorganic and organic mercury (MeHg in the tissues was evaluated. Methods Samples of blood, brain (occipital lobe cortex, pituitary, thyroid, abdominal muscle and toenails were collected at autopsy of 30 deceased individuals, age from 47 to 91 years of age. Concentrations of total-Hg and I-Hg in blood and brain cortex were determined by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry and total-Hg in other tissues by sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS. Results The median concentrations of MeHg (total-Hg minus I-Hg and I-Hg in blood were 2.2 and 1.0 μg/L, and in occipital lobe cortex 4 and 5 μg/kg, respectively. There was a significant correlation between MeHg in blood and occipital cortex. Also, total-Hg in toenails correlated with MeHg in both blood and occipital lobe. I-Hg in both blood and occipital cortex, as well as total-Hg in pituitary and thyroid were strongly associated with the number of dental amalgam surfaces at the time of death. Conclusion In a fish-eating population, intake of MeHg via the diet has a marked impact on the MeHg concentration in the brain, while exposure to dental amalgam restorations increases the I-Hg concentrations in the brain. Discrimination between mercury species is

    • Acrolein-Induced Increases in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Are Coupled with Decreased Blood Oxygen Levels During Exposure in Hypertensive Rats

      Science.gov (United States)

      Exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Recent studies link exposure to air pollution with reduced blood oxygen saturation suggesting that hypoxia is a potential me...

    • Immunotoxicity assessment of rice-derived recombinant human serum albumin using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Kai Fu

      Full Text Available Human serum albumin (HSA is extensively used in clinics to treat a variety of diseases, such as hypoproteinemia, hemorrhagic shock, serious burn injuries, cirrhotic ascites and fetal erythroblastosis. To address supply shortages and high safety risks from limited human donors, we recently developed recombinant technology to produce HSA from rice endosperm. To assess the risk potential of HSA derived from Oryza sativa (OsrHSA before a First-in-human (FIH trial, we compared OsrHSA and plasma-derived HSA (pHSA, evaluating the potential for an immune reaction and toxicity using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. The results indicated that neither OsrHSA nor pHSA stimulated T cell proliferation at 1x and 5x dosages. We also found no significant differences in the profiles of the CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell subsets between OsrHSA- and pHSA-treated cells. Furthermore, the results showed that there were no significant differences between OsrHSA and pHSA in the production of cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-10 and IL-4. Our results demonstrated that OsrHSA has equivalent immunotoxicity to pHSA when using the PBMC model. Moreover, this ex vivo system could provide an alternative approach to predict potential risks in novel biopharmaceutical development.

    • Increased Blood Lactate Level Deteriorates Running Economy in World Class Endurance Athletes.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hoff, Jan; Støren, Øyvind; Finstad, Arnstein; Wang, Eivind; Helgerud, Jan

      2016-05-01

      Blood lactate accumulation is associated with development of muscle fatigue and negatively correlated to endurance performance. No research has quantified the effects of lactate presence at moderate levels of lactate accumulation. The purpose of this study was to test whether 2 moderate blood lactate concentration levels affect running economy (RE) when running at the individual lactate threshold (LT). Seven male world class endurance athletes with an average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 80.7 ± 2.7 ml·kg·min or 5.8 ± 0.5 L·min participated in this study. After the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max test, the subjects were resting or walking and in a random order tested for RE at their LT velocity when the blood lactate level reached either 3 mmol·L or 5 mmol·L. After a new 5-minute exercising period at maximal aerobic velocity, the crossover lactate value RE testing was performed. Running economy was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) deteriorated from 0.668 ± 0.044 to 0.705 ± 0.056 ml·kg·m or 5.5% (p ≤ 0.05) for blood lactate level of 3 mmol·L compared with 5 mmol·L, respectively. Increased lactate level from 3 to 5 mmol·L is thus accompanied by deteriorated RE at LT running velocity. The deteriorated RE at moderate levels of lactate concentration emphasizes the importance of avoiding intensities above LT in the early parts of a dominantly aerobic endurance competition. It also emphasizes the importance of a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for aerobic endurance athletes and may partly explain the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component as impaired RE.

    • Deferral for low hemoglobin is not associated with increased risk of infection in Danish blood donors

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Kotze, Sebastian Ranzi; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S

      2017-01-01

      Donations and Transfusions database, 497,390 donors were followed after 5,458,499 donations in health registers. With 1,339,362 person-years of follow-up, Andersen-Gill Cox regression was used to study the association of Hb levels below deferral thresholds, very low Hb levels (in the lowest 0.1 percentile......% CI, 0.88-0.94). CONCLUSIONS: Neither Hb levels below deferral thresholds nor very low or declining Hb levels were associated with an increased risk of infection. This is reassuring, because blood donation can lead to lower Hb levels....

  1. The blood pressure-induced diameter response of retinal arterioles decreases with increasing diabetic maculopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz; Jeppesen, Peter; Knudsen, Søren Tang

    2006-01-01

    A consisted of normal individuals and groups B-D consisted of type 2 diabetic patients matched for diabetes duration, age, and gender, and characterized by: Group B no retinopathy, Group C mild retinopathy, Group D maculopathy not requiring laser treatment. The diameter changes of a large retinal arteriole......+/-4.5 microm), and Group C (253+/-4.4 microm), but was significantly (p=0.006) increased in Group D (279+/-5.3 microm). CONCLUSIONS: The diameter response was reduced in type 2 diabetic patients with retinopathy, whereas retinal thickness was increased in patients with diabetic maculopathy. This suggests......BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to compare the diameter response of retinal arterioles and retinal thickness in patients with different stages of diabetic maculopathy during an increase in the arterial blood pressure. METHODS: Four groups each consisting of 19 individuals were studied. Group...

  2. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus infection in blood donations in Europe and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suligoi, Barbara; Raimondo, Mariangela; Regine, Vincenza; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Camoni, Laura

    2010-07-01

    The safety of blood with regards to transmission of infectious diseases is guaranteed by European laws that regulate both the selection of donors through pre-donation questionnaires and serological screening. However, variability in the epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in different countries and some differences in the selection of donors can influence the efficacy (with regards to the safety of blood) of these processes. In this study we compared the prevalence of HIV in blood donations in the three macro-areas of Europe and in various western European countries, analysed the criteria of selection and rewarding of donors in western European countries, and studied the trend in the prevalence of HIV in Italy from to 1995 and 2006. European data were derived from the European Centre for the Surveillance of HIV; Italian data were obtained from the Transfusion-Transmitted Infections Surveillance System and National and Regional Register of blood and plasma. The information on eligibility criteria and rewarding offered to donors was derived from international sources. The prevalence of HIV in blood donations was highest in eastern Europe, followed by central Europe and western Europe. Among the western European countries, Spain, Italy and Israel had the highest prevalences; the prevalence was noted to be higher in countries which did not offer any rewarding to the donor. In Italy the prevalence of HIV was 3.8 cases per 100,000 donations in 2006 and increased between 1995 and 2006, both among donations from repeat donors and first time donors. The data highlight the need to continue improving the selection of donors and the coverage of the surveillance systems for HIV infection in transfusion services.

  3. Increased risk of mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus by intrapartum infantile exposure to maternal blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steininger, Christoph; Kundi, Michael; Jatzko, Gerlinde; Kiss, Herbert; Lischka, Andreas; Holzmann, Heidemarie

    2003-02-01

    Virological and clinical data from 73 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected pregnant women who gave birth to 75 children were merged retrospectively, by logistic regression analysis, to investigate risk factors for vertical transmission of HCV. Eighty-two percent of the HCV-infected mothers were HCV-RNA-positive during pregnancy, and 10% were coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Nine children were HCV infected, 1 was HIV infected, but none was HIV-HCV coinfected. Among vaginal deliveries, the mean HCV load of mothers who transmitted HCV to their infants was higher than that of those who did not (8.1 x 10(5) vs. 1.4 x 10(4) copies/mL; P=.056). A reduction in umbilical cord-blood pH (relative risk, 3.9; P=.04) or the occurrence of perineal or vaginal laceration (relative risk, 6.4; P=.028) during vaginal delivery significantly increased the risk of vertical HCV transmission. In conclusion, high maternal viremia, infantile hypoxia, and intrapartum exposure to virus-contaminated maternal blood increased the risk of HCV transmission during vaginal deliveries. Consequently, cesarean section may reduce the risk of vertical HCV transmission in selected cases.

  4. Sex differences of human cortical blood flow and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Rodell, Anders; Jónsdottir, Kristjana Y; Gjedde, Albert

    2017-07-01

    Brain energy metabolism is held to reflect energy demanding processes in neuropil related to the density and activity of synapses. There is recent evidence that men have higher density of synapses in temporal cortex than women. One consequence of these differences would be different rates of cortical energy turnover and blood flow in men and women. To test the hypotheses that rates of oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ) and cerebral blood flow are higher in men than in women in regions of cerebral cortex, and that the differences persist with aging, we used positron emission tomography to determine cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen as functions of age in healthy volunteers of both sexes. Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen did not change with age for either sex and there were no differences of mean values of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen between men and women in cerebral cortex. Women had significant decreases of cerebral blood flow as function of age in frontal and parietal lobes. Young women had significantly higher cerebral blood flow than men in frontal and temporal lobes, but these differences had disappeared at age 65. The absent sex difference of cerebral energy turnover suggests that the known differences of synaptic density between the sexes are counteracted by opposite differences of individual synaptic activity.

  5. Role of adenosine in regulating the heterogeneity of skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Nesterov, Sergey V; Kemppainen, Jukka

    2007-01-01

    receptor blockade. BF heterogeneity within muscles was calculated from 16-mm(3) voxels in BF images and heterogeneity among the muscles from the mean values of the four QF compartments. Mean BF in the whole QF and its four parts increased, and heterogeneity decreased with workload both without......Evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that adenosine plays a role in the regulation of exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle. We tested whether adenosine also plays a role in the regulation of blood flow (BF) distribution and heterogeneity among and within quadriceps femoris (QF...... and with theophylline (P heterogeneity among the QF muscles, yet blockade increased within-muscle BF heterogeneity in all four QF muscles (P = 0.03). Taken together, these results show that BF becomes less heterogeneous with increasing...

  6. Reduced blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle in ageing humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Hellsten, Ylva

    2016-01-01

    The ability to sustain a given absolute submaximal workload declines with advancing age likely due to a lower level of blood flow and O2 delivery to the exercising muscles. Given that physical inactivity mimics many of the physiological changes associated with ageing, separating the physiological...... consequences of ageing and physical inactivity can be challenging; yet, observations from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the effects of physical activity have provided some insight. Physical activity has the potential to offset the age-related decline in blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle...... the O2 demand of the active skeletal muscle of aged individuals during conditions where systemic blood flow is not limited by cardiac output seems to a large extent to be related to the level of physical activity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  7. Sex differences of human cortical blood flow and energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Rodell, Anders

    2017-01-01

    cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen as functions of age in healthy volunteers of both sexes. Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen did not change with age for either sex and there were no differences of mean values of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen between men and women in cerebral...... cortex. Women had significant decreases of cerebral blood flow as function of age in frontal and parietal lobes. Young women had significantly higher cerebral blood flow than men in frontal and temporal lobes, but these differences had disappeared at age 65. The absent sex difference of cerebral energy...... turnover suggests that the known differences of synaptic density between the sexes are counteracted by opposite differences of individual synaptic activity....

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound to increase localized blood-spinal cord barrier permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Allison H; Hawryluk, Gregory W; Anzai, Yoshimi; Odéen, Henrik; Ostlie, Megan A; Reichert, Ethan C; Stump, Amanda J; Minoshima, Satoshi; Cross, Donna J

    2017-12-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects thousands of people every year in the USA, and most patients are left with some permanent paralysis. Therapeutic options are limited and only modestly affect outcome. To address this issue, we used magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) as a non-invasive approach to increase permeability in the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB). We hypothesize that localized, controlled sonoporation of the BSCB by MRgFUS will aid delivery of therapeutics to the injury. Here, we report our preliminary findings for the ability of MRgFUS to increase BSCB permeability in the thoracic spinal cord of a normal rat model. First, an excised portion of normal rat spinal column was used to characterize the acoustic field and to estimate the insertion losses that could be expected in an MRgFUS blood spinal cord barrier opening. Then, in normal rats, MRgFUS was applied in combination with intravenously administered microbubbles to the spinal cord region. Permeability of the BSCB was indicated as signal enhancement by contrast administered prior to T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and verified by Evans blue dye. Neurological testing using the Basso, Beattie, and Breshnahan scale and the ladder walk was normal in 8 of 10 rats tested. Two rats showed minor impairment indicating need for further refinement of parameters. No gross tissue damage was evident by histology. In this study, we have opened successfully the blood spinal cord barrier in the thoracic region of the normal rat spine using magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles.

  9. β-Receptor-mediated increase in cerebral blood flow during hypoglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollinger, B.R.; Bryan, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that β-adrenergic receptor stimulation is involved with the increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during hypoglycemia. Rats were surgically prepared with the use of halothane-nitrous oxide anesthesia. A plaster restraining cast was placed around the hindquarters, and anesthesia was discontinued. Hypoglycemia was produced by an intravenous injection of insulin; normoglycemic control rates were given saline. Propranolol was administered to some control and some hypoglycemic rats to block the β-adrenergic receptors. Regional CBF was measured using 4-[N-methyl- 14 C]iodoantipyrine. Regional CBF increased during hypoglycemia in rats that were not treated with propranolol. The increase varied from ∼60 to 200% depending on the brain region. During hypoglycemia, propranolol abolished the increase in rCBF in the hypothalamus, cerebellum, and pyramidal tract. In other regions the increase in rCBF was only 33-65% of the increase in hypoglycemic rats that were not treated with propranolol. They conclude that β-receptor stimulation plays a major role in the increase in rCBF during hypoglycemia

  10. Impaired increase of retinal capillary blood flow to flicker light exposure in arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritt, Martin; Harazny, Joanna M; Ott, Christian; Raff, Ulrike; Bauernschubert, Philipp; Lehmann, Marina; Michelson, Georg; Schmieder, Roland E

    2012-09-01

    We hypothesized that the increase of retinal capillary blood flow (RCF) to flicker light exposure is impaired in subjects with arterial hypertension. In 146 nondiabetic untreated male subjects with (n=50) or without (n=96) arterial hypertension, RCF was measured before and after flicker light exposure noninvasively and in vivo using scanning laser Doppler flowmetry. In addition, in a subgroup of 28 subjects, the change of RCF to flicker light exposure was again assessed during parallel infusion of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). The increase of RCF to flicker light exposure was lower in patients with untreated hypertension compared with normotensive subjects when expressed in absolute terms (7.69±54 versus 27.2±44 AU; P adjusted=0.013) or percent changes (2.95±14 versus 8.33±12%; P adjusted=0.023). Systolic (β=-0.216; P=0.023) but not diastolic blood pressure (β=-0.117; P=0.243) or mean arterial pressure (β=-0.178; P=0.073) was negatively related to the percent change of RCF to flicker light exposure, independently of other cardiovascular risk factors. In the subgroup of 28 subjects, the increase of RCF to flicker light exposure was similar at baseline and during parallel infusion of L-NMMA when expressed in absolute terms (20.0±51 versus 22.6±56 AU; P=0.731) or percent changes (7.12±16 versus 8.29±18%; P=0.607). The increase of RCF to flicker light exposure is impaired in arterial hypertension. In the subgroup of the total study cohort, nitric oxide was not a major determinant of the increase of RCF to flicker light exposure.

  11. Comparative Analysis of the Regulatory T Cells Dynamics in Peripheral Blood in Human and Porcine Polytrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Serve

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSeverely injured patients experience substantial immunological stress in the aftermath of traumatic insult, which often results in systemic immune dysregulation. Regulatory T cells (Treg play a key role in the suppression of the immune response and in the maintenance of immunological homeostasis. Little is known about their presence and dynamics in blood after trauma, and nothing is known about Treg in the porcine polytrauma model. Here, we assessed different subsets of Treg in trauma patients (TP and compared those to either healthy volunteers (HV or data from porcine polytrauma.MethodsPeripheral blood was withdrawn from 20 TP with injury severity score (ISS ≥16 at the admittance to the emergency department (ED, and subsequently on day 1 and at day 3. Ten HV were included as controls (ctrl. The porcine polytrauma model consisted of a femur fracture, liver laceration, lung contusion, and hemorrhagic shock resulting in an ISS of 27. After polytrauma, the animals underwent resuscitation and surgical fracture fixation. Blood samples were withdrawn before and immediately after trauma, 24 and 72 h later. Different subsets of Treg, CD4+CD25+, CD4+CD25+FoxP3+, CD4+CD25+CD127−, and CD4+CD25+CD127−FoxP3+ were characterized by flow cytometry.ResultsAbsolute cell counts of leukocytes were significantly increasing after trauma, and again decreasing in the follow-up in human and porcine samples. The proportion of human Treg in the peripheral blood of TP admitted to the ED was lower when compared to HV. Their numbers did not recover until 72 h after trauma. Comparable data were found for all subsets. The situation in the porcine trauma model was comparable with the clinical data. In porcine peripheral blood before trauma, we could identify Treg with the typical immunophenotype (CD4+CD25+CD127−, which were virtually absent immediately after trauma. Similar to the human situation, most of these cells expressed FoxP3, as assessed by

  12. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of young, college student blood donors about Human immunodeficiency virus

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, Anju; Sonker, Atul; Chaudhary, Rajendra K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country′s blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore t...

  13. Linseed oil increases HDL3 cholesterol and decreases blood pressure in patients diagnosed with mild hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczyńska, Anna H; Gluza, Ewa; Wojakowska, Anna; Turczyn, Barbara; Skoczyńska, Marta

    2018-04-24

    Linseed oil has cardio-protective effects. However, its antihypertensive action has not yet been well characterized. The primary purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of short-term dietary supplementation with linseed oil on blood pressure (BP) and lipid metabolism in patients with mild hypercholesterolemia. The secondary aim was to evaluate the effect of linseed oil on nitric oxide pathway and selected serum trace metals. 150 volunteers: 43 men (49.9±11.5 years) and 107 women (53.2±10.3 years), diagnosed with mild hypercholesterolemia, were assessed prospectively for BP and lipids' levels, before and after lipid-lowering diet plus linseed oil supplementation at a dose of 15 ml daily for 4 weeks (study groups) or 4-weekly lipid-lowering diet (control group). The multivariate logistic regression analysis model was used to determine the effect of linseed oil on BP after adjustment for age, gender, height, body weight, BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption. The supplementation with linseed oil significantly decreased LDL- and non-HDL cholesterol, and increased HDL- and HDL₃- cholesterol levels. Additionally, linseed oil decreased diastolic BP in men (CI:-6.0;-1.1, poil reduced (poil consumption was associated with a decrease in mean BP (aOR 3.85, 95%CI 1.32-11.33). Our findings confirm the benefit of short-term linseed oil use in mild hypercholesterolemia, in particular in patients with increased blood pressure.

  14. At what age group blood pressure discontinue to increase? An assessment using change-point analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalib A. Latiff

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim To study at what age group blood pressure ceases to increase for women and men.Methods Applying change-point technique, we used our existing database - mega base-line cross-sectional Hulu Langat Health Study that was initiated in 2000 - to locate the most appropriate age limit in planning promotive, preventive and controlling strategies against systolic hypertension.Results Systolic hypertension was found to be constantly increasing for both gender right from the early age until the middle age group. However, women achieved the systolic peak 15 years earlier (at 41-45 years old than men (at 56-60 years old. Systolic blood pressure was steadily declined after the peak.Conclusions Hypertension intervention, we recommend age before 40 (women and 55 (men be the most appropriate period to apply various public health intervention, after that, the action must be exclusively curative. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:136-41Keywords: change-point analysis, public health intervention, systolic hypertension

  15. Effect of carbon dioxide inhalation on pulmonary hypertension induced by increased blood flow and hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chun Chuang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available There is now increasing evidence from the experimental and clinical setting that therapeutic hypercapnia from intentionally inspired carbon dioxide (CO2 or lower tidal volume might be a beneficial adjunct to the strategies of mechanical ventilation in critical illness. Although previous reports indicate that CO2 exerts a beneficial effect in the lungs, the pulmonary vascular response to hypercapnia under various conditions remains to be clarified. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the pulmonary vascular response to CO2 under the different conditions of pulmonary hypertension secondary to increased pulmonary blood flow and secondary to hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Isolated rat lung (n = 32 was used to study (1 the vasoactive action of 5% CO2 in either N2 (hypoxic-hypercapnia or air (normoxic-hypercapnia at different pulmonary arterial pressure levels induced by graded speed of perfusion flow and (2 the role of nitric oxide (NO in mediating the pulmonary vascular response to hypercapnia, hypoxia, and flow-associated pulmonary hypertension. The results indicated that inhaled CO2 reversed pulmonary hypertension induced by hypoxia but not by flow alteration. Endogenous NO attenuates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction but does not augment the CO2-induced vasodilatation. Acute change in blood flow does not alter the endogenous NO production.

  16. Caloric restriction increases ketone bodies metabolism and preserves blood flow in aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiaoli; Watts, Lora

    2015-07-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase the life span and health span of a broad range of species. However, CR effects on in vivo brain functions are far from explored. In this study, we used multimetric neuroimaging methods to characterize the CR-induced changes of brain metabolic and vascular functions in aging rats. We found that old rats (24 months of age) with CR diet had reduced glucose uptake and lactate concentration, but increased ketone bodies level, compared with the age-matched and young (5 months of age) controls. The shifted metabolism was associated with preserved vascular function: old CR rats also had maintained cerebral blood flow relative to the age-matched controls. When investigating the metabolites in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle, we found that citrate and α-ketoglutarate were preserved in the old CR rats. We suggest that CR is neuroprotective; ketone bodies, cerebral blood flow, and α-ketoglutarate may play important roles in preserving brain physiology in aging. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronic hydrocephalus-induced hypoxia: increased expression of VEGFR-2+ and blood vessel density in hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, S M; Deshpande, A; Dingwall, C; Leichliter, A; Leibson, Z; Luciano, M G

    2008-03-18

    Chronic hydrocephalus (CH) is a neurological disease characterized by increased cerebrospinal fluid volume and pressure that is often associated with impaired cognitive function. By and large, CH is a complex and heterogeneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) disorder where the exact site of brain insult is uncertain. Several mechanisms including neural compression, fiber stretch, and local or global hypoxia have been implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of CH. Specifically, the hippocampus, which plays a significant role in memory processing and is in direct contact with expanding CSF ventricles, may be involved. Using our model of chronic hydrocephalus, we quantified the density of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2(+)) neurons, glial, endothelial cells, and blood vessels in hippocampal regions CA1, CA2-3, dentate gyrus and hilus using immunohistochemical and stereological methods. Density and %VEGFR-2(+) cell populations were estimated for CH animals (2-3 weeks vs. 12-16 weeks) and surgical controls (SC). Overall, we found approximately six- to eightfold increase in the cellular density of VEGFR-2(+) and more than double blood vessel density (BVd) in the hippocampus of CH compared with SC. There were no significant regional differences in VEGFR-2(+) cellular and BVd expression in the CH group. VEGFR-2(+) and BVds were significantly related to changes in CSF volume (Pincrease in VEGFR-2(+) in hippocampus that corresponded to increased BVd. It was unclear whether increased VEGFR-2(+) and blood vessel expression was related to focal compression alone or in combination with global ischemia/hypoxia conditions as previously described. These findings suggest that VEGFR-2 may play an adaptive role in angiogenesis after CH

  18. Pet ownership increases human risk of encountering ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E H; Hinckley, A F; Hook, S A; Meek, J I; Backenson, B; Kugeler, K J; Feldman, K A

    2018-02-01

    We examined whether pet ownership increased the risk for tick encounters and tickborne disease among residents of three Lyme disease-endemic states as a nested cohort within a randomized controlled trial. Information about pet ownership, use of tick control for pets, property characteristics, tick encounters and human tickborne disease were captured through surveys, and associations were assessed using univariate and multivariable analyses. Pet-owning households had 1.83 times the risk (95% CI = 1.53, 2.20) of finding ticks crawling on and 1.49 times the risk (95% CI = 1.20, 1.84) of finding ticks attached to household members compared to households without pets. This large evaluation of pet ownership, human tick encounters and tickborne diseases shows that pet owners, whether of cats or dogs, are at increased risk of encountering ticks and suggests that pet owners are at an increased risk of developing tickborne disease. Pet owners should be made aware of this risk and be reminded to conduct daily tick checks of all household members, including the pets, and to consult their veterinarian regarding effective tick control products. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Compensations for increased rotational inertia during human cutting turns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Mu; Brown, Brian; Jindrich, Devin L

    2014-02-01

    Locomotion in a complex environment is often not steady state, but unsteady locomotion (stability and maneuverability) is not well understood. We investigated the strategies used by humans to perform sidestep cutting turns when running. Previous studies have argued that because humans have small yaw rotational moments of inertia relative to body mass, deceleratory forces in the initial velocity direction that occur during the turning step, or 'braking' forces, could function to prevent body over-rotation during turns. We tested this hypothesis by increasing body rotational inertia and testing whether braking forces during stance decreased. We recorded ground reaction force and body kinematics from seven participants performing 45 deg sidestep cutting turns and straight running at five levels of body rotational inertia, with increases up to fourfold. Contrary to our prediction, braking forces remained consistent at different rotational inertias, facilitated by anticipatory changes to body rotational speed. Increasing inertia revealed that the opposing effects of several turning parameters, including rotation due to symmetrical anterior-posterior forces, result in a system that can compensate for fourfold changes in rotational inertia with less than 50% changes to rotational velocity. These results suggest that in submaximal effort turning, legged systems may be robust to changes in morphological parameters, and that compensations can involve relatively minor adjustments between steps to change initial stance conditions.

