WorldWideScience

Sample records for human bladder biopsies

  1. Human bladder cancer diagnosis using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sushmita; Wysock, James S.; Ng, Casey K.; Akhtar, Mohammed; Perner, Sven; Lee, Ming-Ming; Rubin, Mark A.; Maxfield, Frederick R.; Webb, Watt W.; Scherr, Douglas S.

    2009-02-01

    At the time of diagnosis, approximately 75% of bladder cancers are non-muscle invasive. Appropriate diagnosis and surgical resection at this stage improves prognosis dramatically. However, these lesions, being small and/or flat, are often missed by conventional white-light cystoscopes. Furthermore, it is difficult to assess the surgical margin for negativity using conventional cystoscopes. Resultantly, the recurrence rates in patients with early bladder cancer are very high. This is currently addressed by repeat cystoscopies and biopsies, which can last throughout the life of a patient, increasing cost and patient morbidity. Multiphoton endoscopes offer a potential solution, allowing real time, noninvasive biopsies of the human bladder, as well as an up-close assessment of the resection margin. While miniaturization of the Multiphoton microscope into an endoscopic format is currently in progress, we present results here indicating that Multiphoton imaging (using a bench-top Multiphoton microscope) can indeed identify cancers in fresh, unfixed human bladder biopsies. Multiphoton images are acquired in two channels: (1) broadband autofluorescence from cells, and (2) second harmonic generation (SHG), mostly by tissue collagen. These images are then compared with gold standard hematoxylin/eosin (H&E) stained histopathology slides from the same specimen. Based on a "training set" and a very small "blinded set" of samples, we have found excellent correlation between the Multiphoton and histopathological diagnoses. A larger blinded analysis by two independent uropathologists is currently in progress. We expect that the conclusion of this phase will provide us with diagnostic accuracy estimates, as well as the degree of inter-observer heterogeneity.

  2. Feasibility and effectiveness of image-guided percutaneous biopsy of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butros, Selim Reha; McCarthy, Colin James; Karaosmanoğlu, Ali Devrim; Shenoy-Bhangle, Anuradha S; Arellano, Ronald S

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the indications, technique, results, and complications of image-guided percutaneous biopsy of the urinary bladder. This retrospective study included 15 patients (10 male, 5 female) who underwent image-guided percutaneous biopsy of the urinary bladder between January 1999 and December 2013. The medical records, imaging studies, procedural details, and long-term follow-up of each patient were reviewed in detail to assess the feasibility of percutaneous bladder biopsy. Ten patients had focal bladder masses and 5 patients had asymmetric or diffuse bladder wall thickening. Eleven patients had either negative or unsatisfactory cystoscopies prior to the biopsy. Percutaneous biopsies were performed under computed tomography guidance in 12 patients and ultrasound in 3 patients. All procedures were technically successful and there were no procedural complications. Malignancy was confirmed in 8 patients, among whom 6 had transitional cell carcinoma, 1 cervical cancer, and 1 prostate cancer metastasis. Seven patients had a benign diagnosis, including 3 that were later confirmed by pathology following surgery and 2 patients with a false-negative result. The overall sensitivity was 80% and accuracy was 87%. Image-guided percutaneous biopsy of the urinary bladder is a safe and technically feasible procedure with a high sensitivity and accuracy rate. Although image-guided bladder biopsy is an uncommon procedure, it should be considered in selected cases when more traditional methods of tissue sampling are either not possible or fail to identify abnormalities detected by cross-sectional imaging.

  3. The value of bladder mapping and prostatic urethra biopsies for detection of carcinoma in situ (CIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjónsson, Sigurdur; Bläckberg, Mats; Chebil, Gunilla; Jahnson, Staffan; Olsson, Hans; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Månsson, Wiking; Liedberg, Fredrik

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that CIS is a major risk factor for muscle-invasive bladder cancer and that this entity can be difficult to diagnose. Taking cold-cup mapping biopsies from different areas of the bladder (BMAP) is commonly used in patients at risk of harbouring CIS. The diagnostic accuracy of this approach has not been assessed until now. By using the CIS found in the cystoprostatectomy specimen as an indicator of the true occurrence of CIS and comparing that with the findings of BMAP, it is clear that the sensitivity of BMAP to detect CIS when present is low and that negative findings should be considered unreliable. To assess the value of bladder mapping and prostatic urethra biopsies for detection of urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS). CIS of the urinary bladder is a flat high-grade lesion of the mucosa associated with a significant risk of progression to muscle-invasive disease. CIS is difficult to identify on cystoscopy, and definite diagnosis requires histopathology. Traditionally, if CIS is suspected, multiple cold-cup biopsies are taken from the bladder mucosa, and resection biopsies are obtained from the prostatic urethra in males. This approach is often called bladder mapping (BMAP). The accuracy of BMAP as a diagnostic tool is not known. Male patients with bladder cancer scheduled for cystectomy underwent cold-cup bladder biopsies (sidewalls, posterior wall, dome, trigone), and resection biopsies were taken from the prostatic urethra. After cystectomy, the surgical specimen was investigated in a standardised manner and subsequently compared with the BMAP biopsies for the presence of CIS. The histopathology reports of 162 patients were analysed. CIS was detected in 46% of the cystoprostatectomy specimens, and multiple (≥2) CIS lesions were found in 30%. BMAP (cold-cup bladder biopsies + resection biopsies from the prostatic urethra) provided sensitivity of 51% for any CIS, and 55% for multiple CIS lesions. The cold-cup biopsies for CIS in the bladder

  4. Clinical impact of bladder biopsies with TUR-BT according to cytology results in patients with bladder cancer: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Kazuhiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There seems to be no consensus concerning taking bladder biopsies during transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT. We investigate the clinical significance of bladder biopsy with TUR-BT and the relationship between urinary cytology and the biopsy results. Methods We reviewed a total of 424 patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer treated with TUR-BT between 1998 and 2005. Of the total, 293 patients also underwent a bladder biopsy. Biopsies from suspicious-appearing urothelium (N = 59 and those from normal-appearing urothelium (N = 234 were evaluated separately. Results Bladder cancer was observed in 23 cases (39.0% who underwent a biopsy of suspicious-appearing urothelium. Among these 23 cases, 9 cases with visible tumor resection had carcinoma in situ (CIS only in the biopsies from suspicious-appearing urothelium. Urinary cytology was negative in 3 of the 9 cases. Bladder cancer was observed in 26 cases (11.1% who underwent a biopsy of normal-appearing urothelium. Of them, 5 cases with visible tumors had CIS only in the multiple biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium. Urinary cytology was positive in all of the 5 cases. No upstaging or upgrading cases were found in these patients by the addition of these two types of biopsy. Furthermore, therapy was not altered in these patients. With or without bladder biopsy was not a significant factor for tumor recurrence in either the univariate or multivariate analysis. Conclusions Based on the results, it is concluded the multiple biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium are not necessary in patients with negative cytology results because of the low detection rate and lack of influence on therapeutic decisions. Meanwhile, biopsy of suspicious-appearing urothelium is needed in patients with negative cytology results in order to detect CIS due to staging properties. This result supports a recent EAU guideline.

  5. Genomic Alterations in Liquid Biopsies from Patients with Bladder Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Nordentoft, Iver Kristiansen; Christensen, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Background: At least half of the patients diagnosed with non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) experience recurrence and approximately 15% will develop progression to muscle invasive or metastatic disease. Biomarkers for disease surveillance are urgently needed. Objective: Development......-invasive or metastatic bladder cancer; t test for ddPCR data. Results and limitations: We developed from one to six personalised assays per patient. Patients with progressive disease showed significantly higher levels of tumour DNA in plasma and urine before disease progression, compared with patients with recurrent...

  6. Monitoring treatment response and metastatic relapse in advanced bladder cancer by liquid biopsy analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Christensen, Emil; Nordentoft, Iver Kristiansen

    2017-01-01

    of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) in plasma and urine to detect metastatic relapse after cystectomy and measure treatment efficacy. We exome sequenced tumour and germline DNA from patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer and monitored ctDNA in 370 liquid biopsies throughout the disease courses by 84......DNA detection in plasma and diagnosis of relapse was 101 d after cystectomy (range 0-932 d). Early detection of metastatic relapse and treatment response using liquid biopsies represents a novel, highly sensitive tool for monitoring patients, supporting clinicians, and guiding treatment decisions. PATIENT...

  7. Urothelial Tumours of the Urinary Bladder: A Histopathological Study of Cystoscopic Biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujan Vaidya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Bladder tumours constitute one of the most common urological conditions. Urothelial (transitional cell carcinoma accounts for 90% of all primary tumours of the bladder. These tumours are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to present the histopathological patterns of urothelial tumours and to determine the grade and stage of these tumours. Methods: This is a 3 year retrospective study of urothelial tumours carried out in the Department of Pathology, Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS, Lalitpur, Nepal. Data of all cystoscopic biopsies collected during this period were analyzed. Results: Urothelial (transitional cell tumours accounted for 97.59% (81 cases of all bladder tumours. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC was the most common tumour which was present in 67 cases (80.72%. Of these, 32 (47.76% were low grade TCC while 35 (52.24% were high grade TCC. Maximum number of tumours (70.37% were superficial (pTa and pT1 while (29.63% were muscle invasive (pT2. Sixteen percent of low grade and 76.92% of high grade tumours showed muscle invasion. Detrusor muscle was absent in 23.88% cases (16/67. Conclusion: Transitional cell carcinoma was the most common bladder cancer. Most of these tumours were high grade. A large percentage of high grade carcinomas presented with muscle invasion. Pathological grade and muscle invasion are the most valuable prognostic predictors of survival. The importance of including smooth muscle in the biopsy specimens needs to be emphasized Key words: cancer, high grade, low grade, transitional, tumour, urinary bladder.

  8. Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Oropharynx lesion biopsy Pleural needle biopsy Polyp biopsy Rectal biopsy Renal biopsy Salivary gland biopsy Skin lesion ... Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing ...

  9. Permeability and ultrastructure of human bladder epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, J; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Nielsen, S L

    1983-01-01

    Leakage of tight junctions as observed with electron microscopy and demonstration of solute transport across bladder epithelium was investigated in 13 patients with different bladder diseases: urinary retention and infection, bladder tumours and interstitial cystitis. The latter group showed...

  10. Optical coherence tomography in diagnostics of precancer and cancer of human bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagaynova, Elena V.; Streltsova, Olga S.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Shakhova, Natalia M.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kamensky, Vladislav A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Snopova, Ludmila B.; Donchenko, Ekaterina V.

    2004-07-01

    Our goal was statistical assessment of the in vivo cystoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) ability to detect neoplasia in human urinary bladder. We analyzed major reasons of false positive and false negative image recognition results. Optical coherence tomography was performed to image the bladder during cystoscopy. The study enrolled 63 patients with suspicion for bladder cancer and scheduled for cystoscopy. The diagnosis was established by histopathology examination of a biopsy. Each biopsy site was examined by OCT. Benign conditions were diagnosed for 31 patients, and dysplasia or carcinoma were diagnosed for 32 patients. Six physicians blinded to all clinical data participated in the dichotomy recognition (malignant or benign) of the OCT images. 98% sensitivity and 72% specificity for the OCT recognition of dysplastic/malignant versus benign/reactive conditions of the bladder are demonstrated. Total error rate was 14.8%. The interobserver agreement multi-rater kappa coefficient is 0.80. The superficial and invasive bladder cancer and high-grade dysplasia were recognized with minimum error rate ranging from 0 to 3.3%. High sensitivity and good specificity of the OCT method in the diagnostics of bladder neoplasia makes OCT a promising complementary cystoscopic technique for non-invasive evaluation of zones suspicious for high-grade dysplasia and cancer.

  11. High frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 protein expression in human bladder cancer is associated with disease progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egerod, Frederikke Lihme; Bartels, Annette; Fristrup, Niels; Borre, Michael; Ørntoft, Torben F; Oleksiewicz, Martin B; Brünner, Nils; Dyrskjøt, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Egr-1 (early growth response-1 transcription factor) has been proposed to be involved in invasion and metastasis processes of human bladder cancer, but Egr-1 protein expression levels in human bladder cancer have not been investigated. In the present study we investigated the expression levels of Egr-1 protein in early stages of human bladder cancer and correlated it to later progression. Expression of Egr-1 protein in human bladder cancer was examined by immunohistochemistry, on a tissue microarray constructed from tumors from 289 patients with non-muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer. The frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling correlated to bladder cancer stage, grade and to later progression to muscle-invasive bladder cancer (T2-4). Stage T1 tumors exhibited significantly higher frequencies of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling than Ta tumors (P = 0.001). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that a high frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling was significantly associated with a higher risk of progression to stage T2-4 (log-rank test, P = 0.035). Tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling were found to localize at the tumor front in some of the tumor biopsies. The results from this study support a potential involvement of Egr-1 in the progression from non-muscle invasive bladder cancers to muscle invasive bladder cancer

  12. Identification of differentially expressed proteins during human urinary bladder cancer progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Ashfaque Ahmed; chang, Jong. w; Oh, Bong R.

    2005-01-01

    and identified by peptide mass fingerprinting using mass spectrometry and database search. We found most extensive and reproducible down-regulation of NADP dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase cytoplasmic (IDPc) and peroxiredoxin-II (Prx-II), in poorly differentiated T24 compared to well-differentiated RT4 bladder...... cancer cell line. Subsequent Western blotting analysis of human biopsy samples from bladder cancer patient revealed significant loss of IDPc and Prx-II in more advance tumor samples, in agreement with data on cell lines. These results suggest that loss of IDPc and Prx-II during tumor development may...

  13. Identification of differentially expressed proteins during human urinary bladder cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Ashfaque A; Chang, Jong W; Oh, Bong R; Yoo, Yung J

    2005-01-01

    Comparative proteome analysis was performed between RT4 (grade-1) and T24 (grade-3) bladder cancer cell lines, in an attempt to identify differentially expressed proteins during bladder cancer progression. Among those relatively abundant proteins, seven spots changed more than two-fold reproducibly and identified by peptide mass fingerprinting using mass spectrometry and database search. We found most extensive and reproducible down-regulation of NADP dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase cytoplasmic (IDPc) and peroxiredoxin-II (Prx-II), in poorly differentiated T24 compared to well-differentiated RT4 bladder cancer cell line. Subsequent Western blotting analysis of human biopsy samples from bladder cancer patient revealed significant loss of IDPc and Prx-II in more advance tumor samples, in agreement with data on cell lines. These results suggest that loss of IDPc and Prx-II during tumor development may involve in tumor progression and metastasis. However, additional investigations are needed on large number of human samples to further verify these findings.

  14. Interleukin-4 receptor alpha overexpression in human bladder cancer correlates with the pathological grade and stage of the disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Bharat H; Leland, Pamela; Lababidi, Samir; Varrichio, Frederick; Puri, Raj K

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that interleukin-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) is overexpressed on a variety of human cancers and can serve as target for IL-4 immunotoxin comprised of IL-4 and a mutated Pseudomonas exotoxin. However, its expression and association with grade and clinical stage of bladder cancer has not been studied. IL-4Rα expression was examined in human bladder cancer cell lines, mouse xenografts, and biopsy specimens at mRNA and protein levels by real-time RT-PCR and IHC/ISH techniques. We also examined the effect of IL-4 on proliferation and invasion of bladder carcinoma cell lines. For tissue microarray (TMA) results, we analyzed the precision data using exact binomial proportion with exact two-sided P-values. We used Cochran–Armitage Statistics with exact two-sided P-values to examine the trend analysis of IL-4Rα over grade or stage of the bladder cancer specimens. The influence of age and gender covariates was also analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. IL-4Rα is overexpressed in five bladder cancer cell lines, while normal bladder and human umbilical vein cell lines (HUVEC) expressed at low levels. Two other chains of IL-4 receptor complex, IL-2RγC and IL-13Rα1, were absent or weakly expressed. IL-4 modestly inhibited the cell proliferation, but enhanced cell invasion of bladder cancer cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. Bladder cancer xenografts in immunodeficient mice also maintained IL-4Rα overexpression in vivo. Analysis of tumor biopsy specimens in TMAs revealed significantly higher IL-4Rα immunostaining (≥2+) in Grade 2 (85%) and Grade 3 (97%) compared to Grade 1 tumors (0%) (P ≤ 0.0001). Similarly, 9% stage I tumors were positive for IL-4Rα (≥2+) compared to 84% stage II (P ≤ 0.0001) and 100% stages III–IV tumors (P ≤ 0.0001). IL-13Rα1 was also expressed in tumor tissues but at low levels and it did not show any correlation with the grade and stage of disease. However, the IL-2RγC was not

  15. Evaluating the need for transurethral bladder biopsy at first follow up ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Patients with high-risk superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder have a lifelong risk of progression and require particular attention. Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is recommended as a first-choice adjuvant treatment to reduce the risk of progression of high-grade tumors and ...

  16. Concepts in causality: chemically induced human urinary bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lower, G.M. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A significant portion of the incidence of human urinary bladder cancer can be attributed to occupational and cultural (tobacco smoking) situations associated with exposures to various arylamines, many of which represent established human carcinogens. A brief historical overview of research in bladder cancer causality indicates that the identification of causal agents and causal mechanism has been approached and rests upon information gathered at the organismal (geographical/historical), cellular, and molecular levels of biologic organization. This viewpoint speaks of a natural evolution within the biomedical sciences; a natural evolution from descriptive approaches to mechanistic approaches; and a natural evolution from more or less independent discipline-oriented approaches to hierarchically organized multidisciplinary approaches. Available information relevant to bladder cancer causality can be readily integrated into general conceptual frameworks to yield a hierarchial view of the natural history of urinary bladder cancer, a view consistent with contemporary natural systems and information theory and perhaps relevant also to other chemically induced epithelial cancers. Such frameworks are useful in appreciating the spatial and temporal boundaries and interrelationships in causality and the conceptual interrelationships within the biomedical sciences. Recent approaches in molecular epidemiology and the assessment of relative individual susceptibility to bladder cancer indicate that such frameworks are useful in forming hypotheses

  17. Artificial sweeteners and human bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, G R; Burch, J D; Miller, A B; Morrison, B; Gordon, P; Weldon, L; Chambers, L W; Fodor, G; Winsor, G M

    1977-09-17

    A positive association between the use of artificial sweetners, particularly saccharin, and risk of bladder cancer in males has been observed in a case-control study of 480 men and 152 women in three Provinces in Canada. The risk ratio for ever versus never used is 1-6 for males (P=0-009, one-tailed test), and a significant dose-response relationship was obtained for both duration and frequency of use. The population attributable risk for males is estimated at 7%, though for diabetics, who have a similar risk ratio for artificial sweetner use as non-diabetics, the attributable risk is 33%.

  18. Cold knife cone biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biopsy; Pap smear - cone biopsy; HPV - cone biopsy; Human papilloma virus - cone biopsy; Cervix - cone biopsy; Colposcopy - cone biopsy Images Female reproductive anatomy Cold cone biopsy Cold cone removal References Baggish ...

  19. Bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dye workers, rubber workers, aluminum workers, leather workers, truck drivers, and pesticide applicators are at the highest ... examining the inside of the bladder with a camera), with biopsy Intravenous pyelogram - IVP Pelvic CT scan ...

  20. Interleukin-4 receptor alpha overexpression in human bladder cancer correlates with the pathological grade and stage of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Bharat H; Leland, Pamela; Lababidi, Samir; Varrichio, Frederick; Puri, Raj K

    2014-12-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that interleukin-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) is overexpressed on a variety of human cancers and can serve as target for IL-4 immunotoxin comprised of IL-4 and a mutated Pseudomonas exotoxin. However, its expression and association with grade and clinical stage of bladder cancer has not been studied. IL-4Rα expression was examined in human bladder cancer cell lines, mouse xenografts, and biopsy specimens at mRNA and protein levels by real-time RT-PCR and IHC/ISH techniques. We also examined the effect of IL-4 on proliferation and invasion of bladder carcinoma cell lines. For tissue microarray (TMA) results, we analyzed the precision data using exact binomial proportion with exact two-sided P-values. We used Cochran-Armitage Statistics with exact two-sided P-values to examine the trend analysis of IL-4Rα over grade or stage of the bladder cancer specimens. The influence of age and gender covariates was also analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. IL-4Rα is overexpressed in five bladder cancer cell lines, while normal bladder and human umbilical vein cell lines (HUVEC) expressed at low levels. Two other chains of IL-4 receptor complex, IL-2RγC and IL-13Rα1, were absent or weakly expressed. IL-4 modestly inhibited the cell proliferation, but enhanced cell invasion of bladder cancer cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. Bladder cancer xenografts in immunodeficient mice also maintained IL-4Rα overexpression in vivo. Analysis of tumor biopsy specimens in TMAs revealed significantly higher IL-4Rα immunostaining (≥ 2+) in Grade 2 (85%) and Grade 3 (97%) compared to Grade 1 tumors (0%) (P ≤ 0.0001). Similarly, 9% stage I tumors were positive for IL-4Rα (≥ 2+) compared to 84% stage II (P ≤ 0.0001) and 100% stages III-IV tumors (P ≤ 0.0001). IL-13Rα1 was also expressed in tumor tissues but at low levels and it did not show any correlation with the grade and stage of disease. However, the IL-2RγC was not

  1. Isorhapontigenin (ISO) Inhibits Invasive Bladder Cancer Formation In Vivo and Human Bladder Cancer Invasion In Vitro by Targeting STAT1/FOXO1 Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guosong; Wu, Amy D; Huang, Chao; Gu, Jiayan; Zhang, Liping; Huang, Haishan; Liao, Xin; Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Dongyun; Zeng, Xingruo; Jin, Honglei; Huang, Haojie; Huang, Chuanshu

    2016-07-01

    Although our most recent studies have identified Isorhapontigenin (ISO), a novel derivative of stilbene that isolated from a Chinese herb Gnetum cleistostachyum, for its inhibition of human bladder cancer growth, nothing is known whether ISO possesses an inhibitory effect on bladder cancer invasion. Thus, we addressed this important question in current study and discovered that ISO treatment could inhibit mouse-invasive bladder cancer development following bladder carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) exposure in vivo We also found that ISO suppressed human bladder cancer cell invasion accompanied by upregulation of the forkhead box class O 1 (FOXO1) mRNA transcription in vitro Accordingly, FOXO1 was profoundly downregulated in human bladder cancer tissues and was negatively correlated with bladder cancer invasion. Forced expression of FOXO1 specifically suppressed high-grade human bladder cancer cell invasion, whereas knockdown of FOXO1 promoted noninvasive bladder cancer cells becoming invasive bladder cancer cells. Moreover, knockout of FOXO1 significantly increased bladder cancer cell invasion and abolished the ISO inhibition of invasion in human bladder cancer cells. Further studies showed that the inhibition of Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation at Tyr701 was crucial for ISO upregulation of FOXO1 transcription. Furthermore, this study revealed that metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) was a FOXO1 downstream effector, which was also supported by data obtained from mouse model of ISO inhibition BBN-induced mouse-invasive bladder cancer formation. These findings not only provide a novel insight into the understanding of mechanism of bladder cancer's propensity to invasion, but also identify a new role and mechanisms underlying the natural compound ISO that specifically suppresses such bladder cancer invasion through targeting the STAT1-FOXO1-MMP-2 axis. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 567-80. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American

  2. A reproducible brain tumour model established from human glioblastoma biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jian; Chekenya, Martha; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Enger, Per Ø; Miletic, Hrvoje; Sakariassen, Per Ø; Huszthy, Peter C; Jacobsen, Hege; Brekkå, Narve; Li, Xingang; Zhao, Peng; Mørk, Sverre

    2009-01-01

    Establishing clinically relevant animal models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a challenge, and many commonly used cell line-based models do not recapitulate the invasive growth patterns of patient GBMs. Previously, we have reported the formation of highly invasive tumour xenografts in nude rats from human GBMs. However, implementing tumour models based on primary tissue requires that these models can be sufficiently standardised with consistently high take rates. In this work, we collected data on growth kinetics from a material of 29 biopsies xenografted in nude rats, and characterised this model with an emphasis on neuropathological and radiological features. The tumour take rate for xenografted GBM biopsies were 96% and remained close to 100% at subsequent passages in vivo, whereas only one of four lower grade tumours engrafted. Average time from transplantation to the onset of symptoms was 125 days ± 11.5 SEM. Histologically, the primary xenografts recapitulated the invasive features of the parent tumours while endothelial cell proliferations and necrosis were mostly absent. After 4-5 in vivo passages, the tumours became more vascular with necrotic areas, but also appeared more circumscribed. MRI typically revealed changes related to tumour growth, several months prior to the onset of symptoms. In vivo passaging of patient GBM biopsies produced tumours representative of the patient tumours, with high take rates and a reproducible disease course. The model provides combinations of angiogenic and invasive phenotypes and represents a good alternative to in vitro propagated cell lines for dissecting mechanisms of brain tumour progression

  3. Functional and molecular characterization of kinin B1 and B 2 receptors in human bladder cancer: implication of the PI3Kγ pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgnaolin, V; Pereira, T C B; Bogo, M R; Zanin, R; Battastini, A M O; Morrone, F B; Campos, M M

    2013-08-01

    Kinins and their receptors have been recently implicated in cancer. Using functional and molecular approaches, we investigated the relevance of kinin B1 and B2 receptors in bladder cancer. Functional studies were conducted using bladder cancer cell lines, and human biopsies were employed for molecular studies. Both B1 des-Arg(9)-BK and B2 BK receptor agonists stimulated the proliferation of grade 3-derived T24 bladder cancer cells. Furthermore, treatment with B1 and B2 receptor antagonists (SSR240612 and HOE140) markedly inhibited the proliferation of T24 cells. Only higher concentrations of BK increased the proliferation of the grade 1 bladder cancer cell line RT4, while des-Arg(9)-BK completely failed to induce its proliferation. Real-time PCR revealed that the mRNA expression of kinin receptors, particularly B1 receptors, was increased in T24 cells relative to RT4 cells. Data from bladder cancer human biopsies revealed that B1 receptor expression was increased in all tumor samples and under conditions of chronic inflammation. We also show novel evidence demonstrating that the pharmacological inhibition of PI3Kγ (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) with AS252424, concentration-dependently reduced T24 cell proliferation induced by BK or des-Arg(9)-BK. Finally, the incubation of T24 cells with kinin agonists led to a marked activation of the PI3K/AKT and ERK 1/2 signaling pathways, whereas p38 MAP kinase remained unaffected. Kinin receptors, especially B1 receptors, appear to be implicated in bladder cancer progression. It is tempting to suggest that selective kinin antagonists might represent potential alternative therapies for bladder cancer.

  4. [High oncogenic risk human papillomavirus and urinary bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loran, O B; Sinyakova, L A; Gundorova, L V; Kosov, V A; Kosova, I V; Pogodina, I E; Kolbasov, D N

    2017-07-01

    To determine the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) of high oncogenic risk in the development of urinary bladder cancer. 100 patients (72 men and 28 women) aged 38 to 90 years (mean age 65+/-10 years) diagnosed with bladder cancer were examined and underwent treatment. Clinical assessment was complemented by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the presence of antiviral antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and type 2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), urethra scraping for detecting high oncogenic risk HPV. Tumor tissue was sampled for PCR virus detection. Semi-quantitative analysis was used to evaluate the components of lymphocyte-plasmocyte and leukocyte infiltrates and cytopathic changes in tumor tissue. There were positive correlations between cytopathic cell changes (koylocytosis and intranuclear inclusions, as manifestations of HPV) and the level of antiviral antibodies, the presence of viruses in the tumor, as well as with the components of the lymphoid-plasmocyte infiltrate. Negative correlations were found between the presence of papillomatosis and the above changes. Human papillomavirus is believed to be a trigger for the initiation of a tumor in young patients with a latent infection (CMV and EBV, HSV, HPV). Cytopathic changes (kylocytosis and intranuclear inclusions) were associated with the activity and morphological features of herpes-viral infections. Their degree varied depending on the stage of the process, but not on the anaplasia degree. Papillomatosis is associated with a more favorable course of the tumor process.

  5. Potential Therapeutic Roles of Tanshinone IIA in Human Bladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Chun Chiu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tanshinone IIA (Tan-IIA, one of the major lipophilic components isolated from the root of Salviae Miltiorrhizae, has been found to exhibit anticancer activity in various cancer cells. We have demonstrated that Tan-IIA induces apoptosis in several human cancer cells through caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathways. Here we explored the anticancer effect of Tan-IIA in human bladder cancer cell lines. Our results showed that Tan-IIA caused bladder cancer cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Tan-IIA induced apoptosis through the mitochondria-dependent pathway in these bladder cancer cells. Tan-IIA also suppressed the migration of bladder cancer cells as revealed by the wound healing and transwell assays. Finally, combination therapy of Tan-IIA with a lower dose of cisplatin successfully killed bladder cancer cells, suggesting that Tan-IIA can serve as a potential anti-cancer agent in bladder cancer.

  6. A reproducible brain tumour model established from human glioblastoma biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xingang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing clinically relevant animal models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM remains a challenge, and many commonly used cell line-based models do not recapitulate the invasive growth patterns of patient GBMs. Previously, we have reported the formation of highly invasive tumour xenografts in nude rats from human GBMs. However, implementing tumour models based on primary tissue requires that these models can be sufficiently standardised with consistently high take rates. Methods In this work, we collected data on growth kinetics from a material of 29 biopsies xenografted in nude rats, and characterised this model with an emphasis on neuropathological and radiological features. Results The tumour take rate for xenografted GBM biopsies were 96% and remained close to 100% at subsequent passages in vivo, whereas only one of four lower grade tumours engrafted. Average time from transplantation to the onset of symptoms was 125 days ± 11.5 SEM. Histologically, the primary xenografts recapitulated the invasive features of the parent tumours while endothelial cell proliferations and necrosis were mostly absent. After 4-5 in vivo passages, the tumours became more vascular with necrotic areas, but also appeared more circumscribed. MRI typically revealed changes related to tumour growth, several months prior to the onset of symptoms. Conclusions In vivo passaging of patient GBM biopsies produced tumours representative of the patient tumours, with high take rates and a reproducible disease course. The model provides combinations of angiogenic and invasive phenotypes and represents a good alternative to in vitro propagated cell lines for dissecting mechanisms of brain tumour progression.

  7. Glucocorticoid receptor beta increases migration of human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeth, Lucien; Nwaneri, Assumpta C; Grabnar, Maria; Demeter, Jonathan; Nestor-Kalinoski, Andrea; Hinds, Terry D

    2016-05-10

    Bladder cancer is observed worldwide having been associated with a host of environmental and lifestyle risk factors. Recent investigations on anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid signaling point to a pathway that may impact bladder cancer. Here we show an inverse effect on the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoform signaling that may lead to bladder cancer. We found similar GRα expression levels in the transitional uroepithelial cancer cell lines T24 and UMUC-3. However, the T24 cells showed a significant (p bladder cancer cells. Therefore, GRβ may have a significant role in bladder cancer, and possibly serve as a therapeutic target for the disease.

  8. PIXE analysis of cancer-afflicted human bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, G.J. Naga; Sarita, P.; Kumar, M. Ravi [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam (India); Reddy, S. Bhuloka [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam (India)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used for analysis of trace elements in small quantities of biological samples. Both the biological samples of normal and cancer-afflicted human bladder tissues were studied. The present experiment was performed using a 3 MV pelletron accelerator at the Institute of Physics in Bhubaneswar, India. A proton beam of 3 MeV energy was used to excite the samples. NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver Tissue was used as external standards for the determination of trace element concentration in the biological tissue samples. The elements CI, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Se were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The concentrations of Ti and Zn are lower (p < 0.005) and that of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cu are significantly higher (p < 0.001) in cancerous tissues than that in normal tissues. The deficiency or excess of different trace elements observed in the cancer tissues relative to the normal tissues of bladder are correlated to the pathology of cancer. (author)

  9. Radiation responses of human bladder cancer assessed in vitro or as xenografts in immune-deprived mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannock, I.; Choo, B.; Buick, R.

    1984-01-01

    The response to radiation of cells derived from transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the human bladder has been studied. In vitro radiation survival curves for two established cell lines, RT-4 and MGH-U1, and for a cell line HB-10 derived recently from biopsy of a metastatic lymph node were characterized by values of D 0 and anti n in the range of 1.1-1.5 Gy and 2-7 respectively. The oxygen enhancement ratio of HB-10 cells was 2.8. Xenografts derived from the line HB-10 were irradiated in vivo under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions and cell survival was assessed in agar. Both aerobic and hypoxic survival curves were similar to that obtained for irradiation of hypoxic HB-10 cells in culture. Another tumor line, HB-15, derived from a cystoscopic biopsy of primary TCC, was maintained by transplantation of xenografts. Regrowth curves for HB-15 xenografts after radiation doses of 10 or 20 Gy were parallel to the growth curve for untreated controls but with volume reduced by factors of about 5 and 20 respectively. Cells derived from TCC of the human bladder exhibit parameters of radiation survival similar to those of other mammalian cells, and that xenografts derived from such cells contain a high proportion of hypoxic cells

  10. Optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer - ready as a surrogate for optical biopsy? - results of a prospective mono-centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction New modalities like Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT allow non-invasive examination of the internal structure of biological tissue in vivo. The potential benefits and limitations of this new technology for the detection and evaluation of bladder cancer were examined in this study. Materials and methods Between January 2007 and January 2008, 52 patients who underwent transurethral bladder biopsy or TUR-BT for surveillance or due to initial suspicion of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder were enrolled in this study. In total, 166 lesions were suspicious for malignancy according to standard white light cystoscopy. All suspicious lesions were scanned and interpreted during perioperative cystoscopy using OCT. Cold cup biopsies and/or TUR-B was performed for all these lesions. For this study we used an OCT-device (Niris®, Imalux®, Cleveland, US, that utilizes near-infrared light guided through a flexible fibre-based applicator, which is placed into the bladder via the working channel of the cystoscope. The technology provides high spatial resolution on the order of about 10-20 μm, and a visualization of tissue to a depth of about 2 mm across a lateral span of about 2 mm in width. The device used received market clearance from the FDA and CE approval in Germany. The diagnostic and surgical procedure was videotaped and analyzed afterwards for definitive matching of scanned and biopsied lesion. The primary aim of this study was to determine the level of correlation between OCT interpretation and final histological result. Results Of 166 scanned OCT images, 102 lesions (61.4% matched to the same site where the biopsy/TUR-BT was taken according to videoanalysis. Only these video-verified lesions were used for further analysis. Of all analyzed lesions 88 were benign (inflammation, edema, hyperplasia etc. and 14 were malignant (CIS, Ta, T1, T2 as shown by final histo pathology. All 14 malignant lesions were detected correctly by

  11. Estrogen receptors in the human male bladder, prostatic urethra, and prostate. An immunohistochemical and biochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, A; Balslev, E; Juul, B R

    1995-01-01

    The distribution and quantity of estrogen receptors (ERs) in the human male bladder, prostatic urethra and the prostate were studied in eight males with recurrent papillomas of the bladder or monosymptomatic hematuria (median age 61 years), 14 men undergoing transurethral resection due to benign...

  12. Optical redox ratio and endogenous porphyrins in the detection of urinary bladder cancer: A patient biopsy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Scott; Litvinova, Karina; Dunaev, Andrey; Yubo, Ji; McGloin, David; Nabi, Ghulam

    2017-08-01

    Bladder cancer is among the most common cancers in the UK and conventional detection techniques suffer from low sensitivity, low specificity, or both. Recent attempts to address the disparity have led to progress in the field of autofluorescence as a means to diagnose the disease with high efficiency, however there is still a lot not known about autofluorescence profiles in the disease. The multi-functional diagnostic system "LAKK-M" was used to assess autofluorescence profiles of healthy and cancerous bladder tissue to identify novel biomarkers of the disease. Statistically significant differences were observed in the optical redox ratio (a measure of tissue metabolic activity), the amplitude of endogenous porphyrins and the NADH/porphyrin ratio between tissue types. These findings could advance understanding of bladder cancer and aid in the development of new techniques for detection and surveillance. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Comparative study of the organisation and phenotypes of bladder interstitial cells in human, mouse and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaert, Thomas; Neuhaus, Jochen; Vanstreels, Els; Daelemans, Dirk; Everaerts, Wouter; Der Aa, Frank Van; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Roskams, Tania; Steiner, Clara; Pintelon, Isabel; De Ridder, Dirk

    2017-12-01

    With most research on interstitial cells (IC) in the bladder being conducted on animal models, it remains unclear whether all structural and functional data on IC from animal models can be translated to the human context. This prompted us to compare the structural and immunohistochemical properties of IC in bladders from mouse, rat and human. Tissue samples were obtained from the bladder dome and subsequently processed for immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The ultrastructural properties of IC were compared by means of electron microscopy and IC were additionally characterized with single/double immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence. Our results reveal a similar organization of the IC network in the upper lamina propria (ULP), the deep lamina propria (DLP) and the detrusor muscle in human, rat and mouse bladders. Furthermore, despite several similarities in IC phenotypes, we also found several obvious inter-species differences in IC, especially in the ULP. Most remarkably in this respect, ULP IC in human bladder predominantly displayed a myoid phenotype with abundant presence of contractile micro-filaments, while those in rat and mouse bladders showed a fibroblast phenotype. In conclusion, the organization of ULP IC, DLP IC and detrusor IC is comparable in human, rat and mouse bladders, although several obvious inter-species differences in IC phenotypes were found. The present data show that translating research data on IC in laboratory animals to the human setting should be carried out with caution.

  14. Does phosphorylation of cofilin affect the progression of human bladder cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hong; Kim, Hong Sup; Kim, Bokyung; Jung, Seung-Hyo; Won, Kyung-Jong; Jiang, Xiaowen; Lee, Chang-Kwon; Lim, So Dug; Yang, Sang-Kuk; Song, Ki Hak

    2013-01-01

    We determined the differently expressed protein profiles and their functions in bladder cancer tissues with the aim of identifying possible target proteins and underlying molecular mechanisms for taking part in their progression. We examined the expression of proteins by proteomic analysis and western blot in normal urothelium, non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers (NMIBCs), and muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBCs). The function of cofilin was analyzed using T24 human bladder cancer cells. The expression levels of 12 proteins were altered between bladder cancers and normal bladder tissues. Of these proteins, 14-3-3σ was upregulated in both NMIBCs and MIBCs compared with controls. On the other hand, myosin regulatory light chain 2, galectin-1, lipid-binding AI, annexin V, transthyretin, CARD-inhibitor of NF-κB-activating ligand, and actin prepeptide were downregulated in cancer samples. Cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing factor, was prominent in both NMIBCs and MIBCs compared with normal bladder tissues. Furthermore, we confirmed that cofilin phosphorylation was more prominent in MIBCs than in NMIBCs using immunoblotting and immunohistochemcal analyses. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) increased the phosphorylation of cofilin and elevated the migration in T24 cells. Knockdown of cofilin expression with small interfering RNA attenuated the T24 cell migration in response to EGF. These results demonstrate that the increased expression and phosphorylation of cofilin might play a role in the occurrence and invasiveness of bladder cancer. We suspected that changes in cofilin expression may participate in the progression of the bladder cancer

  15. Bladder cancers respond to intravesical instillation of HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Wullt, Björn; Gustafsson, Lotta; Månsson, Wiking; Ljunggren, Eva; Svanborg, Catharina

    2007-09-15

    We studied if bladder cancers respond to HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) to establish if intravesical HAMLET application might be used to selectively remove cancer cells in vivo. Patients with nonmuscle invasive transitional cell carcinomas were included. Nine patients received 5 daily intravesical instillations of HAMLET (25 mg/ml) during the week before scheduled surgery. HAMLET stimulated a rapid increase in the shedding of tumor cells into the urine, daily, during the 5 days of instillation. The effect was specific for HAMLET, as intravesical instillation of NaCl, PBS or native alpha-lactalbumin did not increase cell shedding. Most of the shed cells were dead and an apoptotic response was detected in 6 of 9 patients, using the TUNEL assay. At surgery, morphological changes in the exophytic tumors were documented by endoscopic photography and a reduction in tumor size or change in tumor character was detected in 8 of 9 patients. TUNEL staining was positive in biopsies from the remaining tumor in 4 patients but adjacent healthy tissue showed no evidence of apoptosis and no toxic response. The results suggest that HAMLET exerts a direct and selective effect on bladder cancer tissue in vivo and that local HAMLET administration might be of value in the future treatment of bladder cancers. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Molecular profiling of ADAM12 in human bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Reidar; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Rudkjaer, Lise

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: We have previously found ADAM12, a disintegrin and metalloprotease, to be an interesting biomarker for breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the gene and protein expression profiles of ADAM12 in different grades and stages of bladder cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: ADAM12...... gene expression was evaluated in tumors from 96 patients with bladder cancer using a customized Affymetrix GeneChip. Gene expression in bladder cancer was validated using reverse transcription-PCR, quantitative PCR, and in situ hybridization. Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical...... staining on tissue arrays of bladder cancers. The presence and relative amount of ADAM12 in the urine of cancer patients were determined by Western blotting and densitometric measurements, respectively. RESULTS: ADAM12 mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated in bladder cancer, as determined...

  17. A novel technique for diaphragm biopsies in human patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noullet, Séverine; Romero, Norma; Menegaux, Fabrice; Chapart, Maud; Demoule, Alexandre; Morelot-Panzini, Capucine; Similowski, Thomas; Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jésus

    2015-06-15

    The diaphragm is difficult to biopsy because of its anatomic location. We describe a new laparoscopic diaphragm biopsy technique. Fifty one patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis gave their consent to diaphragm biopsy in the context of an implanted phrenic nerve stimulation protocol (NCT01583088). The biopsy was taken from the costal diaphragm, after opening the parietal peritoneum with scissors, and by grasping the diaphragmatic muscle over the rib with toothed laparoscopy forceps. The first four electrocoagulation biopsies were unsuitable for morphologic examination. The following 47 biopsies were therefore performed without electrocoagulation. The mean size of the biopsy fragments obtained after preparation was 3 ± 1 × 2 ± 1 × 1 ± 1 mm (maximum: 4 × 3 × 2 mm). A diaphragmatic injury occurred during the section in three cases requiring immediate suture without causing pneumothorax. A small pleural effusion was observed on the postoperative chest x-ray in one patient with a spontaneously favorable outcome. Numerous stains were able to be performed on the fragments obtained. Diaphragm biopsy can be safely performed by laparoscopy and yields tissue suitable for our future histologic evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Structure and function of suburothelial myofibroblasts in the human urinary bladder under normal and pathological conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, J; Heinrich, M; Schlichting, N; Oberbach, A; Fitzl, G; Schwalenberg, T; Horn, L-C; Stolzenburg, J-U

    2007-09-01

    Myofibroblasts play a pivotal role in numerous pathological alterations. Clarification of the structure and function and of the cellular plasticity of this cell type in the bladder may lead to new insights into the pathogenesis of lower urinary tract disorders. Bladder biopsies from patients with bladder carcinoma and interstitial cystitis were used to analyse the morphology and receptor expression using confocal immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Cytokine effects and coupling behavior were tested in cultured myofibroblasts and detrusor smooth muscle cells. Myofibroblasts are in close contact with the suburothelial capillary network. They express Cx43 and form functional syncytia. The expression of muscarinic and purinergic receptors is highly variable. Dye coupling experiments showed differences to detrusor myocytes. Upregulation of smooth muscle cell alpha-actin and/or transdifferentiation into smooth muscle cells may contribute to the etiology of urge incontinence. A multi-step model is presented as a working hypothesis.

  19. Molecular profiling of ADAM12 in human bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Reidar; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Rudkjaer, Lise

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: We have previously found ADAM12, a disintegrin and metalloprotease, to be an interesting biomarker for breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the gene and protein expression profiles of ADAM12 in different grades and stages of bladder cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: ADAM12...... gene expression was evaluated in tumors from 96 patients with bladder cancer using a customized Affymetrix GeneChip. Gene expression in bladder cancer was validated using reverse transcription-PCR, quantitative PCR, and in situ hybridization. Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical...

  20. Lewis antigen mediated adhesion of freshly removed human bladder tumors to E-selectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skorsteensgaard, Karna; Vestergaard, Else Marie; Langkilde, Niels

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Twenty fresh surgical specimens of human bladder tumors were tested for their ability to adhere to recombinant P and E-selectin. The adhesion was correlated to immunological detection of carbohydrate structures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A static titertray assay with immobilized selectins.......003), whereas no correlation was found to secretor and Lewis genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: These data on clinical specimens indicate that Lewis antigen mediated E-selectin adhesion may play a role in the human bladder cancer disease....

  1. Clinical usefulness of random biopsies in diagnosis and treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiela, J D; Palou, J; Esquinas, C; Fernández Gómez, J M; Rodríguez Faba, O

    2017-11-20

    This systematic review of the literature has been focused on determining the clinical usefulness of random bladder biopsies (RB) in the diagnosis of carcinoma in situ. A meta-analysis was performed to establish the clinic and pathological factors associated to positive biopsies. A systematic review was performed using Pubmed/Medline database according to the PRISMA guidelines. Thirty-seven articles were included, recruiting a total of 12,657 patients, 10,975 were submitted to RB. The overall incidence of positive RB was 21.91%. Significant differences were found in the incidence of positive RB when patients were stratified according to urine cytology result, tumor multiplicity, tumor appearance, stage and grade. The results of the meta-analysis revealed that the presence of positive cytology, tumor multiplicity, non-papillary appearance tumors, stage T1 and histological grades G2 and G3 represent the risk factors to predict abnormalities in RB. The incidence of positive RB in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer was 21.91%. The maximum usefulness of RB was observed when these are performed in a standardized way. The results of the meta-analysis showed that besides positive cytology and non-papillary appearance tumors, tumor multiplicity and histological grades G2 and G3 represent risk factors associated to positive RB, suggesting that the use of RB might be extensive to the intermediate risk group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Optical Coherencetomography for Bladder Cancer-Ready as a Surrogate for Optical Biopsy? Results of a Prospective Mono-Centre Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl, H. Stepp

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is no perfect noninvasive diagnostic technique for bladder cancer. Cystoscopy and transurethral resection (TUR are stil gold standard for the diagnosis of muscle invasive bladder cancer. On the other hand, Optical CoherenceTomography (OCT can be alternative in the future. OCT was the first applied for opthalmology. OCT provides layer by layer images from target tissues with high-resolution, optical cross-sectional tomographic imaging. OCT’s concept is similar to ultrasound, differently it use light for detection. OCT’s resolution may vary from 20 microns (μm up to 1 μm that depends on optical system and lightsource. The image penetration depth of OCT can reach to 2-3 mm. Recently, there are many research about OCT for the diagnosis of urogenital tumors in the literature. In this study, A.Karl reported sensitivity and specificty of OCT for detecting the presence of malignant lession as 100% and %65. But, this small study includes only 52 patients who have 166 suspicious lesions. Specifity of OCT was inadequate due to false positive images, in this report. Contrary, there were no false negative lesions and its sensitivity was 100% depend on all invasive tumors detected and staged correctly beyond the lamina propria. False positive results were associated with edema, inflammation and scar. The overall OCT sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative and positive predictive values are reported as 75-100%, 65-98%, 92%, 75% and 100% in the literature. We need more large-scale studies about this topic. It will be promissing technique for diagnostics of urogenital malignant lesions. OCT (optical biopsy will progress with tecnical development and it will be alternative method for staging of bladder cancer.

  3. Do neural tube defects lead to structural alterations in the human bladder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Helena M F; Lobo, Márcio Luiz de P; Costa, Waldemar S; Sampaio, Francisco J B; Cardoso, Luis Eduardo M; Favorito, Luciano Alves

    2011-05-01

    Anencephaly is the most severe neural tube defect in human fetuses. The objective of this paper is to analyze the structure of the bladder in anencephalic human fetuses. We studied 40 bladders of normal human fetuses (20 male and 20 female, aged 14 to 23 WPC) and 12 bladders of anencephalic fetuses (5 male and 7 female, aged 18 to 22 WPC). The bladders were removed and processed by routine histological techniques. Stereological analysis of collagen, elastic system fibers and smooth muscle was performed in sections. Data were expressed as volumetric density (Vv-%). The images were captured with Olympus BX51 microscopy and Olympus DP70 camera. The stereological analysis was done using the software Image Pro and Image J. For biochemical analysis, samples were fixed in acetone, and collagen concentrations were expressed as micrograms of hydroxyproline per mg of dry tissue. Means were statistically compared using the unpaired t-test (p<0.05). We observed a significant increase (p<0.0001) in the Vv of collagen in the bladders of anencephalic fetuses (69.71%) when compared to normal fetuses (52.74%), and a significant decrease (p<0.0001) in the Vv of smooth muscle cells in the bladders of anencephalic fetuses (23.96%) when compared to normal fetuses (38.35%). The biochemical analyses showed a higher concentration of total collagen in the bladders of anencephalic fetuses (37354 µg/mg) when compared to normal fetuses (48117 µg/mg, p<0.02). The structural alterations of the bladder found in this study may suggest the existence of functional alterations in the bladder of anencephalic human fetuses.

  4. Study of Arachidonic Acid Pathway in Human Bladder Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Matsuyama

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological studies and animal experiments have demonstrated that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs reduce the incidence of colorectal carcinoma. Cyclooxygenase (COX is the principal target of NSAIDs. COX is the first oxidase in the process of prostaglandin production from arachidonic acid. COX enzyme may be involved in the initiation and/or the promotion of tumorigenesis due to NSAIDs inhibition of COX. Lipoxygenase (LOX is also an initial enzyme in the pathway for producing leukotrienes from arachidonic acid. Similar to COX, LOX enzyme may also be involved in the initiation and/or promotion of tumorigenesis. Peroxisome proliferator activator-receptor (PPAR-γ is a ligand-activated transcriptional factor belonging to the steroid receptor superfamily. PPAR-γ plays a role in both adipocyte differentiation and tumorigenesis. PPAR-γ is one target for cell growth modulation of NSAIDs. In this review, we report the expression of COX-2, LOX and PPAR-γ in human bladder tumor tissues as well as the effects of COX-2 and LOX inhibitors and PPAR-γ ligand.

  5. Study of Arachidonic Acid Pathway in Human Bladder Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Matsuyama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological studies and animal experiments have demonstrated that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs reduce the incidence of colorectal carcinoma. Cyclooxygenase (COX is the principal target of NSAIDs. COX is the first oxidase in the process of prostaglandin production from arachidonic acid. COX enzyme may be involved in the initiation and/or the promotion of tumorigenesis due to NSAIDs inhibition of COX. Lipoxygenase (LOX is also an initial enzyme in the pathway for producing leukotrienes from arachidonic acid. Similar to COX, LOX enzyme may also be involved in the initiation and/or promotion of tumorigenesis. Peroxisome proliferator activator-receptor (PPAR-γ is a ligand-activated transcriptional factor belonging to the steroid receptor superfamily. PPAR-γ plays a role in both adipocyte differentiation and tumorigenesis. PPAR-γ is one target for cell growth modulation of NSAIDs. In this review, we report the expression of COX-2, LOX and PPAR-γ in human bladder tumor tissues as well as the effects of COX-2 and LOX inhibitors and PPAR-γ ligand.

  6. Lectin immunohistochemical evaluation of human bladder carcinomas. A comparison of Carnoy's and formalin fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, T; Ueda, K; Ohtaguro, K; Inoue, K; Washida, H; Mori, M; Tatemoto, Y; Fukushima, S

    1993-10-01

    A lectin immunohistochemical analysis of 51 human bladder carcinomas, including 44 cases of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) (G1, 15 cases; G2, 17 cases; G3, 12 cases) and 7 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), was performed. Tissues were obtained by cold punch biopsies, fixed in Carnoy's or 10% formalin solution, stained for binding of 10 different lectins, and evaluated under the light microscope. The lectins used were concanavalin agglutinin (Con A), soybean agglutinin (SBA), Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin (LTA), Dolichos biflorusa agglutinin (DBA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA1), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I, II (UEA-I, II), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and Pisum sativum agglutinin (PEA). TCC prepared with Carnoy's fixation tended to show moderately positive Con A, UEA-I, and WGA reactions for G1, and strongly positive reactions for G2 and G3 lesions. UEA-II was mainly negative in G1, but tended to increase to become moderate in G3. DBA tended to show a moderately positive reaction in G1 and G2, but was mainly negative in G3. With formalin fixation, only RCA1 demonstrated grade specific variation, tendency to react moderately in the G1 and G2 cases, and strongly in G3. There were no further differences among the histopathological grades of TCC for other lectins. Thus, Carnoy's fixation appears superior for distinguishing between grades of lesions. SCC tended to react more strongly than TCC with all the various lectins except PEA, independent of fixation.

  7. CXCL5 knockdown expression inhibits human bladder cancer T24 cells proliferation and migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jiajia [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhu, Xi [Department of Urology, Beijing Friendship Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Zhang, Jie, E-mail: zhangjiebjmu@163.com [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • We first demonstrated CXCL5 is highly expressed in human bladder tumor tissues and cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis in T24 cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in T24 cells. • CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression. - Abstract: CXCL5 (epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78) which acts as a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophil function was reported to play a multifaceted role in tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of CXCL5 in bladder cancer progression, we examined the CXCL5 expression in bladder cancer tissues by real-time PCR and Western blot, additionally, we used shRNA-mediated silencing to generate stable CXCL5 silenced bladder cancer T24 cells and defined its biological functions. Our results demonstrated that mRNA and protein of CXCL5 is increased in human bladder tumor tissues and cell lines, down-regulation of CXCL5 in T24 cells resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and increased cell apoptosis in vitro through Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. These data suggest that CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression, it may represent a potential application in cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  8. CXCL5 knockdown expression inhibits human bladder cancer T24 cells proliferation and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jiajia; Zhu, Xi; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We first demonstrated CXCL5 is highly expressed in human bladder tumor tissues and cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis in T24 cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in T24 cells. • CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression. - Abstract: CXCL5 (epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78) which acts as a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophil function was reported to play a multifaceted role in tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of CXCL5 in bladder cancer progression, we examined the CXCL5 expression in bladder cancer tissues by real-time PCR and Western blot, additionally, we used shRNA-mediated silencing to generate stable CXCL5 silenced bladder cancer T24 cells and defined its biological functions. Our results demonstrated that mRNA and protein of CXCL5 is increased in human bladder tumor tissues and cell lines, down-regulation of CXCL5 in T24 cells resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and increased cell apoptosis in vitro through Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. These data suggest that CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression, it may represent a potential application in cancer diagnosis and therapy

  9. Novel robust biomarkers for human bladder cancer based on activation of intracellular signaling pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Lezhnina, Ksenia; Kovalchuk, Olga; Zhavoronkov, Alexander A.; Korzinkin, Mikhail B.; Zabolotneva, Anastasia A.; Shegay, Peter V.; Sokov, Dmitry G.; Gaifullin, Nurshat M.; Rusakov, Igor G.; Aliper, Alexander M.; Roumiantsev, Sergey A.; Alekseev, Boris Y.; Borisov, Nikolay M.; Buzdin, Anton A.

    2014-01-01

    We recently proposed a new bioinformatic algorithm called OncoFinder for quantifying the activation of intracellular signaling pathways. It was proved advantageous for minimizing errors of high-throughput gene expression analyses and showed strong potential for identifying new biomarkers. Here, for the first time, we applied OncoFinder for normal and cancerous tissues of the human bladder to identify biomarkers of bladder cancer. Using Illumina HT12v4 microarrays, we profiled gene expression ...

  10. Current status of tissue engineering applied to bladder reconstruction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasanz, C; Raventós, C; Morote, J

    2018-01-11

    Bladder reconstruction is performed to replace or expand the bladder. The intestine is used in standard clinical practice for tissue in this procedure. The complications of bladder reconstruction range from those of intestinal resection to those resulting from the continuous contact of urine with tissue not prepared for this contact. In this article, we describe and classify the various biomaterials and cell cultures used in bladder tissue engineering and reviews the studies performed with humans. We conducted a review of literature published in the PubMed database between 1950 and 2017, following the principles of the PRISM declaration. Numerous in vitro and animal model studies have been conducted, but only 18 experiments have been performed with humans, with a total of 169 patients. The current evidence suggests that an acellular matrix, a synthetic polymer with urothelial and autologous smooth muscle cells attached in vitro or stem cells would be the most practical approach for experimental bladder reconstruction. Bladder replacement or expansion without using intestinal tissue is still a challenge, despite progress in the manufacture of biomaterials and the development of cell therapy. Well-designed studies with large numbers of patients and long follow-up times are needed to establish an effective clinical translation and standardisation of the check-up functional tests. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative immunohistochemical characterization of interstitial cells in the urinary bladder of human, guinea pig and pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Clara; Gevaert, Thomas; Ganzer, Roman; De Ridder, Dirk; Neuhaus, Jochen

    2018-05-01

    Interstitial cells (ICs) are thought to play a functional role in urinary bladder. Animal models are commonly used to elucidate bladder physiology and pathophysiology. However, inter-species comparative studies on ICs are rare. We therefore analyzed ICs and their distribution in the upper lamina propria (ULP), the deeper lamina propria (DLP) and the detrusor muscular layer (DET) of human, guinea pig (GP) and pig. Paraffin slices were examined by immunohistochemistry and 3D confocal immunofluorescence of the mesenchymal intermediate filament vimentin (VIM), alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) and transient receptor potential cation channel A1 (TRPA1). Image stacks were processed for analysis using Huygens software; quantitative analysis was performed with Fiji macros. ICs were identified by immunoreactivity for VIM (excluding blood vessels). In all species ≥ 75% of ULP ICs were VIM + /PDGFRα + and ≥ 90% were VIM + /TRPA1 + . In human and pig ≥ 74% of ULP ICs were VIM + /αSMA + , while in GP the percentage differed significantly with only 37% VIM + /αSMA + ICs. Additionally, over 90% of αSMA + ICs were also TRPA1 + and PDGFRα + in human, GP and pig. In all three species, TRPA1 + and PDGFRα + ICs point to an active role for these cells in bladder physiology, regarding afferent signaling processes and signal modification. We hypothesize that decline in αSMA-positivity in GP reflects adaptation of bladder histology to smaller bladder size. In our experiments, pig bladder proved to be highly comparable to human urinary bladder and seems to provide safer interpretation of experimental findings than GP.

  12. E-cigarette smoke damages DNA and reduces repair activity in mouse lung, heart, and bladder as well as in human lung and bladder cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Park, Sung-Hyun; Weng, Mao-wen; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Huang, William C.; Lepor, Herbert; Wu, Xue-Ru; Chen, Lung-Chi; Tang, Moon-shong

    2018-01-01

    Significance E-cigarette smoke (ECS) delivers nicotine through aerosols without burning tobacco. ECS is promoted as noncarcinogenic. We found that ECS induces DNA damage in mouse lung, bladder, and heart and reduces DNA-repair functions and proteins in lung. Nicotine and its nitrosation product 4-(methylnitrosamine)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone can cause the same effects as ECS and enhance mutations and tumorigenic cell transformation in cultured human lung and bladder cells. These results indica...

  13. The Impact of Biopsy on Human Embryo Developmental Potential during Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Cimadomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and Screening (PGD/PGS for monogenic diseases and/or numerical/structural chromosomal abnormalities is a tool for embryo testing aimed at identifying nonaffected and/or euploid embryos in a cohort produced during an IVF cycle. A critical aspect of this technology is the potential detrimental effect that the biopsy itself can have upon the embryo. Different embryo biopsy strategies have been proposed. Cleavage stage blastomere biopsy still represents the most commonly used method in Europe nowadays, although this approach has been shown to have a negative impact on embryo viability and implantation potential. Polar body biopsy has been proposed as an alternative to embryo biopsy especially for aneuploidy testing. However, to date no sufficiently powered study has clarified the impact of this procedure on embryo reproductive competence. Blastocyst stage biopsy represents nowadays the safest approach not to impact embryo implantation potential. For this reason, as well as for the evidences of a higher consistency of the molecular analysis when performed on trophectoderm cells, blastocyst biopsy implementation is gradually increasing worldwide. The aim of this review is to present the evidences published to date on the impact of the biopsy at different stages of preimplantation development upon human embryos reproductive potential.

  14. p16 expression is not associated with human papillomavirus in urinary bladder squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Riley E; Hu, Yingchuan; Kum, Jennifer B; Montironi, Rodolfo; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Maclennan, Gregory T; Idrees, Muhammad T; Emerson, Robert E; Ulbright, Thomas M; Grignon, David G; Eble, John N; Cheng, Liang

    2012-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is unusual and of unknown etiology. There is a well-established association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the development of cervical and head/neck squamous cell carcinomas. However, the role of HPV in the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is uncertain. The purposes of this study were to investigate the possible role of HPV in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and to determine if p16 expression could serve as a surrogate marker for HPV in this malignancy. In all, 42 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and 27 cases of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation were investigated. HPV infection was analyzed by both in situ hybridization at the DNA level and immunohistochemistry at the protein level. p16 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. HPV DNA and protein were not detected in 42 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (0%, 0/42) or 27 cases of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation (0%, 0/15). p16 expression was detected in 13 cases (31%, 13/42) of squamous cell carcinoma and 9 cases (33%, 9/27) of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. There was no correlation between p16 expression and the presence of HPV infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. Our data suggest that HPV does not play a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. p16 expression should not be used as a surrogate marker for evidence of HVP infection in either squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation as neither HVP DNA nor protein is detectable in these neoplasms.

  15. Muscarinic receptor subtypes in porcine detrusor: comparison with humans and regulation by bladder augmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goepel, M.; Gronewald, A.; Krege, S.; Michel, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    The properties of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors of porcine and human bladder detrusor were compared in radioligand binding studies using [3H]quinuclidinylbenzylate as the radioligand. The receptor affinity for the radioligand and the density of muscarinic receptors was similar in male and

  16. CDC91L1 (PIG-U) is a newly discovered oncogene in human bladder cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Z.; Linn, J.F.; Wu, G.; Anzick, S.L.; Eisenberger, C.F.; Halachmi, S.; Cohen, Y.; Fomenkov, A.; Hoque, M.O.; Okami, K.; Steiner, G.; Engles, J.M.; Osada, M.; Moon, C.; Ratovitski, E.; Trent, J.M.; Meltzer, P.S.; Westra, W.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Schoenberg, M.P.; Sidransky, D.; Trink, B.

    2004-01-01

    Genomic amplification at 20q11-13 is a common event in human cancers. We isolated a germline translocation breakpoint at 20q11 from a bladder cancer patient. We identified CDC91L1, the gene encoding CDC91L1 (also called phosphatidylinositol glycan class U (PIG-U), a transamidase complex unit in the

  17. Characterization of the Olfactory Receptor OR10H1 in Human Urinary Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Lea; Schulz, Wolfgang A; Philippou, Stathis; Eckardt, Josephine; Ubrig, Burkhard; Hoffmann, Michéle J; Tannapfel, Andrea; Kalbe, Benjamin; Gisselmann, Günter; Hatt, Hanns

    2018-01-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) are a large group of G-protein coupled receptors predominantly found in the olfactory epithelium. Many ORs are, however, ectopically expressed in other tissues and involved in several diseases including cancer. In this study, we describe that one OR, OR10H1, is predominantly expressed in the human urinary bladder with a notably higher expression at mRNA and protein level in bladder cancer tissues. Interestingly, also significantly higher amounts of OR10H1 transcripts were detectable in the urine of bladder cancer patients than in the urine of control persons. We identified the sandalwood-related compound Sandranol as a specific agonist of OR10H1. This deorphanization allowed the functional characterization of OR10H1 in BFTC905 bladder cancer cells. The effect of receptor activation was morphologically apparent in cell rounding, accompanied by changes in the cytoskeleton detected by β-actin, T-cadherin and β-Catenin staining. In addition, Sandranol treatment significantly diminished cell viability, cell proliferation and migration and induced a limited degree of apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis revealed an increased G1 fraction. In a concentration-dependent manner, Sandranol application elevated cAMP levels, which was reduced by inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, and elicited intracellular Ca 2+ concentration increase. Furthermore, activation of OR10H1 enhanced secretion of ATP and serotonin. Our results suggest OR10H1 as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for bladder cancer.

  18. Characterization of the Olfactory Receptor OR10H1 in Human Urinary Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Weber

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptors (ORs are a large group of G-protein coupled receptors predominantly found in the olfactory epithelium. Many ORs are, however, ectopically expressed in other tissues and involved in several diseases including cancer. In this study, we describe that one OR, OR10H1, is predominantly expressed in the human urinary bladder with a notably higher expression at mRNA and protein level in bladder cancer tissues. Interestingly, also significantly higher amounts of OR10H1 transcripts were detectable in the urine of bladder cancer patients than in the urine of control persons. We identified the sandalwood-related compound Sandranol as a specific agonist of OR10H1. This deorphanization allowed the functional characterization of OR10H1 in BFTC905 bladder cancer cells. The effect of receptor activation was morphologically apparent in cell rounding, accompanied by changes in the cytoskeleton detected by β-actin, T-cadherin and β-Catenin staining. In addition, Sandranol treatment significantly diminished cell viability, cell proliferation and migration and induced a limited degree of apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis revealed an increased G1 fraction. In a concentration-dependent manner, Sandranol application elevated cAMP levels, which was reduced by inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, and elicited intracellular Ca2+ concentration increase. Furthermore, activation of OR10H1 enhanced secretion of ATP and serotonin. Our results suggest OR10H1 as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for bladder cancer.

  19. RNA isolation for transcriptomics of human and mouse small skin biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breit Timo M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolation of RNA from skin biopsies presents a challenge, due to the tough nature of skin tissue and a high presence of RNases. As we lacked the dedicated equipment, i.e. homogenizer or bead-beater, needed for the available RNA from skin isolation methods, we adapted and tested our zebrafish single-embryo RNA-isolation protocol for RNA isolation from skin punch biopsies. Findings We tested our new RNA-isolation protocol in two experiments: a large-scale study with 97 human skin samples, and a small study with 16 mouse skin samples. Human skin was sampled with 4.0 mm biopsy punches and for the mouse skin different punch diameter sizes were tested; 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mm. The average RNA yield in human samples was 1.5 μg with an average RNA quality RIN value of 8.1. For the mouse biopsies, the average RNA yield was 2.4 μg with an average RIN value of 7.5. For 96% of the human biopsies and 100% of the mouse biopsies we obtained enough high-quality RNA. The RNA samples were successfully tested in a transcriptomics analysis using the Affymetrix and Roche NimbleGen platforms. Conclusions Using our new RNA-isolation protocol, we were able to consistently isolate high-quality RNA, which is apt for further transcriptomics analysis. Furthermore, this method is already useable on biopsy material obtained with a punch diameter as small as 1.5 mm.

