WorldWideScience

Sample records for human biting collections

  1. Human bites - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - human - self-care ... Human bites can occur in 2 ways: If someone bites you If your hand comes into contact ... bite to express anger or other negative feelings. Human bites may be more dangerous than animal bites. ...

  2. Human bites (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  3. Case Report of a Newborn Injured By Human Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Ataoğlu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bite is a type of wound received from the teeth of an animal, including humans. Human bites are third leading cause of all bites after dog and cat bites. Human bites are severe wounds due to the risk of contamination with mix oral flora and rapid tissue destruction. Bite wounds created by humans are seen in variety of circumstances including aggression, rape, murder, and child abuse. Oral cavity contains beta-hemolytic streptococci, anaerobes and other microorganisms. There have been reported cases of septicemia, severe necrotizing fasciitis, HIV infection, and death caused by human bites. Early reporting and treatment of bite wounds decrease the number and severity of wound infection. Here, we present the case of human bite in a nine-day-old girl and discuss the treatment approaches in the light of the relevant literature.

  4. Instrument for measuring human biting force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopola, Harri K.; Mantyla, Olavi; Makiniemi, Matti; Mahonen, Kalevi; Virtanen, Kauko

    1995-02-01

    Alongside EMG activity, biting force is the primary parameter used for assessing the biting problems of dentulous patients and patients with dentures. In a highly conductive oral cavity, dielectric measurement methods are preferred, for safety reasons. The maximum biting force for patients with removable dentures is not more than 100 ... 300 N. We report here on an instrument developed for measuring human biting force which consists of three units: a mouthpiece, a signal processing and interface unit (SPI), and a PC. The mouthpiece comprises a sensor head of thickness 3.4 mm, width 20 mm and length 30 mm constructed of two stainless steel plates and with a fiber optic microbending sensor between them. This is connected to the SPI unit by a three-meter fiber optic cable, and the SPI unit to the PC by an RS connection. A computer program has been developed that includes measurement, display, zeroing, and calibration operations. The instrument measures biting force as a function of time and displays the time-dependent force profile and maximum force on a screen or plots it in hard copy. The dynamic measurement range of the mouthpiece is from 0 to 1000 N, and the resolution of the instrument is 10 N. The results of preliminary clinical measurements and repeatability tests are reported.

  5. Forensic odontology, part 4. Human bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J

    2011-04-23

    The aim of this paper is to give a brief overview of bite mark analysis: its usefulness and limitations. The study and analysis of such injuries is challenging and complex. The correct protocols for collection, management, preservation, analysis and interpretation of this evidence should be employed if useful information is to be obtained for the courts. It is now possible, with advances in digital technology, to produce more accurate and reproducible comparison techniques which go some way to preventing and reducing problems such as photographic distortions. Research needs to be continued to increase our knowledge of the behaviour of skin when bitten. However, when presented with a high quality bite mark showing good dental detail, and a limited, accessible number of potential biters, it can be extremely useful in establishing a link between the bitten person and the biter or excluding the innocent.

  6. Animal and Human Bites: Prophlaxis and Approach to the Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet KARAKAŞ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal bites can cause complications ranging from slight injuries to serious infections. Infections can originate from the biter’s oral cavity and victims’s skin flora. Compared with animal bites, human bites have a higher risk of infection development. Most of the wound infections due to bites are caused by polymicrobials. Pasteurella species, streptococci, staphylococci, Moraxella, Corynebacterium, and Neisseria spp., Bergeyella zoohelcum and Capnocytophaga species are the most frequently isolated pathogens. Dogs (85-90 %, cats (5-10 %, humans (2-3 % and rodents (2-3 % are responsible for most of the bite injuries. Injuries due to dog bites occur mostly in men older than 20 years old and usually on the extremities. Cat bites and related injuries are found in 66 % on the upper extremities, typically on the hands. Bites of human origin are mostly occur in males between the ages of 20-30, and especially seen on the arms, fingers and head-neck regions. Most of the bites from rodents have a rat origin. Those bites often happen at night , especially on the face or hand of children under five years old who live in poor hygienic conditions. The dog bites are mostly due to the crush-style injuries and in 4-25 % of those injuries an infection develops in about 24 hours. Because of their sharp teeth, cats cause puncture-type wounds. Approximately 30-50 % of the cat bite wounds become infected 12 hours later. Hand, face and genital region wounds have a higher risk for the occurrence of an infection, because of their special anatomical structure. In case of risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, kidney failure, long term steroid use, splenectomy, extreme ages (children and elderly people and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, infection could easily spread to the deep tissues. The suturing of bite wounds remain controversial. Infected wounds and bites older than 24 hours could be left open. Cosmetically problematic wounds like on the face

  7. Human bite of the hand: clinical and surgical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Simancas-Pereira Hernán; Fonseca-Caro John Fredy; Acevedo-Granados Camilo Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: human bites of the hand carries a risk of infection and functional and/oraesthetic complications, according to the mechanism of trauma, duration and specificfactors of the victim and the aggressor. The management of acute episodes isessential and must be an interdisciplinary care.Objective: to review human bites of the hand.Methodology: Thematic review which included the evaluation of clinical casereports published in the last fifteen years in English and Spanish, obtained by el...

  8. A Finger Amputation Case Caused by Human Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Hakan Doğan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bite is a type of wound created with animal or human teeth. Bite wounds created by humans are encountered in situations as fighting, rape, murder and child abuse. Bite marks are usually observed on arms, neck, breasts, body, cheeks and legs. The teeth may penetrate to skin on the areas where bone or cartilage tissue lies underneath skin, and tissue loss may occur. Auricles are most frequent regions that occur tissue loss with bites. Finger amputation occurring with human bite is extremely rare. The case presented in this paper is a 28 years old man. In his medical history, the 3rd finger of his left hand was bitten during a fight two months ago. One centimeter shortness at the end point of the distal phalanx of the left 3rd finger because of tissue loss was found in the examination. In his left hand radiograph, bone defect at the middle part of the distal phalanx of 3rd finger was determined. The case has been discussed by comparing similar cases rarely reported in the literature. Keywords: Forensic medicine, human bite, amputation

  9. Novel Low-Cost Sensor for Human Bite Force Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarred Fastier-Wooller

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and development of a low cost and reliable maximal voluntary bite force sensor which can be manufactured in-house by using an acrylic laser cutting machine. The sensor has been designed for ease of fabrication, assembly, calibration, and safe use. The sensor is capable of use within an hour of commencing production, allowing for rapid prototyping/modifications and practical implementation. The measured data shows a good linear relationship between the applied force and the electrical resistance of the sensor. The output signal has low drift, excellent repeatability, and a large measurable range of 0 to 700 N. A high signal-to-noise response to human bite forces was observed, indicating the high potential of the proposed sensor for human bite force measurement.

  10. Osteomyelitis and septic arthritis of the hand following human bites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnick, D.; Kerr, R.; Pineda, C.J.; Weisman, M.H.

    1985-10-01

    The spectrum of radiographic abnormalities accompanying bone and joint infection that results from human bites of the hand is presented in an analysis of 13 patients. Features include mono-articular involvement, predilection for a metacarpophalangeal joint, soft tissue swelling, joint space narrowing, bone erosions and periostitis. Magnification techniques may be required for early and accurate diagnosis. (orig.).

  11. Human Bites of the Face with Tissue Losses in Cosmopolitan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Milaki Asuku

    Abstract. A retrospective series of thirty-six cases of human bites to the face with tissue losses requiring .... other authors 3, 5The expression 'snatched lover' featured .... literature is replete with reports on re-implantation of ... review of 22 cases.

  12. Self inflicted human teeth bites: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Satinder Pal; Aggarwal, Akashdeep; Kaur, Sumeet; Singh, Dalbir

    2014-01-01

    Human infighting has been a part of our civilization since times immemorial. These incidences may go unnoticed or may attract attention of law enforcing agencies depending upon the severity of the offence. Though weapons are generally employed to inflict injuries, rare cases have been reported in literature where human teeth have been used to serve this purpose. Human bites may be self inflicted or self suffered in connivance with others to level an allegation against an adversary. We are pre...

  13. Bacteroides pyogenes causing serious human wound infection from animal bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jillian S Y; Korman, Tony M; Yeung, Alex; Streitberg, Richard; Francis, Michelle J; Graham, Maryza

    2016-12-01

    Bacteroides pyogenes is part of the normal oral flora of domestic animals. There is one previous report of human infection, with B. pyogenes bacteremia following a cat bite (Madsen 2011). We report seven severe human infections where B. pyogenes was identified by Bruker matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDTI-TOF MS), but not by VITEK MS and was misidentified by VITEK ANC card. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dog bites in humans and estimating human rabies mortality in rabies endemic areas of Bhutan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenzin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dog bites in humans are a public health problem worldwide. The issues of increasing stray dog populations, rabies outbreaks, and the risk of dogs biting humans have been frequently reported by the media in Bhutan. This study aimed to estimate the bite incidence and identify the risk factors for dog bites in humans, and to estimate human deaths from rabies in rabies endemic south Bhutan. METHODS: A hospital-based questionnaire survey was conducted during 2009-2010 among dog bites victims who visited three hospitals in Bhutan for anti-rabies vaccine injection. Decision tree modeling was used to estimate human deaths from rabies following dog bite injuries in two rabies endemic areas of south Bhutan. RESULTS: Three hundred and twenty four dog bite victims were interviewed. The annual incidence of dog bites differed between the hospital catchment areas: 869.8 (95% CI: 722.8-1022.5, 293.8 (240-358.2 and 284.8 (251.2-323 per 100,000 people in Gelephu, Phuentsholing and Thimphu, respectively. Males (62% were more at risk than females (P<0.001. Children aged 5-9 years were bitten more than other age groups. The majority of victims (71% were bitten by stray dogs. No direct fatal injury was reported. In two hospital areas (Gelephu and Phuentsholing in south Bhutan the annual incidence of death from rabies was 3.14 (95% CI: 1.57-6.29 per 100,000 population. The decision tree model predicted an equivalent annual incidence of 4.67 (95% CI: 2.53-7.53 deaths/100,000 population at risk. In the absence of post exposure prophylaxis, the model predicted 19.24 (95% CI: 13.69-25.14 deaths/year in these two areas. CONCLUSIONS: Increased educational awareness of people about the risk of dog bites and rabies is necessary, particularly for children in rabies endemic areas of Bhutan.

  15. Human Bite of a Staff Nurse on a Psychiatric Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suguna, Anbazhagan; Joseph, Bobby

    2016-04-01

    Occupational violence among health care professionals is a cause for concern, although often neglected especially in developing countries like India. Violence undermines the healing mission of the health care organization and interferes with the ability of the health care team to optimally contribute to positive patient outcomes. The authors discuss a case of a human bite of a staff nurse on a psychiatric unit in a tertiary care Indian hospital. The reported violence against this staff nurse lead to her admission for emergency care followed by emotional stress. Issues related to prevention of occupational violence are also discussed. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Describing the relationship between cat bites and human depression using data from an electronic health record.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Hanauer

    Full Text Available Data mining approaches have been increasingly applied to the electronic health record and have led to the discovery of numerous clinical associations. Recent data mining studies have suggested a potential association between cat bites and human depression. To explore this possible association in more detail we first used administrative diagnosis codes to identify patients with either depression or bites, drawn from a population of 1.3 million patients. We then conducted a manual chart review in the electronic health record of all patients with a code for a bite to accurately determine which were from cats or dogs. Overall there were 750 patients with cat bites, 1,108 with dog bites, and approximately 117,000 patients with depression. Depression was found in 41.3% of patients with cat bites and 28.7% of those with dog bites. Furthermore, 85.5% of those with both cat bites and depression were women, compared to 64.5% of those with dog bites and depression. The probability of a woman being diagnosed with depression at some point in her life if she presented to our health system with a cat bite was 47.0%, compared to 24.2% of men presenting with a similar bite. The high proportion of depression in patients who had cat bites, especially among women, suggests that screening for depression could be appropriate in patients who present to a clinical provider with a cat bite. Additionally, while no causative link is known to explain this association, there is growing evidence to suggest that the relationship between cats and human mental illness, such as depression, warrants further investigation.

  17. Necrotizing fasciitis due to Streptococcus mitis caused by accidental human bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Aliye; Kislak, Sumeyye; Mutlu, Nevzat Mehmet; Akcaboy, Zeynep Nur; Koksal, Asude; Sertcelik, Ahmet; Ünlü, Ramazan Erkin; Akinci, Esragul; Bodur, Hurrem

    2016-01-31

    Human bite wounds are more prone to infection than animal bites, which may cause necrotizing soft tissue infections such as myositis, fasciitis. Both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms may be responsible, including Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Peptostreptococcus spp. Necrotizing fasciitis is characterized by serious tissue destruction and systemic toxicity with high morbidity and mortality. We report a patient with Streptococcus mitis associated necrotizing fasciitis on the upper extremity resulting from an accidental human bite, which caused nearly fatal infection. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment should be given after a human bite to prevent infection. If the infection signs and symptoms develop, rapid diagnosis, appropriate antibiotic and surgical therapy should be administered immediately. Streptococcus mitis is a viridans streptococcus, usually known as a relatively benign oral streptococcus. To our knowledge, this is the first necrotizing fasciitis case due to Streptococcus mitis after human bite.

  18. Comparison of the bite mark pattern and intercanine distance between humans and dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Kashyap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bite marks show uniqueness due to specific characteristics and arrangement of teeth, but when it comes to bite mark analysis, it is complicated by numerous factors such as animal bite, abuse etc., Humans and pet animals (dog bite marks analysis is by far the most demanding and complicated part of forensic dentistry. Aim: To analyze and compare bite marks of humans and the pet animals (dog using indirect method, so as to assess its usefulness and application in forensic odontology. Materials and Methods: 40 samples including 20 humans (10 males and 10 females and 20 dogs of different breed were included in the study. Bite registration of all the samples were obtained on modeling wax and intercanine distance were measured. Data were analyzed and results were tabulated. Results: Arch size and intercanine distance showed variable differences among humans and on average dogs showed more intercanine distance and arch size. Among dog breeds larger dogs showed larger variables when compared to smaller dogs. Conclusion: Assessment of bite marks evidences made by animals needs further investigation so that it can be a tool to assist the justice system to answer crucial questions.

  19. Comparison of the bite mark pattern and intercanine distance between humans and dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Bina; Anand, Sanjeev; Reddy, Sudhakara; Sahukar, Shruthi Basavaradhya; Supriya, Naga; Pasupuleti, Swetha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bite marks show uniqueness due to specific characteristics and arrangement of teeth, but when it comes to bite mark analysis, it is complicated by numerous factors such as animal bite, abuse etc., Humans and pet animals (dog) bite marks analysis is by far the most demanding and complicated part of forensic dentistry. Aim: To analyze and compare bite marks of humans and the pet animals (dog) using indirect method, so as to assess its usefulness and application in forensic odontology. Materials and Methods: 40 samples including 20 humans (10 males and 10 females) and 20 dogs of different breed were included in the study. Bite registration of all the samples were obtained on modeling wax and intercanine distance were measured. Data were analyzed and results were tabulated. Results: Arch size and intercanine distance showed variable differences among humans and on average dogs showed more intercanine distance and arch size. Among dog breeds larger dogs showed larger variables when compared to smaller dogs. Conclusion: Assessment of bite marks evidences made by animals needs further investigation so that it can be a tool to assist the justice system to answer crucial questions. PMID:26816456

  20. Decline in human dog-bite cases during a street dog sterilisation programme in Jaipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, J F; Chawla, S K; Hiby, A R

    2013-05-04

    Human dog-bite injuries are a major public health problem, particularly where there are large populations of free-roaming or street dogs. Dog bites are also the major source of human rabies infections. There is little information on the means to reduce these injuries. Monthly human animal-bite injury records from January 2003 to June 2011 were obtained from the main government hospital in Jaipur, India. The data were analysed and compared with records of pregnancy in street dogs in Jaipur obtained from a street dog sterilisation programme. Human animal-bite injuries showed a seasonal pattern which followed by approximately 10 weeks the seasonal peak of street dog breeding. The number of human animal bites has declined significantly since 2003. It is concluded that a street dog sterilisation programme can reduce human dog-bite injuries by reducing the maternal protective behaviour of the street dogs, as well as reducing the total size of the roaming dog population.

  1. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 15 to 20 of every 100 following dog or human bites. Treatment If your child is bleeding from ... dangerous than those from tame, immunized (against rabies) dogs and cats. The health of the animal also is important, so if ...

  2. Postural And Eye-Positional Effects On Human Biting Force: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altay Tabancacı

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscle groups affected on biting force are called temporal muscle as a major and masseter muscle as a minor. According to the human posture stability, forces of these muscles vary with the force directions. In this case, experimental investigation is strictly important such that biting force under different postural and eye- positional situations is changed. In this study, seven-male and seven-female within the age-range of 17-24 are considered corresponding to having with restorated molar tooth and without that type of tooth. With the help of specially designed biting fork, different posture- and eye-positions are investigated for experimental biting force analysis. Changes in eye-positions are not indicated significant difference for all postural positions. On one hand, it is obtained that biting force of no-filling tooth in men becomes maximum if facial muscles give full effort to biting. On the other hand, effect of facial muscles for women is not clearly noticed depending on the postural differences.

  3. Assessing human-dog conflicts in Todos Santos, Guatemala: bite incidences and public perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunney, Meg; Jones, Andria; Stiles, Enid; Waltner-Toews, David

    2011-12-15

    The issues surrounding dog bites are a major public health concern, particularly in areas of low income where accessibility to adequate health care, veterinary medicine and sufficient management of canine population control is low. An understanding of the risk factors associated with human-dog conflicts may be important when establishing dog bite and disease prevention strategies. In May 2008, a census of 12 consociated neighbourhoods in Todos Santos, Guatemala was conducted to investigate dog bite incidences and the public perception of free-roaming dog populations. Approximately 16.5% (78/472) of households reported at least one dog bite between May 2006 and May 2008. In total, 85 incidents occurred: 49.4% (42/85) with adults (≥18 years) and 50.6% (43/85) children (dog bites by victim gender or among age categories, there was a non-significant trend of higher cumulative incidence of dog bites in children aged six to 17 years compared to other age categories. The anatomical location of the bite varied, but bites to the legs were the most common (73/85; 85.9%). Of the 85 reported dog bites, 5.9% (5/85) were from dogs from the victims' own households, 48.2% (41/85) were from a neighbour's dog, 9.4% (8/85) were from dogs regularly seen in the community, and 15.3% (13/85) were from dogs not regularly seen in the community; the ownership status of the latter two categories of dogs could not be determined. Approximately 21% (18/85) of respondents did not know the type of dog that bit. Residents were asked for their opinions on potential problems associated with dogs in the community. The majority of respondents strongly agreed that dogs posed physical risks (78.8%; 372/472), could transmit infections to people (88.6%; 418/472), scared the family (82.4%; 389/472) and were too high in number (82.6%; 390/472). There were significant but weak correlations between owning a dog and expressing negative perceptions of community dogs (Spearman rhodog bite was not significantly

  4. Epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors for human rabies and animal bites during an outbreak of rabies in Maputo and Matola cities, Mozambique, 2014: Implications for public health interventions for rabies control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomão, Cristolde; Nacima, Amílcar; Cuamba, Lutero; Gujral, Lorna; Amiel, Olga; Baltazar, Cynthia; Cliff, Julie; Gudo, Eduardo Samo

    2017-07-01

    In Mozambique, the majority of rabies outbreaks are unreported and data on the epidemiological features of human rabies and animal bites are scarce. An outbreak of human rabies in adjacent Maputo and Matola cities in 2014 prompted us to investigate the epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors of human rabies and animal bites in the two cities. We reviewed cases of human rabies and animal bites from April to July 2014, and carried out a community investigation in July and August in the neighborhoods where cases of human rabies resided. This investigation included collection of clinical, demographic and epidemiological information and a case control study to investigate the risk factors associated with human rabies. Fourteen cases of human rabies were detected in Maputo (n = 10) and Matola (n = 3) cities and neighbouring Boane district (n = 1) between April and August 2014, all of whom had been admitted to hospital. All had a recent history of dog bite. Of the 14 rabid dogs, only one had been immunized. 819 cases of animal bites were registered, of which 64.6% (529/819) were from Maputo City. Dogs were responsible for 97.8% (801/819) of all animal bites, but only 27.0% (126/467) were immunized. Factors significantly associated with human rabies were: age <15 years (p = 0.05), bite by stray dog (p = 0.002), deep wound (p = 0.02), bite in the head (p = 0.001), bite by unimmunized dog (p = 0.01), no use of soap and water (p = 0.001), and no post-exposure prophylaxis (p = 0.01). Implementation of control measures for rabies is poor in Maputo and Matola cities, where cases of human rabies were strongly associated with bites by stray and unvaccinated dogs and irregular implementation of post-exposure measures.

  5. Human bite injuries in the oro-facial region at the Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Elison NM

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human bites in the maxillofacial region compromise function and aesthetics, resulting in social and psychological effects. There is paucity of information regarding human bite injuries in Tanzania. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence, treatment modalities and prognosis of human bite injuries in the oro-facial region at the Muhimbili National Hospital Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods In a prospective study the details of patients with human bite injuries in the oro-facial region who attended at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Muhimbili National Hospital between January 2001 and December 2005 were recorded. Data included information on age, sex, site, duration of the injury at the time of reporting to hospital, reasons, details of treatment offered and outcome after treatment. Results A total of 33 patients, 13 males and 20 females aged between 12 and 49 years with human bite injuries in the oro-facial region were treated. Thirty patients presented with clean uninfected wounds while 3 had infected wounds. The most (45.5% frequently affected site was the lower lip. Treatment offered included thorough surgical cleansing with adequate surgical debridement and primary suturing. Tetanus prophylaxis and a course of broad-spectrum antibiotics were given to all the patients. In 90% of the 30 patients who were treated by suturing, the healing was uneventful with only 10% experiencing wound infection or necrosis. Three patients who presented with wounds that had signs of infection were treated by surgical cleansing with debridement, antibiotics and daily dressing followed by delayed primary suturing. Conclusion Most of the human bite injuries in the oro-facial region were due to social conflicts. Although generally considered to be dirty or contaminated they could be successfully treated by surgical cleansing and primary suture with a favourable outcome. Management of such injuries often need

  6. Human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian area of southern Venezuela: spatial and temporal variations in biting and parity rates of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillet, M E; Basáñez, M G; Vivas-Martínez, S; Villamizar, N; Frontado, H; Cortez, J; Coronel, P; Botto, C

    2001-07-01

    We investigated some entomological factors underlying altitudinal prevalence variation in the Venezuelan Amazonia human onchocerciasis focus. Spatial and temporal variation in relative abundance, daily biting rate, proportion of parous flies, and monthly parous biting rate were studied for the three main simuliid vectors (based on their vectorial competence: Simulium oyapockense s.l. Floch & Abonnenc approximately = S. incrustatum Lutz variables included monthly rainfall and maximum river height. Simuliid species composition itself varied along the altitudinal and prevalence gradient. S. oyapockense s.l. prevailed below 150 m. Above this altitude and up to 240 m, S. incrustatum and S. guianense s.l. became more frequently and evenly collected along A but not along B, where S. incrustatum remained absent. The daily biting rate of S. oyapockense s.l. was higher during the dry season along A, whereas the converse took place along B. Daily biting rate of S. incrustatum was lowest during early rains. By contrast, the daily biting rate of S. guianense s.l. was highest during this period. There was a significant negative cross-correlation between proportion of parous of S. oyapockense s.l. and river height (2 and 3 mo lagged), whereas this variable (1 and 2 mo lagged) was positively correlated with the proportion of parous flies for S. incrustatum. Monthly parous biting rate values suggest that the months contributing most to onchocerciasis transmission in the area are likely to be the dry season and the transition periods between seasons.

  7. Prevent Bite Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Prevention > Prevent Bite Wounds ... animals or other humans. Consider the following statistics: there are about 4.5 million dog bites reported annually in the United States, along ...

  8. Molecular and morphological identification of a human biting tick, Amblyomma testudinarium (Acari: Ixodidae), in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li-Lian; Lu, Chun-Wei; Lin, Ying-Fang; Shih, Chien-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Genetic identity and morphological features of a human biting tick, Amblyomma testudinarium, were determined for the first time in Taiwan. Morphological features of adult male and female ticks of Am. testudinarium were observed and photographed by a stereo- microscope. The genetic identity was analyzed by comparing the sequences of mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA gene obtained from 18 strains of ticks representing 10 species of Amblyomma, and four outgroup species of Dermacentor and Rhipicephalus ticks. Nine major clades could be easily distinguished by neighbour-joining analysis and were congruent by maximum-parsimony method. All these Am. testudinarium ticks collected from Taiwan and Japan were genetically affiliated to a monophyletic group with highly homogeneous sequence (99.8-100% similarity), and can be discriminated from other species of Amblyomma and other genera of ticks (Dermacentor and Rhipicephalus) with a sequence divergence ranging from 6.9 to 23.9%. Moreover, intra- and inter-species analysis based on the genetic distance (GD) values indicated a lower level (GD  0.108) of Amblyomma ticks, as well as outgroup (GD > 0.172) species. Our results provide the first distinguished features of adult Am. testudinarium ticks and the first genetic identification of Am. testudinarium ticks collected from humans in Taiwan. Seasonal prevalence, host range, and vectorial capacity of this tick species in Taiwan need to be further clarified.

  9. Management of human bites of the face in Enugu, Nigeria | Olaitan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Methods:A retrospective review of the cases of human bites of the face that presented within a ten year period was carried out. ... Information obtained includes age, gender of the patients as well as that of the assailants and the relationship of the assailants to the ...

  10. Capybara Bites: Report of Human Injury Caused by a Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Vieira, Camille; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2015-12-01

    Health care demand due to animal bites is frequent, especially in the emergency department (ED). In addition to the physical trauma caused by bites, one should be concerned with infectious diseases that can be transmitted. The range of the lesions depends on the animal species. Bites of Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (capybaras) in humans are relatively uncommon. Capybaras are docile animals; however, their large rodent incisive teeth could cause serious injury. Localized care, antibiotic therapy when necessary, careful examination of the structures, tetanus and rabies immunization as indicated, and follow-up are recommended for wild animal bites. The authors hereby describe and discuss the medical management of a case of multiple lesions from capybara bites on the right thigh of a man. A 54-year-old male patient was admitted to the ED with a compression bandage soaked with blood after being bitten by a capybara. At the clinical examination, the patient had two lacerating wounds and multiple abrasions on the anterior face of the right thigh. Rabies prophylaxis was administered and the wounds were irrigated and closed with sterile dressings. Oral amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium for 7 days was administered to the patient. The patient was followed up; 3 months after the attack he returned to his previous level of activity without any complication. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: We recommend that practitioners and physicians should provide prompt attention due to potentially significant morbidities, particularly rabies. The adequate care of the wound will allow better aesthetic and functional results to victims of wild animal bites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lizard Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mite Bites Mollusk Stings Puss Moth Caterpillar Stings Scorpion Stings Sea Urchin Stings Snakebites Spider Bites Stingray ... Mite Bites Mollusk Stings Puss Moth Caterpillar Stings Scorpion Stings Sea Urchin Stings Snakebites Spider Bites Stingray ...

  12. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Humans with Tick Bites and Erythema Migrans, in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahfari, Setareh; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Fonville, Manoj; van der Giessen, Joke; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Sprong, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Background Tick-borne diseases are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases in Europe. Knowledge on the incidence and clinical presentation of other tick-borne diseases than Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis is minimal, despite the high human exposure to these pathogens through tick bites. Using molecular detection techniques, the frequency of tick-borne infections after exposure through tick bites was estimated. Methods Ticks, blood samples and questionnaires on health status were collected from patients that visited their general practitioner with a tick bite or erythema migrans in 2007 and 2008. The presence of several tick-borne pathogens in 314 ticks and 626 blood samples of this cohort were analyzed using PCR-based methods. Using multivariate logistic regression, associations were explored between pathogens detected in blood and self-reported symptoms at enrolment and during a three-month follow-up period. Results Half of the ticks removed from humans tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Borrelia miyamotoi and several Babesia species. Among 92 Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. positive ticks, 33% carried another pathogen from a different genus. In blood of sixteen out of 626 persons with tick bites or erythema migrans, DNA was detected from Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (n = 7), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (n = 5), Babesia divergens (n = 3), Borrelia miyamotoi (n = 1) and Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. (n = 1). None of these sixteen individuals reported any overt symptoms that would indicate a corresponding illness during the three-month follow-up period. No associations were found between the presence of pathogen DNA in blood and; self-reported symptoms, with pathogen DNA in the corresponding ticks (n = 8), reported tick attachment duration, tick engorgement, or antibiotic treatment at enrolment. Conclusions Based on molecular

  13. Flexible human collective wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, Mordechai Z; Eckstein, Miguel P

    2015-12-01

    Group decisions typically outperform individual decisions. But how do groups combine their individual decisions to reach their collective decisions? Previous studies conceptualize collective decision making using static combination rules, be it a majority-voting rule or a weighted-averaging rule. Unknown is whether groups adapt their combination rules to changing information environments. We implemented a novel paradigm for which information obeyed a mixture of distributions, such that the optimal Bayesian rule is nonlinear and often follows minority opinions, while the majority rule leads to suboptimal but above chance performance. Using perceptual (Experiment 1) and cognitive (Experiment 2) signal-detection tasks, we switched the information environment halfway through the experiments to a mixture of distributions without informing participants. Groups gradually abandoned the majority rule to follow any minority opinion advocating signal presence with high confidence. Furthermore, groups with greater ability to abandon the majority rule achieved higher collective-decision accuracies. It is important to note that this abandonment was not triggered by performance loss for the majority rule relative to the first half of the experiment. Our results propose a new theory of human collective decision making: Humans make inferences about how information is distributed across individuals and time, and dynamically alter their joint decision algorithms to enhance the benefits of collective wisdom.

  14. Biting on human body parts of Simulium vectors and its implication for the manifestation of Onchocerca nodules along Osun River, southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; Sam-Wobo, Sammy Olufemi; Akinwale, Olaoluwa Pheabian; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Mafiana, Chiedu Felix

    2012-09-01

    The biting preference of Simulium vectors has been known to influence the distribution of Onchocerca nodules and microfilariae in human body. There is, however, variation in biting pattern of Simulium flies in different geographical locations. This study investigates the biting pattern on human parts by Simulium vectors along Osun river system where Simulium soubrense Beffa form has been implicated as the dominant vector and its possible implication on the distribution of Onchocerca nodules on human body along the river. Flies were collected by consented fly capturers on exposed human parts namely head/neck region, arms, upper limb and lower limb in Osun Eleja and Osun Budepo along Osun river in the wet season (August-September) and the dry season (November-December) in 2008. The residents of the communities were also screened for palpable Onchocerca nodules. The results showed that number of flies collected below the ankle region was significantly higher than the number collected on other exposed parts (p parts coupled with the presence of nodules at the head and upper trunk regions showed that Simulium vectors could obtain microfilariae from any part of the body, thus increasing the risk of onchocerciasis transmission.