  20. Chloride Channel 3 Channels in the Activation and Migration of Human Blood Eosinophils in Allergic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaurav, Rohit; Bewtra, Againdra K; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2015-08-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is responsible for respiratory burst in immune cells. Chloride channel 3 (CLC3) has been linked to the respiratory burst in eosinophils and neutrophils. The effect of cytokines and the involvement of CLC3 in the regulation of NADPH-dependent oxidative stress and on cytokine-mediated migration of eosinophils are not known. Human peripheral blood eosinophils were isolated from healthy individuals and from individuals with asthma by negative selection. Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of NADPH oxidases in eosinophils. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement was done with flow cytometry. Superoxide generation was measured with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, eotaxin, and CLC3 blockers. CLC3 dependence of eosinophils in TGF-β- and eotaxin-induced migration was also examined. The messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts of NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2, dual oxidase (DUOX) 1, and DUOX2 were detected in blood eosinophils, with very low expression of NOX1, NOX3, and NOX5 and no NOX4 mRNA. The level of NOX2 mRNA transcripts increased with disease severity in the eosinophils of subjects with asthma compared with healthy nonatopic volunteers. Change in granularity and size in eosinophils, but no change in intracellular ROS, was observed with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). PMA, TGF-β, and eotaxin used the CLC3-dependent pathway to increase superoxide radicals. TGF-β and eotaxin induced CLC3-dependent chemotaxis of eosinophils. These findings support the requirement of CLC3 in the activation and migration of human blood eosinophils and may provide a potential novel therapeutic target to regulate eosinophil hyperactivity in allergic airway inflammation in asthma.

  1. Investigation of micronuclei induction in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed in vitro to EMF RF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomiets, Irina A.; Triapitsina, Galina A.; Polevik, Nikolai D.; Pryakhin, Evgeny A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The widespread application of cellular phones is of great concern in view possible consequences for human health. The aim of this study is to assess the capability of electromagnetic fields (EMF) RF with frequency 925 MHz and modulation 217 Hz to induce genotoxic effects as evaluated by the in vitro micronucleus assay on peripheral blood lymphocytes. The flasks of peripheral blood samples collected from healthy volunteers (5 men and 5 women) were placed just on the oscillator of emitting antenna. The signals were produced by the laboratory research plant and were evaluated at four specific absorption rates (SARs) - 0; 0.29; 1.2; 8.1 W/kg. SARs were determined by the calorimetric method. Phytohaemagglutinin stimulated lymphocytes were exposed three times for 10 minutes in the G o (the first 30 minutes after the beginning of cultivation), S (24 hours later), G 2 -M (after 48 hours from the beginning of cultivation) stages of the cell cycle. 72-hours cultures of lymphocytes were examined to determine the extent of micronuclei. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate the significance for comparison. The data indicated a significant increase of micronuclei in human lymphocytes exposed to EMF RF (6.5 ± 0.51 0/00; 7.1 ± 0.66 0/00; 7.0 ± 0.50 0/00) in comparison with sham-exposed lymphocytes (3.0 ± 0.60 0/00). There was not revealed a dose-dependent increase of micronuclei in human lymphocytes. It was suggested that the increase of micronuclei in lymphocytes is explicated by a particularity of EMF RF just near the oscillator of emitting antenna. (author)

  2. Patients with sepsis exhibit increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity in peripheral blood immune cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjövall, Fredrik; Morota, Saori; Persson, Johan Mikael

    2013-01-01

    to 7). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), cytochrome c (Cyt c), and citrate synthase (CS) were measured as indicators of cellular mitochondrial content. RESULTS: In intact PBICs with endogenous substrates, a gradual increase in cellular respiration reached 173% of controls after 1 week (P = 0......INTRODUCTION: In sepsis, mitochondria have been associated with both initial dysfunction and subsequent upregulation (biogenesis). However, the evolvement of mitochondrial function in sepsis over time is largely unknown, and we therefore investigated mitochondrial respiration in peripheral blood.......001). In permeabilized cells, respiration using substrates of complex I, II, and IV were significantly increased days 1 to 2, reaching 137%, 130%, and 173% of controls, respectively. In parallel, higher levels of CS activity, mtDNA, and Cyt c content in PBICs (211%, 243%, and 331% of controls for the respective...

  3. Bone-Like Hydroxyapatite Formation in Human Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Anatoly T.; Larionov, Peter M.; Ivanova, Alexandra S.; Zaikovskii, Vladimir I.; Chernyavskiy, Mikhail A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prove the mechanism of mineralization, when hydroxyapatite (HAP) is formed in blood plasma. These observations were substantiated by in vitro simulation of HAP crystallization in the plasma of healthy adults in a controllable quasi-physiological environment (T = 37°C, pH = 7.4) and at concentrations of dissolved Ca…

  4. In vitro differentiation of human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated by gradient density centrifugation from umbilical cord blood. Spindle-shaped adherent cells were permitted to grow to 70% confluence in primary culture media which was reached by day 12. Induction of differentiation started by culturing cells with differentiation medium ...

  5. Effect on some haematological indices of human whole blood when ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR UGHACHUKWU

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... Awka Campus, Anambra State Nigeria. 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Anambra State University Teaching Hospital, Amaku Awka,. Anambra State Nigeria. 3Department of Hematology and Blood Group Serology. College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka,. Nnewi Campus.

  6. Roughness influence on human blood drop spreading and splashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fiona; Buntsma, Naomi; Brutin, David

    2017-11-01

    The impact behaviour of complex fluid droplets is a topic that has been extensively studied but with much debate. The Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA) community is encountering this scientific problem with daily practical cases since they use bloodstains as evidence in crime scene reconstruction. We aim to provide fundamental explanations in the study of blood drip stains by investigating the influence of surface roughness and wettability on the splashing limit of droplets of blood, a non-Newtonian colloidal fluid. Droplets of blood impacting perpendicularly different surfaces at different velocities were recorded. The recordings were analysed as well as the surfaces characteristics in order to find an empirical solution since we found that roughness plays a major role in the threshold of the splashing/non-splashing behaviour of blood compared to the wettability. Moreover it appears that roughness alters the deformation of the drip stains. These observations are key in characterising features of drip stains with the impacting conditions, which would answer some forensic issues.

  7. Effects of Septrin Administration on Blood Cells Parameters in Humans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that the packed cell volume (PCV), total white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophils and platelets were significantly decreased (p<0.05), especially after 7-10 days of septrin administration, compared to the control values. On the other hand, the reticulocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils and prothrombin time ...

  8. A Laboratory Exercise to Determine Human ABO Blood Type by Noninvasive Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael P.; Detzel, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and their association with diseases and nondisease phenotypes is of growing importance in human biology studies. In this laboratory exercise, students determine the genetic basis for their ABO blood type; however, no blood is drawn. Students isolate genomic DNA from buccal mucosa cells that are present…

  9. Determination of Elements in Normal and Leukemic Human Whole Blood by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D; Frykberg, B; Samsahl, K; Wester, P O

    1961-11-15

    By means of gamma-spectrometry the following elements were simultaneously determined in normal and leukemic human whole blood: Cu, Mn, Zn, Sr, Na, P, Ca, Rb, Cd, Sb, Au, Cs and Fe. Chemical separations were performed according to a group separation method using ion-exchange technique. No significant difference between the concentrations of the elements in normal- and leukemic blood was observed.

  10. Determination of telmisartan in human blood plasma: Part I: Immunoassay development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempen, C.M.; Gläsle-Schwarz, Liane; Kunz, Ulrich; Karst, U.

    2006-01-01

    Telmisartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist and a known drug against high blood pressure. In this report, the development of a new and rapid analytical technique, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of telmisartan in human blood plasma is described. The

  11. Determination of Elements in Normal and Leukemic Human Whole Blood by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Frykberg, B.; Samsahl, K.; Wester, P.O.

    1961-11-01

    By means of gamma-spectrometry the following elements were simultaneously determined in normal and leukemic human whole blood: Cu, Mn, Zn, Sr, Na, P, Ca, Rb, Cd, Sb, Au, Cs and Fe. Chemical separations were performed according to a group separation method using ion-exchange technique. No significant difference between the concentrations of the elements in normal- and leukemic blood was observed

  12. Contribution of blood oxygen and carbon dioxide sensing to the energetic optimization of human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jeremy D; O'Connor, Shawn M; Selinger, Jessica C; Donelan, J Maxwell

    2017-08-01

    People can adapt their gait to minimize energetic cost, indicating that walking's neural control has access to ongoing measurements of the body's energy use. In this study we tested the hypothesis that an important source of energetic cost measurements arises from blood gas receptors that are sensitive to O 2 and CO 2 concentrations. These receptors are known to play a role in regulating other physiological processes related to energy consumption, such as ventilation rate. Given the role of O 2 and CO 2 in oxidative metabolism, sensing their levels can provide an accurate estimate of the body's total energy use. To test our hypothesis, we simulated an added energetic cost for blood gas receptors that depended on a subject's step frequency and determined if subjects changed their behavior in response to this simulated cost. These energetic costs were simulated by controlling inspired gas concentrations to decrease the circulating levels of O 2 and increase CO 2 We found this blood gas control to be effective at shifting the step frequency that minimized the ventilation rate and perceived exertion away from the normally preferred frequency, indicating that these receptors provide the nervous system with strong physiological and psychological signals. However, rather than adapt their preferred step frequency toward these lower simulated costs, subjects persevered at their normally preferred frequency even after extensive experience with the new simulated costs. These results suggest that blood gas receptors play a negligible role in sensing energetic cost for the purpose of optimizing gait. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Human gait adaptation implies that the nervous system senses energetic cost, yet this signal is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the blood gas receptors sense cost for gait optimization by controlling blood O 2 and CO 2 with step frequency as people walked. At the simulated energetic minimum, ventilation and perceived exertion were lowest, yet subjects

  13. Gene expression in human peripheral blood 48 hours after exposure to ionizing radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Analysis of human peripheral blood 48 hours after irradiation ex vivo with graded doses of gamma rays. Results have been used in building and testing classifiers to...

  14. microRNA expression profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes cultured in modeled microgravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the present study we analyzed miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) incubated in microgravity condition simulated by a...

  15. Gene expression profiling of human peripheral blood lymphocytes cultured in modeled microgravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the present study we analyzed miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) incubated in microgravity condition simulated by a...

  16. Research on effects of ionizing radiation of human peripheral blood white cell adhesive molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Haijun; Cheng Ying; Le Chen; Min Rui

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the links between expression and function of adhesive molecule on the surface of irradiated peripheral blood white cells. Methods: Heparinized human peripheral blood was exposed to γ rays with different dose. At the different post-radiation time adhesive molecule expression on cellular surface was determined by double fluorescence labeling antibodies which were against adhesive molecule and special mark of granulocyte or mononuclear cell respectively with flow cytometry, and cellular adhesive ability to different matrixes mediated by adhesive molecule was estimated by commercializing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit and crystalviolet dying. Results: A decline pattern of CD11b on surface of mononuclear cells and CD29 on surface of granulocyte with irradiation dose increase was found. The changes of adhesive ability of mononuclear cells to substance of β1-integrin and collagen-I was well related with irradiation dose. Conclusion: Good relationship shown by the changes of adhesive molecule expression and adhesive ability mediated by the molecules on the surface of peripheral blood white cells with radiation dose was primary base of further research on indicting exposure dose by biomarker. (authors)

  17. Ozone exposure increases respiratory epithelial permeability in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehrl, H.R.; Vincent, L.M.; Kowalsky, R.J.; Horstman, D.H.; O'Neil, J.J.; McCartney, W.H.; Bromberg, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Ozone is a respiratory irritant that has been shown to cause an increase in the permeability of the respiratory epithelium in animals. We used inhaled aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-labeled diethylene triamine pentacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) to investigate whether human respiratory epithelial permeability is similarly affected by exposure to ozone. In a randomized, crossover double-blinded study, 8 healthy, nonsmoking young men were exposed for 2 h to purified air and 0.4 ppm ozone while performing intermittent high intensity treadmill exercise (minute ventilation = 66.8 L/min). SRaw and FVC were measured before and at the end of exposures. Seventy-five minutes after the exposures, the pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was measured by sequential posterior lung imaging with a computer-assisted gamma camera. Ozone exposure caused respiratory symptoms in all 8 subjects and was associated with a 14 +/- 2.8% (mean +/- SEM) decrement in FVC (p less than 0.001) and a 71 +/- 22% increase in SRaw (p = 0.04). Compared with the air exposure day, 7 of the 8 subjects showed increased /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance after the ozone exposure, with the mean value increasing from 0.59 +/- 0.08 to 1.75 +/- 0.43%/min (p = 0.03). These data show that ozone exposure sufficient to produce decrements in the pulmonary function of human subjects also causes an increase in /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance

  18. Effect of human milk on blood and bone marrow cells in a malnourished mice model; comparative study with cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Isabel; Salva, Susana; Zelaya, Hortensia; Villena, Julio; Agüero, Graciela

    2013-11-01

    It has been demonstrated that the alterations caused by nutrient deficiency can be reverted by adequate nutritional repletion. To perform comparative studies between human and cow milks in order to evaluate the impact of both milks on the recovery of blood and bone marrow cells affected in malnourished mice. Weaned mice were malnourished after consuming a protein free diet for 21 days. Malnourished mice received cow or human milk (CM or HM) for 7 or 14 consecutive days. During the period of administration of milk, the mice consumed the protein free diet ad libitum. The malnourished control (MNC) group received only protein free diet whereas the wellnourished control (WNC) mice consumed the balanced conventional diet. Both milks normalized serum albumin levels and improved thymus weight. Human milk was less effective than cow milk to increase body weight and serum transferrin levels. In contrast, human milk was more effective than cow milk to increase the number of leukocytes (WNC: 6.90 ± 1.60a; MNC: 2.80 ± 0.90b; CM 7d: 3.74 ± 1.10b; HM 7d: 7.16 ± 1.90a; CM 14d: 4.35 ± 1.20b; HM 14d: 6.75 ± 1.20a (109/L); p milks induced an increment in mitotic pool cells in bone marrow and α-naphthyl butyrate esterase positive cells in peripheral blood. They also normalized phagocytic function in blood neutrophils and oxidative burst in peritoneal cells. Both milks were equally effective to exert favorable effects on the number of the bone marrow cells and the functions of the blood and peritoneal cells involved in immune response. However, only human milk normalized the number of leukocytes and increased the number of neutrophils in peripheral blood. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased mortality associated with HTLV-II infection in blood donors: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith James W

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTLV-I is associated with adult T-cell leukemia, and both HTLV-I and -II are associated with HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Several published reports suggest that HTLV-I may lead to decreased survival, but HTLV-II has not previously been associated with mortality. Results We examined deaths among 138 HTLV-I, 358 HTLV-II, and 759 uninfected controls enrolled in a prospective cohort study of U.S. blood donors followed biannually since 1992. Proportional hazards models yielded hazard ratios (HRs for the association between mortality and HTLV infection, controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, age, income, educational level, blood center, smoking, injection drug use history, alcohol intake, hepatitis C status and autologous donation. After a median follow-up of 8.6 years, there were 45 confirmed subject deaths. HTLV-I infection did not convey a statistically significant excess risk of mortality (unadjusted HR 1.9, 95%CI 0.8–4.4; adjusted HR 1.9, 95%CI 0.8–4.6. HTLV-II was associated with death in both the unadjusted model (HR 2.8, 95%CI 1.5–5.5 and in the adjusted model (HR 2.3, 95%CI 1.1–4.9. No single cause of death appeared responsible for the HTLV-II effect. Conclusions After adjusting for known and potential confounders, HTLV-II infection is associated with increased mortality among healthy blood donors. If replicated in other cohorts, this finding has implications for both HTLV pathogenesis and counseling of infected persons.

  20. Early maternal separation induces preference for sucrose and aspartame associated with increased blood glucose and hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aya-Ramos, L; Contreras-Vargas, C; Rico, J L; Dueñas, Z

    2017-07-19

    Early life stress and exposure to sweeteners lead to physiological and behavioral alterations in adulthood. Nevertheless, many genetic and environmental factors as well as the neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the development of these disorders are not fully understood. Similarly, evidence about the long-term metabolic effects of exposure to sweeteners in early life is limited and inconsistent. This study used an animal model of maternal separation during breastfeeding (MS) to analyze the effects of early life stress on consumption of sweeteners, weight gain, blood glucose and locomotion. Rats were housed under a reversed light/dark cycle (lights off at 7:00 h) with ad libitum access to water and food. In the MS protocol, MS pups were separated from the dam for 6 h per day in two periods of 180 minutes (7:00-10:00 and 13:00-16:00 h) during the dark phase of postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND 21. Non-separated (NS) pups served as controls. On PND 22 rats were grouped by sex and treatment. From PND 26 to PND 50 sucrose and aspartame were provided to rats, and sweetener intake, body weight and blood glucose-related measures were scored. On PND 50, both male and female rats were exposed to the open field test to obtain locomotion and anxiety-related measures. Results showed that both early maternal separation and sweetener intake during adolescence resulted in increased blood glucose and hyperactivity in male rats but not in female rats. Data suggest that the combination of early stress and exposure to sucrose and aspartame could be a risk factor for the development of chronic diseases such as diabetes, as well as for behavioral alterations.

  1. Elastolytic activity of human blood monocytes characterized by a new monoclonal antibody against human leucocyte elastase. Relationship to rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H S; Christensen, L D

    1990-01-01

    The leucocyte elastase of human blood monocytes was investigated by applying a new monoclonal antibody which did not block the enzyme activity against elastin. In a fixed population of mononuclear cells (MNC) and using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), the human leucocyte elastase (HLE...

  2. Is Kinesio Taping to Generate Skin Convolutions Effective for Increasing Local Blood Circulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae-Man; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2018-01-14

    BACKGROUND It is unclear whether traditional application of Kinesio taping, which produces wrinkles in the skin, is effective for improving blood circulation. This study investigated local skin temperature changes after the application of an elastic therapeutic tape using convolution and non-convolution taping methods (CTM/NCTM). MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty-eight pain-free men underwent CTM and NCTM randomly applied to the right and left sides of the lower back. Using infrared thermography, skin temperature was measured before, immediately after application, 5 min later, 15 min later, and after the removal of the tape. RESULTS Both CTM and NCTM showed a slight, but significant, decrease in skin temperature for up to 5 min. The skin temperature at 15 min and after the removal of the tape was not significantly different from the initial temperature for CTM and NCTM. There were also no significant differences in the skin temperatures between CTM and NCTM. CONCLUSIONS Our findings do not support a therapeutic effect of wrinkling the skin with elastic tape application as a technique to increase local blood flow.

  3. INCREASES IN CORE TEMPERATURE COUNTERBALANCE EFFECTS OF HEMOCONCENTRATION ON BLOOD VISCOSITY DURING PROLONGED EXERCISE IN THE HEAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Michael J.; Krippes, Taylor; Kolkhorst, Fred W.; Williams, Alexander T.; Cabrales, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that blood viscosity is significantly increased following exercise. However, these studies measured both pre- and post-exercise blood viscosity at 37 °C even though core and blood temperatures would be expected to have increased during the exercise. Consequently, the effect of exercise-induced hyperthermia on mitigating change in blood viscosity may have been missed. The purpose of this study was to isolate the effects of exercise-induced hemoconcentration and hyperthermia, as well as determine their combined effects, on blood viscosity. Nine subjects performed 2 h of moderate-intensity exercise in the heat (37 °C, 40% rH), which resulted in significant increases from pre-exercise values for rectal temperature (37.11 ± 0.35 °C to 38.76 ± 0.13 °C), hemoconcentration (hematocrit = 43.6 ± 3.6% to 45.6 ± 3.5%), and dehydration (Δbody weight = −3.6 ± 0.7%). Exercise-induced hemoconcentration significantly (P viscosity by 9% (3.97 to 4.30 cP at 300 s−1) while exercise-induced hyperthermia significantly decreased blood viscosity by 7% (3.97 to 3.70 cP at 300 s−1). However, when both factors were considered together, there was no overall change in blood viscosity (3.97 to 4.03 cP at 300 s−1). The effects of exercise-induced hemoconcentration, increased plasma viscosity, and increased red blood cell aggregation, all of which increased blood viscosity, were counterbalanced by increased RBC deformability (e.g., RBC membrane shear elastic modulus and elongation index) caused by the hyperthermia. Thus, blood viscosity remained unchanged following prolonged moderate-intensity exercise in the heat. PMID:26682653

  4. Geographical, environmental and pathophysiological influences on the human blood transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Rubina; Nath, Artika; Preininger, Marcela; Gibson, Greg

    2013-12-01

    Gene expression variation provides a read-out of both genetic and environmental influences on gene activity. Geographical, genomic and sociogenomic studies have highlighted how life circumstances of an individual modify the expression of hundreds and in some cases thousands of genes in a co-ordinated manner. This review places such results in the context of a conserved set of 90 transcripts known as Blood Informative Transcripts (BIT) that capture the major conserved components of variation in the peripheral blood transcriptome. Pathophysiological states are also shown to associate with the perturbation of transcript abundance along the major axes. Discussion of false negative rates leads us to argue that simple significance thresholds provide a biased perspective on assessment of differential expression that may cloud the interpretation of studies with small sample sizes.

  5. Assessing cutoff values for increased exercise blood pressure to predict incident hypertension in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorbeer, Roberto; Ittermann, Till; Völzke, Henry; Gläser, Sven; Ewert, Ralf; Felix, Stephan B; Dörr, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    Cutoff values for increased exercise blood pressure (BP) are not established in hypertension guidelines. The aim of the study was to assess optimal cutoff values for increased exercise BP to predict incident hypertension. Data of 661 normotensive participants (386 women) aged 25-77 years from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1) with a 5-year follow-up were used. Exercise BP was measured at a submaximal level of 100 W and at maximum level of a symptom-limited cycle ergometry test. Cutoff values for increased exercise BP were defined at the maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of incident hypertension. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and net reclassification index (NRI) were calculated to investigate whether increased exercise BP adds predictive value for incident hypertension beyond established cardiovascular risk factors. In men, values of 160  mmHg (100  W level; AUC = 0.7837; NRI = 0.534, P AUC = 0.7677; NRI = 0.340, P = 0.003) were detected as optimal cutoff values for the definition of increased exercise SBP. A value of 190  mmHg (AUC = 0.8347; NRI = 0.519, P < 0.001) showed relevance for the definition of increased exercise SBP in women at the maximum level. According to our analyses, 190 and 210  mmHg are clinically relevant cutoff values for increased exercise SBP at the maximum exercise level of cycle ergometry test for women and men, respectively. In addition, for men, our analyses provided a cutoff value of 160  mmHg for increased exercise SBP at the 100  W level.

  6. HCG-Activated Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC Promote Trophoblast Cell Invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yu

    Full Text Available Successful embryo implantation and placentation depend on appropriate trophoblast invasion into the maternal endometrial stroma. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is one of the earliest embryo-derived secreted signals in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC that abundantly expresses hCG receptors. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of human embryo-secreted hCG on PBMC function and investigate the role and underlying mechanisms of activated PBMC in trophoblast invasion. Blood samples were collected from women undergoing benign gynecological surgery during the mid-secretory phase. PBMC were isolated and stimulated with or without hCG for 0 or 24 h. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF expressions in PBMC were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The JAR cell line served as a model for trophoblast cells and was divided into four groups: control, hCG only, PBMC only, and PBMC with hCG. JAR cell invasive and proliferative abilities were detected by trans-well and CCK8 assays and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 (MMP-2, MMP-9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 expressions in JAR cells were detected by western blotting and real-time PCR analysis. We found that hCG can remarkably promote IL-1β and LIF promotion in PBMC after 24-h culture. PBMC activated by hCG significantly increased the number of invasive JAR cells in an invasion assay without affecting proliferation, and hCG-activated PBMC significantly increased MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF and decreased TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expressions in JAR cells in a dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrated that hCG stimulates cytokine secretion in human PBMC and could stimulate trophoblast invasion.

  7. Dopamine receptor activation increases HIV entry into primary human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Gaskill

    Full Text Available Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers.