  20. METABOLISM AND DNA ADDUCT FORMATION OF 2-ACETYLAMINOFLUORENE BY BLADDER EXPLANTS FROM HUMAN, DOG, MONKEY, HAMSTER AND RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is concluded that bladder explants of the human, dog, monkey, hamster, and rat metabolize AAF mainly to ring-hydroxylated products, but also form small amounts of the proximate carcinogenic metabolite N-hydroxy-AAF. Neither the overall binding of AAF to bladder DNA, nor the fo...

  1. Biopsy of human morula-stage embryos: outcome of 215 IVF/ICSI cycles with PGS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena E Zakharova

    Full Text Available Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD is commonly performed on biopsies from 6-8-cell-stage embryos or blastocyst trophectoderm obtained on day 3 or 5, respectively. Day 4 human embryos at the morula stage were successfully biopsied. Biopsy was performed on 709 morulae from 215 ICSI cycles with preimplantation genetic screening (PGS, and 3-7 cells were obtained from each embryo. The most common vital aneuploidies (chromosomes X/Y, 21 were screened by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. No aneuploidy was observed in 72.7% of embryos, 91% of those developed to blastocysts. Embryos were transferred on days 5-6. Clinical pregnancy was obtained in 32.8% of cases, and 60 babies were born. Patients who underwent ICSI/PGS treatment were compared with those who underwent standard ICSI treatment by examining the percentage of blastocysts, pregnancy rate, gestational length, birth height and weight. No significant differences in these parameters were observed between the groups. Day 4 biopsy procedure does not adversely affect embryo development in vitro or in vivo. The increased number of cells obtained by biopsy of morulae might facilitate diagnostic screening. There is enough time after biopsy to obtain PGD results for embryo transfer on day 5-6 in the current IVF cycle.

  2. Understanding the development of human bladder cancer by using a whole-organ genomic mapping strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Tadeusz; Lee, Sangkyou; Jeong, Joon; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Kram, Andrzej; Kim, Mi-Sook; Tuziak, Tomasz; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Lee, Sooyong; Park, Weon-Seo; Tang, Kuang S; Chung, Woonbok; Shen, Lanlan; Ahmed, Saira S; Johnston, Dennis A; Grossman, H Barton; Dinney, Colin P; Zhou, Jain-Hua; Harris, R Alan; Snyder, Carrie; Filipek, Slawomir; Narod, Steven A; Watson, Patrice; Lynch, Henry T; Gazdar, Adi; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Wu, Xifeng F; McConkey, David J; Baggerly, Keith; Issa, Jean-Pierre; Benedict, William F; Scherer, Steven E; Czerniak, Bogdan

    2008-07-01

    The search for the genomic sequences involved in human cancers can be greatly facilitated by maps of genomic imbalances identifying the involved chromosomal regions, particularly those that participate in the development of occult preneoplastic conditions that progress to clinically aggressive invasive cancer. The integration of such regions with human genome sequence variation may provide valuable clues about their overall structure and gene content. By extension, such knowledge may help us understand the underlying genetic components involved in the initiation and progression of these cancers. We describe the development of a genome-wide map of human bladder cancer that tracks its progression from in situ precursor conditions to invasive disease. Testing for allelic losses using a genome-wide panel of 787 microsatellite markers was performed on multiple DNA samples, extracted from the entire mucosal surface of the bladder and corresponding to normal urothelium, in situ preneoplastic lesions, and invasive carcinoma. Using this approach, we matched the clonal allelic losses in distinct chromosomal regions to specific phases of bladder neoplasia and produced a detailed genetic map of bladder cancer development. These analyses revealed three major waves of genetic changes associated with growth advantages of successive clones and reflecting a stepwise conversion of normal urothelial cells into cancer cells. The genetic changes map to six regions at 3q22-q24, 5q22-q31, 9q21-q22, 10q26, 13q14, and 17p13, which may represent critical hits driving the development of bladder cancer. Finally, we performed high-resolution mapping using single nucleotide polymorphism markers within one region on chromosome 13q14, containing the model tumor suppressor gene RB1, and defined a minimal deleted region associated with clonal expansion of in situ neoplasia. These analyses provided new insights on the involvement of several non-coding sequences mapping to the region and identified

  3. Quantification of spatial structure of human proximal tibial bone biopsies using 3D measures of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saparin, Peter I.; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Prohaska, Steffen

    2005-01-01

    3D data sets of human tibia bone biopsies acquired by a micro-CT scanner. In order to justify the newly proposed approach, the measures of complexity of the bone architecture were compared with the results of traditional 2D bone histomorphometry. The proposed technique is able to quantify...

  4. Assessment of satellite cell number and activity status in human skeletal muscle biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Kjaer, Michael; Charifi, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim of our study was to validate the assessment of myonuclear and satellite cell number in biopsies from human skeletal muscle. We found that 25 type I and 25 type II fibers are sufficient to estimate the mean number of myonuclei per fiber. In contrast, the assessment of satellite cells...

  5. Novel bifunctional anthracycline and nitrosourea chemotherapy for human bladder cancer: analysis in a preclinical survival model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaves, D; Murray, M K; Raghavan, D

    1996-08-01

    A hybrid drug [N-2-chloroethylnitrosoureidodaunorubicin (AD312)] that combines structural and functional features of both anthracyclines and nitrosoureas was evaluated in a preclinical survival model of human bladder cancer. To measure the therapeutic activity of AD312, UCRU-BL13 transitional cell carcinoma cells were grown as xenografts in nude mice, and tumor growth rates were compared after i.v. administration of the drug at three dose levels. AD312 treatment at 45 and 60 mg/kg achieved 7-10-fold inhibition of tumor growth and increased host survival by 156 and 249%, respectively. Doses of 60 mg/kg showed optimal therapeutic efficacy, with sustained tumor growth inhibition, an over 2-fold increase in life span, and 40% of mice tumor free ("cured") at 120 days. Tumors were unresponsive to maximum tolerated doses of doxorubicin, a standard anthracycline used as a single agent and in combination therapies for bladder cancer. 1,3-Bis-[2-chloroethyl]-1-nitrosourea was used as a control for the apparently enhanced response of human tumors in murine hosts to nitrosoureas. 1, 3-Bis-[2-chloroethyl]-1-nitrosourea administered in three injections of 20 mg/kg did not cure mice but temporarily inhibited tumor growth by 70% and prolonged survival by 55%; its activity in this model suggests that it may be included in the repertoire of alkylating agents currently used for treatment of bladder cancers. AD312 showed increased antitumor activity with less toxicity than doxorubicin, and its bifunctional properties provide the opportunity for simultaneous treatment of individual cancer cells with two cytotoxic modalities as well as treatment of heterogeneous populations typical of bladder cancers. This novel cytotoxic drug cured doxorubicin-refractory disease and should be investigated for the clinical management of bladder cancer.

  6. G Protein-Coupled Receptor 87 (GPR87 Promotes Cell Proliferation in Human Bladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptor 87 (GPR87 is a newly deorphanized member of the cell surface molecule G protein-coupled receptor family. GPR signaling was shown to play a role in promotion of cell growth and survival, metastasis, and drug resistance. The overexpression of GPR87 has also been reported in many malignant tumors including bladder cancer. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of silencing GPR87 expression with a replication-deficient recombinant adenoviral vector expressing short hairpin RNA targeting GPR87 (Ad-shGPR87 and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms in bladder cancer cells. Six GPR87-expressing human bladder cancer cells, HT1197, HT1376, J82, RT112, TCCSUP and UMUC3, were used. Infection with Ad-shGPR87 effectively downregulated the GPR87 expression, and significantly reduced the percentage of viable cells in 4 of 6 cell lines as detected by an MTT assay. Significant inhibition on cell proliferation with Ad-shGPR87 was observed in the wild-type p53 bladder cancer cell lines (HT1197, RT112, TCCSUP and UMUC3, but not in the mutant p53 cells (HT1376 and J82. As represented by a wild-type p53 RT112 cell, Ad-shGPR87 infection significantly enhanced p53 and p21 expression and caused caspase-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, the treatment with Ad-shGPR87 exerted a significant antitumor effect against the GPR87-expressing RT112 xenografts. GPR87 appeared to be a promising target for gene therapy, and Ad-shGPR87 had strong antitumor effects, specifically anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects, against GPR87-expressing human bladder cancer cells.

  7. Characterization of Cement Particles Found in Peri-implantitis-Affected Human Biopsy Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbano, Maria; Wilson, Thomas G; Valderrama, Pilar; Blansett, Jonathan; Wadhwani, Chandur P K; Choudhary, Pankaj K; Rodriguez, Lucas C; Rodrigues, Danieli C

    2015-01-01

    Peri-implantitis is a disease characterized by soft tissue inflammation and continued loss of supporting bone, which can result in implant failure. Peri-implantitis is a multifactorial disease, and one of its triggering factors may be the presence of excess cement in the soft tissues surrounding an implant. This descriptive study evaluated the composition of foreign particles from 36 human biopsy specimens with 19 specimens selected for analysis. The biopsy specimens were obtained from soft tissues affected by peri-implantitis around cement-retained implant crowns and compared with the elemental composition of commercial luting cement. Nineteen biopsy specimens were chosen for the comparison, and five test cements (TempBond, Telio, Premier Implant Cement, Intermediate Restorative Material, and Relyx) were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. This enabled the identification of the chemical composition of foreign particles embedded in the tissue specimens and the composition of the five cements. Statistical analysis was conducted using classification trees to pair the particles present in each specimen with the known cements. The particles in each biopsy specimen could be associated with one of the commercial cements with a level of probability ranging between .79 and 1. TempBond particles were found in one biopsy specimen, Telio particles in seven, Premier Implant Cement particles in four, Relyx particles in four, and Intermediate Restorative Material particles in three. Particles found in human soft tissue biopsy specimens around implants affected by peri-implant disease were associated with five commercially available dental cements.

  8. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Nishimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB. Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS. Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  9. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  10. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  11. Endoscopic biopsies in Ussing chambers evaluated for studies of macromolecular permeability in the human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, Conny; Braaf, Ylva; Wolving, Mats; Olaison, Gunnar; Söderholm, Johan D

    2005-05-01

    Studies of mucosal permeability to protein antigens in humans are limited to in vitro techniques. The use of surgical specimens for such studies has major shortcomings. Endoscopic biopsies in Ussing chambers have been introduced as a means of studying secretion and transepithelial permeability, but have not been evaluated for studies of protein antigen uptake in human intestine. Standard forceps biopsies from the sigmoid colon of 24 healthy volunteers were mounted in Ussing chambers with an exposed tissue area of 1.76 mm2. 51Cr-EDTA (paracellular probe) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP; 45 kDa protein antigen) were used as permeability markers. Mucosal permeability, electrophysiology, histology and energy contents of the biopsies were studied over time. To evaluate the ability of the technique to detect permeability changes, the mucosa was modulated with capric acid, a medium-chain fatty acid, known to affect tight junctions. In the Ussing chamber the mucosal biopsies were viable for 160 min with stable levels of ATP and lactate, and only minor changes in morphology. Steady-state permeability with low variability was seen for both markers during the 30-90 min period. Exposure to capric acid induced a rapid decrease in short-circuit current (Isc) and a slower reversible decrease in transepithelial resistance (TER), as well as an increased permeability to 51Cr-EDTA and HRP. Endoscopic biopsies of human colon are viable in Ussing chambers and are reliable tools for studies of mucosal permeability to protein antigens. The technique offers a broad potential for studies of mucosal function in the pathophysiology of human gastrointestinal diseases.

  12. Effects of arsenite on cell cycle progression in a human bladder cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Zavala, A.; Cordova, E.; Razo, L.M. del; Cebrian, M.E.; Garrido, E.

    2005-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most important diseases associated with arsenic (As) exposure in view of its high prevalence and mortality rate. Experimental studies have shown that As exposure induces cell proliferation in the bladder of sodium arsenite (iAsIII) subchronically treated mice. However, there is little available information on its effects on the cell cycle of bladder cells. Thus, our purpose was to evaluate the effects of iAsIII on cell cycle progression and the response of p53 and p21 on the human-derived epithelial bladder cell line HT1197. iAsIII treatment (1-10 μM) for 24 h induced a dose-dependent increase in the proportion of cells in S-phase, which reached 65% at the highest dose. A progressive reduction in cell proliferation was also observed. BrdU was incorporated to cellular DNA in an interrupted form, suggesting an incomplete DNA synthesis. The time-course of iAsIII effects (10 μM) showed an increase in p53 protein content and a transient increase in p21 protein levels accompanying the changes in S-phase. These effects were correlated with iAs concentrations inside the cells, which were not able to metabolize inorganic arsenic. Our findings suggest that p21 was not able to block CDK2-cyclin E complex activity and was therefore unable to arrest cells in G1 allowing their progression into the S-phase. Further studies are needed to ascertain the mechanisms underlying the effects of iAsIII on the G1 to S phase transition in bladder cells

  13. Receptor-targeted therapy of human experimental urinary bladder cancers with cytotoxic LH-RH analog AN-152 [AEZS- 108].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szepeshazi, Karoly; Schally, Andrew V; Keller, Gunhild; Block, Norman L; Benten, Daniel; Halmos, Gabor; Szalontay, Luca; Vidaurre, Irving; Jaszberenyi, Miklos; Rick, Ferenc G

    2012-07-01

    Many bladder cancers progress to invasion with poor prognosis; new therapeutic methods are needed. We developed a cytotoxic LH-RH analog, AN-152 (AEZS-108) containing doxorubicin (DOX), for targeted therapy of cancers expressing LHRH receptors. We investigated the expression of LH-RH receptors in clinical bladder cancers and in HT-1376, J82, RT-4 and HT-1197 human bladder cancer lines. The effect of analog, AN-152, on growth of these tumor lines xenografted into nude mice was analyzed. Using molecular and functional assays, we also evaluated the differences between the effects of AN-152, and DOX alone. We demonstrated the expression of LH-RH receptors on 18 clinical bladder cancers by immunohistochemistry and on four human urinary bladder cancer lines HT-1376, J82, RT-4 and HT-1197 by Western blotting and binding assays. AN-152 powerfully inhibited growth of these bladder cancers in nude mice. AN-152 exerted greater effects than DOX and was less toxic. DOX activated strong multidrug resistance mechanisms in RT-4 and HT-1197 cancers, while AN-152 had no or less such effect. PCR assays and in vitro studies revealed differences in the action of AN-152 and DOX on the expression of genes involved in apoptosis. These results suggest that targeted cytotoxic LH-RH analog, AN-152 (AEZS- 108), should be examined for treatment of patients with LH-RH receptor positive invasive bladder cancers.

  14. Kaempferol Promotes Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer Cells by Inducing the Tumor Suppressor, PTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Zhou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kaempferol (Kae, a natural flavonoid, is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. Previous studies have identified Kae as a possible cancer preventive and therapeutic agent. We found Kae to exhibit potent antiproliferation and anti-migration effects in human bladder cancer EJ cells. Kaempferol robustly induced apoptosis in EJ cells in a dose-dependent manner, as evidenced by increased cleavage of caspase-3. Furthermore, we found Kae-induced apoptosis in EJ cells to be associated with phosphatase and the tensin homolog deleted on the chromosome 10 (PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway. Kae significantly increased PTEN and decreased Akt phosphorylation. Kae-induced apoptosis was partially attenuated in PTEN-knockdown cells. Our findings indicate that Kae could be an alternative medicine for bladder cancer, based on a PTEN activation mechanism.

  15. Association of Human Development Index with global bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiman, Alyssa K; Rosoff, James S; Prasad, Sandip M

    2017-12-01

    To describe contemporary worldwide age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer and their association with development. We obtained gender-specific, age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for 184 countries and 16 major world regions from the GLOBOCAN 2012 database. We compared the mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) at national and regional levels in males and females, and assessed the association with socio-economic development using the 2014 United Nations Human Development Index (HDI). Age-standardized incidence rates were 2.9 (bladder) to 7.4 (testis) times higher for genitourinary malignancies in more developed countries compared with less developed countries. Age-standardized mortality rates were 1.5-2.2 times higher in more vs less developed countries for prostate, bladder and kidney cancer, with no variation in mortality rates observed in testis cancer. There was a strong inverse relationship between HDI and MIR in testis (regression coefficient 1.65, R 2 = 0.78), prostate (regression coefficient -1.56, R 2 = 0.85), kidney (regression coefficient -1.34, R 2 = 0.74), and bladder cancer (regression coefficient -1.01, R 2 = 0.80). While incidence and mortality rates for genitourinary cancers vary widely throughout the world, the MIR is highest in less developed countries for all four major genitourinary malignancies. Further research is needed to understand whether differences in comorbidities, exposures, time to diagnosis, access to healthcare, diagnostic techniques or treatment options explain the observed inequalities in genitourinary cancer outcomes. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Localization of P2X receptor subtypes 2, 3 and 7 in human urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svennersten, Karl; Hallén-Grufman, Katarina; de Verdier, Petra J; Wiklund, N Peter; Poljakovic, Mirjana

    2015-08-08

    Voiding dysfunctions are a common problem that has a severe negative impact on the quality of life. Today there is a need for new drug targets for these conditions. The role of ATP receptors in bladder physiology has been studied for some time, primarily in animal models. The aim of this work is to investigate the localization of the ATP receptors P2X2, P2X3 and P2X7 and their colocalization with vimentin and actin in the human urinary bladder. Immunohistochemical analysis was conducted on full-thickness bladder tissues from fundus and trigonum collected from 15 patients undergoing open radical cystectomy due to chronic cystitis, bladder cancer or locally advanced prostate cancer. Colocalization analyses were performed between the three different P2X subtypes and the structural proteins vimentin and actin. Specimens were examined using epifluorescence microscopy and correlation coefficients were calculated for each costaining as well as the mean distance from the laminin positive basal side of the urothelium to the vimentin positive cells located in the suburothelium. P2X2 was expressed in vimentin positive cells located in the suburothelium. Less distinct labelling of P2X2 was also observed in actin positive smooth muscle cells and in the urothelium. P2X3 was expressed in vimentin positive cells surrounding the smooth muscle, and in vimentin positive cells located in the suburothelium. Weaker P2X3 labelling was seen in the urothelium. P2X7 was expressed in the smooth muscle cells and the urothelium. In the suburothelium, cells double positive for P2X2 and vimentin where located closer to the urothelium while cells double positive for P2X3 and vimentin where located further from the urothelium. The results from this study demonstrate that there is a significant difference in the expression of the purinergic P2X2, P2X3 and P2X7 receptors in the different histological layers of the human urinary bladder.

  17. Lack of detection of human papillomavirus infection by hybridization test in prostatic biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazzaz, Faten S; Mosli, Hisham A

    2009-01-01

    To explore the possibility of finding human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the prostate tissue of a cohort of Saudi men presenting with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate cancer. A cohort study on prospectively collected tissue samples was conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from March 2007 to December 2008 on a total of 56 male patients, age range 50-93 years (average 68), diagnosed as having BPH or prostate cancer. The HPV DNA hybridization by hybrid capture 2 technology was performed on prostate biopsies of these patients to detect 18 types of HPV infection, and differentiate between 2 HPV DNA groups, the low-risk types, and the high/intermediate risk types.The tissues of all the prostatic biopsies were negative for HPV DNA. Our results, using the hybridization test, indicate that it is unlikely that HPV-16 or HPV-18, or the other tested subtypes, enhance the risk of prostate cancer. (author)

  18. Gamma-Klotho exhibits multiple roles in tumor growth of human bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Shunta; Miyake, Makito; Tatsumi, Yoshihiro; Morizawa, Yosuke; Nakai, Yasushi; Onishi, Sayuri; Onishi, Kenta; Iida, Kota; Gotoh, Daisuke; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Fujimoto, Kiyohide

    2018-04-13

    Alpha-Klotho (KLα) and beta-Klotho (KLβ) have recently been reported to correlate with cancer prognosis in some malignancies and we previously reported the association between KLα, KLβ, and urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB), indicating that KLβ acts as a tumor promoter. However, the association between gamma-Klotho (KLγ) and cancer prognosis remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the association between KLγ and UCB. To evaluate the effect of KLγ on human bladder cancer cell lines in vitro assays were performed. Exogenous KLγ increased the ability of human bladder cancer cells to proliferate, migrate, invade, form colonies, and provide anchorage-independent growth potential. In in vivo assays, eighteen mice bearing xenografts inoculated using UM-UC-3, were randomly divided into three groups and treated with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) by intratumoral administration once a week for four weeks. Knockdown of KLγ with siRNA led to a dramatic change in tumor growth and suggested that KLγ had effects on tumor growth, including promotion of cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, and enhancement of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. To confirm the study, human tissue samples were used and patients were divided into two groups according to KLγ expression level. High expression of KLγ was significantly associated with higher stage and grade cancer and the presence of lymphovascular invasion compared to patients with lower expression of KLγ. Our results suggest that KLγ plays an important role in tumor invasion and progression and these results may lead to the development of new therapies and diagnostic methods for UCB.

  19. Expression and function of K(V)2-containing channels in human urinary bladder smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Kiril L; Chen, Muyan; Afeli, Serge A Y; Cheng, Qiuping; Rovner, Eric S; Petkov, Georgi V

    2012-06-01

    The functional role of the voltage-gated K(+) (K(V)) channels in human detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) is largely unexplored. Here, we provide molecular, electrophysiological, and functional evidence for the expression of K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, and the electrically silent K(V)9.3 subunits in human DSM. Stromatoxin-1 (ScTx1), a selective inhibitor of K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, and K(V)4.2 homotetrameric channels and of K(V)2.1/9.3 heterotetrameric channels, was used to examine the role of these channels in human DSM function. Human DSM tissues were obtained during open bladder surgeries from patients without a history of overactive bladder. Freshly isolated human DSM cells were studied using RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, live-cell Ca(2+) imaging, and the perforated whole cell patch-clamp technique. Isometric DSM tension recordings of human DSM isolated strips were conducted using tissue baths. RT-PCR experiments showed mRNA expression of K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, and K(V)9.3 (but not K(V)4.2) channel subunits in human isolated DSM cells. K(V)2.1 and K(V)2.2 protein expression was confirmed by Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Perforated whole cell patch-clamp experiments revealed that ScTx1 (100 nM) inhibited the amplitude of the voltage step-induced K(V) current in freshly isolated human DSM cells. ScTx1 (100 nM) significantly increased the intracellular Ca(2+) level in DSM cells. In human DSM isolated strips, ScTx1 (100 nM) increased the spontaneous phasic contraction amplitude and muscle force, and enhanced the amplitude of the electrical field stimulation-induced contractions within the range of 3.5-30 Hz stimulation frequencies. These findings reveal that ScTx1-sensitive K(V)2-containing channels are key regulators of human DSM excitability and contractility and may represent new targets for pharmacological or genetic intervention for bladder dysfunction.

  20. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary ...

  1. Comparison between hemosiderin and Technetium-99 in sentinel lymph node biopsy in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasques, Paulo Henrique Diogenes; Aquino, Ranniere Gurgel Furtado de; Pinheiro, Luiz Gonzaga Porto; Torres, Roberto Vitor Almeida; Bezerra, Jose Lucas Martins; Brasileiro, Luis Porto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the safety and potential equivalence of the use of hemosiderin compared to the Technetium-99 in sentinel lymph node biopsy in human breast cancer. Methods: Non-random sample of 14 volunteer women diagnosed with breast cancer with primary tumors (T1/T2) and clinically tumor-free axilla were submitted to the identification of sentinel lymph node using hemosiderin obtained from autologous blood injected in the periareolar region 24h before surgery on an outpatient basis. Patients received preoperative subareolar intradermal injection of Technetium-99 in the immediate preoperative period. Patients were submitted to sentinel lymph node biopsy, with incision in the axillary fold guided by Gamma-Probe, dissection by planes until the identification of the point of maximum uptake of Technetium-99, identifying the marked nodes and their colors. All surgical specimens were sent for pathological and immunohistochemical study. Results: The results showed no evidence of side effects and/or allergic and non-allergic reactions in patients submitted to SLNB with hemosiderin. The SLN identification rate per patient was 100%. SLNB identification rate per patient with hemosiderin was the same as that of Technetium, with a concordance rate of 100% between the methods. Conclusion: Hemosiderin is a safe dye that is equivalent to Technetium in breast sentinel lymph node biopsy. (author)

  2. Comparison between hemosiderin and Technetium-99 in sentinel lymph node biopsy in human breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasques, Paulo Henrique Diogenes; Aquino, Ranniere Gurgel Furtado de; Pinheiro, Luiz Gonzaga Porto, E-mail: luizgporto@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Cirurgia; Alves, Mayara Maia [Rede Nordeste de Biotecnologia (RENORBIO/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Torres, Roberto Vitor Almeida; Bezerra, Jose Lucas Martins [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Brasileiro, Luis Porto [Faculdades INTA, Sobral, CE (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the safety and potential equivalence of the use of hemosiderin compared to the Technetium-99 in sentinel lymph node biopsy in human breast cancer. Methods: Non-random sample of 14 volunteer women diagnosed with breast cancer with primary tumors (T1/T2) and clinically tumor-free axilla were submitted to the identification of sentinel lymph node using hemosiderin obtained from autologous blood injected in the periareolar region 24h before surgery on an outpatient basis. Patients received preoperative subareolar intradermal injection of Technetium-99 in the immediate preoperative period. Patients were submitted to sentinel lymph node biopsy, with incision in the axillary fold guided by Gamma-Probe, dissection by planes until the identification of the point of maximum uptake of Technetium-99, identifying the marked nodes and their colors. All surgical specimens were sent for pathological and immunohistochemical study. Results: The results showed no evidence of side effects and/or allergic and non-allergic reactions in patients submitted to SLNB with hemosiderin. The SLN identification rate per patient was 100%. SLNB identification rate per patient with hemosiderin was the same as that of Technetium, with a concordance rate of 100% between the methods. Conclusion: Hemosiderin is a safe dye that is equivalent to Technetium in breast sentinel lymph node biopsy. (author)

  3. DIFFERENTIAL MODULATION OF CANCER-RELATED MOLECULAR NETWORKS IN HUMAN AND RAT URINARY BLADDER CELLS EXPOSED TO TRIVALENT ARSENICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic (As) is classified as a known human carcinogen with primary targets of urinary bladder (UB), skin and lung. The most prevalent source of As exposure in humans is drinking water contaminated with inorganic As (iAs), and millions of people worldwide are exposed to drinking ...

  4. Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells Induced Cell Apoptosis and S Phase Arrest in Bladder Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs on the viability and apoptosis of human bladder cancer cells. EJ and T24 cells were cocultured with ADSCs or cultured with conditioned medium of ADSCs (ADSC-CM, respectively. The cell counting and colony formation assay showed ADSCs inhibited the proliferation of EJ and T24 cells. Cell viability assessment revealed that the secretions of ADSCs, in the form of conditioned medium, were able to decrease cancer cell viability. Wound-healing assay suggested ADSC-CM suppressed migration of T24 and EJ cells. Moreover, the results of the flow cytometry indicated that ADSC-CM was capable of inducing apoptosis of T24 cells and inducing S phase cell cycle arrest. Western blot revealed ADSC-CM increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, indicating that ADSC-CM induced apoptosis in a caspase-dependent way. PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway and Bcl-2 family proteins were involved in the mechanism of this reaction. Our study indicated that ADSCs may provide a promising and practicable manner for bladder tumor therapy.

  5. Functional and Molecular Evidence for Kv7 Channel Subtypes in Human Detrusor from Patients with and without Bladder Outflow Obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalø, Julie; Sheykhzade, Majid; Nordling, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether Kv7 channels and their ancillary β-subunits, KCNE, are functionally expressed in the human urinary bladder. Kv7 channels were examined at the molecular level and by functional studies using RT-qPCR and myography, respectively. We found mRNA expressi...... between Kv7 channels and β-adrenoceptors in the human urinary bladder. The performed gene expression analysis combined with the organ bath studies imply that compounds that activate Kv7 channels could be useful for treatment of overactive bladder syndrome.......The aim of the study was to investigate whether Kv7 channels and their ancillary β-subunits, KCNE, are functionally expressed in the human urinary bladder. Kv7 channels were examined at the molecular level and by functional studies using RT-qPCR and myography, respectively. We found mRNA expression...... (activator of Kv7.1 channels, 10 μM) and ML213 (activator of Kv7.2, Kv7.4, Kv7.4/7.5 and Kv7.5 channels, 10 μM), reduced the tone of 1 μM carbachol pre-constricted bladder strips. XE991 (blocker of Kv7.1-7.5 channels, 10 μM) had opposing effects as it increased contractions achieved with 20 mM KPSS...

  6. Evaluating low dose ionizing radiation effects on gene expression in human skin biopsy cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Z.; Schwietert, C.; Stern, R.L.; Lehnert, B.E.

    2003-01-01

    Significant biological effects can occur in animals, animal cells, immortalized human cell lines, and primary human cells after exposure to doses of ionizing radiation (IR) in the <1-10 cGy region. However it is unclear how these observations mimic or even pertain to the actual in vivo condition in humans, though such knowledge is required for reducing the uncertainty of assessing human risks due to low dose IR (LDIR) exposures. Further, low dose effects have increasing clinical relevance in the radiotherapeutic management of cancer as the volume of tissue receiving only LDIR increases as more targeted radiotherapy (i.e. IMRT) becomes more widely used. Thus, human translational data must be obtained with which to correlate in vitro experimental findings and evaluate their 'real-life' applicability. To evaluate LDIR effects in human tissue we have obtained freshly explanted full thickness human skin samples obtained from aesthetic surgery, and subjected them to ex vivo irradiation as a translational research model system of a complex human tissue. Ionizing radiation (IR) exposures were delivered at 1, 10, or 100 cGy. The temporal response to IR was assessed by harvesting RNA at multiple time points out to 24 hours post IR. Gene expression changes were assessed by real time PCR. We have shown that RNA can be reliably extracted with fidelity from 3 mm diameter punch biopsies of human tissue and provide good quality sample for the real time PCR evaluation. Genes of interest include those reported to have altered expression following LDIR from in vitro cell culture models. These include genes associated with cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and various cytokines. These feasibility studies in human skin irradiated ex vivo, have demonstrated that gene expression can be measured accurately from very small human tissue samples, thus setting the stage for biopsy acquisition of tissue irradiated in vivo from patients-volunteers. The clinical study has begun and the data from

  7. Combined spectroscopic imaging and chemometric approach for automatically partitioning tissue types in human prostate tissue biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haka, Abigail S.; Kidder, Linda H.; Lewis, E. Neil

    2001-07-01

    We have applied Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging, coupling a mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) focal plane array detector (FPA) and a Michelson step scan interferometer, to the investigation of various states of malignant human prostate tissue. The MCT FPA used consists of 64x64 pixels, each 61 micrometers 2, and has a spectral range of 2-10.5 microns. Each imaging data set was collected at 16-1 resolution, resulting in 512 image planes and a total of 4096 interferograms. In this article we describe a method for separating different tissue types contained within FTIR spectroscopic imaging data sets of human prostate tissue biopsies. We present images, generated by the Fuzzy C-Means clustering algorithm, which demonstrate the successful partitioning of distinct tissue type domains. Additionally, analysis of differences in the centroid spectra corresponding to different tissue types provides an insight into their biochemical composition. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to partition tissue type regions in a different data set using centroid spectra calculated from the original data set. This has implications for the use of the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm as an automated technique for the separation and examination of tissue domains in biopsy samples.

  8. Using human intestinal biopsies to study the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Y; Boeckxstaens, G E; Wouters, M M; Schemann, M; Vanner, S

    2014-04-01

    Although animal models of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have provided important insights, there are no models that fully express the features of this complex condition. One alternative approach is the use of human intestinal biopsies obtained during endoscopic procedures to examine peripheral mechanisms in this disorder. These studies have served to confirm the existence of peripheral pathways in humans with IBS and have provided many new mechanistic insights. Two general approaches have been employed; one approach has been to examine the biological activity of mediators within the mucosal tissue of IBS patients and the other has been to examine changes in the structural properties of key signaling pathways contained within the biopsies. Using these approaches, important changes have been discovered involving the enteric nervous system and the extrinsic sensory pathway (dorsal root ganglia neurons), the immune system, and epithelial signaling in IBS patients compared to healthy subjects. This review will systematically explore these mechanistic pathways, highlight the implications of these novel findings and discuss some of the important limitations of this approach. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Variability of protein level and phosphorylation status caused by biopsy protocol design in human skeletal muscle analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron Marc-André

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bergström needle biopsy is widely used to sample skeletal muscle in order to study cell signaling directly in human tissue. Consequences of the biopsy protocol design on muscle protein quantity and quality remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of different events surrounding biopsy protocol on the stability of the Western blot signal of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1, Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β, muscle RING finger protein 1 (MuRF1 and p70 S6 kinase (p70 S6K. Six healthy subjects underwent four biopsies of the vastus lateralis, distributed into two distinct visits spaced by 48 hrs. At visit 1, a basal biopsy in the right leg was performed in the morning (R1 followed by a second in the left leg in the afternoon (AF. At visit 2, a second basal biopsy (R2 was collected from the right leg. Low intensity mobilization (3 × 20 right leg extensions was performed and a final biopsy (Mob was collected using the same incision site as R2. Results Akt and p70 S6K phosphorylation levels were increased by 83% when AF biopsy was compared to R1. Mob condition induced important phosphorylation of p70 S6K when compared to R2. Comparison of R1 and R2 biopsies revealed a relative stability of the signal for both total and phosphorylated proteins. Conclusions This study highlights the importance to standardize muscle biopsy protocols in order to minimize the method-induced variation when analyzing Western blot signals.

  10. Regorafenib Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Metastatic Potential of Human Bladder Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fei-Ting; Sun, Cho-Chin; Wu, Chia-Hsing; Lee, Yen-Ju; Chiang, Chih-Hung; Wang, Wei-Shu

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of regorafenib on apoptosis and metastatic potential in TSGH 8301 human bladder carcinoma cells in vitro. Cells were treated with different concentration of regorafenib for different periods of time. Effects of regorafenib on cell viability, apoptosis pathways, metastatic potential, and expression of metastatic and anti-apoptotic proteins were evaluated with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, cell migration and invasion assay, and western blotting. We found regorafenib significantly reduced cell viability, cell migration and invasion, and expression of metastatic and anti-apoptotic proteins. In addition, regorafenib significantly induced accumulation of sub-G 1 phase cells, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and expression of active caspase-3 and caspase-8. These results show that regorafenib not only induces apoptosis, but also inhibits metastatic potential in bladder cancer TSGH 8301 cells in vitro. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  11. Differential repair of platinum-DNA adducts in human bladder and testicular tumor continuous cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedford, P.; Fichtinger-Schepman, A.M.; Shellard, S.A.; Walker, M.C.; Masters, J.R.; Hill, B.T.

    1988-01-01

    The formation and removal of four platinum-DNA adducts were immunochemically quantitated in cultured cells derived from a human bladder carcinoma cell line (RT112) and from two lines derived from germ cell tumors of the testis (833K and SUSA), following exposure in vitro to 16.7 microM (5 micrograms/ml) cisplatin. RT112 cells were least sensitive to the drug and were proficient in the repair of all four adducts, whereas SUSA cells, which were 5-fold more sensitive, were deficient in the repair of DNA-DNA intrastrand cross-links in the sequences pApG and pGpG. Despite expressing a similar sensitivity to SUSA cells, 833K cells were proficient in the repair of all four adducts, although less so than the RT112 bladder tumor cells. In addition, SUSA cells were unable to repair DNA-DNA interstrand cross-links whereas 50-85% of these lesions were removed in RT112 and 833K cells 24 h following drug exposure. It is possible that the inability of SuSa cells to repair platinated DNA may account for their hypersensitivity to cisplatin

  12. Labelling of anti-human bladder tumor chimeric antibody with 99Tcm and radioimmunoimaging of bladder carcinoma xenograft in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunli; Wang Rongfu; Fu Zhanli; Bai Yin; Ding Yi; Yu Lizhang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro immunoreactivity and in vivo tissue distribution, tumor targeting property of anti-human bladder tumor human-murine chimeric antibody (ch-BDI) labeled with 99 Tc m and to investigate its possibility for being used in guiding diagnosis and guiding therapy of bladder cancer. Methods: The ch-BDI was labeled with 99 Tc m by improved Schwarz method and the labeled antibody was purified by Sephadex G-50. Labeling yield and radiochemical purity were measured by paper chromatography. The immunoreactive fraction and association constant (K a ) were measured by Lindmo method and Scatchard analysis, respectively. 11.1 MBq (30 μg) 99 Tc m -ch-BDI was intravenously injected into nude mice bearing human bladder cancer xenografts in the right thigh and radioimmunoimaging (RII) was performed 2, 6, 20 and 24 h postinjection. The images were processed by region of interest (ROI) method to acquire the counts of whole body and the tumor and the counts ratios of tumor to contralateral normal tissue or to tissues of other non-tumor bearing organs. The mice were killed after 24 h postinjection imaging and tissue distribution was measured. %ID/g and target to nontarget (T/NT) ratios were calculated. Results: The labeling yield and radiochemical purity of 99 Tc m -ch-BDI were (66.5±7.3)% and >90%, respectively. The immunoreactive fraction was 76% and K a was 3.56 x 10 9 L/mol. RII showed that the tumor was clearly visualized 6 h postinjection and becoming clearer along with time prolonging. The radioactivity of whole body decreased rapidly with time, whereas the radioactivity of the tumor decreased slowly. The T/NT ratios was increased with time. Biodistribution results showed that tumor uptake was 17.4%ID/g 24 h postinjection. T/NT ratios were very high except for the kidney. T/NT ratios for brain, muscle, intestinal wall, bone and heart wall were 136.0, 55.1, 39.3, 29.7 and 27.9, respectively. Conclusion: 99 Tc m -ch-BDI exhibits excellent

  13. Comparison of urine and bladder or urethral mucosal biopsy culture obtained by transurethral cystoscopy in dogs with chronic lower urinary tract disease: 41 cases (2002 to 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sycamore, K F; Poorbaugh, V R; Pullin, S S; Ward, C R

    2014-07-01

    To compare aerobic bacterial culture of urine to cystoscopically obtained mucosal biopsies of the lower urinary tract in dogs. Retrospective review of case records from dogs that had transurethral cystoscopy at a veterinary teaching hospital between 2002 and 2011. Dogs that had culture results from cystocentesis obtained urine and transurethral cystoscopically obtained mucosal samples were included in the study. Pathogens identified were compared between sampling methods. Forty dogs underwent transurethral cystoscopy for lower urinary tract disease on 41 occasions. There was significant (P = 0 · 0003) agreement between urine and mucosal biopsy cultures. Both cultures were negative in 66% and positive in 17% of dogs. There was a 17% disagreement between the sampling methods. Although not statistically significant, more mucosal samples than urine cultures were positive for Escherichia coli. There was a good agreement between pathogen identification from urine and lower urinary tract mucosal cultures. These results do not support the utilisation of transurethral cystoscopy to obtain biopsy samples for culture in dogs with urinary tract infection and positive urine culture. Individual cases with possible chronic urinary tract infection and negative urine culture may benefit from transurethral cystoscopy to obtain biopsies for culture. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  14. Diagnostic Algorithm to Reflect Regressive Changes of Human Papilloma Virus in Tissue Biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhee, Min Jin; Cha, Youn Jin; Bae, Jong Man; Kim, Young Tae

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Landmark indicators have not yet to be developed to detect the regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We propose that quantitative viral load and indicative histological criteria can be used to differentiate between atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and a CIN of grade 1. Materials and Methods We collected 115 tissue biopsies from women who tested positive for the human papilloma virus (HPV). Nine morphological parameters including nuclear size, perinuclear halo, hyperchromasia, typical koilocyte (TK), abortive koilocyte (AK), bi-/multi-nucleation, keratohyaline granules, inflammation, and dyskeratosis were examined for each case. Correlation analyses, cumulative logistic regression, and binary logistic regression were used to determine optimal cut-off values of HPV copy numbers. The parameters TK, perinuclear halo, multi-nucleation, and nuclear size were significantly correlated quantitatively to HPV copy number. Results An HPV loading number of 58.9 and AK number of 20 were optimal to discriminate between negative and subtle findings in biopsies. An HPV loading number of 271.49 and AK of 20 were optimal for discriminating between equivocal changes and obvious koilocytosis. Conclusion We propose that a squamous epithelial lesion with AK of >20 and quantitative HPV copy number between 58.9-271.49 represents a new spectrum of subtle pathological findings, characterized by AK in ASCUS. This can be described as a distinct entity and called "regressing koilocytosis". PMID:24532500

  15. Bladder Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Catheterization • Urinary Tract Infections: Indwelling (Foley) Catheter Bladder Management [ Download this pamphlet: "Bladder Management" - (PDF, 499KB) ] The ... and medication or surgery may be helpful. Bladder Management Foley or Suprapubic Catheter A tube is inserted ...

  16. Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer occurs in the lining of the bladder. It ... urinate Low back pain Risk factors for developing bladder cancer include smoking and exposure to certain chemicals in ...

  17. De novo reconstitution of a functional mammalian urinary bladder by tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberpenning, F; Meng, J; Yoo, J J; Atala, A

    1999-02-01

    Human organ replacement is limited by a donor shortage, problems with tissue compatibility, and rejection. Creation of an organ with autologous tissue would be advantageous. In this study, transplantable urinary bladder neo-organs were reproducibly created in vitro from urothelial and smooth muscle cells grown in culture from canine native bladder biopsies and seeded onto preformed bladder-shaped polymers. The native bladders were subsequently excised from canine donors and replaced with the tissue-engineered neo-organs. In functional evaluations for up to 11 months, the bladder neo-organs demonstrated a normal capacity to retain urine, normal elastic properties, and histologic architecture. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that successful reconstitution of an autonomous hollow organ is possible using tissue-engineering methods.

  18. Pioglitazone and bladder cancer in human studies: Is it diabetes itself, diabetes drugs, flawed analyses or different ethnicities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hsiao Tseng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews human observations on pioglitazone and bladder cancer risk. The PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial In macroVascular Events trial showed an imbalance in bladder cancer between users of pioglitazone and placebo (14 versus six cases, p = 0.069. However, after excluding bladder cancer probably ascribed to other etiology, a blind assessment concluded that the imbalance might not be related to pioglitazone. Epidemiologic studies conducted in the United States and France using insurance databases independently suggested that pioglitazone use for >2 years might confer a 20%–40% higher risk. Another study evaluating bladder cancer risk in diabetic patients using the National Health Insurance in Taiwan did not find any incident bladder cancer case among 422 pioglitazone users for a follow-up of up to 3 years. Because observational studies may suffer from selection and information bias, and inadequate adjustment for confounders may inflate the estimated risk, causal inference from these studies should be interpreted with caution. While investigating cancer risk associated with a medication, indication bias should also be attended, especially when the medication is used at a late stage of the disease. Because pioglitazone is usually a second or third line antidiabetic agent, the users are always characterized by older age, longer diabetes duration, poorer glycemic control, and higher rates of complications and comorbidities. Biased estimates will also result if these differences are not appropriately addressed in the analyses. Current evidence neither concludes nor excludes a causal role of pioglitazone on bladder cancer. Clinical trials aiming at evaluating the risk of cancer associated with a medication is not ethical and may not be expected to provide an answer on the issue of pioglitazone-related bladder cancer. However, a meta-analysis using all available clinical trials to compare the bladder cancer risk between

  19. Transcriptomics and proteomics show that selenium affects inflammation, cytoskeleton, and cancer pathways in human rectal biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méplan, Catherine; Johnson, Ian T; Polley, Abigael C J; Cockell, Simon; Bradburn, David M; Commane, Daniel M; Arasaradnam, Ramesh P; Mulholland, Francis; Zupanic, Anze; Mathers, John C; Hesketh, John

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies highlight the potential role of dietary selenium (Se) in colorectal cancer prevention. Our goal was to elucidate whether expression of factors crucial for colorectal homoeostasis is affected by physiologic differences in Se status. Using transcriptomics and proteomics followed by pathway analysis, we identified pathways affected by Se status in rectal biopsies from 22 healthy adults, including 11 controls with optimal status (mean plasma Se = 1.43 μM) and 11 subjects with suboptimal status (mean plasma Se = 0.86 μM). We observed that 254 genes and 26 proteins implicated in cancer (80%), immune function and inflammatory response (40%), cell growth and proliferation (70%), cellular movement, and cell death (50%) were differentially expressed between the 2 groups. Expression of 69 genes, including selenoproteins W1 and K, which are genes involved in cytoskeleton remodelling and transcription factor NFκB signaling, correlated significantly with Se status. Integrating proteomics and transcriptomics datasets revealed reduced inflammatory and immune responses and cytoskeleton remodelling in the suboptimal Se status group. This is the first study combining omics technologies to describe the impact of differences in Se status on colorectal expression patterns, revealing that suboptimal Se status could alter inflammatory signaling and cytoskeleton in human rectal mucosa and so influence cancer risk.-Méplan, C., Johnson, I. T., Polley, A. C. J., Cockell, S., Bradburn, D. M., Commane, D. M., Arasaradnam, R. P., Mulholland, F., Zupanic, A., Mathers, J. C., Hesketh, J. Transcriptomics and proteomics show that selenium affects inflammation, cytoskeleton, and cancer pathways in human rectal biopsies. © The Author(s).

  20. Enrichment of tumor cells for cell kinetic analysis in human tumor biopsies using cytokeratin gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haustermans, K.; Hofland, I.; Ramaekers, M.; Ivanyi, D.; Balm, A.J.M.; Geboes, K.; Lerut, T.; Schueren, E. van der; Begg, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of using cytokeratin antibodies to distinguish normal and malignant cells in human tumors using flow cytometry. The goal was ultimately to increase the accuracy of cell kinetic measurements on human tumor biopsies. Material and methods: A panel of four antibodies was screened on a series of 48 tumors from two centres; 22 head and neck tumors (Amsterdam) and 26 esophagus carcinomas (Leuven). First, screening was carried out by immunohistochemistry on frozen sections to test intensity of staining and the fraction of cytokeratin-positive tumor cells. The antibody showing the most positive staining was then used for flow cytometry on the same tumor. Results: The two broadest spectrum antibodies (AE1/AE3, E3/C4) showed overall the best results with immunohistochemical staining, being positive in over 95% of tumors. Good cell suspensions for DNA flow cytometry could be made from frozen material by a mechanical method, whereas enzymatic methods with trypsin or collagenase were judged failures in almost all cases. >From fresh material, both collagenase and trypsin produced good suspensions for flow cytometry, although the fraction of tumor cells, judged by proportion aneuploid cells, was markedly higher for trypsin. Using the best cytokeratin antibody for each tumor, two parameter flow cytometry was done (cytokeratin versus DNA content). Enrichment of tumor cells was then tested by measuring the fraction of aneuploid cells (the presumed malignant population) of cytokeratin-positive cells versus all cells. An enrichment factor ranging between 0 (no enrichment) and 1 (perfect enrichment, tumor cells only) was then calculated. The average enrichment was 0.60 for head and neck tumors and 0.59 for esophagus tumors. Conclusions: We conclude that this method can substantially enrich the proportion of tumor cells in biopsies from carcinomas. Application of this method could significantly enhance accuracy of tumor cell kinetic measurements

  1. H-RAS, K-RAS, and N-RAS gene activation in human bladder cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybojewska, B; Jagiello, A; Jalmuzna, P

    2000-08-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in most developed countries. In this work, 19 bladder cancer specimens, along with their infiltrations of the urinary bladder wall from the same patients, were examined for the presence of H-RAS, K-RAS, and N-RAS activation using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. The H-RAS activation was found in 15 (about 84%) of the 19 bladder cancers studied. The same results were obtained in the infiltrating urinary bladder wall samples. N-RAS gene mutations were observed in all cases (except 1) in which H-RAS gene mutations were detected. The results suggest a strong relationship between H-RAS and N-RAS gene activation in bladder cancer. Changes in the K-RAS gene in bladder cancers seem to be a rare event; this is in agreement with findings of other authors. We found activation of the gene in one specimen of bladder cancer and its infiltration of the urinary bladder wall in the same patient.

  2. Acrolein- and 4-Aminobiphenyl-DNA adducts in human bladder mucosa and tumor tissue and their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Weng, Mao-wen; Hu, Yu; Chen, Wei-sheng; Chou, David; Liu, Yan; Donin, Nicholas; Huang, William C; Lepor, Herbert; Wu, Xue-Ru; Wang, Hailin; Beland, Frederick A; Tang, Moon-shong

    2014-06-15

    Tobacco smoke (TS) is a major cause of human bladder cancer (BC). Two components in TS, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and acrolein, which also are environmental contaminants, can cause bladder tumor in rat models. Their role in TS related BC has not been forthcoming. To establish the relationship between acrolein and 4-ABP exposure and BC, we analyzed acrolein-deoxyguanosine (dG) and 4-ABP-DNA adducts in normal human urothelial mucosa (NHUM) and bladder tumor tissues (BTT), and measured their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells. We found that the acrolein-dG levels in NHUM and BTT are 10-30 fold higher than 4-ABP-DNA adduct levels and that the acrolein-dG levels in BTT are 2 fold higher than in NHUM. Both acrolein-dG and 4-ABP-DNA adducts are mutagenic; however, the former are 5 fold more mutagenic than the latter. These two types of DNA adducts induce different mutational signatures and spectra. We found that acrolein inhibits nucleotide excision and base excision repair and induces repair protein degradation in urothelial cells. Since acrolein is abundant in TS, inhaled acrolein is excreted into urine and accumulates in the bladder and because acrolein inhibits DNA repair and acrolein-dG DNA adducts are mutagenic, we propose that acrolein is a major bladder carcinogen in TS.

  3. Bladder-like graphical representation of p53 gene alterations in some human cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, N.L.; Dorrah, M.; LI, C.

    2005-01-01

    the p53 tumor suppressor gene is mutated in about half of all human cancer cells. These mutations are not only important in tumor progression but apparently also in the response of some tumors to chemotherapy and radiation treatment, thus to clinical outcome. Recent studies have shown that cells carrying p53 mutations are more resistant to radiation and chemotherapy than cells with functional p53. More than 15000 tumors with Tp53 mutations were published, leadingto the description of more than 1500 different Tp53 mutants (at the site http:// p53. curie.fr). To exploit this huge bulk of data, specific analytic tools were highly warranted. Also, new computational techniques for rapid determination of such information and comparative studies of different mutations are required. In the present study, a mathematical method for the IARC library p53 mutation database comparing p53 mutations occurring in four different cancers was described. The sizes of the four cancers in the database were bladder (860), liver (786), brain (1170) and skin (38) cancers, for a total of 2854 of p53 mutations. The study was carried out on exons 4-8 of p53 for the four cancers under investigation. From this study, it can be quantitatively obtained some information for each characteristic sequence. The data showed that exon 8 was the most mutant exon in skin cancer and exon 7 was the lowest one. In hepatocellular carcinoma, exon 4 was the most mutant exon and exon 7 was the lowest mutant exon. Brain cancer showed high mutation in exon 8 and low mutation at exon 6. Finally, bladder mutation was mostly mutated at exon 6 comparing to the least value of exon 7. It is expected that this study of p53 mutation may provide useful information for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer

  4. Mitochondrial dysfunction in human skeletal muscle biopsies of lipid storage disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debashree, Bandopadhyay; Kumar, Manish; Keshava Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya; Natarajan, Archana; Christopher, Rita; Nalini, Atchayaram; Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2018-02-09

    Mitochondria regulate the balance between lipid metabolism and storage in the skeletal muscle. Altered lipid transport, metabolism and storage influence the bioenergetics, redox status and insulin signalling, contributing to cardiac and neurological diseases. Lipid storage disorders (LSDs) are neurological disorders which entail intramuscular lipid accumulation and impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics in the skeletal muscle causing progressive myopathy with muscle weakness. However, the mitochondrial changes including molecular events associated with impaired lipid storage have not been completely understood in the human skeletal muscle. We carried out morphological and biochemical analysis of mitochondrial function in muscle biopsies of human subjects with LSDs (n = 7), compared to controls (n = 10). Routine histology, enzyme histochemistry and ultrastructural analysis indicated altered muscle cell morphology and mitochondrial structure. Protein profiling of the muscle mitochondria from LSD samples (n = 5) (vs. control, n = 5) by high-throughput mass spectrometric analysis revealed that impaired metabolic processes could contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction and ensuing myopathy in LSDs. We propose that impaired fatty acid and respiratory metabolism along with increased membrane permeability, elevated lipolysis and altered cristae entail mitochondrial dysfunction in LSDs. Some of these mechanisms were unique to LSD apart from others that were common to dystrophic and inflammatory muscle pathologies. Many differentially regulated mitochondrial proteins in LSD are linked with other human diseases, indicating that mitochondrial protection via targeted drugs could be a treatment modality in LSD and related metabolic diseases. © 2018 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Identification of a novel human deoxynivalenol metabolite enhancing proliferation of intestinal and urinary bladder cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Benedikt; Del Favero, Giorgia; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Puntscher, Hannes; Woelflingseder, Lydia; Fruhmann, Philipp; Sarkanj, Bojan; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Adam, Gerhard; Marko, Doris

    2016-09-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is an abundant contaminant of cereal based food and a severe issue for global food safety. We report the discovery of DON-3-sulfate as a novel human metabolite and potential new biomarker of DON exposure. The conjugate was detectable in 70% of urine samples obtained from pregnant women in Croatia. For the measurement of urinary metabolites, a highly sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated. The method was also used to investigate samples from a duplicate diet survey for studying the toxicokinetics of DON-3-sulfate. To get a preliminary insight into the biological relevance of the newly discovered DON-sulfates, in vitroexperiments were performed. In contrast to DON, sulfate conjugates lacked potency to suppress protein translation. However, surprisingly we found that DON-sulfates enhanced proliferation of human HT-29 colon carcinoma cells, primary human colon epithelial cells (HCEC-1CT) and, to some extent, also T24 bladder cancer cells. A proliferative stimulus, especially in tumorigenic cells raises concern on the potential impact of DON-sulfates on consumer health. Thus, a further characterization of their toxicological relevance should be of high priority.

  6. Concurrent Autophagy Inhibition Overcomes the Resistance of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Human Bladder Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minyong; Lee, Kyoung-Hwa; Lee, Hye Sun; Jeong, Chang Wook; Kwak, Cheol; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Ku, Ja Hyeon

    2017-02-04

    Despite the potential therapeutic efficacy of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors in the treatment of advanced stage bladder cancer, there currently is no clear evidence to support this hypothesis. In this study, we investigate whether the concurrent treatment of autophagy-blocking agents with EGFR inhibitors exerts synergistic anti-cancer effects in T24 and J82 human bladder cancer cells. Lapatinib and gefitinib were used as EGFR inhibitors, and bafilomycin A1 (BFA1), chloroquine (CQ) and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) were used as the pharmacologic inhibitors of autophagy activities. To assess the proliferative and self-renewal capabilities, the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and a clonogenic assay were performed, respectively. To examine apoptotic cell death, flow cytometry using annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) was used. To measure the autophagy activities, the expression levels of LC3I and II was determined by Western blot analysis. To validate the synergistic effects of autophagy inhibition with EGFR inhibitors, we specifically blocked key autophagy regulatory gene ATG12 by transfection of small interference RNA and examined the phenotypic changes. Of note, lapatinib and gefitinib triggered autophagy activities in T24 and J82 human bladder cancer cells, as indicated by upregulation of LC3II. More importantly, inhibiting autophagy activities with pharmacologic inhibitors (BFA1, CQ or 3-MA) remarkably reduced the cell viabilities and clonal proliferation of T24 and J82 cells, compared to those treated with either of the agents alone. We also obtained similar results of the enhanced anti-cancer effects of EGFR inhibitors by suppressing the expression of ATG12. Notably, the apoptotic assay showed that synergistic anti-cancer effects were induced via the increase of apoptotic cell death. In summary, concomitant inhibition of autophagy activities potentiated the anti-cancer effects of EGFR inhibitors in human bladder cancer cells, indicating a novel

  7. Concurrent Autophagy Inhibition Overcomes the Resistance of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Human Bladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyong Kang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the potential therapeutic efficacy of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitors in the treatment of advanced stage bladder cancer, there currently is no clear evidence to support this hypothesis. In this study, we investigate whether the concurrent treatment of autophagy-blocking agents with EGFR inhibitors exerts synergistic anti-cancer effects in T24 and J82 human bladder cancer cells. Lapatinib and gefitinib were used as EGFR inhibitors, and bafilomycin A1 (BFA1, chloroquine (CQ and 3-methyladenine (3-MA were used as the pharmacologic inhibitors of autophagy activities. To assess the proliferative and self-renewal capabilities, the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assay and a clonogenic assay were performed, respectively. To examine apoptotic cell death, flow cytometry using annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI was used. To measure the autophagy activities, the expression levels of LC3I and II was determined by Western blot analysis. To validate the synergistic effects of autophagy inhibition with EGFR inhibitors, we specifically blocked key autophagy regulatory gene ATG12 by transfection of small interference RNA and examined the phenotypic changes. Of note, lapatinib and gefitinib triggered autophagy activities in T24 and J82 human bladder cancer cells, as indicated by upregulation of LC3II. More importantly, inhibiting autophagy activities with pharmacologic inhibitors (BFA1, CQ or 3-MA remarkably reduced the cell viabilities and clonal proliferation of T24 and J82 cells, compared to those treated with either of the agents alone. We also obtained similar results of the enhanced anti-cancer effects of EGFR inhibitors by suppressing the expression of ATG12. Notably, the apoptotic assay showed that synergistic anti-cancer effects were induced via the increase of apoptotic cell death. In summary, concomitant inhibition of autophagy activities potentiated the anti-cancer effects of EGFR inhibitors in human bladder cancer cells, indicating

  8. 1,25D3 enhances antitumor activity of gemcitabine and cisplatin in human bladder cancer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingyu; Yu, Wei-Dong; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2010-01-01

    Background 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) potentiates the cytotoxic effects of several common chemotherapeutic agents. The combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) is a current standard chemotherapy regimen for bladder cancer. We investigated whether 1,25D3 could enhance the antitumor activity of GC in bladder cancer model systems. Methods Human bladder cancer T24 and UMUC3 cells were pretreated with 1,25D3 followed by GC. Apoptosis were assessed by annexin V staining. Caspase activation was examined by immunoblot analysis and substrate-based caspase activity assay. The cytotoxic effects were examined using MTT and in vitro clonogenic assay. p73 protein levels were assessed by immunoblot analysis. Knockdown of p73 was achieved by siRNA. The in vivo antitumor activity was assessed by in vivo excision clonogenic assay and tumor regrowth delay in the T24 xenograft model. Results 1,25D3 pretreatment enhanced GC-induced apoptosis and the activities of caspases- 8, 9 and 3 in T24 and UMUC3 cells. 1,25D3 synergistically reduced GC-suppressed surviving fraction in T24 cells. 1,25D3, gemcitabine, or cisplatin induced p73 accumulation, which was enhanced by GC or 1,25D3 and GC. p73 expression was lower in human primary bladder tumor tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue. Knockdown of p73 increased clonogenic capacity of T24 cells treated with 1,25D3, GC or 1,25D3 and GC. 1,25D3 and GC combination enhanced tumor regression compared with 1,25D3 or GC alone. Conclusions 1,25D3 potentiates GC-mediated growth inhibition in human bladder cancer models in vitro and in vivo, which involves p73 induction and apoptosis. PMID:20564622

  9. Cool and menthol receptor TRPM8 in human urinary bladder disorders and clinical correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benham Christopher D

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent identification of the cold-menthol sensory receptor (TRPM8; CMR1, provides us with an opportunity to advance our understanding of its role in the pathophysiology of bladder dysfunction, and its potential mediation of the bladder cooling reflex. In this study, we report the distribution of the cool and menthol receptor TRPM8 in the urinary bladder in patients with overactive and painful bladder syndromes, and its relationship with clinical symptoms. Methods Bladder specimens obtained from patients with painful bladder syndrome (PBS, n = 16, idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO, n = 14, and asymptomatic microscopic hematuria (controls, n = 17, were immunostained using specific antibodies to TRPM8; nerve fibre and urothelial immunostaining were analysed using fibre counts and computerized image analysis respectively. The results of immunohistochemistry were compared between the groups and correlated with the Pain, Frequency and Urgency scores. Results TRPM8-immunoreactive staining was observed in the urothelium and nerve fibres scattered in the suburothelium. The nerve fibre staining was seen in fine-calibre axons and thick (myelinated fibres. There was marked increase of TRPM8-immunoreactive nerve fibres in IDO (P = 0.0249 and PBS (P Conclusion This study demonstrates increased TRPM8 in nerve fibres of overactive and painful bladders, and its relationship with clinical symptoms. TRPM8 may play a role in the symptomatology and pathophysiology of these disorders, and may provide an additional target for future overactive and painful bladder pharmacotherapy.

  10. Enzyme immunoassay of oestrogen receptors in needle biopsies from human liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Andersen, J; Poulsen, H S

    1991-01-01

    For quantitative assessments of sex hormone receptors in liver tissue, ligand binding assays are inconvenient, as they require large biopsies (0.5-1.0 g). The present study shows that it is possible to measure oestrogen receptors (ER) quantitatively in needle biopsy specimens as small as 10 mg...... by modifications of a commercial enzyme immunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies. Sucrose gradient centrifugation and the dextran charcoal method served as reference methods. A consecutive series of needle biopsies from patients suspected of liver disease were investigated. The biopsies (n = 37) had a median...

  11. Cisplatin induces protective autophagy through activation of BECN1 in human bladder cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin JF

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ji-Fan Lin,1 Yi-Chia Lin,2 Te-Fu Tsai,2,3 Hung-En Chen,2 Kuang-Yu Chou,2,3 Thomas I-Sheng Hwang2–4 1Central Laboratory, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, 2Division of Urology, School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei, 3Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, 4Department of Urology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan Purpose: Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is the first line treatment for several cancers including bladder cancer (BC. Autophagy induction has been implied to contribute to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer; and a high basal level of autophagy has been demonstrated in human bladder tumors. Therefore, it is reasonable to speculate that autophagy may account for the failure of cisplatin single treatment in BC. This study investigated whether cisplatin induces autophagy and the mechanism involved using human BC cell lines.Materials and methods: Human BC cells (5637 and T24 were used in this study. Cell viability was detected using water soluble tetrazolium-8 reagents. Autophagy induction was detected by monitoring the levels of light chain 3 (LC3-II and p62 by Western blot, LC3-positive puncta formation by immunofluorescence, and direct observation of the autophagolysosome (AL formation by transmission electron microscopy. Inhibitors including bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1, chloroquine (CQ, and shRNA-based lentivirus against autophagy-related genes (ATG7 and ATG12 were utilized. Apoptosis level was detected by caspase 3/7 activity and DNA fragmentation.Results: Cisplatin decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis of 5637 and T24 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The increased LC3-II accumulation, p62 clearance, the number of LC3-positive puncta, and ALs in cisplatin-treated cells suggested that cisplatin indeed induces autophagy. Inhibition of cisplatin-induced autophagy using Baf A1, CQ, or ATG7/ATG12 shRNAs significantly enhanced cytotoxicity of

  12. Cisplatin induces protective autophagy through activation of BECN1 in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ji-Fan; Lin, Yi-Chia; Tsai, Te-Fu; Chen, Hung-En; Chou, Kuang-Yu; Hwang, Thomas I-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is the first line treatment for several cancers including bladder cancer (BC). Autophagy induction has been implied to contribute to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer; and a high basal level of autophagy has been demonstrated in human bladder tumors. Therefore, it is reasonable to speculate that autophagy may account for the failure of cisplatin single treatment in BC. This study investigated whether cisplatin induces autophagy and the mechanism involved using human BC cell lines. Human BC cells (5637 and T24) were used in this study. Cell viability was detected using water soluble tetrazolium-8 reagents. Autophagy induction was detected by monitoring the levels of light chain 3 (LC3)-II and p62 by Western blot, LC3-positive puncta formation by immunofluorescence, and direct observation of the autophagolysosome (AL) formation by transmission electron microscopy. Inhibitors including bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1), chloroquine (CQ), and shRNA-based lentivirus against autophagy-related genes (ATG7 and ATG12) were utilized. Apoptosis level was detected by caspase 3/7 activity and DNA fragmentation. Cisplatin decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis of 5637 and T24 cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The increased LC3-II accumulation, p62 clearance, the number of LC3-positive puncta, and ALs in cisplatin-treated cells suggested that cisplatin indeed induces autophagy. Inhibition of cisplatin-induced autophagy using Baf A1, CQ, or ATG7/ATG12 shRNAs significantly enhanced cytotoxicity of cisplatin toward BC cells. These results indicated that cisplatin induced protective autophagy which may contribute to the development of cisplatin resistance and resulted in treatment failure. Mechanistically, upregulation of beclin-1 (BECN1) was detected in cisplatin-treated cells, and knockdown of BECN1 using shRNA attenuated cisplatin-induced autophagy and subsequently enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Collectively, the study results

  13. Muscle biopsies from human muscle diseases with myopathic pathology reveal common alterations in mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunitha, Balaraju; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Kumar, Manish; Keshava Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya; Nalini, Atchayaram; Padmanabhan, Balasundaram; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2016-07-01

    Muscle diseases are clinically and genetically heterogeneous and manifest as dystrophic, inflammatory and myopathic pathologies, among others. Our previous study on the cardiotoxin mouse model of myodegeneration and inflammation linked muscle pathology with mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies from muscle disease patients, represented by dysferlinopathy (dysfy) (dystrophic pathology; n = 43), polymyositis (PM) (inflammatory pathology; n = 24), and distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV) (distal myopathy; n = 31) were analyzed. Mitochondrial damage (ragged blue and COX-deficient fibers) was revealed in dysfy, PM, and DMRV cases by enzyme histochemistry (SDH and COX-SDH), electron microscopy (vacuolation and altered cristae) and biochemical assays (significantly increased ADP/ATP ratio). Proteomic analysis of muscle mitochondria from all three muscle diseases by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis demonstrated down-regulation of electron transport chain (ETC) complex subunits, assembly factors and Krebs cycle enzymes. Interestingly, 80 of the under-expressed proteins were common among the three pathologies. Assay of ETC and Krebs cycle enzyme activities validated the MS data. Mitochondrial proteins from muscle pathologies also displayed higher tryptophan (Trp) oxidation and the same was corroborated in the cardiotoxin model. Molecular modeling predicted Trp oxidation to alter the local structure of mitochondrial proteins. Our data highlight mitochondrial alterations in muscle pathologies, represented by morphological changes, altered mitochondrial proteome and protein oxidation, thereby establishing the role of mitochondrial damage in human muscle diseases. We investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies

  14. The use of double-balloon enteroscopy in retrieving mucosal biopsies from the entire human gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Nicolai Alexander; Vilmann, Peter; Hassan, Hazem

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this explorative study was to evaluate double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) as a new tool for collecting mucosal biopsies from well-defined parts of the entire small and large bowel in patients with type 2 diabetes and in matched healthy subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve su...... possibility to access hitherto unexplored human anatomy and physiology....