  15. Management of a case of human bite complicated by myonecrosis and compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaran, Sibel; Ozkan, Cenk; Coskun-Benlidayi, Ilke; Kozanoglu, Erkan

    2009-03-01

    Case reports concerning rare complications of human bite injuries are uncommon in the literature. Further, rehabilitation of the resultant dysfunction is also hardly reported. A 41-year-old housewife who had had a human bite during an altercation 6 months ago was referred to the rehabilitation department with a nonfunctioning right hand. Twelve days after the injury she developed a compartment syndrome with complicating myonecrosis, which required fasciotomy and resulted in amputation of the fifth digit on the 17th day. Soft-tissue defects were reconstructed with skin grafts. Unfortunately, the patient did not attend followup visits, and 6 months after the initial injury she had to be admitted to the rehabilitation department with a nonfunctional hand. She had marked limitations of range of motion of the wrist and almost all finger joints. A rehabilitation program was initiated to improve the functional limitations of her hand. After the rehabilitation program, she was able to use her right hand in her daily routine activities. Rehabilitation can still be useful in order to avoid permanent disability even in late and complicated cases of bite injuries.

  16. Snake bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - snakes ... Snake bites can be deadly if not treated quickly. Because of their smaller body size, children are ... risk for death or serious complications due to snake bites. The right antivenom can save a person's ...

  17. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they become infected, you can develop serious medical problems. To prevent animal bites and complications from bites Never pet, handle, ...

  18. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius can be misdiagnosed as Staphylococcus aureus in humans with dog bite wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börjesson, S; Gómez-Sanz, E; Ekström, K; Torres, C; Grönlund, U

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether S. pseudintermedius is misdiagnosed as S. aureus by clinical laboratories when isolated from humans with dog bite wounds. In addition, we attempted to determine whether S. pseudintermedius isolates related to dog bite wounds share phenotypic and genotypic traits. S. pseudintermedius was identified by PCR targeting the nuc gene. Isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility using VetMIC GP-mo microdilution panels. The occurrence of genes encoding leukocidins, exfoliatins, pyrogenic toxin superantigens and enterotoxins was determined by PCR. The relatedness of S. pseudintermedius isolates was investigated using Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Out of 101 isolates defined as S. aureus by human clinical microbiology laboratories, 13 isolates were re-identified as S. pseudintermedius and one isolate was confirmed to carry the mecA gene, i.e. methicillin-resistant (MRSP). The MRSP isolate was also defined as multi-resistant. Two methicillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius isolates were also multi-resistant and five were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the exception of three S. pseudintermedius isolates belonging to multi locus sequence type (MLST) 158, all the isolates belonged to unique STs. All isolates contained lukS/F-I, siet and se-int, and expA were identified in two isolates and expB and sec canine-sel in one isolate respectively. S. pseudintermedius is frequently misdiagnosed as S. aureus from humans with dog bite wounds showing that it can act as an opportunistic pathogen in humans. No common phenotypic and genotypic traits shared by the S. pseudintermedius isolates could be identified.

  19. Comparison between five commonly used two-dimensional methods of human bite mark overlay production from the dental study casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloth, Saritha; Ganapathy, K S

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the most accurate bite mark overlay fabrication technique by studying two physical characteristics, i.e., area and rotation of biting edges of anterior teeth of thirty volunteers. The objective of the study was to evaluate the reliability and efficacy of five commonly used methods of human bite mark overlays using two dimensional (2D) digital images of dental study casts as a gold standard, to rank different methods according to statistically based determination of relative accuracy of each method and to determine its feasibility in Forensic science. Overlays were produced from the biting surfaces of six upper and six lower anterior teeth of 30 volunteers using the following five methods: a) hand tracing from study casts, b) hand tracing from wax impressions, c) xerographic method, d) radiopaque impression method and e) 2D computer-based method. Area of the biting edges of the anterior teeth and relative rotation of each anterior tooth were measured and compared. The xerographic method was determined to be the more accurate method with respect to tooth area and rotation. Hand tracing methods, from either wax impressions of teeth or directly from study casts, were determined to be inaccurate and subjective. It is recommended that forensic odontologists discontinue the use of hand tracing overlays in bite mark comparison cases as there is lot of scope for manipulation and observer bias.

  20. Rat Bite Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Rat Bite Fever Page Content Article Body Rat-bite fever is a disease that occurs in humans who ... ingestion of contaminated food or milk products (Haverhill fever). Most cases in the United States are caused ...

  1. Piranha attacks on humans in southeast Brazil: epidemiology, natural history, and clinical treatment, with description of a bite outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Vidal; Sazima, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    There are many tales describing ferocious schools of piranha attacking humans, but there are few scientific data supporting such behavior. The very few documented instances of humans attacked and eaten by piranha schools include 3 that occurred after death by other causes (eg, heart failure and drowning). These predaceous fishes, however, do occasionally injure bathers and swimmers in lakes and rivers. The characteristic profile of most injuries is a single bite per victim, generally related to the fish defending its brood. This paper describes an outbreak of piranha bites in a dammed river portion in southeast Brazil. The outbreak was caused by the speckled piranha, Serrasalmus spilopleura, a widespread species which benefits from the growing tendency of damming rivers all over Brazil. This article focuses on the epidemiological and clinical aspects of the injuries, as well as on piranha biology, to gain a better understanding of the natural history of bite outbreaks.

  2. Human intestinal parasites in non-biting synanthropic flies in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenusi, Adedotun Adesegun; Adewoga, Thomas O Sunday

    2013-01-01

    Filth-feeding and breeding, non-biting synanthropic flies have been incriminated in the dissemination of human enteropathogens in the environment. This study determined the species of non-biting synanthropic flies associated with four filthy sites in Ilishan, Ogun State, southwest Nigeria, and assessed their potentials for mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites. 7190 flies identified as Musca domestica (33.94%), Chrysomya megacephala (26.01%), Musca sorbens (23.23%), Lucilia cuprina (8.76%), Calliphora vicina (4.59%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.78%) and Fannia scalaris (0.70%) were examined for human intestinal parasites by the formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Eggs of the following parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (34.08%), Trichuris trichiura (25.87%), hookworms (20.45%), Taenia sp. (2.36%), Hymenolepis nana (1.11%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.56%), Strongyloides stercoralis (larvae; 3.89%) and cysts of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (27.26%), Entamoeba coli (22.67%), Giardia lamblia (3.34%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.81%) were isolated from the body surfaces and or gut contents of 75.24% of 719 pooled fly batches. The helminths A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura and the protozoans, E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli were the dominant parasites detected, both on body surfaces and in the gut contents of flies. C. megacephala was the highest carrier of parasites (diversity and number). More parasites were isolated from the gut than from body surfaces (P parasites than those from abattoir, garbage or open-air market. Synanthropic fly species identified in this study can be of potential epidemiological importance as mechanical transmitters of human intestinal parasites acquired naturally from filth and carried on their body surfaces and or in the gut, because of their vagility and feeding mechanisms.

  3. Bacterial Profiling Reveals Novel "Ca. Neoehrlichia", Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma Species in Australian Human-Biting Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofton, Alexander W; Doggett, Stephen; Ratchford, Andrew; Oskam, Charlotte L; Paparini, Andrea; Ryan, Una; Irwin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In Australia, a conclusive aetiology of Lyme disease-like illness in human patients remains elusive, despite growing numbers of people presenting with symptoms attributed to tick bites. In the present study, we surveyed the microbial communities harboured by human-biting ticks from across Australia to identify bacteria that may contribute to this syndrome. Universal PCR primers were used to amplify the V1-2 hyper-variable region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in DNA samples from individual Ixodes holocyclus (n = 279), Amblyomma triguttatum (n = 167), Haemaphysalis bancrofti (n = 7), and H. longicornis (n = 7) ticks. The 16S amplicons were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform and analysed in USEARCH, QIIME, and BLAST to assign genus and species-level taxonomies. Nested PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to confirm the NGS data and further analyse novel findings. All 460 ticks were negative for Borrelia spp. by both NGS and nested PCR analysis. Two novel "Candidatus Neoehrlichia" spp. were identified in 12.9% of I. holocyclus ticks. A novel Anaplasma sp. was identified in 1.8% of A. triguttatum ticks, and a novel Ehrlichia sp. was identified in both A. triguttatum (1.2%) ticks and a single I. holocyclus (0.6%) tick. Further phylogenetic analysis of novel "Ca. Neoehrlichia", Anaplasma and Ehrlichia based on 1,265 bp 16S rRNA gene sequences suggests that these are new species. Determining whether these newly discovered organisms cause disease in humans and animals, like closely related bacteria do abroad, is of public health importance and requires further investigation.

  4. Bacterial Profiling Reveals Novel "Ca. Neoehrlichia", Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma Species in Australian Human-Biting Ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W Gofton

    Full Text Available In Australia, a conclusive aetiology of Lyme disease-like illness in human patients remains elusive, despite growing numbers of people presenting with symptoms attributed to tick bites. In the present study, we surveyed the microbial communities harboured by human-biting ticks from across Australia to identify bacteria that may contribute to this syndrome. Universal PCR primers were used to amplify the V1-2 hyper-variable region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in DNA samples from individual Ixodes holocyclus (n = 279, Amblyomma triguttatum (n = 167, Haemaphysalis bancrofti (n = 7, and H. longicornis (n = 7 ticks. The 16S amplicons were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform and analysed in USEARCH, QIIME, and BLAST to assign genus and species-level taxonomies. Nested PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to confirm the NGS data and further analyse novel findings. All 460 ticks were negative for Borrelia spp. by both NGS and nested PCR analysis. Two novel "Candidatus Neoehrlichia" spp. were identified in 12.9% of I. holocyclus ticks. A novel Anaplasma sp. was identified in 1.8% of A. triguttatum ticks, and a novel Ehrlichia sp. was identified in both A. triguttatum (1.2% ticks and a single I. holocyclus (0.6% tick. Further phylogenetic analysis of novel "Ca. Neoehrlichia", Anaplasma and Ehrlichia based on 1,265 bp 16S rRNA gene sequences suggests that these are new species. Determining whether these newly discovered organisms cause disease in humans and animals, like closely related bacteria do abroad, is of public health importance and requires further investigation.

  5. Frequent and recent human acquisition of simian foamy viruses through apes' bites in central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Betsem

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Human infection by simian foamy viruses (SFV can be acquired by persons occupationally exposed to non-human primates (NHP or in natural settings. This study aimed at getting better knowledge on SFV transmission dynamics, risk factors for such a zoonotic infection and, searching for intra-familial dissemination and the level of peripheral blood (proviral loads in infected individuals. We studied 1,321 people from the general adult population (mean age 49 yrs, 640 women and 681 men and 198 individuals, mostly men, all of whom had encountered a NHP with a resulting bite or scratch. All of these, either Pygmies (436 or Bantus (1085 live in villages in South Cameroon. A specific SFV Western blot was used and two nested PCRs (polymerase, and LTR were done on all the positive/borderline samples by serology. In the general population, 2/1,321 (0.2% persons were found to be infected. In the second group, 37/198 (18.6% persons were SFV positive. They were mostly infected by apes (37/39 FV (mainly gorilla. Infection by monkey FV was less frequent (2/39. The viral origin of the amplified sequences matched with the history reported by the hunters, most of which (83% are aged 20 to 40 years and acquired the infection during the last twenty years. The (proviral load in 33 individuals infected by a gorilla FV was quite low (<1 to 145 copies per 10(5 cells in the peripheral blood leucocytes. Of the 30 wives and 12 children from families of FV infected persons, only one woman was seropositive in WB without subsequent viral DNA amplification. We demonstrate a high level of recent transmission of SFVs to humans in natural settings specifically following severe gorilla bites during hunting activities. The virus was found to persist over several years, with low SFV loads in infected persons. Secondary transmission remains an open question.

  6. Mosquito Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... larvae, then pupae, and then they become adult mosquitos. The males live for about a week to ... can live for months. What health problems can mosquito bites cause? Most mosquito bites are harmless, but ...

  7. Frederiksenia canicola gen. nov., sp. nov. isolated from dogs and human dog-bite wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korczak, Bożena M.; Bisgaard, Magne; Christensen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Polyphasic analysis was done on 24 strains of Bisgaard taxon 16 from five European countries and mainly isolated from dogs and human dog-bite wounds. The isolates represented a phenotypically and genetically homogenous group within the family Pasteurellaceae. Their phenotypic profile was similar...

  8. Bite Mark Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Padmakumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bite mark analysis plays an important role in personal identi- fi cation in forensic odontology. They are commonly seen in violent crimes such as sexual assaults, homicides, child abuse, etc. Human bites are common on the face and are usually seen on prominent locations of the face such as the ears, nose and lips. Individual characteristics recorded in the bite marks such as fractures, rotations, attrition, and congenital malformations are helpful in identifying the individual who caused it. We are reporting the case of a 55-year-old lady with bite marks on her left ear, who was allegedly assaulted by the suspect. On the basis of characteristic features of the suspect’s dentition, it was concluded that the bite marks seen on the victim was most probably caused by the suspect.

  9. Man bites mosquito: understanding the contribution of human movement to vector-borne disease dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Adams

    Full Text Available In metropolitan areas people travel frequently and extensively but often in highly structured commuting patterns. We investigate the role of this type of human movement in the epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens such as dengue. Analysis is based on a metapopulation model where mobile humans connect static mosquito subpopulations. We find that, due to frequency dependent biting, infection incidence in the human and mosquito populations is almost independent of the duration of contact. If the mosquito population is not uniformly distributed between patches the transmission potential of the pathogen at the metapopulation level, as summarized by the basic reproductive number, is determined by the size of the largest subpopulation and reduced by stronger connectivity. Global extinction of the pathogen is less likely when increased human movement enhances the rescue effect but, in contrast to classical theory, it is not minimized at an intermediate level of connectivity. We conclude that hubs and reservoirs of infection can be places people visit frequently but briefly and the relative importance of human and mosquito populations in maintaining the pathogen depends on the distribution of the mosquito population and the variability in human travel patterns. These results offer an insight in to the paradoxical observation of resurgent urban vector-borne disease despite increased investment in vector control and suggest that successful public health intervention may require a dual approach. Prospective studies can be used to identify areas with large mosquito populations that are also visited by a large fraction of the human population. Retrospective studies can be used to map recent movements of infected people, pinpointing the mosquito subpopulation from which they acquired the infection and others to which they may have transmitted it.

  10. A two year study of verified spider bites in Switzerland and a review of the European spider bite literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nentwig, Wolfgang; Gnädinger, Markus; Fuchs, Joan; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2013-10-01

    During a two-year study, all spider bites recorded by Swiss primary care physicians were reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre and all collected spiders were identified. A total of 14 verified spider bites were recorded, involving five species from four families: Zoropsis spinimana (five cases), Cheiracanthium punctorium (four cases), Tegenaria atrica (three cases) and one case of Malthonica ferruginea (= Tegenaria ferruginea) (both Agelenidae), and one case of Amaurobius ferox (Amaurobiidae). The bites of all spider species produced relatively mild symptoms. Local symptoms such as moderate to severe pain, circumscribed swelling and redness were the only effects in most cases. Systemic symptoms were rare. There was complete recovery in all cases and all lesions healed completely without further damage or secondary disorders. Following a review of the European spider bite literature, the number of spider species capable of biting humans in Europe is considered to be much larger than could be concluded from this study. Most spider bites are restricted to species living synanthropically, thus promoted by climate and habitat change. The annual frequency of spider bites in Switzerland is estimated at 10-100 bites per million inhabitants, but this is predicted to increase due to the continuous arrival of new alien species, many of which have a high potential to establish in urban areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bug Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Wasp Stings Flea and Tick Bites Mosquito Bites Spider Bites What to Do Serious Stuff — Get Medical ... diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever. Spider Bites Most spider bites are minor, although they can cause mild ...

  12. Stork bite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... newborns. A stork bite is due to a stretching (dilation) of certain blood vessels. It may become ... all birthmarks during a routine well-baby exam . Prevention There is no known prevention. Alternative Names Salmon ...

  13. Tick Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that go outdoors, you need to beware of ticks. Ticks are small bloodsucking parasites. Many species transmit diseases ... of the diseases you can get from a tick bite are Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted ...

  14. INFLUENCE OF VISUAL FEEDBACK ON HUMAN ISOMETRIC BITE-FORCE TREMOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROEKHUIJSEN, ML; VANWILLIGEN, JD

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to recent reports, during an isometric short forceful bite, visual feedback had a significant influence on the force tremor spectrum. The value of a 'half-value frequency', being the frequency f1/2 at which, with increasing frequency, the amplitude of the spectrum for the first time drop

  15. INFLUENCE OF VISUAL FEEDBACK ON HUMAN ISOMETRIC BITE-FORCE TREMOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROEKHUIJSEN, ML; VANWILLIGEN, JD

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to recent reports, during an isometric short forceful bite, visual feedback had a significant influence on the force tremor spectrum. The value of a 'half-value frequency', being the frequency f1/2 at which, with increasing frequency, the amplitude of the spectrum for the first time drop

  16. EMG activities of two heads of the human lateral pterygoid muscle in relation to mandibular condyle movement and biting force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraba, K; Hibino, K; Hiranuma, K; Negoro, T

    2000-04-01

    Electromyographic (EMG) activities of the superior (SUP) and inferior heads (INF) of the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPT) were recorded in humans during voluntary stepwise changes in biting force and jaw position that were adopted to exclude the effects of acceleration and velocity of jaw movements on the muscle activity. The SUP behaved like a jaw-closing muscle and showed characteristic activity in relation to the biting force. It showed a considerable amount of background activity (5-32% of the maximum) even in the intercuspal position without teeth clenching and reached a nearly maximum activity at relatively lower biting-force levels than the jaw-closing muscles during increment of the biting force. Stretch reflexes were found in the SUP, the function of which could be to stabilize the condyle against the biting force that pulls the condyle posteriorly. This notion was verified by examining the biomechanics on the temporomandibular joint. The complex movements of the mandibular condyle in a sagittal plane were decomposed into displacement in the anteroposterior direction (Ac) and angle of rotation (RAc) around a kinesiological specific point on the condyle. In relation to Ac, each head of the LPT showed quite a similar behavior to each other in all types of jaw movements across all subjects. Working ranges of the muscle activities were almost constant (Ac 3 mm for the INF). The amount of EMG activity of the SUP changed in inverse proportion to Ac showing a hyperbola-like relation, whereas that of the INF changed rather linearly. The EMG amplitude of the SUP showed a quasilinear inverse relation with RAc in the hinge movement during which the condyle rotated with no movement in the anteroposterior direction. This finding suggests that the SUP controls the angular relationship between the articular disk and the condyle. On the other hand, the position of the disk in relation to the maxilla, not to the condyle, is controlled indirectly by the INF because the disk

  17. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Pets and AnimalsPrevention and WellnessStaying Healthy Share Cat and Dog Bites Cat and dog bites are ...

  18. Manejo quirúrgico urgente de heridas faciales por mordedura humana Urgent surgical management of facial human bite wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernández García

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Las heridas por mordedura pueden generar algunas dificultades quirúrgicas en su manejo inicial debido a su especial predisposición a las complicaciones sépticas y la importante destrucción tisular frecuentemente asociada. Sin embargo, es importante su reparación inmediata, especialmente en el caso de amputaciones y colgajos por avulsión. Las mordeduras humanas se hallan envueltas además en consideraciones psicológicas que incrementan la dificultad del tratamiento debido a las espectativas estéticas de los pacientes que las sufren. Este trabajo analiza 7 casos de mordedura facial humana desde los puntos de vista epidemiológico y clínico. Presentamos y discutimos el uso de los tejidos amputados como fuente de injertos de piel, injertos condrales y el papel de los colgajos locales en dos tiempos en la cirugía de urgencia de estas lesiones.Bite wounds can create several surgical difficulties in their initial management due to the special facility for infectious complications and the frequent association with extensive tissue damage. However, the immediate repair its desirable, mainly in amputations and flap avulsions. The human bite wounds are also involved by psychological considerations that increase the difficulty of the treatment due to patient´s aesthetic expectations. This article analyzes 7 cases of facial human bites under the epidemiological and clinical points of view. The use of the amputated tissues to obtain skin grafts, condral grafts, and the role of local two stage flaps in the emergency surgery of these wounds are exposed and discussed.

  19. Identification of human-derived volatile chemicals that interfere with attraction of the Scottish biting midge and their potential use as repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, James G; Seal, Nicola J; Cook, James I; Stanczyk, Nina M; Birkett, Michael A; Clark, Suzanne J; Gezan, Salvador A; Wadhams, Lester J; Pickett, John A; Mordue, A Jennifer

    2009-03-01

    The Scottish biting midge, Culicoides impunctatus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), is a major pest in Scotland, causing a significant impact to the Scottish tourist and forestry industries. C. impunctatus is a generalist feeder, preferring to feed on large mammals, and is notorious for its attacks on humans. Until now, there was anecdotal evidence for differential attraction of female host-seeking C. impunctatus to individual human hosts, and the mechanism for this phenomenon was unknown. Using extracts of human odor collected by air entrainment, electroantennogram recordings to identify the physiologically active components, followed by behavioral assays, we show, for the first time, the differential attraction of female C. impunctatus to human odors and the chemical basis for this phenomenon. Certain chemicals, found in greater amounts in extracts that cause low attractiveness to midges, elicit a repellent effect in laboratory assays and repellency trials in the field. Differences in the production of these natural human-derived compounds could help to explain differential "attractiveness" between different human hosts. A mixture of two compounds in particular, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and geranylacetone [(E)-6,10-dimethylundeca-5,9-dien-2-one], showed significant repellency (87, 77.4, 74.2, and 31.6% at hours 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively) in the field and have the potential to be developed as novel repellents.

  20. Bite by moray eel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JP Barreiros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries caused by moray eels are not a common problem, but are distributed throughout the globe, affecting mainly fishermen while manipulating hooked or netted fish. On a lesser scale, scuba divers and snorkelers, practicing or not spear fishing, are occasional victims of bites. With more than 185 species distributed among 15 genera, mostly in tropical to temperate shallow water, moray eels easily come into contact with humans and occasional injuries are not uncommon. The current study reports one case of moray eel bite and discusses the circumstances in which the accident happened, as well as wound evolution and therapy.

  1. Spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; Fan, Hui Wen

    2011-12-10

    Spiders are a source of intrigue and fear, and several myths exist about their medical effects. Many people believe that bites from various spider species cause necrotic ulceration, despite evidence that most suspected cases of necrotic arachnidism are caused by something other than a spider bite. Latrodectism and loxoscelism are the most important clinical syndromes resulting from spider bite. Latrodectism results from bites by widow spiders (Latrodectus spp) and causes local, regional, or generalised pain associated with non-specific symptoms and autonomic effects. Loxoscelism is caused by Loxosceles spp, and the cutaneous form manifests as pain and erythema that can develop into a necrotic ulcer. Systemic loxoscelism is characterised by intravascular haemolysis and renal failure on occasion. Other important spiders include the Australian funnel-web spider (Atrax spp and Hadronyche spp) and the armed spider (Phoneutria spp) from Brazil. Antivenoms are an important treatment for spider envenomation but have been less successful than have those for snake envenomation, with concerns about their effectiveness for both latrodectism and loxoscelism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CLINICO EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF WILD ANIMAL BITE VICTIMS ATTENDING ANTI RABIES CLINIC AT GOVERNMENT TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN MANDYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnavi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Rabies is an acute viral disease that causes fatal encephalitis in virtually all the warm blooded animals including man. In India it is estimated that annually 17.4 million animal bite cases occur and 20, 000 deaths occur due to human rabies. Dogs are responsible for about 97%of the human rabies, followed by cats (2%, jackals, mongoose and others (1%. There is scarcity of literature regarding human rabies due to wild animals. OBJECTIVES: To describe the socio- demographic characteristics of wild animal bite victims attending Anti Rabies Clinic (ARC, Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences (MIMS, Mandya and to describe the circumstances, characteristics of bite and post exposure prophylactic measures taken to prevent rabies. METHODOLOGY: This hospital based case record analysis was done for a period of 3 years from January 2011 to December 2013 at Anti Rabies Clinic (ARC, Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences, Mandya. The details regarding the socio demographic characteristics of bite victims, characteristics of the bite wound and post exposure prophylactic measures taken to prevent rabies were collected using case records of wild animal bite victims. RESULTS: A total of 12, 798 animal bite victims had attended ARC during the study period, of which 67 (0.52% cases were exposed to wild animals. Of these 67 cases, 45 (67.2% of the victims were exposed to monkey and 13 (19.4% were exposed to wild boar. 45 (67.2% of the wild animal bite victims were in the age group of 15 to 60 years, 49 (73.1% were males and 22 (32.8% belonging to class IV socio economic status. Many of the monkey bites happened when the monkey was trying to snatch food from the victims and while other wild animal bites happened when the farmers were guarding their field. 40 (59.7% had bites on upper limb. 51 (76.1% had washed the wound with soap and water before coming to ARC. RIG was advised to all victims but was taken by 49 (73.1% of the bite victims. All four doses

  3. Insect Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most insect bites are harmless, though they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. Mosquito and flea bites usually itch. Insects can also spread diseases. In the United States, ...

  4. Dog Bite Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Dog bite emergencies What do I do if I’ ... vaccination records. What do I do if my dog bites someone? Dog bites are scary for everyone ...

  5. Spider Bites (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TV, Video Games, and the Internet First Aid: Spider Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Spider Bites ... rare. Signs and Symptoms Of a brown recluse spider bite: red blister in the center with surrounding ...

  6. Avoid Mosquito Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Avoid Mosquito Bites Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... finding a travel medicine clinic near you. Prevent Mosquito Bites While Traveling Mosquito bites are bothersome enough, ...

  7. Dog bites

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Leyva, Felipe; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Although no official data exists for Colombia, dog bites are not infrequent consults to the emergency department on a global scale. In the urban or rural setting, it is likely that Colombian emergency department physicians face patients with such consults in their clinical practice. It is imperative that those physicians become familiar with the current national guidelines and protocols for the attention of such patients, since he/she must act pertinently according to the resour...

  8. Dog bites

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Leyva, Felipe; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Although no official data exists for Colombia, dog bites are not infrequent consults to the emergency department on a global scale. In the urban or rural setting, it is likely that Colombian emergency department physicians face patients with such consults in their clinical practice. It is imperative that those physicians become familiar with the current national guidelines and protocols for the attention of such patients, since he/she must act pertinently according to the resour...

  9. Necrotizing Fasciitis Resulting from Human Bites: A Report of Two Cases of Disease Caused by Group A Streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Sikora

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition. Although bite wounds are common, they are not frequently reported as a cause of necrotizing fasciitis. In the present article, two cases of bite-associated necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A streptococcus are reported. Previously published cases are also reviewed.

  10. An analysis of some factors determining the sporozoite rates, human blood indexes, and biting rates of members of the Anopheles punctulatus complex in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkot, T R; Dye, C; Graves, P M

    1989-03-01

    The degree to which Anopheles punctulatus complex members feed on humans in different Papua New Guinea villages has a significant effect on sporozoite rates. Among villages, the human blood index (HBI) of the members of the complex varied with the average number of persons sharing a bednet. Although dogs are the preferred hosts by the 3 malaria vector species, the number of dogs did not significantly affect the HBI. The HBI was dependent upon the human-biting rate, implying increased avoidance of anophelines by people relative to other hosts at times of greater mosquito numbers. Human-biting rates and HBIs were also influenced by the distribution of alternative hosts relative to people.

  11. Swiss prospective study on spider bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnädinger, Markus; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Fuchs, Joan; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2013-09-04

    Knowledge of spider bites in Central Europe derives mainly from anecdotal case presentations; therefore we aimed to collect cases systematically. From June 2011 to November 2012 we prospectively collected 17 cases of alleged spider bites, and together with two spontaneous notifications later on, our database totaled 19 cases. Among them, eight cases could be verified. The causative species were: Cheiracanthium punctorium (3), Zoropsis spinimana (2), Amaurobius ferox, Tegenaria atrica and Malthonica ferruginea (1 each). Clinical presentation was generally mild, with the exception of Cheiracanthium punctorium, and patients recovered fully without sequelae. In Switzerland, spider bites generally have a benign clinical course, which is characterised by minor effects, with rapid and complete recovery. Since only verified spider bites can be regarded as spider bites, in the case of clinically important arachnidism, the spider should be sent to an expert for identification. Our study may help to diminish spider fear and reassure people who have experienced a bite.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation of a Novel Integrated Bite Case Management Program for the Control of Human Rabies, Haiti 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Meltzer, Martin I; Tran, Cuc H; Atkins, Charisma Y; Etheart, Melissa D; Millien, Max F; Adrien, Paul; Wallace, Ryan M

    2017-06-01

    AbstractHaiti has the highest burden of rabies in the Western hemisphere, with 130 estimated annual deaths. We present the cost-effectiveness evaluation of an integrated bite case management program combining community bite investigations and passive animal rabies surveillance, using a governmental perspective. The Haiti Animal Rabies Surveillance Program (HARSP) was first implemented in three communes of the West Department, Haiti. Our evaluation encompassed all individuals exposed to rabies in the study area (N = 2,289) in 2014-2015. Costs (2014 U.S. dollars) included diagnostic laboratory development, training of surveillance officers, operational costs, and postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). We used estimated deaths averted and years of life gained (YLG) from prevented rabies as health outcomes. HARSP had higher overall costs (range: $39,568-$80,290) than the no-bite-case-management (NBCM) scenario ($15,988-$26,976), partly from an increased number of bite victims receiving PEP. But HARSP had better health outcomes than NBCM, with estimated 11 additional annual averted deaths in 2014 and nine in 2015, and 654 additional YLG in 2014 and 535 in 2015. Overall, HARSP was more cost-effective (US$ per death averted) than NBCM (2014, HARSP: $2,891-$4,735, NBCM: $5,980-$8,453; 2015, HARSP: $3,534-$7,171, NBCM: $7,298-$12,284). HARSP offers an effective human rabies prevention solution for countries transitioning from reactive to preventive strategies, such as comprehensive dog vaccination.

  13. The first account of a bite by the New Zealand native spider Trite planiceps (Araneae: Salticidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derraik, José G B; Sirvid, Phil J; Rademaker, Marius

    2010-05-14

    New Zealand has very few arthropods that pose a threat to human health. While most New Zealand spiders are considered harmless, the bite effects of most species are unknown. Here, we describe a case of a bite by a native spider, in which a young man was bitten after rolling over in his bed. The spider was collected and identified as Trite planiceps (Salticidae, black headed jumping spider), a native species commonly encountered around homes. The initial reaction was a relatively painful, sting-like, sensation, followed by the appearance of two red puncture marks and an urticarial wheal. Symptoms eventually disappeared after 72 hours, and he has had no further dermatological problems. Trite planiceps is considered to be a rather docile spider with regard to humans, but even a docile species may still bite defensively as a last resort. Notes on this species and on treatment of spider bites are provided.

  14. Collection of Human Wastes on Long Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, D. C.; Lewis, T. A.; Brose, H. F.

    1986-01-01

    Report evaluates and compares three alternative approaches to hygienic containment of human wastes. Three practical means of waste collection: filter-bag collection with compaction by fan suction, canister collection with compaction by force applied to compaction cups or disks, and sleeve collection with compaction by rollers and winding on reel. Potentially useful in airplanes, buses, boats, trains, and campers and temporary toilets for construction sites and outdoor gatherings.