  8. Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Yano, Hideaki H.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Berman, Joan W.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

  9. Study of terahertz-radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeluts, A A; Esaulkov, M N; Kosareva, O G; Solyankin, P M; Shkurinov, A P [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gapeyev, A B; Pashovkin, T N [Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Matyunin, S N [Section of Applied Problems at the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nazarov, M M [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Cherkasova, O P [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-28

    We have carried out the studies aimed at assessing the effect of terahertz radiation on DNA molecules in human blood leukocytes. Genotoxic testing of terahertz radiation was performed in three different oscillation regimes, the blood leukocytes from healthy donors being irradiated for 20 minutes with the mean intensity of 8 – 200 μW cm{sup -2} within the frequency range of 0.1 – 6.5 THz. Using the comet assay it is shown that in the selected regimes such radiation does not induce a direct DNA damage in viable human blood leukocytes. (biophotonics)

  10. Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M; Bilal, M; Anwar, S; Rehman, A; Ahmed, M

    2013-01-01

    We present the optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra were acquired from 18 blood serum samples using a laser at 532 nm as the excitation source. A multivariate regression model based on partial least-squares regression is developed that uses Raman spectra to predict dengue infection with leave-one-sample-out cross validation. The prediction of dengue infection by our model yields correlation coefficient r 2 values of 0.9998 between the predicted and reference clinical results. The model was tested for six unknown human blood sera and found to be 100% accurate in accordance with the clinical results. (letter)

  11. Central blood pressure variability is increased in hypertensive patients with target organ damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Sierra, Alejandro; Pareja, Julia; Yun, Sergi; Acosta, Eva; Aiello, Francesco; Oliveras, Anna; Vázquez, Susana; Armario, Pedro; Blanch, Pedro; Sierra, Cristina; Calero, Francesca; Fernández-Llama, Patricia

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association of aortic and brachial short-term blood pressure variability (BPV) with the presence of target organ damage (TOD) in hypertensive patients. One-hundred seventy-eight patients, aged 57 ± 12 years, 33% women were studied. TOD was defined by the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiogram, microalbuminuria, reduced glomerular filtration rate, or increased aortic pulse wave velocity. Aortic and brachial BPV was assessed by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (Mobil-O-Graph). TOD was present in 92 patients (51.7%). Compared to those without evidence of TOD, they had increased night-to-day ratios of systolic and diastolic BP (both aortic and brachial) and heart rate. They also had significant increased systolic BPV, as measured by both aortic and brachial daytime and 24-hours standard deviations and coefficients of variation, as well as for average real variability. Circadian patterns and short-term variability measures were very similar for aortic and brachial BP. We conclude that BPV is increased in hypertensive-related TOD. Aortic BPV does not add relevant information in comparison to brachial BPV. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Decreased arterial PO2, not O2 content, increases blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Joseph W; Davis, James T; Ryan, Benjamin J; Elliott, Jonathan E; Beasley, Kara M; Hawn, Jerold A; Byrnes, William C; Lovering, Andrew T

    2016-09-01

    The mechanism(s) that regulate hypoxia-induced blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (QIPAVA ) are currently unknown. Our previous work has demonstrated that the mechanism of hypoxia-induced QIPAVA is not simply increased cardiac output, pulmonary artery systolic pressure or sympathetic nervous system activity and, instead, it may be a result of hypoxaemia directly. To determine whether it is reduced arterial PO2 (PaO2) or O2 content (CaO2) that causes hypoxia-induced QIPAVA , individuals were instructed to breathe room air and three levels of hypoxic gas at rest before (control) and after CaO2 was reduced by 10% by lowering the haemoglobin concentration (isovolaemic haemodilution; Low [Hb]). QIPAVA , assessed by transthoracic saline contrast echocardiography, significantly increased as PaO2 decreased and, despite reduced CaO2 (via isovolaemic haemodilution), was similar at iso-PaO2. These data suggest that, with alveolar hypoxia, low PaO2 causes the hypoxia-induced increase in QIPAVA , although where and how this is detected remains unknown. Alveolar hypoxia causes increased blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (QIPAVA ) in healthy humans at rest. However, it is unknown whether the stimulus regulating hypoxia-induced QIPAVA is decreased arterial PO2 (PaO2) or O2 content (CaO2). CaO2 is known to regulate blood flow in the systemic circulation and it is suggested that IPAVA may be regulated similar to the systemic vasculature. Thus, we hypothesized that reduced CaO2 would be the stimulus for hypoxia-induced QIPAVA . Blood volume (BV) was measured using the optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method in 10 individuals. Less than 5 days later, subjects breathed room air, as well as 18%, 14% and 12.5% O2 , for 30 min each, in a randomized order, before (CON) and after isovolaemic haemodilution (10% of BV withdrawn and replaced with an equal volume of 5% human serum albumin-saline mixture) to reduce [Hb] (Low [Hb]). PaO2

  13. Renal cortical and medullary blood flow responses to altered NO availability in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Vafaee, Manoucher; Møller, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify regional renal blood flow in humans. In nine young volunteers on a controlled diet, the lower abdomen was CT-scanned, and regional renal blood flow was determined by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning using H(2)(15)O as tracer. Measurements were......-NMMA injection to 1.57 ± 0.17 ml·g tissue(-1)·min(-1) (P blood flow was 4.67 ± 0.31 ml·g tissue(-1)·min(-1) during control, unchanged by glyceryl nitrate, and decreased after L-NMMA [3.48 ± 0.23 ml·(g·min)(-1), P renal medullary region in which...... the measured blood flow is 1) low, 2) independent of reduction in the VOI, and 3) reactive to changes in systemic NO supply. The technique seems to provide indices of renal medullary blood flow in humans....

  14. Pattern of distribution of blood group antigens on human epidermal cells during maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Buschard, Karsten; Hakomori, Sen-Itiroh

    1984-01-01

    The distribution in human epidermis of A, B, and H blood group antigens and of a precursor carbohydrate chain, N-acetyl-lactosamine, was examined using immunofluorescence staining techniques. The material included tissue from 10 blood group A, 4 blood group B, and 9 blood group O persons. Murine...... on the lower spinous cells whereas H antigen was seen predominantly on upper spinous cells or on the granular cells. Epithelia from blood group A or B persons demonstrated A or B antigens, respectively, but only if the tissue sections were trypsinized before staining. In such cases A or B antigens were found...... monoclonal antibodies were used to identify H antigen (type 2 chain) and N-acetyl-lactosamine. Human antisera were used to identify A and B antigens. In all groups N-acetyl-lactosamine and H antigen were found on the cell membranes of the spinous cell layer. N-acetyl-lactosamine was present mainly...

  15. “Data characterizing microfabricated human blood vessels created via hydrodynamic focusing”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle A. DiVito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This data article provides further detailed information related to our research article titled “Microfabricated Blood Vessels Undergo Neovascularization” (DiVito et al., 2017 [1], in which we report fabrication of human blood vessels using hydrodynamic focusing (HDF. Hydrodynamic focusing with advection inducing chevrons were used in concert to encase one fluid stream within another, shaping the inner core fluid into ‘bullseye-like” cross-sections that were preserved through click photochemistry producing streams of cellularized hollow 3-dimensional assemblies, such as human blood vessels (Daniele et al., 2015a, 2015b, 2014, 2016; Roberts et al., 2016 [2–6]. Applications for fabricated blood vessels span general tissue engineering to organ-on-chip technologies, with specific utility in in vitro drug delivery and pharmacodynamics studies. Here, we report data regarding the construction of blood vessels including cellular composition and cell positioning within the engineered vascular construct as well as functional aspects of the tissues.

  16. Oral antibiotics increase blood neutrophil maturation and reduce bacteremia and necrotizing enterocolitis in the immediate postnatal period of preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Fuglsang, Eva; Jiang, Pingping

    2016-01-01

    in blood parameters and bacterial composition in the intestine, blood and immune organs were analyzed. Newborn preterm pigs had few blood neutrophils and a high frequency of progenitor cells. Neutrophils gradually matured after preterm birth with increasing CD14 and decreasing CD172a expressions. Preterm...... neutrophil and monocyte TLR2 expression and TLR2-mediated blood cytokine responses were low relative to adults. ORA pigs showed enhanced blood neutrophil maturation with reduced cell size and CD172a expression. Only ORA pigs, but not SYS pigs, were protected from a high density of gut Gram-positive bacteria......, high gut permeability, Gram-positive bacteremia and NEC. Neonatal oral antibiotics may benefit mucosal and systemic immunity via delayed gut colonization and enhanced blood neutrophil maturation just after preterm birth....

  17. Melatonin attenuates prenatal dexamethasone-induced blood pressure increase in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Yu, Hong-Ren; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Li-Tung

    2014-04-01

    Although antenatal corticosteroid is recommended to accelerate fetal lung maturation, prenatal dexamethasone exposure results in hypertension in the adult offspring. Since melatonin is a potent antioxidant and has been known to regulate blood pressure, we examined the beneficial effects of melatonin therapy in preventing prenatal dexamethasone-induced programmed hypertension. Male offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four groups (n = 12/group): control, dexamethasone (DEX), control + melatonin, and DEX + melatonin. Pregnant rats received intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg) from gestational day 16 to 22. In the melatonin-treatment groups, rats received 0.01% melatonin in drinking water during their entire pregnancy and lactation. Blood pressure was measured by an indirect tail-cuff method. Gene expression and protein levels were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. At 16 weeks of age, the DEX group developed hypertension, which was partly reversed by maternal melatonin therapy. Reduced nephron numbers due to prenatal dexamethasone exposure were prevented by melatonin therapy. Renal superoxide and NO levels were similar in all groups. Prenatal dexamethasone exposure led to increased mRNA expression of renin and prorenin receptor and up-regulated histone deacetylase (HDAC)-1 expression in the kidneys of 4-month-old offspring. Maternal melatonin therapy augmented renal Mas protein levels in DEX + melatonin group, and increased renal mRNA expression of HDAC-1, HDAC-2, and HDAC-8 in control and DEX offspring. Melatonin attenuated prenatal DEX-induced hypertension by restoring nephron numbers, altering RAS components, and modulating HDACs. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased PADI4 expression in blood and tissues of patients with malignant tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PAD4/PADI4 post-translationally converts peptidylarginine to citrulline. Recent studies suggest that PADI4 represses expression of p53-regulated genes via citrullination of histones at gene promoters. Methods Expression of PADI4 was investigated in various tumors and non-tumor tissues (n = 1673 as well as in A549, SKOV3 and U937 tumor cell lines by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and western blot. Levels of PADI4 and citrullinated antithrombin (cAT were investigated in the blood of patients with various tumors by ELISA (n = 1121. Results Immunohistochemistry detected significant PADI4 expression in various malignancies including breast carcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinomas, renal cancer cells, ovarian adenocarcinomas, endometrial carcinomas, uterine adenocarcinomas, bladder carcinomas, chondromas, as well as other metastatic carcinomas. However, PADI4 expression was not observed in benign leiomyomas of stomach, uterine myomas, endometrial hyperplasias, cervical polyps, teratomas, hydatidiform moles, trophoblastic cell hyperplasias, hyroid adenomas, hemangiomas, lymph hyperplasias, schwannomas, neurofibromas, lipomas, and cavernous hemangiomas of the liver. Additionally, PADI4 expression was not detected in non-tumor tissues including cholecystitis, cervicitis and synovitis of osteoarthritis, except in certain acutely inflamed tissues such as in gastritis and appendicitis. Quantitative PCR and western blot analysis showed higher PADI4 expression in gastric adenocarcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cell cancers and breast cancers (n = 5 for each disease than in the surrounding healthy tissues. Furthermore, western blot analysis detected PADI4 expression in cultured tumor cell lines. ELISA detected increased PADI4 and cAT levels in the blood of patients with

  19. Increased PADI4 expression in blood and tissues of patients with malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Xiaotian; Han, Jinxiang; Pang, Li; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Yi; Shen, Zhonglin

    2009-01-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PAD4/PADI4) post-translationally converts peptidylarginine to citrulline. Recent studies suggest that PADI4 represses expression of p53-regulated genes via citrullination of histones at gene promoters. Expression of PADI4 was investigated in various tumors and non-tumor tissues (n = 1673) as well as in A549, SKOV3 and U937 tumor cell lines by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and western blot. Levels of PADI4 and citrullinated antithrombin (cAT) were investigated in the blood of patients with various tumors by ELISA (n = 1121). Immunohistochemistry detected significant PADI4 expression in various malignancies including breast carcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinomas, renal cancer cells, ovarian adenocarcinomas, endometrial carcinomas, uterine adenocarcinomas, bladder carcinomas, chondromas, as well as other metastatic carcinomas. However, PADI4 expression was not observed in benign leiomyomas of stomach, uterine myomas, endometrial hyperplasias, cervical polyps, teratomas, hydatidiform moles, trophoblastic cell hyperplasias, hyroid adenomas, hemangiomas, lymph hyperplasias, schwannomas, neurofibromas, lipomas, and cavernous hemangiomas of the liver. Additionally, PADI4 expression was not detected in non-tumor tissues including cholecystitis, cervicitis and synovitis of osteoarthritis, except in certain acutely inflamed tissues such as in gastritis and appendicitis. Quantitative PCR and western blot analysis showed higher PADI4 expression in gastric adenocarcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cell cancers and breast cancers (n = 5 for each disease) than in the surrounding healthy tissues. Furthermore, western blot analysis detected PADI4 expression in cultured tumor cell lines. ELISA detected increased PADI4 and cAT levels in the blood of patients with various malignant tumors compared to those in patients

  20. Long-term leukocyte reconstitution in NSG mice transplanted with human cord blood hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigé, Annette; Rochat, Mary-Aude; Li, Duo; Ivic, Sandra; Fahrny, Audrey; Muller, Christina K S; Gers-Huber, Gustavo; Myburgh, Renier; Bredl, Simon; Schlaepfer, Erika; Scherrer, Alexandra U; Kuster, Stefan P; Speck, Roberto F

    2017-05-30

    Humanized mice (hu mice) are based on the transplantation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells into immunodeficient mice and have become important pre-clinical models for biomedical research. However, data about their hematopoiesis over time are scarce. We therefore characterized leukocyte reconstitution in NSG mice, which were sublethally irradiated and transplanted with human cord blood-derived CD34+ cells at newborn age, longitudinally in peripheral blood and, for more detailed analyses, cross-sectionally in peripheral blood, spleen and bone marrow at different time points. Human cell chimerism and absolute human cell count decreased between week 16 and 24 in the peripheral blood of hu mice, but were stable thereafter as assessed up to 32 weeks. Human cell chimerism in spleen and bone marrow was maintained over time. Notably, human cell chimerism in peripheral blood and spleen as well as bone marrow positively correlated with each other. Percentage of B cells decreased between week 16 and 24, whereas percentage of T cells increased; subsequently, they levelled off with T cells clearly predominating at week 32. Natural killer cells, monocytes and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) as well as CD1c + and CD141+ myeloid DCs were all present in hu mice. Proliferative responses of splenic T cells to stimulation were preserved over time. Importantly, the percentage of more primitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in bone marrow was maintained over time. Overall, leukocyte reconstitution was maintained up to 32 weeks post-transplantation in our hu NSG model, possibly explained by the maintenance of HSCs in the bone marrow. Notably, we observed great variation in multi-lineage hematopoietic reconstitution in hu mice that needs to be taken into account for the experimental design with hu mice.

  1. In vitro differentiation of human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    May H. Hasan

    2016-08-05

    Aug 5, 2016 ... c Experimental Biology, Urology & Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, ... Liver is dedicated to perform an extensive range of tissue speci- ..... tors to repair hepatic injury.29 Adult human bone marrow .... regeneration.

  2. Study of Engraftment of human cord blood cells to rescue the sublethal radiation damage mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xiangshan; Zou Zhenghui; Yu Fei; Zhang Zhilin; Lin Baojue

    1997-01-01

    To investigate alternative source of hematopoiesis stem cells to rescue the sublethal radiation damage (SRD) casualties. Human-umbilical cord blood hematopoietic cells were transplanted into SRD mice, the survival rate and the hematopoiesis reconstitution of bone marrow were assessed. The survival rate, in the mice transplanted and the untransplanted, were 90% and 10% respectively. Bone marrow and spleen of survival mice showed human leukocytic antigen CD45 + cells. Presence of multilineage engraftment, including myeloid and erythroid lineages, were found indicating that immature human cells home to the mouse bone marrow. conclusion: engraftment of umbilical cord blood cells is very useful to reconstitute hematopoiesis of SRD casualties. As cord blood has many advantages over bone marrow and peripheral blood, it is important in rescuing radiation accidental casualties

  3. Cryopreservation of human blood for alkaline and Fpg-modified comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xinzhu; Wang, Zemin; Klaunig, James E

    2016-01-01

    The Comet assay is a reproducible and sensitive assay for the detection of DNA damage in eukaryotic cells and tissues. Incorporation of lesion specific, oxidative DNA damage repair enzymes (for example, Fpg, OGG1 and EndoIII) in the standard alkaline Comet assay procedure allows for the detection and measurement of oxidative DNA damage. The Comet assay using white blood cells (WBC) has proven useful in monitoring DNA damage from environmental agents in humans. However, it is often impractical to performance Comet assay immediately after blood sampling. Thus, storage of blood sample is required. In this study, we developed and tested a simple storage method for very small amount of whole blood for standard and Fpg-modified modified Comet assay. Whole blood was stored in RPMI 1640 media containing 10% FBS, 10% DMSO and 1 mM deferoxamine at a sample to media ratio of 1:50. Samples were stored at -20 °C and -80 °C for 1, 7, 14 and 28 days. Isolated lymphocytes from the same subjects were also stored under the same conditions for comparison. Direct DNA strand breakage and oxidative DNA damage in WBC and lymphocytes were analyzed using standard and Fpg-modified alkaline Comet assay and compared with freshly analyzed samples. No significant changes in either direct DNA strand breakage or oxidative DNA damage was seen in WBC and lymphocytes stored at -20 °C for 1 and 7 days compared to fresh samples. However, significant increases in both direct and oxidative DNA damage were seen in samples stored at -20 °C for 14 and 28 days. No changes in direct and oxidative DNA damage were observed in WBC and lymphocytes stored at -80 °C for up to 28 days. These results identified the proper storage conditions for storing whole blood or isolated lymphocytes to evaluate direct and oxidative DNA damage using standard and Fpg-modified alkaline Comet assay.

  4. Peripheral injection of human umbilical cord blood stimulates neurogenesis in the aged rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanberg Paul R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurogenesis continues to occur throughout life but dramatically decreases with increasing age. This decrease is mostly related to a decline in proliferative activity as a result of an impoverishment of the microenvironment of the aged brain, including a reduction in trophic factors and increased inflammation. Results We determined that human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCBMC given peripherally, by an intravenous injection, could rejuvenate the proliferative activity of the aged neural stem/progenitor cells. This increase in proliferation lasted for at least 15 days after the delivery of the UCBMC. Along with the increase in proliferation following UCBMC treatment, an increase in neurogenesis was also found in the aged animals. The increase in neurogenesis as a result of UCBMC treatment seemed to be due to a decrease in inflammation, as a decrease in the number of activated microglia was found and this decrease correlated with the increase in neurogenesis. Conclusion The results demonstrate that a single intravenous injection of UCBMC in aged rats can significantly improve the microenvironment of the aged hippocampus and rejuvenate the aged neural stem/progenitor cells. Our results raise the possibility of a peripherally administered cell therapy as an effective approach to improve the microenvironment of the aged brain.

  5. Turnover of adenosine in plasma of human and dog blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeser, G.H.S.; Schrader, J.; Deussen, A.

    1989-01-01

    To determine half-life and turnover of plasma adenosine, heparinized blood from healthy volunteers was incubated with radiolabeled adenosine in the physiological concentration range of 0.1-1 microM. Plasma levels of adenosine in vitro were 82 +/- 14 nM and were similar to those determined immediately after blood collection with a ''stopping solution.'' Dipyridamole (83 microM) and erythro-9(2-hydroxynon-3yl)-adenine (EHNA) (8 microM) did not measurably alter basal adenosine levels but completely blocked the uptake of added adenosine. Inhibition of ecto-5'-nucleotidase with 100 microM alpha, beta-methyleneadenosine 5'-diphosphate (AOPCP) reduced plasma adenosine to 22 +/- 6 nM. For the determination of adenosine turnover, the decrease in specific radioactivity of added [ 3 H]adenosine was measured using a dipyridamole-containing stopping solution. Without altering basal adenosine levels, the half-life was estimated to be 0.6 s. Similar experiments were carried out with washed erythrocytes or in the presence of AOPCP, yielding half-lives of 0.7 and 0.9 s, respectively. When the initial adenosine concentration was 1 microM, its specific activity decreased by only 11% within 5 s, whereas total plasma adenosine exponentially decreased with a half-life of 1.5 s. Venous plasma concentrations were measured after relief of a 3-min forearm ischemia. Changes in plasma adenosine did not correlate well with changes in blood flow but were augmented in the presence of dipyridamole

  6. Assessment of in vitro radiosensitivity of human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, S.J.; Shifrine, M.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    The proliferative capacity of sensitive lymphocyte progenitor cells, from thirty-one clinically normal adults, was evaluated following in vitro x-irradiation (0-400R). Radiation effects were studied using both whole blood and lymphocyte-enriched mononuclear cell fractions in the lymphocyte stimulation test and colony formation assay with 6 different mitogens and antigens. Radiation dose-response survival curves were determined for the different test groups. The sensitivity of the different assay systems is compared and normative values are presented that may be used for comparison purposes to determine the relative radiosensitivity of atypical individuals and groups of individuals

  7. Circadian Misalignment Increases C-Reactive Protein and Blood Pressure in Chronic Shift Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher J; Purvis, Taylor E; Mistretta, Joseph; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2017-04-01

    Shift work is a risk factor for inflammation, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classical risk factors. Shift workers' behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in shift workers, independent of differences in work stress, food quality, and other factors that are likely to differ between night and day shifts. Thus, our objectives were to determine the independent effect of circadian misalignment on 24-h high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP; a marker of systemic inflammation) and blood pressure levels-cardiovascular disease risk factors-in chronic shift workers. Chronic shift workers undertook two 3-day laboratory protocols that simulated night work, comprising 12-hour inverted behavioral and environmental cycles (circadian misalignment) or simulated day work (circadian alignment), using a randomized, crossover design. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h hs-CRP by 11% ( p shift workers. This may help explain the increased inflammation, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease risk in shift workers.

  8. Selective attention increases choice certainty in human decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizlsperger, Leopold; Sauvigny, Thomas; Haarmeier, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Choice certainty is a probabilistic estimate of past performance and expected outcome. In perceptual decisions the degree of confidence correlates closely with choice accuracy and reaction times, suggesting an intimate relationship to objective performance. Here we show that spatial and feature-based attention increase human subjects' certainty more than accuracy in visual motion discrimination tasks. Our findings demonstrate for the first time a dissociation of choice accuracy and certainty with a significantly stronger influence of voluntary top-down attention on subjective performance measures than on objective performance. These results reveal a so far unknown mechanism of the selection process implemented by attention and suggest a unique biological valence of choice certainty beyond a faithful reflection of the decision process.

  9. Staurosporine Increases Lentiviral Vector Transduction Efficiency of Human Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Lewis

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Lentiviral vector (LVV-mediated transduction of human CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs holds tremendous promise for the treatment of monogenic hematological diseases. This approach requires the generation of a sufficient proportion of gene-modified cells. We identified staurosporine, a serine/threonine kinase inhibitor, as a small molecule that could be added to the transduction process to increase the proportion of genetically modified HSPCs by overcoming a LVV entry barrier. Staurosporine increased vector copy number (VCN approximately 2-fold when added to mobilized peripheral blood (mPB CD34+ cells prior to transduction. Limited staurosporine treatment did not affect viability of cells post-transduction, and there was no difference in in vitro colony formation compared to vehicle-treated cells. Xenotransplantation studies identified a statistically significant increase in VCN in engrafted human cells in mouse bone marrow at 4 months post-transplantation compared to vehicle-treated cells. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 is known to increase transduction efficiency of HSPCs through a different mechanism. Combining staurosporine and PGE2 resulted in further enhancement of transduction efficiency, particularly in short-term HSPCs. The combinatorial use of small molecules, such as staurosporine and PGE2, to enhance LVV transduction of human CD34+ cells is a promising method to improve transduction efficiency and subsequent potential therapeutic benefit of gene therapy drug products. Keywords: lentiviral, HSPC, transduction

  10. An in vitro study of the effects of low-level laser radiation on human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siposan, Dan G.; Lukacs, Adalbert

    2003-12-01

    In the last time the study of the effects of LLLR on the blood is considered to be a subject of great importance in elucidating the mechanisms of action between LLLR and biologic tissues. Different methods of therapy by blood irradiation have been developed and used in clinical purposes with benefic effects. This study investigates some in vitro effects of LLLR on some selected rheologic indices of human blood. After establishing whether or not damaging effects could appear due to laser irradiation of the blood, we tried to find a new method for rejuvenating the blood preserved in MacoPharma-type bags. Blood samples were obtained from adult regular donors (volunteers). HeNe laser and laser diodes were used as radiation source, in a wide range of wavelengths, power densities, doses and other parameters of irradiation protocol. In the first series of experiments we established that LLLR does not alter the fresh blood from healthy donors, for doses between 0 and 10 J/cm3 and power densities between 30 and 180 mW/cm3. In the second series of experiments we established that LLLR does have, in some specific conditions, a revitalizing effect on the erythrocytes in preserved blood. We concluded that laser irradiation of the preserved blood, following a selected protocol of irradiation, could be used as a new method to improve the performances of preservation: prolonging the period of storage and blood rejuvenation before transfusion.