  15. Liver biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  16. Human β-defensin 2 may inhibit internalisation of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Soon-Ja; Lee, Kyung Mee; Chang, In Ho

    2013-10-01

    To investigate whether secretion of human β-defensin 2 (HBD-2) is induced by bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and to determine whether HBD-2 affects BCG internalisation in bladder cancer cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to determine whether HBD-2 mRNA increases after incubation with BCG. HBD-2 proteins in 5637 and T24 human bladder cancer cell lines were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The internalisation rate was evaluated by double immunofluorescence assay and confocal microscopy to test the optimal dose of HBD-2 for BCG internalisation. We also investigated the difference in internalisation rates and cell viability between recombinant HBD-2 protein, anti-HBD-2 antibody, and HBD-2 plus anti-HBD-2 antibody pretreatments. BCG induced HBD-2 mRNA expression and HBD-2 production dose and time-dependently in bladder cancer cells and affected BCG internalisation. Pretreatment with recombinant HBD-2 protein lowered internalisation of BCG dose-dependently. Moreover, anti-HBD-2 antibody prevented the effect of HBD-2 on BCG internalisation in bladder cancer cells. The internalisation rate of BCG pretreated with anti-HBD-2 antibody was higher than that in the control in 5637 (P internalisation rate in cells pretreated with anti-HBD-2 antibody plus recombinant HBD-2 protein was higher than that in the control in 5637 (P internalisation, which plays an important role during the initiation and propagation of the immunotherapeutic response in bladder cancer cells. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  17. Transcriptional Modulation of the ERK1/2 MAPK and NF-kB pathways in Human Urothelial cells after trivalent arsenical exposure: Implications for urinary bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic exposure to drinking water contaminated with inorganic arsenic (iAs) is associated with an increased risk ofurinary bladder (DB) cancers in humans. Rodent models administered particular arsenicals have indicated urothelial necrosis followed by regenerative proliferation i...

  18. Human papilloma virus DNA and p53 mutation analysis on bladder washes in relation to clinical outcome of bladder cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.M.J.; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Schalken, J.A.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Witjes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: High-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) types stimulate degradation and deactivation of protein associated with the p53 tumour suppressor gene via the ubiquitin-dependent pathway. For a long time, changes of the p53 tumour suppressor gene have been correlated with poor clinical outcome in

  19. Inhibition of Autophagy Potentiates Atorvastatin-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Bladder Cancer Cells in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minyong; Jeong, Chang Wook; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Kwak, Cheol; Kim, Hyeon Hoe

    2014-01-01

    Statins are cholesterol reduction agents that exhibit anti-cancer activity in several human cancers. Because autophagy is a crucial survival mechanism for cancer cells under stress conditions, cooperative inhibition of autophagy acts synergistically with other anti-cancer drugs. Thus, this study investigates whether combined treatment of atorvastatin and autophagy inhibitors results in enhancing the cytotoxic effects of atorvastatin, upon human bladder cancer cells, T24 and J82, in vitro. To measure cell viability, we performed the EZ-Cytox cell viability assay. We examined apoptosis by flow cytometry using annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI and western blot using procaspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) antibodies. To examine autophagy activation, we evaluated the co-localization of LC3 and LysoTracker by immunocytochemistry, as well as the expression of LC3 and p62/sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1) by western blot. In addition, we assessed the survival and proliferation of T24 and J82 cells by a clonogenic assay. We found that atorvastatin reduced the cell viability of T24 and J82 cells via apoptotic cell death and induced autophagy activation, shown by the co-localization of LC3 and LysoTracker. Moreover, pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy significantly enhanced atorvastatin-induced apoptosis in T24 and J82 cells. In sum, inhibition of autophagy potentiates atorvastatin-induced apoptotic cell death in human bladder cancer cells in vitro, providing a potential therapeutic approach to treat bladder cancer. PMID:24815071

  20. Cheliensisin A (Chel A) induces apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells by promoting PHLPP2 protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruowen; Che, Xun; Zhang, Jingjie; Li, Yang; Li, Jingxia; Deng, Xu; Zhu, Junlan; Jin, Honglei; Zhao, Qinshi; Huang, Chuanshu

    2016-10-11

    Cheliensisin A (Chel A), a styryl-lactone compound extracted from Goniothalamus cheliensis, is reported to have significant anti-cancer effects in various cancer cells. Here we demonstrated that Chel A treatment resulted in apoptosis and an inhibition of anchorage-independent growth in human bladder cancer T24, T24T and U5637 cells. Mechanistic studies showed that such effect is mediated by PH domain and Leucine rich repeat Protein Phosphatases (PHLPP2) protein. Chel A treatment led to PHLPP2 degradation and subsequently increased in c-Jun phosphorylation. Moreover PHLPP2 degradation could be attenuated by inhibition of autophagy, which was mediated by Beclin 1. Collectively, we discover that Chel A treatment induces Beclin-dependent autophagy, consequently mediates PHLPP2 degradation and JNK/C-Jun phosphorylation and activation, further in turn contributing to apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells. Current studies provide a significant insight into understanding of anticancer effect of Chel A in treatment of human bladder cancer.

  1. Thiamine status in humans and content of phosphorylated thiamine derivatives in biopsies and cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Gangolf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thiamine (vitamin B1 is an essential molecule for all life forms because thiamine diphosphate (ThDP is an indispensable cofactor for oxidative energy metabolism. The less abundant thiamine monophosphate (ThMP, thiamine triphosphate (ThTP and adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP, present in many organisms, may have still unidentified physiological functions. Diseases linked to thiamine deficiency (polyneuritis, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome remain frequent among alcohol abusers and other risk populations. This is the first comprehensive study on the distribution of thiamine derivatives in human biopsies, body fluids and cell lines. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thiamine derivatives were determined by HPLC. In human tissues, the total thiamine content is lower than in other animal species. ThDP is the major thiamine compound and tissue levels decrease at high age. In semen, ThDP content correlates with the concentration of spermatozoa but not with their motility. The proportion of ThTP is higher in humans than in rodents, probably because of a lower 25-kDa ThTPase activity. The expression and activity of this enzyme seems to correlate with the degree of cell differentiation. ThTP was present in nearly all brain and muscle samples and in ∼60% of other tissue samples, in particular fetal tissue and cultured cells. A low ([ThTP]+[ThMP]/([Thiamine]+[ThMP] ratio was found in cardiovascular tissues of patients with cardiac insufficiency. AThTP was detected only sporadically in adult tissues but was found more consistently in fetal tissues and cell lines. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The high sensitivity of humans to thiamine deficiency is probably linked to low circulating thiamine concentrations and low ThDP tissue contents. ThTP levels are relatively high in many human tissues, as a result of low expression of the 25-kDa ThTPase. Another novel finding is the presence of ThTP and AThTP in poorly differentiated fast-growing cells

  2. [Continuous registration of the filling volume of the human urinary bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preussner, P R

    1991-11-01

    A sensing system for continuous recording of bladder volume is described. The system is intended for use in particular in patients with paraplegia or bladder plastique. Owing to the very simple measuring procedure employed the implantable components can be designed for very low power consumption. Also, there is no need for an additional data transfer from inside the body to the exterior, because measurement and telemetry are physically the same procedures.

  3. Differences of response of human bladder cancer cells to photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Hypericum perforantum L extract and Photofrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nseyo, Unyime; Kim, Albert; Stavropoulos, Nikos E.; Skalkos, Dimitris; Nseyo, Unwana U.; Chung, Theodore D.

    2005-04-01

    Refractory carcinoma in situ and resistant multifocal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the human urinary bladder respond modestly to PHOTOFRIN (PII) PDT. Hypericum perforatum L., (St. John"s wort /Epirus" Vasalmo, Greece), a medicinal plant used for many human ailments, is under investigation as a new photosensitizer. We have reported on the antiproliferative activity of the lipophilic extract of the Hypericum perforatum L. (HP) against cultured T-24, and NBT-11 bladder cancer cells. We investigated response of the polar methanolic fraction (PMF) of the HP extract versus PHOTOFRIN in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of human bladder cancer cells, RT-4 and T-24.The PMF was extracted from the dry herb with methanol, followed by liquid extraction with petroleum ether. RT-4/T-24, were plated (105 cells/well) and placed in the incubator (370 C, 5%CO) for 24 hours prior to addition of drugs. PII 2ug/ml, or PMF 60ug /ml was added and incubation continued. After 24 hours, the cells were treated with laser light (630nm) with 0,1,2,4 and 8 Joules. The cells were then washed and reincubated for another 24 hours. After this incubation cell survival was assessed by the MTT assay. PMF-PDT induced percent cell kill of 0%, 0%, 0%, 29% and 75%, in RT-4 cells (primary noninvasive urinary bladder TCC) versus 5%, 9%, 13%, 69% and 86%, in T-24 cells(metastatic TTC) at 0,1,2,4 and 8 Joules respectively. PII-PDT induced cell kill of 0 %, 0% ,0%,0% and 9 %, in RT-4 cells versus 0%,10%,0%,21% and 77%, in T-24 cells at 0,1,2,4 and 8 Joules respectively.RT-24 cells were relatively more resistant than T-24 cells to PMF and PII-PDT. Understanding mechanisms of such differential responses might prove useful

  4. Computerized determination of 3-D connectivity density in human iliac crest bone biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, J.S.; Mosekilde, Li.; Barlach, J.

    1996-01-01

    Combining the physical disector principle with an algorithm for automatic non-linear alignment of disector pairs we have developed a software system for direct measurement of 3D connectivity densities in iliac crest bone biopsies. The method was applied to biopsies from 14 non-selected autopsy...... cases: 7 men (age range 20-84 yr) and 7 women (age range 20-86 yr). The study reveals decreases in both trabecular bone mass and connectivity density with age in women....

  5. Nrf2 protects human bladder urothelial cells from arsenite and monomethylarsonous acid toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaojun; Sun Zheng; Chen Weimin; Eblin, Kylee E.; Gandolfi, Jay A.; Zhang, Donna D.

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic is widely spread in our living environment and imposes a big challenge on human health worldwide. Arsenic damages biological systems through multiple mechanisms including the generation of reactive oxygen species. The transcription factor Nrf2 regulates the cellular antioxidant response that protects cells from various insults. In this study, the protective role of Nrf2 in arsenic toxicity was investigated in a human bladder urothelial cell line, UROtsa. Using a UROtsa cell line stably infected with Nrf2-siRNA, we clearly demonstrate that compromised Nrf2 expression sensitized the cells to As(III)- and MMA(III)-induced toxicity. On the other hand, the activation of the Nrf2 pathway by tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) and sulforaphane (SF), the known Nrf2-inducers, rendered UROtsa cells more resistant to As(III) and MMA(III). Furthermore, the wild-type mouse embryo fibroblast (WT-MEF) cells were protected from As(III)- and MMA(III)-induced toxicity following Nrf2 activation by tBHQ or SF, whereas neither tBHQ nor SF conferred protection in the Nrf2 -/- MEF cells, demonstrating that tBHQ- or SF-mediated protection against As(III)- and MMA(III)-induced toxicity depends on Nrf2 activation. These results, obtained by both loss of function and gain of function analyses, clearly demonstrate the protective role of Nrf2 in arsenic-induced toxicity. The current work lays the groundwork for using Nrf2 activators for therapeutic and dietary interventions against adverse effects of arsenic

  6. Inhibiting Invasion into Human Bladder Carcinoma 5637 Cells with Diallyl Trisulfide by Inhibiting Matrix Metalloproteinase Activities and Tightening Tight Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Hyun Choi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Diallyl trisulfide (DATS, an organosulfur compound in garlic, possesses pronounced anti-cancer potential. However, the anti-invasive mechanism of this compound in human bladder carcinoma is not fully understood. In this study, we evaluated the anti-invasive effects of DATS on a human bladder carcinoma (5637 cell line and investigated the underlying mechanism. The results indicated that DATS suppressed migration and invasion of 5637 cells by reducing the activities and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9 at both the protein and mRNA levels. DATS treatment up-regulated expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in 5637 cells. The inhibitory effects of DATS on invasiveness were associated with an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance and repression of the levels of claudin family members. Although further studies are needed, our data demonstrate that DATS exhibits anti-invasive effects in 5637 cells by down-regulating the activity of tight junctions and MMPs. DATS may have future utility in clinical applications for treating bladder cancer.

  7. Colposcopy - directed biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... squamous cells - colposcopy; Pap smear - colposcopy; HPV - colposcopy; Human papilloma virus - colposcopy; Cervix - colposcopy; Colposcopy ... also called cervical dysplasia) Cervical warts (infection with human papilloma virus , or HPV) If the biopsy does not ...

  8. Gallium-67 imaging in human heart transplantation: correlation with endomyocardial biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneguetti, J.C.; Camargo, E.E.; Soares, J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Endomyocardial biopsy seems to be the most accurate method to use for diagnosis and follow-up of acute rejection of the transplanted heart. This investigation compared a noninvasive procedure, gallium-67 imaging, with endomyocardial biopsy in the detection of acute rejection in heart transplantation. Seven male patients (aged 41 to 54 years) sequentially had 46 gallium-67 scintigrams and 46 endomyocardial biopsies between 1 week and 8 months after transplantation. Both studies were obtained in the same day, 48 hours after the administration of an intravenous injection of gallium-67 citrate. Cardiac uptake was graded as negative, mild, moderate, and marked according to an increasing count ratio with rib and sternal uptakes. Histologic findings were graded as negative, mild acute rejection, moderate acute rejection, severe acute rejection, resolving rejection, and nonspecific reaction. Negative biopsies were not found with moderate uptake, and neither moderate nor severe acute rejection were found with negative scintigrams. Imaging sensitivity was 83% with 17% false negatives and 9% false positives. Of seven studies with moderate uptake, five showed moderate acute rejection, and the patients had specific therapy with a decline in uptake, which correlated with resolving rejection. It is conceivable that in the future this technique may be used as a screening procedure for sequential endomyocardial biopsies in the follow-up of heart transplant patients

  9. Etiological role of human papillomavirus infection for inverted papilloma of the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Doorbar, John; Kawaguchi, Shohei; Kobori, Yoshitomo; Nakashima, Takao; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Maeda, Yuji; Miyagi, Tohru; Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Kadono, Yoshifumi; Konaka, Hiroyuki; Mizokami, Atsushi; Koh, Eitetsu; Namiki, Mikio

    2011-02-01

    The status of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in urothelial inverted papilloma was examined in the present study. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues from eight cases of inverted papilloma of the bladder were studied. The presence of HPV-DNA was examined by modified GP5/6+PCR using archival tissue sections by microdissection. HPV genotype was determined with a Hybri-Max HPV genotyping kit. Immunohistochemical analysis for p16-INK4a, mcm7, HPV-E4, and L1, and in situ hybridization for the HPV genome were performed. HPV was detected in seven of eight cases (87.5%) of inverted papilloma. Three cases were diagnosed as inverted papilloma with atypia, while the remaining five were typical cases. HPV-18 was detected in two cases, including one inverted papilloma with atypia, and HPV-16 was detected in four cases, including one inverted papilloma with atypia. Multiple HPV type infection was detected in one typical case and one atypical case. High-risk HPV was present in all HPV-positive cases. Cellular proteins, p16-INK4a and mcm7, which are surrogate markers for HPV-E7 expression, were detected in all HPV-positive cases, and their levels were higher in inverted papilloma with atypia than in typical cases. In contrast, HPV-E4 and L1, which are markers for HPV propagation, were observed in some parts of the typical inverted papilloma tissue. High-risk HPV infection may be one of the causes of urothelial inverted papilloma, and inverted papilloma with atypia may have malignant potential. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Hydrostatic pressure and muscarinic receptors are involved in the release of inflammatory cytokines in human bladder smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhou; Xin, Wei; Qiang, Liu; Xiang, Cai; Bang-Hua, Liao; Jin, Yang; De-Yi, Luo; Hong, Li; Kun-Jie, Wang

    2017-06-01

    Abnormal intravesical pressure results in a series of pathological changes. We investigated the effects of hydrostatic pressure and muscarinic receptors on the release of inflammatory cytokines in rat and human bladder smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs). Animal model of bladder outlet obstruction was induced by urethra ligation. HBSMCs were subjected to elevated hydrostatic pressure and/or acetylcholine (Ach). Macrophage infiltration in the bladder wall was determined by immunohistochemical staining. The expression of inflammatory genes was measured by RT-PCR, ELISA and immunofluorescence. In obstructed bladder, inflammatory genes and macrophage infiltration were remarkably induced. When HBSMCs were subjected to 200-300 cm H 2 O pressure for 2-24 h in vitro, the expressions of IL-6 and RANTES were significantly increased. Hydrostatic pressure promoted the protein levels of phospho-NFκB p65 and phospho-ERK1/2 as well as muscarinic receptors. Moreover, NFκB or ERK1/2 inhibitors suppressed pressure-induced inflammatory genes mRNA. When cells were treated with 1 μM acetylcholine for 6 h, a significant increase in IL-6 mRNA expression was detected. Acetylcholine also enhanced pressure-induced phospho-NFκB p65 and IL-6 protein expression. Additionally, pressure-induced IL-6 was partially suppressed by muscarinic receptors antagonists. Hydrostatic pressure and muscarinic receptors were involved in the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in HBSMCs, indicating a pro-inflammatory effect of the two factors in the pathological process of BOO. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Prostate biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... give the cells a grade called a Gleason score . This helps predict how fast the cancer will ... TRUS); Stereotactic transperineal prostate biopsy (STPB) Images Male reproductive anatomy References Babayan RK, Katz MH. Biopsy prophylaxis, ...

  12. Kidney biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the kidney (in rare cases, may require a blood transfusion) Bleeding into the muscle, which might cause soreness Infection (small risk) Alternative Names Renal biopsy; Biopsy - kidney Images Kidney anatomy ...

  13. Determination of trace elements in human liver biopsy samples by ICP-MS and TXRF: hepatic steatosis and nickel accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Imre; Szoboszlai, Norbert [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 32, Budapest (Hungary); Szebeni, Agnes [MI Central Hospital, Ultrasound Laboratory, Budapest (Hungary); Kovacs, Bela [Debrecen University - Centre of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Food Science and Quality Assurance, P.O. Box 36, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2005-10-01

    Human liver biopsy samples, collected from 52 individuals, were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry in a retrospective study (i.e. patient selection and liver biopsy were not for the purpose of element analysis). The freeze-dried samples (typically 0.5-2 mg dry weight) were digested in a laboratory microwave digestion system and solutions with a final volume of 1 mL were prepared. The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Pb were determined by use of a Thermo Elemental X7 ICP-MS spectrometer. TXRF measurements were performed with an Atomika Extra IIA spectrometer. Yttrium was employed as an internal standard, prepared by dissolution of 5N-purity yttria (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in our laboratory. The accuracy was tested by analysis of NIST 1577a Bovine Liver certified reference material. The concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Rb determined in human liver biopsy samples were in good agreement with data published by other authors. The distribution of nickel in the samples was surprisingly uneven - nickel concentrations ranged from 0.7 to 12 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry weight) in 38 samples and in several samples were extremely high, 36-693 {mu}g g{sup -1}. Analysis of replicate procedural blanks and control measurements were performed to prevent misinterpretation of the data. For patients with steatosis (n=14) Ni concentrations were consistently high except for two who had levels close to those measured for the normal group. As far as we are aware no previous literature data are available on the association of steatosis with high concentration of nickel in human liver biopsies taken from living patients. (orig.)

  14. Arsenite and monomethylarsonous acid generate oxidative stress response in human bladder cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eblin, K.E.; Bowen, M.E.; Cromey, D.W.; Bredfeldt, T.G.; Mash, E.A.; Lau, S.S.; Gandolfi, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenicals have commonly been seen to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can lead to DNA damage and oxidative stress. At low levels, arsenicals still induce the formation of ROS, leading to DNA damage and protein alterations. UROtsa cells, an immortalized human urothelial cell line, were used to study the effects of arsenicals on the human bladder, a site of arsenical bioconcentration and carcinogenesis. Biotransformation of As(III) by UROtsa cells has been shown to produce methylated species, namely monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)], which has been shown to be 20 times more cytotoxic. Confocal fluorescence images of UROtsa cells treated with arsenicals and the ROS sensing probe, DCFDA, showed an increase of intracellular ROS within five min after 1 μM and 10 μM As(III) treatments. In contrast, 50 and 500 nM MMA(III) required pretreatment for 30 min before inducing ROS. The increase in ROS was ameliorated by preincubation with either SOD or catalase. An interesting aspect of these ROS detection studies is the noticeable difference between concentrations of As(III) and MMA(III) used, further supporting the increased cytotoxicity of MMA(III), as well as the increased amount of time required for MMA(III) to cause oxidative stress. These arsenical-induced ROS produced oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by an increase in 8-hydroxyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) with either 50 nM or 5 μM MMA(III) exposure. These findings provide support that MMA(III) cause a genotoxic response upon generation of ROS. Both As(III) and MMA(III) were also able to induce Hsp70 and MT protein levels above control, showing that the cells recognize the ROS and respond. As(III) rapidly induces the formation of ROS, possibly through it oxidation to As(V) and further metabolism to MMA(III)/(V). These studies provide evidence for a different mechanism of MMA(III) toxicity, one that MMA(III) first interacts with cellular components before an ROS response is generated, taking longer to

  15. Novel modified Ussing chamber for the study of absorption and secretion in human endoscopic biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, R; Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hansen, M B

    2001-01-01

    ). Experimental biopsy specimens showed intact surface epithelium by histologic examination and did not differ from controls apart from minor indications of edge damage. No difference in basal electrical parameters and D-glucose fluxes were found between Helicobacter pylori positive and negative patients. Our...

  16. In vitro autoradiographic studies for determination of mitotic index and labelling index in biopsies of the human oral mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etzbach, T.

    1980-01-01

    In order to find the most favourable method of incubation for in-vitro autoradiographies of biopsies of human oral mucosa, tissue biopsies were taken from oral mucosa transplants of 10 patients (7 females, 3 males) and either fixed or incubated at once. The author then investigated the mitotic index of the non-incubated tissue specimens, the mitotic index of the tissue specimens incubated in atmospheric conditions (A), and the mitotic index of the tissue specimens incubated under pressure (B). Simultaneously, autoradiographs of the incubated tissue specimens were prepared in order to determine their labelling indices. The mitotic indices of the non-incubated tissue specimen were found to differ significantly from those of the A-incubated tissue specimens. A similar difference was found between the mitotic indices of the A- and B-incubated tissue biopsies. Further, the labelling indices of A autoradiographs differed significantly from the labelling indices of B autoradiographs. The findings suggest that incubation with an excess oxygen pressure of 2 bar is the method of choice for in-vitro studies of human oral mucosa as the cells retain their specific activity and cell processes will continue unhindered. Further, the findings can be transferred to in-vivo conditions with a reasonable error rate. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Development of an Implantable Pudendal Nerve Stimulator To Restore Bladder Function in Humans After SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    inhibited micturition reflex contraction during a slow infusion of the bladder (Figure Figure 5. Experimental Setup Page 7 of 17 6). This result...University of Pittsburgh (Pitt) and the InCube Labs have worked diligently during the first year of the contract and have managed to successfully accomplish

  18. Nano-BCG: A Promising Delivery System for Treatment of Human Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Julieti Huch; Begnini, Karine Rech; Bender, Camila Bonemann; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Silvia S; Collares, Tiago; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) remains at the forefront of immunotherapy for treating bladder cancer patients. However, the incidence of recurrence and progression to invasive cancer is commonly observed. There are no established effective intravesical therapies available for patients, whose tumors recur following BCG treatment, representing an important unmet clinical need. In addition, there are very limited options for patients who do not respond to or tolerate chemotherapy due to toxicities, resulting in poor overall treatment outcomes. Within this context, nanotechnology is an emergent and promising tool for: (1) controlling drug release for extended time frames, (2) combination therapies due to the ability to encapsulate multiple drugs simultaneously, (3) reducing systemic side effects, (4) increasing bioavailability, (5) and increasing the viability of various routes of administration. Moreover, bladder cancer is often characterized by high mutation rates and over expression of tumor antigens on the tumor cell surface. Therapeutic targeting of these biomolecules may be improved by nanotechnology strategies. In this mini-review, we discuss how nanotechnology can help overcome current obstacles in bladder cancer treatment, and how nanotechnology can facilitate combination chemotherapeutic and BCG immunotherapies for the treatment of non-muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer.

  19. Nano-BCG: A Promising Delivery System for Treatment of Human Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieti Huch Buss

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG remains at the forefront of immunotherapy for treating bladder cancer patients. However, the incidence of recurrence and progression to invasive cancer is commonly observed. There are no established effective intravesical therapies available for patients, whose tumors recur following BCG treatment, representing an important unmet clinical need. In addition, there are very limited options for patients who do not respond to or tolerate chemotherapy due to toxicities, resulting in poor overall treatment outcomes. Within this context, nanotechnology is an emergent and promising tool for: (1 controlling drug release for extended time frames, (2 combination therapies due to the ability to encapsulate multiple drugs simultaneously, (3 reducing systemic side effects, (4 increasing bioavailability, (5 and increasing the viability of various routes of administration. Moreover, bladder cancer is often characterized by high mutation rates and over expression of tumor antigens on the tumor cell surface. Therapeutic targeting of these biomolecules may be improved by nanotechnology strategies. In this mini-review, we discuss how nanotechnology can help overcome current obstacles in bladder cancer treatment, and how nanotechnology can facilitate combination chemotherapeutic and BCG immunotherapies for the treatment of non-muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer.

  20. Bladder carcinoma. Apport MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, C.; Spittler, G.; Jacqmin, D.; Morel, M.

    1991-01-01

    Bladder carcinoma is the second most commun cause of urogenital tumor. It is suspected by abdominal ultrasound and prouved by cystoscopy with biopsy. At present, MR Imaging is the most accurate diagnostic modality for loco-regional staging. Urography is still useful to appreciate urinary tract [fr

  1. Demonstration of Brachyspira aalborgi lineages 2 and 3 in human colonic biopsies with intestinal spirochaetosis by specific fluorescent in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Teglbjærg, Peter S.; Lindboe, Christian F.

    2004-01-01

    of these organisms in human intestinal spirochaetosis. Seventeen human colonic biopsies from Norway and Denmark with intestinal spirochaetosis caused by Brachyspira-like organisms different from the type strain of B. aalborgi (lineage 1) were examined. Application of the probe gave a positive signal in two Norwegian...... biopsies, whereas the 15 other biopsies were hybridization-negative. The positive reaction visualized the spirochaetes as a fluorescent, 3-5 mum-high fringe on the surface epithelium, extending into the crypts. The study verified the presence of B. aalborgi lineages 2 and 3 and identified the bacteria...

  2. TRPV2 activation induces apoptotic cell death in human T24 bladder cancer cells: a potential therapeutic target for bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takahiro; Ueda, Takashi; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Ikegami, Yosuke; Saito, Masaki; Ishida, Yusuke; Ugawa, Shinya; Kohri, Kenjiro; Shimada, Shoichi

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the functional expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) channel protein in human urothelial carcinoma (UC) cells and to determine whether calcium influx into UC cells through TRPV2 is involved in apoptotic cell death. The expression of TRPV2 mRNA in bladder cancer cell lines (T24, a poorly differentiated UC cell line and RT4, a well-differentiated UC cell line) was analyzed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The calcium permeability of TRPV2 channels in T24 cells was investigated using a calcium imaging assay that used cannabidiol (CBD), a relatively selective TRPV2 agonist, and ruthenium red (RuR), a nonselective TRPV channel antagonist. The death of T24 or RT4 cells in the presence of CBD was evaluated using a cellular viability assay. Apoptosis of T24 cells caused by CBD was confirmed using an annexin-V assay and small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of TRPV2. TRPV2 mRNA was abundantly expressed in T24 cells. The expression level in UC cells was correlated with high-grade disease. The administration of CBD increased intracellular calcium concentrations in T24 cells. In addition, the viability of T24 cells progressively decreased with increasing concentrations of CBD, whereas RT4 cells were mostly unaffected. Cell death occurred via apoptosis caused by continuous influx of calcium through TRPV2. TRPV2 channels in UC cells are calcium-permeable and the regulation of calcium influx through these channels leads directly to the death of UC cells. TRPV2 channels in UC cells may be a potential new therapeutic target, especially in higher-grade UC cells. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression and proliferation profiles of PKC, JNK and p38MAPK in physiologically stretched human bladder smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wazir, Romel; Luo, De-Yi; Dai, Yi; Yue, Xuan; Tian, Ye; Wang, Kun-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Stretch induces proliferation in human bladder smooth muscle cells (HBSMC). •5% Equibiaxial elongation produces maximum proliferation. •Physiologic stretch decreases apoptotic cell death. •PKC is involved in functional modulation of bladder. •JNK and p38 are not involved in proliferating HBSMC. -- Abstract: Objective: To determine protein kinase C (PKC), c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase (JNK) and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38MAPK) expression levels and effects of their respective inhibitors on proliferation of human bladder smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs) when physiologically stretched in vitro. Materials and methods: HBSMCs were grown on silicone membrane and stretch was applied under varying conditions; (equibiaxial elongation: 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%), (frequency: 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 Hz). Optimal physiological stretch was established by assessing proliferation with 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay and flow cytometry. PKC, JNK and p38 expression levels were analyzed by Western blot. Specificity was maintained by employing specific inhibitors; (GF109203X for PKC, SP600125 for JNK and SB203580 for p38MAPK), in some experiments. Results: Optimum proliferation was observed at 5% equibiaxial stretch (BrdU: 0.837 ± 0.026 (control) to 1.462 ± 0.023)%, (P 0.05 SP600125) and (1.461 ± 0.01, P > 0.05 SB203580). These findings show that mechanical stretch can promote magnitude-dependent proliferative modulation through PKC and possibly JNK but not via p38MAPK in hBSMCs

  4. Neurogenic Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Dorsher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies such as meningomyelocele and diseases/damage of the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous systems may produce neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which untreated can result in progressive renal damage, adverse physical effects including decubiti and urinary tract infections, and psychological and social sequelae related to urinary incontinence. A comprehensive bladder-retraining program that incorporates appropriate education, training, medication, and surgical interventions can mitigate the adverse consequences of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and improve both quantity and quality of life. The goals of bladder retraining for neurogenic bladder dysfunction are prevention of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, detrusor overdistension, and progressive upper urinary tract damage due to chronic, excessive detrusor pressures. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of micturition is essential to select appropriate pharmacologic and surgical interventions to achieve these goals. Future perspectives on potential pharmacological, surgical, and regenerative medicine options for treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction are also presented.

  5. Optical determination of the hemoglobin oxygenation state of breast biopsies and human breast cancer xenografts in nude mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Fay A.

    1992-05-01

    Differences in the oxygenation state of benign and malignant breast biopsies, and human breast cancer xenografts in immune-deficient mice were monitored using a spectrophotometer with integrating sphere. The breast biopsies were maintained below -50 degree(s)C and the mouse model tumors maintained in growth medium at 0 degree(s)C. Tissue sections 500 (mu) thick were allowed to come up to room temperature for mounting between quartz slides and were evaluated over the wavelength region 240 - 2500 nm. Data collection was done within 10 minutes of the removal of the biopsies from storage and, within 5 minutes for the xenografts. That this preparation protocol allowed us to study the samples very close to the in- vivo state was evident from the lack of deoxyhemoglobin in the benign samples. Component analysis performed in the 300 - 800 nm region showed that the malignant samples contained predominantly deoxygenated blood while the benign samples exhibited oxyhemoglobin signature. Absorption peaks due to fat and traces of bilirubin were also resolved in some of the samples. Assuming that the samples are very nearly representative of the in-vivo condition, these hemoglobin differences may well serve as a basis for imaging tumors or, for tissue characterization in a minimally invasive environment.

  6. Applying tattoo dye as a third-harmonic generation contrast agent for in vivo optical virtual biopsy of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Rung; Lin, Chen-Yu; Liao, Yi-Hua; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2013-02-01

    Third-harmonic generation (THG) microscopy has been reported to provide intrinsic contrast in elastic fibers, cytoplasmic membrane, nucleus, actin filaments, lipid bodies, hemoglobin, and melanin in human skin. For advanced molecular imaging, exogenous contrast agents are developed for a higher structural or molecular specificity. We demonstrate the potential of the commonly adopted tattoo dye as a THG contrast agent for in vivo optical biopsy of human skin. Spectroscopy and microscopy experiments were performed on cultured cells with tattoo dyes, in tattooed mouse skin, and in tattooed human skin to demonstrate the THG enhancement effect. Compared with other absorbing dyes or nanoparticles used as exogenous THG contrast agents, tattoo dyes are widely adopted in human skin so that future clinical biocompatibility evaluation is relatively achievable. Combined with the demonstrated THG enhancement effect, tattoo dyes show their promise for future clinical imaging applications.

  7. Bladder Leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Selahattin; Sungur, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    Leiomyoma of the bladder is a very rare disorder that accounts for 0.43% of all bladder neoplasms. Although the pathophysiology of the bladder leiomyoma is unknown, there are some theories in it. The patients can be asymptomatic; and clinical symptoms, when present, are associated with the tumor size and location. Imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, intravenous urography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful but definitive diagnosis is made by histopathological examination. Surgical resection of tumor with transurethral, open, laparoscopic and robotic approaches is the main treatment. We present a case of leiomyoma of the bladder in an adult male patient.

  8. 1α,25(OH)2D3 differentially regulates miRNA expression in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingyu; Hu, Qiang; Luo, Wei; Pratt, Rachel N; Glenn, Sean T; Liu, Song; Trump, Donald L; Johnson, Candace S

    2015-04-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer in men and eighth leading cause of cancer-related death in the US. Epidemiological and experimental studies strongly suggest a role for 1α,25(OH)2D3 in cancer prevention and treatment. The antitumor activities of 1α,25(OH)2D3 are mediated by the induction of cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, differentiation and the inhibition of angiogenesis and metastasis. miRNAs play important regulatory roles in cancer development and progression. However, the role of 1α,25(OH)2D3 in the regulation of miRNA expression and the potential impact in bladder cancer has not been investigated. Therefore, we studied 1α,25(OH)2D3-regulated miRNA expression profiles in human bladder cancer cell line 253J and the highly tumorigenic and metastatic derivative line 253J-BV by miRNA qPCR panels. 253J and 253J-BV cells express endogenous vitamin D receptor (VDR), which can be further induced by 1α,25(OH)2D3. VDR target gene 24-hydroxylase was induced by 1α,25(OH)2D3 in both cell lines, indicating functional 1α,25(OH)2D3 signaling. The miRNA qPCR panel assay results showed that 253J and 253J-BV cells have distinct miRNA expression profiles. Further, 1α,25(OH)2D3 differentially regulated miRNA expression profiles in 253J and 253J-BV cells in a dynamic manner. Pathway analysis of the miRNA target genes revealed distinct patterns of contribution to the molecular functions and biological processes in the two cell lines. In conclusion, 1α,25(OH)2D3 differentially regulates the expression of miRNAs, which may contribute to distinct biological functions, in human bladder 253J and 253J-BV cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Proteome stability analysis of snap frozen, RNAlater preserved, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human colon mucosal biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tue Bjerg Bennike

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Large repositories of well characterized RNAlater preserved samples and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples have been generated worldwide. However, the impact on the proteome of the preservation methods remain poorly described. Therefore, we analyzed the impact on the proteome of preserving samples in RNAlater, and by formalin-fixation, paraffin-embedding on human soft tissue, using directly frozen samples as a control (“Comparing the proteome of snap frozen, RNAlater preserved, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tissue samples” [1]. We here report the data from the analysis. The comparative analysis was performed on 24 colon mucosa biopsies, extracted from the sigmoideum of two gastroenterologically healthy participants for the purpose of this study. A set of biopsies were additionally stored for 30 min at room temperature prior to formalin-fixation. The samples were analyzed by high throughput gel free quantitative proteomics. The MS proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PRIDE: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/projects/PXD002029. Keywords: Human, Colon, Mucosa, RNAlater, FFPE, Snap-frozen, Stability, LC–MS, Proteomics

  10. Improvements in bladder, bowel and sexual outcomes following task-specific locomotor training in human spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H Hubscher

    Full Text Available Locomotor training (LT as a therapeutic intervention following spinal cord injury (SCI is an effective rehabilitation strategy for improving motor outcomes, but its impact on non-locomotor functions is unknown. Given recent results of our labs' pre-clinical animal SCI LT studies and existing overlap of lumbosacral spinal circuitries controlling pelvic-visceral and locomotor functions, we addressed whether LT can improve bladder, bowel and sexual function in humans at chronic SCI time-points (> two years post-injury.Prospective cohort study; pilot trial with small sample size.Eight SCI research participants who were undergoing 80 daily one-hour sessions of LT on a treadmill using body-weight support, or one-hour of LT and stand training on alternate days, as part of another research study conducted at the Kentucky Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, University of Louisville, were enrolled in this pilot trial. Urodynamic assessments were performed and International Data Set questionnaire forms completed for bladder, bowel and sexual functions at pre-and post-training time points. Four usual care (non-trained; regular at-home routine research participants were also enrolled in this study and had the same assessments collected twice, at least 3 months apart.Filling cystometry documented significant increases in bladder capacity, voiding efficiency and detrusor contraction time as well as significant decreases in voiding pressure post-training relative to baseline. Questionnaires revealed a decrease in the frequency of nocturia and urinary incontinence for several research participants as well as a significant decrease in time required for defecation and a significant increase in sexual desire post-training. No significant differences were found for usual care research participants.These results suggest that an appropriate level of sensory information provided to the spinal cord, generated through task-specific stepping and/or loading, can positively

  11. Evaluating Evidence for Association of Human Bladder Cancer with Drinking-Water Chlorination Disinfection By-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrudey, Steve E; Backer, Lorraine C; Humpage, Andrew R; Krasner, Stuart W; Michaud, Dominique S; Moore, Lee E; Singer, Philip C; Stanford, Benjamin D

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to chlorination disinfection by-products (CxDBPs) is prevalent in populations using chlorination-based methods to disinfect public water supplies. Multifaceted research has been directed for decades to identify, characterize, and understand the toxicology of these compounds, control and minimize their formation, and conduct epidemiologic studies related to exposure. Urinary bladder cancer has been the health risk most consistently associated with CxDBPs in epidemiologic studies. An international workshop was held to (1) discuss the qualitative strengths and limitations that inform the association between bladder cancer and CxDBPs in the context of possible causation, (2) identify knowledge gaps for this topic in relation to chlorine/chloramine-based disinfection practice(s) in the United States, and (3) assess the evidence for informing risk management. Epidemiological evidence linking exposures to CxDBPs in drinking water to human bladder cancer risk provides insight into causality. However, because of imprecise, inaccurate, or incomplete estimation of CxDBPs levels in epidemiologic studies, translation from hazard identification directly to risk management and regulatory policy for CxDBPs can be challenging. Quantitative risk estimates derived from toxicological risk assessment for CxDBPs currently cannot be reconciled with those from epidemiologic studies, notwithstanding the complexities involved, making regulatory interpretation difficult. Evidence presented here has both strengths and limitations that require additional studies to resolve and improve the understanding of exposure response relationships. Replication of epidemiologic findings in independent populations with further elaboration of exposure assessment is needed to strengthen the knowledge base needed to better inform effective regulatory approaches.

  12. Improvements in bladder, bowel and sexual outcomes following task-specific locomotor training in human spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carolyn S.; Montgomery, Lynnette R.; Willhite, Andrea M.; Angeli, Claudia A.; Harkema, Susan J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective Locomotor training (LT) as a therapeutic intervention following spinal cord injury (SCI) is an effective rehabilitation strategy for improving motor outcomes, but its impact on non-locomotor functions is unknown. Given recent results of our labs’ pre-clinical animal SCI LT studies and existing overlap of lumbosacral spinal circuitries controlling pelvic-visceral and locomotor functions, we addressed whether LT can improve bladder, bowel and sexual function in humans at chronic SCI time-points (> two years post-injury). Study design Prospective cohort study; pilot trial with small sample size. Methods Eight SCI research participants who were undergoing 80 daily one-hour sessions of LT on a treadmill using body-weight support, or one-hour of LT and stand training on alternate days, as part of another research study conducted at the Kentucky Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, University of Louisville, were enrolled in this pilot trial. Urodynamic assessments were performed and International Data Set questionnaire forms completed for bladder, bowel and sexual functions at pre-and post-training time points. Four usual care (non-trained; regular at-home routine) research participants were also enrolled in this study and had the same assessments collected twice, at least 3 months apart. Results Filling cystometry documented significant increases in bladder capacity, voiding efficiency and detrusor contraction time as well as significant decreases in voiding pressure post-training relative to baseline. Questionnaires revealed a decrease in the frequency of nocturia and urinary incontinence for several research participants as well as a significant decrease in time required for defecation and a significant increase in sexual desire post-training. No significant differences were found for usual care research participants. Conclusions These results suggest that an appropriate level of sensory information provided to the spinal cord, generated through task

  13. Inhibition of inducible heat shock protein-70 (hsp72 enhances bortezomib-induced cell death in human bladder cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qi

    Full Text Available The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade is a promising new agent for bladder cancer therapy, but inducible cytoprotective mechanisms may limit its potential efficacy. We used whole genome mRNA expression profiling to study the effects of bortezomib on stress-induced gene expression in a panel of human bladder cancer cell lines. Bortezomib induced strong upregulation of the inducible HSP70 isoforms HSPA1A and HSPA1B isoforms of Hsp72 in 253J B-V and SW780 (HSPA1A(high cells, but only induced the HSPA1B isoform in UM-UC10 and UM-UC13 (HSPA1A(low cells. Bortezomib stimulated the binding of heat shock factor-1 (HSF1 to the HSPA1A promoter in 253JB-V but not in UM-UC13 cells. Methylation-specific PCR revealed that the HSPA1A promoter was methylated in the HSPA1A(low cell lines (UM-UC10 and UM-UC13, and exposure to the chromatin demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored HSPA1A expression. Overexpression of Hsp72 promoted bortezomib resistance in the UM-UC10 and UM-UC13 cells, whereas transient knockdown of HSPA1B further sensitized these cells to bortezomib, and exposure to the chemical HSF1 inhibitor KNK-437 promoted bortezomib sensitivity in the 253J B-V cells. Finally, shRNA-mediated stable knockdown of Hsp72 in 253J B-V promoted sensitivity to bortezomib in vitro and in tumor xenografts in vivo. Together, our results provide proof-of-concept for using Hsp72 inhibitors to promote bortezomib sensitivity in bladder cancers and suggest that selective targeting of HSPA1B could produce synthetic lethality in tumors that display HSPA1A promoter methylation.

  14. Evaluating Evidence for Association of Human Bladder Cancer with Drinking-Water Chlorination Disinfection By-Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrudey, Steve E.; Backer, Lorraine C.; Humpage, Andrew R.; Krasner, Stuart W.; Michaud, Dominique S.; Moore, Lee E.; Singer, Philip C.; Stanford, Benjamin D.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to chlorination disinfection by-products (CxDBPs) is prevalent in populations using chlorination-based methods to disinfect public water supplies. Multifaceted research has been directed for decades to identify, characterize, and understand the toxicology of these compounds, control and minimize their formation, and conduct epidemiologic studies related to exposure. Urinary bladder cancer has been the health risk most consistently associated with CxDBPs in epidemiologic studies. An international workshop was held to (1) discuss the qualitative strengths and limitations that inform the association between bladder cancer and CxDBPs in the context of possible causation, (2) identify knowledge gaps for this topic in relation to chlorine/chloramine-based disinfection practice(s) in the United States, and (3) assess the evidence for informing risk management. Epidemiological evidence linking exposures to CxDBPs in drinking water to human bladder cancer risk provides insight into causality. However, because of imprecise, inaccurate, or incomplete estimation of CxDBPs levels in epidemiologic studies, translation from hazard identification directly to risk management and regulatory policy for CxDBPs can be challenging. Quantitative risk estimates derived from toxicological risk assessment for CxDBPs currently cannot be reconciled with those from epidemiologic studies, notwithstanding the complexities involved, making regulatory interpretation difficult. Evidence presented here has both strengths and limitations that require additional studies to resolve and improve the understanding of exposure response relationships. Replication of epidemiologic findings in independent populations with further elaboration of exposure assessment is needed to strengthen the knowledge base needed to better inform effective regulatory approaches. PMID:26309063

  15. Herbal tea extract combined with light-induced significant in vitro cytotoxicity of human bladder cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nseyo, Unyime; Kim, Albert; Stavropoulos, Nicholas E.; Skalkos, Dimitris; Nseyo, U. U.; Chung, Theodore D.

    2005-04-01

    The anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antiviral, and antidepressant activities of the Greek herb, Hypericum Perforatum L, HP L, have been attributed to the total extract or single constituents. We investigated the use of the extract,specifically of the polar methanolic fraction (PMF) of Epirus"HPL in photodynamic therapy (PDT) alone and in combination with recombinant Interferon-a2b (IFN) and gemcitabine (GCB) in the treatment of human bladder cancer cells. The PMF was extracted from the dry herb with methanol, followed by liquid-liquid extraction with petroleum ether. T-24 bladder cancer cells were plated (105 cells/well) and placed in the incubator (370 C, 5%CO) for 24 hours prior to addition of drugs. PMF 60ug/ml was added and incubation continued. After 24 hours, the cells were subjected to laser light (630nm) treatment with 0, 1, 4 and 8 Joules. After reincubation for 24 hours, IFN, (50,000 IU) or GCB, (2ug/ml) was added to the PDT-treated cells. After this incubation cell survival was assessed by the MTT assay. PMF-PDT alone-induced percent cell kill of 0%, 8%, 44% and 80% versus 31%, 64 and 86 % for PMF-PDT and IFN, versus 63%, 80% and 88% for MPF-PDT plus GCB at 1, 2, 4 and 8 Joules respectively. IFN and GCB induced 20% and 53% cell kill respectively. Our data suggest that MPF may be an effective agent for in vitro photodynamic therapy. PMF-PDT combined with Intron A, or gemcitabine achieved improved kill of cultured bladder cancer cells. Confirmation of these results in preclinical studies may lead to clinical trials.

  16. Effects of Physiotherapy in the Treatment of Neurogenic Bladder in Patients Infected With Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rosana C P; Neto, José A; Andrade, Luciana; Oliveira, Tatiane S; Santos, Dislene N; Oliveira, Cassius J V; Prado, Márcio J; Carvalho, Edgar M

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of physiotherapy for urinary manifestations in patients with human T-lymphotropic virus 1-associated lower urinary tract dysfunction. Open clinical trial was conducted with 21 patients attending the physiotherapy clinic of the Hospital Universitário, Bahia, Brazil. Combinations of behavioral therapy, perineal exercises, and intravaginal or intra-anal electrical stimulation were used. The mean age was 54 ± 12 years and 67% were female. After treatment, there was an improvement in symptoms of urinary urgency, frequency, incontinence, nocturia, and in the sensation of incomplete emptying (P Physiotherapy was effective in cases of human T-lymphotropic virus 1-associated neurogenic bladder, reducing symptoms, increasing perineal muscle strength, and improving urodynamic parameters and quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transplanted Human Stem Cell-Derived Interneuron Precursors Mitigate Mouse Bladder Dysfunction and Central Neuropathic Pain after Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandel, Thomas M; Trivedi, Alpa; Nicholas, Cory R; Zhang, Haoqian; Chen, Jiadong; Martinez, Aida F; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J; Kriegstein, Arnold R

    2016-10-06

    Neuropathic pain and bladder dysfunction represent significant quality-of-life issues for many spinal cord injury patients. Loss of GABAergic tone in the injured spinal cord may contribute to the emergence of these symptoms. Previous studies have shown that transplantation of rodent inhibitory interneuron precursors from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) enhances GABAergic signaling in the brain and spinal cord. Here we look at whether transplanted MGE-like cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC-MGEs) can mitigate the pathological effects of spinal cord injury. We find that 6 months after transplantation into injured mouse spinal cords, hESC-MGEs differentiate into GABAergic neuron subtypes and receive synaptic inputs, suggesting functional integration into host spinal cord. Moreover, the transplanted animals show improved bladder function and mitigation of pain-related symptoms. Our results therefore suggest that this approach may be a valuable strategy for ameliorating the adverse effects of spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro culture and characterization of enteric neural precursor cells from human gut biopsy specimens using polymer scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamohan, Janardhanam; Senthilnathan, Venugopal S; Vaikundaraman, Tirunelveli Muthiah; Srinivasan, Thangavelu; Balamurugan, Madasamy; Iwasaki, Masaru; Preethy, Senthilkumar; Abraham, Samuel Jk

    2013-08-01

    In vitro expansion and characterization of neural precursor cells from human gut biopsy specimens with or without Hirschsprung's disease using a novel thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) is reported aiming at a possible future treatment. Gut biopsy samples were obtained from five patients undergoing gut resection for Hirschsprung's disease (n = 1) or gastrointestinal disorders (n = 4). Cells isolated from the smooth muscle layer and the myenteric plexus were cultured in two groups for 18 to 28 days; Group I: conventional culture as earlier reported and Group II: using TGP scaffold. Neurosphere like bodies (NLBs) were observed in the cultures between 8th to 12th day and H & E staining was positive for neural cells in both groups including aganglionic gut portion from the Hirschsprung's disease patient. Immunohistochemistry using S-100 and neuron specific enolase (NSE) was positive in both groups but the TGP group (Group II) showed more number of cells with intense cytoplasmic granular positivity for both NSE and S-100 compared to Group I. TGP supports the in vitro expansion of human gut derived neuronal cells with seemingly better quality NLBs. Animal Studies can be tried to validate their functional outcome by transplanting the NLBs with TGP scaffolds to see whether this can enhance the outcome of cell based therapies for Hirschsprung's disease.

  19. The Reversal Effect and Its Mechanisms of Tetramethylpyrazine on Multidrug Resistance in Human Bladder Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Wang

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy is an important strategy for the treatment of bladder cancer. However, the main problem limiting the success of chemotherapy is the development of multidrug resistance (MDR. To improve the management of bladder cancer, it is an urgent matter to search for strategies to reverse MDR. We chose three kinds of herbal medicines including ginsenoside Rh2, (--Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG and Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP to detect their effects on bladder cancer. Reversal effects of these three herbal medicines for drug resistance in adriamycin (ADM-resistant Pumc-91 cells (Pumc-91/ADM were assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 cell proliferation assay system. The mechanisms of reversal effect for TMP were explored in Pumc-91/ADM and T24/DDP cells. After Pumc-91/ADM and T24/DDP cells were treated with TMP, cell cycle distribution analysis was performed by flow cytometry. The expression of MRP1, GST, BCL-2, LRP and TOPO-II was evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, immunefluorescence assay and western blot. It was observed that TMP was capable of enhancing the cytotoxicity of anticancer agents on Pumc-91/ADM cells in response to ADM, however Rh2 and EGCG were unable to. The reversal effect of TMP was also demonstrated in T24/DDP cells. Moreover, the treatment with TMP in Pumc-91/ADM and T24/DDP cells led to an increased of G1 phase accompanied with a concomitant decrease of cell numbers in S phase. Compared to the control group, an obvious decrease of MRP1, GST, BCL-2 and an increase of TOPO-II were shown in TMP groups with a dose-dependency in mRNA and protein levels. However, there was no difference on LRP expression between TMP groups and the control group. TMP could effectively reverse MDR of Pumc-91/ADM and T24/DDP cells and its mechanisms might be correlated with the alteration of MRP1, GST, BCL-2 and TOPO-II. TMP might be a potential candidate for reversing drug resistance in bladder cancer

  20. Role of androgen receptor and associated lysine-demethylase coregulators, LSD1 and JMJD2A, in localized and advanced human bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Eric C; Robinson, Brian D; Downes, Martin J; Powell, Leagh G; Lee, Ming Ming; Scherr, Douglas S; Gudas, Lorraine J; Mongan, Nigel P

    2011-12-01

    Bladder cancer is approximately three times more common in men as compared to women. We and others have previously investigated the contribution of androgens and the androgen receptor (AR) to bladder cancer. JMJD2A and LSD1 are recently discovered AR coregulator proteins that mediate AR-dependent transcription via recently described histone lysine-demethylation (KDM) mechanisms. We used immunohistochemistry to examine JMJD2A, LSD1, and AR expression in 72 radical cystectomy specimens, resulting in evaluation of 129 tissue samples (59 urothelial carcinoma, 70 benign). We tested levels of these proteins for statistical association with clinicopathologic variables and patient survival. Expression of these markers was also assessed in human bladder cancer cell lines. The effects of pharmacological inhibition of LSD1 on the proliferation of these bladder cancer cells was determined. JMJD2A and AR levels were significantly lower in malignant versus benign urothelium, while increased LSD1 levels were observed in malignant urothelium relative to benign. A significant reduction in all three proteins occurred with cancer stage progression, including muscle invasion (JMJD2A/LSD1/AR), extravesical extension (JMJD2A/LSD1), and lymph node metastasis (JMJD2A/AR). Lower JMJD2A intensity correlated with additional poor prognostic features, including lymphovascular invasion, concomitant carcinoma in situ and tobacco usage, and predicted significantly worse overall survival. Pharmacological inhibition of LSD1 suppressed bladder cancer cell proliferation and androgen-induced transcription. Our results support a novel role for the AR-KDM complex in bladder cancer initiation and progression, identify JMJD2A as a promising prognostic biomarker, and demonstrate targeting of the KDM activity as an effective potential approach for bladder cancer growth inhibition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Overexpression of high mobility group box 1 contributes to progressive clinicopathological features and poor prognosis of human bladder urothelial carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang CK

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Changkun Huang,* Zhichao Huang,* Xiaokun Zhao, Yinhuai Wang, Hongqing Zhao, Zhaohui Zhong, Lang Wang Department of Urology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, a versatile protein with intranuclear and extracellular functions, plays an important role in a variety of human cancers. However, the clinical/prognostic significance of HMGB1 expression in human bladder urothelial carcinoma (BUC remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the HMGB1 expression in human BUC with regard to its clinical and prognostic significance.Patients and methods: HMGB1 mRNA and protein expressions in tumor and paired normal bladder tissues were detected in 20 BUC cases by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and Western blot. HMGB1 protein expression in 165 primary BUC tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC, and its correlations with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis were also analyzed. Student’s t-test, χ2 test, Kaplan–Meier plots, and Cox proportional hazard regression model were performed to analyze the data. Results: By using qRT-PCR and Western blot, the upregulated expression of HMGB1 mRNA and protein was detected in BUC, compared with paired normal tissue (P<0.05. By using IHC, high HMGB1 expression was examined in 84 of 165 (51.0% BUC cases. High HMGB1 expression was significantly correlated with poorer differentiation and higher T and N classification (all P<0.05. Univariate analysis showed that high HMGB1 expression was significantly associated with a shortened patients’ overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS; both P<0.001. In different subgroups of BUC patients, HMGB1 expression was a prognostic factor in patients with different histological grades or T classification (all P<0.05, pN− (both P<0.001 for OS and DFS, and

  2. Southern blot analysis of skin biopsies for human papillomavirus DNA: renal allograft recipients in south-eastern Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenfield, K; Salmond, C A; Pope, J H; Hardie, I R

    1993-01-01

    The 104 skin biopsies from 34 patients who attended a Renal Transplant Unit in Brisbane over 12 months included 40 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 22 solar keratoses, 4 hyperkeratoses, 18 warts and 11 basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA was identified by Southern blot hybridisation using, as individual probes, purified insert DNA from recombinant HPV 1, 2, 3 or 3/10, 4, 5 or 5/8, 7, 11, 16, 18 and 41 under relaxed conditions and characterised by restriction enzyme analysis and Southern blot hybridisation under more stringent conditions. Genomic HPV DNA was characterised in 7 skin biopsies from 4 renal allograft recipients (RARs): HPV 1A in a SCC (20 copies/cell) and a BCC (10 copies/cell) from the one patient, HPV 36 (20 copies/cell) in a SCC, HPV 1A [symbol: see text] 1000 copies/cell) in a wart and HPV 2B (200-800 copies/cell) in 3 warts from the one patient. Only HPV 1A in the SCC exhibited a significant degree of subtype variation. HPV DNA was identified in another 5 skin biopsies from another 4 RARs: HPV 3A in a wart and a hyperkeratosis, HPV 3/10-related DNA in 2 solar keratoses and HPV 5/8-related DNA in another (20-50 copies/cell). The incidence of HPV 5 (or 5-related HPVs) in RAR SCC was very low and that of HPV DNA in RAR warts was lower than that recorded elsewhere but this was not due to insensitivity of the assays. There was no evidence for a role for HPV in the aetiology of skin cancer in RARs in south-eastern Queensland but the possibility remains that as yet unidentified HPV types are involved.

  3. The effect of acute hypoxia on short-circuit current and epithelial resistivity in biopsies from human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Graciela E; Ibáñez, Jorge E; Saraví, Fernando D

    2013-09-01

    In isolated colonic mucosa, decreases in short-circuit current (ISC) and transepithelial resistivity (RTE) occur when hypoxia is either induced at both sides or only at the serosal side of the epithelium. We assessed in human colon biopsies the sensitivity to serosal-only hypoxia and mucosal-only hypoxia and whether Na, K-ATPase blockade with ouabain interacts with hypoxia. Biopsy material from patients undergoing colonoscopy was mounted in an Ussing chamber for small samples (1-mm2 window). In a series of experiments we assessed viability and the electrical response to the mucolytic, dithiothreitol (1 mmol/l). In a second series, we explored the effect of hypoxia without and with ouabain. In a third series, we evaluated the response to a cycle of hypoxia and reoxygenation induced at the serosal or mucosal side while keeping the oxygenation of the opposite side. 1st series: Dithiothreitol significantly decreased the unstirred layer and ISC but increased RTE. 2nd series: Both hypoxia and ouabain decreased ISC, but ouabain increased RTE and this effect on RTE prevailed even during hypoxia. 3rd series: Mucosal hypoxia caused lesser decreases of ISC and RTE than serosal hypoxia; in the former, but not in the latter, recovery was complete upon reoxygenation. In mucolytic concentration, dithiothreitol modifies ISC and RTE. Oxygen supply from the serosal side is more important to sustain ISC and RTE in biopsy samples. The different effect of hypoxia and Na, K-ATPase blockade on RTE suggests that their depressing effect on ISC involves different mechanisms.

  4. Primary Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma of the Bladder: Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Ansari; Hamid Nasrollahi; Majdaddin Rajaei; Maral Mokhtari; Seyed Hasan Hamedi; Mohammad Mohammadianpanah; Shapour Omidvari; Ahmad Mosalaei; Niloofar Ahmadloo

    2017-01-01

    Most bladder tumors are epithelial in origin. Nonepithelial cancers are rarely located in the bladder. Sarcomas are the most common malignancies among nonepithelial cancers. Primary bladder lymphoma is rare and mostly low grade. Here, we have reported a case of diffuse large cell lymphoma of the bladder. The patient, a 64-year-old man, had urinary frequency for 18 months. Abdominal sonography indicated a thick bladder wall and transurethral biopsy showed diffuse large cell lymp...

  5. Gynaecomastia: an unusual presenting symptom of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mashrafi; Kanji, Aleem; Begum, Tahmina

    2015-06-25

    A 74-year-old man presented to the outpatient clinic with painful gynaecomastia. A detailed physical examination to sort out possible causes of the gynaecomastia, including intracranial tumour, liver cirrhosis, hyperthyroidism, and adrenal and testicular tumour, was negative. No offending agent was found in his medication list. A CT scan of the head and ultrasound of the scrotum did not show any mass lesion. His serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and oestradiol levels were elevated. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed bladder wall thickening with soft tissue mass. A cystoscopic biopsy confirmed transitional cell carcinoma with muscle invasion. The patient was started on chemotherapy but responded poorly. This case report describes the β-hCG and oestradiol-secreting transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder presenting as gynaecomastia in an older man. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  6. 3D imaging of cleared human skin biopsies using light-sheet microscopy: A new way to visualize in-depth skin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, S; Jardet, C; Colombelli, J; Chaput, B; David, A; Grolleau, J-L; Bedos, P; Lobjois, V; Descargues, P; Rouquette, J

    2018-05-01

    Human skin is composed of the superimposition of tissue layers of various thicknesses and components. Histological staining of skin sections is the benchmark approach to analyse the organization and integrity of human skin biopsies; however, this approach does not allow 3D tissue visualization. Alternatively, confocal or two-photon microscopy is an effective approach to perform fluorescent-based 3D imaging. However, owing to light scattering, these methods display limited light penetration in depth. The objectives of this study were therefore to combine optical clearing and light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) to perform in-depth optical sectioning of 5 mm-thick human skin biopsies and generate 3D images of entire human skin biopsies. A benzyl alcohol and benzyl benzoate solution was used to successfully optically clear entire formalin fixed human skin biopsies, making them transparent. In-depth optical sectioning was performed with LSFM on the basis of tissue-autofluorescence observations. 3D image analysis of optical sections generated with LSFM was performed by using the Amira ® software. This new approach allowed us to observe in situ the different layers and compartments of human skin, such as the stratum corneum, the dermis and epidermal appendages. With this approach, we easily performed 3D reconstruction to visualise an entire human skin biopsy. Finally, we demonstrated that this method is useful to visualise and quantify histological anomalies, such as epidermal hyperplasia. The combination of optical clearing and LSFM has new applications in dermatology and dermatological research by allowing 3D visualization and analysis of whole human skin biopsies. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Synergetic killing effects of external magnetic fields combined with porphyrin-dextran magnetic nanoparticles on the human bladder cancer cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dao-sheng; Mi, Qi-wu; Meng, Xiang-jun; Gao, Yong; Dai, Yu-ping; Deng, Chun-hua

    2012-08-18

    To study the synergetic killing effects of external magnetic fields combined with the photodynamic action of porphyrin-dextran iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (PDMN) on human bladder cancer cells in vitro. The PDMN were produced by using the chemical co-precipitation and redox process and the physicochemical properties were characterized. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and flow cytometry were used to determine the effects of photodynamic therapy of PDMN combined with external pulsed electromagnetic fields (5 mT) on killing human bladder cancer BIU-87 cells respectively. The diameters of PDMN were 10-15 nm and the saturation magnetization was 0.20 emu/g. Effective diameter of PDMN was 94.8 nm. PDMN could remarkably inhibit the proliferation and induce the obvious apoptosis of BIU-87 cells, and the rates of growth inhibition and apoptosis were (17.61±2.73)% and (24.53±5.74)% respectively. Moreover, external pulsed electromagnetic fields (5 mT) could also suppress the proliferation and induce apoptosis of BIU-87 cells. Furthermore, the photodynamic action of PDMN combined with external magnetic fields significantly inhibited the proliferation and promote apoptosis of BIU-87 cells, and the rates of growth inhibition and apoptosis was (28.11±4.25)% and (24.53±5.74)%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of other groups (Peffectively inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of BIU-87 cells. Moreover, these effects on BIU-87 cells could be strengthened by the combination with external magnetic fields.

  8. Overactive Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially if your symptoms disrupt your work schedule, social interactions and everyday activities. Causes Normal bladder function The ... fills, nerve signals sent to your brain eventually trigger the need to urinate. When you urinate, nerve ...

  9. Neurogenic bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause skin to break down and lead to pressure sores Kidney damage if the bladder becomes too full, ... dysfunction; NBSD Patient Instructions Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Images Voiding cystourethrogram References Chapple CR, Osman NI. ...

  10. 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin induces downregulation of critical Hsp90 protein clients and results in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human urinary bladder cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karkoulis, Panagiotis K; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Margaritis, Lukas H; Voutsinas, Gerassimos E

    2010-01-01

    17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), a benzoquinone ansamycin antibiotic, specifically targets heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and interferes with its function as a molecular chaperone that maintains the structural and functional integrity of various protein clients involved in cellular signaling. In this study, we have investigated the effect of 17-AAG on the regulation of Hsp90-dependent signaling pathways directly implicated in cell cycle progression, survival and motility of human urinary bladder cancer cell lines. We have used MTT-based assays, FACS analysis, Western blotting, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and scratch-wound assay in RT4, RT112 and T24 human urinary bladder cancer cell lines. We have demonstrated that, upon 17-AAG treatment, bladder cancer cells are arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and eventually undergo apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 17-AAG administration was shown to induce a pronounced downregulation of multiple Hsp90 protein clients and other downstream effectors, such as IGF-IR, Akt, IKK-α, IKK-β, FOXO1, ERK1/2 and c-Met, resulting in sequestration-mediated inactivation of NF-κB, reduced cell proliferation and decline of cell motility. In total, we have clearly evinced a dose-dependent and cell type-specific effect of 17-AAG on cell cycle progression, survival and motility of human bladder cancer cells, due to downregulation of multiple Hsp90 clients and subsequent disruption of signaling integrity

  11. Keratin, luminal epithelial antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen in human urinary bladder carcinomas. An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathrath, W B; Arnholdt, H; Wilson, P D

    1982-01-01

    14 urinary bladder carcinomas of all main types were investigated with antisera to "broad spectrum keratin" (aK), "luminal epithelial antigen" (aLEA) and carcinoembryonic antigen (aCEA), using an indirect immunoperoxidase method on formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections. Keratin and LEA were both present in normal transitional epithelium, papilloma and carcinoma in situ whereas CEA was absent. Transitional cell carcinomas reacted with both aK and aLEA whereas CEA was seen only in a few foci. In squamous metaplasia and squamous carcinoma reaction with aK was particularly strong, while LEA was almost lacking and CEA was present in necrotic centres. In adenocarcinomas aK and aLEA reacted equally while aCEA reacted only on the surface.