  15. [Bacteriological study of oral cavity of people of Mexican origin to determine etiology agents of human infections in hand bite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañedo-Guzmán, Cristhyan Baruch; Espinosa-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Guzmán-Murillo, María Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Hand infections secondary to human bites often leave serious consequences on the functioning of the hand. Such infections are caused by different bacteria. Most bacteriological studies have been made to people of Anglo-Saxon origin or descent, and based on these findings; provide treatment to patients of different origins which may not always be as effective. Descriptive, internal stratified 17 patients were isolated samples of oral cavity and dental plaque bacterial species to identify and define the possible treatment according to the species identified. Microorganisms were isolated Gram (+) and Gram (-) belonging to the normal flora of the oral cavity and dental plaque in all the cases studied, presenting a variable number of microorganisms according to age but not by sex. The group of Gram-positive bacteria isolated showed sensitivity to: erythromycin, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin. In the group of Gram negative: kanamycin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, E. Corrodens sensitive to the group of quinolones as ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin as well as ceftriaxone and cefoperazone sulbactam. The bacterial species that are commonly found in normal flora of the oral cavity and dental plaque may be potential pathogens in a hand injury where to find the appropriate conditions for their development.

  16. Take an Adventure Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Brandt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Adventure Bites - Cooking with Kids program enhanced nutrition curriculum by including a Life Skill development focus and a family night - to improve youth nutrition behaviors. The data was collected using the WSU 4-H Life Skills pre-post youth evaluations, staff surveys, a parent retrospective pre-post survey, and comparison data from non-program sites. The results support adding Life Skills and family night events into youth nutrition curricula. There are opportunities to improve evaluation and do further testing, to determine what the individual impact of Life Skill development and/or individual impact of having family nights had on changes in youth behaviors regarding nutrition.

  17. Intra-population plasticity of Anopheles darlingi's (Diptera, Culicidae biting activity patterns in the state of Amapá, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voorham Jaco

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the variation in Anopheles darlingi's biting activity compared to An. marajoara in the same locality and to biting activity data from other regions. METHODS: Using human bait, eight observations of the biting activity of An. darlingi and An. marajoara were carried out during 1999 and 2000 in the municipality of São Raimundo do Pirativa, state of Amapá, Brazil. Each observation consisted of three consecutive 13-hour collections, close to full moon. There were shifts of collectors in the observation points and nocturnal periods. RESULTS: An. darlingi revealed considerable plasticity of biting activity in contrast to An. marajoara, which showed well-defined crepuscular biting peaks. No significant correlation between density and biting activity was found, but a significant correlation existed between time and proportional crepuscular activity, indicating underlying ecological processes not yet understood. Two of the four available data sets having multiple observations at one locality showed considerable plasticity of this species' biting patterns as well. CONCLUSION: Intra-population variation of biting activity can be as significant as inter-population variation. Some implications in malaria vector control and specific studies are also discussed.

  18. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (ACARI: IXODIDAE) BITING A HUMAN BEING IN PORTOALEGRE CITY, RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENTZ, Márcia Bohrer; TROMBKA, Marcelo; da SILVA, Guilherme Liberato; SILVA, Carlos Eugênio

    2016-01-01

    We report the finding of a female brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) on the scalp of a male patient in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Human parasitism by this tick is rare and has seldomly been reported in the literature, despite its recognized importance since it can act as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of spotted fever. PMID:27074329

  19. Microbial analysis of bite marks by sequence comparison of streptococcal DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darnell M Kennedy

    Full Text Available Bite mark injuries often feature in violent crimes. Conventional morphometric methods for the forensic analysis of bite marks involve elements of subjective interpretation that threaten the credibility of this field. Human DNA recovered from bite marks has the highest evidentiary value, however recovery can be compromised by salivary components. This study assessed the feasibility of matching bacterial DNA sequences amplified from experimental bite marks to those obtained from the teeth responsible, with the aim of evaluating the capability of three genomic regions of streptococcal DNA to discriminate between participant samples. Bite mark and teeth swabs were collected from 16 participants. Bacterial DNA was extracted to provide the template for PCR primers specific for streptococcal 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA gene, 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS and RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB. High throughput sequencing (GS FLX 454, followed by stringent quality filtering, generated reads from bite marks for comparison to those generated from teeth samples. For all three regions, the greatest overlaps of identical reads were between bite mark samples and the corresponding teeth samples. The average proportions of reads identical between bite mark and corresponding teeth samples were 0.31, 0.41 and 0.31, and for non-corresponding samples were 0.11, 0.20 and 0.016, for 16S rRNA, ITS and rpoB, respectively. The probabilities of correctly distinguishing matching and non-matching teeth samples were 0.92 for ITS, 0.99 for 16S rRNA and 1.0 for rpoB. These findings strongly support the tenet that bacterial DNA amplified from bite marks and teeth can provide corroborating information in the identification of assailants.

  20. Managing humans biting and humorous tales of a software engineering manager

    CERN Document Server

    Lopp, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The humor and insights in the 2nd Edition of Managing Humans are drawn from Michael Lopp's management experiences at Apple, Netscape, Symantec, and Borland, among others. This book is full of stories based on companies in the Silicon Valley where people have been known to yell at each other and occasionally throw chairs. It is a place full of dysfunctional bright people who are in an incredible hurry to find the next big thing so they can strike it rich and then do it all over again. Among these people are managers, a strange breed of people who, through a mystical organizational ritual, have

  1. Heridas por Mordedura / Bites Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coturel A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Injuries for animal bites are a common cause of consultation to emergency services. However there are still controversies about some aspects of their treatment. It is not recommended to brush the wound area but to flush the surface with isoosmolar saline. The primary wound closure is justified when improves the cosmetic outcome and has no increase risk of infection. Antibiotic prophylaxis is allways indicated in cats or humans bites. The drug of choice is amoxicillin clavulanate.The tetanus vaccine should be indicated when the patient has not full vaccination scheme and rabies vaccine in cases of suspected or confirmed infected animals.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation of a Novel Integrated Bite Case Management Program for the Control of Human Rabies, Haiti 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Meltzer, Martin I.; Tran, Cuc H.; Atkins, Charisma Y.; Etheart, Melissa D.; Millien, Max F.; Adrien, Paul; Wallace, Ryan M.

    2017-01-01

    Haiti has the highest burden of rabies in the Western hemisphere, with 130 estimated annual deaths. We present the cost-effectiveness evaluation of an integrated bite case management program combining community bite investigations and passive animal rabies surveillance, using a governmental perspective. The Haiti Animal Rabies Surveillance Program (HARSP) was first implemented in three communes of the West Department, Haiti. Our evaluation encompassed all individuals exposed to rabies in the study area (N = 2,289) in 2014–2015. Costs (2014 U.S. dollars) included diagnostic laboratory development, training of surveillance officers, operational costs, and postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). We used estimated deaths averted and years of life gained (YLG) from prevented rabies as health outcomes. HARSP had higher overall costs (range: $39,568–$80,290) than the no-bite-case-management (NBCM) scenario ($15,988–$26,976), partly from an increased number of bite victims receiving PEP. But HARSP had better health outcomes than NBCM, with estimated 11 additional annual averted deaths in 2014 and nine in 2015, and 654 additional YLG in 2014 and 535 in 2015. Overall, HARSP was more cost-effective (US$ per death averted) than NBCM (2014, HARSP: $2,891–$4,735, NBCM: $5,980–$8,453; 2015, HARSP: $3,534–$7,171, NBCM: $7,298–$12,284). HARSP offers an effective human rabies prevention solution for countries transitioning from reactive to preventive strategies, such as comprehensive dog vaccination. PMID:28719253

  3. Australian wolf spider bites (Lycosidae): clinical effects and influence of species on bite circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; Framenau, Volker W

    2004-01-01

    Necrotic arachnidism continues to be attributed to wolf spider bites. This study investigates the clinical effects of bites by wolf spiders in Australia (family Lycosidae). Subjects were recruited prospectively from February 1999 to April 2001 from participating emergency departments or state poison information centers. Subjects were included if they had a definite bite by a wolf spider and had collected the spider, which was later identified by an arachnologist. Spiders were identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible and cephalothorax width was measured to correlate bite effects and spider size. There were 45 definite wolf spider bites (23 male and 22 female patients; age range 1 to 69 years, median age 28 years). Species level identifications (14 species) were possible for 31 of 43 spiders belonging to seven different generic groupings. Most bites were by spiders from four generic groupings, Tasmanicosa (including 'Lycosa') (15), Venatrix (8), Venator (10), and Hogna (7). Bites occurred more commonly in south-eastern Australia and occurred throughout the year, with 7 bites (16%) in late autumn or winter. In 7 cases (16%) the person was swimming in or cleaning a pool. Seventy-two percent of bites occurred on distal parts of limbs. Pain occurred in all bites and was severe in 11 cases (24%), with a median duration of 10 min (IQR: 2-60 min). Other effects included puncture marks/bleeding (33%), swelling (20%), redness (67%), and itchiness (13%). Minor systemic effects occurred in three patients (7%): nausea (two), headache (one) and malaise (one). There were no cases of necrotic ulcers [0%; 97.5% CI 0-8%]. Tasmanicosa spider bites caused significantly more itchiness and redness, and large spiders (>5 mm) more often caused severe pain and left fang marks. Wolf spider bites cause minor effects, no more severe than most other spiders, and do not appear to cause necrotic ulcers. The effects are likely to be due to mechanical injury, although minor local

  4. Bites and stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Janice; Fahridin, Salma; Britt, Helena

    2009-11-01

    Of the 426 bite or sting problems managed, 312 (73%) were caused by insects. There were 114 other types of bites recorded, the most common being dog and spider bites. There were five cases of toxicity from aquatic animal stings or adverse reactions to bee stings (Table 1).

  5. Human collective intelligence as distributed Bayesian inference

    CERN Document Server

    Krafft, Peter M; Pan, Wei; Della Penna, Nicolás; Altshuler, Yaniv; Shmueli, Erez; Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Pentland, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Collective intelligence is believed to underly the remarkable success of human society. The formation of accurate shared beliefs is one of the key components of human collective intelligence. How are accurate shared beliefs formed in groups of fallible individuals? Answering this question requires a multiscale analysis. We must understand both the individual decision mechanisms people use, and the properties and dynamics of those mechanisms in the aggregate. As of yet, mathematical tools for such an approach have been lacking. To address this gap, we introduce a new analytical framework: We propose that groups arrive at accurate shared beliefs via distributed Bayesian inference. Distributed inference occurs through information processing at the individual level, and yields rational belief formation at the group level. We instantiate this framework in a new model of human social decision-making, which we validate using a dataset we collected of over 50,000 users of an online social trading platform where inves...

  6. Lokasi Gigitan Secara Anatomi dan Waktu Kematian Pascagigitan Anjing Rabies pada Korban Manusia di Bali (THE ANATOMICAL LOCATIONS OF BITE AND THE TIME OF DEATH IN HUMAN VICTIMS BITTEN BY RABIES INFECTED DOGS IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Suatha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies was a new emerging disease in Bali. After the first case of rabies in 2008 there were morethan one hundred of human victims in Bali. The aim of this study was to report the anatomical locationof human body bitten by rabies infected dogs in Bali, and also the day of victims death after the bitten. Aretrospective cross-sectional review of rabies incidences from September 2008 to the end of 2011 was usedin this study. A total of 122 rabies human victims data were used as a population sample. The data on theprofiles of individuals victim were colected , such as the age, gender, living place, anatomical bite site onhuman body, bite date, and type of biting animal. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptiveanalysis. The result showed that the anatomical location of human body that bitten by rabies infected dogwas occurred on leg (52%, hand (32%, body (6%, and head (4%. Of 122 victims, 61.5% were men and38.5% were woman. The death time of the human rabies victims in average occurred at day 95th after thebite date, and time of the victims death depended on the anatomical location of the bite. Bite that occurredon the head caused death in average on day 19th, on the body on day 83th, on the hand on day 122nd, and onleg on day 166th. In conclusion, the most victims of human rabies in Bali was men and the death was foundoccurred on day 95th after the bite date. The bite at the head caused death more quickly than the other partof human body.

  7. Collective Intelligence in Humans: A Literature Review

    CERN Document Server

    Salminen, Juho

    2012-01-01

    This literature review focuses on collective intelligence in humans. A keyword search was performed on the Web of Knowledge and selected papers were reviewed in order to reveal themes relevant to collective intelligence. Three levels of abstraction were identified in discussion about the phenomenon: the micro-level, the macro-level and the level of emergence. Recurring themes in the literature were categorized under the above-mentioned framework and directions for future research were identified.

  8. From eggs to bites: do ovitrap data provide reliable estimates of Aedes albopictus biting females?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Manica

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Aedes albopictus is an aggressive invasive mosquito species that represents a serious health concern not only in tropical areas, but also in temperate regions due to its role as vector of arboviruses. Estimates of mosquito biting rates are essential to account for vector-human contact in models aimed to predict the risk of arbovirus autochthonous transmission and outbreaks, as well as nuisance thresholds useful for correct planning of mosquito control interventions. Methods targeting daytime and outdoor biting Ae. albopictus females (e.g., Human Landing Collection, HLC are expensive and difficult to implement in large scale schemes. Instead, egg-collections by ovitraps are the most widely used routine approach for large-scale monitoring of the species. The aim of this work was to assess whether ovitrap data can be exploited to estimate numbers of adult biting Ae. albopictus females and whether the resulting relationship could be used to build risk models helpful for decision-makers in charge of planning of mosquito-control activities in infested areas. Method Ovitrap collections and HLCs were carried out in hot-spots of Ae. albopictus abundance in Rome (Italy along a whole reproductive season. The relationship between the two sets of data was assessed by generalized least square analysis, taking into account meteorological parameters. Result The mean number of mosquito females/person collected by HLC in 15′ (i.e., females/HLC and the mean number of eggs/day were 18.9 ± 0.7 and 39.0 ± 2.0, respectively. The regression models found a significant positive relationship between the two sets of data and estimated an increase of one biting female/person every five additional eggs found in ovitraps. Both observed and fitted values indicated presence of adults in the absence of eggs in ovitraps. Notably, wide confidence intervals of estimates of biting females based on eggs were observed. The patterns of exotic arbovirus outbreak

  9. From eggs to bites: do ovitrap data provide reliable estimates of Aedes albopictus biting females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Mattia; Rosà, Roberto; Della Torre, Alessandra; Caputo, Beniamino

    2017-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is an aggressive invasive mosquito species that represents a serious health concern not only in tropical areas, but also in temperate regions due to its role as vector of arboviruses. Estimates of mosquito biting rates are essential to account for vector-human contact in models aimed to predict the risk of arbovirus autochthonous transmission and outbreaks, as well as nuisance thresholds useful for correct planning of mosquito control interventions. Methods targeting daytime and outdoor biting Ae. albopictus females (e.g., Human Landing Collection, HLC) are expensive and difficult to implement in large scale schemes. Instead, egg-collections by ovitraps are the most widely used routine approach for large-scale monitoring of the species. The aim of this work was to assess whether ovitrap data can be exploited to estimate numbers of adult biting Ae. albopictus females and whether the resulting relationship could be used to build risk models helpful for decision-makers in charge of planning of mosquito-control activities in infested areas. Ovitrap collections and HLCs were carried out in hot-spots of Ae. albopictus abundance in Rome (Italy) along a whole reproductive season. The relationship between the two sets of data was assessed by generalized least square analysis, taking into account meteorological parameters. The mean number of mosquito females/person collected by HLC in 15' (i.e., females/HLC) and the mean number of eggs/day were 18.9 ± 0.7 and 39.0 ± 2.0, respectively. The regression models found a significant positive relationship between the two sets of data and estimated an increase of one biting female/person every five additional eggs found in ovitraps. Both observed and fitted values indicated presence of adults in the absence of eggs in ovitraps. Notably, wide confidence intervals of estimates of biting females based on eggs were observed. The patterns of exotic arbovirus outbreak probability obtained by introducing these estimates

  10. From eggs to bites: do ovitrap data provide reliable estimates of Aedes albopictus biting females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Mattia; Rosà, Roberto; della Torre, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Background Aedes albopictus is an aggressive invasive mosquito species that represents a serious health concern not only in tropical areas, but also in temperate regions due to its role as vector of arboviruses. Estimates of mosquito biting rates are essential to account for vector-human contact in models aimed to predict the risk of arbovirus autochthonous transmission and outbreaks, as well as nuisance thresholds useful for correct planning of mosquito control interventions. Methods targeting daytime and outdoor biting Ae. albopictus females (e.g., Human Landing Collection, HLC) are expensive and difficult to implement in large scale schemes. Instead, egg-collections by ovitraps are the most widely used routine approach for large-scale monitoring of the species. The aim of this work was to assess whether ovitrap data can be exploited to estimate numbers of adult biting Ae. albopictus females and whether the resulting relationship could be used to build risk models helpful for decision-makers in charge of planning of mosquito-control activities in infested areas. Method Ovitrap collections and HLCs were carried out in hot-spots of Ae. albopictus abundance in Rome (Italy) along a whole reproductive season. The relationship between the two sets of data was assessed by generalized least square analysis, taking into account meteorological parameters. Result The mean number of mosquito females/person collected by HLC in 15′ (i.e., females/HLC) and the mean number of eggs/day were 18.9 ± 0.7 and 39.0 ± 2.0, respectively. The regression models found a significant positive relationship between the two sets of data and estimated an increase of one biting female/person every five additional eggs found in ovitraps. Both observed and fitted values indicated presence of adults in the absence of eggs in ovitraps. Notably, wide confidence intervals of estimates of biting females based on eggs were observed. The patterns of exotic arbovirus outbreak probability obtained by

  11. Animal Bites Epidemiology in Shahroud City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amiri

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rabies is an infectious central nervous system disease that infects all mammals and man. This study aimed at investigating the epidemiology of animal bites in Shahroud. Methods: In this deh1ive study all the data related to animal bite cases in shahroud in 2008-2009 were collected based on the data registration notebooks. Results: A total of 588 cases of animal bite were reported in 2008-2009 the majority of whom (82.1% were male. Of this total 35.7% were urban and 64.3% were rural. Just 2 of the cases were foreigners. The incidence rate of animal bite in the city was 159 (27% compared to 429 cases (73% in villages. Dogs and cats accounted for about 79.1% and 12.6% of the cases respectively. 12 cases were also wolf fox and Reynard bites. All cases have completed vaccination. In 82.3% of animal bites the biter was alive after 10 days and in 2% biters were dead and in 15.6% the biter reported invisible after 10 days. The incidence rate of animal bites in Shahroud was 246 in one hundred thousand. Conclusions: Animal bites are one of the most important problems of public health. Educational activities along with the promotion of out- organizing cooperation can play a significant role in controlling this problem

  12. Spider Bite in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaei-Zadeh, Hossein

    2017-07-01

    Some of the world's most dangerous spiders have been certified in some areas of Iran. Spider bites are common in some geographical areas, and are sporadic in some regions. Spider bites can be classified as latrodectism or loxoscelism. If the patient had not seen the spider, the clinical manifestations of latrodectism could be easily mistaken for other types of bite or sting; or an infectious disease, and withdrawal symptoms, and also loxoscelism could be mistaken for cellulitis, various types of skin infection, or even a sting from a Gadim scorpion (Hemiscorpius lepturus). Given the nonspecific presentation of spider bites, one must keep the diagnosis in mind, and question patients, regarding possible exposure to spiders. Physicians recommend becoming familiar with the geographical distribution of Iranian dangerous spiders, clinical manifestations, and management of their bites. The most useful treatment for spider bite is anti-venom administration. Producing spider bite anti-venom in the Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute is under investigation.

  13. Animal bites - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - animals - self-care ... Most animal bites come from pets. Dog bites are common and most often happen to children. Cat bites are ... which can cause deeper puncture wounds. Most other animal bites are caused by stray or wild animals, ...

  14. An Innovative Miniature Bite Force Recorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Utreja, Ashok K; Sandhu, Navreet; Dhaliwal, Yadvinder S

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a detailed description of development of a new novel bite force recorder (gnathodynamometer) using solid state components is vividly explained. This state of the art authenticated device can be used to assess the complex function of human bite force, which is the net resultant combination of functional response of various craniomandibular structures consisting of interrelated components, like the muscles of mastication, joints, teeth and the neuromuscular system. The consistency and accuracy of the bite force recorder was reaffirmed by doing a detailed laboratory calibration and clinical testing on 30 adult subjects.

  15. Evaluation of the Human IgG Antibody Response to Aedes albopictus Saliva as a New Specific Biomarker of Exposure to Vector Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucoure, Souleymane; Mouchet, François; Cornelie, Sylvie; DeHecq, Jean Sébastien; Rutee, Abdul Hamid; Roca, Yelin; Walter, Annie; Hervé, Jean Pierre; Misse, Dorothée; Favier, François; Gasque, Philippe; Remoue, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Background The spread of Aedes albopictus, a vector for re-emergent arbovirus diseases like chikungunya and dengue, points up the need for better control strategies and new tools to evaluate transmission risk. Human antibody (Ab) responses to mosquito salivary proteins could represent a reliable biomarker for evaluating human-vector contact and the efficacy of control programs. Methodology/Principal Findings We used ELISA tests to evaluate specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to salivary gland extracts (SGE) in adults exposed to Aedes albopictus in Reunion Island. The percentage of immune responders (88%) and levels of anti-SGE IgG Abs were high in exposed individuals. At an individual level, our results indicate heterogeneity of the exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. In addition, low-level immune cross-reactivity between Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti SGEs was observed, mainly in the highest responders. Conclusion/Significance Ab responses to saliva could be used as an immuno-epidemiological tool for evaluating exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. Combined with entomological and epidemiological methods, a “salivary” biomarker of exposure to Aedes albopictus could enhance surveillance of its spread and the risk of arbovirus transmission, and could be used as a direct tool for the evaluation of Aedes albopictus control strategies. PMID:22363823

  16. Evaluation of the human IgG antibody response to Aedes albopictus saliva as a new specific biomarker of exposure to vector bites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Doucoure

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The spread of Aedes albopictus, a vector for re-emergent arbovirus diseases like chikungunya and dengue, points up the need for better control strategies and new tools to evaluate transmission risk. Human antibody (Ab responses to mosquito salivary proteins could represent a reliable biomarker for evaluating human-vector contact and the efficacy of control programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used ELISA tests to evaluate specific immunoglobulin G (IgG responses to salivary gland extracts (SGE in adults exposed to Aedes albopictus in Reunion Island. The percentage of immune responders (88% and levels of anti-SGE IgG Abs were high in exposed individuals. At an individual level, our results indicate heterogeneity of the exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. In addition, low-level immune cross-reactivity between Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti SGEs was observed, mainly in the highest responders. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Ab responses to saliva could be used as an immuno-epidemiological tool for evaluating exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. Combined with entomological and epidemiological methods, a "salivary" biomarker of exposure to Aedes albopictus could enhance surveillance of its spread and the risk of arbovirus transmission, and could be used as a direct tool for the evaluation of Aedes albopictus control strategies.

  17. 三维锥形束CT用于人牙咬痕认定的有效性比较研究%Effectiveness Assessment of 3-D Cone Beam CT Used in Human Bite Marks Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴砚; 陈新民; 沈韵; 余锦豪; 唐莹; 张以鸣; 朱磊; 徐远志

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to use the 3-D cone beam CT (CBCT) as a new method in human bite marks identification which was carried out in experimental pigskin to assess its effectiveness in our laboratory. Bite marks were digital photographed according to American Board of Forensic Odontology (ABFO) guidelines. In this study, the data of the suspect's dental casts were collected by scanning in two ways: one was after plate scanning, in which the comparison overlays were generated by Adobe Photoshop8. 0 softwares the other was by CBCT, which generated comparison overlays automatically. The bite marks were blind identified with the two kinds of data of the suspect's dental casts respectively. ROC curve was used to analyze the sensitivity, specificity, and 95% confidence interval. The results showed that CBCT method got a larger area under the ROC curve: 0. 784 (SE=0. 074, 95% CI=0. 639-0. 929), and got a very high specificity (specificity 98. 7%, 95% CI=94. 5%-99. 8%). Thus, this study illustrates that the CBCT used in bite mark identification is an effective and accurate tool and has stronger ability to exclude suspects compared with the conventional method, but the comparison process needs further study to enhance its effectiveness in bite mark identification.%将三维锥形束CT(CBCT)用于人牙咬痕的认定,并通过猪皮载体上的实验咬痕开展其有效性分析.咬痕按照美国法医牙科协会(ABFO)指导原则进行数码拍照.嫌疑人牙模采用两种方法扫描采集数据:第一种是扫描仪扫描,再由常规方法Adobe Photoshop8.0软件生成比较overlay;第二种是使用CBCT三维扫描自动生成比较o-verlay.本研究将咬痕的数码相片分别与两种方法采集的牙模数据进行盲法比较认定,评定使用ROC曲线来分析灵敏度、特异度,并计算95%可信区间.结果显示CBCT法获得较大的ROC曲线下面积:0.784(SE=0.074,95%CI=0.639伍0.929);获得相当高的特异度(特异度98.7%,95

  18. 75 FR 34146 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request Resource for the Collection and Evaluation of Human Tissues...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request Resource for the Collection and Evaluation of Human Tissues and Cells From Donors With an Epidemiology Profile (NCI) SUMMARY... Collection: Title: Resource for the Collection and Evaluation of Human Tissues and Cells From Donors With an...

  19. Insect bites and stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to cause itching than pain. Insect and spider bites cause more deaths from venom reactions than bites from snakes. ... are harmless. If possible, bring the insect or spider that bit you with you when you go for medical treatment so it can be identified.

  20. [Mammal bite management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Marín, Misael; Sandoval-Rodríguez, Jorge Issac; García-Ramírez, Raúl; Morales-Yépez, Héctor Adolfo

    Animal bites are a major public health problem, it is estimated that 2% of the population is bitten each year. Most bites are by dogs and the risk factors include young children, men, certain breeds of dogs and untrained dogs. The risk of infection after bites differs between animal species and depends on the animal teeth and oral flora. Animal bites are still a major cause of morbidity in patients of all ages and have caused several preventable childhood deaths. These wounds often become infected. If the wound requires it, early surgical evaluation must be performed. The use of antibiotics is only recommended for high risk bite wounds. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Combining Synthetic Human Odours and Low-Cost Electrocuting Grids to Attract and Kill Outdoor-Biting Mosquitoes: Field and Semi-Field Evaluation of an Improved Mosquito Landing Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matowo, Nancy S; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Moore, Sarah J; Mmbando, Arnold S; Mapua, Salum A; Coetzee, Maureen; Okumu, Fredros O

    2016-01-01

    On-going malaria transmission is increasingly mediated by outdoor-biting vectors, especially where indoor insecticidal interventions such as long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) are widespread. Often, the vectors are also physiologically resistant to insecticides, presenting major obstacles for elimination. We tested a combination of electrocuting grids with synthetic odours as an alternative killing mechanism against outdoor-biting mosquitoes. An odour-baited device, the Mosquito Landing Box (MLB), was improved by fitting it with low-cost electrocuting grids to instantly kill mosquitoes attracted to the odour lure, and automated photo switch to activate attractant-dispensing and mosquito-killing systems between dusk and dawn. MLBs fitted with one, two or three electrocuting grids were compared outdoors in a malaria endemic village in Tanzania, where vectors had lost susceptibility to pyrethroids. MLBs with three grids were also tested in a large semi-field cage (9.6 × 9.6 × 4.5m), to assess effects on biting-densities of laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis on volunteers sitting near MLBs. Significantly more mosquitoes were killed when MLBs had two or three grids, than one grid in wet and dry seasons (Pmosquitoes, 99% were non-blood fed, suggesting host-seeking status. In the semi-field, the MLBs reduced mean number of malaria mosquitoes attempting to bite humans fourfold. The improved odour-baited MLBs effectively kill outdoor-biting malaria vector mosquitoes that are behaviourally and physiologically resistant to insecticidal interventions e.g. LLINs. The MLBs reduce human-biting vector densities even when used close to humans, and are insecticide-free, hence potentially antiresistance. The devices could either be used as surveillance tools or complementary mosquito control interventions to accelerate malaria elimination where outdoor transmission is significant.

  2. Combining Synthetic Human Odours and Low-Cost Electrocuting Grids to Attract and Kill Outdoor-Biting Mosquitoes: Field and Semi-Field Evaluation of an Improved Mosquito Landing Box.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy S Matowo

    Full Text Available On-going malaria transmission is increasingly mediated by outdoor-biting vectors, especially where indoor insecticidal interventions such as long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs are widespread. Often, the vectors are also physiologically resistant to insecticides, presenting major obstacles for elimination. We tested a combination of electrocuting grids with synthetic odours as an alternative killing mechanism against outdoor-biting mosquitoes.An odour-baited device, the Mosquito Landing Box (MLB, was improved by fitting it with low-cost electrocuting grids to instantly kill mosquitoes attracted to the odour lure, and automated photo switch to activate attractant-dispensing and mosquito-killing systems between dusk and dawn. MLBs fitted with one, two or three electrocuting grids were compared outdoors in a malaria endemic village in Tanzania, where vectors had lost susceptibility to pyrethroids. MLBs with three grids were also tested in a large semi-field cage (9.6 × 9.6 × 4.5m, to assess effects on biting-densities of laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis on volunteers sitting near MLBs.Significantly more mosquitoes were killed when MLBs had two or three grids, than one grid in wet and dry seasons (P<0.05. The MLBs were highly efficient against Mansonia species and malaria vector, An. arabiensis. Of all mosquitoes, 99% were non-blood fed, suggesting host-seeking status. In the semi-field, the MLBs reduced mean number of malaria mosquitoes attempting to bite humans fourfold.The improved odour-baited MLBs effectively kill outdoor-biting malaria vector mosquitoes that are behaviourally and physiologically resistant to insecticidal interventions e.g. LLINs. The MLBs reduce human-biting vector densities even when used close to humans, and are insecticide-free, hence potentially antiresistance. The devices could either be used as surveillance tools or complementary mosquito control interventions to accelerate malaria elimination where

  3. Redirected lysis of human melanoma cells by a MCSP/CD3-bispecific BiTE antibody that engages patient-derived T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torisu-Itakura, Hitoe; Schoellhammer, Hans F; Sim, Myung-Shin; Irie, Reiko F; Hausmann, Susanne; Raum, Tobias; Baeuerle, Patrick A; Morton, Donald L

    2011-10-01

    Melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP; also called HMW-MAA, CSPG4, NG2, MSK16, MCSPG, MEL-CSPG, or gp240) is a well characterized melanoma cell-surface antigen. In this study, a new bispecific T-cell engaging (BiTE) antibody that binds to MCSP and human CD3 (MCSP-BiTE) was tested for its cytotoxic activity against human melanoma cell lines. When unstimulated peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs) derived from healthy donors were cocultured with melanoma cells at effector:target ratios of 1:1, 1:5, or 1:10, and treated with MCSP-BiTE antibody at doses of 10, 100, or 1000 ng/mL, all MCSP-expressing melanoma cell lines (n=23) were lysed in a dose-dependent and effector:target ratio-dependent manner, whereas there was no cytotoxic activity against MCSP-negative melanoma cell lines (n=2). To investigate whether T cells from melanoma patients could act as effector cells, we cocultured unstimulated PBMCs with allogeneic melanoma cells from 13 patients (4 stage I/II, 3 stage III, and 6 stage IV) or with autologous melanoma cells from 2 patients (stage IV). Although cytotoxic activity varied, all 15 PBMC samples mediated significant redirected lysis by the BiTE antibody. When PBMC or CD8 T cells were prestimulated by anti-CD3 antibody OKT-3 and interleukin-2, the MCSP-BiTE concentrations needed for melanoma cell lysis decreased up to 1000-fold. As MCSP is expressed on most human melanomas, immunotherapy with MCSP/CD3-bispecific antibodies merits clinical investigation.