  11. The application of silicon sol-gel technology to forensic blood substitute development: Mimicking aspects of whole human blood rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotesbury, Theresa; Illes, Mike; Wilson, Paul; Vreugdenhil, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Solution-gelation chemistry has promising applications in forensic synthetic blood substitute development. This research offers a silicon-based sol-gel approach to creating stable materials that share similar rheological properties to that of whole human blood samples. Room temperature, high water content, silicon sol-gels were created using the organosilane precursors 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and tetraethylorthosilicate along with various concentrations of filler and pigment. Shear-thinning non-Newtonian properties were observed within most formulations of the presented materials. The effects of colloidal concentration, temperature, age and filler addition on the viscosity of the sol-gels were investigated. SEM-EDS analysis was used to identify the behavior of the fillers within the film and support their inclusion for basic bloodstain pattern simulation. A final proposed candidate sol-gel was assessed using a previously reported passive drip simulation test on a hard, dry surface and passed. This works represents encouraging development in providing safe material alternatives to using whole human blood for forensic training and research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Noninvasive MRI measurement of the absolute cerebral blood volume-cerebral blood flow relationship during visual stimulation in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciris, Pelin Aksit; Qiu, Maolin; Constable, R Todd

    2014-09-01

    The relationship between cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) underlies blood oxygenation level-dependent functional MRI signal. This study investigates the potential for improved characterization of the CBV-CBF relationship in humans, and examines sex effects as well as spatial variations in the CBV-CBF relationship. Healthy subjects were imaged noninvasively at rest and during visual stimulation, constituting the first MRI measurement of the absolute CBV-CBF relationship in humans with complete coverage of the functional areas of interest. CBV and CBF estimates were consistent with the literature, and their relationship varied both spatially and with sex. In a region of interest with stimulus-induced activation in CBV and CBF at a significance level of the P < 0.05, a power function fit resulted in CBV = 2.1 CBF(0.32) across all subjects, CBV = 0.8 CBF(0.51) in females and CBV = 4.4 CBF(0.15) in males. Exponents decreased in both sexes as ROIs were expanded to include less significantly activated regions. Consideration for potential sex-related differences, as well as regional variations under a range of physiological states, may reconcile some of the variation across literature and advance our understanding of the underlying cerebrovascular physiology. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Gcg-XTEN: an improved glucagon capable of preventing hypoglycemia without increasing baseline blood glucose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan C Geething

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available While the majority of current diabetes treatments focus on reducing blood glucose levels, hypoglycemia represents a significant risk associated with insulin treatment. Glucagon plays a major regulatory role in controlling hypoglycemia in vivo, but its short half-life and hyperglycemic effects prevent its therapeutic use for non-acute applications. The goal of this study was to identify a modified form of glucagon suitable for prophylactic treatment of hypoglycemia without increasing baseline blood glucose levels.Through application of the XTEN technology, we report the construction of a glucagon fusion protein with an extended exposure profile (Gcg-XTEN. The in vivo half-life of the construct was tuned to support nightly dosing through design and testing in cynomolgus monkeys. Efficacy of the construct was assessed in beagle dogs using an insulin challenge to induce hypoglycemia. Dose ranging of Gcg-XTEN in fasted beagle dogs demonstrated that the compound was biologically active with a pharmacodynamic profile consistent with the designed half-life. Prophylactic administration of 0.6 nmol/kg Gcg-XTEN to dogs conferred resistance to a hypoglycemic challenge at 6 hours post-dose without affecting baseline blood glucose levels. Consistent with the designed pharmacokinetic profile, hypoglycemia resistance was not observed at 12 hours post-dose. Importantly, the solubility and stability of the glucagon peptide were also significantly improved by fusion to XTEN.The data show that Gcg-XTEN is effective in preventing hypoglycemia without the associated hyperglycemia expected for unmodified glucagon. While the plasma clearance of this Gcg-XTEN has been optimized for overnight dosing, specifically for the treatment of nocturnal hypoglycemia, constructs with significantly longer exposure profiles are feasible. Such constructs may have multiple applications such as allowing for more aggressive insulin treatment regimens, treating hypoglycemia due to insulin

  14. Neurobehavioral Deficits and Increased Blood Pressure in School-Age Children Prenatally Exposed to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Barr, Dana; Bellinger, David C.; Debes, Frodi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background The long-term neurotoxicity risks caused by prenatal exposures to pesticides are unclear, but a previous pilot study of Ecuadorian school children suggested that blood pressure and visuospatial processing may be vulnerable. Objectives In northern Ecuador, where floriculture is intensive and relies on female employment, we carried out an intensive cross-sectional study to assess children’s neurobehavioral functions at 6–8 years of age. Methods We examined all 87 children attending two grades in the local public school with an expanded battery of neurobehavioral tests. Information on pesticide exposure during the index pregnancy was obtained from maternal interview. The children’s current pesticide exposure was assessed from the urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites and erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity. Results Of 84 eligible participants, 35 were exposed to pesticides during pregnancy via maternal occupational exposure, and 23 had indirect exposure from paternal work. Twenty-two children had detectable current exposure irrespective of their prenatal exposure status. Only children with prenatal exposure from maternal greenhouse work showed consistent deficits after covariate adjustment, which included stunting and socioeconomic variables. Exposure-related deficits were the strongest for motor speed (Finger Tapping Task), motor coordination (Santa Ana Form Board), visuospatial performance (Stanford-Binet Copying Test), and visual memory (Stanford-Binet Copying Recall Test). These associations corresponded to a developmental delay of 1.5–2 years. Prenatal pesticide exposure was also significantly associated with an average increase of 3.6 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and a slight decrease in body mass index of 1.1 kg/m2. Inclusion of the pilot data strengthened these results. Conclusions These findings support the notion that prenatal exposure to pesticides—at levels not producing adverse health outcomes in the mother

  15. Umbilical Cord Blood Platelet Lysate as Serum Substitute in Expansion of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzad, Negin; Bordbar, Sima; Goodarzi, Alireza; Mohammad, Monire; Khosravani, Pardis; Sayahpour, Froughazam; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Ebrahimi, Marzieh

    2017-10-01

    The diverse clinical applications for human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in cellular therapy and regenerative medicine warrant increased focus on developing adequate culture supplements devoid of animal-derived products. In the present study, we have investigated the feasibility of umbilical cord blood-platelet lysate (UCB-PL) as a standard substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS) and human peripheral blood-PL (PB-PL). In this experimental study, platelet concentrates (PC) from UCB and human PB donors were frozen, melted, and sterilized to obtain PL. Quality control included platelet cell counts, sterility testing (viral and microbial), total protein concentrations, growth factor levels, and PL stability. The effects of UCB-PL and PB-PL on hMSCs proliferation and differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes, and adipocytes were studied and the results compared with FBS. UCB-PL contained high levels of protein content, platelet-derived growth factor- AB (PDGF-AB), and transforming growth factor (TGF) compared to PB-PL. All growth factors were stable for at least nine months post-storage at -70˚C. hMSCs proliferation enhanced following treatment with UCB-PL. With all three supplements, hMSCs could differentiate into all three lineages. PB-PL and UCB-PL both were potent in hMSCs proliferation. However, PB promoted osteoblastic differentiation and UCB-PL induced chondrogenic differentiation. Because of availability, ease of use and feasible standardization of UCB-PL, we have suggested that UCB-PL be used as an alternative to FBS and PB-PL for the cultivation and expansion of hMSCs in cellular therapy. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  16. Cytogenetic Low-Dose Hyperradiosensitivity Is Observed in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth, Isheeta [Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Joiner, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Tucker, James D., E-mail: jtucker@biology.biosci.wayne.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The shape of the ionizing radiation response curve at very low doses has been the subject of considerable debate. Linear-no-threshold (LNT) models are widely used to estimate risks associated with low-dose exposures. However, the low-dose hyperradiosensitivity (HRS) phenomenon, in which cells are especially sensitive at low doses but then show increased radioresistance at higher doses, provides evidence of nonlinearity in the low-dose region. HRS is more prominent in the G2 phase of the cell cycle than in the G0/G1 or S phases. Here we provide the first cytogenetic mechanistic evidence of low-dose HRS in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using structural chromosomal aberrations. Methods and Materials: Human peripheral blood lymphocytes from 2 normal healthy female donors were acutely exposed to cobalt 60 γ rays in either G0 or G2 using closely spaced doses ranging from 0 to 1.5 Gy. Structural chromosomal aberrations were enumerated, and the slopes of the regression lines at low doses (0-0.4 Gy) were compared with doses of 0.5 Gy and above. Results: HRS was clearly evident in both donors for cells irradiated in G2. No HRS was observed in cells irradiated in G0. The radiation effect per unit dose was 2.5- to 3.5-fold higher for doses ≤0.4 Gy than for doses >0.5 Gy. Conclusions: These data provide the first cytogenetic evidence for the existence of HRS in human cells irradiated in G2 and suggest that LNT models may not always be optimal for making radiation risk assessments at low doses.

  17. Interaction of low-intensity nuclear radiation dose with the human blood: Using the new technique of CR-39NTDs for an in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Asaad H.; Jaafar, Mohamad S.

    2011-01-01

    Complete blood counts were analyzed for 30 samples of human blood with radiation dose rate ranging between 10 and 41 μSv/h using a Radium-226 source with different time of exposure. A new technique involving a nuclear track detector type CR-39(CR-39 NTDs) was used to estimate the alpha particle density incident on the blood samples. The results show that the ranges of alpha particle in blood samples and on the surface of CR-39NTDs vary exponentially with energy of alpha particles. This depends on the restricted energy loss and target density. Changes in the blood components due to irradiation occurred for different durations of irradiation, and the duration of irradiation that influenced the blood samples in this study was 6 min. The change in red blood cell (RBC) was negligible, so it is less affected than other blood components. In addition, most changes in the blood contents began at a low radiation dose (10.38-13.41 μSv/h). For the doses 13.41-21.77 μSv/h, platelet (PLT) counts increased rapidly and adversely with the RBC and white blood cell (WBC) due to chromosomal aberration. Besides, rapid PLT count reduction rapidly at high dose (42.1 μSv h) causes thrombocytopenia; in contrast, WBC increased, which is an indication of cancer caused due to increase in alpha particle dose. Generally, our results are in agreement with the essentials of blood content and the principles of biological radiation interaction.

  18. Effect of Sample Storage Temperature and Time Delay on Blood Gases, Bicarbonate and pH in Human Arterial Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadhoseini, Elham; Safavi, Enayat; Seifi, Sepideh; Seifirad, Soroush; Firoozbakhsh, Shahram; Peiman, Soheil

    2015-03-01

    Results of arterial blood gas analysis can be biased by pre-analytical factors, such as time interval before analysis, temperature during storage and syringe type. To investigate the effects of samples storage temperature and time delay on blood gases, bicarbonate and PH results in human arterial blood samples. 2.5 mL arterial blood samples were drawn from 45 patients via an indwelling Intraarterial catheter. Each sample was divided into five equal samples and stored in multipurpose tuberculin plastic syringes. Blood gas analysis was performed on one of five samples as soon as possible. Four other samples were divided into two groups stored at 22°C and 0°C. Blood gas analyses were repeated at 30 and 60 minutes after sampling. PaO2 of the samples stored at 0°C was increased significantly after 60 minutes (P = 0.007). The PaCO2 of the samples kept for 30 and 60 minutes at 22°C was significantly higher than primary result (P = 0.04, P samples stored at 22°C, pH decreased significantly after 30 and 60 minutes (P = 0.017, P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in other results of samples stored at 0°C or 22°C after 30 or 60 minutes. In samples stored in plastic syringes, overestimation of PaO2 levels should be noted if samples cooled before analysis. In samples stored in plastic syringes, it is not necessary to store samples in iced water when analysis delayed up to one hour.

  19. Analysis of cytotoxic effects of chlorhexidine gluconate as antiseptic agent on human blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Ahmad; Alami, Bahare; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxicity of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) on human blood lymphocytes as a useful ex vivo model for accelerated human toxicity studies. Using biochemical and flow cytometry assessments, we demonstrated that addition of CHG at 1 μM concentration to human blood lymphocytes induced cytotoxicity following 6 h. The CHG-induced cytotoxicity on human blood lymphocytes was associated with intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, lysosomal membrane injury, lipid peroxidation, and depletion of glutathione. According to our results, CHG triggers oxidative stress and organelles damages in lymphocytes which are important cells in defense against foreign agents. Finally our findings suggest that using of antioxidants and mitochondrial/lysosomal protective agents could be of benefit for the people in the exposure with CHG. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Hepatic encephalopathy is associated with decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism and blood flow, not increased ammonia uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Gitte; Keiding, Susanne; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO(2)) and blood flow (CBF) in patients with cirrhosis with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). It remains unclear, however, whether these disturbances are associated with HE or with cirrhosis itself and how they may relate to arterial blood...... associated with HE rather than the liver disease as such. The changes in CMRO(2) and CBF could not be linked to blood ammonia concentration or CMRA....

  1. Alpha-Amylase Activity in Blood Increases after Pharmacological, But Not Psychological, Activation of the Adrenergic System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs M Nater

    Full Text Available Alpha-amylase in both blood and saliva has been used as a diagnostic parameter. While studies examining alpha-amylase activity in saliva have shown that it is sensitive to physiological and psychological challenge of the adrenergic system, no challenge studies have attempted to elucidate the role of the adrenergic system in alpha-amylase activity in blood. We set out to examine the impact of psychological and pharmacological challenge on alpha-amylase in blood in two separate studies.In study 1, healthy subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled, double-blind paradigm using yohimbine, an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist. In study 2, subjects were examined in a standardized rest-controlled psychosocial stress protocol. Alpha-amylase activity in blood was repeatedly measured in both studies.Results of study 1 showed that alpha-amylase in blood is subject to stronger increases after injection of yohimbine compared to placebo. In study 2, results showed that there was no significant effect of psychological stress compared to rest.Alpha-amylase in blood increases after pharmacological activation of the adrenergic pathways suggesting that sympathetic receptors are responsible for these changes. Psychological stress, however, does not seem to have an impact on alpha-amylase in blood. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying activity changes in alpha-amylase in blood in healthy individuals.

  2. A study of some problems in chromosome cultivation after ionization radiation of human blood in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Yao Bo; Chen Zhijian

    1992-01-01

    The effects of Cytochalasin B (Cyt-B) and cultural time on mitotic index (MI) during chromosome culture of human peripheral blood irradiated by 6 MV X-ray in vitro were studied. The results showed: (1) a successful cultivation with enough mitotic figures could be carried out in order to estimate the irradiation dose with chromosome aberrations and when the predicted dose was above 6 Gy in a radiation accident, when the predicted dose was up to 15 Gy the cultural time should be prolonged and Cyt-B should be added to the cultural medium; (2) it was possible to establish a dose effect calibration curve for doses above 5 Gy by adding Cyt-B and prolonging the cultural time; so that its value as a biological dosimeter for clinical application might be increased than before

  3. Sympathetic influence on cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Secher, Niels H

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the possibility that autonomic activity influences cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism during exercise in humans. Apart from cerebral autoregulation, the arterial carbon dioxide tension, and neuronal activation, it may be that the autonomic nervous system influences CBF...... perfusion and reduces the near-infrared determined cerebral oxygenation at rest, but not during exercise associated with an increased cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO(2)), suggesting competition between CMRO(2) and sympathetic control of CBF. CMRO(2) does not change during even intense handgrip......-oxidative carbohydrate uptake during exercise. Adrenaline appears to accelerate cerebral glycolysis through a beta2-adrenergic receptor mechanism since noradrenaline is without such an effect. In addition, the exercise-induced cerebral non-oxidative carbohydrate uptake is blocked by combined beta 1/2-adrenergic blockade...

  4. Men with Sickle Cell Anemia and Priapism Exhibit Increased Hemolytic Rate, Decreased Red Blood Cell Deformability and Increased Red Blood Cell Aggregate Strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizzy-Clara Cita

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between priapism in men with sickle cell anemia (SCA and hemorheological and hemolytical parameters.Fifty-eight men with SCA (median age: 38 years were included; 28 who had experienced priapism at least once during their life (priapism group and 30 who never experienced this complication (control group. Twenty-two patients were treated with hydroxycarbamide, 11 in each group. All patients were at steady state at the time of inclusion. Hematological and biochemical parameters were obtained through routine procedures. The Laser-assisted Optical Rotational Cell Analyzer was used to measure red blood cell (RBC deformability at 30 Pa (ektacytometry and RBC aggregation properties (laser backscatter versus time. Blood viscosity was measured at a shear rate of 225 s-1 using a cone/plate viscometer. A principal component analysis was performed on 4 hemolytic markers (i.e., lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT, total bilirubin (BIL levels and reticulocyte (RET percentage to calculate a hemolytic index.Compared to the control group, patients with priapism exhibited higher ASAT (p = 0.01, LDH (p = 0.03, RET (p = 0.03 levels and hemolytic indices (p = 0.02. Higher RBC aggregates strength (p = 0.01 and lower RBC deformability (p = 0.005 were observed in patients with priapism compared to controls. After removing the hydroxycarbamide-treated patients, RBC deformability (p = 0.01 and RBC aggregate strength (p = 0.03 were still different between the two groups, and patients with priapism exhibited significantly higher hemolytic indices (p = 0.01 than controls.Our results confirm that priapism in SCA is associated with higher hemolytic rates and show for the first time that this complication is also associated with higher RBC aggregate strength and lower RBC deformability.

  5. Blood flow and microdialysis in the human femoral head

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgehøj, Morten; Emmeluth, Claus; Overgaard, Søren

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If it would be possible to detect lack of flow and/or the development of ischemia in bone, we might have a way of predicting whether a broken bone will heal. We established microdialysis (MD) and laser Doppler (LD) flow measurement in the human femoral head in order to be able to detect...

  6. Retinopathy of Prematurity Is Associated with Increased Systolic Blood Pressure in Adults Who Were Born Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistner, Anna; Jacobson, Lena; Östergren, Jan; Hellström, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Adults born preterm are at risk of developing cardiovascular morbidities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and blood pressure (BP) and salivary cortisol levels during adulthood. Sixty-nine subjects (mean age 22.6 years) were included. Subjects were adults who were: (a) ex-preterm infants with severe ROP (n = 22), born at gestational age (GA) <30 weeks with a birth weight (BW) <1,000 g, (b) ex-preterm infants with no/mild ROP (n = 21), born at GA <28 weeks with a BW <1,000 g, or (c) full-term controls (n = 26). Anthropometric data, office BP, ambulatory BP, and morning and evening salivary cortisol were analyzed. As adults, ex-preterm infants with severe ROP had on average 7.4 mm Hg higher systolic office BP than those with no/mild ROP (p = 0.019) and controls (p = 0.007). A high cortisol level, tall height, and severe ROP were independent predictors of higher ambulatory systolic BP during adulthood in forward stepwise regression analysis, independent of GA. Our results indicate that preterm infants with severe abnormal retinal vascular development during the neonatal period may be at an increased risk for increased BP during adulthood. We found no differences between those with no/mild ROP as infants and controls with regard to BP data. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Increased complement C1q level marks active disease in human tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complement functions as an important host defense system and complement C5 and C7 have been implicated in immunopathology of tuberculosis. However, little is known about the role of other complement components in tuberculosis. METHODS: Complement gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of tuberculosis patients and controls were determined using whole genome transcriptional microarray assays. The mRNA and protein levels of three C1q components, C1qA, C1qB, and C1qC, were further validated by qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The percentages of C1q expression in CD14 positive cells were determined by flow cytometry. Finally, C1qC protein level was quantified in the pleural fluid of tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis pleurisy. RESULTS: C1q expression increases significantly in the peripheral blood of patients with active tuberculosis compared to healthy controls and individuals with latent TB infection. The percentage of C1q-expressing CD14 positive cells is significantly increased in active TB patients. C1q expression in the peripheral blood correlates with sputum smear positivity in tuberculosis patients and is reduced after anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy. Notably, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that C1qC mRNA levels in peripheral blood efficiently discriminate active from latent tuberculosis infection and healthy controls. Additionally, C1qC protein level in pleural effusion shows improved power in discriminating tuberculosis from non-tuberculosis pleurisy when compared to other inflammatory markers, such as IL-6 and TNF-α. CONCLUSIONS: C1q expression correlates with active disease in human tuberculosis. C1q could be a potential diagnostic marker to discriminate active tuberculosis from latent tuberculosis infection as well as tuberculosis pleurisy from non-tuberculosis pleurisy.

  8. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  9. Fiber-based optic sensor for detecting human blood clot: present and future revival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshikeri, Nada; Bakhtiar, Hazri

    2018-05-01

    Sustaining human’s life-frame away from being impeded by the clot - ghost term, we attempt to approach a mobile fiber-based optical sensor (f-s) for detecting blood clot in a blood vessel (intra-arteries/veins). Blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transport blood throughout the human body, thus their significance of being protected arise to the monograph focus. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), X-rays and other medical instruments are diagnostic immobility techniques with a slackest interval. The corer causation of fiber-based optical sensor is to detect a clump of blood in the bloodstream by providing a prompt mobile diagnostic intervals preserving last-minutes-breath of human’s life. The detector (f-s) has been etched by diluting sulphuric acid ~10% at certain zone to sensate its function. The in-vitro monograph peaks its maximal monitoring when the sensor is attached to Raman Spectroscopy (RS) setup. RS quantifies the relative intensities of fibrinogen bond, which is the first type of blood coagulation elements of blood plasma. Blood coagulation parameters are the major concern of the monograph investigation, such as total haemoglobin (tHb), clotting reaction time (t), clot progression time (t2), maximum clot amplitude (ma) and mean refractive index (r). A blood sample will be drawn from the patient and after centrifugation to separate blood plasma from its constituents, then an immediate sloshing of blood plasma in the (f-s) packet which has its plug-in to RS. Estimating the quantitative analysis of blood sample concentration, RS will determine the presence of coagulation in terms of intensity and medical procedures will dominate the treatment process. Thus, the suggestive monograph provides a definite instrument for investigating blood coagulation intra-arteries/veins promptly.

  10. Human Blood Feeding Activity of Female Hybrids between Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshii, Manabu; Mine, Mariko; Kurokawa, Kenji; Oda, Tsutomu; Kato, Katsutomo; Ogawa, Yasunori; Eshita, Yuuki; Uchida, Keikichi

    2007-01-01

    Human blood feeding activity was examined in females of hybrids between Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus during long photoperiod at 25℃. Blood feeding rates of hybrids were lower than in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens pallens, and higher than in Culex pipiens pipiens, because no females fed on human blood in Culex pipiens pipiens.

  11. Polonium 210Po activities in human blood of patients with ischaemic heart disease from Gda?sk in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Bory?o, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan; Roma?czyk, Grzegorz; Siebert, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    The determination of polonium 210Po in human blood samples is presented and discussed in this paper. The human blood samples were collected from patients of Medical University of Gda?sk with ischaemic heart disease (morbus ischaemicus cordis, MIC). The polonium concentrations in analyzed human blood samples are very differentiated. 210Po is of particular interest in public health and although is present in the environment in extremely low amounts, it is easily bioaccumulated to the human body...

  12. Actovegin, a non-prohibited drug increases oxidative capacity in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Stine D; Dela, Flemming; Helge, Jørn W

    2016-01-01

    Actovegin, a deproteinized haemodialysate of calf blood, is suggested to have ergogenic properties, but this potential effect has never been investigated in human skeletal muscle. To investigate this purported ergogenic effect, we measured the mitochondrial respiratory capacity in permeabilized h...

  13. A Meta-Analysis of Blood Glucose Effects on Human Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob L.; Kurzban, Robert

    2016-01-01

    identified 42 studies relating to 4 dimensions of decision making: willingness to pay, willingness to work, time discounting, and decision style. We did not find a uniform influence of blood glucose on decision making. Instead, we found that low levels of blood glucose increase the willingness to pay...... and willingness to work when a situation is food related, but decrease willingness to pay and work in all other situations. Low levels of blood glucose increase the future discount rate for food; that is, decision makers become more impatient, and to a lesser extent increase the future discount rate for money....... Low levels of blood glucose also increase the tendency to make more intuitive rather than deliberate decisions. However, this effect was only observed in situations unrelated to food. We conclude that blood glucose has domain-specific effects, influencing decision making differently depending...