  12. Rhodamine dyes as potential agents for photochemotherapy of cancer in human bladder carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, C.R.; Chen, N.; Wimberly, J.; Hasan, T.

    1989-01-01

    The phototoxicity in vitro of rhodamine 123 and tetrabromo rhodamine 123 (TBR) was compared, in order to assess their photochemotherapeutic potential. Exposure to 514.5-nm radiation from an argon ion laser caused phototoxicity in MGH-U1 bladder carcinoma cells previously treated with either dye at 10 microM for 30 min. As assessed by colony formation and cellular morphology, TBR was markedly more phototoxic than rhodamine 123, reflecting increased intersystem crossing of TBR to the triplet manifold via spin-orbital coupling induced by the heavy bromine atoms. Photoreactions of TBR very efficiently generated singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) in solution; furthermore, irradiation of TBR-treated cells was significantly more toxic when performed in the presence of deuterium oxide, an enhancer of damage caused by 1 O 2 . Retention of fluorescence in TBR-treated cells was enhanced by irradiation, indicating that a stable photoproduct may be formed in reaction with cellular components

  13. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grants Bladder Cancer Think Tank Bladder Cancer Research Network Bladder Cancer Genomics Consortium Get Involved Ways to ... us? Who we are The Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) is a community of patients, caregivers, survivors, ...

  14. Antitumor potential of 1-thiocarbamoyl-3,5-diaryl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazoles in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessmann, Josiane Weber; Buss, Julieti; Begnini, Karine Rech; Berneira, Lucas Moraes; Paula, Favero Reisdorfer; de Pereira, Claudio Martin Pereira; Collares, Tiago; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling

    2017-10-01

    Bladder cancer is a genitourinary malignant disease common worldwide. Current chemotherapy is often limited mainly due to toxicity and drug resistance. Thus, there is a continued need to discover new therapies. Recently evidences shows that pyrazoline derivatives are promising antitumor agents in many types of cancers, but there are no studies with bladder cancer. In order to find potent and novel chemotherapy drugs for bladder cancer, a series of pyrazoline derivatives 2a-2d were tested for their antitumor activity in two human bladder cancer cell lines 5647 and T24. The MTT assay showed that the compounds 1-thiocarbamoyl-3,5-diphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole (2a) and 1-thiocarbamoyl-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole (2c) decrease the cell viability of 5637 cells. Molecular modeling indicated that these compounds had a good oral bioavailability and low toxicities. Clonogenic assay and flow cytometric analysis were used to assess colony formation, apoptosis induction and cell cycle distribution. Overall, our results suggest that pyrazoline 2a and 2c, with the substituents hydrogen and chlorine respectively, may decrease cell viability and colony formation of bladder cancer 5637 cell line by inhibition of cell cycle progression, and for pyrazoline 2a, by induction of apoptosis. As indicated by the physicochemical properties of these compounds, the steric factor influences the activity. Therefore, these pyrazoline derivatives can be considered promising anticancer agents for the treatment of bladder cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional upregulation of p27 mediates growth inhibition of isorhapontigenin (ISO) on human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guosong; Huang, Chao; Li, Jingxia; Huang, Haishan; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Yawei; Xie, Fei; Jin, Honglei; Zhu, Junlan; Huang, Chuanshu

    2018-03-08

    There are few approved drugs available for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Recently, we have demonstrated that isorhapontigenin (ISO), a new derivative isolated from the Chinese herb Gnetum cleistostachyum, effectively induces cell-cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and inhibits anchorage-independent cell growth through the miR-137/Sp1/cyclin D1 axis in human MIBC cells. Herein, we found that treatment of bladder cancer (BC) cells with ISO resulted in a significant upregulation of p27, which was also observed in ISO-treated mouse BCs that were induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN). Importantly, knockdown of p27 caused a decline in the ISO-induced G0-G1 growth arrest and reversed ISO suppression of anchorage-independent growth in BC cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that ISO promoted p27 expression at mRNA transcription level through increasing direct binding of forkhead box class O1 (FOXO1) to its promoter, while knockdown of FOXO1 attenuated ISO inhibition of BC cell growth. On the other hand, ISO upregulated the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) activity of p27, which was accompanied by a reduction of miR-182 expression. In line with these observations, ectopic expression of miR-182 significantly blocked p27 3'-UTR activity, whereas mutation of the miR-182-binding site at p27 mRNA 3'-UTR effectively reversed this inhibition. Accordingly, ectopic expression of miR-182 also attenuated ISO upregulation of p27 expression and impaired ISO inhibition of BC cell growth. Our results not only provide novel insight into understanding of the underlying mechanism related to regulation of MIBC cell growth but also identify new roles and mechanisms underlying ISO inhibition of BC cell growth.

  16. In vivo bioluminescence imaging validation of a human biopsy-derived orthotopic mouse model of glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzabek, Monika A; Huszthy, Peter C; Skaftnesmo, Kai O; McCormack, Emmet; Dicker, Patrick; Prehn, Jochen H M; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Byrne, Annette T

    2013-05-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive brain malignancy, is characterized by extensive cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, and single-cell infiltration into the brain. We have previously shown that a xenograft model based on serial xenotransplantation of human biopsy spheroids in immunodeficient rodents maintains the genotype and phenotype of the original patient tumor. The present work further extends this model for optical assessment of tumor engraftment and growth using bioluminescence imaging (BLI). A method for successful lentiviral transduction of the firefly luciferase gene into multicellular spheroids was developed and implemented to generate optically active patient tumor cells. Luciferase-expressing spheroids were injected into the brains of immunodeficient mice. BLI photon counts and tumor volumes from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were correlated. Luciferase-expressing tumors recapitulated the histopathologic hallmarks of human GBMs and showed proliferation rates and microvessel density counts similar to those of wild-type xenografts. Moreover, we detected widespread invasion of luciferase-positive tumor cells in the mouse brains. Herein we describe a novel optically active model of GBM that closely mimics human pathology with respect to invasion, angiogenesis, and proliferation indices. The model may thus be routinely used for the assessment of novel anti-GBM therapeutic approaches implementing well-established and cost-effective optical imaging strategies.

  17. Pathogenic and Diagnostic Potential of BLCA-1 and BLCA-4 Nuclear Proteins in Urothelial Cell Carcinoma of Human Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Santoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the bladder is one of the most common malignancies of genitourinary tract. Patients with bladder cancer need a life-long surveillance, directly due to the relatively high recurrence rate of this tumor. The use of cystoscopy represents the gold standard for the followup of previously treated patients. Nevertheless, several factors, including cost and invasiveness, render cystoscopy not ideal for routine controls. Advances in the identification of specific alterations in the nuclear structure of bladder cancer cells have opened novel diagnostic landscapes. The members of nuclear matrix protein family BLCA-1 and BLCA-4, are currently under evaluation as bladder cancer urinary markers. They are involved in tumour cell proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis. In this paper, we illustrate the role of BLCA-1 and BLCA-4 in bladder carcinogenesis and their potential exploitation as biomarkers in this cancer.

  18. Outpatient diagnostic of bladder tumours in flexible cystoscopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Gregers G; Mogensen, Karin; Toft, Birgitte Grønkær

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) in flexible cystoscopes and the diagnostic quality of biopsies for diagnosis of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the outpatients department (OPD).......The aim of this study was to evaluate photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) in flexible cystoscopes and the diagnostic quality of biopsies for diagnosis of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the outpatients department (OPD)....

  19. Human papillomavirus genotype prevalence in cervical biopsies from women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Law, Irwin; Buadromo, Eka; Stevens, Matthew P; Fong, James; Samuela, Josaia; Patel, Mahomed; Mulholland, E Kim; Russell, Fiona M; Garland, Suzanne M

    2011-09-01

    There is currently limited information about human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in women in the South Pacific region. This study's objective was to determine HPV genotypes present in cervical cancer (CC) and precancers (cervical intraepithelial lesion (CIN) 3) in Fiji. Cross-sectional analysis evaluated archival CC and CIN3 biopsy samples from 296 women of Melanesian Fijian ethnicity (n=182, 61.5%) and Indo-Fijian ethnicity (n=114, 38.5%). HPV genotypes were evaluated using the INNO-LiPA assay in archival samples from CC (n=174) and CIN3 (n=122) among women in Fiji over a 5-year period from 2003 to 2007. Overall, 99% of the specimens tested were HPV DNA-positive for high-risk genotypes, with detection rates of 100%, 97.4% and 100% in CIN3, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenosquamous carcinoma biopsies, respectively. Genotypes 16 and 18 were the most common (77%), followed by HPV 31 (4.3%). Genotype HPV 16 was the most common identified (59%) in CIN3 specimens, followed by HPV 31 (9%) and HPV 52 (6.6%). Multiple genotypes were detected in 12.5-33.3% of specimens, depending on the pathology. These results indicated that the two most prevalent CC-associated HPV genotypes in Fiji parallel those described in other regions worldwide, with genotype variations thereafter. These data suggest that the currently available bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines could potentially reduce cervical cancers in Fiji by over 80% and reduce precancers by at least 60%.

  20. Serum microRNA signatures as "liquid biopsies" for interrogating hepatotoxic mechanisms and liver pathogenesis in human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Krauskopf

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs released into the peripheral circulation upon cellular injury have shown a promise as a new class of tissue-specific biomarkers. We were first to demonstrate that next-generation sequencing analysis of serum from human subjects with acetaminophen-induced liver injury revealed a specific signature of circulating miRNAs. We consequently hypothesized that different types of hepatic liver impairments might feature distinct signatures of circulating miRNAs and that this approach might be useful as minimally invasive diagnostic "liquid biopsies" enabling the interrogation of underlying molecular mechanisms of injury in distant tissues. Therefore we examined serum circulating miRNAs in a total of 72 serum samples from a group of 53 subjects that included patients with accidental acetaminophen overdose, hepatitis B infection, liver cirrhosis and type 2 diabetes as well as gender- and age-matched healthy subjects with no evidence of liver disease. The miRNA signatures were identified using next-generation sequencing that provided analysis for the whole miRNome, including miRNA isoforms. Compared to the healthy subjects, a total of 179 miRNAs showed altered serum levels across the diseased subjects. Although many subjects have elevated alanine aminotransferase suggesting liver impairments, we identified distinct miRNA signatures for different impairments with minimum overlap. Furthermore, the bioinformatics analysis of miRNA signatures revealed relevant molecular pathways associated with the mechanisms of toxicity and or pathogenesis of disease. Interestingly, the high proportion of miRNA isoforms present in the respective signatures indicated a new level of complexity in cellular response to stress or disease. Our study demonstrates for the first time that signatures of circulating miRNAs show specificity for liver injury phenotypes and, once validated, might become useful for diagnosis of organ pathologies as "liquid biopsies".

  1. Serum microRNA signatures as "liquid biopsies" for interrogating hepatotoxic mechanisms and liver pathogenesis in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauskopf, Julian; de Kok, Theo M; Schomaker, Shelli J; Gosink, Mark; Burt, Deborah A; Chandler, Patricia; Warner, Roscoe L; Johnson, Kent J; Caiment, Florian; Kleinjans, Jos C; Aubrecht, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) released into the peripheral circulation upon cellular injury have shown a promise as a new class of tissue-specific biomarkers. We were first to demonstrate that next-generation sequencing analysis of serum from human subjects with acetaminophen-induced liver injury revealed a specific signature of circulating miRNAs. We consequently hypothesized that different types of hepatic liver impairments might feature distinct signatures of circulating miRNAs and that this approach might be useful as minimally invasive diagnostic "liquid biopsies" enabling the interrogation of underlying molecular mechanisms of injury in distant tissues. Therefore we examined serum circulating miRNAs in a total of 72 serum samples from a group of 53 subjects that included patients with accidental acetaminophen overdose, hepatitis B infection, liver cirrhosis and type 2 diabetes as well as gender- and age-matched healthy subjects with no evidence of liver disease. The miRNA signatures were identified using next-generation sequencing that provided analysis for the whole miRNome, including miRNA isoforms. Compared to the healthy subjects, a total of 179 miRNAs showed altered serum levels across the diseased subjects. Although many subjects have elevated alanine aminotransferase suggesting liver impairments, we identified distinct miRNA signatures for different impairments with minimum overlap. Furthermore, the bioinformatics analysis of miRNA signatures revealed relevant molecular pathways associated with the mechanisms of toxicity and or pathogenesis of disease. Interestingly, the high proportion of miRNA isoforms present in the respective signatures indicated a new level of complexity in cellular response to stress or disease. Our study demonstrates for the first time that signatures of circulating miRNAs show specificity for liver injury phenotypes and, once validated, might become useful for diagnosis of organ pathologies as "liquid biopsies".

  2. Functional evaluation of DNA repair in human biopsies and their relation to other cellular biomarkers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slyšková, Jana; Langie, S. A. S.; Collins, A. R.; Vodička, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 5 (2014) ISSN 1664-8021 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/1585 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : base excision repair * nucleotide excision repair * human solid tissue Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  3. Loss of prostasin (PRSS8) in human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell lines is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Li-Mei; Verity, Nicole J; Chai, Karl X

    2009-01-01

    The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored epithelial extracellular membrane serine protease prostasin (PRSS8) is expressed abundantly in normal epithelia and essential for terminal epithelial differentiation, but down-regulated in human prostate, breast, and gastric cancers and invasive cancer cell lines. Prostasin is involved in the extracellular proteolytic modulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and is an invasion suppressor. The aim of this study was to evaluate prostasin expression states in the transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of the human bladder and in human TCC cell lines. Normal human bladder tissues and TCC on a bladder cancer tissue microarray (TMA) were evaluated for prostasin expression by means of immunohistochemistry. A panel of 16 urothelial and TCC cell lines were evaluated for prostasin and E-cadherin expression by western blot and quantitative PCR, and for prostasin gene promoter region CpG methylation by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Prostasin is expressed in the normal human urothelium and in a normal human urothelial cell line, but is significantly down-regulated in high-grade TCC and lost in 9 (of 15) TCC cell lines. Loss of prostasin expression in the TCC cell lines correlated with loss of or reduced E-cadherin expression, loss of epithelial morphology, and promoter DNA hypermethylation. Prostasin expression could be reactivated by demethylation or inhibition of histone deacetylase. Re-expression of prostasin or a serine protease-inactive variant resulted in transcriptional up-regulation of E-cadherin. Loss of prostasin expression in bladder transitional cell carcinomas is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and may have functional implications in tumor invasion and resistance to chemotherapy

  4. Loss of prostasin (PRSS8 in human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell lines is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Karl X

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchored epithelial extracellular membrane serine protease prostasin (PRSS8 is expressed abundantly in normal epithelia and essential for terminal epithelial differentiation, but down-regulated in human prostate, breast, and gastric cancers and invasive cancer cell lines. Prostasin is involved in the extracellular proteolytic modulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and is an invasion suppressor. The aim of this study was to evaluate prostasin expression states in the transitional cell carcinomas (TCC of the human bladder and in human TCC cell lines. Methods Normal human bladder tissues and TCC on a bladder cancer tissue microarray (TMA were evaluated for prostasin expression by means of immunohistochemistry. A panel of 16 urothelial and TCC cell lines were evaluated for prostasin and E-cadherin expression by western blot and quantitative PCR, and for prostasin gene promoter region CpG methylation by methylation-specific PCR (MSP. Results Prostasin is expressed in the normal human urothelium and in a normal human urothelial cell line, but is significantly down-regulated in high-grade TCC and lost in 9 (of 15 TCC cell lines. Loss of prostasin expression in the TCC cell lines correlated with loss of or reduced E-cadherin expression, loss of epithelial morphology, and promoter DNA hypermethylation. Prostasin expression could be reactivated by demethylation or inhibition of histone deacetylase. Re-expression of prostasin or a serine protease-inactive variant resulted in transcriptional up-regulation of E-cadherin. Conclusion Loss of prostasin expression in bladder transitional cell carcinomas is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, and may have functional implications in tumor invasion and resistance to chemotherapy.

  5. No evidence of parvovirus B19, Chlamydia pneumoniae or human herpes virus infection in temporal artery biopsies in patients with giant cell arteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Tarp, B; Obel, N

    2002-01-01

    conditions. DNA was extracted from frozen biopsies and PCR was used to amplify genes from Chlamydia pneumoniae, parvovirus B19 and each of the eight human herpes viruses: herpes simplex viruses HSV-1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus and human herpes viruses HHV-6, -7 and -8......OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have suggested that infective agents may be involved in the pathogenesis of giant cell arteritis (GCA), in particular Chlamydia pneumoniae and parvovirus B19. We investigated temporal arteries from patients with GCA for these infections as well as human herpes viruses....... RESULTS: In all 30 biopsies, PCR was negative for DNAs of parvovirus B19, each of the eight human herpes viruses and C. pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of DNA from parvovirus B19, human herpes virus or C. pneumoniae in any of the temporal arteries. These agents do not seem to play a unique...

  6. Liver Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called if any of the following occur: ● Persistent abdominal or chest pain ● Vomiting ● Pallor, weakness or dizziness ● Bleeding from the site of the biopsy ● Passage of tarry black stools For more information or to locate a pediatric gastroen- terologist in your area please visit our ...

  7. Effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma on expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, K Y; Moon, H S; Park, H Y; Lee, T Y; Woo, Y N; Kim, H J; Lee, S J; Kong, G

    2000-10-31

    We have investigated the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon (INF-gamma), the potent Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-induced cytokines on the production of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP in high grade human bladder cancer cell lines, T-24, J-82 and HT-1376 cell lines. MMP-2 expression and activity were decreased in T-24 cells treated with both cytokines in a dose dependent manner. However, J-82 cells treated with TNF-alpha and INF-gamma revealed dose dependent increases of MMP-9 expression and activity with similar baseline expression and activity of MMP-2. HT-1376 cells after exposure to TNF-alpha only enhanced the expression and activity of MMP-9. These results indicate that TNF-alpha and INF-gamma could regulate the production of MMP-2 or MMP-9 on bladder cancer cells and their patterns of regulation are cell specific. Furthermore, this diverse response of bladder cancer cells to TNF-alpha and INF-gamma suggests that BCG immunotherapy may enhance the invasiveness of bladder cancer in certain conditions with induction of MMPs.

  8. Techniques in human airway inflammation - Quantity and morphology of bronchial biopsy specimens taken by forceps of three sizes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleva, RM; Kraan, J; Smith, M; ten Hacken, NHT; Postma, DS; Timens, W

    Background: In recent years, fiberoptic bronchoscopy has been introduced successfully in the research of bronchial asthma. Bronchial biopsy specimens obtained by this procedure are small, and an optimal biopsy technique is necessary to obtain high-quality tissue samples, as sufficient length of

  9. The single-biopsy approach in determining protein synthesis in human slow-turning-over tissue: use of flood-primed, continuous infusion of amino acid tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Reitelseder, Søren; Dideriksen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) rate is determined conventionally by obtaining two or more tissue biopsies during a primed, continuous infusion of a stable isotopically labeled amino acid. The purpose of the present study was to test whether tracer priming given as a flooding dose, thereby securing....... In conclusion, the flood-primed, continuous infusion protocol using phenylalanine as tracer can validly be used to measure the protein synthesis rate in human in vivo experiments by obtaining only a single tissue biopsy after a prolonged infusion period....

  10. High frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 protein expression in human bladder cancer is associated with disease progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Frederikke N S Lihme; Bartels, Annette; Fristrup, Niels

    2009-01-01

    bladder cancer. RESULTS: The frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling correlated to bladder cancer stage, grade and to later progression to muscle-invasive bladder cancer (T2-4). Stage T1 tumors exhibited significantly higher frequencies of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling...... than Ta tumors (P = 0.001). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that a high frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling was significantly associated with a higher risk of progression to stage T2-4 (log-rank test, P = 0.035). Tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling...

  11. The use of hair as a biopsy tissue for trace elements in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, S.A.; Chatt, A.

    1994-01-01

    Scalp hair has been recognized as a tissue which incorporates elements into its structure during the growth process, after which it becomes separated from the continual metabolic activity of the body. It has many advantages for being used as an indicator for screening population groups exposed to environmental pollutants. Such usage is not free from criticisms. Sometimes the so-called ''normal ranges'' of trace elements in hair quoted in the literature can be wide. Various factors can influence the trace element content of hair. In this report we have attempted to summarize the available literature on the levels of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead, selenium and chromium in human scalp hair. (author). 135 refs, 5 tabs

  12. Smartphone-based Video of Demodex folliculorum In Biopsied Human Eyelash Follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Mithaq; Davis, Gavin; Coleman, Michael James; Garrett, Brian Steven; Eghrari, Allen Omid

    2015-01-01

    The ability of smartphone technology to document static microscopy images has been well documented and is gaining widespread use in ophthalmology, where slit-lamp biomicroscopy is frequently utilized. However, little has been described regarding the use of smartphone technology to relay video of tissue microscopy results to patients, particularly when a tissue sample integrates motility of organisms as a characteristic feature of the disease. Here, we describe the method to use smartphone video to document motility of Demodex folliculorum in human eyelashes, individual results of which can be shown to patients for education and counseling purposes. The use of smartphone video in documenting the motility of organisms may prove to be beneficial in a variety of medical fields; producers of electronic medical records, therefore, may find it helpful to integrate video drop box tools.

  13. Transcriptional activation of the Axl and PDGFR-α by c-Met through a ras- and Src-independent mechanism in human bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Chen-Yun; Tseng, Vincent S; Lee, Yuan-Chii G; Shen, Cheng-Huang; Chow, Nan-Haw; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Shin, Shin-Mei; Yeh, Hsuan-Heng; Wu, Tsung-Jung; Shin, Jyh-Wei; Chang, Tsuey-Yu; Raghavaraju, Giri; Lee, Chung-Ta; Chiang, Jung-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    A cross-talk between different receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of human cancers. Both NIH-Met5 and T24-Met3 cell lines harboring an inducible human c-Met gene were established. C-Met-related RTKs were screened by RTK microarray analysis. The cross-talk of RTKs was demonstrated by Western blotting and confirmed by small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing, followed by elucidation of the underlying mechanism. The impact of this cross-talk on biological function was demonstrated by Trans-well migration assay. Finally, the potential clinical importance was examined in a cohort of 65 cases of locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer patients. A positive association of Axl or platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFR-α) with c-Met expression was demonstrated at translational level, and confirmed by specific siRNA knock-down. The transactivation of c-Met on Axl or PDGFR-α in vitro was through a ras- and Src-independent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK) pathway. In human bladder cancer, co-expression of these RTKs was associated with poor patient survival (p < 0.05), and overexpression of c-Met/Axl/PDGFR-α or c-Met alone showed the most significant correlation with poor survival (p < 0.01). In addition to c-Met, the cross-talk with Axl and/or PDGFR-α also contributes to the progression of human bladder cancer. Evaluation of Axl and PDGFR-α expression status may identify a subset of c-Met-positive bladder cancer patients who may require co-targeting therapy

  14. Membrane microdomain-associated uroplakin IIIa contributes to Src-dependent mechanisms of anti-apoptotic proliferation in human bladder carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Kihira

    2012-08-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation of p145met/β-subunit of hepatocyte growth factor receptor by epidermal growth factor receptor and Src contributes to the anti-apoptotic growth of human bladder carcinoma cell 5637 under serum-starved conditions. Here, we show that some other cell lines of human bladder carcinoma, but not other types of human cancer cells, also exhibit Src-dependent, anti-apoptotic proliferation under serum-starved conditions, and that low-density, detergent-insoluble membrane microdomains (MD serve as a structural platform for signaling events involving p145met, EGFR, and Src. As an MD-associated molecule that may contribute to bladder carcinoma-specific cellular function, we identified uroplakin IIIa (UPIIIa, an urothelium-specific protein. Results obtained so far revealed: 1 UPIIIa undergoes partial proteolysis in serum-starved cells; 2 a specific antibody to the extracellular domain of UPIIIa inhibits the proteolysis of UPIIIa and the activation of Src, and promotes apoptosis in serum-starved cells; and 3 knockdown of UPIIIa by short interfering RNA also promotes apoptosis in serum-starved cells. GM6001, a potent inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP, inhibits the proteolysis of UPIIIa and promotes apoptosis in serum-starved cells. Furthermore, serum starvation promotes expression and secretion of the heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor in a manner that depends on the functions of MMP, Src, and UPIIIa. These results highlight a hitherto unknown signaling network involving a subset of MD-associated molecules in the anti-apoptotic mechanisms of human bladder carcinoma cells.

  15. Transcriptional activation of the Axl and PDGFR-α by c-Met through a ras- and Src-independent mechanism in human bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng Vincent S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cross-talk between different receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs plays an important role in the pathogenesis of human cancers. Methods Both NIH-Met5 and T24-Met3 cell lines harboring an inducible human c-Met gene were established. C-Met-related RTKs were screened by RTK microarray analysis. The cross-talk of RTKs was demonstrated by Western blotting and confirmed by small interfering RNA (siRNA silencing, followed by elucidation of the underlying mechanism. The impact of this cross-talk on biological function was demonstrated by Trans-well migration assay. Finally, the potential clinical importance was examined in a cohort of 65 cases of locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer patients. Results A positive association of Axl or platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFR-α with c-Met expression was demonstrated at translational level, and confirmed by specific siRNA knock-down. The transactivation of c-Met on Axl or PDGFR-α in vitro was through a ras- and Src-independent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK pathway. In human bladder cancer, co-expression of these RTKs was associated with poor patient survival (p p Conclusions In addition to c-Met, the cross-talk with Axl and/or PDGFR-α also contributes to the progression of human bladder cancer. Evaluation of Axl and PDGFR-α expression status may identify a subset of c-Met-positive bladder cancer patients who may require co-targeting therapy.

  16. Bladder stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    The health care provider will perform a physical exam. This will also include a rectal exam. The exam may reveal an enlarged prostate or other problems. The following tests may be done: Bladder or pelvic x-ray Cystoscopy Urinalysis Urine culture (clean catch)

  17. Bee venom induces apoptosis through intracellular Ca2+ -modulated intrinsic death pathway in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Siu-Wan; Chu, Yung-Lin; Yu, Chun-Shu; Chen, Po-Yuan; Ho, Heng-Chien; Yang, Jai-Sing; Huang, Hui-Ying; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2012-01-01

    To focus on bee venom-induced apoptosis in human bladder cancer TSGH-8301 cells and to investigate its signaling pathway to ascertain whether intracellular calcium iron (Ca(2+)) is involved in this effect. Bee venom-induced cytotoxic effects, productions of reactive oxygen species and Ca(2+) and the level of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis-associated proteins were examined by Western blot analysis and confocal laser microscopy. Bee venom-induced cell morphological changes and decreased cell viability through the induction of apoptosis in TSGH-8301 cell were found. Bee venom promoted the protein levels of Bax, caspase-9, caspase-3 and endonuclease G. The enhancements of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related protein levels were shown in bee venom-provoked apoptosis of TSGH-8301 cells. Bee venom promoted the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9, increased Ca(2+) release and decreased the level of ΔΨm. Co-localization of immunofluorescence analysis showed the releases of endonuclease G and apoptosis-inducing factor trafficking to nuclei for bee venom-mediated apoptosis. The images revealed evidence of nuclear condensation and formation of apoptotic bodies by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and DNA gel electrophoresis showed the DNA fragmentation in TSGH-8301 cells. Bee venom treatment induces both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptotic death through intracellular Ca(2+) -modulated intrinsic death pathway in TSGH-8301 cells. © 2011 The Japanese Urological Association.

  18. Bladder leiomyoma presenting as dyspareunia: Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jun; Lai, Hai-Ping; Lin, Shao-Kun; Zhang, Qing-Quan; Shao, Chu-Xiao; Jin, Lie; Lei, Wen-Hui

    2016-07-01

    Leiomyoma of the bladder is a rare tumor arising from the submucosa. Most patients with bladder leiomyoma may present with urinary frequency or obstructive urinary symptoms. However, there are a few cases of bladder leiomyoma coexisting with uterine leiomyoma presenting as dyspareunia. We herein report an unusual case of coexisting bladder leiomyoma and uterine leiomyoma presenting as dyspareunia. A 44-year-old Asian female presented to urologist and complained that she had experienced dyspareunia over the preceding several months. A pelvic ultrasonography revealed a mass lesion located in the trigone of urinary bladder. The mass lesion was confirmed on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). The CT scan also revealed a lobulated and enlarged uterus consistent with uterine leiomyoma. Then, the biopsies were then taken with a transurethral resection (TUR) loop and these biopsies showed a benign proliferation of smooth muscle in a connective tissue stroma suggestive of bladder leiomyoma. An open local excision of bladder leiomyoma and hysteromyomectomy were performed successfully. Histological examination confirmed bladder leiomyoma coexisting with uterine leiomyoma. This case highlights a rare presentation of bladder leiomyoma, dyspareunia, as the chief symptom in a patient who had coexisting uterine leiomyoma. Bladder leiomyomas coexisting with uterine leiomyomas are rare and can present with a wide spectrum of complaints including without symptoms, irritative symptoms, obstructive symptoms, or even dyspareunia.

  19. Establishment, characterization, chemosensitivity, and radiosensitivity of two different cell lines derived from a human breast cancer biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gioanni, J.; Courdi, A.; Lalanne, C.M.; Fischel, J.L.; Zanghellini, E.; Lambert, J.C.; Ettore, F.; Namer, M.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro culture of a human breast cancer biopsy fragment gave rise to two permanent cell lines, CAL 18 A and CAL 18 B, which were differentiated by both morphological and ultrastructural analysis. The karyotypic and growth properties of these two cell lines also differed, providing further evidence of cell heterogeneity within a given tumor. Both cell lines lost their hormone receptors in vitro. CAL 18 A cells grew in agar and were tumorigenic after inoculation into nude mice; neither of these properties was observed in CAL 18 B cells. The chemosensitivity of 12 antineoplastic drugs was assessed by a short-term assay, using inhibition of tritiated thymidine incorporation by the cells after contact with the drugs as the end point. Only a few drugs were active at moderate concentrations. The overall responses of both cell lines were similar. The cell survival curves, established by the colony method following a single dose of radiation, were also very similar, despite the greater heterogeneity of CAL 18 B cells. The two cell lines appear to be interrelated, since CAL 18 B cells were occasionally observed to emerge from CAL 18 A clones, suggesting that malignant cell redifferentiation may occur spontaneously in vitro

  20. Discovery of human immunodeficiency virus infection by immunohistochemistry on lymph node biopsies from patients with unexplained follicular hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Geisilene Russano; Laurent, Camille; Godel, Aurélie; da Silva, Nivaldo Adolfo; March, Michel; Delsol, Georges; Brousset, Pierre

    2007-10-01

    Over the last 10 years, 240 cases of hyperplasic lymphadenitis have been systematically tested in our institution for the presence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This series comprised patients between 15 and 90 years (median of age: 38.51) without a past history of HIV infection. The technical approach consisted in an immunohistochemical procedure with a monoclonal antibody against the p24-gag protein of HIV. Among the 240 cases, 105 had a true follicular hyperplasia. Overall, this survey found that 4 cases (3 males and 1 female) were positive for p24-gag without previous knowledge of HIV infection (4/240=1.66%). HIV infection was further confirmed by serologic and molecular investigations in all cases. These results were seen exclusively in those cases with prominent follicular hyperplasia (4/105=3.80%). Staining with the anti-p24 antibody was intense and restricted to the follicular dendritic cell networks. In one case, beside hyperplasic germinal centers, one could see a regressed onion bulblike structure. One important conclusion can be drawn from this study. A systematic research of HIV proteins should be performed in all lymph node biopsies with marked follicular hyperplasia, in a context of polyadenopathy, fever, and general status alteration. Besides giving an accurate diagnosis, this approach may be helpful in cases of recent infection in which anti-p24 antibodies are not yet detectable in the serum.

  1. Expression of Peroxisome Proferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ in Human Transitional Bladder Cancer and its Role in Inducing Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Fei Guan

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the expression and role of the thiazolidinedione (TZD-activated transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, in human bladder cancers. In situ hybridization shows that PPARγ mRNA is highly expressed in all human transitional epithelial cell cancers (TCCa's studied (n=11. PPARγ was also expressed in five TCCa cell lines as determined by RNase protection assays and immunoblot. Retinoid X receptor α (RXRα, a 9-cis-retinoic acid stimulated (9-cis-RA heterodimeric partner of PPARγ, was also co-expressed in all TCCa tissues and cell lines. Treatment of the T24 bladder cancer cells with the TZD PPARγ agonist troglitazone, dramatically inhibited 3H-thymidine incorporation and induced cell death. Addition of the RXRα ligands, 9-cis-RA or LG100268, sensitized T24 bladder cancer cells to the lethal effect of troglitazone and two other PPARγ activators, ciglitazone and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 (15dPGJ2. Troglitazone treatment increased expression of two cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21wAF1/CIP1 and p16INK4, reduced cyclin D1 expression, consistent with G1 arrest. Troglitazone also induced an endogenous PPARγ target gene in T24 cells, adipocyte-type fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP, the expression of which correlates with bladder cancer differentiation. In situ hybridization shows that A-FABP expression is localized to normal uroepithelial cells as well as some TCCa's. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PPARγ is expressed in human TCCa where it may play a role in regulating TCCa differentiation and survival, thereby providing a potential target for therapy of uroepithelial cancers.

  2. Human murine mammary tumour virus-like agents are genetically distinct from endogenous retroviruses and are not detectable in breast cancer cell lines or biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mant, Christine; Gillett, Cheryl; D'Arrigo, Corrado; Cason, John

    2004-01-01

    It has been reported that a human murine mammary tumour virus (MMTV)-like virus (HMLV), which may be an endogenous human retrovirus (HERV), occurs in the human breast cancer cell lines T47D and MCF-7 and, in 38% of human breast cancer biopsies. As the aetiology of most breast cancers remains unknown, it is important to verify these observations in differing breast cancer populations worldwide. Thus, we sought to determine the genetic relationships between HMLVs, MMTVs, and HERVs, and to investigate the association between HMLVs and breast cancer biopsies from South London, UK. Phylogenetic analyses of the env/pol region indicated that HMLVs are indistinct from MMTVs, and that MMTVS/HMLVs exhibit only low sequence homologies with HERVs. A search of the human genome confirmed that HMLVs are not endogenous. Using MMTV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers described previously, we amplified DNA from all cell lines except MCF-7 and from 7 of 44 (16%) breast cancer biopsies. A restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was designed to distinguish between HMLVs and MMTVs, and upon analyses, PCR amplicons appeared to be HMLVs. To confirm these findings, amplicons from the T47D cell line and from four randomly selected breast cancer patients were sequenced. Of 106 DNA sequences obtained, 103 were homologous with a short arm of human chromosome (Chr) 3 (3p13), two with Chr 4, and one with Chr 8. None of the sequences exhibited significant nucleotide homology with MMTVs, HMLVs, or with HERVs (all <50%). Thus, we conclude that (i) HMLVs are integral members of the MMTV family; (ii) MMTVs/HMLVs are genetically distinct from HERVs; (iii) MMTV/HMLV DNA is not present in human breast cancer cell lines or clinical biopsies in our locality

  3. Microsatellite instability in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Ruppert, J M; Tokino, K

    1993-01-01

    Somatic instability at microsatellite repeats was detected in 6 of 200 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. Instabilities were apparent as changes in (GT)n repeat lengths on human chromosome 9 for four tumors and as alterations in a (CAG)n repeat in the androgen receptor gene on the X...... or larger (> 2 base pairs) alterations in repeat length. All six tumors were low stage (Ta-T1), suggesting that these alterations can occur early in bladder tumorigenesis....

  4. A bladder preservation regimen using intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer. A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanaga, Naoto; Akaza, Hideyuki; Okumura, Toshiyuki

    2000-01-01

    A prospective study was performed to investigate combined treatment with intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiation therapy for bladder preservation in locally invasive bladder cancer. Patients with invasive bladder cancer, stage T2-3N0M0, were included in the study. lntra-arterial chemotherapy was performed with three injections of methotrexate and cisplatin at 3-week intervals. Simultaneously, the patients underwent X-ray irradiation (40 Gy) of the small pelvic space. Where a post-treatment transurethral resection (TUR) biopsy showed no residual tumor, the tumor site was irradiated by a 30 Gy proton beam and the bladder was preserved. Where tumors remained, radical cystectomy was performed. Between 1990 and 1996, 42 patients were treated according to this protocol. Post-treatment TUR biopsy and urine cytology showed no residual tumors in 39 of 42 cases (93%). The bladder was preserved in accordance with the study protocol in 36 cases. A median follow-up of 38 months showed 3-year non-recurrence in 72% of bladder-preserved patients and the rate of bladder preservation was 84%. The nine recurrences included eight cases of superficial bladder recurrence. One cancer death occurred among the bladder-preservation patients, giving 3-year survival and cause-specific survival rates of 84% and 100%, respectively. Although bladder function decreased slightly in compliance, bladder capacity was retained in almost all cases. This regimen is useful for bladder preservation in T2-3 locally invasive bladder cancer. Information from more cases and the results of more long-term observations are needed, as is an evaluation of appropriate subject selection and factors associated with quality of life issues, particularly regarding bladder function. (author)

  5. Primary Bladder Neurofibroma: A Rare Case with Clinical Implications and Diagnostic Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umakanthan, Srikanth; Naik, Ramadas; Bukelo, Maryann Margaret; Rai, Sharada; Prabhu, Laxman

    2015-09-01

    Neurofibroma of the genito-urinary tract is rare. Urinary bladder is the commonest organ involved in cases of urinary tract involvement. Patients present early in life and there is male preponderance. We discuss here a case of primary neurofibroma of the urinary bladder in a 52-year-male presenting with haematuria, irritative bladder symptoms and pelvic mass. Cystoscopy showed a swelling in the left lateral wall. A transurethral biopsy revealed neurofibroma of the urinary bladder. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis.

  6. Molecular imaging of melanin distribution in vivo and quantitative differential diagnosis of human pigmented lesions using label-free harmonic generation biopsy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chi-Kuang; Wei, Ming-Liang; Su, Yu-Hsiang; Weng, Wei-Hung; Liao, Yi-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Harmonic generation microscopy is a noninvasive repetitive imaging technique that provides real-time 3D microscopic images of human skin with a sub-femtoliter resolution and high penetration down to the reticular dermis. In this talk, we show that with a strong resonance effect, the third-harmonic-generation (THG) modality provides enhanced contrast on melanin and allows not only differential diagnosis of various pigmented skin lesions but also quantitative imaging for longterm tracking. This unique capability makes THG microscopy the only label-free technique capable of identifying the active melanocytes in human skin and to image their different dendriticity patterns. In this talk, we will review our recent efforts to in vivo image melanin distribution and quantitatively diagnose pigmented skin lesions using label-free harmonic generation biopsy. This talk will first cover the spectroscopic study on the melanin enhanced THG effect in human cells and the calibration strategy inside human skin for quantitative imaging. We will then review our recent clinical trials including: differential diagnosis capability study on pigmented skin tumors; as well as quantitative virtual biopsy study on pre- and post- treatment evaluation on melasma and solar lentigo. Our study indicates the unmatched capability of harmonic generation microscopy to perform virtual biopsy for noninvasive histopathological diagnosis of various pigmented skin tumors, as well as its unsurpassed capability to noninvasively reveal the pathological origin of different hyperpigmentary diseases on human face as well as to monitor the efficacy of laser depigmentation treatments. This work is sponsored by National Health Research Institutes.

  7. Bladder preservation using chemoradiation therapy for locally invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Toyofumi; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Sato, Mototaka; Mori, Naoki; Sekii, Ken-Ichiro; Itatani, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the long-term results and molecular markers of outcome with selective organ preservation in invasive bladder cancer using chemoradiation therapy. We examined locally invasive bladder cancer in 32 patients (30 men, 2 women; mean age at treatment 68.1 years) who underwent bladder-sparing protocols in the Department of Urology at Sumitomo Hospital between 2000 and 2005. The clinical stage was T2, T3, and T4 in 13, 16, and 3 patients, respectively. Our protocol includes aggressive transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) and 46 Gy radiotherapy (2 Gy/fraction, 5 fractions/week) to the pelvis with concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy (20 mg/body/day, 5 days/week, the first and fourth week, intravenously). The initial evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), urine cytology, and cystoscopy with a biopsy. During follow-up, if the patients developed superficial recurrence, they was treated with TURBT and intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), while patients with invasive recurrence were advised to undergo a salvage cystectomy. We examined the association between the expression of the Bcl-2 family in pretreatment TUR specimens and patient outcome. The mean follow-up was 54.6 months. The first assessment after the induction chemoradiotherapy showed that bladder preservation was achieved in 27 patients (84.4%). The actuarial local control rate with an intact bladder was 56.3% (18 patients) at 3 years. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 90.6, 84.0, and 66.9%, respectively. The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 75.0, 67.2, and 33.3% in T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Bcl-x positivity was significantly associated with a poor cancer-specific survival rate (log-rank test, p=0.038). Chemoradiation therapy for invasive bladder cancer can achieve survival rates similar to those in patients treated with radical cystectomy, with successful bladder preservation. Our results suggest that the expression of Bcl-x is a

  8. Novel Multisensor Probe for Monitoring Bladder Temperature During Locoregional Chemohyperthermia for Nonmuscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Technical Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geijsen, Debby E.; Zum Vörde Sive Vörding, Paul J.; Schooneveldt, Gerben; Sijbrands, Jan; Hulshof, Maarten C.; de la Rosette, Jean; de Reijke, Theo M.; Crezee, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose: The effectiveness of locoregional hyperthermia combined with intravesical instillation of mitomycin C to reduce the risk of recurrence and progression of intermediate- and high-risk nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer is currently investigated in clinical trials. Clinically effective locoregional hyperthermia delivery necessitates adequate thermal dosimetry; thus, optimal thermometry methods are needed to monitor accurately the temperature distribution throughout the bladder wall. The aim of the study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of a novel intravesical device (multi-sensor probe) developed to monitor the local bladder wall temperatures during loco-regional C-HT. Materials and Methods: A multisensor thermocouple probe was designed for deployment in the human bladder, using special sensors to cover the bladder wall in different directions. The deployment of the thermocouples against the bladder wall was evaluated with visual, endoscopic, and CT imaging in bladder phantoms, porcine models, and human bladders obtained from obduction for bladder volumes and different deployment sizes of the probe. Finally, porcine bladders were embedded in a phantom and subjected to locoregional heating to compare probe temperatures with additional thermometry inside and outside the bladder wall. Results: The 7.5 cm thermocouple probe yielded optimal bladder wall contact, adapting to different bladder volumes. Temperature monitoring was shown to be accurate and representative for the actual bladder wall temperature. Conclusions: Use of this novel multisensor probe could yield a more accurate monitoring of the bladder wall temperature during locoregional chemohyperthermia. PMID:24112045

  9. 17-DMAG induces heat shock protein 90 functional impairment in human bladder cancer cells: knocking down the hallmark traits of malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkoulis, Panagiotis K; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Voutsinas, Gerassimos E

    2016-05-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that maintains the structural and functional integrity of various protein clients involved in multiple oncogenic signaling pathways. Hsp90 holds a prominent role in tumorigenesis, as numerous members of its broad clientele are involved in the generation of the hallmark traits of cancer. 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG) specifically targets Hsp90 and interferes with its function as a molecular chaperone, impairing its intrinsic ATPase activity and undermining proper folding of multiple protein clients. In this study, we have examined the effects of 17-DMAG on the regulation of Hsp90-dependent tumorigenic signaling pathways directly implicated in cell cycle progression, survival, and motility of human urinary bladder cancer cell lines. We have used MTT-based assays, FACS analysis, Western blotting, semiquantitative PCR (sqPCR), immunofluorescence, and scratch-wound assays in RT4 (p53(wt)), RT112 (p53(wt)), T24 (p53(mt)), and TCCSUP (p53(mt)) human urinary bladder cancer cell lines. We have demonstrated that, upon exposure to 17-DMAG, bladder cancer cells display prominent cell cycle arrest and commitment to apoptotic and autophagic cell death, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 17-DMAG administration induced pronounced downregulation of multiple Hsp90 protein clients and other downstream oncogenic effectors, therefore causing inhibition of cell proliferation and decline of cell motility due to the molecular "freezing" of critical cytoskeletal components. In toto, we have clearly demonstrated the dose-dependent and cell type-specific effects of 17-DMAG on the hallmark traits of cancer, appointing Hsp90 as a key molecular component in bladder cancer targeted therapy.

  10. [Leiomyoma of the bladder causing the destruction of a kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehila, Mehdi; Mekni, Karima; Abouda, Hassine Saber; Chtourou, Maher; Zeghal, Dorra; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyoma of the bladder is a rare benign tumor deemed to have a good prognosis after surgical treatment. This is unfortunately not always true. We report the case of a 33 year-old patient who consulted for lumbar pain on right side. Exploration of patient revealed bladder floor solid tumor with non-functioning right kidney and left urinary tract dilation. Cystoscopy objectified solid tumor of the right perimeatal bladder. Tumor biopsies were performed together with the insertion of a left double J stent. Anatomo-pathologic study showed leiomyoma of the bladder. The patient underwent laparoscopic myomectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful. Pathological effect and sequelae was complete distruction of kidney.

  11. Oropharynx lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as papilloma) Fungal infections (such as candida) Histoplasmosis Oral lichen planus Precancerous sore (leukoplakia) Viral infections (such as Herpes simplex) Risks Risks of the procedure may ... Throat lesion biopsy; Biopsy - mouth or throat; Mouth lesion biopsy; Oral cancer - biopsy ...

  12. MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between chronic exposure to chlorinated drinking water and human cancer, particularly of the urinary bladder. MX (3- chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydrox...

  13. Correlation of gene expression with bladder capacity in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaco, Marc; Koslov, David S; Keys, Tristan; Evans, Robert J; Badlani, Gopal H; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Walker, Stephen J

    2014-10-01

    Interstitial cystitis and bladder pain syndrome are terms used to describe a heterogeneous chronic pelvic and bladder pain disorder. Despite its significant prevalence, our understanding of disease etiology is poor. We molecularly characterized interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and determined whether there are clinical factors that correlate with gene expression. Bladder biopsies from female subjects with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and female controls without signs of the disease were collected and divided into those with normal and low anesthetized bladder capacity, respectively. Samples then underwent RNA extraction and microarray assay. Data generated by these assays were analyzed using Omics Explorer (Qlucore, Lund, Sweden), GeneSifter® Analysis Edition 4.0 and Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis to determine similarity among samples within and between groups, and measure differentially expressed transcripts unique to each phenotype. A total of 16 subjects were included in study. Principal component analysis and unsupervised hierarchical clustering showed clear separation between gene expression in tissues from subjects with low compared to normal bladder capacity. Gene expression in tissue from patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome who had normal bladder capacity did not significantly differ from that in controls without interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Pairwise analysis revealed that pathways related to inflammatory and immune response were most involved. Microarray analysis provides insight into the potential pathological condition underlying interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. This pilot study shows that patients with this disorder who have low compared to normal bladder capacity have significantly different molecular characteristics, which may reflect a difference in disease pathophysiology. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc

  14. An analysis of suppressing migratory effect on human urinary bladder cancer cell line by silencing of snail-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Shima; Mansoori, Behzad; Mohammadi, Ali; Davoudian, Sadaf; Musavi Shenas, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Shajari, Neda; Majidi, Jafar; Baradaran, Behzad

    2017-12-01

    Snail-1 actively participates in tumor progression, invasion, and migration. Targeting snail-1 expression can suppress the EMT process in cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of snail1 silencing on urinary bladder cancer. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect snail-1 and other related metastatic genes expression following siRNA knockdown in urinary bladder cancer EJ-138 cells. The protein level of snail1 was assessed by Western blot. MTT and TUNEL assays were assessed to understand if snail-1 had survival effects on EJ-138 cells. Scratch wound healing assay measured cell motility effects after snail1 suppression. The significant silencing of snail-1 reached 60pmol siRNA in a 48-h post-transfection. The result of scratch assay showed that snail-1 silencing significantly decreased Vimentin, MMPs, and CXCR4 expression; however, expression of E-cadherin was induced. The cell death assay indicated that snail-1 played the crucial role in bladder cancer survival rate. These results propose that snail-1 plays a major role in the progression and migration of urinary bladder cancer, and can be a potential therapeutic target for target therapy of invasive urinary bladder cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Immunohistochemical characterization of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite silica gel (NanoBone(r)) osteogenesis: a study on biopsies from human jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Werner; Gerber, Thomas; Michel, Barbara; Lossdörfer, Stefan; Henkel, Kai-Olaf; Heinemann, Friedhelm

    2008-10-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials may be osteogenic, osteoconductive or osteoinductive. To test for these probable characteristics in a new nanoporous grafting material consisting of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite embedded in a porous silica gel matrix (NanoBone(s)), applied in humans, we studied biopsies from 12 patients before dental implantation following various orofacial augmentation techniques with healing times of between 3.5 and 12 months. Sections from decalcified specimens were investigated using histology, histochemistry [periodic acid Schiff, alcian blue staining and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)] and immunohistochemistry, with markers for osteogenesis, bone remodelling, resorption and vessel walls (alkaline phosphatase, bone morphogenetic protein-2, collagen type I, ED1, osteocalcin, osteopontin, runx2 and Von-Willebrand factor). Histologically, four specific stages of graft transformation into lamellar bone could be characterized. During early stages of healing, bone matrix proteins were absorbed by NanoBone(s) granules, forming a proteinaceous matrix, which was invaded by small vessels and cells. We assume that the deposition of these molecules promotes early osteogenesis in and around NanoBone(s) and supports the concomitant degradation probably by osteoclast-like cells. TRAP-positive osteoclast-like cells were localized directly on the granular surfaces. Runx2-immunoreactive pre-osteoblasts, which are probably involved in direct osteogenesis forming woven bone that is later transformed into lamellar bone, were attracted. Graft resorption and bone apposition around the graft granules appear concomitantly. We postulate that NanoBone(s) has osteoconductive and biomimetic properties and is integrated into the host's physiological bone turnover at a very early stage.

  16. Apoptosis-related molecular differences for response to tyrosin kinase inhibitors in drug-sensitive and drug-resistant human bladder cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixia Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR family is reportedly overexpressed in bladder cancer, and tyrosine kinaseinhibitors (TKIs have been suggested as treatment. Gefitinib is a selective inhibitor of the EGFR and lapatinib is a dual inhibitor of both the EGFR and HER2 (human EGFR type 2 receptor. Both compounds compete with the binding of adenosine triphosphate (ATP to the tyrosine kinase domain of the respective receptors to inhibit receptor autophosphorylation causing suppression of signal transduction. Unfortunately, resistance to these inhibitors is a major clinical problem. Aims: To compare the apoptosis signaling pathway(s induced by gefitinib and lapatinib, in UM-UC-5 (drug-sensitive and UM-UC-14 (drug-resistant bladder cancer cells and to identify molecular differences that might be useful predictors of their efficacy. Materials and Methods: Cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis assay were used to detect the effect of TKIs on UM-UC-5 and UM-UC-14 cells. Molecular differences for response to TKIs were examined by protein array. Results: TKIs strongly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle G1 arrest and apoptosis in UM-UC-5 cells. Most notable apoptosis molecular differences included decreased claspin, trail, and survivin by TKIs in the sensitive cells. In contrast, TKIs had no effect on resistant cells. Conclusions: Claspin, trail, and survivin might be used to determine the sensitivity of bladder cancers to TKIs.

  17. Stereotactic breast biopsy with a biopsy gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, S.H.; Lovin, J.; Luethke, J.; Jobe, W.E.; Hopper, K.D.; Yakes, W.F.

    1989-01-01

    With the recent introduction of stereotactic mammographic localizing devices, the authors have been performing histologic core needle breast biopsies in which the Bard biopsy gun is used in conjunction with sterotactic guidance. The authors have performed 60 breast gun biopsies with 16-gauge and 18-gauge biopsy-cut needles. These biopsies were followed immediately by traditional surgical excision. Pathologic results correlated well in 52 of the 60 patients, including 10 of 13 cancers. Three of the eight negative correlations occurred when diagnosis was made on gun biopsy but not on surgical biopsy. The stereotactic- guided gun biopsies appear to approach the surgical gold standard, decrease patient discomfort and potential disfigurement, lower the cost of breast biopsy, and lower the threshold necessary to perform breast biopsy

  18. The telocytes/myofibroblasts 3-D network forms a stretch receptor in the human bladder mucosa. Is this structure involved in the detrusor overactive diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, Maria-Giuliana; Traini, Chiara

    2018-04-11

    Several connective tissue cells are present in the human bladder wall; among them, the myofibroblasts (MyF) and the so-called interstitial cells (IC) are a matter of investigation either by basic researchers or clinicians. The interest derives from the possibility that these two cell types could regulate the organ function forming a special sensory system in the bladder mucosa. Whereas attention for the myofibroblasts was mainly focused on understanding their role, the so-called IC are debatable starting from their nomenclature. Indeed, the IC should correspond to the previously called fibroblasts-like cells/interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICLC)/interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) or PDGFRα positive cells, or CD34 positive cells. Recently a proper name was proposed to give them an identity, i.e. telocyte (TC). To date, this nomenclature is a better term than IC that is quite vague and can be used for all the cells that reside in the connective tissue. Noteworthy, in the bladder mucosa, TC and MyF form a hetero-cellular 3-D network. The detrusor overactivity/overactive bladder (DO/OAB) are pathological conditions characterized by hypersensitivity to filling. It has been hypothesized that erroneous afferent inputs generated in the mucosa affect the efferent pathways and, consequently, the detrusor response. Presently, we review the literature regarding the presence and the potential role of TC and MyF in control conditions and in DO/OAB. On the possibility that the 3D-network made up by these two cell types might play a major role in the genesis of anomalous afferent stimuli will be given attention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationships between body mass index and short-circuit current in human duodenal and colonic mucosal biopsies. Osbak PS, Bindslev N, Hansen MB. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2011 Jan;201(1):47-53

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osbak, Philip Samuel; Bindslev, Niels; Berner-Hansen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Retrospectively, to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and basal electrogenic transport as measured by short-circuit current (SCC) in human duodenal and colonic mucosal biopsies. Methods: The study included biopsies from mucosa of normal appearance in the sigmoid colon...... and >25 kg m)2). Statistical significance was assessed by the unpaired t-test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Correlation coefficients were calculated by Pearson product moment correlation. Results: In colonic biopsies, basal SCC (mean standard deviation) was significantly higher in 59 biopsies from 30...

  20. HAMLET treatment delays bladder cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Hou, Yuchuan; Svensson, Majlis; Holmqvist, Bo; Svanborg, Catharina

    2010-04-01

    HAMLET is a protein-lipid complex that kills different types of cancer cells. Recently we observed a rapid reduction in human bladder cancer size after intravesical HAMLET treatment. In this study we evaluated the therapeutic effect of HAMLET in the mouse MB49 bladder carcinoma model. Bladder tumors were established by intravesical injection of MB49 cells into poly L-lysine treated bladders of C57BL/6 mice. Treatment groups received repeat intravesical HAMLET instillations and controls received alpha-lactalbumin or phosphate buffer. Effects of HAMLET on tumor size and putative apoptotic effects were analyzed in bladder tissue sections. Whole body imaging was used to study HAMLET distribution in tumor bearing mice compared to healthy bladder tissue. HAMLET caused a dose dependent decrease in MB49 cell viability in vitro. Five intravesical HAMLET instillations significantly decreased tumor size and delayed development in vivo compared to controls. TUNEL staining revealed selective apoptotic effects in tumor areas but not in adjacent healthy bladder tissue. On in vivo imaging Alexa-HAMLET was retained for more than 24 hours in the bladder of tumor bearing mice but not in tumor-free bladders or in tumor bearing mice that received Alexa-alpha-lactalbumin. Results show that HAMLET is active as a tumoricidal agent and suggest that topical HAMLET administration may delay bladder cancer development. Copyright (c) 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced urothelial expression of human chorionic gonadotropin beta (hCGβ) in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalenberg, Thilo; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Ho, Thi Phuc; Mallock, Tobias; Hartenstein, Siegurd; Alexander, Henry; Zimmermann, Gerolf; Hohenfellner, Rudolf; Denzinger, Stefan; Burger, Maximilian; Horn, Lars-Christian; Neuhaus, Jochen

    2012-06-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is associated with urothelial lesions. Pathomechanisms of urothelial damage and factors for urothelial restoration are unknown. hCG is a factor for cellular differentiation, angiogenesis and immune competence of the endometrium during pregnancy. Clinical observations demonstrate improvement of BPS/IC symptoms during pregnancy or during infertility treatment with hCG. Our research aims were to examine the expression of hCG and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) in the urothelium of BPS/IC patients and compare the levels of hCGβ with healthy controls. Bladder biopsies of BPS/IC (CLSM: n = 10; qPCR: n = 15); Tumour-free control tissue from cystectomies (n = 12). hCGα, hCGβ and LHR expression were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and hCGβ expression was quantified. hCGβ5 and hCGβ7 mRNA splice variants were quantified in real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found constitutive expression of hCGα, hCGβ and LHR in healthy controls. HCGβ was significantly upregulated in BPS/IC patients in CLSM. PCR analysis revealed higher levels of hCGβ7 than hCGβ5 in controls and BPS/IC patients. The constitutive expression of hCG and LHR speaks in favour for a functional signalling in urothelial cells without any association with either pregnancy or tumour. We show for the first time that hCGβ is upregulated in BPS/IC urothelium and that hCGβ7 is the dominant splice variant in those cells. Our findings imply a major role of hCG for urothelial integrity and a disturbance of hCG signalling in case of BPS/IC. We conclude that hCG could gain therapeutical relevance in the future.

  2. SOX4 expression in bladder carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Mads; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Wiuf, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    The human transcription factor SOX4 was 5-fold up-regulated in bladder tumors compared with normal tissue based on whole-genome expression profiling of 166 clinical bladder tumor samples and 27 normal urothelium samples. Using a SOX4-specific antibody, we found that the cancer cells expressed...... in the clinical bladder material and a small subset of the genes showed a high correlation to SOX4 expression. The present data suggest a role of SOX4 in the bladder cancer disease....... the SOX4 protein and, thus, did an evaluation of SOX4 protein expression in 2,360 bladder tumors using a tissue microarray with clinical annotation. We found a correlation (P bladder cell line HU609, SOX4...

  3. A component of green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, promotes apoptosis in T24 human bladder cancer cells via modulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and Bcl-2 family proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Jie; Xie Liping; Zheng Xiangyi; Wang Yunbin; Bai Yu; Shen Huafeng; Li Longcheng; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2007-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and ninth most common in women. It has a protracted course of progression and is thus an ideal candidate for chemoprevention strategies and trials. This study was conducted to evaluate the chemopreventive/antiproliferative potential of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, the major phytochemical in green tea) against bladder cancer and its mechanism of action. Using the T24 human bladder cancer cell line, we found that EGCG treatment caused dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation and cell viability, and induced apoptosis. Mechanistically, EGCG inhibits phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt activation that, in turn, results in modulation of Bcl-2 family proteins, leading to enhanced apoptosis of T24 cells. These findings suggest that EGCG may be an important chemoprevention agent for the management of bladder cancer

  4. BCG-induced interleukin-6 upregulation and BCG internalization in well and poorly differentiated human bladder cancer cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevers, R. F.; de Boer, E. C.; Kurth, K. H.; Schamhart, D. H.

    1998-01-01

    Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is a successful therapy for superficial bladder cancer. However, the working mechanism of BCG after intravesical instillation is not completely understood. A functional role of urothelial (tumor) cells in the initiation of the BCG-induced immune reaction

  5. Use of Biopsy Tissue Samples, Incubated In Vitro for Autoradiographic Measurement of Cell Proliferation in Human Tissues; Utilisation de Biopsies Incubees In Vitro pour la Mesure Autoradiographique de la Proliferation Cellulaire de Tissus Humains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galand, P. [Faculte de Medecine de l' Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1970-02-15

    To avoid the radiobiological hazards linked to the use of {sup 3}H-thymidine, several workers have performed in vitro incubations of biopsy material in the presence of this labelled DNA -precursor. Attempts were made to define the proliferative pattern of the tissue from the distribution and intensity of labelling in autoradiographs. However, for true estimation of the cell cycle length, one has to know the S-phase (DNA-synthesis phase) duration, since the labelling index reflects only the part taken by this phase in the whole cell cycle. We chose the ''double-labelling technique'' with two dose levels of {sup 3}H-thymidine, which was developed by Maurer's group. By administering two pulses of the tritiated precursor (a weak dose and a heavy dose) at a given time interval and submitting the treated tissue to the autoradiographic process, one can calculate the S-phase duration(s) after the formula N{sub h}/N{sub w} = S/t. N{sub h} is the number of heavily labelled nuclei (i.e. those nuclei that were engaged in S-phase during the second pulse labelling); N{sub w} is the number of weakly labelled nuclei, corresponding to the cells which left S-phase during the time interval (t) between the two pulse labellings. From the percentage of heavily labelled nuclei in the whole population (L.I.), the generation time (G.T.) is then given by the formula G.T. = S/L.I. x 100. Human rectal and gastric biopsies were submitted to this procedure which, because of its brevity, requires simple survival conditions. Normal and pathologic cases were studied. Endometrial tissue is also currently under study. In parallel, experiments on animal tissues were also performed in order to make a comparison for the same individual between in vitro and in vivo measurements. This latter was realized by the classic method of the wave of labelled mitoses. The following aspects were examined: (1) Proper choice of the dose range, for valid recognition of ''weakly'' and ''heavily'' labelled cells; (2

  6. A comparative kinetic RT/-PCR strategy for the quantitation of mRNAs in microdissected human renal biopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, D; Forino, M; Gambaro, G; D'Angelo, A; Baggio, B; Anglani, F

    1998-01-01

    Molecular biology techniques, to be applicable to a diagnostic renal biopsy specimen, should (1) be highly sensitive to be performed on a very small quantity of tissue; (2) be quantitative because they have to analyze genes normally expressed in the tissue and (3) allow the analysis of as large a number of genes as possible. Among different methods, only the reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT/-PCR) might comply with previous requisites, but the few RT/-PCR examples on renal biopsies in the literature do not allow starting RNA quantification and quality control; furthermore they have the drawback of analyzing only few genes. In an ongoing study to assess the expression of a number of genes in glomeruli and in tubulointerstitium of patients with different nephropathies, we developed a comparative RT/-PCR kinetic strategy based on the purification and quantification of total glomerular and tubulointerstitial RNA and on the use of an internal standard, the housekeeping gene G3PDH. We demonstrate that in microdissected diagnostic renal biopsies (1) glomerular and interstitial starting RNA can be quantified; (2) the G3PDH gene may be used both as an internal standard and as an indirect marker of RNA integrity; (3) as low as 28 ng of total RNA is sufficient to obtain PCR products of eight genes, and (4) it is worth to operate on microdissected biopsy specimens because of the different expression of genes in the two renal compartments.

  7. A reactive oxygen species activation mechanism contributes to JS-K-induced apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Mingning; Chen, Lieqian; Tan, Guobin; Ke, Longzhi; Zhang, Sai; Chen, Hege; Liu, Jianjun

    2015-10-13

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular oxidant stress are regulators of cancer cells. The alteration of redox status, which is induced by increased generation of ROS, results in increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of O2-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (JS-K, C13H16N6O8) on proliferation and apoptosis in bladder cancer cells and explored possible ROS-related mechanisms. Our results indicated that JS-K could suppress bladder cancer cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner and induce apoptosis and ROS accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner. With increasing concentrations of JS-K, expression of proteins that are involved in cell apoptosis increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reversed JS-K-induced cell apoptosis; conversely, the prooxidant oxidized glutathione (GSSG) exacerbated JS-K-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that nitrites, which were generated from the oxidation of JS-K-released NO, induced apoptosis in bladder cancer cells to a lower extent through the ROS-related pathway. In addition, JS-K was shown to enhance the chemo-sensitivity of doxorubicin in bladder cancer cells. Taken together, the data suggest that JS-K-released NO induces bladder cancer cell apoptosis by increasing ROS levels, and nitrites resulting from oxidation of NO have a continuous apoptosis-inducing effect.

  8. Extraction of high-quality epidermal RNA after ammonium thiocyanate-induced dermo-epidermal separation of 4 mm human skin biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Anders; Thomassen, Mads; Clemmensen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    To obtain a separation of the epidermal and dermal compartments to examine compartment specific biological mechanisms in the skin, we incubated 4 mm human skin punch biopsies in ammonium thiocyanate. We wanted to test (i) the histological quality of the dermo-epidermal separation obtained...... by different incubation times; (ii) the amount and quality of extractable epidermal RNA and (iii) its impact on sample RNA expression profiles assessed by large-scale gene expression microarray analysis in both normal and inflamed skin. At 30-min incubation, the split between dermis and epidermis...... and almost completely separated from the dermis of 4 mm skin biopsies by 30 min incubation in 3.8% ammonium thiocyanate combined with curettage of the dermal surface, producing high-quality RNA suitable for transcriptional analysis. Our refined method of dermo-epidermal separation will undoubtedly prove...