  4. Evaluation of Methods for Sampling the Malaria Vector Anopheles darlingi (Diptera, Culicidae) in Suriname and the Relation With Its Biting Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat-van Laar, H.; Rijk, de M.; Andriessen, R.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of CO2-baited and human-baited mosquito traps for the sampling of Anopheles darlingi Root was evaluated and compared with human landing collections in Suriname. Biting preferences of this mosquito on a human host were studied and related to trapping data. Traps used were the Center

  5. A prospective study on the incidence of dog bites and management in a rural Cambodian, rabies-endemic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsich, Aurelia; Goutard, Flavie; Sorn, San; Tarantola, Arnaud

    2016-08-01

    Rabies circulates intensely in Cambodia, mainly affecting rural populations. We conducted a prospective study to estimate the baseline incidence of potentially infective dog bites in rural villages of Siem Reap province, Cambodia. The study was conducted in a convenience sample of 844 families totaling 1779 persons in four villages. The study collected data in a total of 802.3 person-years. Trained village health workers (VHW) exhaustively documented consecutive dog bites at the end of each month. Between May 15th and November 15th, 2011, a total of 40 attacks (43 bites; 1.07 bites per attack) were notified by 39 persons (50% female; one suffered two distinct incidents) to VHW. The all-age attack rate for bites over this 6-month period was 2.3% (CI95%: 1.7-3.1%), with a global incidence rate estimated at 4.84 bites/100 person-years (CI95%: 3.5-6.6). The mean age in bite victims was 20.8±18.9years (median 12.5; interquartile range 6-36; range 1-63). The dog was identified in 39 (97.5%) of cases, being the household dog in 9 (22.5%) of cases. Bites were classified as severe (WHO Category III-broken skin with bleeding) in 33 (82.5%) of cases with a severe dog bites incidence estimated at 4/100 person-years (CI95%: 2.8-5.6). The bites involved the hand or face in 1 (2.5%) case each (both Category III). In 20 incidents (50%), only rice was applied to the wounds. There were no suspected or confirmed human rabies deaths during the study period but one dog died after biting (2 others were lost to follow-up and 14 were put down by their owner). Our study documented an extremely high incidence of dog bites in of rural Cambodian adults and children. Adapted control policies for canine vaccination are urgently needed.

  6. A qualitative investigation of the perceptions of female dog-bite victims and implications for the prevention of dog bites

    OpenAIRE

    Westgarth, Carri; Watkins, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Preventing dog bites is an increasingly important public health and political issue with implications for both human and animal health and welfare. Expert opinion is that most bites are preventable. Intervention materials have been designed to educate people on how to assess the body language of dogs, evaluate risk, and take appropriate action. The effectiveness of this approach is rarely evaluated and the incidence of dog bites is thought to be increasing. Is the traditional approach to dog ...

  7. Annual incidence of snake bite in rural bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwanur Rahman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snake bite is a neglected public health problem in the world and one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in many areas, particularly in the rural tropics. It also poses substantial economic burdens on the snake bite victims due to treatment related expenditure and loss of productivity. An accurate estimate of the risk of snake bite is largely unknown for most countries in the developing world, especially South-East Asia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook a national epidemiological survey to determine the annual incidence density of snake bite among the rural Bangladeshi population. Information on frequency of snake bite and individuals' length of stay in selected households over the preceding twelve months was rigorously collected from the respondents through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Point estimates and confidence intervals of the incidence density of snake bite, weighted and adjusted for the multi-stage cluster sampling design, were obtained. Out of 18,857 study participants, over one year a total of 98 snake bites, including one death were reported in rural Bangladesh. The estimated incidence density of snake bite is 623.4/100,000 person years (95% C I 513.4-789.2/100,000 person years. Biting occurs mostly when individuals are at work. The majority of the victims (71% receive snake bites to their lower extremities. Eighty-six percent of the victims received some form of management within two hours of snake bite, although only three percent of the victims went directly to either a medical doctor or a hospital. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Incidence density of snake bite in rural Bangladesh is substantially higher than previously estimated. This is likely due to better ascertainment of the incidence through a population based survey. Poor access to health services increases snake bite related morbidity and mortality; therefore, effective public health actions are warranted.

  8. Population dynamics and spatial structure of human-biting mosquitoes, inside and outside of houses, in the Chockwe irrigation scheme, southern Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Derek Charlwood

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Focal control of malaria vectors, a potentially cost-effective alternative to conventional control, requires a spatio-temporal understanding of the mosquitoes. Trapping of African malaria vectors has generally been limited to inside houses making distribution estimates dependent on the location of dwellings. The development of tent-traps to sample outdoor biting mosquitoes has enabled more independent estimates. Here we describe both temporal and spatial variation in mosquito movements in an irrigation project village in southern Mozambique. Six hundred and ninety-three tent-trap collections (525 of which were paired with light-trap collections, 552 exit collections and 391 collections of mosquitoes resting inside houses were undertaken from March 2005 to April 2006. Fifteen species of mosquito were collected (five exclusively as larvae. Mansonia africana was the most common finding, numbers being greatest away from the village. Only Anopheles funestus, An. tenebrosus and Culex quinquefasciatus were collected in greater numbers in light-traps compared to tent-traps. Among the common mosquitoes, correlations in numbers of mosquito collected in paired tent and in light-traps were significant for all but An. tenebrosus. Inverse distance weighting was used to produce raster density maps of the most common mosquitoes. All species, with minor variations, in both hot and cool seasons, were collected in greatest numbers close to the edges of the village where water suitable for larval development was available. All exophilic anophelines species tested negative for sporozoites. It is suggested that focal control of larvae, applied by the villagers themselves, could be a suitable alternative to conventional control in this and similar villages.

  9. Population dynamics and spatial structure of human-biting mosquitoes, inside and outside of houses, in the Chockwe irrigation scheme, southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlwood, J Derek; Macia, Gracieta A; Manhaca, Maria; Sousa, Bruno; Cuamba, Nelson; Bragança, Mauro

    2013-05-01

    Focal control of malaria vectors, a potentially cost-effective alternative to conventional control, requires a spatio-temporal understanding of the mosquitoes. Trapping of African malaria vectors has generally been limited to inside houses making distribution estimates dependent on the location of dwellings. The development of tent-traps to sample outdoor biting mosquitoes has enabled more independent estimates. Here we describe both temporal and spatial variation in mosquito movements in an irrigation project village in southern Mozambique. Six hundred and ninety-three tent-trap collections (525 of which were paired with light-trap collections), 552 exit collections and 391 collections of mosquitoes resting inside houses were undertaken from March 2005 to April 2006. Fifteen species of mosquito were collected (five exclusively as larvae). Mansonia africana was the most common finding, numbers being greatest away from the village. Only Anopheles funestus, An. tenebrosus and Culex quinquefasciatus were collected in greater numbers in light-traps compared to tent-traps. Among the common mosquitoes, correlations in numbers of mosquito collected in paired tent and in light-traps were significant for all but An. tenebrosus. Inverse distance weighting was used to produce raster density maps of the most common mosquitoes. All species, with minor variations, in both hot and cool seasons, were collected in greatest numbers close to the edges of the village where water suitable for larval development was available. All exophilic anophelines species tested negative for sporozoites. It is suggested that focal control of larvae, applied by the villagers themselves, could be a suitable alternative to conventional control in this and similar villages.

  10. First report of clinical presentation of a bite by a running spider, Philodromus sp. (Araneae: Philodromidae), with recommendations for spider bite management

    OpenAIRE

    Maureen Coetzee; Ansie Dippenaar; John Frean; Hunt, Richard H

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the clinical progression of symptoms over a period of 5 days of a bite inflicted by a Philodromus sp. spider. Commonly known as ‘running spiders’, these are not considered to be harmful to humans. This report, however, is the first description of an actual bite by a member of this group of spiders showing cytotoxic envenomation. Management of the bites should be as recommended for other cytotoxic spider bites.

  11. First report of clinical presentation of a bite by a running spider, Philodromus sp. (Araneae: Philodromidae, with recommendations for spider bite management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Coetzee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the clinical progression of symptoms over a period of 5 days of a bite inflicted by a Philodromus sp. spider. Commonly known as ‘running spiders’, these are not considered to be harmful to humans. This report, however, is the first description of an actual bite by a member of this group of spiders showing cytotoxic envenomation. Management of the bites should be as recommended for other cytotoxic spider bites.

  12. First Pediatric Case of Tularemia after a Coyote Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno B. Chomel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bite-transmitted tularemia is a rare event in humans and most of the cases have been associated with cat bites. We report the first pediatric case of tularemia caused by a coyote (Canis latrans bite. Coyotes can be healthy carriers of Francisella tularensis and transmit this infectious agent through a bite. Pediatricians should be aware of this risk after a carnivore bite and implement appropriate antibiotic therapy, as amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (Augmentin may have prolonged the typical two to three days’ incubation period commonly observed for tularemia after an animal bite and was not effective in preventing clinical signs in this child. Finally, it emphasizes again the importance of early and late serum samples for appropriate serodiagnostic.

  13. First Pediatric Case of Tularemia after a Coyote Bite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Morton, Jane A.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Chang, Chao-chin

    2016-01-01

    Bite-transmitted tularemia is a rare event in humans and most of the cases have been associated with cat bites. We report the first pediatric case of tularemia caused by a coyote (Canis latrans) bite. Coyotes can be healthy carriers of Francisella tularensis and transmit this infectious agent through a bite. Pediatricians should be aware of this risk after a carnivore bite and implement appropriate antibiotic therapy, as amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (Augmentin) may have prolonged the typical two to three days' incubation period commonly observed for tularemia after an animal bite and was not effective in preventing clinical signs in this child. Finally, it emphasizes again the importance of early and late serum samples for appropriate serodiagnostic. PMID:26885419

  14. Rat-bite fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptobacillary fever; Streptobacillosis; Haverhill fever; Epidemic arthritic erythema; Spirillary fever; Sodoku ... Rat-bite fever can be caused by 2 different bacteria, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. Both of these are found in ...

  15. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  16. [Snake bite injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchányi, B; Szalontay, T; Zacher, G

    2000-05-14

    Authors treated five patients who suffered venomous snake-bite injury. Although these snakes are not native in Hungary, this kind of injury is estimated to be more frequent, because of the increasing number of the private collections and illegal import of these reptiles. The local and general symptoms, the therapeutic steps are summarised in this study considering the literature as well. Two patients did not show any systemic or local symptoms at the level of injury, they needed only short observation, and woundcare. The other three patients had serious transient systematic symptoms (vasolability, hypotension/shock, coagulopathy, confusion). Two of them were given specific antivenom. As the third patient did not agree with the serum therapy, plasmapheresis was the choice to treat him, and it seemed to be effective. Few hours later the patients needed surgery because of serious compartment syndrome of their affected upper extremity. Surgical decompression of all the compartments and different possibilities of the secondary skin closure technique are demonstrated. Two patient healed completely, but the right thumb of the third was lost. Authors summarise the effects of the poisons, the symptoms, and the basic therapeutic steps during the first aid and in the primary hospital phase, respectively. They point out the indications of the serum therapy and the correct surgical decompression of the injured extremity.

  17. Animal Bites - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Animal Bites - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... Library of Medicine Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Expand Section Animal Bites and Scratches - Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  18. Bite through the tent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naue, Jana; Lutz-Bonengel, Sabine; Pietsch, Klaus; Sänger, Timo; Schlauderer, Nicola; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2012-05-01

    The authors report on a young boy who was bitten into his face by an unknown animal while being asleep in a tent. Given the bite marks and the location of the scene, members of the mustelidae and canidae families were the first "suspects." Deoxyribunucleic acid (DNA) recovered from the tent's wall was analyzed with regard to parts of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal ribunucleic acid (12S rRNA) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes as well as nuclear short tandem repeats (STRs). Since Sanger sequencing revealed a mixed sequence with a strong human component overlying the nonhuman contributor, an animal screening using a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with an intercalating dye and melt curve analysis was employed. The results were later confirmed by cloning. The applied commercial canine STR kit verified the animal family (canidae) but did not help in discriminating the species due to cross-species amplification. In the presented case, the real-time PCR assay offered the cheapest and fastest method for animal family determination, which then allowed for an appropriate and sample-saving strategy to characterize the causative animal species.

  19. Evaluation of methods for sampling the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi (Diptera, Culicidae) in Suriname and the relation with its biting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwat, H; De Rijk, M; Andriessen, R; Koenraadt, C J M; Takken, W

    2011-09-01

    The effectiveness of CO2-baited and human-baited mosquito traps for the sampling of Anopheles darlingi Root was evaluated and compared with human landing collections in Suriname. Biting preferences of this mosquito on a human host were studied and related to trapping data. Traps used were the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Miniature Light trap, the BG Sentinel mosquito trap, the Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus mosquito trap (MM-Plus), and a custom-designed trap. Carbon dioxide and humans protected by a bed net were used as bait in the studies. The number of An. darlingi collected was greater with human landing collections than with all other collection methods. An. darlingi did not show a preference for protected humans over CO2 bait. The BG Sentinel mosquito trap with CO2 or human odor as bait and the MM-Plus proved the best alternative sampling tools for An. darlingi. The BG Sentinel mosquito trap with CO2 or human odor as bait was also very efficient at collecting Culex spp. In a field study on biting preferences of wild An. darlingi, the females showed directional biting behavior (P < 0.001), with a majority of females (93.3%) biting the lower legs and feet when approaching a seated human host. Higher efficiency of the closer-to-the-ground collecting MM-Plus and BG Sentinel mosquito trap when compared with the other trapping methods may be a result of a possible preference of this mosquito species for low-level biting. It is concluded that odor-baited sampling systems can reliably collect An. darlingi, but the odor bait needs to be improved, for instance, by including host-specific volatiles, to match live human baits.

  20. Epidemiological study of animal bites and rabies in Lorestan Province in West of Iran during 2004-2014 for preventive purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Chegeni Sharafi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the progress made, animal bites and rabies are one of the important health problems in the country. The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of animal bites and rabies during 2004-2014 in Lorestan Province to prevent them in population of the province for the future prospective aspects. Materials and Methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, all those cases bitten in the province, during 2004 and 2014, were studied. The required information about the age, sex, the bitten organ, type of the invasive animal time, and location of the event were collected in questionnaires and then analyzed. Results: The total number of cases of animal rabies during the period of study was 43,892, shown at the rate of 223.23 in 100,000 people. Seventy-eight percent of animal bites in rural areas, 41.42% in the ages 10-29-year-old, 26.8% of cases were students, 56.77% leg bites, and 82.5% of dog bites. Four cases of human rabies were observed during this period. Conclusions: Rate of animal bites and rabies is high in Lorestan Province. Controlling animals such as dogs and cats in the province through training people at risk, especially among the students, rural areas and inter-sectorial coordination to eliminate stray animals should be considered over and over. Preventive actions to avoid bites are a priority.

  1. 75 FR 9226 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Human Tissue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Human Tissue Intended for Transplantation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... solicits comments on the information collection requirements relating to FDA regulations for human tissue... of information technology. Human Tissue Intended for Transplantation--21 CFR Part 1270 (OMB Control...

  2. 78 FR 41403 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Human Tissue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Human Tissue Intended for Transplantation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... solicits comments on the information collection requirements relating to FDA regulations for human tissue... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Human Tissue Intended for Transplantation--21 CFR Part...

  3. Marine animal stings or bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poisonous bites or stings from any form of sea life, including jellyfish. There are about 2,000 species ... bites or stings from various types of marine life, including: jellyfish ... sea urchins, sea anemone, hydroid, coral, cone shell, sharks, ...

  4. Animal bite - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100214.htm Animal bite - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To ... D.A.M., Inc. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Animal Bites A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  5. Compartment Syndrome Following Snake Bite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dhar, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    .... The local effects of snake bite include tissue necrosis, edema, and compartment syndrome. Patients may also be left with permanent physical deformities due to residual sequelae of the snake bite...

  6. Insect bite reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods. Insect bite reactions are commonly seen in clinical practice. The present review touches upon the medically important insects and their places in the classification, the sparse literature on the epidemiology of insect bites in India, and different variables influencing the susceptibility of an individual to insect bites. Clinical features of mosquito bites, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites Epstein-Barr virus NK (HMB-EBV-NK disease, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, Skeeter syndrome, papular pruritic eruption of HIV/AIDS, and clinical features produced by bed bugs, Mexican chicken bugs, assassin bugs, kissing bugs, fleas, black flies, Blandford flies, louse flies, tsetse flies, midges, and thrips are discussed. Brief account is presented of the immunogenic components of mosquito and bed bug saliva. Papular urticaria is discussed including its epidemiology, the 5 stages of skin reaction, the SCRATCH principle as an aid in diagnosis, and the recent evidence supporting participation of types I, III, and IV hypersensitivity reactions in its causation is summarized. Recent developments in the treatment of pediculosis capitis including spinosad 0.9% suspension, benzyl alcohol 5% lotion, dimethicone 4% lotion, isopropyl myristate 50% rinse, and other suffocants are discussed within the context of evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and key findings of a recent systematic review. We also touch upon a non-chemical treatment of head lice and the ineffectiveness of egg-loosening products. Knockdown resistance (kdr as the genetic mechanism making the lice nerves insensitive to permethrin is discussed along with the surprising contrary clinical evidence from Europe about efficacy of permethrin in children with head lice carrying kdr-like gene. The review also presents a brief account of insects as vectors of diseases and ends with discussion of prevention of insect bites and some

  7. Tick Bite by Nymphal Amblyomma testudinarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong Ho; Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Young Min

    2016-01-01

    Ticks are parasites that usually suck the blood of wild or domestic animals; rarely, they ingest human blood and spread various febrile infectious diseases along with skin problems. Out of 40 cases of tick bite reported in Korea, only 3 were caused by nymphal ticks, and tick bites by nymphal Amblyomma testudinarium have not been reported previously. Herein, we report a rare case of tick bite by nymphal A. testudinarium. A 57-year-old woman presented with an asymptomatic solitary erythematous nodule on the left thigh that had been present for 6 days. The tick, which the patient removed from the lesion and brought to the hospital, was identified as a nymphal A. testudinarium. Doxycycline (200 mg) was used as treatment, and after seven days of use, the patient improved and no other lesions were detected. PMID:27904278

  8. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  9. Mosquito Bites are Bad!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-11

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of mosquito bites and how to prevent getting them.  Created: 8/11/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/11/2016.

  10. Rat bite fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, W.; Boot, R.G.A.; Ho, H.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Rat bite fever (RBF) is a bacterial zoonosis for which two causal bacterial species have been identified: Streptobacillis moniliformis and Spirillum minus. Haverhill fever (HF) is a form of S. moniliformis infection believed to develop after ingestion of contaminated food or water. Here the

  11. Foundations of Collective Cultural Rights in International Human Rights Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.; Jakubowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Although collective cultural rights are included in international human rights law, their place and their nature and significance are not well-explored or understood. This chapter aims to classify collective cultural rights in international human rights instruments and to explore how these rights

  12. Non-biting Muscidae and control methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, G.; Jespersen, Jørgen B.

    1994-01-01

    Many non-biting muscids (filth flies) are characterised by the habit of visiting manure or rotting organic material to Seed and/or oviposit. As these flies also often have close associations with human beings, as well as human habitations and domestic animals, they are potentially both a nuisance...... and a contributory factor in the transmission of diseases. The authors examine the biology, economic importance and control of four of the most important nonbiting muscids:...

  13. Surveillance of rabies prevalence and bite protocols in captive mammals in American zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelepsky, Jacqueline; Harrison, Tara M

    2010-09-01

    A national survey questionnaire was conducted in 32 zoos throughout 17 U.S. states between February and May 2008. The questionnaire consisted of six questions that evaluated rabies prevalence on zoo grounds; captive mammalian bites among zoo visitors and personnel; and the outcome of each incident. The survey was completed by zoo staff after review of their most recent bite incident reports. Rabies was documented, albeit minimally, on zoo grounds in both wild and collection animals. The information collected documented that mammalian bites occur commonly. An average of 9.1 bite incidents per zoo involving zoo visitors were reported in the last 5 yr, compared to an average of 7.5 bite incidents per zoo involving personnel within the last 5 yr. Zoo personnel had a larger variety of mammals inflicting bites of greater injury severity, with an average rating 3.83 out of 5. While victim profile and severity of the wound differed between visitor and personnel bites, the majority of bites were not reported to the local health department. Lack of reporting may be due to low rabies risk, fear of media involvement, and an unknown conclusion for the offending animal. Animals involved in reported attacks had an average quarantine of 47.5 days when the bite involved a zoo visitor versus an average quarantine of 18 days when the bite involved personnel. These results demonstrate the need for a standardized protocol following a bite incident, including cooperation with the local health department, as necessary.

  14. Detection of a Potential New Bartonella Species “Candidatus Bartonella rondoniensis” in Human Biting Kissing Bugs (Reduviidae; Triatominae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Maureen; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Mediannikov, Oleg; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Background Among the Reduviidae family, triatomines are giant blood-sucking bugs. They are well known in Central and South America where they transmit Trypanosoma cruzi to mammals, including humans, through their feces. This parasitic protozoan is the causative agent of Chagas disease, a major public health issue in endemic areas. Because of the medical and economic impact of Chagas disease, the presence of other arthropod-borne pathogens in triatomines was rarely investigated. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, seven triatomines species involved in the transmission of T. cruzi were molecularly screened for the presence of known pathogens generally associated with arthropods, such as Rickettsia, Bartonella, Anaplasmataceae, Borrelia species and Coxiella burnetii. Of all included triatomine species, only Eratyrus mucronatus specimens tested positive for Bartonella species for 56% of tested samples. A new genotype of Bartonella spp. was detected in 13/23 Eratyrus mucronatus specimens, an important vector of T. cruzi to humans. This bacterium was further characterized by sequencing fragments of the ftsZ, gltA and rpoB genes. Depending on the targeted gene, this agent shares 84% to 91% of identity with B. bacilliformis, the agent of Carrion’s disease, a deadly sandfly-borne infectious disease endemic in South America. It is also closely related to animal pathogens such as B. bovis and B. chomelii. Conclusions As E. mucronatus is an invasive species that occasionally feeds on humans, the presence of potentially pathogenic Bartonella-infected bugs could present another risk for human health, along with the T. cruzi issue. PMID:28095503

  15. Detection of a Potential New Bartonella Species "Candidatus Bartonella rondoniensis" in Human Biting Kissing Bugs (Reduviidae; Triatominae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Laroche

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Reduviidae family, triatomines are giant blood-sucking bugs. They are well known in Central and South America where they transmit Trypanosoma cruzi to mammals, including humans, through their feces. This parasitic protozoan is the causative agent of Chagas disease, a major public health issue in endemic areas. Because of the medical and economic impact of Chagas disease, the presence of other arthropod-borne pathogens in triatomines was rarely investigated.In this study, seven triatomines species involved in the transmission of T. cruzi were molecularly screened for the presence of known pathogens generally associated with arthropods, such as Rickettsia, Bartonella, Anaplasmataceae, Borrelia species and Coxiella burnetii. Of all included triatomine species, only Eratyrus mucronatus specimens tested positive for Bartonella species for 56% of tested samples. A new genotype of Bartonella spp. was detected in 13/23 Eratyrus mucronatus specimens, an important vector of T. cruzi to humans. This bacterium was further characterized by sequencing fragments of the ftsZ, gltA and rpoB genes. Depending on the targeted gene, this agent shares 84% to 91% of identity with B. bacilliformis, the agent of Carrion's disease, a deadly sandfly-borne infectious disease endemic in South America. It is also closely related to animal pathogens such as B. bovis and B. chomelii.As E. mucronatus is an invasive species that occasionally feeds on humans, the presence of potentially pathogenic Bartonella-infected bugs could present another risk for human health, along with the T. cruzi issue.

  16. Outdoor post-mortem bite injuries by Tapinoma nigerrimum (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) on a human corpse: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Teresa; Vercillo, Vannio

    2015-07-01

    Ants are among the insects that colonize exposed human and animal corpses during the early stage of decomposition. In Calabria, Italy (as well as in other countries), Formicidae have been observed preying on immature stages of Diptera and other insects, as well as causing irregular scalloped areas of superficial skin loss on human corpses and animal carcasses. We present a case of injuries on a human corpse caused by ant feeding. The macroscopic appearance is described and the results of a histochemical investigation of the skin lesions caused by worker ants are reported for the first time. The investigation was carried out on the fresh corpse of a 53-year-old man discovered in a rural area of Cosenza province (Calabria, southern Italy). Numerous irregular areas of superficial skin loss caused by the ant Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) were observed on the body surface, inflicted very early in the post-mortem period. Because the classification of lesions is of crucial importance for forensic investigations, the macroscopic appearance and distribution pattern of the lesions on the corpse are illustrated. The histochemical investigation of the damaged skin explains, for the first time, the mechanism of production of the lesions.

  17. Seasonal and nocturnal domiciliary human landing/biting behaviour of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) evansi and Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) panamensis (Diptera; Psychodidae) in a periurban area of a city on the Caribbean coast of eastern Venezuela (Barcelona; Anzoátegui State).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R; De Sousa, L; Devera, R; Jorquera, A; Ledezma, E

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, in addition to American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), a significant number of cases of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) have been reported in periurban areas of Barcelona city (Anzoátegui State, Venezuela). We studied the bionomics of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) evansi and Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) panamensis, possible vectors of AVL and ACL, respectively, in El Rincón, a periurban village of that city. To evaluate the seasonal domiciliary landing/biting activity of sandflies on human bait, a house was chosen in El Rincón. Landing catches were carried out between 18:00 and 06:00, once a month for a year. The results show the presence of 2 species, Lu. (Lu.) evansi (89.9%) and Lu. (Psy.) panamensis (10.1%). Lu. evansi was most abundant in the months of October and July, associated with the bimodal cycle of annual rainfall in the area. Maximum landing/biting activity of Lu. evansi was observed at 24:00 and 03:00. These findings suggest that at this time of the year and at these hours there is heightened risk of the transmission of AVL. Lu. panamensis monthly abundance also shows a direct association with rainfall and maximum landing/biting activity was observed between 02:00 and 03:00. The lower domiciliary abundance of Lu. panamensis suggests its greater importance in the extradomiciliary transmission of ACL.

  18. Long-term complications of snake bites to the upper extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, D J; Wright, T; Cowin, J A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine long-term complications of upper-extremity snake envenomations. The records of 73 patients, who were seen for snake bites were obtained; 46 of these patients had bites to the upper extremity, and 27 had bites to the lower extremity. These patients were graded according to the severity of the bite. The snakes involved were eastern diamondback rattlesnake, coral snake, pigmy rattlesnake, water moccasin, and unknown. Fourteen of the 46 patients receiving upper extremity bites were examined by a hand surgeon and an occupational hand therapist 1 to 3.2 years after their bite. Subjective pain data, range-of-motion, intrinsic, extrinsic, finger-flexion tightness, grip strength, pinch strength and objective sensory data were collected. Four patients had continued pain and tissue atrophy at the bite site. There were no long-term sequelae from a missed compartment syndrome.

  19. Food aroma affects bite size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

  20. Myocarditis following katipo spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Ruth; Harrison, Nigel; Gibbons, Derek

    2010-05-14

    We report the case of a 22-year-old man who developed severe myocarditis following a presumed katipo spider bite. Katipo spiders are thought to be one of the most poisonous native creatures in New Zealand. No deaths from katipo spider bites have been reported since the 19th Century. A literature search reveals no previously reported cases of myocarditis following a bite from a katipo spider. The clinical presentation of latrodectism is discussed.

  1. An Analytical Study of Mammalian Bite Wounds Requiring Inpatient Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Geun Lee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMammalian bite injuries create a public health problem because of their frequency, potential severity, and increasing number. Some researchers have performed fragmentary analyses of bite wounds caused by certain mammalian species. However, little practical information is available concerning serious mammalian bite wounds that require hospitalization and intensive wound management. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to perform a general review of serious mammalian bite wounds.MethodsWe performed a retrospective review of the medical charts of 68 patients who were referred to our plastic surgery department for the treatment of bite wounds between January 2003 and October 2012. The cases were analyzed according to the species, patient demographics, environmental factors, injury characteristics, and clinical course.ResultsAmong the 68 cases of mammalian bite injury, 58 (85% were caused by dogs, 8 by humans, and 2 by cats. Most of those bitten by a human and both of those bitten by cats were male. Only one-third of all the patients were children or adolescents. The most frequent site of injury was the face, with 40 cases, followed by the hand, with 16 cases. Of the 68 patients, 7 were treated with secondary intention healing. Sixty-one patients underwent delayed procedures, including delayed direct closure, skin graft, composite graft, and local flap.ConclusionsBased on overall findings from our review of the 68 cases of mammalian bites, we suggest practical guidelines for the management of mammalian bite injuries, which could be useful in the treatment of serious mammalian bite wounds.

  2. 75 FR 11545 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Human Cells...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... blood stem cell, stem cell products from cord blood, reproductive tissue, and sperm banks), including... Collection; Comment Request; Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products: Establishment... regulations related to human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products (HCT Ps)...

  3. [Arthropod bite reactions and pyodermias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengge, U R

    2008-08-01

    Tourists in the tropics often develop reactions to bites or stings of mosquitoes, fleas, mites, ants, bedbugs, beetles, larva, millipedes, spiders and scorpions. In addition, they may have fresh or salt water exposure to sponges, corals, jellyfish and sea urchins with resultant injury and inflammation. Bacterial skin infections (pyodermias) can follow bites or stings as well as mechanical trauma. The most common bacteria involved in skin infections are staphylococci and streptococci. For tourists, bacterial infections are often complicating a pruritic bite reaction and scratching. It is important to know the cause of the bite reaction and pyoderma in order to take appropriate therapeutic measures.

  4. Studying Collective Human Decision Making and Creativity with Evolutionary Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Sayama, Hiroki; Dionne, Shelley D.

    2014-01-01

    We report a summary of our interdisciplinary research project "Evolutionary Perspective on Collective Decision Making" that was conducted through close collaboration between computational, organizational and social scientists at Binghamton University. We redefined collective human decision making and creativity as evolution of ecologies of ideas, where populations of ideas evolve via continual applications of evolutionary operators such as reproduction, recombination, mutation, selection, and...