  14. T lymphocytes derived from human cord blood provide effective antitumor immunotherapy against a human tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Tae-Sik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the graft-versus-tumor (GVT effect of donor-derived T cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an effective adoptive immunotherapy, the antitumor effects of cord blood (CB transplantation have not been well studied. Methods We established the animal model by transplantation of CB mononuclear cells and/or tumor cells into NOD/SCID mice. The presence of CB derived T cells in NOD/SCID mice or tumor tissues were determined by flow cytometric and immunohistochemical analysis. The anti-tumor effects of CB derived T cells against tumor was determined by tumor size and weight, and by the cytotoxicity assay and ELISPOT assay of T cells. Results We found dramatic tumor remission following transfer of CB mononuclear cells into NOD/SCID mice with human cervical tumors with a high infiltration of CD3+ T cells in tumors. NOD/SCID mice that receive neonatal CB transplants have reconstituted T cells with significant antitumor effects against human cervical and lung tumors, with a high infiltration of CD3+ T cells showing dramatic induction of apoptotic cell death. We also confirmed that T cells showed tumor specific antigen cytotoxicity in vitro. In adoptive transfer of CD3+ T cells into mice with pre-established tumors, we observed much higher antitumor effects of HPV-specific T cells by ELISPOT assays. Conclusions Our results show that CB derived T lymphocytes will be useful for novel immunotherapeutic candidate cells for therapy of several tumors in clinic.

  15. Increased micronucleus, nucleoplasmic bridge, and nuclear bud frequencies in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of diesel engine exhaust-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Duan, Huawei; Gao, Feng; Li, Yuanyuan; Huang, Chuanfeng; Niu, Yong; Gao, Weimin; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2015-02-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has recently reclassified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a Group 1 carcinogen. Micronucleus (MN), nucleoplasmic bridge (NPB), and nuclear bud (NBUD) frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) are associated with cancer risk. However, the impact of DEE exposure on MN frequency has not been thoroughly elucidated due to mixed exposure and its impact on NPB and NBUD frequencies has never been explored in humans. We recruited 117 diesel engine testing workers with exclusive exposure to DEE and 112 non-DEE-exposed workers, and then we measured urinary levels of 4 mono-hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies in PBLs using cytokinesis-block MN assay. The DEE-exposed workers exhibited significantly higher MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies than the non-DEE-exposed workers (P < 0.05). Among all study subjects, increasing levels of all 4 urinary OH-PAHs, on both quartile and continuous scales, were associated with increased MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies (all P < 0.05). When the associations were analyzed separately in DEE-exposed and non-DEE-exposed workers, we found that the association between increasing quartiles of urinary 9-hydroxyphenanthrene (9-OHPh) and MN frequencies persisted in DEE-exposed workers (P = 0.001). The percent of MN frequencies increased, on average, by 23.99% (95% confidential interval, 9.64-39.93) per 1-unit increase in ln-transformed 9-OHPh. Our results clearly show that exposure to DEE can induce increases in MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies in PBLs and suggest that DEE exposure level is associated with MN frequencies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The human thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones: Thermal comfort in your own skin blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlader, Zachary J

    2015-01-01

    Human thermoregulation is achieved via autonomic and behavioral responses. Autonomic responses involve 2 synchronous 'components'. One counteracts large thermal perturbations, eliciting robust heat loss or gain (i.e., sweating or shivering). The other fends off smaller insults, relying solely on changes in sensible heat exchange (i.e., skin blood flow). This sensible component occurs within the thermoneutral zone [i.e., the ambient temperature range in which temperature regulation is achieved only by sensible heat transfer, without regulatory increases in metabolic heat production (e.g., shivering) or evaporative heat loss (e.g., sweating)].(1) The combination of behavior and sensible heat exchange permits a range of conditions that are deemed thermally comfortable, which is defined as the thermal comfort zone.(1) Notably, we spend the majority of our lives within the thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones. It is only when we are unable to stay within these zones that deleterious health and safety outcomes can occur (i.e., hypo- or hyperthermia). Oddly, although the thermoneutral zone and thermal preference (a concept similar to the thermal comfort zone) has been extensively studied in non-human animals, our understanding of human thermoregulation within the thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones remains rather crude.

  17. Products of neutrophils and eosinophils increase the responsiveness of human isolated bronchial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, A R; Armour, C L; Black, J L

    1990-05-01

    This study examines the possibility that products of neutrophils and eosinophils could increase the responsiveness of human isolated bronchial tissue. Neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. The cells were incubated with 1 microM calcium ionophore A23187 for 10-15 min then centrifuged, the supernatant collected and stored at -70 degrees C. Human bronchial rings (2-3 mm diameter, 3-4 mm long) were prepared from specimens resected at thoracotomy. The tissues were suspended in organ baths under a 1 g load and changes in tension measured isometrically. Stable contractions to bolus doses of histamine (0.1-10 microM) or to electrical field stimulation (40-100 V, 4-16 Hz, 1 ms for 20 s) were established. Supernatant from 106 neutrophils or 105 eosinophils was then added and tissue responsiveness reassessed. Neutrophil supernatant increased tissue responsiveness to histamine and electrical field stimulation by 54 +/- 17% (n = 5, p less than 0.05) and 18 +/- 7% (n = 6, p less than 0.05), respectively. Eosinophil supernatant increased the histamine response by 60 +/- 23% (n = 8, p less than 0.05) while tissue responsiveness to electrical field stimulation was unchanged (n = 3). Thus, as neutrophils and eosinophils can change the responsiveness of human bronchus in vitro it is possible that they do this in vivo and may not simply be temporally related to the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

  18. Ethanol-induced increase in portal blood flow: Role of acetate and A1- and A2-adenosine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, F.J.; Saldivia, V.; Varghese, G.A.; Israel, Y.; Orrego, H.

    1988-01-01

    The increase in portal blood flow induced by ethanol appears to be adenosine mediated. Acetate, which is released by the liver during ethanol metabolism, is known to increase adenosine levels in tissues and in blood. The effects of acetate on portal blood flow were investigated in rats using the microsphere technique. The intravenous infusion of acetate resulted in vasodilation of the preportal vasculature and in a dose-dependent increase in portal blood flow. This acetate-induced increase in portal blood flow was suppressed by the adenosine receptor blocker, 8-phenyltheophylline. Using the A 1 -adenosine receptor agonist N-6-cyclohexyl adenosine and the A 2 -agonist 5'-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine, we demonstrate that the effect of adenosine on the preportal vasculature is mediated by the A 2 -subtype of adenosine receptors. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that the increase in portal blood flow after ethanol administration results from a preportal vasodilatory effect of adenosine formed from acetate metabolism in extrahepatic tissues

  19. Hydroxyethyl Starch Reduces Coagulation Competence and Increases Blood Loss During Major Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Johansson, Pär I; Højskov, Michael

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether administration of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 affects coagulation competence and influences the perioperative blood loss. BACKGROUND: Artificial colloids substitute blood volume during surgery; with the administration of HES 130/0.4 (Voluven, Fresenius...

  20. Increases in arterial blood oxygen during exercise in the lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BUSHNELL, PG; LUTZ, PL; STEFFENSEN, JF

    1982-01-01

    Polyethylene cannulae were implanted in pre- and post-branchial blood vessels allowing nonstressful blood sampling over a variety of activity ranges in an active tropical elasmobranch, the lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris). TheP 50 was found to be 11.8 Torr at 24°C and pH of 7.7. A Bohr shift...

  1. Is TB Testing Associated With Increased Blood Interferon-Gamma Levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aideen E. Kennedy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Ireland reports a relatively low prevalence of Johne’s disease (JD compared to international counterparts. Postulated reasons for this include a lower average herd size and a grass-based production system. Ireland also engages in high levels of bovine tuberculosis (bTB testing. As interferon-gamma (IFN-γ is believed to play a key role in protecting against JD, it is our hypothesis that administration of purified protein derivative (PPD, as part of the bTB test, is associated with a systemic increase in IFN-γ production, which may potentially limit clinical progression of the disease. We studied 265 cows (202 Friesian and 63 “Non-Friesian,” e.g., JerseyX, Norwegian Red to assess IFN-γ levels and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP antibody response before and after the bTB test. As part of the compulsory annual bTB test, avian and bovine PPD were administered at two separate cervical sites. To assess IFN-γ production, blood samples were taken before and 72 h after PPD administration. MAP antibody response was assessed before and 10 days post-PPD administration. A significant increase in MAP antibody response was identified post-bTB compared to pre-bTB response (p < 0.001. Additionally, IFN-γ production significantly increased at the post-bTB time point (p < 0.001 compared to the pre-bTB test readings. This may indicate a beneficial effect of bTB testing in controlling JD.

  2. Determination of mercury in human serum and packed blood cells by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versieck, J.; Vanballenberghe, L.; Wittoek, A.; Vermeir, G.; Vandecasteele, C.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of mercury in human blood serum and packed blood cells employing neutron activation analysis. Great attention was devoted to the collection and manipulation of the samples. The accuracy and precision of the method were tested by analyzing biological reference materials and by comparing the concentrations measured in a number of serum samples to those obtained by another, independent technique (cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry) in the same samples. The article reports the levels measured in blood serum and packed blood cells samples from 15 adult volunteers, as well as the figures determined in a open-quotes second-generationclose quotes biological reference material (freeze-dried human serum), prepared and conditioned at the University of Ghent

  3. Cerebral blood flow reduction in Alzheimer's disease: impact of capillary occlusions on mice and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Maxime; Merlo, Adlan; Peyrounette, Myriam; Doyeux, Vincent; Smith, Amy; Cruz-Hernandez, Jean; Bracko, Oliver; Haft-Javaherian, Mohammad; Nishimura, Nozomi; Schaffer, Chris B.; Davit, Yohan; Quintard, Michel; Lorthois, Sylvie

    2017-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease may be the most common form of dementia, yet a satisfactory diagnosis procedure has still to be found. Recent studies suggest that a significant decrease of cerebral blood flow, probably caused by white blood cells stalling small vessels, may be among the earliest biological markers. To assess this hypothesis we derive a blood flow model, validate it against in vitro controlled experiments and in vivo measurements made on mice. We then investigate the influence of capillary occlusions on regional perfusion (sum of all arteriole flowrates feeding the network) of large mice and humans anatomical networks. Consistent with experiments, we observe no threshold effect, so that even a small percentage of occlusions (2-4%) leads to significant blood flow decrease (5-12%). We show that both species share the same linear dependance, suggesting possible translation from mice to human. ERC BrainMicroFlow GA61510, CALMIP HPC (Grant 2017-1541).

  4. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  5. Studies of blood flow in human nasal mucosa with /sup133/Xe washout technique and laser doppler flowmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, P.

    1986-01-01

    The techniques were applied for studies of the influence of environmental temperature on the human nasal mucosa, for studies of mediators in nasal allergy and for studies of the sympathetic neurogenic control of blood flow in the nasal mucosa. The results show that the two techniques are complementary to one another. The /sup133/Xe washout technique is useful for semiquantitative estimations of blood flow in the deeper parts of the mucosa, while the laser doppler technique is especially suited for continuous recordings of relative blood flow changes in the superficial part of the mucosa. Vascular changes may take part in body temperature regulation changes may take part in body temperature regulation as well as in conditioning of respiratory air. The results support the theories that changes in nasal mucosal blood flow are related to body temperature control, while conditioning of inspiratory air may be more dependent on mucosal blood content. The observed dissociation between changes in the resistance and the capacitance vessels also illustrates that these vascular segments are regulated in different ways. The present results indicate that leukotriene D/sub4/ might contribute to an increased blood flow in the nasal mucosa and to blockage of the nasal airway in the acute allergic reaction. Vasomotion is demonstrated to be present in the nasal mucosa, and it appears to be partly dependent on sympathetic neurogenic activity. The development of the present techniques, means that vascular changes involved in normal nasal function and in nasal disease may be evaluated by a new approach. (author)

  6. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  7. Estimating the total TEQ in human blood from naturally-occurring vs. anthropogenic dioxins. A dietary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, K [Exponent, Natick, MA (United States); Harris, M [Exponent, Houston, TX (United States); Edwards, M [Exponent, Bellevue, WA (United States); Chu, A; Clark, G [XDS, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Finley, B [Exponent, Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Numerous naturally-occurring compounds in the human diet can bind to the aryl hydrocarbon, or dioxin receptor (AhR) and activate the AhR signaling pathway. These compounds include certain indole carbinols and their derivatives, heterocyclic aromatic amines, flavonoids, carotinoids, vitamin A derivatives (retinoids), and tryptophan metabolites. Several researchers have suggested that the daily dietary intake of these ''endodioxins'', in terms of a TCDD-equivalency (TEQ) is likely to be far greater than that associated with daily background intake of anthropogenic dioxins. The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary data for evaluating whether dietary endodioxins may in fact be significant contributors to the non-PCDD/F and PCB fraction of the blood TEQ. This was accomplished by measuring the total bioassay (CALUX {sup registered}) TEQ in the blood of several volunteers under various dietary regimens. Specifically, blood samples were collected from volunteers who maintained a baseline diet, which was relatively free of vegetables, followed by a diet enriched in endodioxin-containing vegetables. The background blood levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were measured for each volunteer at the beginning of the study in order to establish a baseline TEQ for each participant. To provide a measure of study sensitivity, CALUX {sup registered} analysis was also performed on blood samples from volunteers who took an off-the-shelf indole-3-carbinole (I3C) supplement. I3C is the main dietary ICZ precursor and could be expected to increase the levels of this endodioxin in blood.

  8. Potent innate immune response to pathogenic leptospira in human whole blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga G A Goris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. The bacteria enter the human body via abraded skin or mucous membranes and may disseminate throughout. In general the clinical picture is mild but some patients develop rapidly progressive, severe disease with a high case fatality rate. Not much is known about the innate immune response to leptospires during haematogenous dissemination. Previous work showed that a human THP-1 cell line recognized heat-killed leptospires and leptospiral LPS through TLR2 instead of TLR4. The LPS of virulent leptospires displayed a lower potency to trigger TNF production by THP-1 cells compared to LPS of non-virulent leptospires. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the host response and killing of virulent and non-virulent Leptospira of different serovars by human THP-1 cells, human PBMC's and human whole blood. Virulence of each leptospiral strain was tested in a well accepted standard guinea pig model. Virulent leptospires displayed complement resistance in human serum and whole blood while in-vitro attenuated non-virulent leptospires were rapidly killed in a complement dependent manner. In vitro stimulation of THP-1 and PBMC's with heat-killed and living leptospires showed differential serovar and cell type dependence of cytokine induction. However, at low, physiological, leptospiral dose, living virulent complement resistant strains were consistently more potent in whole blood stimulations than the corresponding non-virulent complement sensitive strains. At higher dose living virulent and non-virulent leptospires were equipotent in whole blood. Inhibition of different TLRs indicated that both TLR2 and TLR4 as well as TLR5 play a role in the whole blood cytokine response to living leptospires. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, in a minimally altered system as human whole blood, highly virulent Leptospira are potent inducers of the cytokine response.

  9. Calorie restriction increases muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in healthy humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony E Civitarese

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction without malnutrition extends life span in a range of organisms including insects and mammals and lowers free radical production by the mitochondria. However, the mechanism responsible for this adaptation are poorly understood.The current study was undertaken to examine muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics in response to caloric restriction alone or in combination with exercise in 36 young (36.8 +/- 1.0 y, overweight (body mass index, 27.8 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2 individuals randomized into one of three groups for a 6-mo intervention: Control, 100% of energy requirements; CR, 25% caloric restriction; and CREX, caloric restriction with exercise (CREX, 12.5% CR + 12.5% increased energy expenditure (EE. In the controls, 24-h EE was unchanged, but in CR and CREX it was significantly reduced from baseline even after adjustment for the loss of metabolic mass (CR, -135 +/- 42 kcal/d, p = 0.002 and CREX, -117 +/- 52 kcal/d, p = 0.008. Participants in the CR and CREX groups had increased expression of genes encoding proteins involved in mitochondrial function such as PPARGC1A, TFAM, eNOS, SIRT1, and PARL (all, p < 0.05. In parallel, mitochondrial DNA content increased by 35% +/- 5% in the CR group (p = 0.005 and 21% +/- 4% in the CREX group (p < 0.004, with no change in the control group (2% +/- 2%. However, the activity of key mitochondrial enzymes of the TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle (citrate synthase, beta-oxidation (beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and electron transport chain (cytochrome C oxidase II was unchanged. DNA damage was reduced from baseline in the CR (-0.56 +/- 0.11 arbitrary units, p = 0.003 and CREX (-0.45 +/- 0.12 arbitrary units, p = 0.011, but not in the controls. In primary cultures of human myotubes, a nitric oxide donor (mimicking eNOS signaling induced mitochondrial biogenesis but failed to induce SIRT1 protein expression, suggesting that additional factors may regulate SIRT1 content during CR.The observed increase in

  10. Perioperative clopidogrel is associated with increased bleeding and blood transfusion at the time of lower extremity bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Douglas W; Schermerhorn, Marc L; Brooke, Benjamin S; Conrad, Mark F; Goodney, Philip P; Wyers, Mark C; Stone, David H

    2017-06-01

    Controversy persists surrounding the perceived bleeding risk associated with perioperative clopidogrel use in patients undergoing lower extremity bypass (LEB). The purpose of this study was to examine the LEB bleeding risk and clinical sequelae associated with clopidogrel. All LEBs in the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) from 2008 to 2014 were studied. The exposure was perioperative clopidogrel. Primary outcomes were blood transfusion, estimated blood loss ≥500 mL, and reoperation for bleeding. Secondary outcomes included mean operative time, major cardiac events, respiratory complications, infectious complications, and in-hospital mortality. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to analyze patients on the basis of clopidogrel use and its association with outcomes. Nonparametric test for trend and Mantel-Haenszel methods were used to analyze association of clopidogrel use with blood transfusion and secondary outcomes. Among the LEB cohort (N = 9179), 28% (n = 2544) were taking clopidogrel and 72% (n = 6635) were not. Patients taking clopidogrel were more likely to have coronary disease, prior coronary intervention, abnormal findings on stress test, and aspirin use (P blood transfusion (38% vs 24%; P blood loss ≥500 mL (21% vs 12%; P blood transfusion (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-2.1; P 2-unit blood transfusion (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.7-2.5; P blood transfusion amount revealed no remaining effect of clopidogrel on major cardiac events (OR, 1.1; P = .4) or respiratory complications (OR, 1.0; P = .8). Perioperative clopidogrel use in LEB surgery is associated with increased blood loss and blood transfusion. Associated clinical sequelae include increased cardiac and pulmonary complications. Accordingly, surgeons should consider discontinuation of perioperative clopidogrel when it is clinically appropriate unless it is strongly indicated at the time of LEB. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by

  11. Fractalkine is expressed in the human ovary and increases progesterone biosynthesis in human luteinised granulosa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jie

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence from rodent ovaries has demonstrated expression of fractalkine and the existence of fractalkine receptor, and showed that there is a significant increase in steroidogenesis in response to fractalkine, yet the role of fractalkine and CX3CR1 in the human ovary is still unknown. This study aimed to determine the expression levels of fractalkine and CX3CR1 in the human ovary and to investigate their roles in sexual hormone biosynthesis by human luteinising granulosa cells. This is the first detailed report of fractalkine and CX3CR1 expression and function in the human ovary. Methods Fractalkine and CX3CR1 expression levels were measured by immunohistochemistry using ovarian tissue from pathological specimens from five individuals. Granulosa cells were obtained from patients during IVF treatment. They were cultured and treated with increasing doses of hCG with or without fractalkine. Media were collected to detect estradiol and progesterone by chemiluminescence. StAR, 3-βHSD and CYP11A expression were determined in granulosa cells treated with or without fractalkine by real-time RT-PCR. Results Fractalkine and CX3CR1 were expressed in the human ovary and in luteinising granulosa cells. However, fractalkine expression was stronger in luteinising granulosa cells. Treatment with fractalkine augmented hCG stimulation of progesterone production in a dose-dependent manner with concomitant increases in transcript levels for key steroidogenic enzymes (StAR, 3-βHSD and CYP11A but had no effect on estradiol biosynthesis(P Conclusions Fractalkine and CX3CR1 were found to express in human ovary and luteinising granulosa cells. Fractalkine can increase the biosynthesis of progesterone in a dose-dependent manner by enhancing transcript levels of key steroidogenic enzymes.

  12. Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Contribute to Chondrogenesis in Coculture with Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingfu; Duan, Li; Liang, Yujie; Zhu, Weimin; Xiong, Jianyi; Wang, Daping

    2016-01-01

    Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) have been shown as the most potential stem cell source for articular cartilage repair. In this study, we aimed to develop a method for long-term coculture of human articular chondrocytes (hACs) and hUCB-MSCs at low density in vitro to determine if the low density of hACs could enhance the hUCB-MSC chondrogenic differentiation as well as to determine the optimal ratio of the two cell types. Also, we compared the difference between direct coculture and indirect coculture at low density. Monolayer cultures of hUCB-MSCs and hACs were investigated at different ratios, at direct cell-cell contact groups for 21 days. Compared to direct coculture, hUCB-MSCs and hACs indirect contact culture significantly increased type II collagen (COL2) and decreased type I collagen (COL1) protein expression levels. SRY-box 9 (SOX9) mRNA levels and protein expression were highest in indirect coculture. Overall, these results indicate that low density direct coculture induces fibrocartilage. However, indirect coculture in conditioned chondrocyte cell culture medium can increase expression of chondrogenic markers and induce hUCB-MSCs differentiation into mature chondrocytes. This work demonstrates that it is possible to promote chondrogenesis of hUCB-MSCs in combination with hACs, further supporting the concept of novel coculture strategies for tissue engineering.

  13. Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Contribute to Chondrogenesis in Coculture with Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingfu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs have been shown as the most potential stem cell source for articular cartilage repair. In this study, we aimed to develop a method for long-term coculture of human articular chondrocytes (hACs and hUCB-MSCs at low density in vitro to determine if the low density of hACs could enhance the hUCB-MSC chondrogenic differentiation as well as to determine the optimal ratio of the two cell types. Also, we compared the difference between direct coculture and indirect coculture at low density. Monolayer cultures of hUCB-MSCs and hACs were investigated at different ratios, at direct cell-cell contact groups for 21 days. Compared to direct coculture, hUCB-MSCs and hACs indirect contact culture significantly increased type II collagen (COL2 and decreased type I collagen (COL1 protein expression levels. SRY-box 9 (SOX9 mRNA levels and protein expression were highest in indirect coculture. Overall, these results indicate that low density direct coculture induces fibrocartilage. However, indirect coculture in conditioned chondrocyte cell culture medium can increase expression of chondrogenic markers and induce hUCB-MSCs differentiation into mature chondrocytes. This work demonstrates that it is possible to promote chondrogenesis of hUCB-MSCs in combination with hACs, further supporting the concept of novel coculture strategies for tissue engineering.

  14. Increased Plasma Levels of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Human Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Yu-Xue; Fu, Dong-Wei; Gao, Qing-Feng; Ge, Feng-Xia; Liu, Wei-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Brucellosis is associated with inflammation and the oxidative stress response. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective stress-responsive enzyme that has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Nevertheless, the role of HO-1 in human brucellosis has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to examine the plasma levels of HO-1 in patients with brucellosis and to evaluate the ability of plasma HO-1 levels as an auxiliary diagnosis, a severity predictor, and a monitor for brucellosis treatments. A total of 75 patients with brucellosis were divided into the acute, subacute, chronic active, and chronic stable groups. An additional 20 volunteers were included as the healthy control group. The plasma HO-1 levels and other laboratory parameters were measured in all groups. Furthermore, the plasma levels of HO-1 in the acute group were compared before and after treatment. The plasma HO-1 levels were considerably increased in the acute (4.97 ± 3.55), subacute (4.98 ± 3.23), and chronic active groups (4.43 ± 3.00) with brucellosis compared to the healthy control group (1.03 ± 0.63) (p brucellosis (r = 0.707, p brucellosis status and may be used as a supplementary plasma marker for diagnosing brucellosis and monitoring its treatment.

  15. Hypermethylation of gene promoters in peripheral blood leukocytes in humans long term after radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmina, Nina S., E-mail: nin-kuzmin@youndex.ru; Lapteva, Nellya Sh.; Rubanovich, Alexander V.