  9. Determination to genotypes of human papillomavirus and analysis with immunohistochemical marker Ki67 in biopsy with cervical dysplasia patients of Hospital Dr. Max Peralta in Cartago during 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Chaves, Ana Lorely

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women worldwide, occupying in Costa Rica the fourth place. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is shown that is linked to at least 99.7% of cases, mainly associated with high risk genotypes. A study was conducted of type descriptive where were implemented molecular techniques such as: PCR, reverse hybridization for the determination of different HPV genotypes, and immunohistochemical detection of cell proliferation marker Ki67 in paraffin-embedded cervical biopsies from patients at the Hospital Dr. Max Peralta in Cartago, during the year 2013. The most frequent genotype that was determined among the study population has been 39, which was presented in 53% of cases. In addition, 65% of biopsies studied have showed mixed infections of HPV. (author) [es

  10. Validation of celiac disease diagnoses recorded in the Danish National Patient Register using duodenal biopsies, celiac disease-specific antibodies, and human leukocyte-antigen genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dydensborg Sander, Stine; Størdal, Ketil; Plato Hansen, Tine

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to validate the celiac disease diagnoses recorded in the Danish National Patient Register. To validate the diagnoses, we used information on duodenal biopsies from a national register of pathology reports (the Patobank) and information on celiac disease......-specific antibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes obtained from patient medical records. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included all the children who were born from 1995 to 2012 and who were registered as having celiac disease in the Danish National Patient Register. We reviewed all the pathology reports...... on duodenal biopsies in the Patobank and the information in the medical records on celiac disease-specific antibodies (ie, anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 IgA and IgG, endomysial antibodies IgA, and anti-deamidated gliadin peptide IgG) and HLA genotypes. RESULTS: We identified 2,247 children who were...

  11. Stereotactic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwangi, M.N.; Handa, A.

    2006-01-01

    This technology is capable of locating lesions precise detected by the mammography examinations. This devise allows the surgeon to position automatically the needle to perform the cytological/histological biopsy with maximum position accuracy. This is under sterile procedure. to position the lesion in the beam, two radiographic procedures are carried out: the first with the X-ray beam at an inclination of -15 degrees with respect to the position 0 degrees and the second at the inclination +15 degrees. After processing the film the lesion will appear on both radiographs but on light are of the negatoscope. With the cursor information is fed from four points. On the display the length of the needle will appear immediately. The length of the needle to be used in suction is chosen on the basis of the two values on the display. This information fed on the control panel will move the needle unit position where the lesion is. the needle is then introduced under local anaesthesia at the preselected length until it clicks into position. An exposure is made with needle in situ in position at +15 degrees and -15 degrees to ensure the needle is in position. the suction is then carried out and the needle removed. The machine is then reset to return at the initial position

  12. Leiomyoma of urinary bladder with bladder stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farouk, K.; Gondal, M.; Khan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder is a rare benign mesenchymal tumour. We describe here a case of leiomyoma of the urinary bladder in a 65-year-old gentleman who presented with haematuria, passage of clots and combined obstructive and irritative urinary symptoms. The investigations revealed a vesical calculus and a mass on the left lateral wall of the urinary bladder. Cystolitholapaxy and transurethral resection of the tumour was performed. Histopathological report of the resected tumour revealed a leiomyoma of the urinary bladder. So far, a leiomyoma of the urinary bladder and a concomitant vesical calculus have not been described in literature. (author)

  13. Suppressions of Migration and Invasion by Cantharidin in TSGH-8301 Human Bladder Carcinoma Cells through the Inhibitions of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2/-9 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ping Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis becomes an initial cause of cancer death in human population. In many cancers, it has been shown that the high levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and/or MMP-9 are associated with the invasive phenotypes of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of cantharidin, a derivative of blister beetles which is one of the traditional Chinese medicines, on the adhesion, migration, and invasion of human bladder cancer TSGH-8301 cells. Cantharidin effectively suppressed TSGH-8301 cell adhesion, migration, and invasion in a concentration-dependent manner. Results from Western blotting, RT-PCR, and gelatin zymography assays indicated that cantharidin blocked the protein levels, gene expression (mRNA, and activities of MMP-2 and -9 in TSGH-8301 cells. Cantharidin also significantly suppressed the protein expressions of p-p38 and p-JNK1/2 in TSGH-8301 cells. Taken together, cantharidin was suggested to present antimetastatic potential via suppressing the levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression that might be mediated by targeting the p38 and JNK1/2 MAPKs pathway in TSGH-8301 human bladder cancer cells.

  14. Open lung biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - open lung ... An open lung biopsy is done in the hospital using general anesthesia . This means you will be asleep and ... The open lung biopsy is done to evaluate lung problems seen on x-ray or CT scan .

  15. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... the cut, then pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  16. A high prevalence of human papillomavirus 16 and 18 co-infections in cervical biopsies from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Sheile Pinheiro de; Costa, Ana Carla Marques da; Barcellos, Regina Bones; Medeiros, Rubia Marília de; Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles da; Rossetti, Maria Lucia

    2018-04-24

    HPV types 16 and 18 were studied in paraffin-fixed cervical biopsy collected in southern Brazil. HPV 16, HPV 18 and co-infection HPV 16/18 were identified in 10/57 (17.5%), 4/57 (7%) and in 43/57 (75.4%) samples, respectively. Southern Brazil has one of the highest prevalence rates of HPV 16/18 reported. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Biopsy system for CT-guided biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onik, G.; Cosman, E.; Wells, T.; Goldberg, H.I.; Moss, A.; Costello, P.; Kane, R.

    1987-01-01

    CT stereotaxic brain biopsies have made brain biopsies safe and minimally invasive. CT-guided biopsies of the body, however, have traditionally used a hand-guidance method. CT biopsy guidance systems for the body have recently become available that have similar capabilities as those of brain biopsy systems. To compare the clinical utility of stereotaxically guided biopsies with hand-guided biopsies, the authors prospectively compared 40 biopsies performed with each method. In the stereotaxic method, a localizor grid was placed on the patient to define a reference point, and a frame was used to guide the needle along the intended path. Computer software programs calculated complex paths from one scan plane to another. Although the results disclosed no significant differences in lesion size or path length between the two groups, the stereotaxically guided biopsies required 75% fewer needle manipulations to hit the intended target. Consequently, the stereotaxically guided biopsies required 40% less time and 80% fewer localization scans to find the biopsy needle than did the hand-guided biopsies

  18. Long-term stability of contour augmentation in the esthetic zone: histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of 12 human biopsies 14 to 80 months after augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Simon S; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Gruber, Reinhard; Buser, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Contour augmentation around early-placed implants (Type 2 placement) using autogenous bone chips combined with deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) and a collagen barrier membrane has been documented to predictably provide esthetically satisfactory clinical outcomes. In addition, recent data from cone beam computed tomography studies have shown the augmented volume to be stable long-term. However, no human histologic data are available to document the tissue reactions to this bone augmentation procedure. Over an 8-year period, 12 biopsies were harvested 14 to 80 months after implant placement with simultaneous contour augmentation in 10 patients. The biopsies were subjected to histologic and histomorphometric analysis. The biopsies consisted of 32.0% ± 9.6% DBBM particles and 40.6% ± 14.6% mature bone. 70.3% ± 14.5% of the DBBM particle surfaces were covered with bone. On the remaining surface, multinucleated giant cells with varying intensity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining were regularly present. No signs of inflammation were visible, and no tendency toward a decreasing volume fraction of DBBM over time was observed. The present study confirms previous findings that osseointegrated DBBM particles do not tend to undergo substitution over time. This low substitution rate may be the reason behind the clinically and radiographically documented long-term stability of contour augmentation using a combination of autogenous bone chips, DBBM particles, and a collagen membrane.

  19. Evaluation of transforming growth factor-β1 suppress Pokemon/epithelial-mesenchymal transition expression in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Kidiyoor, Amritha; Hu, Yangyang; Guo, Changcheng; Liu, Min; Yao, Xudong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Peng, Bo; Zheng, Junhua

    2015-02-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a dual role in apoptosis and in proapoptotic responses in the support of survival in a variety of cells. The aim of this study was to determine the function of TGF-β1 in bladder cancer cells and the relationship with POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (Pokemon). TGF-β1 and its receptors mediate several tumorigenic cascades that regulate cell proliferation, migration, and survival of bladder cancer cells. Bladder cancer cells T24 were treated with different levels of TGF-β1. Levels of Pokemon, E-cadherin, Snail, MMP2, MMP9, Twist, VEGF, and β-catenin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were examined by real-time quantitative fluorescent PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The effects of TGF-β1 on epithelial-mesenchymal transition of T24 cells were evaluated with wound-healing assay, proliferation of T24 was evaluated with reference to growth curves with MTT assay, and cell invasive ability was investigated by Transwell assay. Data show that Pokemon was inhibited by TGF-β1 treatment; the gene and protein of E-cadherin and β-catenin expression level showed decreased markedly after TGF-β1 treatment (P Pokemon, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. The high expression of TGF-β1 leads to an increase in the phenotype and apical-base polarity of epithelial cells. These changes of cells may result in the recurrence and progression of bladder cancer at last. Related mechanism is worthy of further investigation.

  20. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu overexpression in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and its prognostic significance: Is it worth hype?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2/neu expression has been reported over 10 years, but there is no clear correlation between prognosis and recurrence rate. The present study evaluates prognostic implication of HER-2/neu expression. Subjects and Methods: In this study, 100 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens of primary transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder were processed. HER-2/neu monoclonal antibody immunohistochemistry staining procedure used for the study. Results: A total of 70 (70% patients were positive for overexpression of HER-2/neu. HER-2/neu was positive in patients with 42 (70% superficial tumor, 28 (70% muscle invasive tumor, 41 (75.9% high-grade tumor, 29 (63% low grade tumor, 31 (68.9% recurrent tumor, and 6 (66.6% had positive lymph nodes. Conclusions: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu over expression was not correlated with the tumor stage, lymphnode metastasis or recurrence of the disease. HER-2/neu overexpression was statistically insignificantly correlated with the differentiation grade (P < 0.161 as compared to previous studies. Future studies on HER-2 expression with chemo-sensitivity and efficacy of HER-2-targeted therapies in urothelial carcinomas is needed.

  1. Multiple urinary bladder masses from metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Choo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma that manifested with multiple exophytic intravesical masses, mimicking a multifocal primary bladder tumor. Biopsy with immunohistochemical analysis confirmed metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. The patient was treated palliatively with external beam radiotherapy to prevent possible symptoms from local tumor progression. This case illustrates that when a patient with known prostate cancer presents with multifocal bladder tumors, the possibility of metastatic prostate cancer should be considered.

  2. Detection and typing of human papillomaviruses in mucosal and cutaneous biopsies from immunosuppressed and immunocompetent patients and patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis: a unified diagnostic approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Surentheran, T; Harwood, C A; Spink, P J; Sinclair, A L; Leigh, I M; Proby, C M; McGregor, J M; Breuer, J

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To develop a unified diagnostic approach for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in skin and mucosal biopsies from both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed individuals using a degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. METHODS: The sensitivity and specificity of three published degenerate primer sets (HVP2/B5 and F14/B15; MY09/MY11; CP62/69 outer and CP65/68 nested primer pairs) were evaluated in PCR reactions with serial dilutions of 12 representative cloned HPV typ...

  3. A Non-Invasive Bladder Sensory Test Supports a Role for Dysmenorrhea Increasing Bladder Noxious Mechanosensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    TU, Frank F.; EPSTEIN, Aliza E.; POZOLO, Kristen E.; SEXTON, Debra L.; MELNYK, Alexandra I.; HELLMAN, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Catheterization to measure bladder sensitivity is aversive and hinders human participation in visceral sensory research. Therefore, we sought to characterize the reliability of sonographically-estimated female bladder sensory thresholds. To demonstrate this technique’s usefulness, we examined the effects of self-reported dysmenorrhea on bladder pain thresholds. Methods Bladder sensory threshold volumes were determined during provoked natural diuresis in 49 healthy women (mean age 24 ± 8) using three-dimensional ultrasound. Cystometric thresholds (Vfs – first sensation, Vfu – first urge, Vmt – maximum tolerance) were quantified and related to bladder urgency and pain. We estimated reliability (one-week retest and interrater). Self-reported menstrual pain was examined in relationship to bladder pain, urgency and volume thresholds. Results Average bladder sensory thresholds (mLs) were Vfs (160±100), Vfu (310±130), and Vmt (500±180). Interrater reliability ranged from 0.97–0.99. One-week retest reliability was Vmt = 0.76 (95% CI 0.64–0.88), Vfs = 0.62 (95% CI 0.44–0.80), and Vfu = 0.63, (95% CI 0.47–0.80). Bladder filling rate correlated with all thresholds (r = 0.53–0.64, p dysmenorrhea pain had increased bladder pain and urgency at Vfs and increased pain at Vfu (p’s dysmenorrhea pain was unrelated to bladder capacity. Discussion Sonographic estimates of bladder sensory thresholds were reproducible and reliable. In these healthy volunteers, dysmenorrhea was associated with increased bladder pain and urgency during filling but unrelated to capacity. Plausibly, dysmenorrhea sufferers may exhibit enhanced visceral mechanosensitivity, increasing their risk to develop chronic bladder pain syndromes. PMID:23370073

  4. Smooth Muscle-Like Cells Generated from Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Display Marker Gene Expression and Electrophysiological Competence Comparable to Bladder Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Brun

    Full Text Available The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs differentiated toward a smooth muscle cell (SMC phenotype may provide an alternative for investigators interested in regenerating urinary tract organs such as the bladder where autologous smooth muscle cells cannot be used or are unavailable. In this study we measured the effects of good manufacturing practice (GMP-compliant expansion followed by myogenic differentiation of human MSCs on the expression of a range of contractile (from early to late myogenic markers in relation to the electrophysiological parameters to assess the functional role of the differentiated MSCs and found that differentiation of MSCs associated with electrophysiological competence comparable to bladder SMCs. Within 1-2 weeks of myogenic differentiation, differentiating MSCs significantly expressed alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA; ACTA2, transgelin (TAGLN, calponin (CNN1, and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC; MYH11 according to qRT-PCR and/or immunofluorescence and Western blot. Voltage-gated Na+ current levels also increased within the same time period following myogenic differentiation. In contrast to undifferentiated MSCs, differentiated MSCs and bladder SMCs exhibited elevated cytosolic Ca2+ transients in response to K+-induced depolarization and contracted in response to K+ indicating functional maturation of differentiated MSCs. Depolarization was suppressed by Cd2+, an inhibitor of voltage-gated Ca2+-channels. The expression of Na+-channels was pharmacologically identified as the Nav1.4 subtype, while the K+ and Ca2+ ion channels were identified by gene expression of KCNMA1, CACNA1C and CACNA1H which encode for the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel BKCa channels, Cav1.2 L-type Ca2+ channels and Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels, respectively. This protocol may be used to differentiate adult MSCs into smooth muscle-like cells with an intermediate-to-late SMC contractile phenotype exhibiting voltage-gated ion

  5. Smooth Muscle-Like Cells Generated from Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Display Marker Gene Expression and Electrophysiological Competence Comparable to Bladder Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Juliane; Lutz, Katrin A; Neumayer, Katharina M H; Klein, Gerd; Seeger, Tanja; Uynuk-Ool, Tatiana; Wörgötter, Katharina; Schmid, Sandra; Kraushaar, Udo; Guenther, Elke; Rolauffs, Bernd; Aicher, Wilhelm K; Hart, Melanie L

    2015-01-01

    The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) differentiated toward a smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype may provide an alternative for investigators interested in regenerating urinary tract organs such as the bladder where autologous smooth muscle cells cannot be used or are unavailable. In this study we measured the effects of good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compliant expansion followed by myogenic differentiation of human MSCs on the expression of a range of contractile (from early to late) myogenic markers in relation to the electrophysiological parameters to assess the functional role of the differentiated MSCs and found that differentiation of MSCs associated with electrophysiological competence comparable to bladder SMCs. Within 1-2 weeks of myogenic differentiation, differentiating MSCs significantly expressed alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA; ACTA2), transgelin (TAGLN), calponin (CNN1), and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC; MYH11) according to qRT-PCR and/or immunofluorescence and Western blot. Voltage-gated Na+ current levels also increased within the same time period following myogenic differentiation. In contrast to undifferentiated MSCs, differentiated MSCs and bladder SMCs exhibited elevated cytosolic Ca2+ transients in response to K+-induced depolarization and contracted in response to K+ indicating functional maturation of differentiated MSCs. Depolarization was suppressed by Cd2+, an inhibitor of voltage-gated Ca2+-channels. The expression of Na+-channels was pharmacologically identified as the Nav1.4 subtype, while the K+ and Ca2+ ion channels were identified by gene expression of KCNMA1, CACNA1C and CACNA1H which encode for the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel BKCa channels, Cav1.2 L-type Ca2+ channels and Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels, respectively. This protocol may be used to differentiate adult MSCs into smooth muscle-like cells with an intermediate-to-late SMC contractile phenotype exhibiting voltage-gated ion channel

  6. Epithelial mesenchymal transition status is associated with anti-cancer responses towards receptor tyrosine-kinase inhibition by dovitinib in human bladder cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hänze, Jörg; Henrici, Marcus; Hegele, Axel; Hofmann, Rainer; Olbert, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Dovitinib (TKI-258) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and further related RTKs. TKI-258 is under investigation as anticancer drug for the treatment of various cancers including bladder cancer with aberrant RTK signaling. Here, we analyzed the responses of ten human bladder cancer cell lines towards TKI-258 treatment in relation to the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) status of the cells. Expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin as well as mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin was determined by quantitative RT-PCR and Western-blot in RNA and protein extracts from the cultured cell lines. The cell responses were analyzed upon addition of TKI-258 by viability/proliferation (XTT assay) and colony formation assay for measurement of cell contact independent growth. The investigated bladder cancer cell lines turned out to display quite different EMT patterns as indicated by the abundance of E-cadherin or N-cadherin and vimentin. Protein and mRNA levels of the respective components strongly correlated. Based on E-cadherin and N-cadherin mRNA levels that were expressed approximately mutual exclusively, an EMT-score was calculated for each cell line. A high EMT-score indicated mesenchymal-like cells and a low EMT-score epithelial-like cells. Then, we determined the IC 50 values for TKI-258 by dose response curves (0-12 μM TKI-258) in XTT assays for each cell line. Also, we measured the clonogenic survival fraction after adding TKI-258 (1 μM) by colony formation assay. We observed significant correlations between EMT-score and IC 50 values (r = 0.637, p = 0.0474) and between EMT-score and clonogenic survival fraction (r = 0.635, p = 0.0483) as analyzed by linear regression analyses. In sum, we demonstrated that the EMT status based on E-cadherin and N-cadherin mRNA levels may be useful to predict responses towards TKI-258 treatment in bladder cancer

  7. Bladder sensation measures and overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, David E; Neil, Nancy J; Govier, Fred E; Kobashi, Kathleen C

    2009-09-01

    We performed a prospective multicomponent study to determine whether subjective and objective bladder sensation instruments may provide data on sensory dysfunction in patients with overactive bladder. We evaluated 70 prospectively enrolled patients with urodynamics and questionnaires on validated urgency (Urgency Perception Score), general overactive bladder (Urogenital Distress Inventory) and quality of life (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire). We first sought a correlation between sensory specific (Urgency Perception Score) and quality of life questionnaire scores. We then assessed a correlation between sensory questionnaire scores and urodynamic variables, exploring the hypothesis that certain urodynamic parameters may be bladder sensation measures. We evaluated 2 urodynamic derivatives (first sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity) to increase sensory finding discrimination. We noted a moderate correlation between the Urgency Perception Score (0.56) and the Urogenital Distress Inventory (0.74) vs the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (each p Perception Score and bladder capacity (-0.25, p sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity statistically significantly correlated with the Urgency Perception Score despite the lesser or absent correlation associated with the individual components of these derivatives. Bladder sensation questionnaires may be valuable to identify patients with sensory dysfunction and provide additional data not obtained in generalized symptom questionnaires. Urodynamic variables correlated with bladder sensation questionnaire scores and may be an objective method to assess sensory dysfunction.

  8. Differentiation of human endometrial stem cells into urothelial cells on a three-dimensional nanofibrous silk-collagen scaffold: an autologous cell resource for reconstruction of the urinary bladder wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoae-Hassani, Alireza; Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Seyed Abdolreza; Sharif, Shiva; Seifalian, Alexander Marcus; Azimi, Alireza; Samadikuchaksaraei, Ali; Verdi, Javad

    2015-11-01

    Reconstruction of the bladder wall via in vitro differentiated stem cells on an appropriate scaffold could be used in such conditions as cancer and neurogenic urinary bladder. This study aimed to examine the potential of human endometrial stem cells (EnSCs) to form urinary bladder epithelial cells (urothelium) on nanofibrous silk-collagen scaffolds, for construction of the urinary bladder wall. After passage 4, EnSCs were induced by keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) and seeded on electrospun collagen-V, silk and silk-collagen nanofibres. Later we tested urothelium-specific genes and proteins (uroplakin-Ia, uroplakin-Ib, uroplakin-II, uroplakin-III and cytokeratin 20) by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histology were used to detect cell-matrix interactions. DMEM/F12 supplemented by KGF and EGF induced EnSCs to express urothelial cell-specific genes and proteins. Either collagen, silk or silk-collagen scaffolds promoted cell proliferation. The nanofibrous silk-collagen scaffolds provided a three-dimensional (3D) structure to maximize cell-matrix penetration and increase differentiation of the EnSCs. Human EnSCs seeded on 3D nanofibrous silk-collagen scaffolds and differentiated to urothelial cells provide a suitable source for potential use in bladder wall reconstruction in women. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. 'A novel in vivo model for the study of human breast cancer metastasis using primary breast tumor-initiating cells from patient biopsies'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, Carolyn G; Wright, Mary Jo; Carrier, Latonya; Moroz, Krzysztof; Pochampally, Radhika; Rowan, Brian G

    2012-01-01

    The study of breast cancer metastasis depends on the use of established breast cancer cell lines that do not accurately represent the heterogeneity and complexity of human breast tumors. A tumor model was developed using primary breast tumor-initiating cells isolated from patient core biopsies that would more accurately reflect human breast cancer metastasis. Tumorspheres were isolated under serum-free culture conditions from core biopsies collected from five patients with clinical diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Isolated tumorspheres were transplanted into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice to establish tumorigenicity in vivo. Tumors and metastatic lesions were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin (H+E) staining and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Tumorspheres were successfully isolated from all patient core biopsies, independent of the estrogen receptor α (ERα)/progesterone receptor (PR)/Her2/neu status or tumor grade. Each tumorsphere was estimated to contain 50-100 cells. Transplantation of 50 tumorspheres (1-5 × 10 3 cells) in combination with Matrigel into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice resulted in small, palpable tumors that were sustained up to 12 months post-injection. Tumors were serially transplanted three times by re-isolation of tumorspheres from the tumors and injection into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice. At 3 months post-injection, micrometastases to the lung, liver, kidneys, brain and femur were detected by measuring content of human chromosome 17. Visible macrometastases were detected in the lung, liver and kidneys by 6 months post-injection. Primary tumors variably expressed cytokeratins, Her2/neu, cytoplasmic E-cadherin, nuclear β catenin and fibronectin but were negative for ERα and vimentin. In lung and liver metastases, variable redistribution of E-cadherin and β catenin to the membrane of tumor cells was observed. ERα was re-expressed in lung metastatic cells in two of five samples. Tumorspheres isolated under defined culture

  10. Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer in ex vivo urine cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, C. Y.; Ng, B. K.; Razul, S. Gulam; Olivo, Malini C.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Tan, P. H.; Chin, William

    2006-02-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth common malignant disease worldwide, accounting for 4% of all cancer cases. In Singapore, it is the ninth most common form of cancer. The high mortality rate can be reduced by early treatment following precancerous screening. Currently, the gold standard for screening bladder tumors is histological examination of biopsy specimen, which is both invasive and time-consuming. In this study ex vivo urine fluorescence cytology is investigated to offer a timely and biopsy-free means for detecting bladder cancers. Sediments in patients' urine samples were extracted and incubated with a novel photosensitizer, hypericin. Laser confocal microscopy was used to capture the fluorescence images at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm. Images were subsequently processed to single out the exfoliated bladder cells from the other cells based on the cellular size. Intensity histogram of each targeted cell was plotted and feature vectors, derived from the histogram moments, were used to represent each sample. A difference in the distribution of the feature vectors of normal and low-grade cancerous bladder cells was observed. Diagnostic algorithm for discriminating between normal and low-grade cancerous cells is elucidated in this paper. This study suggests that the fluorescence intensity profiles of hypericin in bladder cells can potentially provide an automated quantitative means of early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  11. The paediatric neuropathic bladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pathophysiological terms, a neurogenic bladder is caused by a spinal reflex arc that occurs when ... and potential progressive renal damage because of high bladder ... creatinine level, can also be used to assess kidney function. Urodynamic ...

  12. MR-guided biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehl, H.B.; Frahm, C.

    1998-01-01

    Biopsies were the first 'intervention' under MR guidance. After initial difficulties concerning ferromagnetic biopsy instruments and the design of MR scanners, the latest technological improvements rendered MR guidance for biopsies more feasible. In this article we illustrate present-day clinical experience in the field of abdominal, breast and bone biopsy. Important aspects regarding the different designs of 'interventional' MR scanners and the visualization of instruments for biopsy are discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. The Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Bladder Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, Ifeoma; Didangelos, Athanasios; Dawes, John; Cartwright, Rufus; Khullar, Vik; Bradbury, Elizabeth J; O'Sullivan, Suzanne; Williams, Dic; Chessell, Iain P; Pallas, Kenny; Graham, Gerry; O'Reilly, Barry A; McMahon, Stephen B

    2016-08-01

    Bladder pain syndrome (BPS) pathology is poorly understood. Treatment strategies are empirical, with limited efficacy, and affected patients have diminished quality of life. We examined the hypothesis that inflammatory mediators within the bladder contribute to BPS pathology. Fifteen women with BPS and 15 women with stress urinary incontinence without bladder pain were recruited from Cork University Maternity Hospital from October 2011 to October 2012. During cystoscopy, 5-mm bladder biopsies were taken and processed for gene expression analysis. The effect of the identified genes was tested in laboratory animals. We studied the expression of 96 inflammation-related genes in diseased and healthy bladders. We measured the correlation between genes and patient clinical profiles using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Analysis revealed 15 differentially expressed genes, confirmed in a replication study. FGF7 and CCL21 correlated significantly with clinical outcomes. Intravesical CCL21 instillation in rats caused increased bladder excitability and increased c-fos activity in spinal cord neurons. CCL21 atypical receptor knockout mice showed significantly more c-fos upon bladder stimulation with CCL21 than wild-type littermates. There was no change in FGF7-treated animals. The variability in patient samples presented as the main limitation. We used principal component analysis to identify similarities within the patient group. Our study identified two biologically relevant inflammatory mediators in BPS and demonstrated an increase in nociceptive signalling with CCL21. Manipulation of this ligand is a potential new therapeutic strategy for BPS. We compared gene expression in bladder biopsies of patients with bladder pain syndrome (BPS) and controls without pain and identified two genes that were increased in BPS patients and correlated with clinical profiles. We tested the effect of these genes in laboratory animals, confirming their role in bladder pain. Manipulating

  14. Validation of an LC-MS/MS method to measure tacrolimus in rat kidney and liver tissue and its application to human kidney biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Benjamin D; Coller, Janet K; Somogyi, Andrew A; Morris, Raymond G; Russ, Graeme R; Hesselink, Dennis A; Van Gelder, Teun; Sallustio, Benedetta C

    2013-10-01

    Tacrolimus (TAC) has a narrow therapeutic index and high interindividual and intraindividual pharmacokinetic variability, necessitating therapeutic drug monitoring to individualize dosage. Recent evidence suggests that intragraft TAC concentrations may better predict transplant outcomes. This study aimed to develop a method for the quantification of TAC in small biopsy-sized samples of rat kidney and liver tissue, which could be applied to clinical biopsy samples from kidney transplant recipients. Kidneys and livers were harvested from Mrp2-deficient TR- Wistar rats administered TAC (4 mg·kg·d for 14 days, n = 8) or vehicle (n = 10). Tissue samples (0.20-1.00 mg of dry weight) were solubilized enzymatically and underwent liquid-liquid extraction before analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. TAC-free tissue was used in the calibrator and quality control samples. Analyte detection was accomplished using positive electrospray ionization (TAC: m/z 821.5 → 768.6; internal standard ascomycin m/z 809.3 → 756.4). Calibration curves (0.04-2.6 μg/L) were linear (R > 0.99, n = 10), with interday and intraday calibrator coefficients of variation and bias <17% at the lower limit of quantification and <15% at all other concentrations (n = 6-10). Extraction efficiencies for TAC and ascomycin were approximately 70%, and matrix effects were minimal. Rat kidney TAC concentrations were higher (range 109-190 pg/mg tissue) than those in the liver (range 22-53 pg/mg of tissue), with median tissue/blood concentrations ratios of 72.0 and 17.6, respectively. In 2 transplant patients, kidney TAC concentrations ranged from 119 to 285 pg/mg of tissue and were approximately 20 times higher than whole blood trough TAC concentrations. The method displayed precision and accuracy suitable for application to TAC measurement in human kidney biopsy tissue.

  15. Diuron-induced rat urinary bladder carcinogenesis: mode of action and human relevance evaluations using the International Programme on Chemical Safety framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha, Mitscheli Sanches; Arnold, Lora L; De Oliveira, Maria Luiza Cotrim Sartor; Catalano, Shadia M Ihlaseh; Cardoso, Ana Paula Ferragut; Pontes, Merielen G N; Ferrucio, Bianca; Dodmane, Puttappa R; Cohen, Samuel M; De Camargo, João Lauro V

    2014-05-01

    Diuron, a high volume substituted urea herbicide, induced high incidences of urinary bladder carcinomas and low incidences of kidney pelvis papillomas and carcinomas in rats exposed to high doses (2500 ppm) in a 2-year bioassay. Diuron is registered for both occupational and residential uses and is used worldwide for more than 30 different crops. The proposed rat urothelial mode of action (MOA) for this herbicide consists of metabolic activation to metabolites that are excreted and concentrated in the urine, leading to cytotoxicity, urothelial cell necrosis and exfoliation, regenerative hyperplasia, and eventually tumors. We show evidence for this MOA for diuron using the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) conceptual framework for evaluating an MOA for chemical carcinogens, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and IPCS framework for assessing human relevance.

  16. The effect of TGF-beta2 on MMP-2 production and activity in highly metastatic human bladder carcinoma cell line 5637.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnavi, Ehsan; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Samiei, Shahram; Ataei, Zahra; Aryan, Hajar

    2009-06-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily regulates matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), which intrinsically regulate various cell behaviors leading to metastasis. We investigated the effect of TGF-beta(2) on MMP-2 regulation in human bladder carcinoma cell line 5637. Zymography, ELISA, and real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that TGF-beta(2) stimulated MMP-2 production, but the transcription of its gene remained unchanged. Wortmannin could not inhibit MMP-2 secretion and activity and conversely the amount of the protein and its enzymatic activity were increased. These data suggest that TGF-beta(2) increased MMP-2 at the posttranscriptional level and this upregulation was independent of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway.

  17. Naturally Occurring Canine Invasive Urinary Bladder Cancer: A Complementary Animal Model to Improve the Success Rate in Human Clinical Trials of New Cancer Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Fulkerson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic analyses are defining numerous new targets for cancer therapy. Therapies aimed at specific genetic and epigenetic targets in cancer cells as well as expanded development of immunotherapies are placing increased demands on animal models. Traditional experimental models do not possess the collective features (cancer heterogeneity, molecular complexity, invasion, metastasis, and immune cell response critical to predict success or failure of emerging therapies in humans. There is growing evidence, however, that dogs with specific forms of naturally occurring cancer can serve as highly relevant animal models to complement traditional models. Invasive urinary bladder cancer (invasive urothelial carcinoma (InvUC in dogs, for example, closely mimics the cancer in humans in pathology, molecular features, biological behavior including sites and frequency of distant metastasis, and response to chemotherapy. Genomic analyses are defining further intriguing similarities between InvUC in dogs and that in humans. Multiple canine clinical trials have been completed, and others are in progress with the aim of translating important findings into humans to increase the success rate of human trials, as well as helping pet dogs. Examples of successful targeted therapy studies and the challenges to be met to fully utilize naturally occurring dog models of cancer will be reviewed.

  18. Naturally Occurring Canine Invasive Urinary Bladder Cancer: A Complementary Animal Model to Improve the Success Rate in Human Clinical Trials of New Cancer Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Christopher M; Dhawan, Deepika; Ratliff, Timothy L; Hahn, Noah M; Knapp, Deborah W

    2017-01-01

    Genomic analyses are defining numerous new targets for cancer therapy. Therapies aimed at specific genetic and epigenetic targets in cancer cells as well as expanded development of immunotherapies are placing increased demands on animal models. Traditional experimental models do not possess the collective features (cancer heterogeneity, molecular complexity, invasion, metastasis, and immune cell response) critical to predict success or failure of emerging therapies in humans. There is growing evidence, however, that dogs with specific forms of naturally occurring cancer can serve as highly relevant animal models to complement traditional models. Invasive urinary bladder cancer (invasive urothelial carcinoma (InvUC)) in dogs, for example, closely mimics the cancer in humans in pathology, molecular features, biological behavior including sites and frequency of distant metastasis, and response to chemotherapy. Genomic analyses are defining further intriguing similarities between InvUC in dogs and that in humans. Multiple canine clinical trials have been completed, and others are in progress with the aim of translating important findings into humans to increase the success rate of human trials, as well as helping pet dogs. Examples of successful targeted therapy studies and the challenges to be met to fully utilize naturally occurring dog models of cancer will be reviewed.

  19. Biopsy case mix and diagnostic yield at a Malawian central hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathological examination of tissue biopsies with histological confirmation of a correct cancer diagnosis is central to cancer care. Without an accurate and specific ... The oesophagus was the most common biopsied site followed by breast, bladder, bone, prostate, bowel, and cervical lymph node. Malignancies were found in ...

  20. Salivary gland biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also be performed to diagnose diseases such as Sjogren syndrome . How to Prepare for the Test There is ... few days after the biopsy. The biopsy for Sjogren syndrome requires an injection of the anesthetic in the ...

  1. A comparative study on adhesion and recovery of potential probiotic strains of Lactobacillus spp. by in vitro assay and analysis of human colon biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nadejda Nikolajevna; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Pærregaard, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Adhesion of the new Lactobacillus isolates, L. casei D12, L. casei Q85, L. casei Z11 and L. plantarum Q47, to the porcine intestinal cell line IPEC-J2 was investigated and compared to the recovery of the same bacterial strains from colon biopsies and faeces obtained from human intervention studies....... Probiotic bacteria L. rhamnosus 19070, L. reuteri 12246 and L. casei F19 were used as reference strains. The new isolates exhibited low to moderate adhesion to IPEC-J2 cells in the range of 7-26%. A large variation in the recovery of strains was observed between the persons, suggesting host specificity...... of intestinal colonization. High correlation was shown between recovery from the different sections of the colon of the same subject, indicating consistency of bacterial colonization of the epithelium. The recovery of L. casei Z11 and L. casei Q85 was highest and comparable to the reference strains of L...

  2. Investigations on the method of in vitro accumulation measurements of 14C phenylalanine on human small intestine biopsies, illustrated by the example of Diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenneck, A.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed, by which actively transported substrates can accumulationarily be measured out in vitro on biopsy material. The applicability of this method as index for an active transport performance could then be examined on the example of a control group with sound small intestine and on patients with diabetes mellitus. In order to complete this parameter of the transport function, the specific saccharase activity in the overall homogenate of the mucous membrane was determined. The basis of this determination were the previous investigations on the experimental diabetes mellitus, in which morphologic and functional alterations had been detected. The various influences are discussed, which may be important for the detected alterations. However, a comparison with the results obtained in animal experiments is possible only to a very limited extent, since the situation in human diabetes mellitus is very complicated. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Thrombomodulin expression regulates tumorigenesis in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chun-Te; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Lin, Paul- Yang; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Miao-Fen

    2014-01-01

    The identification of potential tumor markers will help improve therapeutic planning and patient management. Thrombomodulin (TM) is a sensitive urothelial marker. TM was reported to be one of the endogenous anti-metastatic factors and has diagnostic and prognostic values for the progression of carcinoma. In the present study, we examine the role of TM in bladder cancer. We studied the role of TM in tumor behavior and related signaling pathways in vitro using the human bladder cancer cell lines HT1376, HT1197, J82 and T24, and in vivo using animal models. We also selected clinical specimens from 100 patients with bladder cancer for immunohistochemical staining to evaluate the predictive capacity of TM in tumor invasiveness. The data revealed that positive immunoreactivity for TM was inversely correlated with clinical stage and DNA methyltransferase 1 immunoreactivity. Decreased TM expression could predict the aggressive tumor growth and advanced clinical stage in bladder cancer. When TM was inhibited, tumor growth rate and invasion ability were augmented in vitro and in vivo. The underlying changes included increased cell proliferation, enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB activation significantly increased TM expression and attenuated tumor aggressiveness in bladder cancer. TM plays an important role in bladder cancer tumor aggressiveness in vitro and in vivo and is a clinically significant predictor that may represent a suitable therapeutic target for bladder cancer

  4. In vitro evaluation of new anticancer drugs, exemplified by vinorelbine, using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay on human tumor cell lines and patient biopsy cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridborg, H; Nygren, P; Dhar, S; Csoka, K; Kristensen, J; Larsson, R

    1996-09-01

    The feasibility of combined studies on a cell-line panel and primary cultures of patient tumor cells in the preclinical evaluation of new anticancer drugs was evaluated in a study of the activity and cross-resistance pattern in vitro of the new semi-synthetic vinca alkaloid vinorelbine (Vrb). The activity of Vrb was investigated in ten cell lines representing different resistance mechanisms and in a total of 256 fresh human tumor samples, using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA). Resistance to Vrb in the cell lines was associated with expression of the multidrug resistance-mediating P-glycoprotein and the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and by a recently described tubulin-associated mechanism, while the cell lines with topoisomerase II- and glutathion-associated resistance did not show decreased sensitivity to the drug. Cross-resistance to vincristine (Vcr) and other tubulin-active agents was high in cell lines as well as in patient cells. As with most commonly used anti-cancer drugs, Vrb was more active in hematological than in solid tumor samples. Among the solid tumors investigated, the highest in vitro response rates were observed in ovarian cancer (27%), sarcoma (25%), non-small cell lung cancer (21%) and bladder cancer (20%), while no response was observed in renal or colorectal cancer. Compared to Vcr, Vrb appeared to be slightly more active in solid tumors and slightly less active in hematological tumors. The results show that although Vrb displays a high degree of cross-resistance to Vcr and other tubulin-active drugs, some difference in the activity spectrum could be detected and that the drug is sensitive to multiple mechanisms of resistance. The results also suggest that leukemias, ovarian cancer, sarcoma and bladder cancer are possible further targets for Vrb. The combination of studies on a cell-line panel and patient tumor cells from a broad spectrum of diagnoses to evaluate a new drug seems feasible and may give

  5. Tissue Biopsies in Diabetes Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Gaster, Michael; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    resistance of glucose disposal and glycogen synthesis in this tissue are hallmark features of type 2 diabetes in humans (2,3). During the past two decades, we have carried out more than 1200 needle biopsies of skeletal muscle to study the cellular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes....... Together with morphological studies, measurement of energy stores and metabolites, enzyme activity and phosphorylation, gene and protein expression in skeletal muscle biopsies have revealed a variety of cellular abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. The possibility to establish...... and gene expression profiling on skeletal muscle biopsies have pointed to abnormalities in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in type 2 diabetes. These novel insights will inevitably cause a renewed interest in studying skeletal muscle. This chapter reviews our experience to date and gives a thorough...

  6. Pirarubicin induces an autophagic cytoprotective response through suppression of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in human bladder cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kuiqing; Chen, Xu; Liu, Cheng; Gu, Peng; Li, Zhuohang; Wu, Shaoxu; Xu, Kewei; Lin, Tianxin; Huang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Pirarubicin is widely used in intravesical chemotherapy for bladder cancer, but its efficacy is limited due to drug resistance; the mechanism has not been well studied. Emerging evidence shows that autophagy can be a novel target for cancer therapy. This study aimed to investigate the role of autophagy in pirarubicin-treated bladder cancer cells. Bladder cancer cells EJ and J82 were treated with pirarubicin, siRNA, 3-methyladenine or hydroxychloroquine. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were tested by cell survival assay and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Autophagy was evaluated by immunoblotting before and after the treatments. The phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin, serine/threonine kinase p70 S6 kinase, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 were also investigated by immunoblotting. We found that pirarubicin could induce autophagy in bladder cancer cells. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine, hydroxychloroquine or knockdown of autophagy related gene 3 significantly increased apoptosis in pirarubicin-treated bladder cancer cells. Pirarubicin-induced autophagy was mediated via the mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 signaling pathway. In conclusion, autophagy induced by pirarubicin plays a cytoprotective role in bladder cancer cells, suggesting that inhibition of autophagy may improve efficacy over traditional pirarubicin chemotherapy in bladder cancer patients. - Highlights: • Pirarubicin induced autophagy in bladder cancer cells. • Inhibition of autophagy enhanced pirarubicin-induced apoptosis. • Pirarubicin induced autophagy through inhibition of mTOR signaling pathway

  7. Pirarubicin induces an autophagic cytoprotective response through suppression of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in human bladder cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kuiqing; Chen, Xu [Department of Urology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Malignant Tumor Epigenetics and Gene Regulation, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Liu, Cheng [Department of Urology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Gu, Peng; Li, Zhuohang; Wu, Shaoxu [Department of Urology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Malignant Tumor Epigenetics and Gene Regulation, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Xu, Kewei [Department of Urology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Lin, Tianxin, E-mail: tianxinl@sina.com [Department of Urology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Malignant Tumor Epigenetics and Gene Regulation, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Huang, Jian, E-mail: urolhj@sina.com [Department of Urology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510120 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Pirarubicin is widely used in intravesical chemotherapy for bladder cancer, but its efficacy is limited due to drug resistance; the mechanism has not been well studied. Emerging evidence shows that autophagy can be a novel target for cancer therapy. This study aimed to investigate the role of autophagy in pirarubicin-treated bladder cancer cells. Bladder cancer cells EJ and J82 were treated with pirarubicin, siRNA, 3-methyladenine or hydroxychloroquine. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were tested by cell survival assay and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Autophagy was evaluated by immunoblotting before and after the treatments. The phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin, serine/threonine kinase p70 S6 kinase, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 were also investigated by immunoblotting. We found that pirarubicin could induce autophagy in bladder cancer cells. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine, hydroxychloroquine or knockdown of autophagy related gene 3 significantly increased apoptosis in pirarubicin-treated bladder cancer cells. Pirarubicin-induced autophagy was mediated via the mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 signaling pathway. In conclusion, autophagy induced by pirarubicin plays a cytoprotective role in bladder cancer cells, suggesting that inhibition of autophagy may improve efficacy over traditional pirarubicin chemotherapy in bladder cancer patients. - Highlights: • Pirarubicin induced autophagy in bladder cancer cells. • Inhibition of autophagy enhanced pirarubicin-induced apoptosis. • Pirarubicin induced autophagy through inhibition of mTOR signaling pathway.

  8. A Novel Role of Dickkopf-Related Protein 3 in Macropinocytosis in Human Bladder Cancer T24 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonoka Tsujimura

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dickkopf-related protein 3 (Dkk-3 is a potential tumor suppressor reported in various cancer entities. However, we found that Dkk-3 was exceptionally upregulated in bladder cancer T24 cells. To validate the biological role of Dkk-3 other than a tumor suppressor, we examined the function of Dkk-3 in T24 cells. Gene silencing of Dkk-3 inhibited cell growth through inducing G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, Dkk-3 knock-down caused macropinocytosis accompanied by autophagy, which were canceled in part by their inhibitors 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl amiloride (EIPA and 3-methyladenine (3-MA. The macropinocytosis was induced by the Dkk-3 knock-down when there were sufficient extracellular nutrients. On the other hand, when the nutritional condition was poor, the autophagy was mainly induced by the Dkk-3 knock-down. These data indicated that Dkk-3 has a role in modulating macropinocytotic and autophagic pathways, a distinct function other than a Wnt antagonist.

  9. A Novel Role of Dickkopf-Related Protein 3 in Macropinocytosis in Human Bladder Cancer T24 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Nonoka; Yamada, Nami O.; Kuranaga, Yuki; Kumazaki, Minami; Shinohara, Haruka; Taniguchi, Kohei; Akao, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Dickkopf-related protein 3 (Dkk-3) is a potential tumor suppressor reported in various cancer entities. However, we found that Dkk-3 was exceptionally upregulated in bladder cancer T24 cells. To validate the biological role of Dkk-3 other than a tumor suppressor, we examined the function of Dkk-3 in T24 cells. Gene silencing of Dkk-3 inhibited cell growth through inducing G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, Dkk-3 knock-down caused macropinocytosis accompanied by autophagy, which were canceled in part by their inhibitors 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA) and 3-methyladenine (3-MA). The macropinocytosis was induced by the Dkk-3 knock-down when there were sufficient extracellular nutrients. On the other hand, when the nutritional condition was poor, the autophagy was mainly induced by the Dkk-3 knock-down. These data indicated that Dkk-3 has a role in modulating macropinocytotic and autophagic pathways, a distinct function other than a Wnt antagonist. PMID:27827955

  10. Intraoperative application of thermal camera for the assessment of during surgical resection or biopsy of human's brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastek, M.; Piatkowski, T.; Polakowski, H.; Kaczmarska, K.; Czernicki, Z.; Bogucki, J.; Zebala, M.

    2014-05-01

    Motivation to undertake research on brain surface temperature in clinical practice is based on a strong conviction that the enormous progress in thermal imaging techniques and camera design has a great application potential. Intraoperative imaging of pathological changes and functionally important areas of the brain is not yet fully resolved in neurosurgery and remains a challenge. A study of temperature changes across cerebral cortex was performed for five patients with brain tumors (previously diagnosed using magnetic resonance or computed tomography) during surgical resection or biopsy of tumors. Taking into account their origin and histology the tumors can be divided into the following types: gliomas, with different degrees of malignancy (G2 to G4), with different metabolic activity and various temperatures depending on the malignancy level (3 patients), hypervascular tumor associated with meninges (meningioma), metastatic tumor - lung cancer with a large cyst and noticeable edema. In the case of metastatic tumor with large edema and a liquid-filled space different temperature of a cerebral cortex were recorded depending on metabolic activity. Measurements have shown that the temperature on the surface of the cyst was on average 2.6 K below the temperature of surrounding areas. It has been also observed that during devascularization of a tumor, i.e. cutting off its blood vessels, the tumor temperature lowers significantly in spite of using bipolar coagulation, which causes additional heat emission in the tissue. The results of the measurements taken intra-operatively confirm the capability of a thermal camera to perform noninvasive temperature monitoring of a cerebral cortex. As expected surface temperature of tumors is different from surface temperature of tissues free from pathological changes. The magnitude of this difference depends on histology and the origin of the tumor. These conclusions lead to taking on further experimental research, implementation

  11. Bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, Philip; Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome is a deceptively intricate symptom complex that is diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in a patient who has ex...... can be challenging, and misdiagnosis as a psychological problem, overactive bladder, or chronic urinary infection has plagued patients with the problem....

  12. A simple and effective protocol for fast isolation of human Tenon's fibroblasts from a single trabeculectomy biopsy - a comparison of cell behaviour in different culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekora, Agata; Zarnowski, Tomasz; Ginalska, Grazyna

    2017-01-01

    Human Tenon's fibroblasts (HTFs) play a crucial role in wound healing. They cause postoperative scarring of the filtering bleb and are thus responsible for trabeculectomy failure. This study aimed to find an effective and fast protocol for HTF isolation from trabeculectomy biopsies. The protocol was compared with the commonly recommended HTF isolation procedure, which uses Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM). We used Eagle's minimum essential medium (EMEM) enriched with fibroblast growth factor (FGF), which selectively promoted the proliferation of HTF cells. A secondary goal was to compare HTF morphology, metabolism and growth during parallel cultivation of the isolated cells in FGF-enriched EMEM and DMEM. Standard procedures for HTF isolation from tissue biopsies require a 20- to 30-day culture of the explants to obtain the first monolayer. Our protocol yielded the first monolayer after approx. 15 days. More importantly, the majority of the cells were fibroblasts with only individual epithelium-derived cells present. Using FGF-enriched EMEM allowed 1.3 × 10 6 vimentin-positive fibroblasts to be obtained from a single biopsy within approx. 25 days. Using DMEM resulted in isolation failure and required exchange to FGF-enriched medium to recover the fibroblast culture. HTFs maintained in FGF-enriched EMEM also showed faster proliferation and a different type I collagen production ability compared to HTFs cultured in DMEM. Thus, FGF-enriched EMEM is recommended for fast propagation of HTFs unless the aim of the study is to assess the effect of a tested agent on proliferation ability or type I collagen production. Our fast protocol for HTF isolation allows easy setup of cell banks by researchers under laboratory conditions and could be very useful during testing of novel ophthalmologic anti-fibrotic agents in vitro. Molecular analysis of HTFs isolated from patients with known treatment histories may provide valuable information on the effects of some

  13. Proteome stability analysis of snap frozen, RNAlater preserved, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human colon mucosal biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg Bennike, Tue; Kastaniegaard, Kenneth; Padurariu, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Large repositories of well characterized RNAlater preserved samples and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples have been generated worldwide. However, the impact on the proteome of the preservation methods remain poorly described. Therefore, we analyzed the impact on the proteome of preserving...... samples in RNAlater, and by formalin-fixation, paraffin-embedding on human soft tissue, using directly frozen samples as a control ("Comparing the proteome of snap frozen, RNAlater preserved, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tissue samples" [1]). We here report the data from the analysis...

  14. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... is the most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  15. Utility of urine cytology in evaluating hematuria with sonographically suspected bladder lesion in patients older than 50 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussam Eldin Helmy Mady

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Hematuria in patients older than 50 years with sonographically suspected bladder lesion mandates cystoscopy and biopsy. UC does not add more significant information in this group of patients.

  16. Urothelial carcinoma arising within bladder diverticulum—Report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-En Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bladder diverticulum is an outpouching of bladder mucosa through the musculature of the bladder wall. The incidence of bladder diverticulum in Taiwan is about 1.7% in children and 23.4% in adults. Intradiverticular carcinoma of urinary bladder is uncommon. It ranges from 0.8% to 14.3%. Here we report a case of urothelial carcinoma within a bladder diverticulum. A 60-year-old male patient had history of BPH under medical treatment and right ureteral stone treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL. He presented with painless gross hematuria about 3 months after ESWL. Intravenous pyelography showed a filling defect within the bladder diverticulum. Histopathological diagnosis of low grade urothelial carcinoma arising from the bladder diverticulum was made following cystoscopic biopsy. Laparoscopic partial cystectomy was performed with subsequent intravesical chemotherapy. Tumor recurrence was found not from the previous diverticulum but from another area during regular cystoscopy at the 6-month postoperative follow up. He underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor. Pathology revealed a noninvasive, high grade urothelial carcinoma. There was no further bladder tumor recurrence during the 1-year follow-up period. Bladder-sparing surgery with close cystoscopy follow up for intradiverticular urothelial carcinoma can be applied as an alternative treatment modality.

  17. Variation in the binding of 125I-labeled interferon-beta ser to cellular receptors during growth of human renal and bladder carcinoma cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, F.J.; Schmid, S.M.; Groveman, D.S.; Cummings, K.B.; Borden, E.C.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of various established human bladder and renal carcinoma cell lines cultured in vitro demonstrated the presence of specific, saturable, high affinity binding sites for 125 I-labeled human interferon Beta ser IFN-beta ser). This recombinant produced interferon labeled with approximately one atom of 125 I/molecule of IFN expressed minimal or no loss of antiviral activity. A single class of binding sites (1000-2000/cell) with an affinity constant of 10(10)-10(11) L/M was measured at 4 degrees C for cells exhibiting widely different sensitivity to the antiproliferative effect of IFN-beta ser. Major fluctuations in the binding of 125 I-labeled IFN-beta ser to cellular receptors were observed during in vitro proliferation of four of five cell lines examined. A significant decrease (P less than 0.001) in specific binding was observed 48 h after cultures were established. Cell cycle analysis suggested that within the first 24 h and in the very late log and stationary phase of growth of ACHN (human renal carcinoma) cells, variations in the binding of 125 I-labeled IFN-beta ser were partially attributable to binding fluctuations during the mitotic cycle. The 2- to 3-fold decline 24 h following plating of ACHN cells corresponded to a 70% decrease in the number of cells in G0-G1. T24 (human transitional cell carcinoma) and ACHN cells, synchronized by serum starvation, demonstrated increased binding of 125 I-labeled IFN-beta ser 4-16 h following serum replenishment. This increase in receptor binding occurred prior to the onset of DNA and protein synthesis and was followed by a decline immediately prior to cell division. Binding site analysis indicated that the increased binding prior to DNA synthesis was due to a 5- to 6-fold increase in receptor affinity for the radiolabeled ligand

  18. Validation of celiac disease diagnoses recorded in the Danish National Patient Register using duodenal biopsies, celiac disease-specific antibodies, and human leukocyte-antigen genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dydensborg Sander S

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stine Dydensborg Sander,1-3 Ketil Størdal,4,5 Tine Plato Hansen,6 Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen,7 Joseph A Murray,8 Søren Thue Lillevang,9 Steffen Husby1,2 1Hans Christian Andersen Children’s Hospital, Odense University Hospital, 2Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, 3Odense Patient Data Explorative Network (OPEN, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; 4Mental and Physical Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, 5Department of Pediatrics, Ostfold Hospital Trust, Fredrikstad, Norway; 6Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital, 7Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 8Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 9Department of Clinical Immunology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark Purpose: The purpose of this study was to validate the celiac disease diagnoses recorded in the Danish National Patient Register. To validate the diagnoses, we used information on duodenal biopsies from a national register of pathology reports (the Patobank and information on celiac disease-specific antibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA genotypes obtained from patient medical records.Patients and methods: We included all the children who were born from 1995 to 2012 and who were registered as having celiac disease in the Danish National Patient Register. We reviewed all the pathology reports on duodenal biopsies in the Patobank and the information in the medical records on celiac disease-specific antibodies (ie, anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 IgA and IgG, endomysial antibodies IgA, and anti-deamidated gliadin peptide IgG and HLA genotypes.Results: We identified 2,247 children who were registered in the Danish National Patient Register with celiac disease. Duodenal biopsies for 1,555 of the children (69% were registered in the Patobank; 1,127 (50% had a biopsy that was compatible with celiac disease (ie, Marsh 2–3. We accessed the medical

  19. Bladder necrosis: 'A man without a bladder'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosschieter, Judith; Oudshoorn, Frederik H K; Meuleman, Eric J H; Nieuwenhuijzen, Jakko A

    2018-02-17

    Since the use of antibiotics, bladder necrosis has become a rare condition. We report a case of bladder necrosis in a 90-year-old man following urinary retention. After insertion of a transurethral catheter (TUC), 2 L of urine was evacuated. In the following days, the TUC became intermittently blocked. Adequate bladder drainage could not be obtained despite intensive rinsing and placement of a suprapubic catheter. On surgical exploration necrosis of almost the entire bladder wall, except for the trigone, was encountered. Surgical debridement of the non-viable bladder wall without opening the abdominal cavity was conducted, and a TUC was placed in the Retzius cavity to ensure evacuation of urine. Since the patient was haemodynamically unstable, construction of a urinary diversion was waived and urinary drainage of the Retzius cavity by the TUC was accepted, resulting in adequate urinary drainage without compromising renal function. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Androgenic dependence of exophytic tumor growth in a transgenic mouse model of bladder cancer: a role for thrombospondin-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Jorge L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Steroid hormones influence mitogenic signaling pathways, apoptosis, and cell cycle checkpoints, and it has long been known that incidence of bladder cancer (BC in men is several times greater than in women, a difference that cannot be attributed to environmental or lifestyle factors alone. Castration reduces incidence of chemically-induced BC in rodents. It is unclear if this effect is due to hormonal influences on activation/deactivation of carcinogens or a direct effect on urothelial cell proliferation or other malignant processes. We examined the effect of castration on BC growth in UPII-SV40T transgenic mice, which express SV40 T antigen specifically in urothelium and reliably develop BC. Furthermore, because BC growth in UPII-SV40T mice is exophytic, we speculated BC growth was dependent on angiogenesis and angiogenesis was, in turn, androgen responsive. Methods Flat panel detector-based cone beam computed tomography (FPDCT was used to longitudinally measure exophytic BC growth in UPII-SV40T male mice sham-operated, castrated, or castrated and supplemented with dihydrotestosterone (DHT. Human normal bladder and BC biopsies and mouse bladder were examined quantitatively for thrombospondin-1 (TSP1 protein expression. Results Mice castrated at 24 weeks of age had decreased BC volumes at 32 weeks compared to intact mice (p = 0.0071 and castrated mice administered DHT (p = 0.0233; one-way ANOVA, JMP 6.0.3, SAS Institute, Inc.. Bladder cancer cell lines responded to DHT treatment with increased proliferation, regardless of androgen receptor expression levels. TSP1, an anti-angiogenic factor whose expression is inhibited by androgens, had decreased expression in bladders of UPII-SV40T mice compared to wild-type. Castration increased TSP1 levels in UPII-SV40T mice compared to intact mice. TSP1 protein expression was higher in 8 of 10 human bladder biopsies of normal versus malignant tissue from the same patients. Conclusion

  1. Gene expression in the urinary bladder: a common carcinoma in situ gene expression signature exists disregarding histopathological classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Andersen, Thomas Thykjær

    2004-01-01

    not only in CIS biopsies but also in sTCC, mTCC, and, remarkably, in histologically normal urothelium from bladders with CIS. Identification of this expression signature could provide guidance for the selection of therapy and follow-up regimen in patients with early stage bladder cancer....

  2. High resolution photoacoustic imaging of microvasculature in normal and cancerous bladders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhixing; Roberts, William; Carson, Paul L.; Liu, Xiaojun; Tao, Chao; Wang, Xueding

    2013-03-01

    We explored the potential of an emerging laser-based technology, photoacoustic imaging (PAI), for bladder cancer diagnosis through high resolution imaging of microvasculature in the interior bladder tissues. Images of ex vivo canine bladders demonstrated the excellent ability of PAI to map three-dimensional microvasculature in optically scattering bladder tissues. By comparing the results from human bladder specimens affected by cancer to those from the normal control, the feasibility of PAI in differentiating malignant from benign bladder tissues was explored. The reported distinctive morphometric characteristics of tumor microvasculature can be seen in the images from cancer samples, suggesting that PAI may allow in vivo assessment of neoangiogenesis that is closely associated with bladder cancer generation and progression. By presenting subsurface morphological and physiological information in bladder tissues, PAI, when performed in a similar way to that in conventional endoscopy, provides an opportunity for improved diagnosis, staging and treatment guidance of bladder cancer.

  3. P53 and cancer-associated sialylated glycans are surrogate markers of cancerization of the bladder associated with Schistosoma haematobium infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is a significant health problem in rural areas of Africa and the Middle East where Schistosoma haematobium is prevalent, supporting an association between malignant transformation and infection by this blood fluke. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms linking these events are poorly understood. Bladder cancers in infected populations are generally diagnosed at a late stage since there is a lack of non-invasive diagnostic tools, hence enforcing the need for early carcinogenesis markers.Forty-three formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bladder biopsies of S. haematobium-infected patients, consisting of bladder tumours, tumour adjacent mucosa and pre-malignant/malignant urothelial lesions, were screened for bladder cancer biomarkers. These included the oncoprotein p53, the tumour proliferation rate (Ki-67>17%, cell-surface cancer-associated glycan sialyl-Tn (sTn and sialyl-Lewisa/x (sLea/sLex, involved in immune escape and metastasis. Bladder tumours of non-S. haematobium etiology and normal urothelium were used as controls. S. haematobium-associated benign/pre-malignant lesions present alterations in p53 and sLex that were also found in bladder tumors. Similar results were observed in non-S. haematobium associated tumours, irrespectively of their histological nature, denoting some common molecular pathways. In addition, most benign/pre-malignant lesions also expressed sLea. However, proliferative phenotypes were more prevalent in lesions adjacent to bladder tumors while sLea was characteristic of sole benign/pre-malignant lesions, suggesting it may be a biomarker of early carcionogenesis associated with the parasite. A correlation was observed between the frequency of the biomarkers in the tumor and adjacent mucosa, with the exception of Ki-67. Most S. haematobium eggs embedded in the urothelium were also positive for sLea and sLex. Reinforcing the pathologic nature of the studied biomarkers, none was observed in the healthy urothelium

  4. Developments in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, L.; Niijima, T.; Prout, G.; Schroder, F.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: Guidelines for Radiation Therapy in Clinical Research on Bladder Cancer; Transitional Cell Carcinoma in Situ; Policy on Monitoring and Reporting Results; Standardization of Protocol Formnd The Role of Cytology in the Diagnosis, Detection and Follow-up of Bladder Cancer

  5. Bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, Philip; Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome is a deceptively intricate symptom complex that is diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in a patient who has...

  6. Ultrasound: Bladder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If You Have Questions Print en español Ultrasonido: vejiga What It Is A bladder ultrasound is a safe and painless test that ... Exam: Voiding Cystourethrogram (VCUG) Ultrasound: Renal (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder) Urinary ... only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All ...

  7. La biopsie prostatique

    OpenAIRE

    DJEDOUI, MERIEM

    2013-01-01

    La preuve d'un cancer de la prostate est apportée par la biopsie prostatique. Malheureusement, une biopsie négative, bien que rassurante, ne suffit pas à exclure un noyau cancéreux à côté duquel l'aiguille est passée. L'urologue peut être amené à proposer une nouvelle biopsie, en augmentant, s'il le faut, le nombre de prélèvements de tissu prostatique. Ayant connu Le but d'une biopsie prostatique, le patient pourrait maintenant décider d'entrer dans d'autres alternatives qui...

  8. NMR imaging of bladder tumors in males. Preliminary clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigal, R.; Rein, A.J.J.T.; Atlan, H.; Lanir, A.; Kedar, S.; Segal, S.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the normal and pathologic bladder was performed in 10 male subjects: 5 normal volunteers, 4 with bladder primary carcinoma, 1 with bladder metastasis. All scanning was done using a superconductive magnet operating at 0.5 T. Spin echo was used as pulse sequence. The diagnosis was confirmed in all cases by NMR imaging. The ability of the technique to provide images in axial, sagital and coronal planes allowed a precise assessment of the morphology and the size of the tumors. The lack of hazards and the quality of images may promote NMR imaging to a prominent role in the diagnosis of human bladder cancer [fr

  9. Nanotechnology and cancer: improving real-time monitoring and staging of bladder cancer with multimodal mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Sean K; Luo, Yi; O'Donnell, Michael A; Assouline, Jose

    Despite being one of the most common cancers, bladder cancer is largely inefficiently and inaccurately staged and monitored. Current imaging methods detect cancer only when it has reached "visible" size and has significantly disrupted the structure of the organ. By that time, thousands of cells will have proliferated and perhaps metastasized. Repeated biopsies and scans are necessary to determine the effect of therapy on cancer growth. In this report, we describe a novel approach based on multimodal nanoparticle contrast agent technology and its application to a preclinical animal model of bladder cancer. The innovation relies on the engineering core of mesoporous silica with specific scanning contrast properties and surface modification that include fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast. The overall dimensions of the nano-device are preset at 80-180 nm, depending on composition with a pore size of 2 nm. To facilitate and expedite discoveries, we combined a well-known model of bladder cancer and our novel technology. We exposed nanoparticles to MB49 murine bladder cancer cells in vitro and found that 70 % of the cells were labeled by nanoparticles as measured by flow cytometry. The in vivo mouse model for bladder cancer is particularly well suited for T1- and T2-weighted MRI. Under our experimental conditions, we demonstrate that the nanoparticles considerably improve tumor definition in terms of volumetric, intensity and structural characteristics. Important bladder tumor parameters can be ascertained, non-invasively, repetitively, and with great accuracy. Furthermore, since the particles are not biodegradable, repetitive injection is not required. This feature allows follow-up diagnostic evaluations during cancer treatment. Changes in MRI signals show that in situ uptake of free particles has predilection to tumor cells relative to normal bladder epithelium. The particle distribution within the tumors was corroborated by fluorescent

  10. A comparative study of the structural organization of spheres derived from the adult human subventricular zone and glioblastoma biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vik-Mo, Einar Osland; Sandberg, Cecilie; Joel, Mrinal; Stangeland, Biljana; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Moe, Morten Carstens; Murrell, Wayne; Langmoen, Iver Arne

    2011-01-01

    Sphere forming assays have been useful to enrich for stem like cells in a range of tumors. The robustness of this system contrasts the difficulties in defining a stem cell population based on cell surface markers. We have undertaken a study to describe the cellular and organizational composition of tumorspheres, directly comparing these to neurospheres derived from the adult human subventricular zone (SVZ). Primary cell cultures from brain tumors were found to contain variable fractions of cells positive for tumor stem cell markers (CD133 (2-93%)/SSEA1 (3-15%)/CXCR4 (1-72%)). All cultures produced tumors upon xenografting. Tumorspheres contained a heterogeneous population of cells, but were structurally organized with stem cell markers present at the core of spheres, with markers of more mature glial progenitors and astrocytes at more peripheral location. Ultrastructural studies showed that tumorspheres contained a higher fraction of electron dense cells in the core than the periphery (36% and 19%, respectively). Neurospheres also contained a heterogeneous cell population, but did not have an organization similar to tumorspheres. Although tumorspheres clearly display irregular and neoplastic cells, they establish an organized structure with an outward gradient of differentiation. We suggest that this organization is central in maintaining the tumor stem cell pool.

  11. Pathological diagnosis of bladder cancer by image analysis of hypericin induced fluorescence cystoscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, James C. Y.; Olivo, Malini C.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Sheppard, Colin J. R.

    2005-08-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder carcinoma based on hypericin fluorescence cystoscopy has shown to have a higher degree of sensitivity for the detection of flat bladder carcinoma compared to white light cystoscopy. The potential of the photosensitizer hypericin-induced fluorescence in performing non-invasive optical biopsy to grade bladder cancer in vivo using fluorescence cystoscopic image analysis without surgical resection for tissue biopsy is investigated in this study. The correlation between tissue fluorescence and histopathology of diseased tissue was explored and a diagnostic algorithm based on fluorescence image analysis was developed to classify the bladder cancer without surgical resection for tissue biopsy. Preliminary results suggest a correlation between tissue fluorescence and bladder cancer grade. By combining both the red-to-blue and red-to-green intensity ratios into a 2D scatter plot yields an average sensitivity and specificity of around 70% and 85% respectively for pathological cancer grading of the three different grades of bladder cancer. Therefore, the diagnostic algorithm based on colorimetric intensity ratio analysis of hypericin fluorescence cystoscopic images developed in this preliminary study shows promising potential to optically diagnose and grade bladder cancer in vivo.