  5. Application of Data Collection Techniques by Human Performance Technology Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Minjing

    2011-01-01

    By content-analyzing 22 published cases from a variety of professional and academic books and journals, this study examines the status quo of human performance technology (HPT) practitioners' application of five major data collection techniques in their everyday work: questionnaire, interview, focus group, observation, and document collection. The…

  6. Studying Collective Human Decision Making and Creativity with Evolutionary Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayama, Hiroki; Dionne, Shelley D

    2015-01-01

    We report a summary of our interdisciplinary research project "Evolutionary Perspective on Collective Decision Making" that was conducted through close collaboration between computational, organizational, and social scientists at Binghamton University. We redefined collective human decision making and creativity as evolution of ecologies of ideas, where populations of ideas evolve via continual applications of evolutionary operators such as reproduction, recombination, mutation, selection, and migration of ideas, each conducted by participating humans. Based on this evolutionary perspective, we generated hypotheses about collective human decision making, using agent-based computer simulations. The hypotheses were then tested through several experiments with real human subjects. Throughout this project, we utilized evolutionary computation (EC) in non-traditional ways-(1) as a theoretical framework for reinterpreting the dynamics of idea generation and selection, (2) as a computational simulation model of collective human decision-making processes, and (3) as a research tool for collecting high-resolution experimental data on actual collaborative design and decision making from human subjects. We believe our work demonstrates untapped potential of EC for interdisciplinary research involving human and social dynamics.

  7. "Fight-bite": not just a hand problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, C P T Jay B; Knox, Maj Jeffrey B; Wimberly, Robert L; Ellis, Henry B; Riccio, Anthony I

    2014-09-01

    Human bite wounds around the knee are rarely seen, yet may require the same urgent attention as a fight bite to the hand. Two cases of polymicrobial septic arthritis of the knee secondary to a human bite wound are described. In both the cases, the diagnosis of the septic arthritis was delayed because the intra-articular wound was unrecognized. The injuries were initially deemed superficial and managed with local wound care. In each case, the knee was flexed at the time of injury and the quadriceps tendon was penetrated by a tooth which inoculated the knee joint. Septic arthritis of the knee presented, in both cases, 72 hours after the injury. These infections proved challenging to treat and required multiple surgeries and prolonged antibiotic therapy. The "fight bite" phenomenon of the hand is widely recognized and the same phenomenon can occur at the knee.

  8. An urban Northeastern United States alligator bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Suzanne Moore; Shoff, William H

    2014-05-01

    Individuals who live and work in the Southeastern coastal range of the 3 US crocodilian carnivores, American alligators, American crocodiles, and caiman, understand the risks of reptile-human encounters. Individuals who live in other parts of the country maybe exposed through contact with exotic pets at private homes, small menageries, or petting zoos or from escaped or abandoned animals. During these encounters, individuals may be severely injured.Emergency medical services, law enforcement, and animal welfare workers in nonhabitat areas are usually not trained in the handling and safe removal of injured individuals from the scene when the reptile is present. The emergency management of large crocodilian injuries is similar to that of other major trauma; however, providers also must take into consideration the significant crush component potentially inflicted by the tremendous bite power and shaking inflicting during attacks by these large reptiles, appropriate antibiotic coverage for less common organisms that inhabit their mouths, and management of possible psychological distress, including posttraumatic stress disorder produced by such an unusual attack. Emergency physicians should support the development of a readily available national database of scientifically collect information on attacks to inform appropriate care and support efforts to explore responsible measures that the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and other appropriate local, state, and federal agencies can take to ensure ethical and biologically sustainable management of our large reptiles, which also helps to ensure the safety of the public.

  9. Analysis of 4-Year Dog-Bite Cases Treated At Ahmadu Bello University Health Centre, Zaria, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istifanus Anekoson Joshua

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Rabies is one of the most typical zoonosis; the disease is endemic in Nigeria and remains an important public health issue. The disease is transmitted mainly through the bite of rabid animal and dog is very important because of the close relationship between humans and dogs. The aim of the study was to analyze the 4 year dog bite cases treated at Ahmadu Bello University (ABU Medical Centre (UHC Zaria, Nigeria. METHOD: A longitudinal study was conducted between 2008 and 2011. Relevant information were obtained using structured questionnaire, interview and participant’s observation was used to study the ecology of the dogs. The medical and veterinary doctors were involved in the collection of the information. Data were analyzed with the aid of SPSS Version 17.0 and Chi square statistics was used to test for significance of association at P< 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 132 cases of dog bite were recorded for the period of the study. Majority (35.4% of the victims of the bite were within the age bracket of 1-10 years (mean age 25± 1.7 years, minimum age - 1 year and maximum age- 68 years, male: female ratio 1: 1.9 , 43.6% were staff family, The most common site of the bites was leg (35.2%. First aid treatment given to the victims before presentation at the hospital, were inadequate. Sixty (45.5% of the victims were given treatment against rabies. 63.6% of the dogs involved in the biting were aged 1-4 years, 55% were not vaccinated against rabies, 81.8% were local breed of dog, 13.6% were stray dogs and the most common likely cause of the bites was provocation (54.5%. CONCLUSION: Dog bite is a common medical condition seen in UHC, ABU Zaria. Factors such as poor vaccination of dogs by owners, high proportion of stray dogs, and poor first aid treatment of dog bite injuries, among others are of public health importance. There is need for intensive public enlightenment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 661-666

  10. Can masticatory electromyography be normalised to submaximal bite force?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, S R; Burden, A M; Yates, J M; Zioupos, P; Winwood, K

    2015-05-01

    The combination of bite force and jaw muscle electromyography (EMG) provides an insight into the performance of the stomatognathic system, especially in relation to dynamic movement tasks. Literature has extensively investigated possible methods for normalising EMG data encapsulating many different approaches. However, bite force literature trends towards normalising EMG to a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), which could be difficult for ageing populations or those with poor dental health or limiting conditions such as temporomandibular disorder. The objectives of this study were to (i) determine whether jaw-closing muscle activity is linearly correlated with incremental submaximal and maximal bite force levels and (ii) assess whether normalising maximal and submaximal muscle activity to that produced when performing a low submaximal bite force (20 N) improves repeatability of EMG values. Thirty healthy adults (15 men, 15 women; mean age 21 ± 1·2 years) had bite force measurements obtained using a custom-made button strain gauge load cell. Masseter and anterior temporalis muscle activities were collected bilaterally using surface EMG sensors whilst participants performed maximal biting and three levels of submaximal biting. Furthermore, a small group (n = 4 females) were retested for reliability purposes. Coefficients of variation and intra-class correlation coefficients showed markedly improved reliability when EMG data were normalised compared to non-normalised. This study shows that jaw muscle EMG may be successfully normalised to a very low bite force. This may open possibilities for comparisons between at-risk sample groups that may otherwise find it difficult to produce maximal bite force values.

  11. Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latr.) associated with livestock farms in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Holm, Høgni; Overgaard Nielsen, Boy

    2017-01-01

    A large number of biting midges (Culicoides) were collected in light traps operating simultaneously outside and indside 25 Faroese byres. The catch comprised two species: C. (Culicoides) impunctatus Goetghebuer, 1920, accounting for >98% of all biting midges trapped, and C. (Oecacta) pseudoheliop......A large number of biting midges (Culicoides) were collected in light traps operating simultaneously outside and indside 25 Faroese byres. The catch comprised two species: C. (Culicoides) impunctatus Goetghebuer, 1920, accounting for >98% of all biting midges trapped, and C. (Oecacta...

  12. Snake bites in Kenya: a preliminary survey of four areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, M D; Dunachie, S J; Brooker, S; Haynes, J; Church, J; Warrell, D A

    1997-01-01

    Primary data were collected on the incidence, severity and species responsible for snake bites in 4 areas of Kenya: (i) Kakamega and western Kenya, (ii) Lake Baringo and Laikipia, (iii) Kilifi and Malindi, and (iv) northern Kenya. The overall average frequency of snake bite was 13.8 per 100,000 population per year (range 1.9-67.9). The minimum rate of snake bite mortality was 0.45/100,000/year. Thirty-four of the 50 units visited reported no knowledge of death from snake bite in the last 5 years. Possible reasons for the low estimates are discussed. Traditional treatments were common, especially the use of herbal remedies and incisions at the wound site.

  13. Esthetic correction in open bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Parlani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deleterious oral habits, which are persistent, can lead to poor esthetics of a beautiful face. Conventional treatment modalities for an open bite usually include orthodontic treatment and/or skeletal surgery. This article focuses on a different treatment modality for an anterior open bite.

  14. Funnel-web spider bite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002844.htm Funnel-web spider bite To use the sharing features on this ... effects of a bite from the funnel-web spider. Male funnel-web spiders are more poisonous than females. This article ...

  15. Spider bites - Assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitberg, George; Segal, Leslie

    2009-11-01

    Spider bite is common, but most species cause minimal or no effects. Patients may be misinformed regarding the nature and consequences of a bite. Understanding the current literature can assist the physician in the management of spider bite patients. This article reviews the current literature on spider bites and describes the clinical assessment and management of the medically important spider bites. Most spider bite is minor and causes nothing more than local irritation. Some spiders can cause significant morbidity and rarely, mortality. Lay identification of the spider has not been shown to be reliable. Latrodectism (red back spider envenomation) is characterised by pain (local, radiating, and regional); systemic symptoms occur less commonly. Funnel web spider bite is a medical emergency; a pressure immobilisation bandage should be applied and the patient transferred to a hospital with available antivenom and resuscitation facilities. Clinicians must consider spider bite in the differential diagnosis of unexplained autonomic and neurological dysfunction, particularly in children. In Australia, skin ulceration is more likely to be an infective, inflammatory or traumatic cause than a case of necrotising arachnidism.

  16. Safety and comparability of controlled human Plasmodium falciparum infection by mosquito bite in malaria-naive subjects at a new facility for sporozoite challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela K Talley

    Full Text Available Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI studies which recapitulate mosquito-borne infection are a critical tool to identify protective vaccine and drug candidates for advancement to field trials. In partnership with the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, the CHMI model was established at the Seattle Biomedical Research Institute's Malaria Clinical Trials Center (MCTC. Activities and reagents at both centers were aligned to ensure comparability and continued safety of the model. To demonstrate successful implementation, CHMI was performed in six healthy malaria-naïve volunteers.All volunteers received NF54 strain Plasmodium falciparum by the bite of five infected Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes under controlled conditions and were monitored for signs and symptoms of malaria and for parasitemia by peripheral blood smear. Subjects were treated upon diagnosis with chloroquine by directly observed therapy. Immunological (T cell and antibody and molecular diagnostic (real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction [qRT-PCR] assessments were also performed.All six volunteers developed patent parasitemia and clinical malaria. No serious adverse events occurred during the study period or for six months post-infection. The mean prepatent period was 11.2 days (range 9-14 days, and geometric mean parasitemia upon diagnosis was 10.8 parasites/µL (range 2-69 by microscopy. qRT-PCR detected parasites an average of 3.7 days (range 2-4 days earlier than blood smears. All volunteers developed antibodies to the blood-stage antigen merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1, which persisted up to six months. Humoral and cellular responses to pre-erythrocytic antigens circumsporozoite protein (CSP and liver-stage antigen 1 (LSA-1 were limited.The CHMI model was safe, well tolerated and characterized by consistent prepatent periods, pre-symptomatic diagnosis in 3/6 subjects and adverse event profiles as reported at established centers. The MCTC

  17. Applicability of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickmilder Marc

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With its inclusion under Action 3 in the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004–2010 of the European Commission, human biomonitoring is currently receiving an increasing amount of attention from the scientific community as a tool to better quantify human exposure to, and health effects of, environmental stressors. Despite the policy support, however, there are still several issues that restrict the routine application of human biomonitoring data in environmental health impact assessment. One of the main issues is the obvious need to routinely collect human samples for large-scale surveys. Particularly the collection of invasive samples from susceptible populations may suffer from ethical and practical limitations. Children, pregnant women, elderly, or chronically-ill people are among those that would benefit the most from non-invasive, repeated or routine sampling. Therefore, the use of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring should be promoted as an ethically appropriate, cost-efficient and toxicologically relevant alternative for many biomarkers that are currently determined in invasively collected matrices. This review illustrates that several non-invasively collected matrices are widely used that can be an valuable addition to, or alternative for, invasively collected matrices such as peripheral blood sampling. Moreover, a well-informed choice of matrix can provide an added value for human biomonitoring, as different non-invasively collected matrices can offer opportunities to study additional aspects of exposure to and effects from environmental contaminants, such as repeated sampling, historical overview of exposure, mother-child transfer of substances, or monitoring of substances with short biological half-lives.

  18. Is there an efficient trap or collection method for sampling Anopheles darlingi and other malaria vectors that can describe the essential parameters affecting transmission dynamics as effectively as human landing catches? - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bento Pereira Lima

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution, abundance, feeding behaviour, host preference, parity status and human-biting and infection rates are among the medical entomological parameters evaluated when determining the vector capacity of mosquito species. To evaluate these parameters, mosquitoes must be collected using an appropriate method. Malaria is primarily transmitted by anthropophilic and synanthropic anophelines. Thus, collection methods must result in the identification of the anthropophilic species and efficiently evaluate the parameters involved in malaria transmission dynamics. Consequently, human landing catches would be the most appropriate method if not for their inherent risk. The choice of alternative anopheline collection methods, such as traps, must consider their effectiveness in reproducing the efficiency of human attraction. Collection methods lure mosquitoes by using a mixture of olfactory, visual and thermal cues. Here, we reviewed, classified and compared the efficiency of anopheline collection methods, with an emphasis on Neotropical anthropophilic species, especially Anopheles darlingi, in distinct malaria epidemiological conditions in Brazil.

  19. Dog ecology, dog bites and rabies vaccination rates in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Y.J. Atuman; A. B. Ogunkoya; D.A.Y. Adawa; A.J. Nok; M.B. Biallah

    2014-01-01

    A study of dog ecology, dog bites and rabies vaccination rates was carried out in Bauchi the capital city of Bauchi State, Nigeria using direct street counts and questionnaire survey administered on 10% of the city streets selected by stratified random sampling. The questionnaire was designed to obtain data in order to determine the dog to human population ratio, dog management and care, cases of dog bites, consequences of the bites and frequencies of rabies outbreak. The estimated dog popula...

  20. 'A bite before bed': exposure to malaria vectors outside the times of net use in the highlands of western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Mary K; Kahindi, Sam C; Oriango, Robin M; Owaga, Chrispin; Ayoma, Elizabeth; Mabuka, Danspaid; Nyangau, Dennis; Abel, Lucy; Atieno, Elizabeth; Awuor, Stephen; Drakeley, Chris; Cox, Jonathan; Stevenson, Jennifer

    2015-06-25

    The human population in the highlands of Nyanza Province, western Kenya, is subject to sporadic epidemics of Plasmodium falciparum. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) are used widely in this area. These interventions are most effective when Anopheles rest and feed indoors and when biting occurs at times when individuals use LLINs. It is therefore important to test the current assumption of vector feeding preferences, and late night feeding times, in order to estimate the extent to which LLINs protect the inhabitants from vector bites. Mosquito collections were made for six consecutive nights each month between June 2011 and May 2012. CDC light-traps were set next to occupied LLINs inside and outside randomly selected houses and emptied hourly. The net usage of residents, their hours of house entry and exit and times of sleeping were recorded and the individual hourly exposure to vectors indoors and outdoors was calculated. Using these data, the true protective efficacy of nets (P*), for this population was estimated, and compared between genders, age groups and from month to month. Primary vector species (Anopheles funestus s.l. and Anopheles arabiensis) were more likely to feed indoors but the secondary vector Anopheles coustani demonstrated exophagic behaviour (p malaria vectors from 1.3 to 0.47 bites per night. The P* for the population over the study period was calculated as 51% and varied significantly with age and season (p malaria vector bites. It is likely that P* would be estimated to be greater if the overall suppression of the local vector population due to widespread community net use could be taken into account. However, the overlap of early biting habit of vectors and human activity in this region indicates that additional methods of vector control are required to limit transmission. Regular surveillance of both vector behaviour and domestic human-behaviour patterns would assist the planning of future

  1. A comparison of animal jaws and bite mark patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmann, Denise C; Brumit, Paula C; Schrader, Bruce A; Senn, David R

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the jaw shapes and bite mark patterns of wild and domestic animals to assist investigators in their analysis of animal bite marks. The analyses were made on 12 species in the Order Carnivora housed in the Mammalian Collection at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, Illinois. In addition to metric analysis, one skull from each species was photographed as a representative sample with an ABFO No. 2 scale in place. Bite patterns of the maxillary and mandibular dentition were documented using foamed polystyrene exemplars, which were also photographed. A total of 486 specimens were examined to analyze the jaw and bite mark patterns. A modified technique for measuring intercanine distances was developed to more accurately reflect the characteristics seen in animal bite marks. In it, three separate areas were measured on the canines, rather than just the cusp tip. This was to maximize the amount of information acquired from each skull, specifically to accommodate variances in the depth of bite injuries.

  2. Human glandular salivas : Their separate collection and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, ECI; vandenKeybus, PAM; Vissink, A; Amerongen, AVN

    1996-01-01

    Human saliva is secreted by the three pairs of major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual), and numerous minor ones, e.g. labial, buccal and (glosso)palatine glands. Using individually adapted collection devices, sublingual, submandibular, parotid and palatine secretions of five i

  3. Real-time PCR-based identification of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species in ticks collected from humans in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briciu, Violeta T; Meyer, Fabian; Sebah, Daniela; Tăţulescu, Doina F; Coroiu, Georgiana; Lupşe, Mihaela; Carstina, Dumitru; Mihalca, Andrei D; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Klier, Christiane; Huber, Ingrid; Fingerle, Volker

    2014-09-01

    The aims of our study were to determine (i) which tick species bite humans in Romania and (ii) the prevalence of Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi genospecies in these ticks. All ticks collected from patients who presented to the Clinic of Infectious Diseases Cluj Napoca in spring/summer 2010 were morphologically identified by an entomologist and tested for B. burgdorferi genospecies prevalence by a real-time PCR assay targeting the hbb gene and melting curve analysis. Out of 532 ticks, 518 were Ixodes ricinus, 10 Dermacentor marginatus, and 3 Haemaphysalis spp. ticks, and one unidentified tick due to destruction. Since evaluation of the hbb PCR revealed that it was not possible to differentiate between B. spielmanii/B. valaisiana and B. garinii/B. bavariensis, sequencing of an 800-bp fragment of the ospA gene was performed in these cases. Out of 389 investigated ticks, 43 were positive by hbb PCR for B. burgdorferi sensu lato. The positive samples were 42 Ixodes ricinus (11.1% B. burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence) and the one unidentified tick. Species identification revealed the presence of mainly B. afzelii, but also of B. garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. valaisiana, and B. lusitaniae. In 4 samples, differentiation between B. spielmanii/B. valaisiana was impossible. Our study shows that the most relevant human pathogenic B. burgdorferi genospecies - predominantly B. afzelii - are present in ticks collected from Romanian patients.

  4. Sensitivity to bites by the bedbug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, K; Kempke, D; Naylor, R A; Siva-Jothy, M T

    2009-06-01

    Bedbugs are a public health problem and can cause significant economic losses, but little is known about the effects of bites on humans. We reviewed case reports and published papers on bedbug bites to assess the empirical basis of the commonly cited figure that only approximately 80% of the population are sensitive to bedbug bites. We found the sensitivity estimate to be based on only one study carried out 80 years ago. However, this study did not account for the now well-established fact that only repeated exposure to external allergens leads to skin reactions. In our sample, 18 of 19 persons showed a skin reaction after bedbug exposure, but in most cases only after repeated controlled exposure. With repeated exposure, the latency between bite and skin reactions decreased from approximately 10 days to a few seconds. Our results are relevant for the hospitality industry, where apparently increasing infestation rates are likely to lead to an increase in the number of tourists and hotel employees exposed to bedbugs. Medical and public health professionals may expect to see an increase in the prevalence of people with bedbug bite sensitivity. The significance of the delayed reaction time of skin to bites may also have implications in litigation cases where people seek compensation.

  5. The stability of collected human scent under various environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Davia T; Curran, Allison M; Furton, Kenneth G

    2009-11-01

    Human scent evidence collected from objects at a crime scene is used for scent discrimination with specially trained canines. Storage of the scent evidence is usually required yet no optimized storage protocol has been determined. Storage containers including glass, polyethylene, and aluminized pouches were evaluated to determine the optimal medium for storing human scent evidence of which glass was determined to be the optimal storage matrix. Hand odor samples were collected on three different sorbent materials, sealed in glass vials and subjected to different storage environments including room temperature, -80 degrees C conditions, dark storage, and UVA/UVB light exposure over a 7-week period. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of the samples were extracted and identified using solid-phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Three-dimensional covariance mapping showed that glass containers subjected to minimal UVA/UVB light exposure provide the most stable environment for stored human scent samples.

  6. Suspected dog bite associated HIV horizontal transmission in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganizani Mlawanda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dog bites may lead to transmission of bacteria and viruses over and above tetanus and rabies. Theoretically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C may be transmitted after dog bites where transfer of blood from one victim to another occur in clinical practice HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C are not considered when making treatment decisions, nor adequate patient history taken to consider all potential risks after dog bites in succession.Objective: To present case of suspected HIV transmission after dog bites in close succession involving two HIV sero-discordant victims.Management and outcome: HIV rapid test and/or HIV Ribonucleic acid (RNA polymerasechain reaction (PCR results for the victim(s at presentation and a month later.Results: Two night patrol guards presented to casualty after dog bites in close succession by the same dog. They were managed according to the dog bite protocol. Thinking out of the box, the first victim was found to be HIV positive by rapid test whilst the second victim was negative based on both HIV rapid test and HIV RNA PCR. One month after the dogbites, a case of HIV sero-conversion was confirmed in the second victim despite post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP.Discussion: Although an isolated case, shouldn’t clinicians re-think the significance of HIV transmission after animal bites where there is repeated blood exposure in several people insuccession?Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware of the potential of HIV, Hepatitis B and C transmission, when faced with dog bites in succession. 

  7. Biting behavior of Anopheles mosquitoes in Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry A. Klein

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito collections were made in and near Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil, to determine anopheline anthropophilic/zoophilic behavior. Collections from a non-illuminated, bovine-baited trap and indoor and outdoor human-bait collections were compared. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles deaneorum were more anthropophilic than the other anophelines collected. The remainder of the Anopheles species were collected much morefrequently in bovine-baited traps than in human-bait collections. Anopheles darlingi and An. deaneorum were more frequently collected inside houses than the other anopheline species. But, when collections were made in a house with numerous openings in the walls, there were few differences in the percentages of each species biting man indoors versus outdoors. Anopheles darlingi was the predominant mosquito collected, both inside and outside houses, and had the strongest anthropophilic feeding behavior of the anophelines present.Para determinar o comportamento antropofilico e zoofilico dos anofelinos, foram capturados mosquitos na periferia e na zona urbana de Costa Marques, Rondônia, Brasil. Foram comparadas as capturas feitas à noite, com iscas bovinas e humanas, dentro efora de casa. O Anopheles darlingi e o Anopheles deaneorumforam mais antropojilicos do que os outros anofelinos capturados. O restante das espécies anofelinas foi capturado mais freqüentemente nas iscas bovinas do que nas humanas. Anopheles darlingi e Anopheles deaneorumforam capturados dentro de casa com mais freqüência do que as outras espécies anofelinas. Porém, quando a captura foi feita em casas com muitas aberturas nas paredes houve pouca diferença nas porcentagens de cada espécie sugadora de humanos dentro efora de casa. Anopheles darlingi foi o mosquito capturado com mais freqüência, dentro e fora de casa, e apresentava maior antropofilia em relação aos outros anofelinos presentes.

  8. Animal Bites of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your bite may be infected include: Swelling Redness Warmth Continued pain beyond 24 hours Drainage from the wound Signs that your infection may be spreading include: Red streaks up the arm or forearm Swollen glands ...

  9. Traveler's Health: Avoid Bug Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children Fish ... insect repellents that contain at least 20% DEET (products include Cutter Backwoods and Off! Deep Woods) for ...

  10. Reversible myocarditis after spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Hasan; Ak, Ahmet; Bayir, Aysegul; Avci, Ahmet

    2013-04-08

    Black widow spiders (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus) are poisonous spiders endemic in Turkey. Latrodectus bites may cause myocarditis with increased cardiac enzymes. We treated two men (aged 20 and 33 years) who had myocarditis after black spider bites with leucocytosis and elevated levels of troponin I, creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB fraction. Both patients had normal results on an ECG, and one patient had abnormal echocardiography with minimal left ventricular wall movement disorder. Both patients were hospitalised in the intensive care unit and treated with intravenous fluids, analgesics, spasmolytic drugs, tetanus prophylaxis and cardiac monitoring. The levels of troponin I, creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB fraction improved, and the patients were discharged home on the third and fifth hospital day without complications. Myocarditis after a Latrodectus bite is rare, but may be associated with serious complications. Therefore, in regions endemic with Latrodectus spiders, prudent treatment of spider bites may include cardiac evaluation and monitoring.

  11. Ticks and Diseases: Bite Fright!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Ticks and Diseases Bite Fright! Past Issues / Spring - Summer ... can bring on serious health problems. What Are Ticks? If you spend any time outdoors, you've ...

  12. Human collective intelligence under dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Toyokawa

    Full Text Available The exploration-exploitation dilemma is a recurrent adaptive problem for humans as well as non-human animals. Given a fixed time/energy budget, every individual faces a fundamental trade-off between exploring for better resources and exploiting known resources to optimize overall performance under uncertainty. Colonies of eusocial insects are known to solve this dilemma successfully via evolved coordination mechanisms that function at the collective level. For humans and other non-eusocial species, however, this dilemma operates within individuals as well as between individuals, because group members may be motivated to take excessive advantage of others' exploratory findings through social learning. Thus, even though social learning can reduce collective exploration costs, the emergence of disproportionate "information scroungers" may severely undermine its potential benefits. We investigated experimentally whether social learning opportunities might improve the performance of human participants working on a "multi-armed bandit" problem in groups, where they could learn about each other's past choice behaviors. Results showed that, even though information scroungers emerged frequently in groups, social learning opportunities reduced total group exploration time while increasing harvesting from better options, and consequentially improved collective performance. Surprisingly, enriching social information by allowing participants to observe others' evaluations of chosen options (e.g., Amazon's 5-star rating system in addition to choice-frequency information had a detrimental impact on performance compared to the simpler situation with only the choice-frequency information. These results indicate that humans groups can handle the fundamental "dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas" successfully, and that social learning about simple choice-frequencies can help produce collective intelligence.

  13. Compartment Syndrome Following Snake Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Dhar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Snake bites are an important public health problem worldwide. Snake venom causes both systemic and local complications, which can prove fatal if not treated on time. The local effects of snake bite include tissue necrosis, edema, and compartment syndrome. Patients may also be left with permanent physical deformities due to residual sequelae of the snake bite. Compartment syndrome after a snake bite is an uncommon occurrence. The effects are more pronounced in children possibly due to the the reduced total dilution volume in children. The administration of anti-snake venom is the only specific therapy. Compartment syndrome occurs due to a vicious cycle of edema causing hypoxia and acidosis, which further increases capillary permeability and fluid extravasation. This results in a volume increase in the closed fascial compartment, which ultimately compromises circulation and causes irreversible muscle and nerve damage. Our report describes a case of upper limb compartment syndrome following a snake bite on the right wrist of a five-year-old girl who presented eight-hours after the snake bite to the emergency department of Nizwa Regional Referral Hospital. The patient received early and appropriate care but progressed to develop compartment syndrome for which she had to be taken to the operating theatre for emergency fasciotomy. All clinicians should be able to recognize the early symptoms and signs of an evolving compartment syndrome in absence of intracompartmental measuring equipment. The timely fasciotomy in our patient helped the patient achieve excellent functional results.

  14. Connecting Humans and Water: The Case for Coordinated Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, J. B.; Brown, D. G.; Jolejole-Foreman, C.; Maidment, D. R.; Marquart-Pyatt, S. T.; Schneider, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    "Water problems" are fundamentally human problems -- aligning water quality and quantity with human aspirations. In the U.S., however, the few ongoing efforts to repeatedly observe humans in relation to water at large scale are disjointed both with each other and with observing systems for water quality and quantity. This presentation argues for the systematic, coordinated, and on-going collection of primary data on humans, spanning beliefs, perceptions, behaviors, and institutions, alongside the water environments in which they are embedded. Such an enterprise would advance not only water science and related policy and management decisions, but also generate basic insights into human cognition, decision making, and institutional development as they relate to the science of sustainability. In support of this argument, two types of original analyses are presented. First, two case studies using existing data sets illustrate methodological issues involved in integrating natural system data with social data at large scale: one concerns the influence of water quality conditions on personal efforts to conserve water and contribute financially to environmental protection; the other explores relationships between recreation behavior and water quality. Both case studies show how methodological differences between data programs seriously undercut the potential to draw inference about human responses to water quality while also illustrating the scientific potential that could be realized from linking human and scientific surveys of the water environment. Second, the results of a survey of water scientists concerning important scientific and policy questions around humans and water provide insight into data collection priorities for a coordinated program of observation.

  15. Isolation of Bartonella quintana from a Woman and a Cat following Putative Bite Transmission▿

    OpenAIRE

    Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Maggi, Ricardo G; Sigmon, Betsy; Nicholson, William L.

    2006-01-01

    We report here the detection of Bartonella quintana, after putative bite transmission, in pre-enrichment blood cultures from a woman and from two feral barn cats. Prospective molecular epidemiological studies are necessary to characterize the risk of human Bartonella quintana infection following cat bites.

  16. Circadian variation in ghrelin and certain stress hormones in crib-biting horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmann, Karin; Raekallio, Marja; Kanerva, Kira; Hänninen, Laura; Pastell, Matti; Palviainen, Mari; Vainio, Outi

    2012-07-01

    Crib-biting is classified as an oral stereotypy, which may be initiated by stress susceptibility, management factors, genetic factors and gastrointestinal irritation. Ghrelin has been identified in the gastric mucosa and is involved in the control of food intake and reward, but its relationship to crib-biting is not yet known. The aim of this study was to examine the concentration and circadian variation of plasma ghrelin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and β-endorphin in crib-biting horses and non-crib-biting controls. Plasma samples were collected every second hour for 24h in the daily environment of eight horses with stereotypic crib-biting and eight non-crib-biting controls. The crib-biting horses had significantly higher mean plasma ghrelin concentrations than the control horses. The circadian rhythm of cortisol was evident, indicating that the sampling protocol did not inhibit the circadian regulation in these horses. Crib-biting had no statistically significant effect on cortisol, ACTH or β-endorphin concentrations. The inter-individual variations in β-endorphin and ACTH were higher than the intra-individual differences, which made inter-individual comparisons difficult and complicated the interpretation of results. Further research is therefore needed to determine the relationship between crib-biting and ghrelin concentration.