    2016-04-15

    Some human genes known to undergo age-related promoter hypermethylation. These epigenetic modifications are similar to those occurring in the course of certain diseases, e.g. some types of cancer, which in turn may also associate with age. Given external genotoxic factors may additionally contribute to hypermethylation, this study was designed to analyzes, using methylation-sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the CpG island hypermethylation in RASSF1A, CDKN2A (including p16/INK4A and p14/ARF) and GSTP1 promoters in peripheral blood leukocytes of individuals exposed to ionizing radiation long time ago. One hundred and twenty-four irradiated subjects (24–77 years old at sampling: 83 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant clean-up workers, 21 nuclear workers, 20 residents of territories with radioactive contamination) and 208 unirradiated volunteers (19–77 years old at sampling) were enrolled. In addition, 74 non-exposed offspring (2–51 years old at sampling) born to irradiated parents were examined. The frequency of individuals displaying promoter methylation of at least one gene in exposed group was significantly higher as compared to the control group (OR=5.44, 95% CI=2.62–11.76, p=3.9×10{sup −7}). No significant difference was found between the frequency of subjects with the revealed promoter methylation in the group of offspring born to irradiated parents and in the control group. The increase in the number of methylated loci of RASSF1A and p14/ARF was associated with age (β=0.242; p=1.7×10{sup −5}). In contrast, hypermethylation of p16/INK4A and GSTP1 genes correlated with the fact of radiation exposure only (β=0.290; p=1.7×10{sup −7}). The latter finding demonstrates that methylation changes in blood leukocytes of healthy subjects exposed to radiation resemble those reported in human malignancies. Additional studies are required to identify the dose-response of epigenetic markers specifically associating with radiation-induced premature aging

  16. Hypermethylation of gene promoters in peripheral blood leukocytes in humans long term after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmina, Nina S.; Lapteva, Nellya Sh.; Rubanovich, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    Some human genes known to undergo age-related promoter hypermethylation. These epigenetic modifications are similar to those occurring in the course of certain diseases, e.g. some types of cancer, which in turn may also associate with age. Given external genotoxic factors may additionally contribute to hypermethylation, this study was designed to analyzes, using methylation-sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the CpG island hypermethylation in RASSF1A, CDKN2A (including p16/INK4A and p14/ARF) and GSTP1 promoters in peripheral blood leukocytes of individuals exposed to ionizing radiation long time ago. One hundred and twenty-four irradiated subjects (24–77 years old at sampling: 83 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant clean-up workers, 21 nuclear workers, 20 residents of territories with radioactive contamination) and 208 unirradiated volunteers (19–77 years old at sampling) were enrolled. In addition, 74 non-exposed offspring (2–51 years old at sampling) born to irradiated parents were examined. The frequency of individuals displaying promoter methylation of at least one gene in exposed group was significantly higher as compared to the control group (OR=5.44, 95% CI=2.62–11.76, p=3.9×10 −7 ). No significant difference was found between the frequency of subjects with the revealed promoter methylation in the group of offspring born to irradiated parents and in the control group. The increase in the number of methylated loci of RASSF1A and p14/ARF was associated with age (β=0.242; p=1.7×10 −5 ). In contrast, hypermethylation of p16/INK4A and GSTP1 genes correlated with the fact of radiation exposure only (β=0.290; p=1.7×10 −7 ). The latter finding demonstrates that methylation changes in blood leukocytes of healthy subjects exposed to radiation resemble those reported in human malignancies. Additional studies are required to identify the dose-response of epigenetic markers specifically associating with radiation-induced premature aging and/or with

  17. 10-20-30 training increases performance and lowers blood pressure and VEGF in runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Hellsten, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    into either a control group (CON; n = 28), or a 10-20-30 training group (10-20-30; n = 132) replacing two of three weekly training sessions with 10-20-30 training for 8 weeks and performance of a 5-km run (5-K) and BP was measured. VO2max was measured and resting muscle biopsies were taken in a subgroup......The present study examined the effect of training by the 10-20-30 concept on performance, blood pressure (BP), and skeletal muscle angiogenesis as well as the feasibility of completing high-intensity interval training in local running communities. One hundred sixty recreational runners were divided......-20-30 increased VO2max but did not influence muscle fiber area, distribution or capillarization, whereas the expression of the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was lowered by 22%. No changes were observed in CON. These results suggest that 10-20-30 training is an effective and easily...

  18. Differential Influence of Distinct Components of Increased Blood Pressure on Cardiovascular OutcomesR3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Susan; Gupta, Deepak K.; Claggett, Brian; Sharrett, A. Richey; Shah, Amil M.; Skali, Hicham; Takeuchi, Madoka; Ni, Hanyu; Solomon, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation in blood pressure (BP) increases risk for all cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, the extent to which different indices of BP elevation may be associated to varying degrees with different cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. We studied 13,340 participants (aged 54±6 years, 56% women, 27% black) of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study who were free of baseline cardiovascular disease. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compare the relative contributions of systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) to risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure (HF), stroke, and all-cause mortality. For each multivariable-adjusted model, the largest area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) and smallest -2 log likelihood values were used to identify BP measures with the greatest contribution to risk prediction for each outcome. A total of 2095 CHD events, 1669 HF events, 771 stroke events, and 3016 deaths occurred during up to 18±5 years of follow up. In multivariable analyses adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the BP measures with the greatest risk contributions were: SBP for CHD (AUC=0.74); PP for HF (AUC=0.79), SBP for stroke (AUC=0.74), and PP for all-cause mortality (AUC=0.74). With few exceptions, results were similar in analyses stratified by age, sex, and race. Our data indicate that distinct BP components contribute variably to risk for different cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:23876475

  19. The effect of interferential therapy upon cutaneous blood flow in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, J G; Henderson, G; Cramp, A F; Walsh, D M; Lowe, A S

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the current controlled and blinded study was to investigate the effect of various interferential current frequencies upon cutaneous blood flow in humans using laser Doppler flowmetry, in an attempt to define the physiological mechanisms involved. Following approval from the university's ethical committee, 50 healthy volunteers (25 male, 25 female; age 18-34 years) were randomly allocated into one of five experimental groups: (i) control; neither suction nor interferential current was applied, (ii) placebo; suction only was applied, (iii) IFT 1; 10-100 Hz beat frequency applied, (iv) IFT 2; 80-100 Hz beat frequency applied, and (v) IFT 3; 10-20 Hz beat frequency applied. In the IFT groups, interferential currents were applied through four suction electrodes positioned to target the quadriceps femoris muscle. The following parameters were used in all IFT groups: 125 micros pulse duration, 4 kHz carrier frequency and a 6/6 sweep. In IFT groups 1 and 2 only, the rotating vector system was made active. Ambient and skin temperatures were measured concomitantly. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed a significant difference between groups (P=0.0361) and over time (P=0.0001) for blood flow data; one-factor ANOVA showed a significant increase in blood flow in the IFT 3 group (10-20 Hz) when compared to all experimental groups at 12 min (P=0.0156). In addition, at 21 min, there were significant differences between the IFT 3 group and all other groups except control (P=0.0213). Statistical analysis of skin temperature data demonstrated significant differences over time (P=0.0001) and a significant interactive effect (P=0.0022), with no significant differences observed between groups. These findings provide some evidence of a putative vasodilatory effect caused by interferential current therapy when applied through suction electrodes at a modulated frequency of 10-20 Hz.

  20. Detection of microparticles from human red blood cells by multiparametric flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisendi, Giulia; Finetti, Elena; Manganaro, Daniele; Cordova, Nicoletta; Montagnani, Giuliano; Spano, Carlotta; Prapa, Malvina; Guarneri, Valentina; Otsuru, Satoru; Horwitz, Edwin M.; Mari, Giorgio; Dominici, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background During storage, red blood cells (RBC) undergo chemical and biochemical changes referred to as “storage lesions”. These events determine the loss of RBC integrity, resulting in lysis and release of microparticles. There is growing evidence of the clinical importance of microparticles and their role in blood transfusion-related side effects and pathogen transmission. Flow cytometry is currently one of the most common techniques used to quantify and characterise microparticles. Here we propose multiparametric staining to monitor and quantify the dynamic release of microparticles by stored human RBC. Material and methods RBC units (n=10) were stored under blood bank conditions for up to 42 days. Samples were tested at different time points to detect microparticles and determine the haemolysis rate (HR%). Microparticles were identified by flow cytometry combining carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dye, annexin V and anti-glycophorin A antibody. Results We demonstrated that CFSE can be successfully used to label closed vesicles with an intact membrane. The combination of CFSE and glycophorin A antibody was effective for monitoring and quantifying the dynamic release of microparticles from RBC during storage. Double staining with CFSE/glycophorin A was a more precise approach, increasing vesicle detection up to 4.7-fold vs the use of glycophorin A/annexin V alone. Moreover, at all the time points tested, we found a robust correlation (R=0.625; p=0.0001) between HR% and number of microparticles detected. Discussion Multiparametric staining, based on a combination of CFSE, glycophorin A antibody and annexin V, was able to detect, characterise and monitor the release of microparticles from RBC units during storage, providing a sensitive approach to labelling and identifying microparticles for transfusion medicine and, more broadly, for cell-based therapies. PMID:25369588

  1. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from a Bombay individual: Moving towards 'universal-donor' red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifinejad, Ali; Taei, Adeleh; Totonchi, Mehdi; Vazirinasab, Hamed; Hassani, Seideh Nafiseh; Aghdami, Nasser; Shahbazi, Ebrahim; Yazdi, Reza Salman; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Baharvand, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Bombay phenotype is one of the rare phenotypes in the ABO blood group system that fails to express ABH antigens on red blood cells. Nonsense or missense mutations in fucosyltransfrase1 (FUT1) and fucosyltransfrase2 (FUT2) genes are known to create this phenotype. This blood group is compatible with all other blood groups as a donor, as it does not express the H antigen on the red blood cells. In this study, we describe the establishment of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from the dermal fibroblasts of a Bombay blood-type individual by the ectopic expression of established transcription factors Klf4, Oct4, Sox2, and c-Myc. Sequence analyses of fibroblasts and iPSCs revealed a nonsense mutation 826C to T (276 Gln to Ter) in the FUT1 gene and a missense mutation 739G to A (247 Gly to Ser) in the FUT2 gene in the Bombay phenotype under study. The established iPSCs resemble human embryonic stem cells in morphology, passaging, surface and pluripotency markers, normal karyotype, gene expression, DNA methylation of critical pluripotency genes, and in-vitro differentiation. The directed differentiation of the iPSCs into hematopoietic lineage cells displayed increased expression of the hematopoietic lineage markers such as CD34, CD133, RUNX1, KDR, α-globulin, and γ-globulin. Such specific stem cells provide an unprecedented opportunity to produce a universal blood group donor, in-vitro, thus enabling cellular replacement therapies, once the safety issue is resolved.

  2. Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Engineer Blood Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Xin Yi; Elliott, Morgan B; Macklin, Bria; Gerecht, Sharon

    2018-01-01

    Development of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is a remarkable scientific advancement that allows scientists to harness the power of regenerative medicine for potential treatment of disease using unaffected cells. PSCs provide a unique opportunity to study and combat cardiovascular diseases, which continue to claim the lives of thousands each day. Here, we discuss the differentiation of PSCs into vascular cells, investigation of the functional capabilities of the derived cells, and their utilization to engineer microvascular beds or vascular grafts for clinical application. Graphical Abstract Human iPSCs generated from patients are differentiated toward ECs and perivascular cells for use in disease modeling, microvascular bed development, or vascular graft fabrication.

  3. Hypergravity-induced increase in plasma catecholamine and corticosterone levels in telemetrically collected blood of rats during centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrak, Juraj; Mravec, Boris; Jurani, Marian; Baranovska, Magda; Tillinger, Andrej; Hapala, Ivan; Frollo, Ivan; Kvetnanský, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Rats subjected to various accelerations (+G) exhibited increased levels of plasma epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), and corticosterone. However, the collection of blood was performed after a centrifugation finished, and therefore the levels could be affected by the process of deceleration. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma EPI, NE, and corticosterone levels in blood collected directly during centrifugation after reaching different G (2-6), using newly developed remote-controlled equipment. Animals placed into the centrifuge cabins had inserted polyethylene tubing in the tail artery, which was connected with a preprogrammed device for blood withdrawals. Plasma EPI, NE, and corticosterone levels were measured at different time intervals of hypergravity of 2-6G. Plasma EPI levels showed a huge, hypergravity-level-dependent increase. After the last blood collection was completed during hypergravity, the centrifuge was turned off and another blood sampling was performed immediately after the centrifuge stopped (10 min). In these samples, plasma EPI showed significantly lower levels compared to centrifugation intervals. Plasma NE levels were significantly increased after 6G only. The increase in plasma corticosterone was dependent on level of G, however after the centrifuge stopped, corticosterone levels remained elevated. Thus, our data show that hypergravity highly activates the adrenomedullary and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical systems, whereas the sympathoneural system is activated only at high hypergravity. Immediately after centrifugation is over, EPI levels quickly return to control values. Our technique of blood collection during centrifugation allows assessment of the real hormonal levels at the particular hypergravity value.

  4. EURASIAN MINERAL WATER: MATHEMATICAL MODELING, CLASSIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF THEIR IMPACT ON THE BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF HUMAN BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Kornilov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the results of comparative analysis of the composition of the Eurasian hydromineral resources and the assessment of their impact on the physiological condition of a human organism according to biochemical studies of venous blood are presented. Processing of initial data on the composition and properties of mineral waters chloride-hydrocarbonate, sulphate- hydrocarbonate and chloride-sulphate types and venous blood are made using the method of mathematical modeling, developed by the authors of this article. It is shown that in the balneological impact of hydromineral resources on the body in the blood increases the hemoglobin and oxygen, decreases glucose, and acid-base pH shifted to high alkalinity.

  5. Effect of buspirone: An anxiolytic drug on blood glucose in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ojha, S. K.; Nandave, M.; Sharma, C.

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of an antianxiety drug, buspirone on blood glucose and plasma insulin level concerning the role of 5-HT1A receptors in blood glucose regulation in healthy humans. Twelve healthy male volunteers were administered single oral doses of buspirone (10 mg) or placebo, in a randomized, crossover way, followed by oral glucose load (75 gm in 200 ml) at reported Tmax i.e. the time of peak plasma concentration of the respective administered drug. The blood sampl...

  6. 1H-NMR of human blood lipids in cases of malignant and benign tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushmanov, V.E.; Kotrikadze, N.G.; Pershin, A.D.; Dzhishkariani, O.S.; Tsartsidze, M.A.; Lomsadze, B.A.; Sibel'dina, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    High resolution 1 H-NMR (360MH z ) combined with thin-layer chromatography was used to study profile and molecular structure changes of inverted micelles of human blood developing in patients with malignant and benign tumors of the breast and uterus. Alterations were demonstrated in relative intensities of some lipid NMR peaks in tumor, as compared to normal blood. Changes in blood - lipid levels, e.g. cholesterol, in tumor affect lipid structural and dynamical status thus elucidating NMR-regularities obtained

  7. Measurement of human blood brain barrier integrity using 11C-inulin and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Toshihiko; Iio, Masaaki; Tsukiyama, Takashi

    1988-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 11 C-inulin was demonstrated to be applicable to the clinical measurement of blood brain barrier permeability and cerebral interstitial fluid volume. Kinetic data were analyzed by application of a two compartment model, in which blood plasma and interstitial fluid spaces constitute the compartments. The blood activity contribution was subtracted from the PET count with the aid of the 11 CO inhalation technique. The values we estimated in a human brain were in agreement with the reported values obtained for animal brains by the use of 14 C-inulin. (orig.)

  8. Increasing transmission of antibiotic resistance from animals to humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2011-01-01

    The importance of the animal reservoir for emergence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria in humans is difficult to estimate. In this article we give our estimate of the importance and also highlight on which points we have become wiser during recent years. We conclude that it still is the human...... usage of antibiotics which contributes most to resistance observed in humans, but also that the contribution from animals is large and larger than estimated just a few years ago. This indicates the need to implement restriction on antimicrobial usage for both humans and animals....

  9. Increasing transmission of antibiotic resistance from animals to humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2011-01-01

    usage of antibiotics which contributes most to resistance observed in humans, but also that the contribution from animals is large and larger than estimated just a few years ago. This indicates the need to implement restriction on antimicrobial usage for both humans and animals.......The importance of the animal reservoir for emergence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria in humans is difficult to estimate. In this article we give our estimate of the importance and also highlight on which points we have become wiser during recent years. We conclude that it still is the human...

  10. Blood groups and human groups: collecting and calibrating genetic data after World War Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangham, Jenny

    2014-09-01

    Arthur Mourant's The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups (1954) was an "indispensable" reference book on the "anthropology of blood groups" containing a vast collection of human genetic data. It was based on the results of blood-grouping tests carried out on half-a-million people and drew together studies on diverse populations around the world: from rural communities, to religious exiles, to volunteer transfusion donors. This paper pieces together sequential stages in the production of a small fraction of the blood-group data in Mourant's book, to examine how he and his colleagues made genetic data from people. Using sources from several collecting projects, I follow how blood was encountered, how it was inscribed, and how it was turned into a laboratory resource. I trace Mourant's analytical and representational strategies to make blood groups both credibly 'genetic' and understood as relevant to human ancestry, race and history. In this story, 'populations' were not simply given, but were produced through public health, colonial and post-colonial institutions, and by the labour and expertise of subjects, assistants and mediators. Genetic data were not self-evidently 'biological', but were shaped by existing historical and geographical identities, by political relationships, and by notions of kinship and belonging. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of spinal sympathetic blockade upon postural changes of blood flow in human peripheral tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skagen, K; Haxholdt, O; Henriksen, O

    1982-01-01

    local nervous blockade was induced by Lidocaine in 133Xe labelled subcutaneous tissue on one side. During epidural blockade and tilt blood flow increased by 12% whereas blood flow decreased by 30% on the control side. Thus epidural blockade had no influence on the vasoconstrictor response...

  12. Lead shot from hunting as a source of lead in human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Poul; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Asmund, Gert; Riget, Frank

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the intake of birds hunted with lead shot and the lead concentration in human blood. Fifty adult men from Nuuk, Greenland took part in the study. From September 2003 to June 2004 they regularly gave blood samples and recorded how many birds they ate. We found a clear relationship between the number of bird meals and blood lead and also a clear seasonal variation. The concentration was highest in mid-winter when bird consumption is at its highest. Blood lead was low (15 μg/L, mean concentration) among the participants reporting not eating birds. Among those reporting to eat birds regularly, blood lead was significantly higher, up to 128 μg/L (mean concentration). Concentrations depended on the frequency of bird meals: the more the bird meals, the higher the resulting blood lead. This clear relationship points to lead shot as the dominating lead source to people in Greenland. - Birds hunted with lead shot and consumed are a source of lead in human blood

  13. Lead shot from hunting as a source of lead in human blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Poul [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)]. E-mail: poj@dmu.dk; Pedersen, Henning Sloth [Primary Health Care Center, DK-3900 Nuuk (Greenland); Asmund, Gert [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Riget, Frank [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-07-15

    This study investigates the relationship between the intake of birds hunted with lead shot and the lead concentration in human blood. Fifty adult men from Nuuk, Greenland took part in the study. From September 2003 to June 2004 they regularly gave blood samples and recorded how many birds they ate. We found a clear relationship between the number of bird meals and blood lead and also a clear seasonal variation. The concentration was highest in mid-winter when bird consumption is at its highest. Blood lead was low (15 {mu}g/L, mean concentration) among the participants reporting not eating birds. Among those reporting to eat birds regularly, blood lead was significantly higher, up to 128 {mu}g/L (mean concentration). Concentrations depended on the frequency of bird meals: the more the bird meals, the higher the resulting blood lead. This clear relationship points to lead shot as the dominating lead source to people in Greenland. - Birds hunted with lead shot and consumed are a source of lead in human blood.

  14. New polymorphic variants of human blood clotting factor IX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surin, V.L.; Luk`yanenko, A.V.; Tagiev, A.F.; Smirnova, O.V. [Hematological Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Plutalov, O.V.; Berlin, Yu.A. [Shemyakin Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-04-01

    The polymorphism of Alu-repeats, which are located in the introns of the human factor IX gene (copies 1-3), was studied. To identify polymorphic variants, direct sequencing of PCR products that contained appropriate repeats was used. In each case, 20 unrelated X chromosomes were studied. A polymorphic Dra I site was found near the 3{prime}-end of Alu copy 3 within the region of the polyA tract. A PCR-based testing system with internal control of restriction hydrolysis was suggested. Testing 81 unrelated X chromosomes revealed that the frequency of the polymorphic Dra I site is 0.23. Taq I polymorphism, which was revealed in Alu copy 4 of factor IX gene in our previous work, was found to be closely linked to Dra I polymorphism. Studies in linkage between different types of polymorphisms of the factor IX gene revealed the presence of a rare polymorphism in intron a that was located within the same minisatellite region as the known polymorphic insertion 50 bp/Dde I. However, the size of the insertion in our case was 26 bp. Only one polymorphic variant was found among over 150 unrelated X chromosomes derived from humans from Moscow and its vicinity. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Exercise Training Increases Parietal Lobe Cerebral Blood Flow in Chronic Stroke: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Robertson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is increasingly recommended as an essential component of stroke rehabilitation, yet uncertainty remains with respect to its direct effect on the cerebral vasculature. The current study first demonstrated the repeatability of pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in older adults with stroke, and then investigated the change in cerebrovascular function following a 6-month cardiovascular rehabilitation program. In the repeatability study, 12 participants at least 3 months post-stroke underwent two ASL imaging scans 1 month apart. In the prospective observational study, eight individuals underwent ASL imaging and aerobic fitness testing before and after a 6-month cardiovascular rehabilitation program. Cerebral blood flow (CBF and the spatial coefficient of variation of CBF (sCoV were quantified to characterize tissue-level perfusion and large cerebral artery transit time properties, respectively. In repeat scanning, intraclass correlation (ICC indicated moderate test-retest reliability for global gray matter CBF (ICC = 0.73 and excellent reliability for sCoV (ICC = 0.94. In the observational study, gray matter CBF increased after training (baseline: 40 ± 13 vs. 6-month: 46 ± 12 ml·100 g−1·min−1, P = 0.036. The greatest change occurred in the parietal lobe (+18 ± 12%. Gray matter sCoV, however, did not change following training (P = 0.31. This study provides preliminary evidence that exercise-based rehabilitation in chronic stroke enhances tissue-level perfusion, without changing the relative hemodynamic properties of the large cerebral arteries.

  16. Exercise Training Increases Parietal Lobe Cerebral Blood Flow in Chronic Stroke: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew D.; Marzolini, Susan; Middleton, Laura E.; Basile, Vincenzo S.; Oh, Paul I.; MacIntosh, Bradley J.

    2017-01-01

    Exercise is increasingly recommended as an essential component of stroke rehabilitation, yet uncertainty remains with respect to its direct effect on the cerebral vasculature. The current study first demonstrated the repeatability of pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in older adults with stroke, and then investigated the change in cerebrovascular function following a 6-month cardiovascular rehabilitation program. In the repeatability study, 12 participants at least 3 months post-stroke underwent two ASL imaging scans 1 month apart. In the prospective observational study, eight individuals underwent ASL imaging and aerobic fitness testing before and after a 6-month cardiovascular rehabilitation program. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the spatial coefficient of variation of CBF (sCoV) were quantified to characterize tissue-level perfusion and large cerebral artery transit time properties, respectively. In repeat scanning, intraclass correlation (ICC) indicated moderate test-retest reliability for global gray matter CBF (ICC = 0.73) and excellent reliability for sCoV (ICC = 0.94). In the observational study, gray matter CBF increased after training (baseline: 40 ± 13 vs. 6-month: 46 ± 12 ml·100 g−1·min−1, P = 0.036). The greatest change occurred in the parietal lobe (+18 ± 12%). Gray matter sCoV, however, did not change following training (P = 0.31). This study provides preliminary evidence that exercise-based rehabilitation in chronic stroke enhances tissue-level perfusion, without changing the relative hemodynamic properties of the large cerebral arteries. PMID:29033829

  17. Inhibitors of serotonin reuptake and specific imipramine binding in human blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusov, O.S.; Fomenko, A.M.; Katasonov, A.B.; Lidemann, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a method of extraction of endogenous inhibitors of specific IMI binding and of 5-HT reuptake, from human blood plasma and the heterogeneity of these compounds is demonstrated. Specific binding was determined as the difference between binding of 3 H-IMI in the absence and in the presence of 50 microM IMI. Under these conditions, specific binding amounted to 70-80% of total binding of 3 H-IMI. It is shown that extract obtained from human blood contains a material which inhibits dose-dependently both 5-HT reuptake and specific binding of 3 H-IMI. Gel-chromatography of extracts of human blood plasma on Biogel P-2 is also shown

  18. Cytokine release from human peripheral blood leucocytes incubated with endotoxin with and without prior infection with influenza virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Smith, H; Sweet, C

    1993-01-01

    Previous work with a neonatal ferret model for human SIDS had indicated that inflammation caused by a combination of influenza virus and bacterial endotoxin may be a cause of human SIDS. To determine whether cytokines may be involved in this inflammatory response, levels of interleukin (IL)-1 beta......, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were examined, using ELISA assays, in culture supernatants of human peripheral blood leucocytes infected with influenza virus and subsequently incubated with endotoxin. Levels of TNF-alpha were increased compared to cells incubated with virus or endotoxin...... alone. Levels of IL-1 beta were also increased whereas levels of IL-6 were generally not enhanced. Cytokines appeared within 1-2 h of stimulation with virus or endotoxin and increased subsequently to reach maximum titres between 16 and 20 h post treatment. While levels of cytokine were much lower when...