  12. The classification of secondary colorectal liver cancer in human biopsy samples using angular dispersive x-ray diffraction and multivariate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorakou, Chrysoula; Farquharson, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    The motivation behind this study is to assess whether angular dispersive x-ray diffraction (ADXRD) data, processed using multivariate analysis techniques, can be used for classifying secondary colorectal liver cancer tissue and normal surrounding liver tissue in human liver biopsy samples. The ADXRD profiles from a total of 60 samples of normal liver tissue and colorectal liver metastases were measured using a synchrotron radiation source. The data were analysed for 56 samples using nonlinear peak-fitting software. Four peaks were fitted to all of the ADXRD profiles, and the amplitude, area, amplitude and area ratios for three of the four peaks were calculated and used for the statistical and multivariate analysis. The statistical analysis showed that there are significant differences between all the peak-fitting parameters and ratios between the normal and the diseased tissue groups. The technique of soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) was used to classify normal liver tissue and colorectal liver metastases resulting in 67% of the normal tissue samples and 60% of the secondary colorectal liver tissue samples being classified correctly. This study has shown that the ADXRD data of normal and secondary colorectal liver cancer are statistically different and x-ray diffraction data analysed using multivariate analysis have the potential to be used as a method of tissue classification.

  13. Bladder Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell carcinoma, also called urothelial carcinoma. Smoking is a major risk factor for bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is often diagnosed at an early stage. Start here to find information on bladder cancer treatment, screening, research, and statistics.

  14. Biopsy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biopsy - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Breast Biopsy - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Colposcopy - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF ...

  15. Significance Of Immunohistochemical Markers In Diagnostics Of Urinary Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Medvedeva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of surgical and biopsy material 106 patients with diseases of urinary bladder have been under study. They received treatment at Scientific Research Institute of Fundamental and Clinical Uronephrology of Saratov State Medical University. 13 immunohistochemical markers have been evaluated: markers of proliferative activity - Ki-67, PCNA, p63, suppressor of tumor growth - p53, markers of apoptosis - Bcl-2, Bax, receptor of epidermal growth factors - EGFR, cytokeratin profile - (CK7, CK8, CK10/13, CK 17, CK18, CK19, as well as their diagnostic significance for identifying the urinary bladder cancer

  16. Improved transvenous liver biopsy needle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Matzen, P; Christoffersen, P

    1979-01-01

    A modified type of the standard transvenous cholangiography biopsy needle is described. The modified tranvenous liver biopsy needle caused only minimal artefactual changes of the liver biopsy specimens. The new type of biopsy needle is a modified Menghini needle. The conventional Menghini needle...... should be avoided for transvenous catheter biopsies because of risk of leaving catheter fragments in the liver....

  17. Onabotulinumtoxin type A improves lower urinary tract symptoms and quality of life in patients with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 associated overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Abraão Carneiro Neto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of the onabotulinum toxin type A in the treatment of HTLV-1 associated overactive bladder and its impact on quality of life (QoL. Methods: Case series with 10 patients with overactive bladder refractory to conservative treatment with anticholinergic or physical therapy. They received 200Ui of onabotulinumtoxin type A intravesically and were evaluated by overactive bladder symptoms score (OABSS and King's Health Questionnaire. Results: The mean (SD of the age was 52 + 14.5 years and 60% were female. All of them had confirmed detrusor overactivity on urodynamic study. Seven patients had HAM/TSP. The median and range of the OABSS was 13 (12–15 before therapy and decreased to 1.0 (0–12 on day 30 and to 03 (0–14 on day 90 (p < 0.0001. There was a significant improvement in 8 of the 9 domains of the King's Health Questionnaire after the intervention. Hematuria, urinary retention and urinary infection were the complications observed in 3 out of 10 patients. The mean time to request retreatment was 465 days. Conclusion: Onabotulinum toxin type A intravesically reduced the OABSS with last long effect and improved the quality of life of HTLV-1 infected patients with severe overactive bladder. Keywords: Overactive bladder, Onabotulinum toxin, HTLV-1

  18. Vitamin K2 Induces Mitochondria-Related Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer Cells via ROS and JNK/p38 MAPK Signal Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Fengsen; Yu, Yuejin; Guan, Rijian; Xu, Zhiliang; Liang, Huageng; Hong, Ling

    2016-01-01

    The effects of vitamin K2 on apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells have been well established in previous studies. However, the apoptotic effect of vitamin K2 on bladder cancer cells has not been evaluated. The aim of this study is to examine the apoptotic activity of Vitamin K2 in bladder cancer cells and investigate the underlying mechanism. In this study, Vitamin K2 induced apoptosis in bladder cancer cells through mitochondria pathway including loss of mitochondria membrane potential, cytochrome C release and caspase-3 cascade. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK was detected in Vitamin K2-treated cells and both SP600125 (an inhibitor of JNK) and SB203580 (an inhibitor of p38 MAPK) completely abolished the Vitamin K2-induced apoptosis and loss of mitochondria membrane potential. Moreover, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected in bladder cancer cells, upon treatment of vitamin K2 and the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) almost blocked the Vitamin K2-triggered apoptosis, loss of mitochondria membrane potential and activation of JNK and p38 MAPK. Taken together, these findings revealed that Vitamin K2 induces apoptosis in bladder cancer cells via ROS-mediated JNK/p38 MAPK and Mitochondrial pathways.

  19. The mechanism of the growth-inhibitory effect of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) on human bladder cancer: a functional analysis of car protein structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okegawa, T; Pong, R C; Li, Y; Bergelson, J M; Sagalowsky, A I; Hsieh, J T

    2001-09-01

    The coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is identified as a high-affinity receptor for adenovirus type 5. We observed that invasive bladder cancer specimens had significantly reduced CAR mRNA levels compared with superficial bladder cancer specimens, which suggests that CAR may play a role in the progression of bladder cancer. Elevated CAR expression in the T24 cell line (CAR-negative cells) increased its sensitivity to adenovirus infection and significantly inhibited its in vitro growth, accompanied by p21 and hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma accumulation. Conversely, decreased CAR levels in both RT4 and 253J cell lines (CAR-positive cells) promoted their in vitro growth. To unveil the mechanism of action of CAR, we showed that the extracellular domain of CAR facilitated intercellular adhesion. Furthermore, interrupting intercellular adhesion of CAR by a specific antibody alleviates the growth-inhibitory effect of CAR. We also demonstrated that both the transmembrane and intracellular domains of CAR were critical for its growth-inhibitory activity. These data indicate that the cell-cell contact initiated by membrane-bound CAR can elicit a negative signal cascade to modulate cell cycle regulators inside the nucleus of bladder cancer cells. Therefore, the presence of CAR cannot only facilitate viral uptake of adenovirus but also inhibit cell growth. These results can be integrated to formulate a new strategy for bladder cancer therapy.

  20. Stages of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood . They take out waste ... to bladder cancer. Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals, or petroleum products in the workplace. Past treatment ...

  1. Bladder Diseases - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Expand Section Bladder Diseases: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Enfermedades de la vejiga: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National ...

  2. Bladder perforations in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-20

    Nov 20, 2014 ... Mean recovery time for patients was 15 days. ... fracture.[1,2] Isolated bladder perforations are rare, and they .... PA, perineal injury, pelvic fracture. Trauma .... Lower genitourinary injury and pelvic fractures in pediatric patients.

  3. No need for biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjødsbøl, Kristine; Skindersoe, Mette E; Christensen, Jens Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare three sampling techniques used in routine diagnostics to identify the microbiota in chronic venous leg ulcers. A total of 46 patients with persisting venous leg ulcers were included in the study. At inclusion, swab, biopsy and filter paper pad samples were...... collected. After 4 weeks, additional biopsy and filter paper pad samples were collected. Bacteria were isolated and identified at species level by standard methods. The most common bacterial species detected was Staphylococcus aureus found in 89% of the ulcers. No methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates...... species present in chronic wounds, thus avoiding complications during and after biopsy sampling....

  4. Effects of YC-1 on hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in hypoxic human bladder transitional carcinoma cell line T24 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangle; Zhao, Xiaokun; Tang, Huiting; Zhong, Zhaohui; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Ran; Li, Songchao; Wang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to explore the effects of 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-l-benzyl indazole (YC-1) on transcription activity, cell proliferation and apoptosis of hypoxic human bladder transitional carcinoma cells (BTCC), mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). BTCC cell line T24 cells were incubated under normoxic or hypoxic conditions, adding different doses of YC-1. The protein expression of HIF-1α and HIF-1α-mediated genes was detected by Western blotting. RT-PCR was used to detect HIF-1α mRNA expression. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration activity were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, flow cytometry and transwell migration assay. The cells were pretreated by two ERK/p38 MAPK pathway-specific inhibitors, PD98059 or SB203580, and then incubated with YC-1 treatment under hypoxic condition. HIF-1α protein expression was detected by Western blotting. Hypoxic T24 cells expressed a higher level of HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinases-2, B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 protein and HIF-1α mRNA compared with normoxic controls, in which the above-mentioned expression was downregulated by YC-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Cell proliferation and migration activity were inhibited while apoptosis was induced by YC-1 under hypoxic condition. Moreover, YC-1-downregulated HIF-1α expression was reversed by PD98059 and SB203580, respectively. YC-1 inhibits HIF-1α and HIF-1α-mediated gene expression, cell proliferation and migration activity and induces apoptosis in hypoxic BTCC. The ERK/p38 MAPK pathway may be involved in YC-1-mediated inhibition of HIF-1α. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. HumanMethylation450K Array–Identified Biomarkers Predict Tumour Recurrence/Progression at Initial Diagnosis of High-risk Non-muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark O Kitchen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (HR-NMIBC is a clinically unpredictable disease. Despite clinical risk estimation tools, many patients are undertreated with intra-vesical therapies alone, whereas others may be over-treated with early radical surgery. Molecular biomarkers, particularly DNA methylation, have been reported as predictive of tumour/patient outcomes in numerous solid organ and haematologic malignancies; however, there are few reports in HR-NMIBC and none using genome-wide array assessment. We therefore sought to identify novel DNA methylation markers of HR-NMIBC clinical outcomes that might predict tumour behaviour at initial diagnosis and help guide patient management. Patients and methods: A total of 21 primary initial diagnosis HR-NMIBC tumours were analysed by Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays and subsequently bisulphite Pyrosequencing. In all, 7 had not recurred at 1 year after resection and 14 had recurred and/or progressed despite intra-vesical BCG. A further independent cohort of 32 HR-NMIBC tumours (17 no recurrence and 15 recurrence and/or progression despite BCG were also assessed by bisulphite Pyrosequencing. Results: Array analyses identified 206 CpG loci that segregated non-recurrent HR-NMIBC tumours from clinically more aggressive recurrence/progression tumours. Hypermethylation of CpG cg11850659 and hypomethylation of CpG cg01149192 in combination predicted HR-NMIBC recurrence and/or progression within 1 year of diagnosis with 83% sensitivity, 79% specificity, and 83% positive and 79% negative predictive values. Conclusions: This is the first genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of a unique HR-NMIBC tumour cohort encompassing known 1-year clinical outcomes. Our analyses identified potential novel epigenetic markers that could help guide individual patient management in this clinically unpredictable disease.

  6. Selective hydride generation- cryotrapping- ICP-MS for arsenic speciation analysis at picogram levels: analysis of river and sea water reference materials and human bladder epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoušek, Tomáš; Currier, Jenna M.; Trojánková, Nikola; Saunders, R. Jesse; Ishida, María C.; González-Horta, Carmen; Musil, Stanislav; Mester, Zoltán; Stýblo, Miroslav; Dědina, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    An ultra sensitive method for arsenic (As) speciation analysis based on selective hydride generation (HG) with preconcentration by cryotrapping (CT) and inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection is presented. Determination of valence of the As species is performed by selective HG without prereduction (trivalent species only) or with L-cysteine prereduction (sum of tri- and pentavalent species). Methylated species are resolved on the basis of thermal desorption of formed methyl substituted arsines after collection at −196°C. Limits of detection of 3.4, 0.04, 0.14 and 0.10 pg mL−1 (ppt) were achieved for inorganic As, mono-, di- and trimethylated species, respectively, from a 500 μL sample. Speciation analysis of river water (NRC SLRS-4 and SLRS-5) and sea water (NRC CASS-4, CASS-5 and NASS-5) reference materials certified to contain 0.4 to 1.3 ng mL−1 total As was performed. The concentrations of methylated As species in tens of pg mL−1 range obtained by HG-CT-ICP-MS systems in three laboratories were in excellent agreement and compared well with results of HG-CT-atomic absorption spectrometry and anion exchange liquid chromatography- ICP-MS; sums of detected species agreed well with the certified total As content. HG-CT-ICP-MS method was successfully used for analysis of microsamples of exfoliated bladder epithelial cells isolated from human urine. Here, samples of lysates of 25 to 550 thousand cells contained typically tens pg up to ng of iAs species and from single to hundreds pg of methylated species, well within detection power of the presented method. A significant portion of As in the cells was found in the form of the highly toxic trivalent species. PMID:24014931

  7. Bladder cancer and schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Schistosoma-associated bladder cancer was believed, for several decades, to be a completely unique entity of disease, different from urothelial cancer. This was probably due to its distinct clinico pathologic and demographic features that varied from those of urothelial entity. The carcinogenesis is an extremely complex process resulting from the accumulation of many genetic and epigenetic changes leading to alterations in the cell proliferation regulation process. In bladder cancer, many of these carcinogenic cascades were not fully documented or somewhat conflicting. In spite of the efforts performed, much is still needed to explore the presence or absence of the carcinogenic difference with a different etiology. The control of schistosomiasis in certain countries and the subsequent decrease in the intensity of infestation showed changing of features approaching that of urothelial tumors. However the schistosoma-associated bladder cancer presented in more advanced stages than schistosoma-non associated urothelial cancer. More recently, data are gathered that, upon applying the same treatment protocol and management care, stage by stage comparison of the treatment end-results were found to be similar in bladder cancer patients with a different etiology. All treatment options; including radical cystectomy with or without adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy or tri modality bladder preserving treatment seem to lead to similar end-results regardless of etiologic factor(s) implicated in bladder cancer development.

  8. Presence of human papilloma virus, herpes simplex virus and Epstein-Barr virus DNA in oral biopsies from Sudanese patients with regard to toombak use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalouli, Jamshid; Ibrahim, Salah O; Sapkota, Dipak; Jalouli, Miranda M; Vasstrand, Endre N; Hirsch, Jan M; Larsson, Per-Anders

    2010-09-01

    Using PCR/DNA sequencing, we investigated the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in brush biopsies obtained from 150 users of Sudanese snuff (toombak) and 25 non-users of toombak in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples obtained from 31 patients with oral dysplasias (25 toombak users and 6 non-users), and from 217 patients with oral cancers (145 toombak users and 72 non-users). In the brush tissue samples from toombak users, HPV was detected in 60 (40%), HSV in 44 (29%) and EBV in 97 (65%) of the samples. The corresponding figures for the 25 samples from non-users were 17 (68%) positive for HPV, 6 (24%) positive for HSV and 21 (84%) for EBV. The formalin-fixed samples with oral dysplasias were all negative for HPV. In the 145 oral cancer samples from toombak users, HPV was detected in 39 (27%), HSV in 15 (10%) and EBV in 53 (37%) of the samples. The corresponding figures for the samples from non-users were 15 (21%) positive for HPV, 5 (7%) for HSV and 16 (22%) for EBV. These findings illustrate that prevalence of HSV, HPV and EBV infections are common and may influence oral health and cancer development. It is not obvious that cancer risk is increased in infected toombak users. These observations warrant further studies involving toombak-associated oral lesions, to uncover the possible mechanisms of these viral infections in the development of oral cancer, and the influence of toombak on these viruses. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Breast biopsy -- stereotactic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org/-/media/ACR/Files/Practice-Parameters/stereo-breast.pdf . Updated 2016. Accessed March 14, 2017. Parker C, Umphrey H, Bland K. The role of stereotactic breast biopsy in the management of breast disease. In: Cameron ...

  10. Breast biopsy -- ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org/-/media/ACR/Files/Practice-Parameters/us-guidedbreast.pdf . Updated 2016. Accessed March 14, 2017. Torrente J, Brem RF. Minimally invasive image-guided breast biopsy and ablation. In: Mauro MA, Murphy KPJ, Thomson ...

  11. Pleural needle biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... own. Sometimes, a chest tube is needed to drain the air and expand the lung. There is also a chance of excessive blood loss. Considerations If a closed pleural biopsy is not enough to make a diagnosis, ...

  12. Liver biopsy under hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P C; Stenn, P G

    1992-09-01

    Two patients underwent outpatient percutaneous liver biopsy under hypnosis without complications. One patient had severe anxiety about the procedure because of a previous adverse experience with liver biopsy and the other had a history of severe allergy to local anesthesia. Both patients had undergone a session of hypnosis at least once prior to the biopsy. One received no local anesthetic and the other received 1% lidocaine as a local anesthetic. Both patients were completely cooperative during the procedure with the required respiratory maneuvers. Both patients stated that they were aware of the procedure under hypnosis but described no pain and would be most willing to have the procedure done under hypnosis in the future. Hypnosis can be a useful method of preparing carefully selected patients for percutaneous liver biopsy.

  13. Corpus vitreum, retina og chorioidea biopsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherfig, Erik Christian Høegh

    2002-01-01

    oftalmology, biopsy, choroid, corpus vitreum, retina, malignant melanoma, biopsy technic, retinoblastoma......oftalmology, biopsy, choroid, corpus vitreum, retina, malignant melanoma, biopsy technic, retinoblastoma...

  14. Biopsy in Musculoskeletal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharehdaghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of bone tumors is based on careful evaluation of clinical, imaging and a pathologic findings. So the biopsy of bone and soft tissue sarcomas is the final step in evaluation and a fundamental step in the diagnosis of the lesion. It should not be performed as a shortcut to diagnosis (1. The biopsy should be performed in order to confirm the diagnosis and differentiate among few diagnoses after careful staged studies. Real and artificial changes in imaging studies will be superimposed after performing biopsy, which may alter the interpretation if done after biopsy is taken (1. The correct management of a sarcoma depends on the accurate diagnosis. Inadequate, inapprppriate, or inaccurate non-representative biopsy leads to poorer outcome in terms of survivorship and limb salvage. An incorrect, unplanned incision and biopsy may unnecessarily contaminate uninvolved compartments which may convert a salvageable limb to amputation. Anatomic approach along with the proper biopsy techniques may lead to success or catastrophe. It is clear that in patients with inappropriate biopsy, the chance of the need to change the treatment to more radical than would originally be expected is significantly higher. Also it is more probable to need to  convert curative to palliative treatment and to require adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with inappropriate biopsies. Patients with sarcoma are best served by early referral to a specialized center where staged investigations and biopsy can be performed with minimal morbidity (3. Open biopsy is still considered the gold standard; however, recent studies suggest comparable results with percutaneous core needle biopsy. Our study on 103 consecutive CNB and open biopsy showed comparable results as well. Surgeons need to answer to two questions prior to performing a biopsy: 1-          Where is the best part of the lesion to be biopsied? 2-          What is the safest route without contaminating

  15. Bladder Mucosal Graft Vaginoplasty: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Cinzia; Vestri, Elettra; Tripi, Flavia; Giannone, Antonino Giulio; Cimador, Marcello; Cataliotti, Ferdinando

    2018-06-18

    Female vaginoplasty reconstruction, by choice, is usually performed with adjacent tissue. However in some clinical conditions such as high urogenital confluence sinus, cloacal malformation with extreme vaginal hypoplasia, local tissue may not be available. When vaginal replacement is performed in pediatric patients intestinal segments is preferred to non-operative procedures that require continuative dilations. However mucus production, malignant transformation risk and diversion colitis are important side effects. We present a nouvel technique for vaginoplasty in a female child presenting with an isolated urogenital sinus malformation without virilization. The patient at 20 months underwent vaginoplasty using tubularized bladder mucosal graft. Surgical procedure was devoid of complications. Pubertal development occurred at age of 15. She underwent regular follow up until 18 years of age. At this age we performed clinical evaluation: absence of vaginal introitus stenosis and good cosmetic results were observed. Then she underwent vaginoscopy with multiple biopsies. Pathology examination of the bladder mucosal graft evidenced a normal structure of the mucosa, with a stratified squamous epithelium. Different techniques are taken into account for vaginal reconstruction according to the severity and to the type of malformation. We describe the use of bladder mucosal graft with favorable results after long term follow-up. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Virtual cystoscopy of urinary bladder. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualdi, G.F.; Casciani, E.; Rojas, M.; Polettini, E.

    1999-01-01

    Cystoscopy plays a key role in the diagnosis of the urinary bladder carcinoma. However cystoscopy is invasive, as a limited field of view and lacks an objective scale; moreover it is not indicated in patients with severe urethral stricture or active vesical bleeding. In this study, virtual cystoscopy depicted all the masses > 1 cm, and lesions in a diverticulum with a small opening. Virtual cystoscopy was also very useful in a patient with urethral stricture (ho could not be submitted to conventional cystoscopy) where it showed the lesions before transurethral resection after urethrotomy. The virtual technique could also be complementary to conventional cystoscopy in evaluation of bladder base and anterior bladder neck, as well as post chemotherapy follow-up. Unfortunately virtual cystoscopy does not allow biopsy of suspicious lesions [it

  17. Spontaneous Bladder Perforation in an Infant Neurogenic Bladder: Laparoscopic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cabezalí Barbancho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bladder perforation is an uncommon event in childhood. It is usually associated with bladder augmentation. We are presenting a case of bladder rupture in an infant with neurogenic bladder without prior bladder surgery. Three days after lipomyelomeningocele excision the patient showed signs and symptoms of acute abdomen. The ultrasound exploration revealed significant amount of intraperitoneal free fluid and therefore a laparoscopic exploration was performed. A posterior bladder rupture was diagnosed and repaired laparoscopically. Currently, being 3 years old, she keeps successfully dry with clean intermittent catheterization. Neurogenic bladder voiding function can change at any time of its evolution and lead to complications. Early diagnosis of spontaneous bladder rupture is of paramount importance, so it is essential to think about it in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen.

  18. Baicalein and U0126 suppress bladder cancer proliferation via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (U0126)effects on human bladder cell line T24 proliferation and related mechanisms. Methods: Twenty ... pressure, stress, ionizing radiation, and oxidative damage. Activated JNK can ..... indirect regulation of ERK signals by JNK/p38 selective.

  19. Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) of the urinary bladder: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, T.; Masters, J.; Chan, K.; Jose, C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) of the urinary bladder is a rare condition. The best treatment approach for this disease is controversial. A case report on a patient with MALT lymphoma of the urinary bladder. The relevant current literature was reviewed. A 79 year old lady presented with haematuria in 2002. Ultrasound of the pelvis showed a large tumour in the bladder. Cystoscopy revealed a mass arising from the bladder. Transurethral resection of the tumour was performed. Histology showed Non Hodgkin's lymphoma of MALT type. CT showed a 8.9 X 7.6 cm solid tumour involving almost whole of the bladder. The patient could not tolerate anti helicobacter treatment and was then treated with radiotherapy. The pelvis was treated with 18 MV photons with a 3 field technique in 2 phases, with CT planning. In phase 1, the pelvis was treated to 24 Gy in 12 fractions, over 2.5 weeks. Phase 2 was treated to a reduced pelvic field, to a dose of 16 Gy in 8 fractions over 1.5 weeks. Five months after radiotherapy, repeat cystoscopy and biopsy of bladder base showed no evidence of malignancy. MALT lymphoma of the urinary bladder responds well to radiotherapy and permits bladder preservation. The current literature in management of MALT lymphoma of urinary bladder is reviewed

  20. Identification of Novel Gene Targets and Putative Regulators of Arsenic-Associated DNA Methylation in Human Urothelial Cells and Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rager, Julia E.; Miller, Sloane; Tulenko, Samantha E.; Smeester, Lisa; Ray, Paul D.; Yosim, Andrew; Currier, Jenna M.; Ishida, María C.; González-Horta, Maria del Carmen; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Gutiérrez-Torres, Daniela S.; Drobná, Zuzana; Del Razo, Luz M.; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Kim, William Y.; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Wright, Fred A.; Stýblo, Miroslav; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    There is strong epidemiologic evidence linking chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) to a myriad of adverse health effects, including cancer of the bladder. The present study set out to identify DNA methylation patterns associated with iAs and its metabolites in exfoliated urothelial cells (EUCs) that originate primarily from the urinary bladder, one of the targets of arsenic (As)-induced carcinogenesis. Genome-wide, gene-specific promoter DNA methylation levels were assessed in EUCs from 46 residents of Chihuahua, Mexico, and the relationship was examined between promoter methylation profiles and the intracellular concentrations of total As (tAs) and As species. A set of 49 differentially methylated genes was identified with increased promoter methylation associated with EUC tAs, iAs, and/or monomethylated As (MMAs) enriched for their roles in metabolic disease and cancer. Notably, no genes had differential methylation associated with EUC dimethylated As (DMAs), suggesting that DMAs may influence DNA methylation-mediated urothelial cell responses to a lesser extent than iAs or MMAs. Further analysis showed that 22 of the 49 As-associated genes (45%) are also differentially methylated in bladder cancer tissue identified using The Cancer Genome Atlas repository. Both the As- and cancer-associated genes are enriched for the binding sites of common transcription factors known to play roles in carcinogenesis, demonstrating a novel potential mechanistic link between iAs exposure and bladder cancer. PMID:26039340

  1. Review of underactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Huei Chang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, many patients cannot empty their bladders within an acceptable duration. Common complaints include weak urinary stream and incomplete emptying, which may affect quality of life. Bladder emptying requires sufficient detrusor contractile power, velocity, and durability. The urodynamic term for inadequate detrusor contraction is detrusor underactivity (DU. Although this definition was provided by the ICS, it may not be clinically practical. Analogous to the relationship between overactive bladder (OAB and detrusor overactivity (DO, the symptom complex caused by DU is termed underactive bladder (UAB. Many conditions lead to UAB, such as advanced age, neurogenic bladder and BOO, but the definite pathophysiology directly leading to UAB is still being widely studied without a widely-accepted consensus. The preferred mainstream treatment for increased residual urine volume caused by UAB is intermittent catheterization, while pharmacotherapy is still disappointing after decades of development. There are no studies on surgical treatment for UAB with an acceptable level of evidence. We reviewed the recent literature on UAB and DU to provide a comprehensive discussion of the related presentation, etiology, diagnosis and management.

  2. Primary Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma of the Bladder: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ansari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most bladder tumors are epithelial in origin. Nonepithelial cancers are rarely located in the bladder. Sarcomas are the most common malignancies among nonepithelial cancers. Primary bladder lymphoma is rare and mostly low grade. Here, we have reported a case of diffuse large cell lymphoma of the bladder. The patient, a 64-year-old man, had urinary frequency for 18 months. Abdominal sonography indicated a thick bladder wall and transurethral biopsy showed diffuse large cell lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry (IHC results showed that the tumor was positive for CD20, CD45, and Pax-5 and negative for BCL-2, cytokeratin, and S100. He had a normal bone marrow biopsy, abdominal, pelvic and chest CT scans. He had no B symptoms. The patient received 6 cycles of R-CHOP followed by radiotherapy (36 Gy to the pelvis. Six months after treatment, the patient is well and has returned to work. We have searched PubMed for primary diffuse large cell lymphoma. Primary diffuse large cell lymphoma of the bladder is best treated according to treatment for diffuse large cell lymphoma of other sites, which includes chemotherapy and radiotherapy. As seen in our review, primary diffuse large cell lymphoma of the bladder has a similar clinical course to diffuse large cell lymphoma of other sites.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Registry: Malignant tumor of urinary bladder Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (1 link) MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Bladder Cancer General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests ...

  4. [Effect of hydrostatic pressure on intracellular free calcium concentration and transient receptor potential vanilloid expression in human bladder smooth muscle cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhenwei; Wang, Kunjie; Chen, Lin; Wei, Tangqiang; Luo, Deyi; Li, Shengfu

    2012-04-01

    To explore the effect of hydrostatic pressure on intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and the gene expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) in cultured human bladder smooth muscle cells (hb-SMCs), and to preliminarily probe into the possible molecular mechanism of hb-SMCs proliferation stimulated by hydrostatic pressure. The passage 6-7 hb-SMCs were loaded with Ca2+ indicator Fluo-3/AM. When the hb-SMCs were under 0 cm H2O (1cm H2O = 0.098 kPa) (group A) or 200 cm H2O hydrostatic pressure for 30 minutes (group B) and then removing the 200 cm H2O hydrostatic pressure (group C), the [Ca2+]i was measured respectively by inverted laser scanning confocal microscope. When the hb-SMCs were given the 200 cm H2O hydrostatic pressure for 0 hour, 2 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours, the mRNA expressions of TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV4 were detected by RT-PCR technique. The [Ca2+]i of group A, group B, and group C were (100.808 +/- 1.724), (122.008 +/- 1.575), and (99.918 +/- 0.887) U, respectively; group B was significantly higher than groups A and C (P pressure (t = 0.919, P = 0.394). The TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV4 genes expressed in hb-SMCs under 200 cm H2O hydrostatic pressure at 0 hour, 2 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours, but the expressions had no obvious changes with time. There was no significant difference in the expressions of TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV4 among 3 groups (P > 0.05). The [Ca2+]i of hb-SMCs increases significantly under high hydrostatic pressure. As possible genes in stretch-activated cation channel, the TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV4 express in hb-SMCs under 200 cm H2O hydrostatic pressure. It is possible that the mechanical pressure regulates the [Ca2+]i of hb-SMCs by opening the stretch-activated cation channel rather than up-regulating its expression.

  5. Metastasis of Gastric Signet-Ring Cell Carcinoma to the Urinary Bladder: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Okutur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although signet-ring cell (SRC adenocarcinoma is commonly seen in the stomach, it is a very rarely seen histologic entity in the bladder. It is difficult to distinguish primary SRC adenocarcinoma of the bladder from bladder metastasis of SRC carcinoma of the stomach only based on histological findings. In such cases, clinical findings and immunohistochemical studies may be helpful. We present here a 48-year-old male patient presenting with hematuria and abdominal pain. Computerised tomography of the patient revealed a gastric mass, peritoneal involvement, and thickening of the bladder wall, and histopathological analysis revealed SRC adenocarcinoma in both of the endoscopic biopsies taken from the stomach and bladder. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the diagnosis of SRC adenocarcinoma of the bladder secondary to gastric cancer.

  6. Genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer: An evolving hallmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, N; Mathew, B B; Jatawa, S K; Tiwari, A

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a major health-care concern. A successful treatment of bladder cancer depends on its early diagnosis at the initial stage. Genetic instability is an essential early step toward the development of bladder cancer. This instability is found more often at the chromosomal level than at the nucleotide level. Microsatellite and chromosomal instability markers can be used as a prognostic marker for screening bladder cancer. Bladder cancer can be distinguished in two different categories according to genetic instability: Cancers with chromosomal level instability and cancers with nucleotide level instability. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mismatch repair (MMR) system and its correlation with other biologic pathway, both are essential to understand the basic mechanisms of cancer development. Microsatellite instability occurs due to defects in DNA MMR genes, including human mutL homolog 1 and human mutL homolog 2. Chromosomal alterations including deletions on chromosome 3, 8, 9, 11, 13, 17 have been detected in bladder cancer. In the current review, the most recent literature of genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer has been summarized.

  7. Genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer: An evolving hallmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wadhwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is a major health-care concern. A successful treatment of bladder cancer depends on its early diagnosis at the initial stage. Genetic instability is an essential early step toward the development of bladder cancer. This instability is found more often at the chromosomal level than at the nucleotide level. Microsatellite and chromosomal instability markers can be used as a prognostic marker for screening bladder cancer. Bladder cancer can be distinguished in two different categories according to genetic instability: Cancers with chromosomal level instability and cancers with nucleotide level instability. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA mismatch repair (MMR system and its correlation with other biologic pathway, both are essential to understand the basic mechanisms of cancer development. Microsatellite instability occurs due to defects in DNA MMR genes, including human mutL homolog 1 and human mutL homolog 2. Chromosomal alterations including deletions on chromosome 3, 8, 9, 11, 13, 17 have been detected in bladder cancer. In the current review, the most recent literature of genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer has been summarized.

  8. Lung needle biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have certain lung diseases such as emphysema. Usually, a collapsed lung after a biopsy does not need treatment. But ... any type Bullae (enlarged alveoli that occur with emphysema) Cor pulmonale (condition ... of the lung High blood pressure in the lung arteries Severe ...

  9. Closed Pericardial Biopsy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-09-28

    Sep 28, 1974 ... The instrument used is a hook biopsy needle (Fig. I). manufactured by Becton, Dickinson and Co., Rutherford,. New Jersey, USA. The instrument' and technique' will be reviewed. The instrument consists of an ll-gauge needle with a sharp cutting edge into which fits, interchangeably, a 13-gauge needle or a ...

  10. CONE BIOPSY IN PREGNANCY*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Mei 1971. S.-A. TYDSKRIF VIR OBSTETRIE EN GINEKOLOGIE. CONE BIOPSY ... of the abnormal cervix in pregnancy is also no longer in question following the .... the concept of cancer prophylaxis to the majority of women, many of whom ...

  11. Sex-specific hormone receptors in urothelial carcinomas of the human urinary bladder: a comparative analysis of clinicopathological features and survival outcomes according to receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuygun, Can; Kankaya, Duygu; Imamoglu, Abdurrahim; Sertcelik, Ayse; Zengin, Kursad; Oktay, Murat; Sertcelik, Nurettin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the expression of sex-specific hormone receptors in normal bladder urothelium and urothelial carcinomas (UCs) of the bladder, and to analyze clinicopathological features and survival outcomes according to receptor expression. We evaluated the clinical data and tumor specimens of 139 patients with bladder cancer (BC). In addition, 72 samples of normal urothelium were included. Immunohistochemistry was performed using streptavidin-biotin peroxidase method, a monoclonal androgen receptor (AR), and an estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) antibody on paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Expression levels of each receptor were assessed by evaluating 500 tumor cells for each case and the percentage of positively-stained nuclei was recorded. None of the 58 male control cases showed any AR and ERβ expression. Five (35, 71%) of the 14 female control cases expressed ERβ. Of the 139 patients with UCs, 71 (51, 07%) expressed AR (62 male vs. 9 female; P = 0.413) and 44 (31, 65%) (39 male vs. 5 female; P = 0.402) showed ERβ expression (P receptors alone cannot be responsible for gender differences in BC rates because they were expressed in similar rates in both sexes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yoshiyuki

    1978-01-01

    Methods of treating bladder cancer include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, as well as various combinations of these. The author investigated clinically and histopathologically the therapeutic results of preoperative irradiation in cases of bladder cancer. 1. The survival rates (crude survival rates) in forty cases of bladder cancer were 90% after one year, 62.5% after three years and 46% after five years from the treatment. 2. As the result of irradiation, urogram improved in 25%, which was comparatively remarkable in high stage cases. There were no cases of deterioration of urogram findings caused by irradiation. Cystoscopy revealed disappearance or remarkable shrinkage of the tumors in 35% of the total cases and effects of the irradiation was observed not correlated to the stage and grade. 3. With respect to the histopathological changes, the changes became greater as the dosage increased and the higher the stage and grade were the more remarkable tendency was observed. 4. From our clinical observations such as urogram, cystoscopy and histopathologically, we estimated the optimum dosage of preoperative irradiation for bladder cancer is 3000 - 4000 rad. Thus, we concluded that the radiotherapy is effective in reducing both surgical invasion and postoperative recurrence. (author)

  13. Stereological measures of trabecular bone structure: comparison of 3D micro computed tomography with 2D histological sections in human proximal tibial bone biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Laib, A.; Koller, B.

    2005-01-01

    Stereology applied on histological sections is the 'gold standard' for obtaining quantitative information on cancellous bone structure. Recent advances in micro computed tomography (microCT) have made it possible to acquire three-dimensional (3D) data non-destructively. However, before the 3D...... methods can be used as a substitute for the current 'gold standard' they have to be verified against the existing standard. The aim of this study was to compare bone structural measures obtained from 3D microCT data sets with those obtained by stereology performed on conventional histological sections...... tibial metaphysis. The biopsies were embedded in methylmetacrylate before microCT scanning in a Scanco microCT 40 scanner at a resolution of 20 x 20 x 20 microm3, and the 3D data sets were analysed with a computer program. After microCT scanning, 16 sections were cut from the central 2 mm of each biopsy...

  14. Bladder Cancer Stem-Like Cells: Their Origin and Therapeutic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Ohishi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer (BC, the most common cancer arising from the human urinary tract, consists of two major clinicopathological phenotypes: muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC and non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. MIBC frequently metastasizes and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. A certain proportion of patients with metastatic BC can achieve a remission with systemic chemotherapy; however, the disease relapses in most cases. Evidence suggests that MIBC comprises a small population of cancer stem cells (CSCs, which may be resistant to these treatments and may be able to form new tumors in the bladder or other organs. Therefore, the unambiguous identification of bladder CSCs and the development of targeted therapies are urgently needed. Nevertheless, it remains unclear where bladder CSCs originate and how they are generated. We review recent studies on bladder CSCs, specifically focusing on their proposed origin and the possible therapeutic options based on the CSC theory.

  15. Carcinoma of Gall bladder with distant metastasis to breast parenchyma. Report of a case and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaran, D.; Anamalai, M.; Velu, U.; Julka, P.K.; Nambirajan, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gall bladder carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in India. Gall bladder cancer with metastasis to the breast is very rare. Herein we intend to report a case of carcinoma gall bladder with breast metastasis and a short review of the literature. Methods: This report describes an interesting and unusual case of gall bladder carcinoma presenting with breast metastasis. Case report: A 38-year lady presented with complaints of right abdominal pain. Bilateral breast examination showed 2 2 cm palpable lump in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast. Contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed circumferential thickening of gall bladder with the loss of fat plane with the adjacent liver parenchyma. Biopsy from the breast lump was reported as metastatic adenocarcinoma compatible with primary in the gall bladder. Whole body PET-CT showed gall bladder mass with abdominal and pelvic nodes with metastasis to liver, left breast, C7 vertebral body and left supra-clavicular node. She was diagnosed to have disseminated carcinoma gall bladder with liver, breast and supraclavicular nodal metastasis. She received palliative chemotherapy with gemcitabine and carboplatin and radiotherapy to C7 vertebra. After receiving 3 cycles of chemotherapy, chemotherapy was changed to the second line with single agent capecitabine. In spite of two lines of chemotherapy, she succumbed to disease progression and expired. Conclusion: There are limited examples of gall bladder adenocarcinoma with simultaneous metastasis to breast in the English literature. Our case showed an unusual dissemination of gall bladder cancer

  16. Collagen content in the bladder of men with LUTS undergoing open prostatectomy: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbeck, Marcio A; De Lima, Nelson G; Motta, Gabriela A; Beltrao, Lauro F; Abboud Filho, Nury J; Rigotti, Clarice P; Dos Santos, William N; Dos Santos, Steven K J; Da Silva, Luis F B; Rhoden, Ernani L

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the collagen content in the bladder wall of men undergoing open prostate surgery. From July 2014 to August 2016, men aged ≥ 50 years, presenting LUTS and undergoing open prostate surgery due to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) or prostate cancer were prospectively enrolled. Preoperative assessment included validated questionnaires (IPSS and OAB-V8), lower urinary tract ultrasound, and urodynamics. Bladder biopsies were obtained during open prostatectomy for determination of collagen content (sirius red-picric acid stain; polarized light analysis). Collagen to smooth muscle ratio (C/M) in the detrusor was measured and its relationship with preoperative parameters was investigated. The level of significance was P non-diabetic patients (17.71 ± 6.82% vs 12.46 ± 5.2%, respectively; P = 0.024). Reduced bladder compliance was also marker for higher collagen content (P = 0.042). Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) was not a predictor of increased collagen deposition in the bladder wall (P = 0.75). Patients with PVR ≥ 200 mL showed a higher collagen to smooth muscle ratio in the bladder wall (P = 0.036). DM2 and urodynamic parameters, such as increased PVR and reduced bladder compliance, were associated with higher collagen content in the bladder wall of men with LUTS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Histological aspects of the bladder in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Roger Wroclawski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to study pathological data from bladders of systemic lupus erythematosus patients, correlate them to clinical events and the use of therapeutic drugs, and compare them to bladder histopathological findings in individuals not affected by systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods: thirty-nine out or inpatients of the Department of Rheumatology at Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus were clinically and cystoscopically evaluated. Bladder biopsy was also performed. As a normal parameter, bladders taken from 20 corpses collected at the Death Verification Department  of São Paulo city, without autolysis or evidence of urinary tract or autoimmune disease were also histologically studied. This group was considered as a Control Group. A correlation among clinical, cystoscopic and histopathological data was carried out. Rresults: the patients’ mean age was 29 years (range 13-62. Thirty-six were females and three were males. Twenty-five patients were asymptomatic during the study period. In the Control Group the age range was 20-65 years. Nineteen were females (95% and one was male (5%. Cystoscopic examination of the group with systemic lupus erythematosus showed interstitial pattern in 16 cases (41.0% and normal in 15 (38.5%. The bladder was normal in four patients (10.3%. Chronic unspecific cystitis was observed in 18 (46.2% patients. In the remaining, several alterations were found, including bladder vasculitis in seven patients (17.9%. The mean number of mast cells in the bladder area was 2.223/mm2. In the Control Group, unspecific cystitis was found in three cases (15.0%. No other abnormalities were found. The mean number of mast cells in this group was 0.777/mm2 (±2.7. Chronic unspecific cystitis, bladder vasculitis and the mean number of mast cells were compared with each other and no statistical differences were found (p > 0.05. There were

  18. Feasibility of Raman spectroscopy in vitro after 5-ALA-based fluorescence diagnosis in the bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimbergen, M. C. M.; van Swol, C. F. P.; van Moorselaar, R. J. A.; Mahadevan-Jansen, A.,; Stone, N.

    2006-02-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) has become popular in bladder cancer detection. Several studies have however shown an increased false positive biopsies rate under PDD guidance compared to conventional cystoscopy. Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique that utilizes molecular specific, inelastic scattering of light photons to interrogate biological tissues, which can successfully differentiate epithelial neoplasia from normal tissue and inflammations in vitro. This investigation was performed to show the feasibility of NIR Raman spectroscopy in vitro on biopsies obtained under guidance of 5-ALA induced PPIX fluorescence imaging. Raman spectra of a PPIX solution was measured to obtain a characteristic signature for the photosensitzer without contributions from tissue constituents. Biopsies were obtained from patients with known bladder cancer instilled with 50ml, 5mg 5-ALA two hours prior to trans-urethral resection of tumor (TURT). Additional biopsies were obtained at a fluorescent and non-fluorescent area, snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C. Each biopsy was thawed before measurements (10sec integration time) with a confocal Raman system (Renishaw Gloucestershire, UK). The 830 nm excitation (300mW) source is focused on the tissue by a 20X ultra-long-working-distance objective. Differences in fluorescence background between the two groups were removed by means of a special developed fluorescence subtraction algorithm. Raman spectra from ALA biopsies showed different fluorescence background which can be effectively removed by a fluorescence subtraction algorithm. This investigation shows that the interaction of the ALA induced PPIX with Raman spectroscopy in bladder samples. Combination of these techniques in-vivo may lead to a viable method of optical biopsies in bladder cancer detection.

  19. Demonstration of Hepatitis C Virus RNA with In Situ Hybridization Employing a Locked Nucleic Acid Probe in Humanized Liver of Infected Chimeric Mice and in Needle-Biopsied Human Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Shiogama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In situ hybridization (ISH with high sensitivity has been requested to demonstrate hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE sections of the liver. Methods. ISH employing a locked-nucleic-acid- (LNA-modified oligonucleotide probe and biotin-free catalyzed signal amplification system (CSAII was applied to HCV-RNA detection in the liver tissue. Nested reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was performed for HCV genotyping using total RNA extracted from FFPE sections. The target tissues included FFPE tissue sections of humanized livers in HCV-infected chimeric mice (HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, and 2a and noninfected and of needle-biopsied livers from HCV-infected patients. Results. HCV-RNA was demonstrated with the ISH technique in HCV-infected liver tissues from both chimeric mice and 9 (82% of 11 patients with HCV infection. The HCV signals were sensitive to RNase. Nested RT-PCR confirmed the genotype in 8 (73% of 11 livers (type 1b: 6 lesions and type 2a: 2 lesions. HCV-RNA was not identified in chronic hepatitis B lesions, fatty liver, autoimmune hepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Conclusion. ISH using the LNA-modified oligonucleotide probe and CSAII was applicable to detecting HCV-RNA in routinely prepared FFPE liver specimens.

  20. Low grade urothelial carcinoma mimicking basal cell hyperplasia and transitional metaplasia in needle prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Arista-Nasr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose The vast majority of urothelial carcinomas infiltrating the bladder are consistent with high-grade tumors that can be easily recognized as malignant in needle prostatic biopsies. In contrast, the histological changes of low-grade urothelial carcinomas in this kind of biopsy have not been studied. Materials and Methods We describe the clinicopathologic features of two patients with low-grade bladder carcinomas infiltrating the prostate. They reported dysuria and hematuria. Both had a slight elevation of the prostate specific antigen and induration of the prostatic lobes. Needle biopsies were performed. At endoscopy bladder tumors were found in both cases. Results Both biopsies showed nests of basophilic cells and cells with perinuclear clearing and slight atypia infiltrating acini and small prostatic ducts. The stroma exhibited extensive desmoplasia and chronic inflammation. The original diagnosis was basal cell hyperplasia and transitional metaplasia. The bladder tumors also showed low-grade urothelial carcinoma. In one case, the neoplasm infiltrated the lamina propria, and in another, the muscle layer. In both, a transurethral resection was performed for obstructive urinary symptoms. The neoplasms were positive for high molecular weight keratin (34BetaE12 and thrombomodulin. No metastases were found in either of the patients, and one of them has survived for five years. Conclusions The diagnosis of low-grade urothelial carcinoma in prostate needle biopsies is difficult and may simulate benign prostate lesions including basal cell hyperplasia and urothelial metaplasia. It is crucial to recognize low-grade urothelial carcinoma in needle biopsies because only an early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can improve the prognosis for these patients.

  1. [Hospitalization rate in relation to severe complications of transrectal prostate biopsy: About 2715 patients biopsied].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarelle, B; Perrin, P; Devonec, M; Paparel, P; Ruffion, A

    To identify hospitalizations directly related to a complication occurring within 30 days following a transrectal prostate biopsy (PBP). Overall hospitalization rates, mortality rates, potential predisposing factors for complications. Single-center study including all patients who underwent PBP between January 2005 and January 2012. Any hospitalization occurring within 30 days of the PBP for urgent motive was considered potentially attributable to biopsy. We identified the reason for hospitalization with direct complications (urinary infection or fever, rectal bleeding, bladder caillotage, retention) and indirect (underlying comorbidities decompensation) of the biopsy. The contributing factors were anticoagulant or antiplatelet treatment well as waning immunity factors (corticosteroid therapy, HIV, chemotherapy or immunodulateur). Among 2715 men who underwent PBP, there were 120 (4.4%) hospitalizations including 28 (1.03%) caused by the biopsy. Twenty-five (0.92%) were related to a direct complication of biopsy: 14 (56%) for urinary tract infection or fever including 1 hospitalization in intensive care, 5 (20%) for rectal bleeding which required several transfusions 1, 10 (40%) urinary retention and 3 (0.11%) for an indirect complication (2 coronary syndromes and 1 respiratory failure). Several direct complications were associated in 3 cases. Only two hospitalizations associated with rectal bleeding were taking an antiplatelet or anticoagulant. There was no association between hospitalization for urinary tract infections and a decreased immune status. The first death observed in our study occurred at D31 of pulmonary embolism (advanced metastatic patient with bladder cancer). Twenty (60.6%) patients urgently hospitalized did not have prostate cancer. Within this large sample of patients the overall rate of hospitalization due to the realization of a PBP was 1%. It has not been found predictive of complications leading to hospitalization. 4. Copyright © 2016

  2. Flaccidoxide-13-Acetate Extracted from the Soft Coral Cladiella kashmani Reduces Human Bladder Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion through Reducing Activation of the FAK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choo-Aun Neoh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis of cancer is the cause of the majority of cancer deaths. Active compound flaccidoxide-13-acetate, isolated from the soft coral Cladiella kashmani, has been found to exhibit anti-tumor activity. In this study, Boyden chamber analysis, Western blotting and gelatin zymography assays indicated that flaccidoxide-13-acetate exerted inhibitory effects on the migration and invasion of RT4 and T24 human bladder cancer cells. The results demonstrated that flaccidoxide-13-acetate, in a concentration-dependent manner, reduced the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, MMP-9, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR, focal adhesion kinase (FAK, phosphatidylinositide-3 kinases (PI3K, p-PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, p-mTOR, Ras homolog gene family, member A (Rho A, Ras, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 (MKK7 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 (MEKK3, and increased the expressions of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in RT4 and T24 cells. This study revealed that flaccidoxide-13-acetate suppressed cell migration and invasion by reducing the expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9, regulated by the FAK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. In conclusion, our study was the first to demonstrate that flaccidoxide-13-acetate could be a potent medical agent for use in controlling the migration and invasion of bladder cancer.

  3. CIP2A protein expression in high-grade, high-stage bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lisa P; Savoly, Diana; Sidi, Abraham A; Adelson, Martin E; Mordechai, Eli; Trama, Jason P

    2012-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in the United States. Numerous markers have been evaluated for suitability of bladder cancer detection and surveillance. However, few of them are acceptable as a routine tool. Therefore, there exists a continuing need for an assay that detects the presence of bladder cancer in humans. It would be advantageous to develop an assay with a protein that is associated with the development of bladder cancer. We have identified the cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) protein as a novel bladder cancer biomarker. In this study, Western blot analysis was used to assess the expression level of CIP2A protein in bladder cancer cell lines and bladder cancer patient tissues (n = 43). Our studies indicated CIP2A protein was abundantly expressed in bladder cancer cell lines but not in nontumor epithelial cell lines. Furthermore, CIP2A was specifically expressed in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder tumor tissues but not in adjacent nontumor bladder tissue. Our data showed that CIP2A protein detection in high-grade TCC tissues had a sensitivity of 65%, which is 3.4-fold higher than that seen in low-grade TCC tissues (19%). The level of CIP2A protein expression increased with the stage of disease (12%, 27%, 67%, and 100% for pTa, pT1, pT2, and pT3 tumor, respectively). In conclusion, our studies suggest that CIP2A protein is specifically expressed in human bladder tumors. CIP2A is preferentially expressed in high-grade and high-stage TCC tumors, which are high-risk and invasive tumors. Our studies reported here support the role of CIP2A in bladder cancer progression and its usefulness for the surveillance of recurrence or progression of human bladder cancer

  4. Image-Guided percutaneous biopsies with a biopsy gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Hwan; Lim, Hyo Keun; Kim, Eun Ah; Yun, Ku Sub; Bae, Sang Hoo; Shin, Hyung Sik [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    We report the results of image-guided percutaneous biopsies with a biopsy gun and evaluate the clinical usefulness. One hundred and five biopsies under ultrasonographic or fluoroscopic guidance were performed. Various anatomic sites were targeted(liver; 50, chest; 22, kidney; 12, pancreas; 8, intraperitoeum; 7, retroperitoneum; ). Obtained tissue was diagnostic in 98 of the 105 biopsies(93%). In each instance, representative core tissue specimens were obtained. Evaluation of the core tissue by pathologist revealed consistent, uniform specimens that contained significant crush artifact in no case. Five biopsies yielded inadequate tissue which were too small for histopathologic interpretation or were composed of necrotic debris. Two biopsies yielded adequate tissues, but tissues were not of the target. The diagnoses were malignancy in 77 biopsies and benign disease in 21 biopsies. No complications other than mild, localized discomfort were encountered except a transient hemoptysis and pneumothorax which was observed in two patients. Cutting biopsy with a biopsy gun provided sufficient amount of target tissue for an accurate diagnosis of malignant and benign disease. It was a safe and useful procedure for percutaneous biopsy.

  5. Radiologically Guided Bone Biopsy: Results of 502 Biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Chaan S.; Salisbury, Jonathan R.; Darby, Alan J.; Gishen, Philip

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the results of 502 biopsies over a 19-year period for the purpose of highlighting the results that can be expected from such a large study, with emphasis on needle choice and anesthetic methods. Methods: The histological, cytological, and microbiological results of 477 patients who had 502 bone biopsies carried out between July 1977 and March 1996 were studied. Less than 5% of patients required second biopsies. There were almost equal numbers of males and females in the group. The lesions were visible radiologically and most of the biopsies were carried out by a single operator. The lesions were classified on their histopathological, cytopathological, and microbiological findings. Results: Tumors accounted for 40% of the biopsies, and infection for 16%. Biopsies which did not yield a 'positive' diagnosis accounted for 31%; these included specimens reported as normal, or as showing reactive changes, repair, remodelling, non-specific features, inflammation (but not clearly infective), or no evidence of malignancy or inflammation. Less than 4% of biopsies were incorrect, and some of these were re-biopsied. Conclusion: Bone biopsy is a valuable technique for positive diagnosis of malignancy or infection, as it enables a definitive plan for treatment and management of patients to be established. Exclusion of serious pathology is almost equally important. In principle, any osseous site can be biopsied using fluoroscopic or computed tomographic guidance. Care in the biopsy technique and selection of the bone needle is required

  6. US-guided percutaneous biopsies with a biopsy gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, In Oak; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Jae Hyung; Lee, Goo; Jung, Sung Hoon

    1993-01-01

    Core tissue for histologic study is believed by many pathologist to be more diagnostic than material from needle aspiration. Recently introduced automatched biopsy gun simplifies core biopsies with increased quantity and quality of samples. Authors performed 38 percutaneous biopsies from 38 patients with 18G automated biopsy guns under US guide. Diagnostic target tissues were obtained in 33 biopsies(87%), inadequate tissues in 4(11%), and adequate but not of target tissue in 1(3%). There was no major complication requiring treatment, but pain needing analgesics and pain with nausea/vomiting were experienced in 2 and 1 biopsies respectively. Average number of needle passes was 1.5. We concluded that US guided gun biopsy was a easy and safe way to obtain tissue samples of good quantity and quality, especially useful in hospitals without constant availability of specialist in cytopathology

  7. [Transitional tumours of urinary bladder (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumonier, R

    1979-01-01

    An overall survey of the transitional epithelium of the bladder and its carcinomas. This study is based upon the recent literature, in particular the considerable contribution of scanner electron microscopy. a) The transitional epithelium has the reputation of having a simple structure and even behaviour. In fact, it is complex with highly specialised surface cells. It has marked powers of regeneration after aggressions of various types. b) Tumours of the transitional epithelium are defined in relation to rupture of the basal lamina. Invasive carcinomas are classified according to their histological stage of penetration, their pure or partially metaplasic type and their degree defined according to the criteria of Broders. There exists a correlation between these three types of evaluation. Non-invasive carcinomas are either papillary--putting into question the reality of benign bladder papilloma--or flat mucosal and then often associated closely or at a distance with an invasive carcinoma. c) Abnormal regeneration, dysplasia or hyperplasia as a result of aggressions of different types or developing in isolation represent a high risk histologically, implying the need for careful follow-up and surveillance. d) Histopathological study of urothelial or transitional tumours is simple in operative specimens but difficult in biopsies. It requires close cooperation between surgeons and pathologists to ensure correct orientation of the fragments.

  8. Radiotherapy in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozan, R.

    1992-01-01

    In 1992, the problem of the vesical radiotherapy is not resolved. The author presents the situation and the different techniques of radiotherapy in bladder cancers: external radiotherapy, only and associated with surgery, interstitial curietherapy and non-classical techniques as per operative radiotherapy, neutron therapy and concurrent radiotherapy with chemotherapy. In order to compare their efficiency, the five-year survival are given in all cases.(10 tabs)

  9. Nail biopsy: A user's manual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander Grover

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nail biopsy is a procedure not routinely resorted to; but when indicated, it is often the only clue left for diagnosis. At such times, it pays to be conversant with it. It is an investigation that not only provides etiologic, diagnostic, and prognostic information but also aids in understanding the pathogenesis of nail diseases. It can be of therapeutic value, especially with respect to nail tumors. This article compiles the procedural techniques for nail biopsy of various types and attempts to summarize the evidence available in the literature. The objective of nail biopsy is to clinch a precise diagnosis of nail pathology with a simple and safe surgical procedure, avoiding pain or permanent nail damage. Patient selection is of utmost importance, wherein, the patient does not have typical skin lesions, yields inadequate information on routine nail investigations, and has no peripheral vascular compromise. The patient needs to be explained about the risks associated, the expected functional handicap, the time required for regrowth, a possibility of permanent nail dystrophy, and a possibility of not achieving a diagnosis even after the biopsy. Techniques and types of various nail biopsies are being discussed in this article. The specimen could be collected as an excision biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, or longitudinal biopsy. The trick lies in choosing the appropriate area for biopsy. Various biopsy types discussed in this article include nail plate biopsy (easiest and least scarring; nail bed biopsy (elliptical excision or punch; nail matrix biopsy (elliptical excision, punch excision (≤3 mm or tangential/shave excision; and nail fold biopsy. Complications reported along with means to minimize them are also discussed.

  10. [The incidence of human papilloma virus associated vulvar cancer in younger women is increasing and wide local excision with sentinel lymph node biopsie has become standard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Mathias K

    2011-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) dissections have been shown to be sensitive for the evaluation of nodal basins for metastatic disease and are associated with decreased short-term and long-term morbidity when compared with complete lymph node dissection. There has been increasing interest in the use of SLN technology in gynecologic cancers. This review assesses the current evidence-based literature for the use of SLN dissections in gynecologic malignancies. Recent literature continues to support the safety and feasibility of SLN biopsy for early stage vulvar cancer with negative predictive value approaching 100 % and low false negative rates. Alternatively, for endometrial cancer most studies have reported low false-negative rates, with variable sensitivities and have reported low detection rates of the sentinel node. Studies examining the utility of SLN biopsy in early-stage cervical cancer remain promising with detection rates, sensitivities, and false-negative rates greater than 90 % for stage 1B1 tumors. SLN dissections have been shown to be effective and safe in certain, select vulvar cancer patients and can be considered an alternative surgical approach for these patients. For endometrial and cervical cancer, SLN dissection continues to have encouraging results and however needs further investigation.

  11. High throughput, cell type-specific analysis of key proteins in human endometrial biopsies of women from fertile and infertile couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard E.; Jessmon, Philip; Coutifaris, Christos; Kruger, Michael; Myers, Evan R.; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Carson, Sandra A.; Legro, Richard S.; Schlaff, William D.; Carr, Bruce R.; Steinkampf, Michael P.; Silva, Susan; Leppert, Phyllis C.; Giudice, Linda; Diamond, Michael P.; Armant, D. Randall

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although histological dating of endometrial biopsies provides little help for prediction or diagnosis of infertility, analysis of individual endometrial proteins, proteomic profiling and transcriptome analysis have suggested several biomarkers with altered expression arising from intrinsic abnormalities, inadequate stimulation by or in response to gonadal steroids or altered function due to systemic disorders. The objective of this study was to delineate the developmental dynamics of potentially important proteins in the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle, utilizing a collection of endometrial biopsies from women of fertile (n = 89) and infertile (n = 89) couples. METHODS AND RESULTS Progesterone receptor-B (PGR-B), leukemia inhibitory factor, glycodelin/progestagen-associated endometrial protein (PAEP), homeobox A10, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, calcitonin and chemokine ligand 14 (CXCL14) were measured using a high-throughput, quantitative immunohistochemical method. Significant cyclic and tissue-specific regulation was documented for each protein, as well as their dysregulation in women of infertile couples. Infertile patients demonstrated a delay early in the secretory phase in the decline of PGR-B (P localization provided important insights into the potential roles of these proteins in normal and pathological development of the endometrium that is not attainable from transcriptome analysis, establishing a basis for biomarker, diagnostic and targeted drug development for women with infertility. PMID:22215622

  12. Cystoscopic enucleation of bladder leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan A Barayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a rare case of bladder leiomyoma. A 61-year-old female patient was found to have a bladder mass during a work up of lower urinary tract symptoms. After full investigation, she underwent transurethral excision of the mass. The histopathology revealed typical feature of bladder leiomyoma. No recurrence was seen after a follow-up period of 12 months.

  13. Contemporary Management of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David; Fradet, Yves

    1991-01-01

    Bladder cancer is currently the fifth most common cancer in Western society, and its incidence appears to be increasing. Important advances have recently occurred in both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to bladder neoplasms. Presentation is not unique, and physician awareness is important to identify patients who are at risk for bladder neoplasia and consequently require further investigation. A diagnostic approach and contemporary management are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4 PMID:21229043

  14. Laparoscopic partial cystectomy for urachal and bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose R. Colombo Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report our initial experiences with laparoscopic partial cystectomy for urachal and bladder malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2002 and October 2004, laparoscopic partial cystectomy was performed in 6 cases at 3 institutions; 3 cases were urachal adenocarcinomas and the remaining 3 cases were bladder transitional cell carcinomas. All patients were male, with a median age of 55 years (45-72 years. Gross hematuria was the presenting symptom in all patients, and diagnosis was established with trans-urethral resection bladder tumor in 2 patients and by means of cystoscopic biopsy in the remaining 4 patients. Laparoscopic partial cystectomy was performed using the transperitoneal approach under cystoscopic guidance. In each case, the surgical specimen was removed intact entrapped in an impermeable bag. One patient with para-ureteral diverticulum transitional cell carcinoma required concomitant ureteral reimplantation. RESULTS: All six procedures were completed laparoscopically without open conversion. The median operating time was 110 minutes (90-220 with a median estimated blood loss of 70 mL (50-100. Frozen section evaluations of bladder margins were routinely obtained and were negative for cancer in all cases. The median hospital stay was 2.5 days (2-4 and the duration of catheterization was 7 days. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. Final histopathology confirmed urachal adenocarcinoma in 3 cases and bladder transitional cell carcinoma in 3 cases. At a median follow-up of 28.5 months (range: 26 to 44 months, there was no evidence of recurrent disease as evidenced by radiologic or cystoscopic evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic partial cystectomy in carefully selected patients with urachal and bladder cancer is feasible and safe, offering a promising and minimally invasive alternative for these patients.

  15. Growth delay of human bladder cancer cells by Prostate Stem Cell Antigen downregulation is associated with activation of immune signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicosia Alfredo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchored protein expressed not only in prostate but also in pancreas and bladder cancer as shown by immunohistochemistry and mRNA analysis. It has been targeted by monoclonal antibodies in preclinical animal models and more recently in a clinical trial in prostate cancer patients. The biological role played in tumor growth is presently unknown. In this report we have characterized the contribution of PSCA expression to tumor growth. Methods A bladder cell line was engineered to express a doxycycline (dox regulated shRNA against PSCA. To shed light on the PSCA biological role in tumor growth, microarray analysis was carried out as a function of PSCA expression. Expression of gene set of interest was further analyzed by qPCR Results Down regulation of the PSCA expression was associated with reduced cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Mice bearing subcutaneous tumors showed a reduced tumor growth upon treatment with dox, which effectively induced shRNA against PSCA as revealed by GFP expression. Pathway analysis of deregulated genes suggests a statistical significant association between PSCA downregulation and activation of genes downstream of the IFNα/β receptor. Conclusions These experiments established for the first time a correlation between the level of PSCA expression and tumor growth and suggest a role of PSCA in counteracting the natural immune response.

  16. Growth delay of human bladder cancer cells by Prostate Stem Cell Antigen downregulation is associated with activation of immune signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, Emanuele; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Palombo, Fabio; Uva, Paolo; Viti, Valentina; Simonelli, Valeria; Dogliotti, Eugenia; De Rinaldis, Emanuele; Lahm, Armin; La Monica, Nicola; Nicosia, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored protein expressed not only in prostate but also in pancreas and bladder cancer as shown by immunohistochemistry and mRNA analysis. It has been targeted by monoclonal antibodies in preclinical animal models and more recently in a clinical trial in prostate cancer patients. The biological role played in tumor growth is presently unknown. In this report we have characterized the contribution of PSCA expression to tumor growth. A bladder cell line was engineered to express a doxycycline (dox) regulated shRNA against PSCA. To shed light on the PSCA biological role in tumor growth, microarray analysis was carried out as a function of PSCA expression. Expression of gene set of interest was further analyzed by qPCR Down regulation of the PSCA expression was associated with reduced cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Mice bearing subcutaneous tumors showed a reduced tumor growth upon treatment with dox, which effectively induced shRNA against PSCA as revealed by GFP expression. Pathway analysis of deregulated genes suggests a statistical significant association between PSCA downregulation and activation of genes downstream of the IFNα/β receptor. These experiments established for the first time a correlation between the level of PSCA expression and tumor growth and suggest a role of PSCA in counteracting the natural immune response

  17. OVERACTIVE BLADDER SYNDROME IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L. Vishnevskiy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder is a specific syndrome characterized by bladder dysfunction that is clinically manifested by imperative urination (pollakiuria, urgency, urgent incontinence and nocturia. This state is very widely spread among children: every fifth child aged 4 to 7 shows typical bladder dysfunction. Quite often if urinary distresses are not studied well enough such children are falsely diagnosed with monosymptom enuresis, which, according to our information, actually happens in only 3,9% of cases. When examining children with urinary disorders it is reasonable to be geared to the protocol of European urologist association. According to this protocol, treatment should be started with antimuscarinimedications. The only antimuscarinic medication for treating children with hyperactive bladder that is legal in Russia is oxybutinin (Driptane, that is presently considered to be the «golden standard» of pharmaceutical treatment of overactive bladder for patients of any age. This statement is based on the modern idea of overactive bladder pathogenesis, that presupposes detrusorhypersensibility to acetylcholine. However, in some cases it might be reasonable to use some other medications, physiotherapy, sometimes as part of complex therapy. If individual dosage is observed, which will enable preventing or significantly lowering possible side effects, oxybutinin will be still considered «the golden standard» for treating overactive bladder for years to come in cases when detrusor hypersensibility to acetylcholine is the key component of bladder dysfunction pathogenesis.Key words: overactive bladder, oxybutinin, urination disorder, children.