  17. OCULAR MANIFESTATION AND LONG STANDING VISUAL IMPAIRMENT FOLLOWING VENOMOUS SNAKE BITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : Snake bite is an environmental hazard associated with significant ocular morbidity and some have sight threatening complications . Objective of this study was to determine the ocular manifestations and long standing visual impairment fo llowing snake bite and to acquaint the ophthalmologists and related health professionals about the sight threatening ocular complications related to snake bite . METHODS : Prospective data was collected from the Dept . of Internal Medicine , Burdwan Medical Co llege , a rural based tertiary care hospital in eastern India . All snake bite patients admitted in the Department of Internal Medicine were examined and all patients with ocular manifestations were included in the study . RESULTS : Out of 245 cases of snake b ite , 51 ( 27 . 27% cases of venomous snake bite with ocular findings were included in this study . Thirty three ( 64 . 71% out of 51 were vasculotoxic and 18 ( 35 . 29% were neurotoxic in nature . Commonest ocular manifestation of neurotoxic bite was ptosis , followed by diplopia , ophthalmoplegia and optic neuritis . In vasculotoxic snake bites retinal and vitreous hemorrhage ( 36 . 36% was most common followed by subconjunctival hemorrhage and chemosis ( 27 . 28% , lid oedema ( 18 . 18% , hyphaema ( 12 . 12% and anterior uveitis ( 6 . 06% . Causes of long standing visual impairment were retinal hemorrhage in one patient and vitreous hemorrhage in two patients . CONCLUSIONS : Ocular morbidity following snake bite were more common among young males . Majority of long standing vis ual impairment were associated with vasculotoxic snake bite and required long term follow - up .

  18. Quantitative forensic evaluation of bite marks with the aid of a shape analysis computer program: Part 2; "SCIP" and bite marks in skin and foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, P; Bridges, T E; Brown, K A

    1995-12-01

    In a previous paper 1, we have shown that the use of an interactive shape analysis computer program ("SCIP") and the derivation of a quantitative Similarity Index 1 greatly facilitated the comparison of experimental flat wax bite marks with the dentition of various 'suspects' and the identification of the agent producing the bite. In this study, "SCIP" was employed in an attempt to quantify the comparison, in the form of the Similarity Index (S.I.), between the "offender's" teeth and the bite marks produced on foodstuffs and on human skin, under experimental conditions. The use of "SCIP" and the S.I. is recommended as a routine means of eliminating suspects in bite mark cases. If a reasonable number of reference points have been registered in the bitten material and particularly if the perpetrator has any unusual features in the anterior dentition, the matching of the bite mark with the actual offender is a possibility with this method.

  19. Mortality following snake bite envenomation by Bitis arietans in an HIV positive child: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Gregory B; Street, Matthew; Ramguthy, Yammesh; Doedens, Linda

    2016-07-01

    Snake bites occur commonly in the rural areas of South Africa. Hospitals where snake bites are uncommon should always have protocols on standby in the event of such cases presenting. This is the first reported case documenting the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on snake bite in South African children.A case report and review of relevant information about the case was undertaken.We present a case of a 1-year-old child referred from a peripheral hospital following a snake bite to the left upper limb with a compartment syndrome and features of cytotoxic envenomation. The patient presented late with a wide area of necrotic skin on the arm requiring extensive debridement. The underlying muscle was not necrotic. Polyvalent antivenom (South African Institute of Medical Research Polyvalent Snakebite Antiserum) administration was delayed by 4 days after the snake bite. The patient was also diagnosed with HIV and a persistent thrombocytopenia possibly due to both HIV infection and the snake bite venom. Lower respiratory tract infections with subsequent overwhelming sepsis ultimately resulted in the child's death.The case highlights the challenge of treating a snake bite in a young child with HIV and the detrimental outcome of delayed treatment. A protocol is essential in the management of snake bites in all hospitals.Level IV, Case report.This case highlights the interaction of snake bite envenomation and HIV infection on thrombocytopenia.

  20. Mortality following snake bite envenomation by Bitis arietans in an HIV positive child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Gregory B.; Street, Matthew; Ramguthy, Yammesh; Doedens, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Snake bites occur commonly in the rural areas of South Africa. Hospitals where snake bites are uncommon should always have protocols on standby in the event of such cases presenting. This is the first reported case documenting the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on snake bite in South African children. A case report and review of relevant information about the case was undertaken. We present a case of a 1-year-old child referred from a peripheral hospital following a snake bite to the left upper limb with a compartment syndrome and features of cytotoxic envenomation. The patient presented late with a wide area of necrotic skin on the arm requiring extensive debridement. The underlying muscle was not necrotic. Polyvalent antivenom (South African Institute of Medical Research Polyvalent Snakebite Antiserum) administration was delayed by 4 days after the snake bite. The patient was also diagnosed with HIV and a persistent thrombocytopenia possibly due to both HIV infection and the snake bite venom. Lower respiratory tract infections with subsequent overwhelming sepsis ultimately resulted in the child's death. The case highlights the challenge of treating a snake bite in a young child with HIV and the detrimental outcome of delayed treatment. A protocol is essential in the management of snake bites in all hospitals. Level IV, Case report. This case highlights the interaction of snake bite envenomation and HIV infection on thrombocytopenia. PMID:27399076

  1. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous ... one’s greatest efforts, bug bites still happen. Fortunately, most bug bites and stings can be safely treated ...

  2. 77 FR 33774 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project... of Collection: Education and Human Resources Project Monitoring Clearance. OMB Approval Number: 3145... States and internationally. The Directorate for Education and Human Resources (EHR), a unit within NSF...

  3. Seasonal distribution and diel biting patterns of culicine mosquitoes in Costa Marques, Rondônia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry A. Klein

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available A study of peridomestic man-biting culicines in the Amazon Basin was conducted from January through December, 1987. Fifteen species of mosquitoes from six genera were collected by volunters in all-night human-bait indoor and outdoor collections at five hoses in and near the town of Costa Marques, Rondônia, Brazil. Culex quinquefasciatus and members of the Mansonia titillans/indubitans Group comprised 61 and 33%, respectively, of all culcines collected from human-bait outside houses and 62 and 35%, respectively, of those collected from volunteers inside houses in the town. In rural areas, Cx. quinquefasciatus was less abundant and only comprised 2 and 5% of the culcines, respectively, collected inside and outside houses. Mansonia titillans/indubitans Group comprised 75% and 86% of the culicines collected inside and outside houses, respectively, from rural residences. Culex quinquefasciatus and members of Mn. titillans/indubitans Group were more endophilic than other culcines collected. Nocturnal and seasonal biting rhythms for the more common culcines are described

  4. DNA typing of Calliphorids collected from human corpses in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, R; Tan, T C; Lee, H L; Nazni, W A; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2013-03-01

    Estimation of post-mortem interval (PMI) is crucial for time of death determination. The advent of DNA-based identification techniques forensic entomology saw the beginning of a proliferation of molecular studies into forensically important Calliphoridae (Diptera). The use of DNA to characterise morphologically indistinguishable immature calliphorids was recognised as a valuable molecular tool with enormous practical utility. The local entomofauna in most cases is important for the examination of entomological evidences. The survey of the local entomofauna has become a fundamental first step in forensic entomological studies, because different geographical distributions, seasonal and environmental factors may influence the decomposition process and the occurrence of different insect species on corpses. In this study, calliphorids were collected from 13 human corpses recovered from indoors, outdoors and aquatic conditions during the post-mortem examination by pathologists from the government hospitals in Malaysia. Only two species, Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies were recovered from human corpses. DNA sequencing was performed to study the mitochondrial encoded COI gene and to evaluate the suitability of the 1300 base pairs of COI fragments for identification of blow fly species collected from real crime scene. The COI gene from blow fly specimens were sequenced and deposited in GenBank to expand local databases. The sequenced COI gene was useful in identifying calliphorids retrieved from human corpses.

  5. Schmallenberg virus in Culicoides spp. biting midges, the Netherlands, 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Meiswinkel, R.; Weezep, van E.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.; Kooi, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    To determine which species of Culicoides biting midges carry Schmallenberg virus (SBV), we assayed midges collected in the Netherlands during autumn 2011. SBV RNA was found in C. scoticus, C. obsoletus sensu stricto, and C. chiopterus. The high proportion of infected midges might explain the rapid

  6. Mosquito bite-caused eosinophilic dermatitis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, K V; Evans, A G

    1991-06-15

    Eight cats had lesions on the nasal bridge, ears, and footpads, with histologic and hematologic features of a recently described seasonal form of eosinophilic granuloma complex. Four cats were examined in detail, and it was established that 2 of the 4 reacted to mosquito extract on intradermal skin testing read at 20 minutes. Neither of the 2 cats tested had deposits of immunoglobulins in lesional or perilesional skin. Lesions on all 4 cats resolved when kept at home behind insect screening, but flared up if the screening was removed. Mosquitoes that were observed to be biting and causing lesions were collected and identified. Other species of laboratory-reared mosquitoes were allowed to bite nonlesional skin of 1 affected cat, causing pruritus, erythematous crusting, and ulcerative lesions at the bite site, which was characterized histologically as eosinophilic dermatitis.

  7. Bacteria, fungi and arthropod pests collected on modern human mummies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Palla

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey of opportunistic biocenosis (macro and micro organisms associated with a rest of human mummy samples was carried out to characterise the biocenosis and to detect the potential of biodeteriogens. The rests of the human modern mummies come from a hypogeic site. Since mummies are relevant from a historic-artistic-scientific point of view, an aspect of this study was the identification and characterization of the biological systems related with biodeterioration of organic matter. In a first step, different sampling methods, according to the taxa, were applied. Technological procedures were combined in order to have an interdisciplinary approach to the conservation actions for testing future restoration protocols. Specimens were collected, identified and characterized by Microscopy (light, SEM, CLSM and molecular analyses (DNA extraction, in vitro target sequence amplification, sequencing, sequence analysis. The results highlight a rather complex biocenonsis consisting of fungi, cyanobacteria, several insects and other arthropods.

  8. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable...... substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further...

  9. [Compartment syndrome following adder bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roed, Casper; Bayer, Lasse; Lebech, Anne-Mette Kjaer; Poulsen, Jesper Brøndum; Katzenstein, Terese

    2009-01-26

    Bites from the adder, Vipera Berus, can have serious clinical consequences due to systemic effects. Meanwhile, the local swelling calls for attention as well. Two cases of seven- and eleven-year-old boys are reported. The first patient was bitten in the 5th toe, the second in the thumb. Both developed fasciotomy-requiring compartment syndrome of the lower and upper limb, respectively. Recognition of this most seldom complication of an adder bite is vital to save the limb. We recommend that the classical signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome serve as indication for surgery. However, compartment pressure measurement can be helpful in the assessment of children.

  10. Animal bite injuries to the face : A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simao, Niverso Rodrigues; Borba, Alexandre Meireles; da Silva, Andre Luis Fernandes; Vieira, Evanice Menezes Marcal; Carvalhosa, Artur Aburad; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2013-08-01

    Traumatic lacerations to the skin are problems frequently seen and treated by emergency centers around the world. Among all wounds, dog and cat bites are commonly seen. As in many mammals, different species of microorganisms are found in dog and cat mouths with a potential pathological effect to humans, as represented by rabies. The injuries have disfiguration effect with possible psychological repercussion to the patient. This article aimed presenting up to date considerations regarding the management of animal bite injuries to the face, exemplified by a case report that should be the interest of all professions that deal with facial tissues, as dentists do. How to cite this article: Simao NR, Borba AM, da Silva ALF, Vieira EMM, Carvalhosa AA, Bandeca MC, Borges AH. Animal bite injuries to the face: A Case Report. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):68-72.

  11. An unusual complication of snake bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Grace

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior pituitary hypofunction is a well-known complication following snake bite. However, central diabetes insipidus as a complication of snake bite is only rarely reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of central diabetes insipidus, which developed as sequelae to viper bite.

  12. Guidelines for bite mark analysis. American Board of Forensic Odontology, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    Bite mark evidence is used in many courts and in the military justice system. Such evidence may be crucial to the resolution of the investigation. Detailed guidelines offer specific methods of collecting evidence.

  13. Bites and Scratches (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... small. A child who is bitten by an animal may need antibiotics, a tetanus booster, or rarely, a series of rabies shots. A bite or scratch on a child's face, hand, or foot is ... unfamiliar or wild animal, note the location of the animal. Some animals ...

  14. [Viper (Vipera berus) snake bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, J; Kornalík, F

    2000-07-19

    Cases of snake bites (Vipera berus) have as compared with past years a rising trend in the Czech Republic. This ensues among other factors from a higher prevalence of snakes due to the improving ecological situation. The morbidity of snake bites is of no epidemiological importance, the frequency of snake bites amounts to several tens per year and in some clinically manifest intoxication does not develop. Nevertheless in individual cases, in children weakened subjects, a viper bite may be manifested by a serious and in exceptional instances fatal affection. Within the framework of first aid the authors do not recommend application of a tourniquet or dissecting of the wound because of undesirable potentiation of tissue traumatization. Non-specific treatment involves the administration of corticoids and antihistaminics. Specific immunotherapy, administration of horse antiserum (Ipser Europe, Pasteur Mérieux, France) is indicated only in case of systemic or very severe local symptoms and is associated with the risk of a severe allergic reaction. In case of severe systemic symptoms, symptomatic treatment in a health institution of the appropriate type is of fundamental importance. In all cases observation of the affected subject is recommended to rule out intoxication or the development of possible complications.

  15. "Spider bite" lesions are usually diagnosed as skin and soft-tissue infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchard, Jeffrey Ross

    2011-11-01

    Many people seek medical attention for skin lesions and other conditions they attribute to spider bites. Prior experience suggests that many of these lesions have alternate causes, especially infections with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). This study determined the percentage of emergency department (ED) patients reporting a "spider bite" who received a clinical diagnosis of spider bite by their physician vs. other etiologies, and if the diagnoses correlated with demographic risk factors for developing CA-MRSA infections. ED patients who reported that their condition was caused by a "spider bite" were prospectively enrolled in an anonymous, voluntary survey regarding details of their illness and demographic information. Discharge diagnoses were also collected and categorized as: spider bite, bite from other animal (including unknown arthropod), infection, or other diagnosis. There were 182 patients enrolled over 23 months. Seven patients (3.8%) were diagnosed with actual spider bites, 9 patients (4.9%) with bites from other animals, 156 patients (85.7%) with infections, and 6 patients (3.3%) were given other diagnoses. Four patients were given concurrent diagnoses in two categories, and 8 (4.4%) did not have the diagnosis recorded on the data collection instrument. No statistically significant associations were found between the patients' diagnostic categories and the demographic risk factors for CA-MRSA assessed. ED patients reporting a "spider bite" were most frequently diagnosed with skin and soft-tissue infections. Clinically confirmed spider bites were rare, and were caused by black widow spiders when the species could be identified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Do animals bite more during a full moon? Retrospective observational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, C; Bradley, P; Smith, M; Scally, A J; Wilson, B J

    To test the hypothesis that the incidence of animal bites increases at the time of a full moon. Retrospective observational analysis. Accident and emergency department at a general hospital in an English city. 1621 consecutive patients, irrespective of age and sex. Number of patients who attended an accident and emergency department during 1997 to 1999 after being bitten by an animal. The number of bites in each day was compared with the lunar phase in each month. The incidence of animal bites rose significantly at the time of a full moon. With the period of the full moon as the reference period, the incidence rate ratio of the bites for all other periods of the lunar cycle was significantly lower (P full moon is associated with a significant increase in animal bites to humans.

  17. Seasonal Variation in Biting Rates of Simulium damnosum sensu lato, Vector of Onchocerca volvulus, in Two Sudanese Foci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam M A Zarroug

    Full Text Available The abundance of onchocerciasis vectors affects the epidemiology of disease in Sudan, therefore, studies of vector dynamics are crucial for onchocerciasis control/elimination programs. This study aims to compare the relative abundance, monthly biting-rates (MBR and hourly-based distribution of onchocerciasis vectors in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci. These seasonally-based factors can be used to structure vector control efforts to reduce fly-biting rates as a component of onchocerciasis elimination programs.A cross-sectional study was conducted in four endemic villages in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci during two non-consecutive years (2007-2008 and 2009-2010. Both adults and aquatic stages of the potential onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum sensu lato were collected following standard procedures during wet and dry seasons. Adult flies were collected using human landing capture for 5 days/month. The data was recorded on handheld data collection sheets to calculate the relative abundance, MBR, and hourly-based distribution associated with climatic factors. The data analysis was carried out using ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation tests.Data on vector surveillance revealed higher relative abundance of S. damnosum s.l. in Abu- Hamed (39,934 flies than Galabat (8,202 flies. In Abu-Hamed, vector populations increased in January-April then declined in June-July until they disappeared in August-October. Highest black fly density and MBR were found in March 2007 (N = 9,444, MBR = 58,552.8 bites/person/month, and March 2010 (N = 2,603, MBR = 16,138.6 bites/person/month while none of flies were collected in August-October (MBR = 0 bites/person/month. In Galabat, vectors increased in September-December, then decreased in February-June. The highest vector density and MBR were recorded in September 2007 (N = 1,138, MBR = 6,828 bites/person/month and September 2010 (N = 1,163, MBR = 6,978 bites/person/month, whereas, none appeared in collection from April to

  18. Collective-goal ascription increases cooperation in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Mitkidis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cooperation is necessary in many types of human joint activity and relations. Evidence suggests that cooperation has direct and indirect benefits for the cooperators. Given how beneficial cooperation is overall, it seems relevant to investigate the various ways of enhancing individuals' willingness to invest in cooperative endeavors. We studied whether ascription of a transparent collective goal in a joint action promotes cooperation in a group. METHODS: A total of 48 participants were assigned in teams of 4 individuals to either a "transparent goal-ascription" or an "opaque goal-ascription" condition. After the manipulation, the participants played an anonymous public goods game with another member of their team. We measured the willingness of participants to cooperate and their expectations about the other player's contribution. RESULTS: Between subjects analyses showed that transparent goal ascription impacts participants' likelihood to cooperate with each other in the future, thereby greatly increasing the benefits from social interactions. Further analysis showed that this could be explained with a change in expectations about the partner's behavior and by an emotional alignment of the participants. CONCLUSION: The study found that a transparent goal ascription is associated with an increase of cooperation. We propose several high-level mechanisms that could explain the observed effect: general affect modulation, trust, expectation and perception of collective efficacy.

  19. Identity and diversity of blood meal hosts of biting midges (Dipterea: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Sandra; Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    the species of the collected biting midges (GenBank accessions JQ683259-JQ683374). The blood meals were first screened with a species-specific cytochrome b primer pair for cow and if negative with a universal cytochrome b primer pair followed by sequencing to identify mammal or avian blood meal hosts. RESULTS...... and diversity of blood meals taken from vertebrate hosts in wild-caught Culicoides biting midges near livestock farms. METHODS: Biting midges were collected at weekly intervals for 20 weeks from May to October 2009 using light traps at four collection sites on the island Sealand, Denmark. Blood-fed female...... biting midges were sorted and head and wings were removed for morphological species identification. The thoraxes and abdomens including the blood meals of the individual females were subsequently subjected to DNA isolation. The molecular marker cytochrome oxidase I (COI barcode) was applied to identify...

  20. [Spider bites: araneidism of medical importance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Philip; Rollard, Christine; De Haro, Luc

    2005-01-15

    LIMITED RISKS: Although most species of spiders are venomous, only ten or so are able to induce human envenomations. From a systematic point of view, it is possible to distinguish the araneomorph spiders - or "true" spiders - from the mygalomorph spiders. Dangerous species for humans can be found in both groups. Regarding "true' spiders, two kinds of envenomation are frequent, ubiquitous and potentially severe: latrodectism (neurotoxic symptomatology) due to the Widow spiders of the Latrodectus species,and loxoscelism (viscero-cutaneous symptomatology). Regarding the mygalomorph spiders, the Australian species responsible for atraxism (neurotoxic symptomatology) are considered as the most dangerous. Most of the other mygalomorph spiders, when they bite, only provoke benign loco regional problems. A supplementary defensive weapon exists in certain South-American species: urticating hairs which may induce severe ocular damage.

  1. Epidemiology of dog bite, a potential source of rabies in Guilan, north of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mohtasham-Amiri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine epidemiological aspects of dog bite in Guilan Province, north of Iran. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 1 643 cases of dog bites who presented at rabies vaccination centers in Guilan, Iran from June 2011 to May 2012. Data including demographic characteristics of dog bite cases, characteristics of biting dog, treatment and preventive measures carried out, and dog bite incident circumstances were collected. Independent t-test, ANOVA, Fisher exact test and chi-square test were used. Results: Dog bite incidences in men and women were 179.4 and 55 in 100 000 populations, respectively. Incidences in urban and rural were 72.8, and 181.9 in 100 000 population, respectively. The highest percentage of victims (20.1% was in 20-29 years old age group. Majority of dogs (92% were owned. Victims in the highest percentage (26.6% were dog owners. Most of dog bites were occurred in houses (58.5%. Entering to the dog’s guarding territory was the most common circumstances (27.6%. Injuries most commonly involved the lower extremities (51%. Rabies vaccine, rabies immunoglobulin, tetanus vaccine and tetanus immunoglobulin were administered for 100%, 23.2%, 74.8%, and 9.1%, respectively. There were significant differences between men and women in term of area and place of bite incidence and dog ownership (P < 0.05. Mean age differences among categories of dog ownership, dog bite circumstance, and bitted site of body were significant (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Designing comprehensive educational programs to reduce dog bite incidence based on gender and age of target groups can be useful.

  2. Bite angle effects of diphosphines in C-C and C-X bond forming cross coupling reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkholz, M.N.; Freixa, Z.; van Leeuwen, P.W.N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Catalytic reactions of C-C and C-X bond formation are discussed in this critical review with particular emphasis on cross coupling reactions catalyzed by palladium and wide bite angle bidentate diphosphine ligands. Especially those studies have been collected that allow comparison of the ligand bite

  3. Dog bites in The Netherlands: A study of victims, injuries, circumstances and aggressors to support evaluation of breed specific legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.M.R.; Hopster, H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of Dutch breed specific legislation, data were collected from dog bite victims (1078) and dog owners (6139) using Internet surveys. The incidence rate of dog bites and details of incidents (victims, injuries, circumstances and aggressors) are reported and the justification f

  4. Animal Bite Management Practices: Study at Three Municipal Corporation Hospitals of Ahmedabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyas Sheetal, Gupta Kinnari, Bhatt Gneyaa, Tiwari Hemant

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Rabies is a deadly Zoonotic disease most often transmitted to humans through a dog bite. Most of these deaths could be prevented through post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, including immediate wound washing, rabies immunoglobulin administration and vaccination. Aims: To study attitude and pre-treatment practices among the study population. Methods: Cross sectional study was carried out by conducting exit interview of 100 cases of animal bite each from three hospitals run by Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. Observations: Total 300 cases of animal bites were studied in the present study. Most common biting animal was dog as 97.33% cases gave history of dog bite. Almost half of the cases belonged to age group less than 20 years with mean age of 19+ 20.2 years and male to female ratio was 3:1. Right lower limb was the most common (45.7% biting site and majority (59% had category III bites. Immediate pre-treatment of wound was practiced by 72% of cases before visiting hospitals however only 5.7% had gone for immediate washing of wound with soap and water. The local applications at the site of bite were tobacco snuff, red chilli, turmeric, and miscellaneous things like Garlic, Jaggery, Kerosene, Lime, Bandage, Soframycine, Ghee, Wheat flour etc. which were practiced by 66% of cases. The average time interval between bite and visiting the hospital was 32 hours. Conclusions: With the availability of safe and effective tissue culture vaccines prevention of rabies is virtually assured by immediate and appropriate post exposure treatment. There is need for creating awareness in public and medical community about proper wound management, judicious use of anti-rabies serum and use of modern tissue culture vaccine after animal bite.

  5. The body bites back!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Steve

    2011-09-01

    How should we think about the body in science education? What ought it mean to be alive and live within epistemologies and pedagogies? What does it mean to be human in science education? In response to Auli Arvola Orlander and Per-Olof Wickram's article, this essay explores some of the possibilities and questions that the body evokes in science education research and practice. Drawing on selected theorizing in science education, environmental education and science and technology studies, the author suggests that we should strive to be more in tune with the seemingly mundane corporeal aspects of our performances and representations. This shift in attention has the potential to open up research, policy and practice agendas associated with relationships between pedagogies and embodied and disembodied knowledge and knowing. Such agendas might start by considering situated and embodied emotions in science education.

  6. An Epidemiological Study of Animal Bites and Envenomings in a Rural District of Tamilnadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To find out the period prevalence of animal bites and envenomings, its epidemiological risk factors and treatment seeking behaviour. Materials and methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in the 34 villages of the field practising areas of the Rural Health Training Centre, Thiruvenainallur. Considering the prevalence of bites as 7.4%, and taking 5 members in each household with a non response of 10% the number households studied were 4150 covering a population of 18865 which was calculated using an Open EPI version (2.3 software package. Sampling frame of households was prepared and systemic random sampling method was used to select households from each village. Trained medical interns and social workers collected information on bites in the preceding one year. Data was entered and analyzed in Epi_info (3.4.3 software. Results: In this study, information of 12947 adults was included and the overall period prevalence of bites was 81.8/1000 population. The most common bite is dog bite (22.3 followed by scorpion (22.1 and centipede (17.8 per 1000 population. The dog bites are significantly higher among males, people below the poverty line, farmers and laborers. There is significantly increased risk of snake bites among people working in agriculture fields. Only 35% of the dog bite victims washed their wound with soap and water and 28% applied irritants such as ash, ink, calotropis milk etc. over the wounds. Anti-rabies vaccination was given in 60% of the dog bite victims and life saving measure of Rabies Immunoglobulins (RIGS was given in only in 6.2%. Almost half of the bitten victims of scorpion and centipede follow traditional methods of treatment. Conclusions: Considering the high prevalence of different bites and treatment seeking behavior indicates there is a lack of awareness regarding all forms of bites in the rural community. The existing program of rabies control has to be strengthened and community awareness about

  7. A verified spider bite and a review of the literature confirm Indian ornamental tree spiders (Poecilotheria species) as underestimated theraphosids of medical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Joan; von Dechend, Margot; Mordasini, Raffaella; Ceschi, Alessandro; Nentwig, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Literature on bird spider or tarantula bites (Theraphosidae) is rare. This is astonishing as they are coveted pets and interaction with their keepers (feeding, cleaning the terrarium or taking them out to hold) might increase the possibility for bites. Yet, this seems to be a rare event and might be why most theraphosids are considered to be harmless, even though the urticating hairs of many American species can cause disagreeable allergic reactions. We are describing a case of a verified bite by an Indian ornamental tree spider (Poecilotheria regalis), where the patient developed severe, long lasting muscle cramps several hours after the bite. We present a comprehensive review of the literature on bites of these beautiful spiders and conclude that a delayed onset of severe muscle cramps, lasting for days, is characteristic for Poecilotheria bites. We discuss Poecilotheria species as an exception from the general assumption that theraphosid bites are harmless to humans.

  8. The influence of bite size and multiple bites on oral texture sensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A. de; Engelen, L.; Prinz, J.F.; Weenen, H.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of bite size on sensory mouthfeel and afterfeel sensations was explored in two studies in which single bites of vanilla custard desserts were varied from 2 to 11 mL (study 1) and in which series of five bites of two different custard desserts were presented consecutively (study 2). In

  9. The influence of bite size and multiple bites on oral texture sensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Engelen, L.; Prinz, J.F.; Weenen, H.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of bite size on sensory mouth- and afterfeel sensations was explored in two studies in which single bites of vanilla custard desserts were varied from 2 to 11 ml (study 1) and in which series of five bites of two different custard desserts were presented consecutively (study 2). In sin

  10. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites ... take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use ...

  11. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites ... take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use ...

  12. Surveillance of malaria vector population density and biting behaviour in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ototo, Ednah N; Mbugi, Jenard P; Wanjala, Christine L; Zhou, Guofa; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-06-17

    Malaria is a great public health burden and Africa suffers the largest share of malaria-attributed deaths. Despite control efforts targeting indoor malaria transmission, such as insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and deployment of indoor residual spraying, transmission of the parasite in western Kenya is still maintained. This study was carried out to determine the impact of ITNs on indoor vector densities and biting behaviour in western Kenya. Indoor collection of adult mosquitoes was done monthly in six study sites in western Kenya using pyrethrum spray collections from 2012 to 2014. The rotator trap collections were done in July-August in 2013 and May-June in 2014. Mosquitoes were collected every 2 h between 18.00 and 08.00 h. Human behaviour study was conducted via questionnaire surveys. Species within Anopheles gambiae complex was differentiated by PCR and sporozoite infectivity was determined by ELISA. Species distribution was determined and bed net coverage in the study sites was recorded. During the study a total of 5,469 mosquito vectors were collected from both PSC and Rotator traps comprising 3,181 (58.2%) Anopheles gambiae and 2,288 (41.8%) Anopheles funestus. Compared to all the study sites, Rae had the highest density of An. gambiae with a mean of 1.2 (Pmalaria parasite vector in the highland sites and An. arabiensis in the lowland sites. Bed net ownership in 2012 averaged 87% across the study sites. This study suggests that mass distribution of ITNs has had a significant impact on vector densities, species distribution and sporozoite rate. However, shift of biting time poses significant threats to the current malaria vector control strategies which heavily rely on indoor controls.

  13. INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR NURSING STAFF REGARDING APPROACH TO A PATIENT WITH SPIDER PHOBIA AND/OR BITE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Agroudi, Mahfouz Ahmad; Ahmed, Salwa Abdalla Mohammad; Morsy, Tosson A

    2016-04-01

    Spider bites are uncommon medical events, since there are limited number of spiders world-wide with fangs strong enough to pierce human skin, and most spiders bite humans only as a final defense when being crushed between skin and another object. Thus, most lesions attributed to spider bites are caused by some other etiology. The spiders that can cause medically significant bites include widow and false widow spiders (worldwide), recluse spiders (mostly North and South America), Australian funnel web spiders (eastern coastal Australia) and Phoneutria spiders (Brazil). Acute spider bites most commonly result in a solitary papule, pustule, or wheal. Systemic symptoms can accompany envenomation of widow; funnel web, and Phoneutria spiders, and less often, those of recluse spiders.

  14. To bite or not to bite! A questionnaire-based survey assessing why some people are bitten more than others by midges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weeks Emma NI

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Scottish biting midge, Culicoides impunctatus, responsible for more than 90% of biting attacks on human beings in Scotland, is known to demonstrate a preference for certain human hosts over others. Methods In this study we used a questionnaire-based survey to assess the association between people's perception of how badly they get bitten by midges and their demographic, lifestyle and health related characteristics. Results Most people (85.8% reported being bitten sometimes, often or always with only 14.2% reporting never being bitten by midges when in Scotland. There was no association between level of bites received and age, smoking, diet, exercise, medication, eating strongly flavoured foods or alcohol consumption. However, there was a strong association between the probability of being bitten and increasing height (in men and BMI (in women. A large proportion of participants (33.8% reported experiencing a bad/severe reaction to midge bites while 53.1% reported a minor reaction and 13.1% no reaction at all. Also, women tend to react more than men to midge bites. Additionally, the results indicated that the susceptibility to being bitten by midges is hereditary. Conclusions This study suggests that midges prefer to bite men that are tall and women that have a large BMI, and that the tendency for a child to be bitten or not could be inherited from their parent. The study is questionnaire-based; therefore, the interpretation of the results may be limited by the subjectivity of the answers given by the respondents. Although the results are relevant only to the Scottish biting midge, the approach used here could be useful for investigating human-insect interactions for other insects, particularly those which transmit pathogens that cause disease.