  19. Dynamic glucose enhanced (DGE) MRI for combined imaging of blood-brain barrier break down and increased blood volume in brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Chan, Kannie W Y; Knutsson, Linda; Artemov, Dmitri; Xu, Jiadi; Liu, Guanshu; Kato, Yoshinori; Lal, Bachchu; Laterra, John; McMahon, Michael T; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2015-12-01

    Recently, natural d-glucose was suggested as a potential biodegradable contrast agent. The feasibility of using d-glucose for dynamic perfusion imaging was explored to detect malignant brain tumors based on blood brain barrier breakdown. Mice were inoculated orthotopically with human U87-EGFRvIII glioma cells. Time-resolved glucose signal changes were detected using chemical exchange saturation transfer (glucoCEST) MRI. Dynamic glucose enhanced (DGE) MRI was used to measure tissue response to an intravenous bolus of d-glucose. DGE images of mouse brains bearing human glioma showed two times higher and persistent changes in tumor compared with contralateral brain. Area-under-curve (AUC) analysis of DGE delineated blood vessels and tumor and had contrast comparable to the AUC determined using dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI with GdDTPA, both showing a significantly higher AUC in tumor than in brain (P blood volume and permeability with respect to normal brain. We expect DGE will provide a low-risk and less expensive alternative to DCE MRI for imaging cancer in vulnerable populations, such as children and patients with renal impairment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A Meta-Analysis of Blood Glucose Effects on Human Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob L.; Kurzban, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The academic and public interest in blood glucose and its relationship to decision making has been increasing over the last decade. To investigate and evaluate competing theories about this relationship, we conducted a psychometric meta-analysis on the effect of blood glucose on decision making. We...... and willingness to work when a situation is food related, but decrease willingness to pay and work in all other situations. Low levels of blood glucose increase the future discount rate for food; that is, decision makers become more impatient, and to a lesser extent increase the future discount rate for money...

  1. Effects of passive heating on central blood volume and ventricular dimensions in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crandall, C.G.; Wilson, T.E.; Marving, J.

    2008-01-01

    Mixed findings regarding the effects of whole-body heat stress on central blood volume have been reported. This study evaluated the hypothesis that heat stress reduces central blood volume and alters blood volume distribution. Ten healthy experimental and seven healthy time control (i.e. non-heat...... stressed) subjects participated in this protocol. Changes in regional blood volume during heat stress and time control were estimated using technetium-99m labelled autologous red blood cells and gamma camera imaging. Whole-body heating increased internal temperature (> 1.0 degrees C), cutaneous vascular...... conductance (approximately fivefold), and heart rate (52 +/- 2 to 93 +/- 4 beats min(-1)), while reducing central venous pressure (5.5 +/- 07 to 0.2 +/- 0.6 mmHg) accompanied by minor decreases in mean arterial pressure (all P heat stress reduced the blood volume of the heart (18 +/- 2%), heart...

  2. Effect of ArtinM on Human Blood Cells During Infection With Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana P. Ruas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by fungi are prominent in our environment and can be potentially fatal. paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, caused by fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus, is the most frequent systemic mycosis in Brazil and the main cause of death among immunocompetent individuals. The antifungal therapy for PCM is usually effective but side effects and relapses are often reported. The latter could be avoided with alternative or complementary therapies aimed at boosting the immune response to combat this pathogen. Recent reports have pointed at the importance of an effective cellular immune response, with the participation of Th1 cells, in the resistance to and control of Paracoccidioides infection. The ArtinM lectin, extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds, exhibits immunomodulatory activity against several intracellular pathogens, including Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, by promoting the development of a Th1 immune response. The aim of this work was to characterize the effect of ArtinM on peripheral blood cells of patients with PCM and on those of control individuals infected with fungal yeasts cells in vitro. Our results demonstrate that ArtinM activates human neutrophils in vitro, leading to an increase in cytokine production and CD54 expression. ArtinM activated P. brasiliensis-infected neutrophils from both healthy individuals and patients with PCM. This activation was not dependent on the dectin-1 receptor, because pre-incubation with laminarin, a dectin-1 receptor blocker, did not reverse the activated state of the cells. ArtinM also stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to secrete pro-inflammatory Th1-related cytokines, which are protective against Paracoccidioides infection. These data support the immunostimulatory action of ArtinM and encourage new studies using the lectin for the immunotherapy of PCM.

  3. Effect of ArtinM on Human Blood Cells During Infection With Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruas, Luciana P; Genaro, Livia M; Justo-Junior, Amauri S; Coser, Lilian O; de Castro, Lívia F; Trabasso, Plinio; Mamoni, Ronei L; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina; Blotta, Maria-Heloisa S L

    2018-01-01

    Infections caused by fungi are prominent in our environment and can be potentially fatal. paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus, is the most frequent systemic mycosis in Brazil and the main cause of death among immunocompetent individuals. The antifungal therapy for PCM is usually effective but side effects and relapses are often reported. The latter could be avoided with alternative or complementary therapies aimed at boosting the immune response to combat this pathogen. Recent reports have pointed at the importance of an effective cellular immune response, with the participation of Th1 cells, in the resistance to and control of Paracoccidioides infection. The ArtinM lectin, extracted from jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus ) seeds, exhibits immunomodulatory activity against several intracellular pathogens, including Paracoccidioides brasiliensis , by promoting the development of a Th1 immune response. The aim of this work was to characterize the effect of ArtinM on peripheral blood cells of patients with PCM and on those of control individuals infected with fungal yeasts cells in vitro . Our results demonstrate that ArtinM activates human neutrophils in vitro , leading to an increase in cytokine production and CD54 expression. ArtinM activated P. brasiliensis -infected neutrophils from both healthy individuals and patients with PCM. This activation was not dependent on the dectin-1 receptor, because pre-incubation with laminarin, a dectin-1 receptor blocker, did not reverse the activated state of the cells. ArtinM also stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to secrete pro-inflammatory Th1-related cytokines, which are protective against Paracoccidioides infection. These data support the immunostimulatory action of ArtinM and encourage new studies using the lectin for the immunotherapy of PCM.

  4. Altered distribution of peripheral blood memory B cells in humans chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Esteban R; Olivera, Gabriela C; Quebrada Palacio, Luz P; González, Mariela N; Hernandez-Vasquez, Yolanda; Sirena, Natalia María; Morán, María L; Ledesma Patiño, Oscar S; Postan, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Numerous abnormalities of the peripheral blood T cell compartment have been reported in human chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection and related to prolonged antigenic stimulation by persisting parasites. Herein, we measured circulating lymphocytes of various phenotypes based on the differential expression of CD19, CD4, CD27, CD10, IgD, IgM, IgG and CD138 in a total of 48 T. cruzi-infected individuals and 24 healthy controls. Infected individuals had decreased frequencies of CD19+CD27+ cells, which positively correlated with the frequencies of CD4+CD27+ cells. The contraction of CD19+CD27+ cells was comprised of IgG+IgD-, IgM+IgD- and isotype switched IgM-IgD- memory B cells, CD19+CD10+CD27+ B cell precursors and terminally differentiated CD19+CD27+CD138+ plasma cells. Conversely, infected individuals had increased proportions of CD19+IgG+CD27-IgD- memory and CD19+IgM+CD27-IgD+ transitional/naïve B cells. These observations prompted us to assess soluble CD27, a molecule generated by the cleavage of membrane-bound CD27 and used to monitor systemic immune activation. Elevated levels of serum soluble CD27 were observed in infected individuals with Chagas cardiomyopathy, indicating its potentiality as an immunological marker for disease progression in endemic areas. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that chronic T. cruzi infection alters the distribution of various peripheral blood B cell subsets, probably related to the CD4+ T cell deregulation process provoked by the parasite in humans.

  5. Altered distribution of peripheral blood memory B cells in humans chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban R Fernández

    Full Text Available Numerous abnormalities of the peripheral blood T cell compartment have been reported in human chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection and related to prolonged antigenic stimulation by persisting parasites. Herein, we measured circulating lymphocytes of various phenotypes based on the differential expression of CD19, CD4, CD27, CD10, IgD, IgM, IgG and CD138 in a total of 48 T. cruzi-infected individuals and 24 healthy controls. Infected individuals had decreased frequencies of CD19+CD27+ cells, which positively correlated with the frequencies of CD4+CD27+ cells. The contraction of CD19+CD27+ cells was comprised of IgG+IgD-, IgM+IgD- and isotype switched IgM-IgD- memory B cells, CD19+CD10+CD27+ B cell precursors and terminally differentiated CD19+CD27+CD138+ plasma cells. Conversely, infected individuals had increased proportions of CD19+IgG+CD27-IgD- memory and CD19+IgM+CD27-IgD+ transitional/naïve B cells. These observations prompted us to assess soluble CD27, a molecule generated by the cleavage of membrane-bound CD27 and used to monitor systemic immune activation. Elevated levels of serum soluble CD27 were observed in infected individuals with Chagas cardiomyopathy, indicating its potentiality as an immunological marker for disease progression in endemic areas. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that chronic T. cruzi infection alters the distribution of various peripheral blood B cell subsets, probably related to the CD4+ T cell deregulation process provoked by the parasite in humans.

  6. Histones induce phosphatidylserine exposure and a procoagulant phenotype in human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeraro, F; Ammollo, C T; Esmon, N L; Esmon, C T

    2014-10-01

    Extracellular histones exert part of their prothrombotic activity through the stimulation of blood cells. Besides platelets, histones can bind to red blood cells (RBCs), which are important contributors to thrombogenesis, but little is known about the functional consequences of this interaction. To evaluate the effect of histones on the procoagulant potential of human RBCs with particular regard to the expression of surface phosphatidylserine (PS). PS exposure on human RBCs treated with a natural mixture of histones or recombinant individual histones was evaluated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-annexin-V binding and measured with flow cytometry. Calcium influx in RBCs loaded with the calcium-sensitive fluorophore Fluo-4 AM was assessed with flow cytometry. The procoagulant potential of histone-treated RBCs was evaluated with a purified prothrombinase assay and a one-stage plasma recalcification clotting test. Natural histones induced PS exposure on RBCs in a dose-dependent manner, and neutralization or cleavage of histones by heparin or activated protein C, respectively, abolished PS externalization. H4 was mainly responsible for the stimulating activity of histones, whereas the other subtypes were almost ineffective. Similarly, natural histones and H4 induced influx of calcium into RBCs, whereas the other individual histones did not. Histone-induced exposure of PS on RBCs translated into increased prothrombinase complex-mediated prothrombin activation and accelerated fibrin formation in plasma. Histones induce RBCs to express a procoagulant phenotype through the externalization of PS. This finding provides new insights into the prothrombotic activity of extracellular histones. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  7. Healing human myocardial infarction associated with increased chymase immunoreactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daemen, M. J.; Urata, H.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the immunoreactivity of the chymase protein in normal human myocardium and in human myocardial infarctions at various postinfarction times using immuno-histochemistry. In noninfarcted hearts chymase was mainly present in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. At 6 h after infarction the

  8. Flow cytofluorometric assay of human whole blood leukocyte DNA degradation in response to Yersinia pestis and Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Alexander L.; Grebenyukova, Tatyana P.; Bobyleva, Elena V.; Golovko, Elena M.; Malyukova, Tatyana A.; Lyapin, Mikhail N.; Kostyukova, Tatyana A.; Yezhov, Igor N.; Kuznetsov, Oleg S.

    2001-05-01

    Human leukocytes containing less than 2C DNA per cell (damaged or dead cells) were detected and quantified by flow cytometry and DNA-specific staining with ethidium bromide and mithramycin in whole blood infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Yersinia pestis. Addition of live S. aureus to the blood (100 microbe cells per one leukocyte) resulted in rapid degradation of leukocyte DNA within 3 to 6 hours of incubation at 37 degree(s)C. However, only about 50 percent cells were damaged and the leukocytes with the intact genetic apparatus could be found in the blood for a period up to 24 hours. The leukocyte injury was preceded by an increase of DNA per cell content (as compared to the normal one) that was likely to be connected with the active phagocytosis of S. aureus by granulocytes (2C DNA of diploid phagocytes plus the all bacterial DNA absorbed). In response to the same dose of actively growing (at 37 degree(s)C) virulent Y. pestis cells, no increase in DNA content per cell could be observed in the human blood leukocytes. The process of the leukocyte DNA degradation started after a 6-hour incubation, and between 18 to 24 hours of incubation about 90 percent leukocytes (phagocytes and lymphocytes) lost their specific DNA fluorescence. These results demonstrated a high potential of flow cytometry in comparative analysis in vitro of the leukocyte DNA degradation process in human blood in response to bacteria with various pathogenic properties. They agree with the modern idea of an apoptotic mechanism of immunosuppression in plague.

  9. Age of transfused blood is not associated with increased postoperative adverse outcome after cardiac surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenny, M

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that storage age of transfused red blood cells (RBCs) is associated with adverse outcome after cardiac surgery, and examined association between volume of RBC transfusions and outcome after cardiac surgery.

  10. [Detection of human parvovirus B19, human bocavirus and human parvovirus 4 infections in blood samples among 95 patients with liver disease in Nanjing by nested PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Rui; Zhou, Wei-Min; Liu, Xi-Jun; Wang, Yue; Lou, Yong-Liang; Tan, Wen-Jie

    2013-04-01

    To analyze the infection of human parvovirus B19, human bocavirus (HBoV) and human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) in blood samples among patients with liver disease in Nanjing by molecular detection. Nested PCR assays were designed and validated to detect B19, HBoV and PARV4, respectively. The assays were used to screen three parvoviruses in blood samples from 95 patients with different liver disease in Nanjing. The parvovirus infection was analyzed statistically. The detection limits were 10 copies of genomic DNA equivalents per reaction for each assays and the good specificity were observed. The frequency of B19 and HBoV were 2/95 (2.1%) and 9/95 (9.5%) in blood samples respectively. No PARV4 was detected. HBoV was detected in 3/5 patients with drug-induced hepatitis. Both B19 and HBoV infection were detected in blood from patients with liver disease.

  11. Human Adenovirus 36 Infection Increased the Risk of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei-Yan; Cao, Bing; Wang, Dong-Fang; Guo, Jing-Hui; Chen, Kai-Li; Shi, Mai; Yin, Jian; Lu, Qing-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Human adenovirus 36 (HAdV-36), as the key pathogen, was supposed and discussed to be associated with obesity. We searched the references on the association between HAdV-36 infection and obesity with the different epidemiological methods, to explore the relationship with a larger sample size by meta-analysis and compare the differences of epidemiological methods and population subsets by the subgroup analyses. We conducted literature search on the association between HAdV-36 infections and obesity in English or Chinese published up to July 1, 2015. The primary outcome was the HAdV-36 infection rate in the obese and lean groups; the secondary outcomes were the BMI level and BMI z-score in the HAdV-36 positive and negative groups. The pooled odds ratio (OR) was calculated for the primary outcome; the standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated for the secondary and third outcomes. Prediction interval (PI) was graphically presented in the forest plot of the random effect meta-analyses. Metaregression analysis and subgroup analysis were performed. Finally 24 references with 10,191 study subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The obesity subjects were more likely to be infected with HAdV-36 compared to the lean controls (OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.46, 2.74; PI: 0.59, 6.76; P infection for obesity were 1.77 (95%CI: 1.19, 2.63; PI: 0.44, 7.03; P = 0.005) and 2.26 (95%CI: 1.67, 3.07; PI: 1.45, 3.54; P SMD of BMI was 0.28 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.47; PI: −0.53, 1.08; P = 0.006) in the HAdV-36 positive subjects with a high heterogeneity (I2 = 86.5%; P infection was higher than those without HAdV-36 infection (SMD = 0.19; 95%CI: −0.31, 0.70; PI: −2.10, 2.49), which had no significantly statistical difference (P = 0.453). HAdV-36 infection increased the risk of obesity. HAdV-36 also increased the risk of weight gain in adults, which was not observed in children. PMID:26705235

  12. Mutagenic potentials of crataegus and laxaricin in human blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or comet assay was introduced as a microelectrophoretic method for direct visualization of DNA damage in individual cells. Green plants in general contain mutagenic and carcinogenic substances, but there is little information. Due to the increased use and availability of herbal ...

  13. Blood cholinesterases as human biomarkers of organophosphorus pesticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, H N; Knaak, J B

    2000-01-01

    The organophosphorus pesticides of this review were discovered in 1936 during the search for a replacement for nicotine for cockroach control. The basic biochemical characteristics of RBC AChE and BChE were determined in the 1940s. The mechanism of inhibition of both enzymes and other serine esterases was known in the 1940s and, in general, defined in the 1950s. In 1949, the death of a parathion mixer-loader dictated blood enzyme monitoring to prevent acute illness from organophosphorus pesticide intoxication. However, many of the chemical and biochemical steps for serine enzyme inhibition by OP compounds remain unknown today. The possible mechanisms of this inhibition are presented kinetically beginning with simple (by comparison) Michaelis-Menten substrate enzyme interaction kinetics. As complicated as the inhibition kinetics appear here, PBPK model kinetics will be more complex. The determination of inter- and intraindividual variation in RBC ChE and BChE was recognized early as critical knowledge for a blood esterase monitoring program. Because of the relatively constant production of RBCs, variation in RBC AChE was determined by about 1970. The source of plasma (or serum) BChE was shown to be the liver in the 1960s with the change in BChE phenotype to the donor in liver transplant patients. BChE activity was more variable than RBC AChE, and only in the 1990s have BChE individual variation questions been answered. We have reviewed the chemistry, metabolism, and toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides along with their inhibitory action toward tissue acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterases. On the basis of the review, a monitoring program for individuals mixing-loading and applying OP pesticides for commercial applicators was recommended. Approximately 41 OPs are currently registered for use by USEPA in the United States. Under agricultural working conditions, OPs primarily are absorbed through the skin. Liver P-450 isozymes catalyze the desulfurization of

  14. Influence of Dai-kenchu-to (DKT) on human portal blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Takashi; Morine, Yuji; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Imura, Satoru; Fujii, Masahiko; Soejima, Yuji; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    Dai-kenchu-to (DKT) is known as an herbal medicine used for postoperative ileus. However, no report exists about the effect of DKT on portal blood flow. The aim of this study is to clarify the influence of DKT on portal blood flow. To healthy volunteers (Healthy; n = 6), cirrhotic patients (Cirrhosis; n = 7) and liver-transplant patients (LTx; n = 3), DKT (2.5g) with 100mL of warm water was orally administrated in the DKT group, and only warm water was administrated in the control group. The portal blood flow rate (M-VEL: cm/sec.) and portal blood flow (Flow volume: mL/min.) was measured each time after administration using an ultrasonic Doppler method. Furthermore, the arterial blood pressure and heart rate was measured at the same time points. In the DKT group, a significant increase of M-VEL (120%) and flow volume (150%) 30 minutes after administration was observed in both Healthy and Cirrhosis in comparison with the control group. In LTx, there was also a significant increase of flow volume (128%) 30 minutes after administration. However, there was no change in average blood pressure and heart rate in all groups. DKT increases portal blood flow in early phase after oral administration without any significant changes in the blood pressure and heart rate.

  15. Using Hematology Data from Malaria Vaccine Research Trials in Humans and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) To Guide Volume Limits for Blood Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Sara R; Hickey, Bradley W; Mcgrath, Shannon M; Stewart, V Ann

    2016-12-01

    Guidelines on safe volume limits for blood collection from research participants in both humans and laboratory animals vary widely between institutions. The main adverse event that may be encountered in large blood volume withdrawal is iron-deficiency anemia. Monitoring various parameters in a standard blood panel may help to prevent this outcome. To this end, we analyzed the Hgb and MCV values from 43 humans and 46 macaques in malaria vaccine research trials. Although the percentage of blood volume removed was greater for macaques than humans, macaques demonstrated an overall increase of MCV over time, indicating the ability to respond appropriately to frequent volume withdrawals. In contrast, humans showed a consistent declining trend in MCV. These declines in human MCV and Hgb were significant from the beginning to end of the study despite withdrawals that were smaller than recommended volume limits. Limiting the volume withdrawn to no more than 12.5% seemed to be sufficient for macaques, and at 14% or more individual animals tended to fail to respond appropriately to large-volume blood loss, as demonstrated by a decrease in MCV. The overall positive erythropoietic response seen in macaques was likely due to the controlled, iron-fortified diet they received. The lack of erythropoietic response in the human subjects may warrant iron supplementation or reconsideration of current blood volume withdrawal guidelines.

  16. Is human blood a good surrogate for brain tissue in transcriptional studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berg Leonard H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since human brain tissue is often unavailable for transcriptional profiling studies, blood expression data is frequently used as a substitute. The underlying hypothesis in such studies is that genes expressed in brain tissue leave a transcriptional footprint in blood. We tested this hypothesis by relating three human brain expression data sets (from cortex, cerebellum and caudate nucleus to two large human blood expression data sets (comprised of 1463 individuals. Results We found mean expression levels were weakly correlated between the brain and blood data (r range: [0.24,0.32]. Further, we tested whether co-expression relationships were preserved between the three brain regions and blood. Only a handful of brain co-expression modules showed strong evidence of preservation and these modules could be combined into a single large blood module. We also identified highly connected intramodular "hub" genes inside preserved modules. These preserved intramodular hub genes had the following properties: first, their expression levels tended to be significantly more heritable than those from non-preserved intramodular hub genes (p -90; second, they had highly significant positive correlations with the following cluster of differentiation genes: CD58, CD47, CD48, CD53 and CD164; third, a significant number of them were known to be involved in infection mechanisms, post-transcriptional and post-translational modification and other basic processes. Conclusions Overall, we find transcriptome organization is poorly preserved between brain and blood. However, the subset of preserved co-expression relationships characterized here may aid future efforts to identify blood biomarkers for neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases when brain tissue samples are unavailable.

  17. Blood lead concentration and related factors in Korea from the 2008 National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seong Wook; Lee, Chae Kwan; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Soo Woong; Park, Yeong Beom; Lee, Jong Wha; Yu, Seung-Do; Moon, Chan Seok; Kim, Dae Hwan; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluated blood lead concentrations in the Korean general population and the correlation between various exposure sources using data from the 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body (National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea). The general and occupational characteristics were gathered from 5136 participants who were 20 years of age and older using a structured questionnaire. Blood lead concentrations were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple linear regressions of the log lead concentrations to the independent variables such as age, gender, smoke, herbal medication and drug consumption, drinking water, and living area. Geometric mean (GM) blood lead concentrations in Korean adults were 19.7 μg/l. The blood lead concentrations increased with age; the highest concentrations were found in the 50-69-year age group (pdrug consumption were higher than those who did not (plead concentration (plead concentration (plead concentration, but not significantly. For drinking water, the underground water (spring or well water) drinking group had higher concentrations than other types of water drinking groups, but not significantly (p=0.063). The blood lead concentrations by occupation were significant (plead concentrations tended to decrease with increasing delivery times, but not significantly. The blood lead concentration (GM) of the general adult population in Korea has decreased over time from 45.8 μg/l (1999) to 19.7 μg/l (2008). Although it is still higher than in other countries such as the United States and Canada, it is rapidly decreasing. Gender, age, smoking and alcohol drinking status, herbal medication and drug consumption, education level, living area and occupation were significantly related to the blood lead concentrations in Korea. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Modification method to reduce the impact of blood vessel on noncontact discrimination of human blood based on ;M+N; theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linna; Ding, Hongyan; Lin, Ling; Wang, Yimin; Guo, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Noncontact discriminating human blood is significantly crucial for import-export ports and inspection and quarantine departments. We had already demonstrated that visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy combining PLS-DA method can successfully realize noncontact human blood discrimination. However, the circulated blood vessels may be produced with different materials. The use of various kinds of blood tubes may have a negative effect on the discrimination, based on ;M+N; theory (Li et al., 2016). In this research, we explored the impact of different material of blood vessels, such as glass tube and plastic tube, on the prediction ability of the discrimination model. Furthermore, we searched for the modification method to reduce the influence from the blood tubes. Our work indicated that generalized diffuse reflectance method can greatly improve the discrimination accuracy. This research can greatly facilitate the application of noncontact discrimination method based on visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

  19. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) increases pain behavior and the blood glucose level: possible involvement of sympathetic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Suh, Hong-Won

    2012-07-01

    The relationship between interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced nociception and the blood glucose level was studied in ICR mice. We found in the present study that intrathecal (i.t.) injection of IL-1β increased pain behavior. In addition, i.t. IL-1β injection caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. The time-course study showed that maximal blood glucose level was observed 30 and 60 min after i.t. IL-1β administration. Furthermore, i.t. injection of IL-1β enhanced the blood glucose level when mice were orally fed with d-glucose. The i.t. administration of IL-1β antagonist (AF12198) inhibited the hyperglycemia and pain behaviors induced by IL-1β. We found in the present study that adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA level was also increased by i.t. IL-1β injection. Furthermore, intraperitoneal (i.p.) pretreatment with phentolamine (an α(1)-adrenergic blocker) or yohimbine (an α(2)-adrenergic blocker) significantly attenuated the blood glucose level and pain behavior induced by IL-1β administered i.t. However, the blood glucose level and pain behavior were not affected by butoxamine (a β(2)-adrenergic blocker), whereas metoprolol (a β(2)-adrenergic blocker) enhanced IL-1β-induced blood glucose level and pain behavior in mice fed with d-glucose. However, its effect was not statistically significant. Our results suggest that IL-1β administered i.t. increases the blood glucose level via an activation of α adrenergic nervous system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An integrative 'omics' solution to the detection of recombinant human erythropoietin and blood doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Durussel, Jérôme; Rabin, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHumanEPO) improves sporting performance and hence is frequently subject to abuse by athletes, although rHumanEPO is prohibited by the WADA. Approaches to detect rHumanEPO doping have improved significantly in recent years but remain imperfect. A new transcriptomic-based longitudinal screening approach is being developed that has the potential to improve the analytical performance of current detection methods. In particular, studies are being funded by WADA to identify a 'molecular signature' of rHumanEPO doping and preliminary results are promising. In the first systematic study to be conducted, the expression of hundreds of genes were found to be altered by rHumanEPO with numerous gene transcripts being differentially expressed after the first injection and further transcripts profoundly upregulated during and subsequently downregulated up to 4 weeks postadministration of the drug; with the same transcriptomic pattern observed in all participants. The identification of a blood 'molecular signature' of rHumanEPO administration is the strongest evidence to date that gene biomarkers have the potential to substantially improve the analytical performance of current antidoping methods such as the Athlete Biological Passport for rHumanEPO detection. Given the early promise of transcriptomics, research using an 'omics'-based approach involving genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics should be intensified in order to achieve improved detection of rHumanEPO and other doping substances and methods difficult to detect such a recombinant human growth hormone and blood transfusions.