  18. Molecular biology of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Doyle, William; Kwiatkowski, David J

    2015-04-01

    Classic as well as more recent large-scale genomic analyses have uncovered multiple genes and pathways important for bladder cancer development. Genes involved in cell-cycle control, chromatin regulation, and receptor tyrosine and PI3 kinase-mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways are commonly mutated in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Expression-based analyses have identified distinct types of bladder cancer that are similar to subsets of breast cancer, and have prognostic and therapeutic significance. These observations are leading to novel therapeutic approaches in bladder cancer, providing optimism for therapeutic progress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Usefulness of automated biopsy guns in image-guided biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Hyung; Rhee, Chang Soo; Lee, Sung Moon; Kim, Hong; Woo, Sung Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of automated biopsy guns in image-guided biopsy of lung, liver, pancreas and other organs. Using automated biopsy devices, 160 biopsies of variable anatomic sites were performed: Biopsies were performed under ultrasonographic(US) guidance in 95 and computed tomographic (CT) guidance in 65. We retrospectively analyzed histologic results and complications. Specimens were adequate for histopathologic diagnosis in 143 of the 160 patients(89.4%)-Diagnostic tissue was obtained in 130 (81.3%), suggestive tissue obtained in 13(8.1%), and non-diagnostic tissue was obtained in 14(8.7%). Inadequate tissue was obtained in only 3(1.9%). There was no statistically significant difference between US-guided and CT-guided percutaneous biopsy. There was no occurrence of significant complication. We have experienced mild complications in only 5 patients-2 hematuria and 2 hematochezia in transrectal prostatic biopsy, and 1 minimal pneumothorax in CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsy. All of them were resolved spontaneously. The image-guided biopsy using the automated biopsy gun was a simple, safe and accurate method of obtaining adequate specimen for the histopathologic diagnosis

  20. Usefulness of automated biopsy guns in image-guided biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Hyung; Rhee, Chang Soo; Lee, Sung Moon; Kim, Hong; Woo, Sung Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi [School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of automated biopsy guns in image-guided biopsy of lung, liver, pancreas and other organs. Using automated biopsy devices, 160 biopsies of variable anatomic sites were performed: Biopsies were performed under ultrasonographic(US) guidance in 95 and computed tomographic (CT) guidance in 65. We retrospectively analyzed histologic results and complications. Specimens were adequate for histopathologic diagnosis in 143 of the 160 patients(89.4%)-Diagnostic tissue was obtained in 130 (81.3%), suggestive tissue obtained in 13(8.1%), and non-diagnostic tissue was obtained in 14(8.7%). Inadequate tissue was obtained in only 3(1.9%). There was no statistically significant difference between US-guided and CT-guided percutaneous biopsy. There was no occurrence of significant complication. We have experienced mild complications in only 5 patients-2 hematuria and 2 hematochezia in transrectal prostatic biopsy, and 1 minimal pneumothorax in CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsy. All of them were resolved spontaneously. The image-guided biopsy using the automated biopsy gun was a simple, safe and accurate method of obtaining adequate specimen for the histopathologic diagnosis.

  1. Urinary Thromboxane B2 and Thromboxane Receptors in Bladder Cancer: Opportunity for Detection and Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Moussa, Omar; Ciupek, Andrew; Watson, Dennis K.; Halushka, Perry V.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously found increased expression of thromboxane synthase (TXAS) and thromboxane receptor (TP) beta isoform in the tissues of patients with bladder cancer. Studies in cell lines and mice have indicated a potential significant role of the thromboxane signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of human bladder cancer. This study was designed to determine if the changes observed in the tissues of patients with bladder cancer were mirrored by changes in the urine of these patients. We foun...

  2. Telepathology and Optical Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ferrer-Roca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to obtain information about the structure of tissue without taking a sample for pathology has opened the way for new diagnostic techniques. The present paper reviews all currently available techniques capable of producing an optical biopsy, with or without morphological images. Most of these techniques are carried out by physicians who are not specialized in pathology and therefore not trained to interpret the results as a pathologist would. In these cases, the use of telepathology or distant consultation techniques is essential.

  3. No need for biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjødsbøl, Kristine; Skindersoe, Mette E; Christensen, Jens Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    collected. After 4 weeks, additional biopsy and filter paper pad samples were collected. Bacteria were isolated and identified at species level by standard methods. The most common bacterial species detected was Staphylococcus aureus found in 89% of the ulcers. No methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates...... were found. We did not find any significant differences regarding the bacterial species isolated between the three sampling techniques. However, using multiple techniques led to identification of more species. Our study suggests that it is sufficient to use swab specimens to identify the bacterial...

  4. Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Combined Modality Treatment for Bladder Preservation in Elderly Patients With Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgeon, Guy-Anne [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Souhami, Luis, E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Cury, Fabio L.; Faria, Sergio L.; Duclos, Marie [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sturgeon, Jeremy [Department of Medical Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Kassouf, Wassim [Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To review our experience with bladder-preserving trimodality treatment (TMT) using hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of elderly patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: Retrospective study of elderly patients treated with TMT using hypofractionated IMRT (50 Gy in 20 fractions) with concomitant weekly radiosensitizing chemotherapy. Eligibility criteria were as follows: age ≥70 years, a proven diagnosis of muscle-invasive transitional cell bladder carcinoma, stage T2-T3N0M0 disease, and receipt of TMT with curative intent. Response rate was assessed by cystoscopic evaluation and bladder biopsy. Results: 24 patients with a median age of 79 years were eligible. A complete response was confirmed in 83% of the patients. Of the remaining patients, 1 of them underwent salvage cystectomy, and no disease was found in the bladder on histopathologic assessment. After a median follow-up time of 28 months, of the patients with a complete response, 2 patients had muscle-invasive recurrence, 1 experienced locoregional failure, and 3 experienced distant metastasis. The overall and cancer-specific survival rates at 3 years were 61% and 71%, respectively. Of the surviving patients, 75% have a disease-free and functioning bladder. All patients completed hypofractionated IMRT, and 19 patients tolerated all 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Acute grade 3 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities occurred in only 4% of the patients, and acute grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicities, liver toxicities, or both were experienced by 17% of the cohort. No patient experienced grade 4 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity. Conclusions: Hypofractionated IMRT with concurrent radiosensitizing chemotherapy appears to be an effective and well-tolerated curative treatment strategy in the elderly population and should be considered for patients who are not candidates for cystectomy or who wish to avoid

  5. Naftopidil inhibits 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced bladder contraction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takumi; Kasahara, Ken-ichi; Tomita, Ken-ichi; Ikegaki, Ichiro; Kuriyama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-30

    Naftopidil is an α(1D) and α(1A) subtype-selective α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist that has been used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. In this study, we investigated the effects of naftopidil on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced rat bladder contraction (10(-8)-10(-4) M). Naftopidil (0.3, 1, and 3 μM) inhibited 5-HT-induced bladder contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, other α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists, tamsulosin, silodosin or prazosin, did not inhibit 5-HT-induced bladder contraction. The 5-HT-induced bladder contraction was inhibited by both ketanserin and 4-(4-fluoronaphthalen-1-yl)-6-propan-2-ylpyrimidin-2-amine (RS127445), serotonin 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptor antagonists, respectively. In addition, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and α-methyl-5-HT, 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2) receptor agonists, respectively, induced bladder contraction. The 5-HT-induced bladder contraction was not inhibited by N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]ethyl]-N-pyridin-2-yl-cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY-100635), [1-[2[(methylsulfonyl)amino]ethyl]-4-piperidinyl]methyl-1-methyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylate (GR113808) or (R)-3-[2-[2-(4-methylpiperidin-1-yl)ethyl]pyrrolidine-1-sulphonyl]phenol (SB269970), 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(4) and 5-HT(7) receptor antagonists, respectively. Naftopidil inhibited both the 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2) receptor agonists-induced bladder contractions. Naftopidil binds to the human 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors with pKi values of 6.55 and 7.82, respectively. These results suggest that naftopidil inhibits 5-HT-induced bladder contraction via blockade of the 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors in rats. Furthermore, 5-HT-induced bladder contraction was enhanced in bladder strips obtained from bladder outlet obstructed rats, with this contraction inhibited by naftopidil. The beneficial effects of naftopidil on storage symptoms such as urinary frequency and nocturia in patients with benign

  6. Computed tomography in staging of bladder carcinoma (Prospective study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Soo; Choi, Byung Ihn; Han, Man Chung

    1985-01-01

    Staging of carcinoma of the urinary bladder is important for the choice of therapy and also has prognostic implications. Hitherto the staging has been based upon cystoscopy with biopsy, transurethral resection, and palpation with complementary radiographic examinations such as cystography, urography, lymphangiography, ultrasound and angiography. However, with all these methods, the staging of bladder carcinomas still uncertain and inferior to CT. Authors analyzed CT staging of bladder cancers and compared with pathologic staging of laparotomy results. The results are as following: 1. Overall accuracy of CT staging in bladder carcinoma was 72 percent. 2. Overstaging was 20 percent (5/25) and understaging was 8 percent (2/25). 3. All of CT stage B cancers were proven to be stage B, pathologically. 4. In 6 cases of CT static cancers, only one was correct, 3 were overstaged and 2 were understaged. 5. In 7 cases of CT stage D cancers, 5 were correct and 2 were overstaged. 6. CT detected only 2 cases of pelvic lymph node involvement in 4 of pathologically proven lymphadenopathy

  7. [New insights in the differential diagnosis of bladder pain syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalenberg, T; Neuhaus, J; Horn, L-C; Alexander, H; Zimmermann, G; Ho Thi, P; Mallock, T; Stolzenburg, J-U

    2010-03-01

    The diagnosis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is challenging, since pathogenetic mechanisms and the definition of clinical relevant parameters are still under lively discussion. The criteria recently proposed by the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis (ESSIC) define a collective of patients based on the cardinal symptom of bladder pain which is heterogeneous, and therefore cannot receive standardised consistent therapy. Thus an extended diagnosis based on molecular markers seems to be indicated to render individual pharmacotherapy possible, and to contribute to elucidation of BPS/IC pathogenesis. For this purpose we feel the vital need for taking a bladder biopsy. The diagnosis of BPS/IC should rely on 3 "columns": (1) clinical diagnostics; (2) histopathology; (3) molecular diagnostics/protein expression. Since a significant contribution of the 3 functional units of the bladder to the pathophysiology is most evident, the examinations should ideally include urothelium, lamina propria, and detrusor musculature. Generation of receptor profiles of the detrusor muscle represents a first attempt to define a diagnostic tool for the individualisation of BPS/IC pharmacotherapy. Other factors, e.g., beta-hCG expression in the urothelium, need further evaluation. Extended BPS/IC diagnostics could be realistically integrated into routine patient care within a clinic/laboratory network. Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart New York.

  8. Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in female: etiology and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, N.A.; Ahuja, K.; Shaikh, G.S.; Soomro, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the etiology and management outcome of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in female. Methodology: From 2009 to 2012, 37 females with a mean age of 40 (range 20-65) were investigated for etiology and management outcome of BOO. Typical complaints were slow urinary flow, difficulty in emptying bladder, frequency of micturition and urgency. Mean duration of symptoms was 6 month. Results: 15 women were confirmed as atrophic urethritis, 5 had functional bladder, 3 had urethral caruncle, 5 had cystocele, 7 had complete procedentia of uterus, and 2 had impacted urethral stone. Cystoscopy was performed in all patients to exclude other pathology like vesical stone and bladder growth. 12 patients were referred to Gynecology due to complete procedentia of uterus and cystocele. Three cases of urethral caruncle were treated by excision and biopsy, 2 patients with urethral stone were treated by endoscopic push back and litholapaxy while 5 required conservative treatment and 15 cases of atrophic urethritis were kept on Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). Conclusion: BOO is uncommon in female and management depends upon the etiology. (author)

  9. Bladder cancer diagnosis during cystoscopy using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimbergen, M. C. M.; van Swol, C. F. P.; Draga, R. O. P.; van Diest, P.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Stone, N.; Bosch, J. H. L. R.

    2009-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique that can be used to obtain specific molecular information of biological tissues. It has been used successfully to differentiate normal and pre-malignant tissue in many organs. The goal of this study is to determine the possibility to distinguish normal tissue from bladder cancer using this system. The endoscopic Raman system consists of a 6 Fr endoscopic probe connected to a 785nm diode laser and a spectral recording system. A total of 107 tissue samples were obtained from 54 patients with known bladder cancer during transurethral tumor resection. Immediately after surgical removal the samples were placed under the Raman probe and spectra were collected and stored for further analysis. The collected spectra were analyzed using multivariate statistical methods. In total 2949 Raman spectra were recorded ex vivo from cold cup biopsy samples with 2 seconds integration time. A multivariate algorithm allowed differentiation of normal and malignant tissue with a sensitivity and specificity of 78,5% and 78,9% respectively. The results show the possibility of discerning normal from malignant bladder tissue by means of Raman spectroscopy using a small fiber based system. Despite the low number of samples the results indicate that it might be possible to use this technique to grade identified bladder wall lesions during endoscopy.

  10. The effects of visual fluorescence marking induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid for endoscopic diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniltchenko, Dmitri I.; Koenig, Frank; Schnorr, Dietmar; Valdman, Alexander; Al-Shukri, Salman; Loening, Stefan A.

    2003-10-01

    During cystoscopy procedure, fluorescence diagnostics induced by 5-ALA improves visual detection of the bladder cancer. Macroscopic ALA-fluorescence allows visualizing of small flat tumors, carcinoma in situ, true neoplasm margins and dysplasias of the bladder. Following ALA instillation, cystoscopy has been performed under both standard and blue light illumination. Totally, 153 biopsies have been carried out at 53 patients with suspicion of bladder cancer. The results were compared to ALA-fluorescence data. In 13% of the patients, bladder cancer and dysplasia were found out in addition, due to red fluorescence. The sensitivity and specificity of ALA-fluorescence technique aggregated 96% and 52% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of 5-ALA-fluorescent detection exceeded standard endoscopy under white light on 20%. The new method does not exclude a false positive and a false negative fluorescent luminescence. The ALA-based fluorescence detection system enhances the diagnosis of malignant/dysplastic bladder lesions significantly.

  11. Traumatic injury of the bladder and urethra

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disruption Images Bladder catheterization, female Bladder catheterization, male Female urinary tract Male urinary tract References Morey AF, Zhao LC. Genital and lower urinary tract trauma. In: Wein AJ, ...

  12. Intercellular transfer of P-glycoprotein from the drug resistant human bladder cancer cell line BIU-87 does not require cell-to-cell contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui-liang; Zheng, Yong-jun; Cheng, Xiao-zhi; Lv, Yi-song; Gao, Rui; Mao, Hou-ping; Chen, Qin

    2013-09-01

    The efflux activity of transmembrane P-glycoprotein prevents various therapeutic drugs from reaching lethal concentrations in cancer cells, resulting in multidrug resistance. We investigated whether drug resistant bladder cancer cells could transfer functional P-glycoprotein to sensitive parental cells. Drug sensitive BIU-87 bladder cancer cells were co-cultured for 48 hours with BIU-87/ADM, a doxorubicin resistant derivative of the same cell line, in a Transwell® system that prevented cell-to-cell contact. The presence of P-glycoprotein in recipient cell membranes was established using fluorescein isothiocyanate, laser scanning confocal microscopy and Western blot. P-glycoprotein mRNA levels were compared between cell types. Rhodamine 123 efflux assay was done to confirm that P-glycoprotein was biologically active. The amount of P-glycoprotein protein in BIU-87 cells co-cultured with BIU-87/ADM was significantly higher than in BIU-87 cells (0.44 vs 0.25) and BIU-87/H33342 cells (0.44 vs 0.26, each p transfer. P-glycoprotein mRNA expression was significantly higher in BIU-87/ADM cells than in co-cultured BIU-87 cells (1.28 vs 0.30), BIU-87/H33342 (0.28) and BIU-87 cells (0.25, each p <0.001), ruling out a genetic mechanism. After 30 minutes of efflux, rhodamine 123 fluorescence intensity was significantly lower in BIU-87/ADM cells (5.55 vs 51.45, p = 0.004) and co-cultured BIU-87 cells than in BIU-87 cells (14.22 vs 51.45, p <0.001), indicating that P-glycoprotein was functional. Bladder cancer cells can acquire functional P-glycoprotein through a nongenetic mechanism that does not require direct cell contact. This mechanism is consistent with a microparticle mediated process. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Using Copy Number Alterations to Identify New Therapeutic Targets for Bladder Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Conconi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer represents the ninth most widespread malignancy throughout the world. It is characterized by the presence of two different clinical and prognostic subtypes: non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers (NMIBCs and muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBCs. MIBCs have a poor outcome with a common progression to metastasis. Despite improvements in knowledge, treatment has not advanced significantly in recent years, with the absence of new therapeutic targets. Because of the limitations of current therapeutic options, the greater challenge will be to identify biomarkers for clinical application. For this reason, we compared our array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH results with those reported in literature for invasive bladder tumors and, in particular, we focused on the evaluation of copy number alterations (CNAs present in biopsies and retained in the corresponding cancer stem cell (CSC subpopulations that should be the main target of therapy. According to our data, CCNE1, MYC, MDM2 and PPARG genes could be interesting therapeutic targets for bladder CSC subpopulations. Surprisingly, HER2 copy number gains are not retained in bladder CSCs, making the gene-targeted therapy less interesting than the others. These results provide precious advice for further study on bladder therapy; however, the clinical importance of these results should be explored.

  14. Case report of metastatic invasive breast lobular carcinoma to the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ibraheemi, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women except skin cancer. The common metastatic sites include lymph node, lung, liver and bone. However, metastasis to the bladder is extremely rare. To our knowledge, this is the first case of breast cancer metastasis to urinary bladder in Jordan which is reported. Nine years after the initial diagnosis of lobular breast carcinoma, the patient suffered from left side leg edema; Ultrasonography and Computed tomography scanning showed thickening of posterior bladder wall and bilateral hydronephrosis. The biopsy of the bladder confirmed metastatic lesion from the breast. In contrast to the primary tumor, bladder metastasis showed negative expression of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors. However, Her2neu test was negative in both. The reported case confirms that bladder metastasis from breast cancer tend to occur late after the diagnosis of the primary tumor. Furthermore, bladder metastasis can be asymptomatic and heterogeneous in ER and PR expression in comparison with the primary tumor. This report supports the need for careful follow-up and early intervention whenever such clinical situation is suspected. This report supports further evaluation of receptor status at time of metastasis.

  15. Characterization of Uptake and Internalization of Exosomes by Bladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie A. Franzen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder tumors represent a special therapeutic challenge as they have a high recurrence rate requiring repeated interventions and may progress to invasive or metastatic disease. Exosomes carry proteins implicated in bladder cancer progression and have been implicated in bladder cancer cell survival. Here, we characterized exosome uptake and internalization by human bladder cancer cells using Amnis ImageStreamX, an image cytometer. Exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation from bladder cancer culture conditioned supernatant, labeled with PKH-26, and analyzed on the ImageStreamX with an internal standard added to determine concentration. Exosomes were cocultured with bladder cancer cells and analyzed for internalization. Using the IDEAS software, we determined exosome uptake based on the number of PKH-26+ spots and overall PKH-26 fluorescence intensity. Using unlabeled beads of a known concentration and size, we were able to determine concentrations of exosomes isolated from bladder cancer cells. We measured exosome uptake by recipient bladder cancer cells, and we demonstrated that uptake is dose and time dependent. Finally, we found that uptake is active and specific, which can be partially blocked by heparin treatment. The characterization of cellular uptake and internalization by bladder cancer cells may shed light on the role of exosomes on bladder cancer recurrence and progression.

  16. Diagnosis of bladder tumours in patients with macroscopic haematuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Løgager, Vibeke B; Bretlau, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    patients underwent CTU, MRU and flexible cystoscopy. Two uroradiologists individually reviewed the images without any clinical information, using a questionnaire. Patient records and pathology reports were also reviewed. RESULTS: At flexible cystoscopy, MRU and CTU, 32, 19 and 15 bladder lesions were...... identified, respectively. Histopathology showed that 13 of the 29 biopsied lesions were transitional cell carcinomas. Compared with the histopathology, the sensitivity and specificity for detection of tumours by CTU and MRU were 61.5% and 94.9%, and 79.9% and 93.4%, respectively. False-positive detection...... of bladder tumours, compared with histopathology, was reported in seven CTUs and nine MRUs, whereas the number of false-negative findings was five for CTUs and three for MRUs. CONCLUSIONS: Split-bolus CTU or MRU cannot replace cystoscopy in cases of macroscopic haematuria. MRU has a higher sensitivity than...

  17. Effects of Physiotherapy in the Treatment of Neurogenic Bladder in Patients Infected with Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 (HTLV-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rosana C.P.; Neto, José A.; Andrade, Luciana; Oliveira, Tatiane S. S.; Santos, Dislene N.; Oliveira, Cassius J.V.; Prado, Márcio J.; Carvalho, Edgar M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of physiotherapy for urinary manifestations in patients with HTLV-1-associated lower urinary tract dysfunction. Methods Open clinical trial with 21 patients attending the physiotherapy clinic of the Hospital Universitário, Bahia, Brazil. Combinations of behavioral therapy, perineal exercises and intravaginal/intra-anal electrical stimulation were used. Results The mean age was 54±12 years and 67% were female. After treatment, there was an improvement in symptoms of urinary urgency, frequency, incontinence, nocturia and in the sensation of incomplete emptying (pPhysiotherapy was effective in cases of HTLV-1-associated neurogenic bladder, reducing symptoms, increasing perineal muscle strength, improving urodynamic parameters and quality of life. PMID:26724409

  18. Tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaanderen, Jelle; Straif, Kurt; Ruder, Avima

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified tetrachloroethylene, used in the production of chemicals and the primary solvent used in dry cleaning, as "probably carcinogenic to humans" based on limited evidence of an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry...... cleaners. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the epidemiological evidence for the association between tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer from published studies estimating occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene or in workers in the dry-cleaning industry. METHODS: Random-effects meta-analyses were...... carried out separately for occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene and employment as a dry cleaner. We qualitatively summarized exposure-response data because of the limited number of studies available. RESULTS: The meta-relative risk (mRR) among tetrachloroethylene-exposed workers was 1.08 (95% CI...

  19. Molecular Diagnosis in Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C.M. Zuiverloon (Tahlita)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEpidemiologyBladder cancer (BC) is the most prevalent type of urothelial cancer and is associated with thehighest costs of all cancer types due to intensive patient surveillance. Because bladder tumorsfrequently recur, patients need to be monitored extensively [1-4]. Incidence increases

  20. Postmortem MRI of bladder agenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Brendan R. [St George' s Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Weber, Martin A. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Bockenhauer, Detlef [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Nephrology, London (United Kingdom); Hiorns, Melanie P.; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    We report a 35-week preterm neonate with bladder agenesis and bilateral dysplastic kidneys. A suprapubic catheter was inadvertently inserted into one of the larger inferior cysts of the left dysplastic kidney. A postmortem MRI scan was performed with the findings being confirmed on autopsy. We are unaware of another postmortem MRI study demonstrating bladder agenesis. (orig.)

  1. Postmortem MRI of bladder agenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Brendan R.; Weber, Martin A.; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Hiorns, Melanie P.; McHugh, Kieran

    2011-01-01

    We report a 35-week preterm neonate with bladder agenesis and bilateral dysplastic kidneys. A suprapubic catheter was inadvertently inserted into one of the larger inferior cysts of the left dysplastic kidney. A postmortem MRI scan was performed with the findings being confirmed on autopsy. We are unaware of another postmortem MRI study demonstrating bladder agenesis. (orig.)

  2. Vulvar Metastasis from Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Aoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar metastasis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a very rare entity; few cases are reported in the English literature. In this paper, we describe the clinical and pathological characteristics, evolution, and treatment of a patient with vulvar metastasis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder followed by a brief review of the reported cases in the literature.

  3. Neuromodulation in bladder dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S T; Neal, D E

    1998-10-01

    Neuromodulation is one option for the management of a wide variety of lower urinary tract disorders, including non-neuropathic and neuropathic bladder dysfunctions. The mechanisms of action of the reported techniques remain unclear; urodynamic changes are minimal, but symptomatic improvements are common. Although the treatment is relatively free from side-effects compared with more aggressive surgical options, the placebo effect is likely to be significant. Its exact cost effectiveness is unclear, but the technology is a welcome addition to the range of treatment options for lower urinary tract dysfunctions, such as urgency and urge incontinence.

  4. Basic bladder neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J Quentin

    2010-11-01

    Maintenance of normal lower urinary tract function is a complex process that requires coordination between the central nervous system and the autonomic and somatic components of the peripheral nervous system. This article provides an overview of the basic principles that are recognized to regulate normal urine storage and micturition, including bladder biomechanics, relevant neuroanatomy, neural control of lower urinary tract function, and the pharmacologic processes that translate the neural signals into functional results. Finally, the emerging role of the urothelium as a sensory structure is discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Celioscopic liver biopsy in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P.S. Feranti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endosurgery has been used for assessment of fish celomatic cavity, as well as for obtaining biopsies for organic analysis. Such minimally invasive access may also be used for the analysis of environmental impact on biomarkers of pollution. In Brazil, studies and literature regarding the use of celioscopy in fish are sparse. The purpose of the current study was to develop a two-port celioscopy technique to obtain liver biopsy in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen. Six adult female silver catfish were used. The animals were anesthetized and the inspection of the celomatic cavity were performed using a telescope and celioscopic-guided liver biopsy were taken using laparoscopic Kelly forceps. On the early postoperative period, the animals were released in a confined water reservoir where mortality could be checked. The liver samples were sent for histological assessment. There were no complications during surgery on early postoperative period. It was possible to visualize meticulously several organs (liver, spleen, stomach, pancreas, swim bladder, ovaries, bowel and transverse septum. In conclusion, the surgical technique and the anesthetic protocol proposed were suitable to perform liver biopsies in silver catfish and provided low morbidity.

  6. Increased bladder wall thickness is associated with severe symptoms and reduced bladder capacity in patients with bladder pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yu Wu

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: There are obvious differences in bladder CT scans of patients with symptoms of bladder pain due to different etiology. Increased BWT was associated with increased pain scores and decreased bladder capacity in patients with KC and IC. BWT on a CT scan might be considered a marker for the severity of bladder inflammation.

  7. Bladder stones after bladder augmentation are not what they seem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Konrad M; Misseri, Rosalia; Whittam, Benjamin; Lingeman, James E; Amstutz, Sable; Ring, Joshua D; Kaefer, Martin; Rink, Richard C; Cain, Mark P

    2016-04-01

    Bladder and renal calculi after bladder augmentation are thought to be primarily infectious, yet few studies have reported stone composition. The primary aim was to assess bladder stone composition after augmentation, and renal stone composition in those with subsequent nephrolithiasis. The exploratory secondary aim was to screen for possible risk factors for developing infectious stones. Patients treated for bladder stones after bladder augmentation at the present institution between 1981 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected on demographics, surgeries and stone composition. Patients without stone analysis were excluded. Stones containing struvite, carbonate apatite or ammonium acid ureate were classified as infectious. The following variables were analyzed for a possible association with infectious bladder stone composition: gender, history of cloacal exstrophy, ambulatory status, nephrolithiasis, recurrent urea-splitting urinary tract infections, first vs recurrent stones, timing of presentation with a calculus, history of bladder neck procedures, catheterizable channel and vesicoureteral reflux. Fisher's exact test was used for analysis. Of the 107 patients with bladder stones after bladder augmentation, 85 met inclusion criteria. Median age at augmentation was 8.0 years (follow-up 10.8 years). Forty-four patients (51.8%) recurred (14 multiple recurrences, 143 bladder stones). Renal calculi developed in 19 (22.4%) patients with a bladder stone, and 10 (52.6%) recurred (30 renal stones). Overall, 30.8% of bladder stones were non-infectious (Table). Among patients recurring after an infectious bladder stone, 30.4% recurred with a non-infectious one. Among patients recurring after a non-infectious stone, 84.6% recurred with a non-infectious one (P = 0.005). Compared with bladder stones, renal stones were more likely to be non-infectious (60.0%, P = 0.003). Of patients with recurrent renal calculi after an infectious stone, 40.0% recurred with

  8. The inverse relationship between bladder and liver in 4-aminobiphenyl-induced DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stablewski, Aimee B.; Vouros, Paul; Zhang, Yuesheng

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer risk is significantly higher in men than in women. 4-Aminobiphenyl (ABP) is a major human bladder carcinogen from tobacco smoke and other sources. In mice, male bladder is more susceptible to ABP-induced carcinogenesis than female bladder, but ABP is more carcinogenic in the livers of female mice than of male mice. Here, we show that castration causes male mice to acquire female phenotype regarding susceptibility of bladder and liver to ABP. However, spaying has little impact on organ susceptibility to ABP. Liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are believed to protect liver against but sensitize bladder to ABP, as glucuronidation of ABP and its metabolites generally reduces their toxicity and promotes their elimination via urine, but the metabolites are labile in urine, delivering carcinogenic species to the bladder. Indeed, liver expression of ABP-metabolizing human UGT1A3 transgene in mice increases bladder susceptibility to ABP. However, ABP-specific liver UGT activity is significantly higher in wild-type female mice than in their male counterparts, and castration also significantly increases ABP-specific UGT activity in the liver. Taken together, our data suggest that androgen increases bladder susceptibility to ABP via liver, likely by modulating an ABP-metabolizing liver enzyme, but exclude UGT as an important mediator. PMID:25596734

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Differential Proteome Expression in Bladder Cancer vs. Normal Bladder Cells Using SILAC Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganglong Yang

    Full Text Available The best way to increase patient survival rate is to identify patients who are likely to progress to muscle-invasive or metastatic disease upfront and treat them more aggressively. The human cell lines HCV29 (normal bladder epithelia, KK47 (low grade nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, NMIBC, and YTS1 (metastatic bladder cancer have been widely used in studies of molecular mechanisms and cell signaling during bladder cancer (BC progression. However, little attention has been paid to global quantitative proteome analysis of these three cell lines. We labeled HCV29, KK47, and YTS1 cells by the SILAC method using three stable isotopes each of arginine and lysine. Labeled proteins were analyzed by 2D ultrahigh-resolution liquid chromatography LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Among 3721 unique identified and annotated proteins in KK47 and YTS1 cells, 36 were significantly upregulated and 74 were significantly downregulated with >95% confidence. Differential expression of these proteins was confirmed by western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR, and cell staining with specific antibodies. Gene ontology (GO term and pathway analysis indicated that the differentially regulated proteins were involved in DNA replication and molecular transport, cell growth and proliferation, cellular movement, immune cell trafficking, and cell death and survival. These proteins and the advanced proteome techniques described here will be useful for further elucidation of molecular mechanisms in BC and other types of cancer.

  10. Near Infrared Optical Visualization of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors Levels in COLO205 Colorectal Cell Line, Orthotopic Tumor in Mice and Human Biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Lazarovici

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the applicability of imaging epidermal growth factor (EGF receptor levels in preclinical models of COLO205 carcinoma cells in vitro, mice with orthotopic tumors and ex vivo colorectal tumor biopsies, using EGF-labeled with IRDye800CW (EGF-NIR. The near infrared (NIR bio-imaging of COLO205 cultures indicated specific and selective binding, reflecting EGF receptors levels. In vivo imaging of tumors in mice showed that the highest signal/background ratio between tumor and adjacent tissue was achieved 48 hours post-injection. Dissected colorectal cancer tissues from different patients demonstrated ex vivo specific imaging using the NIR bio-imaging platform of the heterogeneous distributed EGF receptors. Moreover, in the adjacent gastrointestinal tissue of the same patients, which by Western blotting was demonstrated as EGF receptor negative, no labeling with EGF-NIR probe was detected. Present results support the concept of tumor imaging by measuring EGF receptor levels using EGF-NIR probe. This platform is advantageous for EGF receptor bio-imaging of the NCI-60 recommended panel of tumor cell lines including 6–9 colorectal cell lines, since it avoids radioactive probes and is appropriate for use in the clinical setting using NIR technologies in a real-time manner.

  11. Comparison of human myofibrillar protein catabolic rate derived from 3-methylhistidine excretion with synthetic rate from muscle biopsies during L-(. cap alpha. -/sup 15/N)lysine infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeran, R O; Halliday, D; Purkiss, P [Clinical Research Centre, Harrow (UK). Div. of Inherited Metabolic Diseases and Clinical Investigation

    1978-05-01

    Urine was collected in five healthy men over 10 to 14 days, with fasting blood samples on days 1, 5 and 10, whilst they consumed a standard creatine-free diet, which was quantitatively related to their body surface area. The urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine fell to a plateau by day 5 in all subjects. Myofibrillar protein catabolic rate calculated from the mean value of 3-methylhistidine excretion from day 5 to day 10 averaged 1.21 g day/sup -1/ kg/sup -1/ body weight. The average turnover of muscle myofibrillar protein was calculated to be 2.16%/day. From a previous study using continuous intravenous infusion of L-(a-/sup 15/N)lysine with serial muscle biopsies on the same subjects, the mean myofibrillar protein synthetic rate was calculated to be 0.82 g day/sup -1/ kg/sup -1/ body weight, and the mean turnover rate was 1.47%/day of total muscle myofibrillar protein. The estimations of myofibrillar protein turnover rate derived from the two methods are compared and the differences discussed.

  12. Sulforaphane induces apoptosis in T24 human urinary bladder cancer cells through a reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial pathway: the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Guk Heui; Kim, Gi-Young; Kim, Wun-Jae; Park, Kun Young; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2014-10-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, has received a great deal of attention because of its ability to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the anticancer activity of sulforaphane in the T24 human bladder cancer line, and explored its molecular mechanism of action. Our results showed that treatment with sulforaphane inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in T24 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Sulforaphane-induced apoptosis was associated with mitochondria dysfunction, cytochrome c release and Bcl-2/Bax dysregulation. Furthermore, the increased activity of caspase-9 and -3, but not caspase-8, was accompanied by the cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase, indicating the involvement of the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Concomitant with these changes, sulforaphane triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which, along with the blockage of sulforaphane-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis, was strongly attenuated by the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Furthermore, sulforaphane was observed to activate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway, as demonstrated by the upregulation of ER stress‑related proteins, including glucose-regulated protein 78 and C/EBP-homologous protein, and the accumulation of phosphorylated Nrf2 proteins in the nucleus and induction of heme oxygenase-1 expression, respectively. Taken together, these results demonstrate that sulforaphane has antitumor effects against bladder cancer cells through an ROS-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway, and suggest that ER stress and Nrf2 may represent strategic targets for sulforaphane-induced apoptosis.

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF INTERSPECIES CONCORDANCE OF MECHANISMS OF ARSENIC INDUCED BLADDER CANCER BY GENE EXPRESSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen that induces urinary bladder cancer. Several mechanisms have been proposed for arsenic-induced cancer. Although inorganic arsenic (iAs) does not induce tumors in adult rodents, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), a major metabolite of iAs, is a rat bladder c...

  14. Epidermal growth factor receptor targeting of replication competent adenovirus enhances cytotoxicity in bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, HG; Molenaar, B; van Beusechem, VW; Haisma, HJ; Rodriguez, R; Curiel, DT; Gerritsen, WR

    Purpose: We evaluated the delivery and oncolytic potential of targeted replication competent adenoviruses in bladder cancer lines. Materials and Methods: Seven established human bladder cancer tumor lines (5637, SW800, TCCsup, J82, Scaber, T24 and 253J) were studied for the expression of integrins

  15. Calcifications of the bladder in schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechmar, M. von; Vogel, H.

    1989-01-01

    In schistosomiasis calcification of the urinary bladder are characteristic signs that allow a corresponding diagnosis in endemic regions. Problems concerning differential diagnosis occur only in very rare cases. The calcifications of the bladder can be easily detected by native diagnostics. A late complication in an affected bladder is often a bladder carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  16. The effect of chemotherapy with or without radiation on the accuracy of MR imaging for evaluating tumor infiltration into the bladder wall in cases of advanced bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Kazushige; Satou, Yuji; Nannri, Masaharu

    2004-01-01

    Staging of tumor infiltration into the bladder wall is one of the critical points in decision-making for optimal treatment of invasive bladder cancer. We studied the correlation of MR findings with pathological diagnosis in cases of invasive bladder cancer which had been treated with chemotherapy, with or without radiation. Twenty-one patients (14 men and 7 women) with invasive bladder tumors who underwent either partial cystectomy or radical cystectomy were entered into the study. Eight cases had received chemotherapy after staging biopsy (Group A), 6 cases had undergone chemo-radiation therapy following staging biopsy (Group B), and 7 cases had received no adjuvant therapy except for staging biopsy preoperatively (Group C). All cases had MR imaging study before surgical treatment. The pathological stage was assessed by examining the whole layer of the resected bladder wall. Pathological diagnosis was pT0 in 4 cases, pT1 in 2 cases, pT2b in 5 cases, pT3a in 2 cases and pT3b in 8 cases. Staging with MR imaging was consistent with pathological findings in 14 of the 21 cases (66.7%), while MR imaging produced over-staging in 6 cases and under-staging in 1 case. Of the 6 cases with over-staging, 2 cases had received chemo-radiation therapy, 2 cases had received chemotherapy, and 2 cases had received staging biopsy alone preoperatively. The one case with under-staging had received chemo-radiation therapy preoperatively. The accuracy in staging with MR imaging was 75.0% (6/8), 50.0% (3/6), and 71.4% (5/7) in Groups A, B, and C, respectively. Imaging study with MR is useful for the staging of invasive bladder cancer. However, care should be taken in the staging of invasive bladder tumors which have been treated with chemotherapy, with or without radiation therapy, because inflammatory infiltration and/or fibrous change caused by the chemo-radiation make accurate staging with MR imaging difficult. (author)

  17. Core biopsies of the breast: Diagnostic pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Joshi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide. In this review article, the authors compare and contrast the incidence of breast cancer, and the inherent differences in the United States (US and India in screening techniques used for diagnosing breast cancer. In spite of these differences, core biopsies of the breast are common for diagnosis of breast cancer in both countries. The authors describe "Best Practices" in the reporting and processing of core biopsies and in the analysis of estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and human epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (Her2/neu. The pitfalls in the diagnosis of fibroepithelial lesions of the breast on core biopsy are discussed, as also the significance of pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast (PASH is discussed in core biopsy. In this review, the management and diagnosis of flat epithelial atypia and radiation atypia are elaborated and the use of immunohistochemistry (IHC in papillary lesions, phyllodes tumor, and complex sclerosing lesions (radial scars is illustrated. Rarer lesions such as mucinous and histiocytoid carcinoma are also discussed.

  18. Cytokine expression in patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis ESSIC type 3C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logadottir, Yr; Delbro, Dick; Fall, Magnus; Gjertsson, Inger; Jirholt, Pernilla; Lindholm, Catharina; Peeker, Ralph

    2014-11-01

    Bladder wall nitric oxide production in patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C is increased compared to undetectable nitric oxide in patients with nonHunner bladder pain syndrome and healthy controls. However, the underlying mechanism/s of the increased nitric oxide production is largely unknown. We compared mRNA expression of a select group of cytokines in patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis type 3C and in pain-free controls. Cold cup biopsies from 7 patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C and 6 healthy subjects were analyzed. mRNA expression of IL-4, 6, 10 and 17A, iNOS, TNF-α, TGF-β and IFN-γ was estimated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. IL-17 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Mast cells were labeled with tryptase to evaluate cell appearance and count. IL-6, 10 and 17A, and iNOS mRNA levels as well as the number of mast cells infiltrating the bladder mucosa were significantly increased in patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C compared to healthy controls. TNF-α, TGF-β and IFN-γ mRNA levels were similar in patients and controls. IL-17A expression at the protein level was up-regulated and localized to inflammatory cells and urothelium in patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C. Patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis had increased mRNA levels of IL-17A, 10 and 6, and iNOS. IL-17A might be important in the inflammatory process. To our knowledge the increase in IL-17A is a novel finding that may have new treatment implications. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective

  20. Oral Biopsy: A Dental Gawk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sir,. Dermatologists are often confronted with neoplasms and diseases of the oral cavity. Although many may be reluctant to perform oral surgical procedures, a biopsy is often needed to establish a definitive diagnosis, and biopsy of the oral cavity is a safe and useful technique that can be easily employed by dermatologists.

  1. The accuracy of colposcopic biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoler, Mark H; Vichnin, Michelle D; Ferenczy, Alex

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the overall agreement between colposcopically directed biopsies and the definitive excisional specimens within the context of three clinical trials. A total of 737 women aged 16-45 who had a cervical biopsy taken within 6 months before their definitive therapy were included. Per-prot...

  2. Liquid biopsy for brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Ganesh M.; Balaj, Leonora; Stott, Shannon L.; Nahed, Brian; Carter, Bob S.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Minimally invasive methods will augment the clinical approach for establishing the diagnosis or monitoring treatment response of central nervous system tumors. Liquid biopsy by blood or cerebrospinal fluid sampling holds promise in this regard. Areas covered In this literature review, the authors highlight recent studies describing the analysis of circulating tumor cells, cell free nucleic acids, and extracellular vesicles as strategies to accomplish liquid biopsy in glioblastoma and metastatic tumors. The authors then discuss the continued efforts to improve signal detection, standardize the liquid biopsy handling and preparation, develop platforms for clinical application, and establish a role for liquid biopsies in personalized medicine. Expert commentary As the technologies used to analyze these biomarkers continue to evolve, we propose that there is a future potential to precisely diagnose and monitor treatment response with liquid biopsies. PMID:28875730

  3. An Orthotopic Model of Murine Bladder Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Dobek, Georgina L.; Godbey, W. T.

    2011-01-01

    In this straightforward procedure, bladder tumors are established in female C57 mice through the use of catheterization, local cauterization, and subsequent cell adhesion. After their bladders are transurethrally catheterized and drained, animals are again catheterized to permit insertion of a platinum wire into bladders without damaging the urethra or bladder. The catheters are made of Teflon to serve as an insulator for the wire, which will conduct electrical current into the bladder to c...

  4. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB

  5. Dose Distribution in Bladder and Surrounding Normal Tissues in Relation to Bladder Volume in Conformal Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, Wojciech; Wesolowska, Iwona; Urbanczyk, Hubert; Hawrylewicz, Leszek; Schwierczok, Barbara; Miszczyk, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate bladder movements and changes in dose distribution in the bladder and surrounding tissues associated with changes in bladder filling and to estimate the internal treatment margins. Methods and Materials: A total of 16 patients with bladder cancer underwent planning computed tomography scans with 80- and 150-mL bladder volumes. The bladder displacements associated with the change in volume were measured. Each patient had treatment plans constructed for a 'partially empty' (80 mL) and a 'partially full' (150 mL) bladder. An additional plan was constructed for tumor irradiation alone. A subsequent 9 patients underwent sequential weekly computed tomography scanning during radiotherapy to verify the bladder movements and estimate the internal margins. Results: Bladder movements were mainly observed cranially, and the estimated internal margins were nonuniform and largest (>2 cm) anteriorly and cranially. The dose distribution in the bladder worsened if the bladder increased in volume: 70% of patients (11 of 16) would have had bladder underdosed to 70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 23%, 20%, and 15% for the rectum and 162, 144, 123 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively) than with a 'partially full' bladder (volume that received >70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 28%, 24%, and 18% for the rectum and 180, 158, 136 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively). The change in bladder filling during RT was significant for the dose distribution in the intestines. Tumor irradiation alone was significantly better than whole bladder irradiation in terms of organ sparing. Conclusion: The displacements of the bladder due to volume changes were mainly related to the upper wall. The internal margins should be nonuniform, with the largest margins cranially and anteriorly. The changes in bladder filling during RT could influence the dose distribution in the bladder and intestines. The dose distribution in the rectum and bowel was slightly better with

  6. Expression of Bmi-1 is a prognostic marker in bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li-Hua

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms of the development and progression of bladder cancer are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the expression of Bmi-1 protein and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer. Methods We examined the expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and Bmi-1 protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively in 14 paired bladder cancers and the adjacent normal tissues. The expression of Bmi-1 protein in 137 specimens of bladder cancer and 30 specimens of adjacent normal bladder tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test the relationship between expression of Bmi-1, and clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Results Expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and protein was higher in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues in 14 paired samples (P P P P P > 0.5. In superficial bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in recurrent cases was higher than in recurrence-free cases (62.5% versus 13.7%, P P P > 0.05. Five-year survival in the group with higher Bmi-1 expression was 50.8%, while it was 78.5% in the group with lower Bmi-1 expression (P P Conclusion Expression of Bmi-1 was greater in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues. The examination of Bmi-1 protein expression is potentially valuable in prognostic evaluation of bladder cancer.

  7. Bladder cancer exosomes contain EDIL-3/Del1 and facilitate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Carla J; Olsen, Jayme; Yin, Peng-Nien; Wu, Chia-Hao; Ting, Huei-Ju; Hagen, Fred K; Scosyrev, Emelian; Messing, Edward M; Lee, Yi-Fen

    2014-08-01

    High grade bladder cancer is an extremely aggressive malignancy associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Understanding how exosomes may affect bladder cancer progression could reveal novel therapeutic targets. Exosomes derived from human bladder cancer cell lines and the urine of patients with high grade bladder cancer were assessed for the ability to promote cancer progression in standard assays. Exosomes purified from the high grade bladder cancer cell line TCC-SUP and the nonmalignant urothelial cell line SV-HUC were submitted for mass spectrometry analysis. EDIL-3 was identified and selected for further analysis. Western blot was done to determine EDIL-3 levels in urinary exosomes from patients with high grade bladder cancer. shRNA gene knockdown and recombinant EDIL-3 were applied to study EDIL-3 function. Exosomes isolated from high grade bladder cancer cells and the urine of patients with high grade bladder cancer promoted angiogenesis and migration of bladder cancer cells and endothelial cells. We silenced EDIL-3 expression and found that shEDIL-3 exosomes did not facilitate angiogenesis, and urothelial and endothelial cell migration. Moreover, exosomes purified from the urine of patients with high grade bladder cancer contained significantly higher EDIL-3 levels than exosomes from the urine of healthy controls. EDIL-3 activated epidermal growth factor receptor signaling while blockade of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling abrogated this EDIL-3 induced bladder cell migration. Exosomes derived from the urine of patients with bladder cancer contains bioactive molecules such as EDIL-3. Identifying these components and their associated oncogenic pathways could lead to novel therapeutic targets and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The differentiation of malignant and benign human breast tissue at surgical margins and biopsy using x-ray interaction data and Bayesian classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mersov, A.; Mersov, G.; Al-Ebraheem, A.; Cornacchi, S.; Gohla, G.; Lovrics, P.; Farquharson, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, about 1.3 million women are diagnosed with breast cancer annually with an estimated 465,000 deaths. Accordingly, there is a need for high accuracy and speed in diagnosis of lesions suspected of being cancerous. This study assesses the interaction data collected from low energy x-rays within breast tissue samples. Trace element concentrations are assessed using x-ray fluorescence, as well as electron density, and molecular structure which are examined using incoherent and coherent scatter, respectively. Our work to date has shown that such data can provide a quantitative measure of certain tissue characterising parameters and hence, through appropriate modelling, could be used to classify samples for uses such as surgical margin detection and biopsy examination. The parameters used in this study for comparing the normal and tumour tissue sample populations are: levels of elements Ca, Cu, Fe, Br, Zn, Rb, K; the area, FWHM and amplitude from peaks fitted to the coherent scatter profile that are associated with fat, fibre and water content; the ratio of the Compton and coherent scatter peak area, FWHM and amplitude from the incoherent scatter profile. The novelty of the approach to this work lies in the fact that the classification process does not rely on one source of data but combines several measurements, the data from which in this application are modelled using a method based on Bayesian classification. The reliability of the classifications was assessed by its application to diagnostically known data that was not itself included in the thresholds determination. The results of the classification of over 70 breast tissue samples will be presented in this study. Bayesian modelling was carried out using selected significant parameters for classification resulting in 71% of normal tissue samples (n=35) and 66% of tumour tissue samples (n=35) being correctly classified when using all the samples. Bayesian classification using the same variables on all

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood . They take out waste ... to bladder cancer. Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals, or petroleum products in the workplace. Past treatment ...

  10. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  11. High resolution MR imaging of bladder cancer: new criteria for determining depth of wall invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Chang Hae; Kressel, Herbert Y

    1993-01-01

    To establish new criteria to determine the depth of bladder cancer as well as to obtain the findings of each stage of bladder cancer we reviewed high resolution MR images of 18 bladder cancer patients including seven cases (26%) with superficial bladder wall invasion. All MR scans were done before biopsy or surgery. Multiple layers of the bladder wall (inner black, middle white, outer black) were demonstrated in 11 cases out of a total 18 cases. Thickening of the middle layer caused by tumor infiltration or edema of lamina propria was seen in 8 of 12 patients with stage T2 or greater, and was suggestive of superficial muscle invasion when multiple layers were demonstrated. Disruption of outer layer (as well as inner layer) and external protrusion of tumor itself were indicative of perivesical invasion. When multiple layers were not demonstrated, the depth of tumor invasion could not be judged. High resolution MR imaging can depict submucosal invasion, muscle invasion, and perivesical invasion secondary to bladder cancer

  12. Neurogenic bladder in Hunter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, K; Moda, Y; Sone, A; Tanaka, H; Hino, Y

    1994-01-01

    We encountered a rare patient with Hunter's syndrome who exhibited urinary retention as a result of a neurogenic bladder, uninhibited detrusor contractions, and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. Neurological findings were consistent with cervical myelopathy and cervical MR imaging showed very narrow segments at the cord level C2-4. We speculate that this Hunter's syndrome patient has cervical myelopathy and that this neurological dysfunction causes the neurogenic bladder. PMID:8014981

  13. Interstitial cystitis: painful bladder syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R F Sholan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis, or painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic inflammatory disease of a bladder of unknown etiology. It negatively affects the quality of life, causes depressive disorders, anxiety, and sexual dysfunction. Despite numerous studies, the etiology of interstitial cystitis is still unclear and it’s considered as painful bladder syndrome with multifactorial origin. According to the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 470/100 000 people (60/100 000 men, 850/100 000 women are diagnosed with interstitial cystitis. Diagnosis of the disease is difficult and is substantially based on clinical symptoms. Pelvic pain, urinary urgency, frequency and nocturia are the basic complaints in this pathology. The diagnosis requires exclusion of diseases with similar manifestations. So interstitial cystitis is frequently misdiagnosed as urinary tract infection, overactive bladder, urethral obstruction or diverticulosis, chronic prostatitis, bladder cancer, vulvodynia, endometriosis, and chronic pelvic pain. Etiopathogenesis of the disease is uncertain, which makes etiologic treatment impossible. Currently scientific discussions on the causes of disease continue as well as different treatment regimens are offered, but are often ineffective, palliative and temporary. The treatment for intersticial cystitis should focus on restoring normal bladder function, prevention of relapse of symptoms and improvement of patients’ quality of life. The literature review presents current view on the terminology, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis.

  14. Current management of overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Rufus; Renganathan, Arasee; Cardozo, Linda

    2008-10-01

    The concept of overactive bladder has helped us address the problem of urgency and urge incontinence from a symptomatic perspective. In this review, we provide a critical summary of clinically relevant recent publications, focusing in particular on advances in our understanding of assessment methods and therapeutic interventions for overactive bladder in women. According to current definitions, the prevalence of overactive bladder in western nations is now estimated as 13.0%. Although the prevalence increases with age, the symptoms of overactive bladder may follow a relapsing and remitting course. There has been a proliferation of validated symptom and quality of life measures and increasing sophistication in the analysis of bladder diaries. The role of urodynamics in the evaluation of urgency remains uncertain, with many trials showing limited benefit as a preoperative investigation. Fluid restriction and bladder retraining remain important first-line interventions. Many new anticholinergic medications have been licensed, with limited benefits compared with existing preparations. Intravesical botulinum toxin has become a popular alternative for patients who fail oral therapies. Although there have been few important therapeutic innovations, recent publications have led to greater sophistication in assessment methods and a clearer understanding of the role of existing interventions.

  15. Bladder Dysfunction and Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Sillén

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this overview the influence of functional bladder disturbances and of its treatment on the resolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in children is discussed. Historically both bladder dysfunction entities, the overactive bladder (OAB and the dysfunctional voiding (DV, have been described in conjunction with VUR. Treatment of the dysfunction was also considered to influence spontaneous resolution in a positive way. During the last decades, however, papers have been published which could not support these results. Regarding the OAB, a prospective study with treatment of the bladder overactivity with anticholinergics, did not influence spontaneous resolution rate in children with a dysfunction including also the voiding phase, DV and DES (dysfunctional elimination syndrome, most studies indicate a negative influence on the resolution rate of VUR in children, both before and after the age for bladder control, both with and without treatment. However, a couple of uncontrolled studies indicate that there is a high short-term resolution rate after treatment with flow biofeedback. It should be emphasized that the voiding phase dysfunctions (DV and DES are more severe than the genuine filling phase dysfunction (OAB, with an increased frequency of UTI and renal damage in the former groups. To be able to answer the question if treatment of bladder dysfunction influence the resolution rate of VUR in children, randomized controlled studies must be performed.

  16. Mammographic scar for stereotaxic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Tattis; Hincapie U, Ana Lucia; Patino P, Jairo Hernando

    1997-01-01

    It is reported the case of 56 years old woman who underwent a stereotactic biopsy because of having a circumscribed breast nodule. The histologic diagnosis was benign. After six months, during the mammographic control, it was noticed that the nodule showed irregular contours, because of that a surgical biopsy was performed. The histopathology was reported as benign. it is considered then, that the mammographic changes observed in the mammographic control are due to scar phenomenon after stereotactic biopsy. This findings has not been reported previously

  17. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits The procedure is less invasive than surgical biopsy, ... risk of infection. The chance of infection requiring antibiotic treatment appears to be less than one in ...

  18. X-ray guided biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, R.; Lezana, A.H.; Pedrosa, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is now a routine procedure in many X-ray Departments. This paper presents the authors' experience with this technique in chest, abdominal and skeletal lesions. (Auth.)

  19. Stereotactic (Mammographically Guided) Breast Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits The procedure is less invasive than surgical biopsy, ... risk of infection. The chance of infection requiring antibiotic treatment appears to be less than one in ...

  20. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike

    2016-01-01

    No consensus exists regarding the precise role of testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys, although it is considered useful for assessing the potential consequences of undescended testes on fertility. Current scientific knowledge indicates that surgeons should broaden indications for this procedure...... for the preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy...

  1. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, I; McMahon, S B; O'Reilly, B A

    2013-08-01

    The bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a spectrum of urological symptoms characterised by bladder pain with typical cystoscopic features. Diagnosis and management of this syndrome may be difficult. There is no evidence-based management approach for the diagnosis or treatment of BPS. The objective of this study was to critically review and summarise the evidence relating to the diagnosis and treatment of the bladder pain syndrome. A review of published data on the diagnosis and treatment of the BPS was performed. Our search was limited to English-language articles, on the "diagnosis", and "management" or "treatment" of "interstitial cystitis" and the "bladder pain syndrome" in "humans." Frequency, urgency and pain on bladder filling are the most common symptoms of BPS. All urodynamic volumes are reduced in patients with BPS. Associated conditions include psychological distress, depression, history of sexual assault, irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. Cystoscopy remains the test for definitive diagnosis, with visualisation of haemorrhage on cystoreduction. A multidisciplinary treatment approach is essential in the management of this condition. Orally administered amitriptyline is an efficacious medical treatment for BPS. Intravesical hyaluronic acid and local anaesthetic, with/without hydrodistension are among new treatment strategies. Sacral or pudendal neuromodulation is effective, minimally invasive and safe. Surgery is reserved for refractory cases. There remains a paucity of evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of BPS. We encountered significant heterogeneity in the assessment of symptoms, duration of treatment and follow up of patients in our literature review.

  2. Bladder wall thickness mapping for magnetic resonance cystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yang; Liang Zhengrong; Zhu Hongbin; Han Hao; Yan Zengmin; Duan Chaijie; Lu Hongbing; Gu Xianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown evidence that the bladder wall thickness is an effective biomarker for bladder abnormalities. Clinical optical cystoscopy, the current gold standard, cannot show the wall thickness. The use of ultrasound by experts may generate some local thickness information, but the information is limited in field-of-view and is user dependent. Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technologies lead MR-based virtual cystoscopy or MR cystography toward a potential alternative to map the wall thickness for the entire bladder. From a high-resolution structural MR volumetric image of the abdomen, a reasonable segmentation of the inner and outer borders of the bladder wall can be achievable. Starting from here, this paper reviews the limitation of a previous distance field-based approach of measuring the thickness between the two borders and then provides a solution to overcome the limitation by an electric field-based strategy. In addition, this paper further investigates a surface-fitting strategy to minimize the discretization errors on the voxel-like borders and facilitate the thickness mapping on the three-dimensional patient-specific bladder model. The presented thickness calculation and mapping were tested on both phantom and human subject datasets. The results are preliminary but very promising with a noticeable improvement over the previous distance field-based approach. (paper)

  3. Inhibition of macrophage migration inhibitory factor decreases proliferation and cytokine expression in bladder cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leifheit Erica C

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of various inflammatory cytokines in maintaining tumor cell growth and viability is well established. Increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF has previously been associated with various types of adenocarcinoma. Methods MIF IHC was used to localize MIF in human bladder tissue. ELISA and Western blot analysis determined the synthesis and secretion of MIF by human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cells. The effects of MIF inhibitors (high molecular weight hyaluronate (HA, anti-MIF antibody or MIF anti-sense on cell growth and cytokine expression were analyzed. Results Human bladder cancer cells (HT-1376 secrete detectable amounts of MIF protein. Treatment with HA, anti-MIF antibody and MIF anti-sense reduced HT-1376 cell proliferation, MIF protein secretion, MIF gene expression and secreted inflammatory cytokines. Our evidence suggests MIF interacts with the invariant chain, CD74 and the major cell surface receptor for HA, CD44. Conclusions This study is the first to report MIF expression in the human bladder and these findings support a role for MIF in tumor cell proliferation. Since MIF participates in the inflammatory response and bladder cancer is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, these new findings suggest that neutralizing bladder tumor MIF may serve as a novel therapeutic treatment for bladder carcinoma.

  4. Inhibition of macrophage migration inhibitory factor decreases proliferation and cytokine expression in bladder cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Siegler, Katherine L; Leifheit, Erica C; Vera, Pedro L

    2004-01-01

    The importance of various inflammatory cytokines in maintaining tumor cell growth and viability is well established. Increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has previously been associated with various types of adenocarcinoma. MIF IHC was used to localize MIF in human bladder tissue. ELISA and Western blot analysis determined the synthesis and secretion of MIF by human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cells. The effects of MIF inhibitors (high molecular weight hyaluronate (HA), anti-MIF antibody or MIF anti-sense) on cell growth and cytokine expression were analyzed. Human bladder cancer cells (HT-1376) secrete detectable amounts of MIF protein. Treatment with HA, anti-MIF antibody and MIF anti-sense reduced HT-1376 cell proliferation, MIF protein secretion, MIF gene expression and secreted inflammatory cytokines. Our evidence suggests MIF interacts with the invariant chain, CD74 and the major cell surface receptor for HA, CD44. This study is the first to report MIF expression in the human bladder and these findings support a role for MIF in tumor cell proliferation. Since MIF participates in the inflammatory response and bladder cancer is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, these new findings suggest that neutralizing bladder tumor MIF may serve as a novel therapeutic treatment for bladder carcinoma

  5. Imaging of urinary bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekov, G.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Primary bladder neoplasms account for 2%-6% of all tumors, with urinary bladder cancer ranked as the fourth most common cancer in males. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common subtype of urothelial tumour accounting for approximately 90% of all urothelial cancers. It is typically observed in men aged 50-70 years with history of smoking or occupational exposure to carcinogens. Most urothelial neoplasms are low-grade papillary tumors, with high incidence of recurrence, requires rigorous follow-up but have a relatively good prognosis. Other bladder neoplasm include squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 2%-15% mainly according to geographic location; adenocarcinoma - less than 2% /both occurring in the context of chronic bladder infection and irritation/; mesenchymal tumors in 5%, with the most common examples being rhabdomyosarcoma in children and leiomyosarcoma in adults. More rare mesenchymal tumors include paraganglioma, lymphoma, leiomyoma and solitary fibrous tumor which have no specific typical imaging findings to be differentiated. Multidetector computed tomography urography is an efficient tool for diagnosis and follow-up in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and it can be considered the primary radiologic method for detection, staging and assessment of the entire urothelium regarding the multicentric nature of TCC. MRI is rapidly expanding modality of choice especially in locally staging the tumor and in controversies. Accurate TNM staging is primordial in choosing treatment and prognosis for patients with bladder carcinoma. Correct interpretation and classification of the tumour is helpful for the urologists to determine further management in these cases. The learning objectives of the presentation are: to illustrate the spectrum of CT and MRI findings and to assess their clinical value in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and some other bladder neoplasm; to discuss the TNM staging based on the imaging findings; to be

  6. Correlation between Urothelial Differentiation and Sensory Proteins P2X3, P2X5, TRPV1, and TRPV4 in Normal Urothelium and Papillary Carcinoma of Human Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Sterle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminal differentiation of urothelium is a prerequisite for blood-urine barrier formation and enables normal sensory function of the urinary bladder. In this study, urothelial differentiation of normal human urothelium and of low and high grade papillary urothelial carcinomas was correlated with the expression and localization of purinergic receptors (P2X3, and P2X5 and transient receptor potential vanilloid channels (TRPV1, and TRPV4. Western blotting and immunofluorescence of uroplakins together with scanning electron microscopy of urothelial apical surface demonstrated terminal differentiation of normal urothelium, partial differentiation of low grade carcinoma, and poor differentiation of high grade carcinoma. P2X3 was expressed in normal urothelium as well as in low grade carcinoma and in both cases immunolabeling was stronger in the superficial cells. P2X3 expression decreased in high grade carcinoma. P2X5 expression was detected in normal urothelium and in high grade carcinoma, while in low grade carcinoma its expression was diminished. The expression of TRPV1 decreased in low grade and even more in high grade carcinoma when compared with normal urothelium, while TRPV4 expression was unchanged in all samples. Our results suggest that sensory proteins P2X3 and TRPV1 are in correlation with urothelial differentiation, while P2X5 and TRPV4 have unique expression patterns.

  7. Synchronous triple urogenital cancer (renal cancer, bladder cancer, prostatic cancer). A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Tsuyoshi; Honda, Masahito; Momohara, Chikahiro; Komori, Kazuhiko; Fujioka, Hideki [Osaka Police Hospital (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    A case of synchronous triple urogenital cancer, which was comprised of renal cell carcinoma of the left kidney, transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, and adenocarcinoma of the prostate, is reported. A 72-year-old Japanese male patient was referred to our outpatient clinic with the complaint of asymptomatic hematuria. At that time, his serum of level of PSA was elevated to 20 ng/ml. Cystourethroscopy showed a papillary bladder tumor and coagula through the left urinary orifice. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm in the left kidney. Angiography showed a hypervascular lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm at the same site. Double cancer, consisting of renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, was suspected and we performed left total nephroureterectomy, hilar lymphadenectomy, and transurethral rection of the bladder tumor, one month later. At the same time, we performed a biopsy of the prostate. Histological diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Histological diagnosis of the prostate biopsy was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Since this case fulfilled the criteria of Warren and Gates, it was classified as synchronous triple urogenital cancer. A review of the literature revealed 17 authentic cases of triple urogenital cancer, of which 14 and 10 cases were reported as a combination of renal cancer, bladder cancer and prostatic cancer, in the world and in Japan, respectively. Furthermore, he had been exposed to the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in 1945. This carcinogenic precursor may be related to the development of the triple cancer. (author)

  8. Bladder cancer: utility of MRI in detection of occult muscle-invasive disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B.; Mussi, Thais C.; Melamed, Jonathan; Taneja, Samir S.; Huang, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The presence of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer is a key factor in prognosis and treatment decisions, although may be missed by biopsy due to sampling error. MRI has shown potential for detection of muscle invasion but has not specifically been evaluated for this purpose in the setting of bladder cancer patients without evidence of muscle invasion on initial biopsy. Purpose. To evaluate the role of MRI in detection of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer following a pathologic diagnosis of non-invasive tumor. Material and Methods. This retrospective study included 23 patients who underwent pelvic MRI following a pathologic diagnosis of bladder cancer without muscularis propria invasion and in whom additional histologic evaluation was performed following MRI. Two radiologists in consensus reviewed T2-weighted images to identify those cases suspicious for muscle invasion on MRI. The radiologists identified whether cases suspicious for invasion demonstrated disruption of the T2-hypointense muscularis layer of the bladder wall, peri-vesical fat stranding, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity. Findings were compared with pathologic results obtained after MRI. Results. Suspicion was raised for muscle invasion in eight of 23 cases, four of which exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. No case without suspicion on MRI exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. Therefore, sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 79%, respectively. Among individual findings, muscularis disruption on T2WI exhibited sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 79%, peri-vesical fat stranding exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 50% and 84%, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 25% and 100%. Conclusion. MRI demonstrated high sensitivity for detection of muscle invasion in cases of bladder cancer without invasion on initial histologic assessment. Muscularis disruption on T2WI appeared to exhibit a better

  9. Hematuria screening test for urinary bladder mucosal infiltration in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuttiangtum, Ayuth; Udomthavornsuk, Banchong; Chumworathayi, Bandit

    2012-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic performance of hematuria as a screening test for urinary bladder infiltration in cervical cancer patients with a prospective study design. Newly diagnosed cervical cancer patients at Srinagarind hospital from 14 June 2011 to 30 April 2012 were enrolled in this study. We collected midstream urine samples for urinalysis from every patient before routine cystoscopic exam for clinical staging. The presence of 3 or more red blood cells (RBCs) per high power field was defined as positive for hematuria. A two-by-two table was used to determine the diagnostic performance of hematuria to detect urinary bladder mucosal infiltration using cystoscopy and biopsy as the gold standard. A total of 130 were patients included, 54 of which (41.5%) had hematuria. Of these, four patients (3.08%) had pathological report from cystoscopic biopsy confirmed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of hematuria as a screening test to detect urinary bladder mucosal infiltration of cervical cancer were 100%, 60.3%, 7.4%, 100%, and 61.5%, respectively. There was no single case of urinary bladder mucosal infiltration in patients initially staged less than stage III. Hematuria can be used as a screening test to detect urinary bladder mucosal infiltration of cervical cancer. This can reduce the number of cervical cancer patients who really need to undergo cystoscopy as a staging procedure to less than half and to less than 20% if stage III or more were included without missing a single case of urinary bladder mucosal infiltration.