  15. Molecular identification of bloodmeals from biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae; Culicoides Latreille) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Sandra Boline; Nielsen, Søren A; Skovgård, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    . Their choice of host for blood feeding is sparsely described. The aim of the present study was to establish methods for the identification of bloodmeal hosts and determine the identity and diversity of bloodmeals of vertebrate hosts from wild-caught biting midges near livestock farms. The study includes some...... of the most common and abundant species of biting midges in Denmark: Culicoides obsoletus, Culicoides scoticus, Culicoides pulicaris and Culicoides punctatus. We collected 8,378 biting midges including nine species of Culicoides of which blood-fed specimens were found from six species. We identified 251 blood...... engorged biting midges, and hosts were identified in 115 of 125 analysed specimens (90%). Cow, roe deer, horse, mallard and wood pigeon were identified as hosts. The most abundant host species was cow, which constituted 73.9% of the total identified bloodmeals, but the common wood pigeon was found...

  16. Contextual analysis and epidemiology of spider bite in southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, Maykon P; Cardoso, Danon C; Raymundo, Melissa S

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this work was to conduct an epidemiological and clinical review of 1126 cases of envenoming by spider recorded in the national notifiable diseases information system (SINAN) files of the Municipal Health Secretary of the Criciúma region, Santa Catarina State, Brazil from 1994 to 2006. This work presents a critical analysis carried out by the application of the chi(2) test, with different regional contextual parameters, including the incidence coefficient. Spider envenoming accounts for more than 50% of all cases recorded in the SINAN files for poisonous animals and is the main cause of human envenomation in the Criciúma region. The majority of the spider bites (57.4%) were reported in the hottest months, from December to May. The anatomic region that suffered the most bites was the hand. Nearly 50% of the accidents were recorded in the group aged 20-49 years. The spiders most frequently involved in accidents for all age groups were of the Loxosceles genus. Although the data collected lack further epidemiological and, especially, clinical details, this does not affect the conclusions of the study, which could be used in the planning of actions aimed at improving environmental health.

  17. Connecting behaviour and performance: the evolution of biting behaviour and bite performance in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, S E; Dumont, E R

    2009-11-01

    Variation in behaviour, performance and ecology are traditionally associated with variation in morphology. A neglected part of this ecomorphological paradigm is the interaction between behaviour and performance, the ability to carry out tasks that impact fitness. Here we investigate the relationship between biting behaviour and performance (bite force) among 20 species of ecologically diverse bats. We studied the patterns of evolution of plasticity in biting behaviour and bite force, and reconstructed ancestral states for behaviour and its plasticity. Both behavioural and performance plasticity exhibited accelerating evolution over time, and periods of rapid evolution coincided with major dietary shifts from insect-feeding to plant-feeding. We found a significant, positive correlation between behavioural plasticity and bite force. Bats modulated their performance by changing their biting behaviour to maximize bite force when feeding on hard foods. The ancestor of phyllostomids was likely a generalist characterized by high behavioural plasticity, a condition that also evolved in specialized frugivores and potentially contributed to their diversification.

  18. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Nail Biting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Watson, T. Steuart; Kazmerski, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a…

  19. Talking to Patients about Preventing Tick Bites

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-14

    This podcast will help health care providers identify patients who are at increased risk of getting tick bites and provide these patients with tick bite prevention and removal tips.  Created: 2/14/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/14/2012.

  20. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Replace the nail-biting habit with a good habit: When you feel like biting your nails, try playing with a stress ball or silly putty instead. This will help keep your hands busy and away from your mouth. Identify your triggers: These could be physical triggers, ...

  1. 78 FR 26639 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Financial Sustainability of Human Tissue Biobanking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Financial..., Ph.D., Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research Branch, Cancer Diagnosis Program, 9609 Medical Center...: Financial Sustainability of Human Tissue Biobanking, 0925-NEW, National Cancer Institute (NCI),...

  2. COLLECTIVE LEADERSHIP – ORGANIZATIONAL DIMENSION OF HUMAN RESOURCES STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina MANOLE; Cristina ALPOPI

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to show how important the role of leader is, in the context of public leadership as a form of collective leadership. The expected results, obtained after applying research methodology, will reflect the management styles of leaders. In this regard, the action of a leader becomes essential, both to revitalize their management teams and to develop a social environment based on colaboration and collegiality – the dominant features of collective leadership.

  3. Bite force and state of dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helkimo, E; Carlsson, G E; Helkimo, M

    1977-01-01

    The maximal bite force and the strength of the finger-thumb grip of 125 Skolt Lapps, aged 15 to 65, was measured with a specially devised apparatus. The bite force was measured with the biting fork placed between the first molars and between the incisors, respectively. The finger-thumb grip was measured by letting the subject press the prongs of the fork between the thumb and forefinger of each hand as hard as possible. The range of inter-individual variation of the maximal bite force and finger-thumb grip was great. The mean values were higher for the males than for the females. In the males the maximal bite force thus measured in the molar region was 39 kg (382 N) and 18 kg (176 N) in the incisor region. The corresponding values for the females were 22 kg (216 N) and 11 kg (108 N). The finger-thumb grip strength for males was, on the average, 10 kg (98 N); that of the females, 7 KG (69 N). The average difference in bite force between the men and the women was larger in the group with natural teeth than in the one with complete dentures. The values found for the bite force decreased with increasing age, especially for the females. Most of this reduction with increasing age was probably due to the age-dependent deterioration of the dentition. In both sexes the bite force was notably smaller among the denture wearers than among the dentate persons. The number of natural teeth varied closely with the bite force, i.e. the greater number of natural teeth the greater the bite force.

  4. Biting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Distraction works wonders with kids this age. If emotions and energy levels are running high or if boredom has set in, help redirect a little one's attention to a more positive activity, like dancing to music, coloring, or playing a game. Discipline usually is ...

  5. Collective unconscious: how gut microbes shape human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinan, Timothy G; Stilling, Roman M; Stanton, Catherine; Cryan, John F

    2015-04-01

    The human gut harbors a dynamic and complex microbial ecosystem, consisting of approximately 1 kg of bacteria in the average adult, approximately the weight of the human brain. The evolutionary formation of a complex gut microbiota in mammals has played an important role in enabling brain development and perhaps sophisticated social interaction. Genes within the human gut microbiota, termed the microbiome, significantly outnumber human genes in the body, and are capable of producing a myriad of neuroactive compounds. Gut microbes are part of the unconscious system regulating behavior. Recent investigations indicate that these microbes majorly impact on cognitive function and fundamental behavior patterns, such as social interaction and stress management. In the absence of microbes, underlying neurochemistry is profoundly altered. Studies of gut microbes may play an important role in advancing understanding of disorders of cognitive functioning and social interaction, such as autism.

  6. Leadership, consensus decision making and collective behaviour in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, John R G; Johansson, Anders; Helbing, Dirk; Couzin, Iain D; Krause, Jens

    2009-03-27

    This paper reviews the literature on leadership in vertebrate groups, including recent work on human groups, before presenting the results of three new experiments looking at leadership and decision making in small and large human groups. In experiment 1, we find that both group size and the presence of uninformed individuals can affect the speed with which small human groups (eight people) decide between two opposing directional preferences and the likelihood of the group splitting. In experiment 2, we show that the spatial positioning of informed individuals within small human groups (10 people) can affect the speed and accuracy of group motion. We find that having a mixture of leaders positioned in the centre and on the edge of a group increases the speed and accuracy with which the group reaches their target. In experiment 3, we use large human crowds (100 and 200 people) to demonstrate that the trends observed from earlier work using small human groups can be applied to larger crowds. We find that only a small minority of informed individuals is needed to guide a large uninformed group. These studies build upon important theoretical and empirical work on leadership and decision making in animal groups.

  7. [Meningitis due to Capnocytophaga canimorsus without dog bite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouet, Alain; Smati, Salim; Ferrer, Marie-Hélène; Martinez, Jean-Yves; Guilloton, Laurent; Felten, Dominique

    2006-03-01

    Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a fusiform and filamentous gram-negative rod, part of the normal oral flora of dogs and cause rare human febrile acute meningitis, usually severe but curable. A sixty years old man presented a severe acute meningitis with fever and confusion. CSF show 4,000 cells/mm3 with 83% neutrophilis, increased protein level (5,02 g/L), very low glucose and positive Gram stain result. The patient fully and quickly recovered with antibiotherapy for 22 days. Bacteriological diagnosis was made by genomic study from CSF culture. The patient has a close contact with his dog without being recently bitten. Diagnosis, suggested by bites or contact with dog or cat, gram-negative bacilli with gram stain of CSF specimen, is possible by prolonged culture of CSF or blood sample, with if necessary genomic study. Antibioprophylaxis is strongly recommended in cases of deep bite wounds and for immunocompromised patients.

  8. Susceptibility to Frost-Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna

    1966-11-01

    Full Text Available The body protects its susceptible parts e.g. hands and feet from cold injury by allowing a surge of blood to flow through them on exposure to severe cold. This occurs through alternate vasodilatation and vasoconstriction known as Lewis Hunting Reaction. This phenomenon is influenced by several factors, which indirectly may also affect individual susceptibility to cold injury. The role of nutrition, adequate insulation of the body and positive heat balance in relation to the protective mechanism have been reviewed and discussed. Available literature on various factors has been surveyed and discussed in the light of recent advances in the physiology of cold exposure. Certain tests based on the present knowledge, to be developed and standardised for screening susceptible individuals to frost-bite have been suggested.

  9. Surgery of the human cerebrum--a collective modernity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuzzo, Michael L J; Liu, Charles Y; Sullivan, Daniel; Faccio, Rodrick A

    2007-07-01

    Safe and beneficial surgery of the human cerebrum is arguably one of mankind's most notable achievements and one of the great testimonials to human creativity, intelligence, and character. In many ways, it is a testimony to the climates of civilization that have marked human history. In historical terms, in the year 2007, cranial surgery celebrated its 12,000th birthday, with cranial manipulation for various religious, mystical, and therapeutic reasons being evident in Africa more than 10 millennia before the birth of Christ. This article traces the major developments and attitudes that have laid the foundations of modernity in what is currently surgery and medicine's most exciting and complex technical exercise. It is in fact a 12,000 year prelude to the modernity that we currently enjoy. Before attempting to define our modernity and emerging futurism with reinvention, examination of the prolonged and tedious invention is appropriate for perspective. The following examines and recounts the accrual of data and changes in attitude over the stream of history that have allowed refined surgery of the human cerebrum to become a reality.

  10. Photography in bite mark and patterned injury documentation--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, F D

    1998-07-01

    Photography is an important means of collecting and preserving physical evidence as it relates to bite mark and patterned injuries in skin. Proper use and understanding of color, black-and-white, ultraviolet and infrared photography can greatly aid the collection and preservation of evidence. The techniques and equipment for the photo-documentation of this evidence are presented.

  11. Human Saliva Collection Devices for Proteomics: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohaib Khurshid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid growth in the interest and adaptation of saliva as a diagnostic specimen over the last decade, and in the last few years in particular, there have been major developments involving the application of saliva as a clinically relevant specimen. Saliva provides a “window” into the oral and systemic health of an individual, and like other bodily fluids, saliva can be analyzed and studied to diagnose diseases. With the advent of new, more sensitive technologies to detect smaller concentrations of analytes in saliva relative to blood levels, there have been a number of critical developments in the field that we will describe. In particular, recent advances in standardized saliva collection devices that were not available three to four years ago, have made it easy for safe, simple, and non-invasive collection of samples to be carried out from patients. With the availability of these new technologies, we believe that in the next decade salivary proteomics will make it possible to predict and diagnose oral as well as systemic diseases, cancer, and infectious diseases, among others. The aim of this article is to review recent developments and advances in the area of saliva specimen collection devices and applications that will advance the field of proteomics.

  12. Human Saliva Collection Devices for Proteomics: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Slowey, Paul D.; Almas, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    There has been a rapid growth in the interest and adaptation of saliva as a diagnostic specimen over the last decade, and in the last few years in particular, there have been major developments involving the application of saliva as a clinically relevant specimen. Saliva provides a “window” into the oral and systemic health of an individual, and like other bodily fluids, saliva can be analyzed and studied to diagnose diseases. With the advent of new, more sensitive technologies to detect smaller concentrations of analytes in saliva relative to blood levels, there have been a number of critical developments in the field that we will describe. In particular, recent advances in standardized saliva collection devices that were not available three to four years ago, have made it easy for safe, simple, and non-invasive collection of samples to be carried out from patients. With the availability of these new technologies, we believe that in the next decade salivary proteomics will make it possible to predict and diagnose oral as well as systemic diseases, cancer, and infectious diseases, among others. The aim of this article is to review recent developments and advances in the area of saliva specimen collection devices and applications that will advance the field of proteomics. PMID:27275816

  13. Human Saliva Collection Devices for Proteomics: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Slowey, Paul D; Almas, Khalid

    2016-06-06

    There has been a rapid growth in the interest and adaptation of saliva as a diagnostic specimen over the last decade, and in the last few years in particular, there have been major developments involving the application of saliva as a clinically relevant specimen. Saliva provides a "window" into the oral and systemic health of an individual, and like other bodily fluids, saliva can be analyzed and studied to diagnose diseases. With the advent of new, more sensitive technologies to detect smaller concentrations of analytes in saliva relative to blood levels, there have been a number of critical developments in the field that we will describe. In particular, recent advances in standardized saliva collection devices that were not available three to four years ago, have made it easy for safe, simple, and non-invasive collection of samples to be carried out from patients. With the availability of these new technologies, we believe that in the next decade salivary proteomics will make it possible to predict and diagnose oral as well as systemic diseases, cancer, and infectious diseases, among others. The aim of this article is to review recent developments and advances in the area of saliva specimen collection devices and applications that will advance the field of proteomics.

  14. Hematological changes in mice exposed to biting of the bedbug: Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hamid, Yousrya M; Soliman, Mohamed I

    2010-12-01

    The studies on hematologic changes in humans or animals as a result of bedbug bites are lacking. This study was undertaken to examine changes in the blood picture of mice (Mus musculus) exposed to Cimex lectularius biting. As compared to the check animals, mice exposed to bedbug bites either once or twice within 7 days showed insignificantly higher WBC's (1.6 and 2.8% increase, respectively) and lower HGB content (0.5 and 0.8% decrease, respectively) and significantly higher PLT's (P < 0.01) by 2.2% and 3.0%, respectively. Significantly higher (P < 0.01) RBC's counts in mice bitten once than those of normal animals or those exposed to twice bites (5.3 and 5.9% increase, respectively). Bedbug biting exerts its effects largely upon the differential WBC's. Mice bitten once or twice showed significantly lower number of neutrophils (1.2% & 12.1% decrease, respectively) than those for normal animals. Mice exposed to twice bites showed significantly (P < 0.01) higher numbers of lymphocyte (18.8%), monocyte (13.6%), eosinophil (200.0%) and basophil (500%) than those of normal mice.

  15. Black widow spider bites experience from tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bshabshe, Ali; Alfaifi, Musa; Alsayed, Ahmed Fouad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Black widow spiders are one of the most poisonous species to humans; there are more than 30 species of widow spiders in the globe but good thing that not all of them are dangerous. Some of these spiders produce toxic venoms, which cause broad spectrum of clinical manifestations including skin lesions, neurotoxicity, cardiac toxicity and death in some occasions. In Saudi Arabia there were no much reports of black widow spider bites apart from the case series by BUCUR and his group in ALBAHA region. Settings: In 2 years period a total of 8 patients were presented to the emergency departments diagnosed to have black widow spider bites based on description by the patients. Results: 100 % of the cohort were males, aged between 25-58 years. The time between bite and presentation to emergency room was one hour in average (30 min to 4 hours). 75% occured during summer season. All of them 100% had one bite only and reported the bite to be at nighttime in 75% of the times. The average pain score at presentation was 4 /10.100% of the bites were in the lower extremities and almost all progressed to have lower back pain. Three patients had gastrointestinal tract manifestation in form of abdominal cramps and nausea. One had bilateral ptosis, none of them had cardiac or pulmonary complications. The outcome was excellent in all patients and the average of hospital stay was 2.5 days (1-5). PMID:28469986

  16. Bayesian decision making in human collectives with binary choices

    CERN Document Server

    Eguíluz, Víctor M; Fernández-Gracia, J

    2015-01-01

    Here we focus on the description of the mechanisms behind the process of information aggregation and decision making, a basic step to understand emergent phenomena in society, such as trends, information spreading or the wisdom of crowds. In many situations, agents choose between discrete options. We analyze experimental data on binary opinion choices in humans. The data consists of two separate experiments in which humans answer questions with a binary response, where one is correct and the other is incorrect. The questions are answered without and with information on the answers of some previous participants. We find that a Bayesian approach captures the probability of choosing one of the answers. The influence of peers is uncorrelated with the difficulty of the question. The data is inconsistent with Weber's law, which states that the probability of choosing an option depends on the proportion of previous answers choosing that option and not on the total number of those answers. Last, the present Bayesian ...

  17. Collective response of human populations to large-scale emergencies

    CERN Document Server

    Bagrow, James P; Barabási, Albert-László; 10.1371/journal.pone.0017680

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent advances in uncovering the quantitative features of stationary human activity patterns, many applications, from pandemic prediction to emergency response, require an understanding of how these patterns change when the population encounters unfamiliar conditions. To explore societal response to external perturbations we identified real-time changes in communication and mobility patterns in the vicinity of eight emergencies, such as bomb attacks and earthquakes, comparing these with eight non-emergencies, like concerts and sporting events. We find that communication spikes accompanying emergencies are both spatially and temporally localized, but information about emergencies spreads globally, resulting in communication avalanches that engage in a significant manner the social network of eyewitnesses. These results offer a quantitative view of behavioral changes in human activity under extreme conditions, with potential long-term impact on emergency detection and response.

  18. Collective response of human populations to large-scale emergencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Bagrow

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in uncovering the quantitative features of stationary human activity patterns, many applications, from pandemic prediction to emergency response, require an understanding of how these patterns change when the population encounters unfamiliar conditions. To explore societal response to external perturbations we identified real-time changes in communication and mobility patterns in the vicinity of eight emergencies, such as bomb attacks and earthquakes, comparing these with eight non-emergencies, like concerts and sporting events. We find that communication spikes accompanying emergencies are both spatially and temporally localized, but information about emergencies spreads globally, resulting in communication avalanches that engage in a significant manner the social network of eyewitnesses. These results offer a quantitative view of behavioral changes in human activity under extreme conditions, with potential long-term impact on emergency detection and response.

  19. Relevance of sampling and DNA extraction techniques for the analysis of salivary evidence from bite marks: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Briones, M L; Hernández-Cortés, R; Jaramillo-Rangel, G; Ortega-Martínez, M

    2015-08-21

    Bite mark evidence has been repeatedly found in criminal cases. Physical comparison of a bite mark to the teeth of available suspects may not always be possible. Experimental studies have shown that the analysis of DNA present in the saliva recovered from bite marks might help in the identification of individuals. However, the application of this approach to an actual criminal case has been reported only once before in forensic literature. Therefore, there is very limited scientific and technical information available on this subject. The current study focuses on a woman found dead in her home; the autopsy ruled the death to be a result of manual strangulation. A bite mark was found on each breast. The single swab technique was used to collect evidence from these bite marks, and an organic extraction method was employed for DNA isolation. Short tandem repeat (STR) sequence typing was performed using a commercially available kit, and the result was compared to the STR profile of a suspect. A full single-source STR profile was obtained from both bite marks, which matched the STR profile of the suspect. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report on the analysis of DNA isolated from bite marks on the victim used to identify the crime perpetrator. Our results indicated that, contrary to most theoretical indications, a single swab technique for evidence collection and an organic method for DNA isolation could be very useful in solving this class of criminal cases.

  20. 77 FR 10758 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Proposed Collection; Comment Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Building 6100... comment on proposed data collection projects, the National Institute of Child Health and ]...

  1. 77 FR 74517 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... FOUNDATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project...: Education and Human Resources Program Monitoring Clearance. OMB Approval Number: 3145-NEW. Type of Request... parts of the United States and internationally. The Directorate for Education and Human Resources (EHR...

  2. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like biting your nails, try playing with a stress ball or silly putty instead. This will help ... of hangnails, or other triggers, such as boredom, stress, or anxiety. By figuring out what causes you ...

  3. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule Managing a practice Prior authorization assistance Teledermatology Compliance Choosing ... this safe, but awful-tasting formula discourages many people from biting their nails. Get regular manicures: Spending ...

  4. [Bites of venomous snakes in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, Andreas; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Schneemann, Markus

    2016-06-08

    Although snake bites are rare in Europe, there are a constant number of snake bites in Switzerland. There are two domestic venomous snakes in Switzerland: the aspic viper (Vipera aspis) and the common European adder (Vipera berus). Bites from venomous snakes are caused either by one of the two domestic venomous snakes or by an exotic venomous snake kept in a terrarium. Snake- bites can cause both a local and/or a systemic envenoming. Potentially fatal systemic complications are related to disturbances of the hemostatic- and cardiovascular system as well as the central or peripheral nervous system. Beside a symptomatic therapy the administration of antivenom is the only causal therapy to neutralize the venomous toxins.

  5. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a difference Career planning Media Relations Toolkit AAD apps Academy meeting Chronic urticaria—for members Chronic urticaria— ... like biting your nails, try playing with a stress ball or silly putty instead. This will help ...

  6. Management of vascular trauma from dog bites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akingba, A George; Robinson, Eric A; Jester, Andrea L; Rapp, Brian M; Tsai, Anthony; Motaganahalli, Raghu L; Dalsing, Michael C; Murphy, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Vascular trauma from large-dog bites present with a combination of crush and lacerating injuries to the vessel, as well as significant adjacent soft tissue injury and a high potential for wound complications...

  7. The 'bite' in paediatric food allergy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    Health professionals need to educate .... spread, peanut butter, polony), vegetables/mashed potato (margarine, butter, Aromat added?) History. It is not ... Cheese curls, Niknaks, cheese bites and other chips containing cheese. Smarties ...

  8. Tarantula bite leads to death and gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Kalyan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Chilobrachys hardwikii-giant black hairy spider bite produced two deaths, one case of gangrene of the foot and urticarial rashes in another person in a remote village of Churulia 30 km from Asansol.

  9. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Grant Strauss and Katz Scholarship Sulzberger Institute Grant Young Investigator Awards ... this safe, but awful-tasting formula discourages many people from biting their nails. Get regular manicures: Spending ...

  10. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a difference Career planning Media Relations Toolkit AAD apps Academy meeting Chronic urticaria—for members Chronic urticaria— ... Injured skin Nail care Artificial nails Healthy nails Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Younger skin ...

  11. Rat Bite Fever Resembling Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripa Akter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat bite fever is rare in Western countries. It can be very difficult to diagnose as blood cultures are typically negative and a history of rodent exposure is often missed. Unless a high index of suspicion is maintained, the associated polyarthritis can be mistaken for rheumatoid arthritis. We report a case of culture-positive rat bite fever in a 46-year-old female presenting with fever and polyarthritis. The clinical presentation mimicked rheumatoid arthritis. Infection was complicated by discitis, a rare manifestation. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare zoonotic infection. We also review nine reported cases of rat bite fever, all of which had an initial presumptive diagnosis of a rheumatological disorder. Rat bite fever is a potentially curable infection but can have a lethal course if left untreated.

  12. Spider bite-induced erythema multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Selçuk; Er, Onur; Afsar, Fatma Sule; Ermete, Murat

    2013-09-01

    Erythema multiforme (EM) is an immune-mediated mucocutaneous eruption characterized by symmetrically distributed, polymorphic targetoid lesions, mostly on the distal parts of the extremities. It occurs mostly in the setting of an infection in certain predisposed individuals. A 30-year-old pregnant woman was presented with a necrotic erythematous lesion on her right thigh following a spider bite. As she was pregnant for 16 weeks, no systemic medication was given. On the 8th day of the spider bite an erythematous vesicular and targetoid rash was seen on the distal parts of her extremities. Based on the clinical and histopathological findings, lesions were diagnosed as EM. She had not used any medication for 4 months and she gave no prior history of herpetic infection. So her EM lesions were thought to be an ID reaction most probably due to the spider bite. As far as we know, this is the first reported case of EM induced by a spider bite.

  13. Epidemiology of the brown recluse spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Jacqueline

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide a comprehensive epidemiological and clinical description of the brown recluse spider bite. Review of evidenced-based scientific literature and practice guidelines. A specific descriptive case study is interwoven through the article to tie in the clinical presenting figure associated with this bite. The brown recluse lives in a circumscribed area of the United States (the south central Midwest) with a few less common recluse species living in the more sparsely populated southwest United States. In these areas, where spider populations may be dense, recluse spiders may be a cause of significant morbidity. Most spider bites are asymptomatic but what makes this bite so devastating is the toxin injected by the brown recluse spider, which can cause considerable systemic symptoms as well as necrotic skin ulcers (necrotic arachnidism). The article presents process for diagnosis and stresses the importance of identifying the spider if at all possible.

  14. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Part 1: Structure Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook Study notes Image library 3-D animated ... hair, and nail care Nail care Nail biting "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site= ...

  15. [Acute compartment syndrome following snake bite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H E; Barbier, P; Frey, H P; Janggen, F M; Rothen, H U

    1986-04-01

    The experience with snake bites, causing local complications is discussed. Whenever systemic envenomation occurs, antivenin is the treatment of choice. Tissue necroses are treated by early debridement and a possible closed compartment syndrome demands the open fasciotomy.

  16. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting ...

  17. Beware of Bug Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Updates Spider Bites Ticks and Lyme Disease: Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention Barbecue Basics: Tips to ... Consumer Updates by email. Email Address More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical ...

  18. Take a Bite Out of Mosquito Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mosquito stings Share | Take a Bite Out of Mosquito Stings This article has been reviewed by Thanai ... lactic acid and carbon dioxide attract the female mosquito to skin. She inserts the tip of her ...

  19. Image Processing to Collect the Radius of Human Pupil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico Fronza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The human activity is played by the nervous system, the neuropathy destroy the neuron and with that the capacity of data transmission by the nervous system is jeopardize[1]. Theanalysis of the autonomic nervous system (ANS can give some crucial answers regarding to the level of diabetic neuropathy allowing the earlier diagnosis[2]. Thehuman pupil light response.The follow project proposes the development a multiplatform methodology, using FPGAtoolfor acquiring, processing, analysis andclassification the data capture aimed theearly diagnosisofautonomic neuropathyin individuals withdiabetes mellitus.

  20. Bite-related and septic syndromes caused by cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Richard L; Velez, Ana P; Mizrachi, Michelle; Lamarche, Jorge; Gompf, Sandra

    2009-07-01

    Bite infections can contain a mix of anaerobes and aerobes from the patient's skin and the animal's oral cavity, including species of Pasteurella, Streptococcus, Fusobacterium, and Capnocytophaga. Domestic cat and dog bite wounds can produce substantial morbidity and often require specialised care techniques and specific antibiotic therapy. Bite wounds can be complicated by sepsis. Disseminated infections, particularly those caused by Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Pasteurella multocida, can lead to septic shock, meningitis, endocarditis, and other severe sequelae. An emerging syndrome in veterinary and human medicine is meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections shared between pets and human handlers, particularly community-acquired MRSA disease involving the USA300 clone. Skin, soft-tissue, and surgical infections are the most common. MRSA-associated infections in pets are typically acquired from their owners and can potentially cycle between pets and their human acquaintances.

  1. A rare case of multiple rattlesnake bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Yanko T; Kristeva, Sasha A; Prancheva, Maria G

    2013-01-01

    The rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) is a venomous viper inhabiting the southeastern parts of the United States. It is not found in the Balkans and Europe habitats. Subjects of the species are grown and seen in museums, exhibitions and terrariums, and sometimes in private collections. This may generate potentially toxic exposures to the venom in accidental contact. Acute poisoning with rattlesnake poison in Bulgaria is exotic, rare and even casuistic. The venom of the rattlesnake exhibits neuropathic, proteolytic and hemolytic activities. Antivenom is not currently easily available in Bulgaria--it is not usually stored in hospitals because it is very rarely used and therefore rather expensive. We present a case of multiple envenomation (two different occasions) of one and the same person who kept rattlesnakes in a private terrarium. Local toxic syndrome was observed with burning and stinging pain at bite site combined with limited hemorrhage and necrosis. The hemolytic reaction and the local toxic results were successfully managed without resorting to any specific antidotal therapy.

  2. Tick bite granuloma : recommendations for surgical treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hirota, Keisuke; Kurosawa, Yoshinaga; Goto, Keisuke; Adachi, Koji; Yoshida, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Tick bite is known as a possible cause of some infectious diseases such as Lyme disease, spotted fever and related illnesses. The reaction to a tick bite may persist for several months to several years and can sometimes cause histopathological granuloma. The long-term reaction to salivary extracts from the tick could be responsible for development of granuloma in our patient. We recommended complete resection as the only sure way to treat formed granuloma.

  3. Etiological aspects of anterior open bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Ljiljana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Open bite is a multifactorial phenomenon and no single factor can account for open-bite. Etiology plays an important role in diagnosis. Heredity, unfavorable growth patterns, incorrect jaw postoure, are the characteristics of skeletal open bite. Digit sucking. Depending on where the thumb is placed, a number of different types of dental problems can develop. Malocclusions of the late mixed or permanent dentitions, caused by thumb sucking are not self corrected and orthodontic treatment is necessary for their correction. Lymphatic tissue. In order to produce oral respiration, the mandible is postured inferiorly with the tongue protruded and resting against the oral floor. This postural alteration induces dental and skeletal modifications similar to those caused by thumb sucking. This may cause excessive eruption of the posterior teeth, leading to an increase in the vertical dimension of the face and result in development of anterior open bite. Tongue thrust. Tongue habits cause an anterior open bite or they develop secondarily to thumb sucking. In skeletal open bite the tongue habit acts as a secondary factor which helps to maintain or exacerbate the condition. Many orthodontists have had a discouraging experience of completing dental treatment, with what appeared to be good results, only to discover that the case had relapsed because the patient had a tongue thrust swallowing pattern. Conclusion. Dentoalveolar or habitual open bite is caused by habits, which influence the growth and development of dentoalveolar processes and contribute to occlusal disharmonies. Prior to eruption of adult dentition, open bite related to oral habits is usually not a concern as when the habits stop, because the erupting dentition tends to improve spontaneously. Treatment is usually not necessary until permanent teeth erupt (~6 years old. .