  1. Occurrence and determinants of increases in blood lead levels in children shortly after lead hazard control activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Scott; Grote, JoAnn; Wilson, Jonathan; Succop, Paul; Chen Mei; Galke, Warren; McLaine, Pat

    2004-01-01

    This study is an examination of the effect of lead hazard control strategies on children's blood lead levels immediately after an intervention was conducted as part of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development's Lead-Based Paint Hazard Control Grant Program. Fourteen state and local government grantees participated in the evaluation. The findings indicated an overall average reduction in the blood lead levels of 869 children soon after the implementation of lead hazard controls. However, 9.3% of these children (n=81) had blood lead increases of 5 μg/dL or more. Data routinely collected as part of the evaluation, as well as additional information supplied by the individual programs, were used to determine potential reasons for these observed increases in blood lead. A logistic regression analysis indicated that three principal factors were associated with the blood lead increases: the number of exterior deteriorations present in the child's home (prior to intervention), the educational level of the female parent or guardian of the child, and the child's age. The statistical analysis did not find evidence that children living in households that either did not relocate or relocated for less than the full work period were significantly more likely to have a blood lead increase equal to or greater than 5 μg/dL than children living in households that fully relocated. Statistical analyses also did not reveal any single interior strategy to be more or less likely than others to be associated with a blood lead increase of 5 μg/dL or more

  2. Enhanced nutrition improves growth and increases blood adiponectin concentrations in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin W. Blakstad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate nutrient supply is essential for optimal postnatal growth in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight<1,500 g infants. Early growth may influence the risk of metabolic syndrome later in life. Objective: To evaluate growth and blood metabolic markers (adiponectin, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 in VLBW infants participating in a randomized nutritional intervention study. Design: Fifty VLBW infants were randomized to an enhanced nutrient supply or a standard nutrient supply. Thirty-seven infants were evaluated with growth measurements until 2 years corrected age (CA. Metabolic markers were measured at birth and 5 months CA. Results: Weight gain and head growth were different in the two groups from birth to 2 years CA (weight gain: pinteraction=0.006; head growth: pinteraction=0.002. The intervention group improved their growth z-scores after birth, whereas the control group had a pronounced decline, followed by an increase and caught up with the intervention group after discharge. At 5 months CA, adiponectin concentrations were higher in the intervention group and correlated with weight gain before term (r=0.35 and nutrient supply (0.35≤r≤0.45. Leptin concentrations correlated with weight gain after term and IGF-1 concentrations with length growth before and after term and head growth after term (0.36≤r≤0.53. Conclusion: Enhanced nutrient supply improved early postnatal growth and may have prevented rapid catch-up growth later in infancy. Adiponectin concentration at 5 months CA was higher in the intervention group and correlated positively with early weight gain and nutrient supply. Early nutrition and growth may affect metabolic markers in infancy.Clinical Trial Registration (ClinicalTrials.gov no.: NCT01103219

  3. 10-20-30 training increases performance and lowers blood pressure and VEGF in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of training by the 10-20-30 concept on performance, blood pressure (BP), and skeletal muscle angiogenesis as well as the feasibility of completing high-intensity interval training in local running communities. One hundred sixty recreational runners were divided into either a control group (CON; n = 28), or a 10-20-30 training group (10-20-30; n = 132) replacing two of three weekly training sessions with 10-20-30 training for 8 weeks and performance of a 5-km run (5-K) and BP was measured. VO2max was measured and resting muscle biopsies were taken in a subgroup of runners (n = 18). 10-20-30 improved 5-K time (38 s) and lowered systolic BP (2 ± 1 mmHg). For hypertensive subjects in 10-20-30 (n = 30), systolic and diastolic BP was lowered by 5 ± 4 and 3 ± 2 mmHg, respectively, which was a greater reduction than in the non-hypertensive subjects (n = 102). 10-20-30 increased VO2max but did not influence muscle fiber area, distribution or capillarization, whereas the expression of the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was lowered by 22%. No changes were observed in CON. These results suggest that 10-20-30 training is an effective and easily implemented training intervention improving endurance performance, VO2max and lowering BP in recreational runners, but does not affect muscle morphology and reduces muscle VEGF. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effect of mobile phone station on micronucleus frequency and chromosomal aberrations in human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, M S; Yildirim, A; Zamani, A G; Okudan, N

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile telephones has rapidly increased worldwide as well as the number of mobile phone base stations that lead to rise low level radiofrequency emissions which may in turn have possible harm for human health. The national radiation protection board has published the known effects of radio waves exposure on humans living close to mobile phone base stations. However, several studies have claimed that the base station has detrimental effects on different tissues. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of mobile phone base stations on the micronucleus (MN) frequency and chromosomal aberrations on blood in people who were living around mobile phone base stations and healthy controls. Frequency of MN and chromosomal aberrations in study and control groups was 8.96 +/- 3.51 and 6.97 +/- 1.52 (p: 0.16); 0.36 +/- 0.31 and 0.75 +/- 0.61 (p: 0.07), respectively. Our results show that there was not a significant difference of MN frequency and chromosomal aberrations between the two study groups. The results claim that cellular phones and their base stations do not produce important carcinogenic changes.

  5. Validation of an immortalized human (hBMEC) in vitro blood-brain barrier model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenmann, Daniela Elisabeth; Jähne, Evelyn Andrea; Smieško, Martin; Hamburger, Matthias; Oufir, Mouhssin

    2016-03-01

    We recently established and optimized an immortalized human in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model based on the hBMEC cell line. In the present work, we validated this mono-culture 24-well model with a representative series of drug substances which are known to cross or not to cross the BBB. For each individual compound, a quantitative UHPLC-MS/MS method in Ringer HEPES buffer was developed and validated according to current regulatory guidelines, with respect to selectivity, precision, and reliability. Various biological and analytical challenges were met during method validation, highlighting the importance of careful method development. The positive controls antipyrine, caffeine, diazepam, and propranolol showed mean endothelial permeability coefficients (P e) in the range of 17-70 × 10(-6) cm/s, indicating moderate to high BBB permeability when compared to the barrier integrity marker sodium fluorescein (mean P e 3-5 × 10(-6) cm/s). The negative controls atenolol, cimetidine, and vinblastine showed mean P e values < 10 × 10(-6) cm/s, suggesting low permeability. In silico calculations were in agreement with in vitro data. With the exception of quinidine (P-glycoprotein inhibitor and substrate), BBB permeability of all control compounds was correctly predicted by this new, easy, and fast to set up human in vitro BBB model. Addition of retinoic acid and puromycin did not increase transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) values of the BBB model.

  6. In vitro X-ray irradiation of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes enhances suppressor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, H.; Tsunematsu, T.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of in vitro X-ray irradiation on human peripheral blood T lymphocytes was studied with regard to their suppressor activity related to the concanavalin A (Con A)-induced suppressor system. To generate suppressor T lymphocytes, purified human T lymphocytes were incubated for 3 days in the first culture, with or without Con A. These lymphocytes were irradiated with various doses of X-ray before, mid or after the culture. After doing a second culture for 6 days, the suppressive influence of these cells on T lymphocyte proliferation rates stimulated with allogeneic mononuclear cells, and B lymphocyte proliferation rates stimulated with pokeweed mitogen was measured. Irradiation of cultures to which Con A had not been added induced much the same level of suppressor activity as seen in the cultures with Con A. The suppressor activity gradually increased with time from the irradiation to the suppressor cell assay. Suppressor T lymphocytes were resistant to X-ray irradiation and independent of DNA synthesis. However, irradiation-induced enhancement was minimal in cultures incubated with con A, regardless of the irradiation time. (author)

  7. Blood pressure and the contractility of a human leg muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Billy L; Fitzpatrick, Richard C

    2013-11-01

    These studies investigate the relationships between perfusion pressure, force output and pressor responses for the contracting human tibialis anterior muscle. Eight healthy adults were studied. Changing the height of tibialis anterior relative to the heart was used to control local perfusion pressure. Electrically stimulated tetanic force output was highly sensitive to physiological variations in perfusion pressure showing a proportionate change in force output of 6.5% per 10 mmHg. This perfusion-dependent change in contractility begins within seconds and is reversible with a 53 s time constant, demonstrating a steady-state equilibrium between contractility and perfusion pressure. These stimulated contractions did not produce significant cardiovascular responses, indicating that the muscle pressor response does not play a major role in cardiovascular regulation at these workloads. Voluntary contractions at forces that would require constant motor drive if perfusion pressure had remained constant generated a central pressor response when perfusion pressure was lowered. This is consistent with a larger cortical drive being required to compensate for the lost contractility with lower perfusion pressure. The relationship between contractility and perfusion for this large postural muscle was not different from that of a small hand muscle (adductor pollicis) and it responded similarly to passive peripheral and active central changes in arterial pressure, but extended over a wider operating range of pressures. If we consider that, in a goal-oriented motor task, muscle contractility determines central motor output and the central pressor response, these results indicate that muscle would fatigue twice as fast without a pressor response. From its extent, timing and reversibility we propose a testable hypothesis that this change in contractility arises through contraction- and perfusion-dependent changes in interstitial K(+) concentration.

  8. Effects of transforming growth factor-beta on long-term human cord blood monocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orcel, P.; Bielakoff, J.; De Vernejoul, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) modulates growth and differentiation in many cell types and is abundant in bone matrix. We recently showed that human cord blood monocytes cultured in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3 acquire some features of osteoclast precursors. Since TGF-beta has been shown to influence bone resorption in organ culture, we have studied the effect of TGF-beta (1-1,000 pg/ml) on cord blood monocyte cultures. These cells were cultured on plastic substrate during 3 weeks in the presence of 20% horse serum and 10(-9) M 1,25(OH)2D3. TGF-beta, from a concentration of 10 pg/ml in the culture medium, decreased in a dose dependent manner the formation of multinucleated cells. At a concentration of TGF-beta of 1 ng/ml, the multinucleated cells were reduced to 2.1% +/- 0.3%, compared to 19.3% +/- 1.5% in control cultures. TGF-beta inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the proliferation of cord blood monocytes as assessed by 3H-thymidine incorporation at 7 and 14 days of culture. The fusion index was also decreased by 3 weeks of treatment with TGF-beta. Indomethacin did not reverse the inhibitory effects of TGF-beta. The expression of the osteoclastic phenotype was assessed using two different antibodies: 23C6, a monoclonal antibody directed against the vitronectin receptor, which is highly expressed by osteoclasts but not by adult monocytes, and an antibody to HLA-DR, which is not present on osteoclast. TGF-beta decreased the expression of HLA-DR and increased in a dose-dependent manner the proportion of 23C6-labeled cells; these results suggest that TGF-beta could modulate a differentiation effect to the osteoclastic phenotype. However, when cord blood monocytes were cultured on devitalized rat calvariae prelabeled with 45Ca, TGF-beta did not induce any 45Ca release from bone cultured with monocytes

  9. Stable-isotope dilution GC-MS approach for nitrite quantification in human whole blood, erythrocytes, and plasma using pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatization: nitrite distribution in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Modun, Darko; Heusser, Karsten; Tank, Jens; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Mitschke, Anja; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2011-05-15

    Previously, we reported on the usefulness of pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFB-Br) for the simultaneous derivatization and quantitative determination of nitrite and nitrate in various biological fluids by GC-MS using their (15)N-labelled analogues as internal standards. As nitrite may be distributed unevenly in plasma and blood cells, its quantification in whole blood rather than in plasma or serum may be the most appropriate approach to determine nitrite concentration in the circulation. So far, GC-MS methods based on PFB-Br derivatization failed to measure nitrite in whole blood and erythrocytes because of rapid nitrite loss by oxidation and other unknown reactions during derivatization. The present article reports optimized and validated procedures for sample preparation and nitrite derivatization which allow for reliable quantification of nitrite in human whole blood and erythrocytes. Essential measures for stabilizing nitrite in these samples include sample cooling (0-4°C), hemoglobin (Hb) removal by precipitation with acetone and short derivatization of the Hb-free supernatant (5 min, 50°C). Potassium ferricyanide (K(3)Fe(CN)(6)) is useful in preventing Hb-caused nitrite loss, however, this chemical is not absolutely required in the present method. Our results show that accurate GC-MS quantification of nitrite as PFB derivative is feasible virtually in every biological matrix with similar accuracy and precision. In EDTA-anticoagulated venous blood of 10 healthy young volunteers, endogenous nitrite concentration was measured to be 486±280 nM in whole blood, 672±496 nM in plasma (C(P)), and 620±350 nM in erythrocytes (C(E)). The C(E)-to-C(P) ratio was 0.993±0.188 indicating almost even distribution of endogenous nitrite between plasma and erythrocytes. By contrast, the major fraction of nitrite added to whole blood remained in plasma. The present GC-MS method is useful to investigate distribution and metabolism of endogenous and exogenous nitrite in blood

  10. Prediction for the occurrence of clonal chromosome aberrations in human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, M.; Kadama, Y.; Ohtaki, K.; Itoh, M.; Awa, A.; Cologne, J.; Nakamura, N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Identical chromosome aberrations among multiple blood lymphocytes in a blood sample (clonal aberrations) are encountered occasionally during cytogenetic examination of radiation-exposed people. Clonal aberrations are found primarily among high-dose exposed people but no systematic surveys were ever conducted. Therefore, the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we conducted a large-scale screening for detecting clonal aberrations using FISH followed by Q-banding. Examinations of 500 cells from each of 513 A-bomb survivors led us to detect 96 clones. The clonal cell fraction (Cf) varied from 0.6% to 20% among the 500 cells. As the number of clonal event was inversely proportional to Cf, we hypothesized that the progenitor cells vary extensively in the number of offspring that they can produce and relative number of progenitor cells decreases as the increase of treatment, while other genes such as DNA repair proteinsnumber of progenitor cells capable to form clones (Cf >=0.6%) to be 2 (1 to 3) in non-exposed individuals. The number increased to up to 7 among the high-dose exposed survivors. Further, our preliminary results for the origins of 10 clones indicated that both hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mature T cells contributed to the clone formation roughly equally. Thus, the estimated number of 2 in non-exposed individuals is shared as one HSC and one mature T cells. The model could neatly explain the frequency of clones in two reports. Our model predicts that clonal aberrations are rarely found but clonal expansion of T lymphocytes occurs commonly. In fact, clonal expansions of non-aberrant cells are reported using TCR gene rearrangement patterns as a marker. We now understand the rough structure of lymphocyte pool in humans and can predict the probability of detecting a clone if the individual frequency of non-clonal translocations and the number of cells scored are given

  11. Cilnidipine lowered psychological stress-induced increase in blood pressure in a hypertensive man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuji Sadatoshi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In some hypertensive patients, psychological stress makes blood pressure difficult to control and causes physical symptoms such as headache or dizziness. We report the case of a hypertensive man whose psychological stress-induced increase in blood pressure was attenuated by cilnidipine. Case Presentation The patient (a 72-year-old man had hypertension and was on antihypertensive therapy. When mentally concentrating, he experienced occipital headaches and dizziness, and despite thorough testing, no abnormality was found. He was subsequently referred to our department. The mirror drawing test (MDT, a psychological stress test, increased blood pressure by about 40 mmHg, and the patient described occipital headache. Plasma noradrenaline level also increased from 212 to 548 pg/ml. We therefore switched the patient from nifedipine, an L-type calcium (Ca channel blocker, to cilnidipine, an L-type/N-type Ca channel blocker with suppressive effects on sympathetic activity. Cilnipidine attenuated MDT-induced an increase in blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline level and prevented the development of headache during testing. Conclusion These findings suggest that cilnidipine is a useful antihypertensive agent for hypertensive patients in whom psychological stress causes marked fluctuations in blood pressure.

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence, incidence, and residual transmission risk in first-time and repeat blood donations in Zimbabwe : implications on blood safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapako, Tonderai; Mvere, David A.; Chitiyo, McLeod E.; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Postma, Maarten J.; Van Hulst, Marinus

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: National Blood Service Zimbabwe human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk management strategy includes screening and discarding of first-time donations, which are collected in blood packs without an anticoagulant (dry pack). To evaluate the impact of discarding first-time donations on

  13. Impact of Prolonged Blood Incubation and Extended Serum Storage at Room Temperature on the Human Serum Metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Kamlage

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics is a powerful technology with broad applications in life science that, like other -omics approaches, requires high-quality samples to achieve reliable results and ensure reproducibility. Therefore, along with quality assurance, methods to assess sample quality regarding pre-analytical confounders are urgently needed. In this study, we analyzed the response of the human serum metabolome to pre-analytical variations comprising prolonged blood incubation and extended serum storage at room temperature by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS -based metabolomics. We found that the prolonged incubation of blood results in a statistically significant 20% increase and 4% decrease of 225 tested serum metabolites. Extended serum storage affected 21% of the analyzed metabolites (14% increased, 7% decreased. Amino acids and nucleobases showed the highest percentage of changed metabolites in both confounding conditions, whereas lipids were remarkably stable. Interestingly, the amounts of taurine and O-phosphoethanolamine, which have both been discussed as biomarkers for various diseases, were 1.8- and 2.9-fold increased after 6 h of blood incubation. Since we found that both are more stable in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA blood, EDTA plasma should be the preferred metabolomics matrix.

  14. Harmful effects of mobile phone waves on blood tissues of the human body

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Vijay; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Sharma, A. K.

    2013-01-01

      Abstract. Penetration of electromagnetic waves emitted by mobile phones into human skin and blood was studied. The transmitted waves from these mobile phones were exposed to the human body and were penetrated into the body where field was reduced exponentially with depth. As the reduction in field was due to absorption of power, specific absorption rate was calculated and compared with permissible limit given by International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and Worl...

  15. Identification of Phosphoglycerate Kinase 1 (PGK1 as a reference gene for quantitative gene expression measurements in human blood RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger Elizabeth R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood is a convenient sample and increasingly used for quantitative gene expression measurements with a variety of diseases including chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Quantitative gene expression measurements require normalization of target genes to reference genes that are stable and independent from variables being tested in the experiment. Because there are no genes that are useful for all situations, reference gene selection is an essential step to any quantitative reverse transcription-PCR protocol. Many publications have described appropriate genes for a wide variety of tissues and experimental conditions, however, reference genes that may be suitable for the analysis of CFS, or human blood RNA derived from whole blood as well as isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, have not been described. Findings Literature review and analyses of our unpublished microarray data were used to narrow down the pool of candidate reference genes to six. We assayed whole blood RNA from Tempus tubes and cell preparation tube (CPT-collected PBMC RNA from 46 subjects, and used the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms to select the most stable reference genes. Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1 was one of the optimal normalization genes for both whole blood and PBMC RNA, however, additional genes differed for the two sample types; Ribosomal protein large, P0 (RPLP0 for PBMC RNA and Peptidylprolyl isomerase B (PPIB for whole blood RNA. We also show that the use of a single reference gene is sufficient for normalization when the most stable candidates are used. Conclusions We have identified PGK1 as a stable reference gene for use with whole blood RNA and RNA derived from PBMC. When stable genes are selected it is possible to use a single gene for normalization rather than two or three. Optimal normalization will improve the ability of results from PBMC RNA to be compared with those from whole blood RNA and potentially allows comparison of

  16. In Vitro Large Scale Production of Human Mature Red Blood Cells from Hematopoietic Stem Cells by Coculturing with Human Fetal Liver Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafei Xi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro models of human erythropoiesis are useful in studying the mechanisms of erythroid differentiation in normal and pathological conditions. Here we describe an erythroid liquid culture system starting from cord blood derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. HSCs were cultured for more than 50 days in erythroid differentiation conditions and resulted in a more than 109-fold expansion within 50 days under optimal conditions. Homogeneous erythroid cells were characterized by cell morphology, flow cytometry, and hematopoietic colony assays. Furthermore, terminal erythroid maturation was improved by cosculturing with human fetal liver stromal cells. Cocultured erythroid cells underwent multiple maturation events, including decrease in size, increase in glycophorin A expression, and nuclear condensation. This process resulted in extrusion of the pycnotic nuclei in up to 80% of the cells. Importantly, they possessed the capacity to express the adult definitive β-globin chain upon further maturation. We also show that the oxygen equilibrium curves of the cord blood-differentiated red blood cells (RBCs are comparable to normal RBCs. The large number and purity of erythroid cells and RBCs produced from cord blood make this method useful for fundamental research in erythroid development, and they also provide a basis for future production of available RBCs for transfusion.

  17. Trace elemental analysis of human breast cancerous blood by advanced PC-WDXRF technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjit; Kainth, Harpreet Singh; Prasher, Puneet; Singh, Tejbir

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this work is to quantify the trace elements of healthy and non-healthy blood samples by using advanced polychromatic source based wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (PC-WDXRF) technique. The imbalances in trace elements present in the human blood directly or indirectly lead to the carcinogenic process. The trace elements 11Na, 12Mg, 15P, 16S, 17Cl, 19K, 20Ca, 26Fe, 29Cu and 30Zn are identified and their concentrations are estimated. The experimental results clearly discuss the variation and role of various trace elements present in the non-healthy blood samples relative to the healthy blood samples. These results establish future guidelines to probe the possible roles of essential trace elements in the breast carcinogenic processes. The instrumental sensitivity and detection limits for measuring the elements in the atomic range 11 ≤ Z ≤ 30 have also been discussed in the present work.

  18. In Vitro UV-Visible Spectroscopy Study of Yellow Laser Irradiation on Human Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuad, Siti Sakinah Mohd; Suardi, N.; Mustafa, I. S.

    2018-04-01

    This experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of low level yellow laser of 589nm wavelength with various laser irradiation time. Human blood samples with random diseases are irradiated with yellow laser of power density of 450mW/cm2 from 10 minutes to 60 minutes at 10 minutes intervals. The morphology of the red blood cell were also observed for different irradiation time. The result shows that there is a significant different in the absorption of light with varying laser irradiation time (p<0.01). The maximum absorption recorded at 40 minutes of irradiation at 340nm peak. Blood smear of the samples reveals that there are observable changes in the morphology of the red blood cell at 40 minutes and 60 minutes of irradiation.

  19. Aging increases oxidative stress and renal expression of oxidant and antioxidant enzymes that are associated with an increased trend in systolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Pedro; Simão, Sónia; Silva, Elisabete; Pinto, Vanda; Amaral, João S; Afonso, Joana; Serrão, Maria Paula; Pinho, Maria João; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the effects of aging on oxidative stress markers and expression of major oxidant and antioxidant enzymes associate with impairment of renal function and increases in blood pressure. To explore this, we determined age-associated changes in lipid peroxidation (urinary malondialdehyde), plasma and urinary hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) levels, as well as renal H(2)O(2) production, and the expression of oxidant and antioxidant enzymes in young (13 weeks) and old (52 weeks) male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Urinary lipid peroxidation levels and H(2)O(2) production by the renal cortex and medulla of old rats were higher than their young counterparts. This was accompanied by overexpression of NADPH oxidase components Nox4 and p22(phox) in the renal cortex of old rats. Similarly, expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms 2 and 3 and catalase were increased in the renal cortex from old rats. Renal function parameters (creatinine clearance and fractional excretion of sodium), diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were not affected by aging, although slight increases in systolic blood pressure were observed during this 52-week period. It is concluded that overexpression of renal Nox4 and p22(phox) and the increases in renal H(2)O(2) levels in aged WKY does not associate with renal functional impairment or marked increases in blood pressure. It is hypothesized that lack of oxidative stress-associated effects in aged WKY rats may result from increases in antioxidant defenses that counteract the damaging effects of H(2)O(2).

  20. Reconstitution activity of hypoxic cultured human cord blood CD34-positive cells in NOG mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, Haruko; Takubo, Keiyo; Iwasaki, Hiroko; Yoshihara, Hiroki; Gomei, Yumiko; Hosokawa, Kentaro; Arai, Fumio; Takahashi, Takao; Suda, Toshio

    2009-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in hypoxic areas of the bone marrow. However, the role of hypoxia in the maintenance of HSCs has not been fully characterized. We performed xenotransplantation of human cord blood cells cultured in hypoxic or normoxic conditions into adult NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγ null (NOG) mice. Hypoxic culture (1% O 2 ) for 6 days ef