  10. Synchronous triple urogenital cancer (renal cancer, bladder cancer, prostatic cancer). A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Tsuyoshi; Honda, Masahito; Momohara, Chikahiro; Komori, Kazuhiko; Fujioka, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    A case of synchronous triple urogenital cancer, which was comprised of renal cell carcinoma of the left kidney, transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, and adenocarcinoma of the prostate, is reported. A 72-year-old Japanese male patient was referred to our outpatient clinic with the complaint of asymptomatic hematuria. At that time, his serum of level of PSA was elevated to 20 ng/ml. Cystourethroscopy showed a papillary bladder tumor and coagula through the left urinary orifice. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm in the left kidney. Angiography showed a hypervascular lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm at the same site. Double cancer, consisting of renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, was suspected and we performed left total nephroureterectomy, hilar lymphadenectomy, and transurethral rection of the bladder tumor, one month later. At the same time, we performed a biopsy of the prostate. Histological diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Histological diagnosis of the prostate biopsy was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Since this case fulfilled the criteria of Warren and Gates, it was classified as synchronous triple urogenital cancer. A review of the literature revealed 17 authentic cases of triple urogenital cancer, of which 14 and 10 cases were reported as a combination of renal cancer, bladder cancer and prostatic cancer, in the world and in Japan, respectively. Furthermore, he had been exposed to the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in 1945. This carcinogenic precursor may be related to the development of the triple cancer. (author)

  11. Bladder cancer: utility of MRI in detection of occult muscle-invasive disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B. [Dept. of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States)], E-mail: Andrew.rosenkrantz@nyumc.org; Mussi, Thais C. [Dept. of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States); Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Melamed, Jonathan [Dept. of Pathology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States); Taneja, Samir S.; Huang, William C. [Dept. of Urology, Div. of Urologic Oncology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Background. The presence of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer is a key factor in prognosis and treatment decisions, although may be missed by biopsy due to sampling error. MRI has shown potential for detection of muscle invasion but has not specifically been evaluated for this purpose in the setting of bladder cancer patients without evidence of muscle invasion on initial biopsy. Purpose. To evaluate the role of MRI in detection of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer following a pathologic diagnosis of non-invasive tumor. Material and Methods. This retrospective study included 23 patients who underwent pelvic MRI following a pathologic diagnosis of bladder cancer without muscularis propria invasion and in whom additional histologic evaluation was performed following MRI. Two radiologists in consensus reviewed T2-weighted images to identify those cases suspicious for muscle invasion on MRI. The radiologists identified whether cases suspicious for invasion demonstrated disruption of the T2-hypointense muscularis layer of the bladder wall, peri-vesical fat stranding, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity. Findings were compared with pathologic results obtained after MRI. Results. Suspicion was raised for muscle invasion in eight of 23 cases, four of which exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. No case without suspicion on MRI exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. Therefore, sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 79%, respectively. Among individual findings, muscularis disruption on T2WI exhibited sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 79%, peri-vesical fat stranding exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 50% and 84%, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 25% and 100%. Conclusion. MRI demonstrated high sensitivity for detection of muscle invasion in cases of bladder cancer without invasion on initial histologic assessment. Muscularis disruption on T2WI appeared to exhibit a better

  12. A Case Report of Primary B–Cell Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbasi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant lymphoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. Less than 100 cases have been reported. The best treatment approach for this disease remained unknown.In this article we reported a 41-year-old-female who was admitted to Sina hospital with the chief complaint of macrohematuria that was followed by dysuria , frequency , noturia and urgency. Other examinations were normal and there was no organomegaly and lymphadenopathy.In ultrasonography the thickening of trigone zone of the urinary bladder was reported. The patient underwent a transurethral biopsy of the bladder that revealed malignant lymphoma , intermediate grade , diffuse mixed small and large cell type ( B-cell lymphoma. The reports of computed tomography scan of the thorax , abdomen and pelvis and bonemarrow biopsy were normal and results of metastatic work up were negative.Primary lymphoma of the urinary bladder was diagnosed and a combination of systemic chemotherapy and relatively low dose irradiation were done for the patient. The patient is in complete remission with this kind of treatment now.

  13. Human papillomavirus in anal biopsy tissues and liquid-based cytology samples of HIV-positive and HIV-negative Thai men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tippawan Pankam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk of developing human papillomavirus (HPV-related anal cancer. We compared HPV genotypes in anal tissues (Bx and anal liquid-based cytology fluid (LBC from HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM. Methods: Bx (32 normal, 41 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL and 22 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, along with LBC from the same visit, were selected from 61 HIV-positive and 34 HIV-negative MSM who enrolled into a prospective cohort in Bangkok, Thailand. HPV genotyping was performed on Bx and LBC. Results: Any HPV and high-risk HPV (HR-HPV prevalence were 63.2% and 60.0% in Bx and 71.6% and 62.1% in LBC, respectively. HIV-positive MSM had higher rates of HR-HPV genotypes detection (70.5% vs. 47.1%, p=0.03 in LBC than HIV-negative MSM. HPV16 (27% was the most common HR-HPV found in HSIL tissue. In HIV-positive MSM, the frequency of HR-HPV detection increased with histopathologic grading in both Bx and LBC samples. HSIL was associated with the presence of any HR-HPV(OR 7.6 (95%CI 1.8–31.9; P=0.006 in LBC and in Bx((OR 5.6 (95%CI 1.4–22.7; P=0.02. Conclusions: Our data strongly support the integration of HR-HPV screening on LBC samples, along with HPV vaccination, into an anal cancer prevention program. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Anal tissues, Men who have sex with men, HIV, Thailand

  14. Medical management of overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvpreet S Ubee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder (OAB, as defined by the International Continence Society, is characterized by a symptom complex including urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually associated with frequency and nocturia. OAB syndrome has an incidence reported from six European countries ranging between 12-17%, while in the United States; a study conducted by the National Overactive Bladder Evaluation program found the incidence at 17%. In Asia, the prevalence of OAB is reported at 53.1%. In about 75%, OAB symptoms are due to idiopathic detrusor activity; neurological disease, bladder outflow obstruction (BOO intrinsic bladder pathology and other chronic pelvic floor disorders are implicated in the others. OAB can be diagnosed easily and managed effectively with both non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies. The first-line treatments are lifestyle interventions, bladder training, pelvic floor muscle exercises and anticholinergic drugs. Antimuscarinics are the drug class of choice for OAB symptoms; with proven efficacy, and adverse event profiles that differ somewhat.

  15. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letašiová Silvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline, which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking, and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline

  16. OPIUM USE IN TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nourbakhsh

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Opium use is one of the most common forms of substance abuse in Iran and there are some evidence indicating it is a risk factor of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder. The majority of opium users are also cigarette smokers, so consideration of the high prevalence of smoking which is the most important risk factor of TCC of the urinary bladder among opium users is essential to assess the role of opium use as a possible risk factor of TCC. This study was done to evaluate the role of opium as a risk factor of TCC. A case-control study was performed on 255 individuals diagnosed with TCC of the urinary bladder by pathologic light microscopic examination of the tumor biopsies. Control population was chosen from individuals who had no history or presenting signs or symptoms of urinary problems. Case and control groups were matched by sex and age and also by cigarette smoking habits. Forty-one (18.1% of the cases and 12 (5% of controls were recognized to be opium users. Mantel-Haenszel analysis showed an odds ratio of 3.88, with 95% confidence interval of 1.99-7.57 and P value of < 0.001. Results indicate that opium use is a risk factor for TCC. The majority of opium users are also cigarette smokers, which is another important risk factor for TCC. Routine urine cytology and early evaluation in the patients presenting with any of the symptoms of urinary bladder malignancy by means of cystoscopy and urine cytology are highly recommended.

  17. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is

  18. Long non-coding RNA ANRIL is up-regulated in bladder cancer and regulates bladder cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Hongxue; Li, Xuechao; Song, Yarong; Zhang, Peng; Xiao, Yajun; Xing, Yifei

    2015-01-01

    Antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) is a member of long non-coding RNAs and has been reported to be dysregulated in several human cancers. However, the role of ANRIL in bladder cancer remains unclear. This present study aimed to investigate whether and how ANRIL involved in bladder cancer. Our results showed up-regulation of ANRIL in bladder cancer tissues versus the corresponding adjacent non-tumor tissues. To explore the specific mechanisms, ANRIL was silenced by small interfering RNA or short hairpin RNA transfection in human bladder cancer T24 and EJ cells. Knockdown of ANRIL repressed cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis, along with decreased expression of Bcl-2 and increased expressions of Bax, cytoplasmic cytochrome c and Smac and cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP. However, no change of cleaved caspase-8 level was observed. Furthermore, in vivo experiment confirmed that knockdown of ANRIL inhibited tumorigenic ability of EJ cells in nude mice. Meanwhile, in accordance with in vitro study, knockdown of ANRIL inhibited expression of Bcl-2 and up-regulated expressions of Bax and cleaved caspase-9, but did not affect cleaved caspase-8 level. In conclusion, we first report that ANRIL possibly serves as an oncogene in bladder cancer and regulates bladder cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis through the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. - Highlights: • We first report the role of ANRIL in bladder cancer. • ANRIL is obviously up-regulated in bladder cancer tissues. • ANRIL regulates bladder cancer cell proliferation and cell apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway.

  19. Fundamentals of bladder tissue engineering | Mahfouz | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fundamentals of bladder tissue engineering. ... could affect the bladder and lead to eventual loss of its integrity, with the need for replacement or repair. ... Tissue engineering relies upon three essential pillars; the scaffold, the cells seeded on ...

  20. Aging changes in the kidneys and bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect kidney function. COMMON PROBLEMS Aging increases the risk of kidney and bladder problems such as: Bladder control issues, such as leakage or urinary incontinence (not being able to hold your urine), or ...

  1. An orthotopic model of murine bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobek, Georgina L; Godbey, W T

    2011-02-06

    In this straightforward procedure, bladder tumors are established in female C57 mice through the use of catheterization, local cauterization, and subsequent cell adhesion. After their bladders are transurethrally catheterized and drained, animals are again catheterized to permit insertion of a platinum wire into bladders without damaging the urethra or bladder. The catheters are made of Teflon to serve as an insulator for the wire, which will conduct electrical current into the bladder to create a burn injury. An electrocautery unit is used to deliver 2.5W to the exposed end of the wire, burning away extracellular layers and providing attachment sites for carcinoma cells that are delivered in suspension to the bladder through a subsequent catheterization. Cells remain in the bladder for 90 minutes, after which the catheters are removed and the bladders allowed to drain naturally. The development of tumor is monitored via ultrasound. Specific attention is paid to the catheterization technique in the accompanying video.

  2. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Activation Contributes to Diabetic Bladder Dysfunction in a Murine Model of Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Theodora; Wenceslau, Camilla F; Burgess, Beth; Nunes, Kenia P; Webb, R Clinton

    2016-12-01

    Diabetic bladder dysfunction (DBD) is a common urological complication of diabetes. Innate immune system activation via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) leads to inflammation and oxidative stress and was implicated in diabetes pathophysiology. We hypothesized that bladder hypertrophy and hypercontractility in DBD is mediated by TLR4 activation. Wild-type (WT) and TLR4 knockout (TLR4KO) mice were made diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment, and bladder contractile function and TLR4 pathway expression were evaluated. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the expression of TLR4 in human and mouse bladder. Recombinant high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) increased bladder TLR4 and MyD88 expression and enhanced contractile response to electrical field stimulation. Bladder expression of TLR4 and MyD88 and serum expression of HMGB1 were increased in STZ compared with control mice. Carbachol (CCh)-mediated contraction was increased in bladders from STZ mice, and TLR4 inhibitor CLI-095 attenuated this increase. Induction of diabetes by STZ in WT mice increased bladder weight and contractile responses to CCh and to electrical field stimulation. TLR4KO mice were not protected from STZ-induced diabetes; however, despite levels of hyperglycemia similar to those of WT STZ mice, TLR4KO STZ mice were protected from diabetes-induced bladder hypertrophy and hypercontractility. These data suggest that TLR4 activation during diabetes mediates DBD-associated bladder hypertrophy and hypercontractility. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  3. Initiation of bladder voiding with epidural stimulation in paralyzed, step trained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Parag N; Roy, Roland R; Zhong, Hui; Lu, Daniel C; Gerasimenko, Yury P; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2014-01-01

    The inability to control timely bladder emptying is one of the most serious challenges among the several functional deficits that occur after a complete spinal cord injury. Having demonstrated that electrodes placed epidurally on the dorsum of the spinal cord can be used in animals and humans to recover postural and locomotor function after complete paralysis, we hypothesized that a similar approach could be used to recover bladder function after paralysis. Also knowing that posture and locomotion can be initiated immediately with a specific frequency-dependent stimulation pattern and that with repeated stimulation-training sessions these functions can improve even further, we reasoned that the same two strategies could be used to regain bladder function. Recent evidence suggests that rats with severe paralysis can be rehabilitated with a multisystem neuroprosthetic training regime that counteracts the development of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. No data regarding the acute effects of locomotion on bladder function, however, were reported. In this study we show that enabling of locomotor-related spinal neuronal circuits by epidural stimulation also influences neural networks controlling bladder function and can play a vital role in recovering bladder function after complete paralysis. We have identified specific spinal cord stimulation parameters that initiate bladder emptying within seconds of the initiation of epidural stimulation. The clinical implications of these results are substantial in that this strategy could have a major impact in improving the quality of life and longevity of patients while simultaneously dramatically reducing ongoing health maintenance after a spinal cord injury.

  4. Initiation of bladder voiding with epidural stimulation in paralyzed, step trained rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag N Gad

    Full Text Available The inability to control timely bladder emptying is one of the most serious challenges among the several functional deficits that occur after a complete spinal cord injury. Having demonstrated that electrodes placed epidurally on the dorsum of the spinal cord can be used in animals and humans to recover postural and locomotor function after complete paralysis, we hypothesized that a similar approach could be used to recover bladder function after paralysis. Also knowing that posture and locomotion can be initiated immediately with a specific frequency-dependent stimulation pattern and that with repeated stimulation-training sessions these functions can improve even further, we reasoned that the same two strategies could be used to regain bladder function. Recent evidence suggests that rats with severe paralysis can be rehabilitated with a multisystem neuroprosthetic training regime that counteracts the development of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. No data regarding the acute effects of locomotion on bladder function, however, were reported. In this study we show that enabling of locomotor-related spinal neuronal circuits by epidural stimulation also influences neural networks controlling bladder function and can play a vital role in recovering bladder function after complete paralysis. We have identified specific spinal cord stimulation parameters that initiate bladder emptying within seconds of the initiation of epidural stimulation. The clinical implications of these results are substantial in that this strategy could have a major impact in improving the quality of life and longevity of patients while simultaneously dramatically reducing ongoing health maintenance after a spinal cord injury.

  5. [Occupational hazards and bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamova, R S

    1991-01-01

    Occupational exposure to health hazards was studied in 258 industrial workers who had developed cancer of the bladder against 454 matched controls. All the test subjects and controls were residents of the Tambov Province centers of chemical industry. Statistical significance (relative risk-4.7) was established for exposure to aromatic amines. For those contacting with aniline dyes the relative risk (RR) made up 2.4. The risk to develop bladder cancer in powder shops (RR-3.2) was attributed to the hazards of dyes and diphenylamine. In leather-shoe and textile industry the exposure to dyes was not safe (RR-6.1), neither was it to chemicals, oil products, pesticides, overheating (RR-3.2, 1.6, 3.2 and 2.9, respectively). It is stated that in line with a significant risk to develop bladder cancer at exposure to aromatic amines there exist a number of occupational factors contributing to this risk.

  6. Ultrasound-guided forceps for pleural biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Agmy

    2014-04-01

    Clinical implications: Ultrasound-guided forceps for pleural biopsy can overcome many of the limitations of the conventional needle biopsy procedures, provides multiple biopsy specimens of the parietal pleura that are inaccessible to the biopsy needle, and can be carried out easily and safely even in sick and obese patients. The diagnostic yield is nearly similar to thoracoscopy.

  7. Intracellular human papillomavirus E6, E7 mRNA quantification predicts CIN 2+ in cervical biopsies better than Papanicolaou screening for women regardless of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierry, Deirdre; Weiss, Gerald; Lack, Benjamin; Chen, Victor; Fusco, Judy

    2012-08-01

    Cervical cancer screening in women younger than 30 years relies on cervical cytology because of the poor performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing in this age group. To determine the performance of in-cell HPV E6, E7 mRNA quantification (HPV OncoTect) for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in women younger than 30 years. We analyzed 3133 cytology specimens from a screening population of women aged 19-75 years investigate HPV OncoTect as a triage/secondary screening test for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) cytology in women younger than 30 years. Test results were compared to histology in 246 cases. The sensitivity of E6, E7 mRNA was 89% for CIN 2+ and 100% for CIN 3+ lesions in women 30 years and older. In women younger than 30 years, the sensitivity of E6, E7 mRNA for CIN 2+ lesions was 88% for CIN 2+ and 92% for CIN 3+ lesions. Abnormal cytology (≥ASCUS) exhibited a sensitivity of 89% for CIN 2+ and 100% for CIN 3+ in women 30 years and older and 96% sensitivity for CIN 2+ and 93% sensitivity for CIN 3+ in women younger than 30. The specificity of E6, E7 mRNA was >80% for CIN 2+ and CIN 3+ in both groups of women compared to a specificity of abnormal cytology of ASCUS/LSIL triage in women including those younger than 30 years.

  8. Tumour cell expansion in bladder epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.J. Rebel (Annemarie)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractBladder cancer is common in western society. The major problem of patients with superficial bladder cancer is the high recurrence rate and multifocality of these tumours. In 70 % of the patients superficial bladder cancer recurs after local resection of the tumour within 15 years. The

  9. Bladder Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder can be low-grade or high-grade. Bladder cancer is also divided into muscle-invasive and nonmuscle-invasive disease. Find evidence-based information on bladder cancer including treatment, screening, research, and statistics.

  10. Bladder Dysfunction and Urinary Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    F. faizi

    2009-01-01

      "nIn the name of God. Dear colleagues, ladies and gentlemen, it is a great honor to be here. Bladder dysfunction is serious enough to seek serious help. If you may know I am working in a private clinic which it is impossible to follow the patients so this lecture is based on unusual and rare cases who came to me. Bladder dysfunction (BD) is common among 30% of young and old people who are suffering from it, however it is more common in old ages. According to a research, women ...

  11. Effects of intraoperative irradiation on gastric and urinary bladder incisions in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.A.; Sigler, R.; Walker, M.

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen adult dogs of mixed breeding were given intraoperative irradiation (25 Gy) after surgical incisions were made into the greater curvature of the stomach and the ventral surface of the urinary bladder. Sequential biopsy samples were obtained 10 days to 180 days after surgical operation. All irradiated stomachs developed gastritis and persistent ulceration of the irradiated field. Microscopic changes induced by irradiation of both the bladder and stomach progressed from severe submucosal edema to severe submucosal fibrosis. A parallel progression of fibrinoid degeneration of the small blood vessels was seen in both organs. Severe gastric ulceration persisted up to 180 days after irradiation, although a degree of mucous neck cell and gastric gland regeneration did occur. Pathologic changes were less severe in the bladder than in the stomach. The bladder had greater resiliency and capability for healing and, in contrast to the stomach, showed a capability to reepithelialize the radiation-induced ulcers. Conclusions of this study are as follows: (a) the canine urinary bladder tolerated intraoperative radiation therapy after tissue resection better than did the canine stomach, (b) the combination of surgical operation and irradiation resulted in a more prolonged and complicated healing pattern than did either procedure alone, and (c) the introduction of a surgical procedure upon irradiated tissue within an undetermined time span relative to irradiation resulted in a similar pattern of disturbed healing

  12. Real time diagnosis of bladder cancer with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jen-Jane; Wu, Katherine; Adams, Winifred; Hsiao, Shelly T.; Mach, Kathleen E.; Beck, Andrew H.; Jensen, Kristin C.; Liao, Joseph C.

    2011-02-01

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is an emerging technology for in vivo optical imaging of the urinary tract. Particularly for bladder cancer, real time optical biopsy of suspected lesions will likely lead to improved management of bladder cancer. With pCLE, micron scale resolution is achieved with sterilizable imaging probes (1.4 or 2.6 mm diameter), which are compatible with standard cystoscopes and resectoscopes. Based on our initial experience to date (n = 66 patients), we have demonstrated the safety profile of intravesical fluorescein administration and established objective diagnostic criteria to differentiate between normal, benign, and neoplastic urothelium. Confocal images of normal bladder showed organized layers of umbrella cells, intermediate cells, and lamina propria. Low grade bladder cancer is characterized by densely packed monomorphic cells with central fibrovascular cores, whereas high grade cancer consists of highly disorganized microarchitecture and pleomorphic cells with indistinct cell borders. Currently, we are conducting a diagnostic accuracy study of pCLE for bladder cancer diagnosis. Patients scheduled to undergo transurethral resection of bladder tumor are recruited. Patients undergo first white light cystocopy (WLC), followed by pCLE, and finally histologic confirmation of the resected tissues. The diagnostic accuracy is determined both in real time by the operative surgeon and offline after additional image processing. Using histology as the standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of WLC and WLC + pCLE are calculated. With additional validation, pCLE may prove to be a valuable adjunct to WLC for real time diagnosis of bladder cancer.

  13. Expression of Bmi-1 is a prognostic marker in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Zi-Ke; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Yang, Jian-An; Ye, Yun-lin; Zhang, Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhou, Fang-Jian; Han, Hui; Liu, Zuo-Wei; Song, Li-Bing

    2009-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of the development and progression of bladder cancer are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the expression of Bmi-1 protein and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer. We examined the expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and Bmi-1 protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively in 14 paired bladder cancers and the adjacent normal tissues. The expression of Bmi-1 protein in 137 specimens of bladder cancer and 30 specimens of adjacent normal bladder tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test the relationship between expression of Bmi-1, and clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and protein was higher in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues in 14 paired samples (P < 0.01). By immunohistochemical examination, five of 30 adjacent normal bladder specimens (16.7%) versus 75 of 137 bladder cancers (54.3%) showed Bmi-1 protein expression (P < 0.05). Bmi-1 protein expression was intense in 20.6%, 54.3%, and 78.8% of tumors of histopathological stages G1, G2, and G3, respectively (P < 0.05). Expression of Bmi-1 protein was greater in invasive bladder cancers than in superficial bladder cancers (81.5% versus 32.5%, P < 0.05). In invasive bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in progression-free cancers was similar to that of cancers that have progressed (80.0% versus 82.4%, P > 0.5). In superficial bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in recurrent cases was higher than in recurrence-free cases (62.5% versus 13.7%, P < 0.05). Bmi-1 expression was positively correlated with tumor classification and TNM stage (P < 0.05), but not with tumor number (P > 0.05). Five-year survival in the group with higher Bmi-1 expression was 50.8%, while it was 78.5% in the group with lower Bmi-1 expression (P < 0.05). Patients with higher Bmi-1 expression had shorter survival time, whereas patients with lower Bmi-1 expression had longer

  14. DNA methylation patterns in bladder cancer and washing cell sediments: a perspective for tumor recurrence detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg José

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of human cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether aberrant DNA methylation of cancer-associated genes is related to urinary bladder cancer recurrence. Methods A set of 4 genes, including CDH1 (E-cadherin, SFN (stratifin, RARB (retinoic acid receptor, beta and RASSF1A (Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6 domain family 1, had their methylation patterns evaluated by MSP (Methylation-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis in 49 fresh urinary bladder carcinoma tissues (including 14 cases paired with adjacent normal bladder epithelium, 3 squamous cell carcinomas and 2 adenocarcinomas and 24 cell sediment samples from bladder washings of patients classified as cancer-free by cytological analysis (control group. A third set of samples included 39 archived tumor fragments and 23 matched washouts from 20 urinary bladder cancer patients in post-surgical monitoring. After genomic DNA isolation and sodium bisulfite modification, methylation patterns were determined and correlated with standard clinic-histopathological parameters. Results CDH1 and SFN genes were methylated at high frequencies in bladder cancer as well as in paired normal adjacent tissue and exfoliated cells from cancer-free patients. Although no statistically significant differences were found between RARB and RASSF1A methylation and the clinical and histopathological parameters in bladder cancer, a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 71% were observed for RARB methylation (Fisher's Exact test (p RASSF1A gene, respectively, in relation to the control group. Conclusion Indistinct DNA hypermethylation of CDH1 and SFN genes between tumoral and normal urinary bladder samples suggests that these epigenetic features are not suitable biomarkers for urinary bladder cancer. However, RARB and RASSF1A gene methylation appears to be an initial event in urinary bladder carcinogenesis and should be considered as defining a panel of

  15. Bladder Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing bladder cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  16. Bladder-type hydropneumatic accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anigas, F.

    1985-01-01

    Hydropneumatic pressure accumulators allow liquids to be stored under pressure, their operating principle being based on the inherent compressibility of elements in a liquid and gaseous state. A wide range of fluids can be covered by means of the appropriate choice of the material for the body and bladder. Their main applications are: energy accumulation, safety reserve, suspension. (author)

  17. Leiomyoma of the bladder and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabbaj, N.; Dafiri, R.; Imani, F.; Benslimane, L.; Benchekroun, A.

    1998-01-01

    Unlike epithelial tumors, connective tissue tumors are uncommon, representing only 3 % of all bladder tumors. Leiomyoma of the bladder is the most frequent non-epithelial benign tumor of the bladder. Magnetic resonance imaging (MIR) is highly useful for diagnostic purposes and to determine the degree of extension. Only few reports of sonographic findings have been reported for leiomyoma of the bladder. The tumor usually develops within the bladder. Extra-vesicular formations have also been reported as well as a few intramural localizations. The characteristic feature is the absence of mucosal involvement. We analyzed the MRI findings in a case of leiomyoma of the bladder with intra and extra-vesicular development inflammatory reaction of the bladder wall and uterine adherences in a woman with a past history of chronic cystitis. The role of diagnostic MRI is discussed. (author)

  18. Pathobiology and Chemoprevention of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takuji; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Kuno, Toshiya; Suzuki, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathogenesis of bladder cancer has improved considerably over the past decade. Translating these novel pathobiological discoveries into therapies, prevention, or strategies to manage patients who are suspected to have or who have been diagnosed with bladder cancer is the ultimate goal. In particular, the chemoprevention of bladder cancer development is important, since urothelial cancer frequently recurs, even if the primary cancer is completely removed. The numerous alterations of both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that have been implicated in bladder carcinogenesis represent novel targets for therapy and prevention. In addition, knowledge about these genetic alterations will help provide a better understanding of the biological significance of preneoplastic lesions of bladder cancer. Animal models for investigating bladder cancer development and prevention can also be developed based on these alterations. This paper summarizes the results of recent preclinical and clinical chemoprevention studies and discusses screening for bladder cancer. PMID:21941546

  19. Simulated physiological stretch increases expression of extracellular matrix proteins in human bladder smooth muscle cells via integrin α4/αv-FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shulian; Peng, Chuandu; Wei, Xin; Luo, Deyi; Lin, Yifei; Yang, Tongxin; Jin, Xi; Gong, Lina; Li, Hong; Wang, Kunjie

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the effect of simulated physiological stretch on the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and the role of integrin α4/αv, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) in the stretch-induced ECM protein expression of human bladder smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs). HBSMCs were seeded onto silicone membrane and subjected to simulated physiological stretch at the range of 5, 10, and 15% elongation. Expression of primary ECM proteins in HBSMCs was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Specificity of the FAK and ERK1/2 was determined by Western blot with FAK inhibitor and ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059). Specificity of integrin α4 and integrin αv was determined with small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) transfection. The expression of collagen I (Col1), collagen III (Col3), and fibronectin (Fn) was increased significantly under the simulated physiological stretch of 10 and 15%. Integrin α4 and αv, FAK, ERK1/2 were activated by 10% simulated physiological stretch compared with the static condition. Pretreatment of ERK1/2 inhibitor, FAK inhibitor, integrin α4 siRNA, or integrin αv siRNA reduced the stretch-induced expression of ECM proteins. And FAK inhibitor decreased the stretch-induced ERK1/2 activity and ECM protein expression. Integrin α4 siRNA or integrin αv siRNA inhibited the stretch-induced activity of FAK. Simulated physiological stretch increases the expression of ECM proteins in HBSMCs, and integrin α4/αv-FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway partly modulates the mechano-transducing process.

  20. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88-95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous, suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies.

  1. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms may include: Loss of appetite or weight loss Nausea and vomiting Pain in the upper part of the belly Black stools Vomiting blood or coffee ground-like material A gastric tissue biopsy and culture can help detect: Cancer Infections, most commonly Helicobacter ...

  2. The Role of Biopsy in Pediatric Dermatopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Şule Afşa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Pediatric dermatology is characterized by skin disorders which have frequencies different from those in adults. Skin biopsies are necessary for differential diagnosis and clinicopathologic correlation is very important. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the pediatric dermatology cases in whom biopsy was performed for differential diagnosis and to investigate the contribution of biopsy to diagnosis of skin disorders. Material and Methods: The cases from whom biopsy was taken in the pediatric dermatology clinic during a three-year period were evaluated retrospectively for pre-diagnoses, biopsy diagnoses, and success of biopsies.Results: Two hundred thirteen (1.7% skin biopsies had been taken from a total of 12420 patients. Henoch-Schönlein purpura, psoriasis, pityriasis lichenoides, pityriasis rosea, lichen planus, pityriasis rubra pilaris, erythema multiforme, atopic dermatitis, granuloma annulare, and pigmented purpuric dermatosis were the most frequent skin disorders diagnosed dermatopathologically. In a total of 120 (56.3% cases, the biopsy diagnosis was within the pre-diagnosis and a biopsy consistency was present. In 25 (11.7% cases, biopsy had no contribution to the differential diagnosis. An absolutely different diagnosis which was incompatible with the pre-diagnosis had been reported in 10 (4.6% cases. Conclusion: In pediatric dermatology, skin biopsy is very helpful for the differential diagnosis. An easy biopsy procedure for the patient, an effective designation of biopsy indication, a good dermatopathologic correlation and an experienced team of pediatric dermatopathology increase the success of skin biopsies.

  3. Initial Results of Retrospective Study: Preoperative Transurethral Excision Plus Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy and Trial of Bladder Preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammal El-Deen, H.S.

    2007-01-01

    For patients with invasive bladder cancer the usual recommended treatment is radical cystectomy, although transurethral resection of the tumor, systemic chemotherapy, and radiotherapy are each effective in some patients. This retrospective study evaluated the experience of the Clinical Oncology Department, Tanta University Hospital with combined modality treatment and selective bladder preservation in patients with muscle-invading bladder cancer with assessment of its safety, tolerance, and efficacy to determine whether these treatments in combination might be as effective as radical cystectomy and thus might allow the bladder to be preserved and the cancer cured and to identify factors that may predict treatment response, risk of relapse and survival. Patients and Methods: Between January 2000 and January 2006, 55 consecutive patients with muscle invading bladder cancer (stages T2 through T4, NX M0) were treated with as complete transurethral surgery as possible, followed by induction combination chemotherapy, and irradiation with 4500 cGy with concurrent cisplatin administration. Urologic evaluation by cystoscopy, cytology, and re biopsy 2-3 weeks later of the tumor response directed further therapy: either radical cystectomy in the patients who had incomplete responses, or additional chemotherapy with the same drugs and doses and radiotherapy up to 6480 cGy in the patients who had complete responses. The median follow-up was 48 months. Results: In 37 patients (67.3%) the bladder was free of invasive tumor and functioning well, even though in 13(23.6%) a superficial tumor recurred and required further transurethral surgery and intravesical drug therapy. Of the 18 (32.7%) patients who still had detectable tumor after initial treatment, all of them underwent radical cystectomy. None of the patients had required a cystectomy for radiation toxicity. Of the 37 (67.3%) patients who had complete responses with no tumor detectable on urine cytology or re biopsy after

  4. Retroperitoneoscopic renal biopsy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Jesus

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We present our experience in a series of 17 consecutive pediatric patients submitted to retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal biopsy (LRB was performed in 5 boys and 12 girls. Mean age was 8.1 years and age range from 2 to 12. Two or three trocars were used to expose the inferior pole of the kidney, remove enough cortical parenchymal specimen and fulgurate the biopsy site. Assessment included surgical time, estimated blood loss, hospitalization period, analgesia requirements, complications and number of glomeruli present in the specimen. RESULTS: LRB was successfully performed in all 15 patients (88%. In two cases, LRB was not possible to be performed. One patient was converted to a transperitoneal laparoscopy due to tear in the peritoneum. The other patient had had previous abdominal surgery and, during retroperitoneal balloon dilation, the peritoneum was opened and the open biopsy was performed. A third patient had postoperatively a perirenal hematoma, which was solved spontaneously. Complication rate was 17.6% (3/17 cases. Mean operative time was 65 minutes, while mean estimated blood loss was 52 mL, mean hospital stay was 2.2 days and mean analgesic requirement was 100 mg of tramadol. The mean number of glomeruli present in the specimen was 60. CONCLUSION: Retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal biopsy in children is a simple, safe. Bleeding is still the most common complication. However, direct vision usually allows a safe control of this drawback. In our institution, laparoscopic approach is the chosen procedure in pediatric patients older than one - year - old.

  5. Infiltrating T Cells Promote Bladder Cancer Progression via Increasing IL1→Androgen Receptor→HIF1α→VEGFa Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Le; Qiu, Jianxin; Jiang, Ming; Song, Wenbin; Yeh, Shuyuan; Yu, Hong; Zang, Lijuan; Xia, Shujie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2016-08-01

    The tumor microenvironment impacts tumor progression and individual cells, including CD4(+) T cells, which have been detected in bladder cancer tissues. The detailed mechanism of how these T cells were recruited to the bladder cancer tumor and their impact on bladder cancer progression, however, remains unclear. Using a human clinical bladder cancer sample survey and in vitro coculture system, we found that bladder cancer has a greater capacity to recruit T cells than surrounding normal bladder tissues. The consequences of higher levels of recruited T cells in bladder cancer included increased bladder cancer metastasis. Mechanism dissection revealed that infiltrating T cells might function through secreting the cytokine IL1, which increases the recruitment of T cells to bladder cancer and enhances the bladder cancer androgen receptor (AR) signaling that results in increased bladder cancer cell invasion via upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α)/VEGFa expression. Interruption of the IL1→AR→HIF1α→VEGFa signals with inhibitors of HIF1α or VEGFa partially reversed the enhanced bladder cancer cell invasion. Finally, in vivo mouse models of xenografted bladder cancer T24 cells with CD4(+) T cells confirmed in vitro coculture studies and concluded that infiltrating CD4(+) T cells can promote bladder cancer metastasis via modulation of the IL1→AR→HIF1α→VEGFa signaling. Future clinical trials using small molecules to target this newly identified signaling pathway may facilitate the development of new therapeutic approaches to better suppress bladder cancer metastasis. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(8); 1943-51. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Construction and evaluation of urinary bladder bioreactor for urologic tissue-engineering purposes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, Niall F

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: To design and construct a urinary bladder bioreactor for urologic tissue-engineering purposes and to compare the viability and proliferative activity of cell-seeded extracellular matrix scaffolds cultured in the bioreactor with conventional static growth conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A urinary bladder bioreactor was designed and constructed to replicate physiologic bladder dynamics. The bioreactor mimicked the filling pressures of the human bladder by way of a cyclical low-delivery pressure regulator. In addition, cell growth was evaluated by culturing human urothelial cells (UCs) on porcine extracellular matrix scaffolds in the bioreactor and in static growth conditions for 5 consecutive days. The attachment, viability, and proliferative potential were assessed and compared with quantitative viability indicators and by fluorescent markers for intracellular esterase activity and plasma membrane integrity. Scaffold integrity was characterized with scanning electron microscopy and 4\\

  7. Occult Pelvic Lymph Node Involvement in Bladder Cancer: Implications for Definitive Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Benjamin; Baumann, Brian C.; He, Jiwei; Tucker, Kai; Bekelman, Justin; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Vaughn, David; Keefe, Stephen M. [Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Guzzo, Thomas; Malkowicz, S. Bruce [Department of Urology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Christodouleas, John P., E-mail: christojo@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To inform radiation treatment planning for clinically staged, node-negative bladder cancer patients by identifying clinical factors associated with the presence and location of occult pathologic pelvic lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of patients with clinically staged T1-T4N0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder undergoing radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy at a single institution were reviewed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between preoperative clinical variables and occult pathologic pelvic or common iliac lymph nodes. Percentages of patient with involved lymph node regions entirely encompassed within whole bladder (perivesicular nodal region), small pelvic (perivesicular, obturator, internal iliac, and external iliac nodal regions), and extended pelvic clinical target volume (CTV) (small pelvic CTV plus common iliac regions) were calculated. Results: Among 315 eligible patients, 81 (26%) were found to have involved pelvic lymph nodes at the time of surgery, with 38 (12%) having involved common iliac lymph nodes. Risk of occult pathologically involved lymph nodes did not vary with clinical T stage. On multivariate analysis, the presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) on preoperative biopsy was significantly associated with occult pelvic nodal involvement (odds ratio 3.740, 95% confidence interval 1.865-7.499, P<.001) and marginally associated with occult common iliac nodal involvement (odds ratio 2.307, 95% confidence interval 0.978-5.441, P=.056). The percentages of patients with involved lymph node regions entirely encompassed by whole bladder, small pelvic, and extended pelvic CTVs varied with clinical risk factors, ranging from 85.4%, 95.1%, and 100% in non-muscle-invasive patients to 44.7%, 71.1%, and 94.8% in patients with muscle-invasive disease and biopsy LVI. Conclusions: Occult pelvic lymph node rates are substantial for all clinical subgroups, especially patients with LVI on biopsy. Extended

  8. CT-guided biopsies and drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheppers, I.; Wollschlaeger, D.

    2011-01-01

    Following the implementation of computed tomography (CT) or ultrasound-guided biopsy of solid tumors and the puncture and drainage of liquid processes, the number of surgical open biopsies and curative operations for abscess drainage has declined. Such CT-guided interventions are performed in nearly every organ. Instead of aspiration biopsies, more and more core biopsies are being performed to allow histopathological evaluation and thus allowing targeted therapy. This article is intended to give a general overview of techniques, materials, indications and contraindications. Ultrasound-guided biopsies as well as large bore vacuum biopsies of the breast are not included in this review. (orig.) [de

  9. Freehand biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, C; Nielsen, Marie Kristina Rue; Nielsen, M Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the overall accuracy and time spent on biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking in a phantom compared with the standard technique of US-guided biopsy with an attached steering device. Furthermore, to evaluate off-plane biopsy guided by needle tracking.......To evaluate the overall accuracy and time spent on biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking in a phantom compared with the standard technique of US-guided biopsy with an attached steering device. Furthermore, to evaluate off-plane biopsy guided by needle tracking....

  10. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation is associated with bladder cancer cell growth and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Fu-Chuan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3 signaling pathway plays an important role in several human cancers. Activation of Stat3 is dependent on the phosphorylation at the tyrosine residue 705 by upstream kinases and subsequent nuclear translocation after dimerization. It remains unclear whether oncogenic Stat3 signaling pathway is involved in the oncogenesis of bladder cancer. Results We found that elevated Stat3 phosphorylation in 19 of 100 (19% bladder cancer tissues as well as bladder cancer cell lines, WH, UMUC-3 and 253J. To explore whether Stat3 activation is associated with cell growth and survival of bladder cancer, we targeted the Stat3 signaling pathway in bladder cancer cells using an adenovirus-mediated dominant-negative Stat3 (Y705F and a small molecule compound, STA-21. Both prohibited cell growth and induction of apoptosis in these bladder cancer cell lines but not in normal bladder smooth muscle cell (BdSMC. The survival inhibition might be mediated through apoptotic caspase 3, 8 and 9 pathways. Moreover, down-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin and a cell cycle regulating gene (cyclin D1 was associated with the cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Conclusion These results indicated that activation of Stat3 is crucial for bladder cancer cell growth and survival. Therefore, interference of Stat3 signaling pathway emerges as a potential therapeutic approach for bladder cancer.

  11. Tyrosine kinase ETK/BMX is up-regulated in bladder cancer and predicts poor prognosis in patients with cystectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjie Guo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Deregulation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase ETK/BMX has been reported in several solid tumors. In this report, we demonstrated that ETK expression is progressively increased during bladder cancer progression. We found that down-regulation of ETK in bladder cancer cells attenuated STAT3 and AKT activity whereas exogenous overexpression of ETK had opposite effects, suggesting that deregulation of ETK may attribute to the elevated activity of STAT3 and AKT frequently detected in bladder cancer. The survival, migration and invasion of bladder cancer cells were significantly compromised when ETK expression was knocked down by a specific shRNA. In addition, we showed that ETK localizes to mitochondria in bladder cancer cells through interacting with Bcl-XL and regulating ROS production and drug sensitivity. Therefore, ETK may play an important role in regulating survival, migration and invasion by modulating multiple signaling pathways in bladder cancer cells. Immunohistochemistry analysis on tissue microarrays containing 619 human bladder tissue samples shows that ETK is significantly upregulated during bladder cancer development and progression and ETK expression level predicts the survival rate of patients with cystectomy. Taken together, our results suggest that ETK may potentially serve as a new drug target for bladder cancer treatment as well as a biomarker which could be used to identify patients with higher mortality risk, who may be benefited from therapeutics targeting ETK activity.

  12. Assessment of inhibitory effects on major human cytochrome P450 enzymes by spasmolytics used in the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlinger, Dominik; Aslan, Sevinc; Pietsch, Markus; Frechen, Sebastian; Fuhr, Uwe

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the inhibitory potential of darifenacin, fesoterodine, oxybutynin, propiverine, solifenacin, tolterodine and trospium chloride on the seven major human cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) by using a standardized and validated seven-in-one cytochrome P450 cocktail inhibition assay. An in vitro cocktail of seven highly selective probe substrates was incubated with human liver microsomes and varying concentrations of the seven test compounds. The major metabolites of the probe substrates were simultaneously analysed using a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Enzyme kinetics were estimated by determining IC 50 and K i values via nonlinear regression. Obtained K i values were used for predictions of potential clinical impact of the inhibition using a static mechanistic prediction model. In this study, 49 IC 50 experiments were conducted. In six cases, IC 50 values lower than the calculated threshold for drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in the gut wall were observed. In these cases, no increase in inhibition was determined after a 30 min preincubation. Considering a typical dosing regimen and applying the obtained K i values of 0.72 µM (darifenacin, 15 mg daily) and 7.2 µM [propiverine, 30 mg daily, immediate release (IR)] for the inhibition of CYP2D6 yielded a predicted 1.9-fold and 1.4-fold increase in the area under the curve (AUC) of debrisoquine (CYP2D6 substrate), respectively. Due to the inhibition of the particular intestinal CYP3A4, the obtained K i values of 14 µM of propiverine (30 mg daily, IR) resulted in a predicted doubling of the AUC for midazolam (CYP3A4 substrate). In vitro / in vivo extrapolation based on pharmacokinetic data and the conducted screening experiments yielded similar effects of darifenacin on CYP2D6 and propiverine on CYP3A4 as obtained in separately conducted in vivo DDI studies. As a novel finding, propiverine was identified to potentially inhibit CYP2D6 at

  13. Bladder uptake of liposomes after intravesical administration occurs by endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi Raja Rajaganapathy

    Full Text Available Liposomes have been used therapeutically and as a local drug delivery system in the bladder. However, the exact mechanism for the uptake of liposomes by bladder cells is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of endocytosis in the uptake of liposomes by cultured human UROtsa cells of urothelium and rat bladder. UROtsa cells were incubated in serum-free media with liposomes containing colloidal gold particles for 2 h either at 37°C or at 4°C. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM images of cells incubated at 37°C found endocytic vesicles containing gold inside the cells. In contrast, only extracellular binding was noticed in cells incubated with liposomes at 4°C. Absence of liposome internalization at 4°C indicates the need of energy dependent endocytosis as the primary mechanism of entry of liposomes into the urothelium. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the uptake of liposomes at 37°C occurs via clathrin mediated endocytosis. Based on these observations, we propose that clathrin mediated endocytosis is the main route of entry for liposomes into the urothelial layer of the bladder and the findings here support the usefulness of liposomes in intravesical drug delivery.

  14. Bladder symptoms assessed with overactive bladder questionnaire in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovelli, Elisa; Gilio, Francesca; Meco, Giuseppe; Fattapposta, Francesco; Vanacore, Nicola; Brusa, Livia; Giacomelli, Elena; Gabriele, Maria; Rubino, Alfonso; Locuratolo, Nicoletta; Iani, Cesare; Pichiorri, Floriana; Colosimo, Carlo; Carbone, Antonio; Palleschi, Giovanni; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2010-07-15

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) the urinary dysfunction manifests primarily with symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB). The OAB questionnaire (OAB-q) is a measure designed to assess the impact of OAB symptoms on health-related quality of life. In this study, we quantified the urinary symptoms in a large cohort of PD patients by using the OAB-q short form. Possible correlations between the OAB-q and clinical features were tested. Three hundred and two PD patients were enrolled in the study. Correlations between the OAB-q and sex, age, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS-III), Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y) staging, disease duration, and treatment were analyzed. Data were compared with a large cohort of 303 age-matched healthy subjects. The OAB-q yielded significantly higher scores in PD patients than in healthy subjects. In the group of PD patients, all the variables tested were similar between men and women. Pearson's coefficient showed a significant correlation between mean age, disease duration, mean OAB-q scores, UPDRS-III scores, and H-Y staging. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that OAB-q values were significantly influenced by age and UPDRS-III. No statistical correlations were found between OAB-q scores and drug therapy or the equivalent levodopa dose, whilst the items relating to the nocturia symptoms were significantly associated with the equivalent levodopa dose. Our findings suggest that bladder dysfunction assessed by OAB-q mainly correlates with UPDRS-III scores for severity of motor impairment, possibly reflecting the known role of the decline in nigrostriatal dopaminergic function in bladder dysfunction associated with PD and patients' age. Our study also suggests that the OAB-q is a simple, easily administered test that can objectively evaluate bladder function in patients with PD.

  15. On the influence of the instillation time on the results of HAL (Hexvix) fluorescence detection of superficial bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jichlinski, Patrice; Aymon, Daniela; Wagnieres, Georges A.; Marti, Alexandre; Lange, Norbert; Guillou, Louis; Leisinger, Hans-Juerg; van den Bergh, Hubert

    2003-10-01

    Hexyl aminolevulinate (HAL) fluorescence cystoscopy is being investigated as a new diagnostic tool for the detection of flat urothelial malignancies in bladder cancers. However, the influence of the bladder instillation time on the performance of this detection modality has not been addressed up to now. We report our initial experience comparing different instillation schedules of HAL cystoscopy in the diagnosis of superficial bladder cancer. A total of 718 fluorescent positive (433) and fluorescence negative (285) biopsies have been taken in the bladder of 143 patients using the Storz D-light fluorescence imaging system (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) which allows both white and blue light (380-450 nm) bladder wall inspection. Following hospitalisation, 50 ml of HAL (8mM) phosphate buffer solution was instilled into the bladder of patients during one hour (1 hour protocol involving 57 patients), or during two hours followed by a two hours resting time after removal of the solution (2+2 hours protocol involving 86 patients). Both instillation subgroups were homogeneous in terms of proportion of high risk disease, previous BCG treatment and/or recurrent disease. This study indicates that the instillation duration does not influence the results of HAL (Hexvix) fluorescence cystoscopy in our conditions. Compared to the standard use of ALA, HAL (Hexvix) fluorescence cystoscopy allows a significant reduction of the instillation time (to less than one hour) without prejudicing the efficacy of the method, what represents a real advantage in daily clinical practice.

  16. Abnormal Sensory Protein Expression and Urothelial Dysfunction in Ketamine-Related Cystitis in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Chou Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of sensory protein expression and urothelial dysfunction in ketamine-related cystitis (KC in humans. Methods Biopsies of bladder mucosa were performed in 29 KC patients during cystoscopy. Then specimens were analyzed for tryptase, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1, E-cadherin, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL with immunofluorescence staining and quantification. In addition, 10 healthy control bladder specimens were analyzed and compared with the KC specimens. Another 16 whole bladder specimens obtained from partial cystectomy were also analyzed for the muscarinic receptors M2 and M3, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, β-3 adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs, and the P2X3 receptor by western blotting. In addition, 3 normal control bladder specimens were analyzed and compared with the KC specimens. Results The KC bladder mucosa revealed significantly less expression of ZO-1 and E-cadherin, and greater expression of TUNEL and tryptase activity than the control samples. The expression of M3 and β3-AR in the KC specimens was significantly greater than in the controls. The expression of iNOS, eNOS, M2, and P2X3 was not significantly different between the KC and control specimens. Conclusions The bladder tissue of KC patients revealed significant urothelial dysfunction, which was associated with mast-cell mediated inflammation, increased urothelial cell apoptosis, and increased expression of the M3 and β3-AR.

  17. Protein shedding in urothelial bladder cancer: prognostic implications of soluble urinary EGFR and EpCAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, R T; Regan, H L; Pirrie, S J; Devall, A J; Cheng, K K; Zeegers, M P; James, N D; Knowles, M A; Ward, D G

    2015-03-17

    Better biomarkers must be found to develop clinically useful urine tests for bladder cancer. Proteomics can be used to identify the proteins released by cancer cell lines and generate candidate markers for developing such tests. We used shotgun proteomics to identify proteins released into culture media by eight bladder cancer cell lines. These data were compared with protein expression data from the Human Protein Atlas. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was identified as a candidate biomarker and measured by ELISA in urine from 60 noncancer control subjects and from 436 patients with bladder cancer and long-term clinical follow-up. Bladder cancer cell lines shed soluble EGFR ectodomain. Soluble EGFR is also detectable in urine and is highly elevated in some patients with high-grade bladder cancer. Urinary EGFR is an independent indicator of poor bladder cancer-specific survival with a hazard ratio of 2.89 (95% CI 1.81-4.62, Pbladder cancer-specific survival and have prognostic value over and above that provided by standard clinical observations. Measuring urinary EGFR and EpCAM may represent a simple and useful approach for fast-tracking the investigation and treatment of patients with the most aggressive bladder cancers.

  18. Are you experienced? Understanding bladder innate immunity in the context of recurrent urinary tract infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Valerie P.; Hannan, Thomas J.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI) is a serious clinical problem, yet effective therapeutic options are limited, especially against multidrug-resistant uropathogens. In this review, we explore the development of a clinically relevant model of rUTI in previously infected mice and review recent developments in bladder innate immunity that may affect susceptibility to rUTI. Recent findings Chronic bladder inflammation during prolonged bacterial cystitis in mice causes bladder mucosal remodelling that sensitizes the host to rUTI. Although constitutive defenses help prevent bacterial colonization of the urinary bladder, once infection occurs, induced cytokine and myeloid cell responses predominate and the balance of immune cell defense and bladder immunopathology is critical for determining disease outcome, in both naïve and experienced mice. In particular, the maintenance of the epithelial barrier appears to be essential for preventing severe infection. Summary The innate immune response plays a key role in determining susceptibility to rUTI. Future studies should be directed towards understanding how the innate immune response changes as a result of bladder mucosal remodelling in previously infected mice, and validating these findings in human clinical specimens. New therapeutics targeting the immune response should selectively target the induced innate responses that cause bladder immunopathology, while leaving protective defenses intact. PMID:25517222

  19. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine inhibit bladder cancer cell growth by targeting basal autophagy and enhancing apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chia Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloroquine (CQ and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ, two antimalarial drugs, are suggested to have potential anticancer properties. in the present study, we investigated the effects of CQ and HCQ on cell growth of bladder cancer with emphasis on autophagy inhibition and apoptosis induction in vitro. The results showed that CQ and HCQ inhibited the proliferation of multiple human bladder cell lines (including RT4, 5637, and T24 in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, especially in advanced bladder cancer cell lines (5637 and T24 compared to immortalized uroepithelial cells (SV-Huc-1 or other reference cancer cell lines (PC3 and MCF-7. We found that 24-hour treatment of CQ or HCQ significantly decreased the clonogenic formation in 5637 and T24 cells compared to SV-Huc-1. As human bladder cancer tumor exhibits high basal level of autophagic activities, we detected the autophagic flux in cells treated with CQ and HCQ, showing an alternation in LC3 flux in CQ- or HCQ-treated cells. Moreover, bladder cancer cells treated with CQ and HCQ underwent apoptosis, resulting in increased caspase 3/7 activities, increased level of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, caspase 3, and DNA fragmentation. Given these results, targeting autophagy with CQ and HCQ represents an effective cancer therapeutic strategy against human bladder cancer.

  20. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine inhibit bladder cancer cell growth by targeting basal autophagy and enhancing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chia; Lin, Ji-Fan; Wen, Sheng-I; Yang, Shan-Che; Tsai, Te-Fu; Chen, Hung-En; Chou, Kuang-Yu; Hwang, Thomas I-Sheng

    2017-05-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), two antimalarial drugs, are suggested to have potential anticancer properties. in the present study, we investigated the effects of CQ and HCQ on cell growth of bladder cancer with emphasis on autophagy inhibition and apoptosis induction in vitro. The results showed that CQ and HCQ inhibited the proliferation of multiple human bladder cell lines (including RT4, 5637, and T24) in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, especially in advanced bladder cancer cell lines (5637 and T24) compared to immortalized uroepithelial cells (SV-Huc-1) or other reference cancer cell lines (PC3 and MCF-7). We found that 24-hour treatment of CQ or HCQ significantly decreased the clonogenic formation in 5637 and T24 cells compared to SV-Huc-1. As human bladder cancer tumor exhibits high basal level of autophagic activities, we detected the autophagic flux in cells treated with CQ and HCQ, showing an alternation in LC3 flux in CQ- or HCQ-treated cells. Moreover, bladder cancer cells treated with CQ and HCQ underwent apoptosis, resulting in increased caspase 3/7 activities, increased level of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspase 3, and DNA fragmentation. Given these results, targeting autophagy with CQ and HCQ represents an effective cancer therapeutic strategy against human bladder cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  1. Ultrasound guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    )-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy (PFNAB)/US-guided percutaneous needle core biopsy (PNCB) of abdominal lesions is efficacious in diagnosis, is helpful in treatment choice, to evaluate whether various other investigations ...

  2. Right Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm Following Endomyocardial Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita; Santos; Manteiga; Rodriguez; Beiras

    1996-03-01

    Ventricular perforation is an unusual complication after endomyocardial biopsy in heart transplanted patients. We report a case of asymptomatic right ventricular perforation and pseudoaneurysm formation, secondary to endomyocardial biopsy, diagnosed by angiography. The spontaneous obliteration of the pseudoaneurysm was observed.

  3. Inoculation of Sphingobacterium multivorum in the prostate by prostate biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Nielsen, Torben; Pinholt, Mette; Nørgaard, Nis

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This report describes three cases of infection with Sphingobacterium multivorum after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. The pathogen is ubiquitous in water and soil but has been described fewer than 10 times causing infections in humans. An infection hygiene evaluation...

  4. MRI of perforated gall bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, B.; Jain, M.; Khandelwal, N.; Singh, P.; Suri, S.

    2002-01-01

    Gall bladder perforation is a dreaded complication of acute cholecystitis that, if not diagnosed early in the course, might have a poor prognosis. Both CT and ultrasonography have been used until now extensively for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, but diagnosis of perforation is always difficult. Magnetic resonance, by its superior soft tissue resolution and multiplanar capability, is a better modality and should fare better than ultrasonography and CT, as demonstrated in our case. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates the wall of the gall bladder and defects to a much better advantage and more convincingly. In addition, MR colangiopancreatography images demonstrate the biliary tree better than other modalities. We suggest that in the case of acute cholecystitis, if perforation is suspected and CT and ultrasonography are not conclusive, MR should be the modality of choice. It can be used as a first line of investigation; however, it might not be cost-effective. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  5. Orthotopic neo- bladder in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettini, Manlio

    2010-12-01

    Radical cystectomy is the most effective treatment madality for high grade urinary bladder carcinoma and orthotopic reconstruction is the better urinary diversion modality also in women. From 2002 to 2007 we performed 14 radical cystectomies followed by orthotopic reconstruction in women aged between 47 and 68 years (mean age 56) affected by urinary bladder carcinoma. Our reconstructive technique requires the preparation of two strips of the recti muscles fascia, the sectioning of the bladder neck and, when the uterus is present, hysteroannessiectomy and cystectomy en block leaving intact the lateral and inferior vaginal walls. The pelvic floor is stabilized by a colposacropexis with a prosthesis and placing an omental flap over the prosthesis. The orthotopic reconstruction is achieved via a neobladder according to the Padovana technique. The ureters are anastomized to the neobladder and splinted with single J stents. The pathological examination demonstrated in all patients the presence of a high grade carcinoma (G3): more specifically 4 patients had a full thickness intramural infiltration (T2), 2 patients had involvment of the perivescical fat (T3) ad 8 patients were in T1 stage. Lymphnodes were negative for tumour (NO). In 8 patients blood transfusions were necessary to treat post surgical anemia. No significant intra-, peri- or post operative complications were noted. The mean follow-up was 45 months: a patient died for diffuse metastatic disease after 11 months. The remaining patients are still alive and report normal lifestyle: 10 with normal micturition and 4 with urinary retention treated with intermittent self-catetherization. Two patients report nocturnal incontinence treated with hourly micturition and one pad. The five patients who had normal preoperative sexual intercourse resumed a normal sexual activity. The possibility to orthotopically recontruct the female urinary bladder has been established long time after the introduction of orthotopic

  6. Conditional Expression of the Androgen Receptor Increases Susceptibility of Bladder Cancer in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T Johnson

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer represents a significant human tumor burden, accounting for about 7.7% and 2.4% of all cancer cases in males and females, respectively. While men have a higher risk of developing bladder cancer, women tend to present at a later stage of disease and with more aggressive tumors. Previous studies have suggested a promotional role of androgen signaling in enhancing bladder cancer development. To directly assess the role of androgens in bladder tumorigenesis, we have developed a novel transgenic mouse strain, R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+, in which the human AR transgene is conditionally expressed in bladder urothelium. Intriguingly, both male and female R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+ mice display a higher incidence of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC than the age and sex matched control littermates in response to the carcinogen, N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl nitrosamine (BBN. We detect expression of the human AR transgene in CK5-positive and p63-positive basal cells in bladder urothelium. Further analyses of UCC tissues from R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+ mice showed that the majority of tumor cells are of urothelial basal cell origin. Positive immunostaining of transgenic AR protein was observed in the majority of tumor cells of the transgenic mice, providing a link between transgenic AR expression and oncogenic transformation. We observed an increase in Ki67 positive cells within the UCC lesions of transgenic AR mice. Manipulating endogenous androgen levels by castration and androgen supplementation directly affected bladder tumor development in male and female R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+ mice, respectively. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time that conditional activation of transgenic AR expression in bladder urothelium enhances carciongen-induced bladder tumor formation in mice. This new AR transgenic mouse line mimics certain features of human bladder cancer and can be used to study bladder tumorigenesis and for drug development.

  7. Neuronavigator-guided cerebral biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivukangas, J; Louhisalmi, Y; Alakuijala, J; Oikarinen, J

    1993-01-01

    Neuronavigators are new dynamic interactive instruments that use on-line computers to orient imaging data to the surgical field and guide the neurosurgeon to his target. We have been working since 1987 on a neuronavigator that serves not only as a precise pointer, but also as a dynamic arm that can be used to hold instruments, such as biopsy guides. The neuronavigator arm consists of six joints with optical encoders and is attached to the Mayfield headholder. The arm is connected to a workstation running customized 3D image graphics software. Special instruments and surgical technique have been developed. Here, we report on early clinical experience with ten biopsy procedures: 4 low-grade and 3 high-grade astrocytomas, one craniopharyngioma and one chronic intracerebral haematoma and intracerebral cyst, both of the latter with surrounding tumour suspect tissue. In all glioma cases serial biopsies were taken from optimal sites under ultrasound imaging control. Eight cases showed representative tumour tissue, while in two cases neoplasia was ruled out. The neuronavigator proved to be versatile, allowing comprehensive imaging data to be adapted to the surgical field.

  8. Aortography following subdiaphragmal aortic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmler, J.

    1982-01-01

    A juxtaposition of the subdiaphragmal and infrarenal translumbar aortic biopsy sites showed decisive advantages in favour of the higher site: a more stable position because of better anatomic fixation and rarer incidence of vascular alterations, a wider vascular lumen. Disadvantages lie in the fact that the large visceral arteries (especially Tr. coeliacus) branch off nearly and in the close anatomic relationship to large abdominal organs and the thoracal region. Evaluation of the radiographical image of the vascular tree after subdiaphragmal aortic biopsy showed an average 82% of the vessels to the area of the Knees to be assessable (renal arteries approximately 93%, popliteal arteries approximately 70%). Beyong, the method proved unsatisfactory: 52% of the vessels could not, or not safety, be evaluated. A relatively broad spectrum of indications by comparison with transfemoral catheter aortography had no influence on the rate of complications with reference to either method. A comparison of the topographic conditions shows the need for even more scrupulons observation of the technique in subdiaphragmal biopsy than in the infrarenal one. To sum up the results obtained, subdiaphregmal translumbar aortography is to be preferred to the infrarenal one where transfemoral catheter aortography is contra-indicated, within the limits mentioned. (orig.) [de

  9. A Pitfall in Transrectal Prostate Biopsy: Malakoplakia Evaluation of Two Cases Based on the Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solakoglu Kahraman, Dudu; Sayhan, Sevil; Diniz, Gulden; Ayaz, Duygu; Karadeniz, Tugba; Can, Ertan

    2014-01-01

    Malakoplakia is a rarely seen inflammatory condition that is considered to develop secondary to a chronic Escherichia coli infection. Although malakoplakia usually affects the genitourinary tract, it may also be observed in the colon, stomach, lungs, liver, bones, uterus, and skin. Malakoplakia of the genitourinary system usually involves the bladder, whereas it may also affect the prostate along with the bladder. Malakoplakia of the prostate is very rare, and it may be clinically mistaken for prostatic malignancies. Definitive diagnosis is only possible through histopathological examination. This study elaborates on two patients who presented to our hospital in 2013 with high PSA levels. The primary clinical consideration was prostate carcinoma. However, these two cases were diagnosed as malakoplakia based on the results of histopathological analysis of the transrectal prostate biopsy specimen. PMID:24868476

  10. Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmada P Gupta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma is an uncommon vascular neoplasm and has an unpredictable clinical behavior. It is characterized by round or spindle-shaped endothelial cells with cytoplasmic vacuolation. Most often, epitheloid hemangioendothelioma arise from the soft tissues of the upper and lower extremities and it has borderline malignant potential. We describe the first reported case of epitheloid hemangioendothelioma in the urinary bladder, which was treated by transurethral resection. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry.

  11. Bladder rupture caused by postpartum urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas-García, Omar Felipe; Rico, Hugo; Gorbea-Sanchez, Viridiana; Herrerias-Canedo, Tomas

    2008-08-01

    Postpartum bladder rupture is an uncommon surgical emergency and a diagnostic challenge. A primigravida delivered a healthy newborn without complications at 39.4 weeks of gestation. The patient was admitted 80 hours postpartum with abdominal pain, oliguria, hematuria, and pain that worsened during the previous 4 hours. An inserted Foley catheter drained only a small amount of urine, and serum creatinine was elevated (3.5 mg/dL). A laparotomy was performed and revealed a 10-cm hole in the urinary bladder. The bladder was repaired and the patient was discharged 15 days after surgery. The follow-up cystoscopy revealed adequate healing of the bladder. Urinary retention can lead to serious complications, including bladder rupture. Postpartum bladder rupture due to urinary retention should be ruled out if there is a history of abdominal pain, oliguria, and elevated of serum creatinine.

  12. Applications of Nanotechnology in Bladder Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Wei Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective therapies can prevent superficial bladder cancer from developing into muscle-invasive stage or more severe stages which require radical cystectomy and negatively affect life quality. In terms of therapeutic approaches against superficial bladder cancer, intravesical (regional therapy has several advantages over oral (systemic therapy. Though urologists can directly deliver drugs to bladder lesions by intravesical instillation after transurethral resection, the efficacy of conventional drug delivery is usually low due to the bladder permeability barrier and bladder periodical discharge. Nanoparticles have been well developed as pharmaceutical carriers. By their versatile properties, nanoparticles can greatly improve the interactions between urothelium and drugs and also enhance the penetration of drugs into urothelium with lesions, which dramatically improves therapeutic efficacy. In this review, we discuss the advances of nanotechnology in bladder cancer therapy by different types of nanoparticles with different encapsulating materials.

  13. Bladder injuries frequently missed in polytrauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanweer Karim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tanweer Karim, Margaret Topno, Vinod Sharma, Raymond Picardo, Ankur HastirSurgery, MGM Medical College, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai, IndiaAbstract: Bladder injuries are very common in patients who have had road traffic accidents. The method of diagnosis and management of such injuries is well established and accepted. However, trauma to the bladder can be associated with other life-threatening injuries which are frequently missed, and often diagnosed during laparotomy for other reasons. The aim of this study was to diagnose bladder injury in polytrauma patients as early as possible, taking into consideration the fact that these patients are hemodynamically unstable and require rapid evaluation and management. In order to achieve our objective, we used bedside sonography with retrograde instillation of normal saline to diagnose bladder injury in addition to use of the conventional retrograde cystogram.Keywords: bladder injury, bladder rupture, retrograde cystogram

  14. Transurethral resection for botryoid bladder rhabdomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuyuki Nakata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of multimodal therapy for localized bladder rhabdomyosarc