  4. Small risk of developing symptomatic tick-borne diseases following a tick bite in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofhuis Agnetha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In The Netherlands, the incidence of Lyme borreliosis is on the rise. Besides its causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., other potential pathogens like Rickettsia, Babesia and Ehrlichia species are present in Ixodes ricinus ticks. The risk of disease associated with these microorganisms after tick-bites remains, however, largely unclear. A prospective study was performed to investigate how many persons with tick-bites develop localized or systemic symptoms and whether these are associated with tick-borne microorganisms. Results In total, 297 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from 246 study participants who consulted a general practitioner on the island of Ameland for tick bites. Ticks were subjected to PCR to detect DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. or Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp.. Sixteen percent of the collected ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., 19% for Rickettsia spp., 12% for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and 10% for Babesia spp.. At least six months after the tick bite, study participants were interviewed on symptoms by means of a standard questionnaire. 14 out of 193 participants (8.3% reported reddening at the bite site and 6 participants (4.1% reported systemic symptoms. No association between symptoms and tick-borne microorganisms was found. Attachment duration ≥24 h was positively associated with reddening at the bite site and systemic symptoms. Using logistic regression techniques, reddening was positively correlated with presence of Borrelia afzelii, and having 'any symptoms' was positively associated with attachment duration. Conclusion The risk of contracting acute Lyme borreliosis, rickettsiosis, babesiosis or ehrlichiosis from a single tick bite was

  5. A comparative study between xerographic, computer-assisted overlay generation and animated-superimposition methods in bite mark analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Meng Wei; Chong, Zhen Feng; Asif, Muhammad Khan; Rahmat, Rabiah A; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran

    2016-09-01

    This study was to compare the suitability and precision of xerographic and computer-assisted methods for bite mark investigations. Eleven subjects were asked to bite on their forearm and the bite marks were photographically recorded. Alginate impressions of the subjects' dentition were taken and their casts were made using dental stone. The overlays generated by xerographic method were obtained by photocopying the subjects' casts and the incisal edge outlines were then transferred on a transparent sheet. The bite mark images were imported into Adobe Photoshop® software and printed to life-size. The bite mark analyses using xerographically generated overlays were done by comparing an overlay to the corresponding printed bite mark images manually. In computer-assisted method, the subjects' casts were scanned into Adobe Photoshop®. The bite mark analyses using computer-assisted overlay generation were done by matching an overlay and the corresponding bite mark images digitally using Adobe Photoshop®. Another comparison method was superimposing the cast images with corresponding bite mark images employing the Adobe Photoshop® CS6 and GIF-Animator©. A score with a range of 0-3 was given during analysis to each precision-determining criterion and the score was increased with better matching. The Kruskal Wallis H test showed significant difference between the three sets of data (H=18.761, poverlay generation and lastly the xerographic method. The superior precision contributed by digital method is discernible despite the human skin being a poor recording medium of bite marks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Control of biting lice, Mallophaga - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Caselli, Alice; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Canale, Angelo

    2017-06-03

    The chewing lice (Mallophaga) are common parasites of different animals. Most of them infest terrestrial and marine birds, including pigeons, doves, swans, cormorants and penguins. Mallophaga have not been found on marine mammals but only on terrestrial ones, including livestock and pets. Their bites damage cattle, sheep, goats, horses and poultry, causing itch and scratch and arousing phthiriasis and dermatitis. Notably, Mallophaga can vector important parasites, such as the filarial heartworm Sarconema eurycerca. Livestock losses due to chewing lice are often underestimated, maybe because farmers notice the presence of the biting lice only when the infestation is too high. In this review, we examined current knowledge on the various strategies available for Mallophaga control. The effective management of their populations has been obtained through the employ of several synthetic insecticides. However, pesticide overuse led to serious concerns for human health and the environment. Natural enemies of Mallophaga are scarcely studied. Their biological control with predators and parasites has not been explored yet. However, the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae has been reported as effective in vitro and in vivo experiments against Damalinia bovis infestation on cattle. Furthermore, different Bacillus thuringiensis preparations have been tested against Mallophaga, the most effective were B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki, kenyae and morrisoni. Lastly, plant-borne insecticides have been evaluated against Mallophaga. Tested products mainly contained bioactive principles from two Meliaceae, Azadirachta indica, and Carapa guianensis. High efficacy of neem-borne preparations was reported, leading to the development of several products currently marketed. Overall, our review highlighted that our knowledge about Mallophaga vector activity and control is extremely patchy. Their control still relied on the employ of chemical pesticides widely used to fight other

  7. Evaluation of Basophil Infiltration into the Skin Lesions of Tick Bites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Nakahigashi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been described that basophils play an essential role in antibody-mediated acquired immunity against ticks in mice. However, it is still unknown whether basophil infiltration has any significance in the infestation with ticks in humans. In this report, we have evaluated the infiltration of basophils into human skin lesions of tick bites.

  8. Subcutaneous abscess caused by Pasteurella multocida in a patient due to a cat bite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Zhi-yong; GAO Yan-yu; WANG Xiao-hui

    2005-01-01

    @@ Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida), a Gramnegative pathogen, is mainly associated with animal infections. Human P. multocida infections are occasionally encountered and most human cases are due to the animal exposure or contact, especially due to cat bites.1 In China, P. multocida infections are rarely described.

  9. CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGY AND THERAPEUTIC OUTCOME OF SNAKE BITE IN KONASEEMA REGION OF ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Snake bite is a common and frequently devastating environmental and occupational problem, especially in rural areas of tropical developing countries. Snake bite incidence is high in Andhra Pradesh. With the onset of monsoon the incidence of snake bite used to increase. METHODS Present study is a retrospective study in which all the data of snake bite cases admitted in the Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences was collected in last two years; details of the patient was obtained from bed head ticket. RESULTS In two years of data collection, 46 snake bite cases are found as per our record. Out of 46 patients, twenty seven were male and nineteen were female. Maximum twenty two (22 patients were between ages 20 to 40 years. Out of forty six patients, forty four recovered and only two patients died, cause of death was acute pulmonary oedema with cardiac arrhythmia. DISCUSSION Most of the patients were given ASV (anti-snake venom, out of that only four patients developed reaction to ASV. Most of the patients who have received ASV were recovered. Only two deaths were reported which was due to acute pulmonary oedema with cardiac arrhythmia. CONCLUSION Awareness and education about snake is required.

  10. Collective human mobility pattern from taxi trips in urban area

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2012-04-18

    We analyze the passengers\\' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously. 2012 Peng et al.

  11. Model of human collective decision-making in complex environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Giuseppe; Giannoccaro, Ilaria

    2015-12-01

    A continuous-time Markov process is proposed to analyze how a group of humans solves a complex task, consisting in the search of the optimal set of decisions on a fitness landscape. Individuals change their opinions driven by two different forces: (i) the self-interest, which pushes them to increase their own fitness values, and (ii) the social interactions, which push individuals to reduce the diversity of their opinions in order to reach consensus. Results show that the performance of the group is strongly affected by the strength of social interactions and by the level of knowledge of the individuals. Increasing the strength of social interactions improves the performance of the team. However, too strong social interactions slow down the search of the optimal solution and worsen the performance of the group. In particular, we find that the threshold value of the social interaction strength, which leads to the emergence of a superior intelligence of the group, is just the critical threshold at which the consensus among the members sets in. We also prove that a moderate level of knowledge is already enough to guarantee high performance of the group in making decisions.

  12. Collective human mobility pattern from taxi trips in urban area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbin Peng

    Full Text Available We analyze the passengers' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously.

  13. The Crown Bite Jumping Herbst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Reuel

    2003-01-01

    The Crown Bite Jumping Herbst Appliance is evaluated and combined with Straight Wire Arch Fixed Orthodontics in treatment of Class II, Division I malocclusions. This article will evaluate a combined orthodontic approach of "straightening teeth" and an orthognathic approach of "moving jaws or making skeletal changes." Orthodontic treatment cannot be accomplished well without establishing a healthy temporomandibular joint. This is defined by Keller as a joint that is "noiseless, painless and has a normal range of motion without deviation and deflection." It is not prudent to separate orthodontic treatment as its own entity without being aware of the changes in the temporomandibular joint before, during and after treatment. In other words, "If you're doing orthodontics you're doing TMJ treatment." One should treat toward a healthy, beautiful face asking, "Will proposed treatment achieve this goal?" Treatment should be able to be carried out in an efficient manner, minimizing treatment time, be comfortable and affordable for the patient, and profitable for the dentist. The finished treatment should meet Andrews' Six Keys of Occlusion, or Loudon's Twelve Commandments. Above all, do no harm to the patient. We think that a specific treatment plan can embrace these tenets. The focus will be to show Class II treatment using a modified Herbst Appliance and fixed straight wire orthodontics.

  14. New species records of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) for the state of Rondônia in Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luis Paulo Costa; Farias, Emanuelle de Sousa; Gil, Luiz Herman Soares; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Culicoides biting midges are small insects that are proven vectors of pathogens that cause disease in animals and humans. There are 1,368 species of Culicoides in the world, including 149 species in Brazil and 122 species in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. This study documents specimens that were collected between 2013 and 2015 in the municipalities of Alvorada d'Oeste, Buritis, Cacoal, Costa Marques, Espigão d'Oeste, Guajará-Mirim, Pimenta Bueno, Porto Velho and São Francisco Guaporé. Collections were performed using HP light traps in forest, pasture and peridomicilie environments. Species newly recorded in Rondônia State include Culicoides carpenteri Wirth & Blanton, 1953; C. dasyophrus Macfie, 1940; C. eublepharus Macfie, 1948; C. galindoi Wirth & Blanton, 1953; C. heliconiae Fox & Hoffman, 1944; and C. ignacioi Forattini, 1957. This is the first record in Brazil of C. darlingtonae Wirth & Blanton, 1971.

  15. Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. III - daily biting rhythms and lunar cycle influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Anthony Érico

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecology of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae was studied in areas of the Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The influence of the lunar cycle and the daily biting rhythms of mosquito populations were analyzed. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made in a silvatic environment for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to December 1992. A total of 20,591 specimens of adult mosquitoes belonging to 55 species were collected from 545 catches. Sabethini species were captured exclusively during daylight periods, with the exception of Trichoprosopon digitatum, while members of Anophelinae predominated during nocturnal hours. Members of the subfamily Culicinae that were collected primary during nocturnal periods included Culex nigripalpus, Coquillettidia chrysonotum and Cq. venezuelensis while daytime catches included Psorophora ferox and Ps. albipes. Others members of culicines mosquitoes that were collected during both day and night included: Aedes serratus, Ae. scapularis and Ae. fulvus. Lunar cycles did not appear to influence the daily biting rhythms of most mosquito species in the area, but larger numbers of mosquitoes were collected during the new moon. Ae. scapularis were captured mainly during the full moon.

  16. Use of COTS Infrared Camera Arrays for Enhanced Human in the Loop Data Collection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Demonstrate use of Microsoft Kinect infrared cameras in the application of passive data collection during human-in- the-loop (HITL) tests. Low-cost COTS cameras are...

  17. 78 FR 8192 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project... study will assess the implementation of resources, models, and technologies to determine how and why...

  18. Risk of Lyme disease development after a tick bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Jovan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Despite numerous research of Lyme disease (LD, there are still many concerns about environmental of infectious agent of LD, as well as its prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this work was to determine the risk of LD in relation to the way of removing ticks and duration of tick attachment. Methods. In the period from 2000 to 2007 a prospective study was conducted including persons with tick bite referred to the Institute of Epidemiology, Military Medical Academy, and followed for the occurrence of early Lyme disease up to six months after a tick bite. Epidemiological questionnaire was used to collect relevant information about the place and time of tick bites, the way of a removing tick, duration of tick attachment, remnants of a tick left in the skin (parts of the mouth device and the signs of clinical manifestations of LD. Duration of tick attachment was determined on the basis of size of engorged tick and epidemiological data. Removed ticks were determined by the key of Pomerancev. Professional removing of attached tick was considered to be removing of tick with mechanical means by healthcare personnel. Fisher's exact test, Chi squares test and calculation of the relative risk (RR were used for data analysis. Results. Of 3 126 patients with tick bite, clinical manifestations of LD were demonstrated in 19 (0.61%. In the group of subjects (n = 829 in which a tick was not removed professionally there were 17 (2.05% cases with LD, while in the group of respondents (n=2 297 in who a tick was removed professionally there were 2 (0.09% cases with LD after tick bite (RR, 23.55; p < 0.0001. The disease was most frequent in the group of respondents with incompletely and unprofessionally removed ticks (2.46%. In the groups of patients with unprofessionally but completely removed ticks LD occurred in 0.89%, while in the group of subjects with a tick removed by an expert, but incompletely in 0.78% cases. The disease occurred

  19. Biting Midges of the Genus Culicoides in South Carolina Zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelder, Mark P.; Swanson, Dustin A.; Adler, Peter H.; Grogan, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected during the summer of 2007 at the Greenville and Riverbanks Zoos in South Carolina with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps equipped with ultraviolet or incandescent lights and baited with carbon dioxide. Sixteen species of Culicoides were collected, four of which represented more than 80%. They were Culicoides guttipennis (Coquillett), Culicoides mulrenanni Beck, Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen), and Culicoides sanguisuga (Coquillett). C. guttipennis was found on a dead colobus monkey and a dead golden-headed lion tamarin; Culicoides husseyi Wirth & Blanton was collected from an unidentified, abandoned bird's nest. Ultraviolet light-equipped traps captured significantly more Culicoides specimens than traps with incandescent light. Half of the collected species previously have been associated with vertebrate pathogens, indicating a potential risk to captive animals. PMID:20569132

  20. Social collective intelligence: combining the powers of humans and machines to build a smarter society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorandi, Daniele; Maltese, Vincenzo; Rovatsos, Michael; Nijholt, Anton; Stewart, James

    2014-01-01

    The book focuses on Social Collective Intelligence, a term used to denote a class of socio-technical systems that combine, in a coordinated way, the strengths of humans, machines and collectives in terms of competences, knowledge and problem solving capabilities with the communication, computing and

  1. Social collective intelligence: combining the powers of humans and machines to build a smarter society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorandi, Daniele; Maltese, Vincenzo; Rovatsos, Michael; Nijholt, Antinus; Stewart, James

    2014-01-01

    The book focuses on Social Collective Intelligence, a term used to denote a class of socio-technical systems that combine, in a coordinated way, the strengths of humans, machines and collectives in terms of competences, knowledge and problem solving capabilities with the communication, computing and

  2. 75 FR 11940 - Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer; Information Collection; Ancestry and Ethnicity Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer; Information Collection; Ancestry and... the Chief Human Capital Officer, ODNI, at Washington, DC 20511, or call 703-275-3369. Please cite... submitted on or before April 12, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: The Office of the Chief...

  3. Prevalence rate and epidemiological determinants of animal bite in Ahvaz County, Khuzestan Province, Southwestern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Ali Kassiri; Reza Mosavi; Abbas Jashireh; Masoud Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the prevalence rate and epidemiological aspects of animal bite in AhvazCounty(western part),KhuzestanProvince,SouthwesternIran during the2nd half2003-2007.Methods:In this descriptive cross-sectional investigation a questionnaire was completed for each victim.The questionnaire included questions like, occupation, gender, age group, attacker animal, vaccination type(complete or non-complete), bite place on the body, type of dog bite(stray or domestic dog), residential area(urban or rural).Data analysis was done by SPSS software using descriptive statistics.Results:The total number of4186 cases had been found.The highest number of bitten persons were in2007(1079 cases) and2005(1032 cases). The maximum prevalence rate belonged to2005(2.04/1000 population).Also,Most of the victims were males(80%).Eighty percent of the bites were from urban regions.The majority of cases were related to10-19 years age group(32.8%).The highest frequencies of bites were students(28.9%). Upper extremities were the most common bite place(61.4%).About91.3% of cases were injured by dogs.Furthermore, around83.7% of animal bites treated by incomplete rabies prophylaxis regimen.No cases of human rabies were observed in our study.Conclusions:The dogs were the major attacker animal, affecting mostly the age group10-19 years old and men.Therefore, we should pay more attention about controlling this problem.

  4. Tick bite protection with permethrin-treated summer-weight clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nathan J; Rainone, Erin E; Dyer, Megan C; González, M Liliana; Mather, Thomas N

    2011-03-01

    The number of tick bites received by individuals wearing either permethrin-treated or untreated summer clothing (T-shirt, shorts, socks, and sneakers) was compared during a controlled indoor study. Pathogen-free nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say were placed on the left shoe, right leg, and left arm of 15 (5/treatment group/d) human volunteers wearing untreated outfits or outfits treated with permethrin either commercially or using a do-at-home treatment kit. The number and location of ticks attached to subjects' skin were recorded 2.5 h postinfestation. Subjects wearing outfits treated with permethrin received 3.36 times fewer tick bites than subjects wearing untreated outfits. No statistically significant differences in number of tick bites were detected between commercial permethrin treatment (19.33%) and the do-at-home permethrin application method (24.67%). The success of permethrin-treated clothing in reducing tick bites varied depending on the specific article of clothing. Subjects wearing permethrin-treated sneakers and socks were 73.6 times less likely to have a tick bite than subjects wearing untreated footware. Subjects wearing permethrin-treated shorts and T-shirts were 4.74 and 2.17 times, respectively, less likely to receive a tick bite in areas related to those specific garments than subjects wearing untreated shorts and T-shirts. Ticks attached to subjects were classified as alive or dead before removal. On subjects wearing untreated outfits, 97.6% of attached nymphs were alive, whereas significantly fewer (22.6%) attached nymphs were alive on subjects wearing repellent-treated outfits. Results of this study demonstrate the potential of permethrin-treated summer clothing for significantly reducing tick bites and tick-borne pathogen transmission.

  5. Diel biting activity of Culex (Melanoconion) caudelli in Trinidad, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadee, D D; Tikasingh, E S

    1989-07-01

    The diel biting periodicity of the arbovirus vector Culex (Melanoconion) caudelli Dyar and Knab (Diptera; Culicidae) in the Aripo-Wallerfield forest, Trinidad, was studied by collecting mosquitoes attracted to mouse-baited traps at 2-hourly intervals during eight 24 h periods. Biting females of Cx caudelli were collected during all night-time hours, 18.00-06.00 hours, with an overall unimodal pattern, i.e. one well-defined peak between 22.00 and 04.00 hours. This contrasts with previous reports that Cx caudelli is diurnally active. During the four moon phases, the period of peak biting activity varied from 22.00 to 24.00 hours at fullmoon, from 22.00 to 04.00 hours at first quarter, and from 24.00 to 02.00 hours at new moon and last quarter phases. The number of mosquitoes collected varied significantly with moon phases, the highest (152/24 h) being collected in the first lunar quarter and the lowest (71/24 h) in the last lunar quarter. Cloud cover and rainfall had no significant effect on the diel biting periodicity of Cx caudelli.

  6. [In relation to Cleopatra and snake bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, R

    2001-10-01

    Cleopatra VII, one of the last Egyptian sovereigns of the ptolomeic dynasty, is envisioned as a mythic figure, surrounded by intrigues and mystery. her mysterious death was caused, according to history, by a snake bite. This article shows some instances of great Cleopatra's life and the state of the art on snake venoms. Even at the present time, snake bites are a public health problem in Asia, Africa, Central and South America, causing more than 25,000 deaths every year. Most snake venoms have a protein structure and cause neurotoxic and hemolytic effects, altering coagulation and fibrinolysis. The mortality due to snake bites fluctuates between 1 and 22%. Specific treatment includes the use of specific antiserums with highly purified components.

  7. Lethal case of Vipera bersus bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranca, Sebastian; Cocis, Mihaela; Antal, Oana

    2016-01-01

    Adder bites are rare events, but they can be fatal. Three adder types live in Romania - Vipera ammodytes, Vipera ursini and Vipera berus. Most adder bites happen during the summer with a peak incidence between July and August. Here we present the case of a 56 years old male patient who was bitten by an adder. The clinical presentation was severe from the beginning with a GCS of 3 points, respiratory and cardiovascular failure; despite of adequate treatment the patient developed multiorgan dysfunction and died 36 hours after the ICU admission. The aim of this report is to raise awareness that snake bites can have a life-threatening course and need immediate attention and medical care.

  8. Collection of Information Directly from Patients through an Adaptive Human-computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, David F.; Arbanas, Jennifer M.; Mishra, Dharani D.; Wildemuth, Barbara; Campbell, Marci

    2002-01-01

    Clinical information collected directly from patients is critical to the practice of medicine. Past efforts to collect this information using computers have had limited utility because these efforts required users to be facile with the information collecting system. This poster describes the development and function of a computer system that uses technology to overcome the limitations of previous computer-based data collection tools by adapting the human-computer interface to fit the skills of the user. The system has been successfully used at two diverse clinical sites.

  9. Taking the Bite out of Bruxism (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Operating Room? Taking the Bite Out of Bruxism KidsHealth > For Kids > Taking the Bite Out of ... have bruxism (say: BRUK-siz-um). What Is Bruxism? Bruxism is the term for grinding or clenching ...

  10. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... plans and activities Video library Find a dermatologist Home Public and patients Skin, hair, and nail care ... bites and stings can be safely treated at home. To treat bug bites and stings at home, ...

  11. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD, Memorial Award and Lectureship Grants from outside organizations Health Volunteers Overseas Grant Honorary International Society Annual ... an ice pack to the bite. If you experience any serious symptoms after a bug bite, such ...

  12. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme ... and tuck your shirt into your pants. You can also pre-treat outer layers of clothing with ...

  13. etiology and pathogenesis of anterior open bite: a review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-11

    Nov 11, 2010 ... Malocclusion requiring treatment was diagnosed in more than ... sucking and lip biting (20-22), nail biting (22) and ... pathologies associated with AOB include cleft lip and palate as well as trauma in condylar fractures or Le.

  14. Serological responses and biomarker evaluation in mice and pigs exposed to tsetse fly bites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Caljon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies are obligate blood-feeding insects that transmit African trypanosomes responsible for human sleeping sickness and nagana in livestock. The tsetse salivary proteome contains a highly immunogenic family of the endonuclease-like Tsal proteins. In this study, a recombinant version of Tsal1 (rTsal1 was evaluated in an indirect ELISA to quantify the contact with total Glossina morsitans morsitans saliva, and thus the tsetse fly bite exposure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice and pigs were experimentally exposed to different G. m. morsitans exposure regimens, followed by a long-term follow-up of the specific antibody responses against total tsetse fly saliva and rTsal1. In mice, a single tsetse fly bite was sufficient to induce detectable IgG antibody responses with an estimated half-life of 36-40 days. Specific antibody responses could be detected for more than a year after initial exposure, and a single bite was sufficient to boost anti-saliva immunity. Also, plasmas collected from tsetse-exposed pigs displayed increased anti-rTsal1 and anti-saliva IgG levels that correlated with the exposure intensity. A strong correlation between the detection of anti-rTsal1 and anti-saliva responses was recorded. The ELISA test performance and intra-laboratory repeatability was adequate in the two tested animal models. Cross-reactivity of the mouse IgGs induced by exposure to different Glossina species (G. m. morsitans, G. pallidipes, G. palpalis gambiensis and G. fuscipes and other hematophagous insects (Stomoxys calcitrans and Tabanus yao was evaluated. CONCLUSION: This study illustrates the potential use of rTsal1 from G. m. morsitans as a sensitive biomarker of exposure to a broad range of Glossina species. We propose that the detection of anti-rTsal1 IgGs could be a promising serological indicator of tsetse fly presence that will be a valuable tool to monitor the impact of tsetse control efforts on the African continent.

  15. Effects of interocclusal distance on bite force and masseter EMG in healthy participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, T; Takeuchi, T; Honda, K; Tomonaga, A; Tanosoto, T; Ohata, N; Svensson, P

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of interocclusal distance (IOD) on bite force and masseter electromyographic (EMG) activity during different isometric contraction tasks. Thirty-one healthy participants (14 women and 17 men, 21·2 ± 1·8 years) were recruited. Maximal Voluntary Occlusal Bite Force (MVOBF) between the first molars and masseter EMG activity during all the isometric-biting tasks were measured. The participants were asked to bite at submaximal levels of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% MVOBF with the use of visual feedback. The thickness of the force transducer was set at 8, 12, 16 and 20 mm (= IOD), and sides were tested in random sequence. MVOBF was significantly higher at 8 mm compared with all other IODs (P EMG (P EMG activity compared with the balancing side (P EMG at any IODs. The results replicated the finding that higher occlusal forces can be generated between the first molars at shorter IODs. The new finding in this study was that an effect of hand dominance could be found on masseter muscle activity during isometric biting. This may suggest that there can be a general dominant side effect on human jaw muscles possibly reflecting differences in motor unit recruitment strategies.

  16. Age- and bite-structured models for vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Rock

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The biology and behaviour of biting insects is a vitally important aspect in the spread of vector-borne diseases. This paper aims to determine, through the use of mathematical models, what effect incorporating vector senescence and realistic feeding patterns has on disease. A novel model is developed to enable the effects of age- and bite-structure to be examined in detail. This original PDE framework extends previous age-structured models into a further dimension to give a new insight into the role of vector biting and its interaction with vector mortality and spread of disease. Through the PDE model, the roles of the vector death and bite rates are examined in a way which is impossible under the traditional ODE formulation. It is demonstrated that incorporating more realistic functions for vector biting and mortality in a model may give rise to different dynamics than those seen under a more simple ODE formulation. The numerical results indicate that the efficacy of control methods that increase vector mortality may not be as great as predicted under a standard host–vector model, whereas other controls including treatment of humans may be more effective than previously thought.

  17. Kissing Bug (Triatoma spp.) Intrusion into Homes: Troublesome Bites and Domiciliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Stephen A; Shirazi, F Mazda; Boesen, Keith; Beatty, Norman L; Dorn, Patricia L; Smith, Shannon; Schmidt, Justin O

    2016-01-01

    Kissing bugs (Triatoma spp.) frequently enter homes and bite human and pet occupants. Bites may lead to severe allergic reactions and, in some cases, death. Kissing bugs are also vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the cause of Chagas disease. In general, modern houses in the United States are not conducive to domiciliation of kissing bugs (bugs living out their entire life within the home with the presence of eggs, nymphs, adults, and exuviae). Construction features such as concrete foundations, solid walls and ceilings, window screens, tight thresholds for doors and windows, and other measures impede bug entry into homes, and air conditioning reduces the need for open doors and windows. Where Chagas disease is endemic in Mexico and Central and South America, homes often have thatch roofs, adobe walls, and open doors and windows. We investigated numerous instances of kissing bug intrusions into homes in Southern Arizona, California, and Louisiana and documented the reactions to kissing bug bites. Our work confirms the importance of modern home construction in limiting kissing bug intrusions. Older homes, especially those lacking modern screening, caulking, and weather stripping to reduce air leakage, may be subject to kissing bug intrusions and domiciliation. We describe a community in Southern Arizona where domiciliation of homes by Triatoma recurva is common. We also provide recent data regarding kissing bug bites and allergic reactions to the bites.

  18. Black widow spider bite: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisford, Kristine; Kautz, Donald D

    2011-01-01

    This article is a case study of a patient cared for in the hours before her death. After the patient's death, we learned the patient died of a black widow spider bite. This article sheds light on the potential seriousness of this venom and allows for more rapid detection and treatment of those who are unfortunate enough to be bitten. The authors have documented the sequence of events for the patient, outlined the care the patient received, examined the pathophysiology of the body to a spider bite, and then made a passionate appeal for other nurses who work in critical care to do the same with patients in similar situations.

  19. [Local complications after poisonous snake bite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzbari, R; Seidler, D; Deutinger, M

    1994-01-01

    The case of a zoo keeper who was bitten on the left finger by a venomous snake (Vipera xanthina) is reported. The administration of antivenom prevented the development of systemic poisoning but had no effect on the extent of the local complications. A compartment syndrome with a concomitant severe reaction at the bite site required fasciotomy of the upper and lower arm. The extensor tendon of the involved finger ruptured spontaneously, many weeks after wound healing was completed. Therefore, delayed local complications following snake bites may occur, even if signs of systemic poisoning are missing.

  20. Bite Angle Effects in Hydroformylation Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    van LEEUWEN

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in rhodium catalyzed hydroformylation using xanthene-based ligands will be reviewed.The calculated natural bite angles of the ligands discussed are in the range 100-123℃ While the general trend is clear-higher 1:b ratios at wider angles, small changes in the bite angle do not exhibit a regular effect on the selectivity of the reaction.The same is true for the rate of CO dissociation;the larger the rate of the CO dissociation, the larger the rate of hydroformylation, but for small changes the effects do not comply with this rule.

  1. Bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes after a cat bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida Ringsborg; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2011-01-01

    Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite.......Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite....

  2. Bacteriology of the teeth from a great white shark: potential medical implications for shark bite victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, J D; Spotte, S; Gadbaw, J J

    1984-11-01

    Bacteria were cultured for the first time from the teeth of a great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). Isolates included Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and other genera. All are common in the marine environment and some may be associated with wound infections in humans. Shark bite lacerations may serve as a source of these potentially infectious bacteria, particularly Vibrio spp., and should be treated immediately. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns are shown for representatives of Vibrio isolates and indicate that a variety of new agents may be appropriate chemotherapy for shark bite victims.

  3. Beyond the roots of human inaction: Fostering collective effort toward ecosystem conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amel, Elise; Manning, Christie; Scott, Britain; Koger, Susan

    2017-04-21

    The term "environmental problem" exposes a fundamental misconception: Disruptions of Earth's ecosystems are at their root a human behavior problem. Psychology is a potent tool for understanding the external and internal drivers of human behavior that lead to unsustainable living. Psychologists already contribute to individual-level behavior-change campaigns in the service of sustainability, but attention is turning toward understanding and facilitating the role of individuals in collective and collaborative actions that will modify the environmentally damaging systems in which humans are embedded. Especially crucial in moving toward long-term human and environmental well-being are transformational individuals who step outside of the norm, embrace ecological principles, and inspire collective action. Particularly in developed countries, fostering legions of sustainability leaders rests upon a fundamental renewal of humans' connection to the natural world. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Capnocytophaga canimorsus Sepsis Following a Minor Dog Bite to the Finger: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedy, Nicolas J; Coghill, Sarah; Chandrashekar, Nanda Kumar S; Bindra, Randy R

    2016-01-01

    Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a gram-negative bacillus present in the oral cavities of 22% to 74% of healthy dogs. Capnocytophaga canimorsus has unique virulence factors that enable it to evade the human immune system and cause life-threatening sepsis following a dog bite. We report a previously well 68-year-old woman who presented with septic shock and multiorgan failure following a seemingly minor dog bite to the finger. The patient required intensive care treatment, intravenous antibiotic therapy, and multiple surgical procedures including amputation of the affected finger. The septicemia and coagulopathy that ensued resulted in gangrene and amputation of additional fingers and toes. The purpose of this report is to raise awareness of this organism among hand surgeons when faced with a patient presenting in septic shock and minimal signs at the site of a dog bite.

  5. Reduction of biting and chewing of horses using differential reinforcement of other behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Adam E; Bailey, Shana R; Hall, Ezra G; St Peter, Claire C

    2012-09-01

    Biting and chewing by horses on crossties can result in injury to the handler and damage to equipment. Operant-conditioning techniques have been used to train horses and could be used to reduce or eliminate undesirable biting and chewing. Presently, a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) schedule, in the context of a reversal design, was effective in reducing biting and chewing in two horses. In DRO schedules, a reinforcer is delivered contingent on the absence of a target behavior for a specified interval. Positive-reinforcement procedures offer an alternative to aversive-control techniques typically used in equine training and may provide for better equine welfare and horse-human interaction.

  6. Tick bite fever and Q fever — a South African perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lnirnctii, the cause of Q fever, is also widespread in the region, it is far less often identified as a cause of human disease. These two conditions are the focus of this brief review. ... Molecular taxonomic methods based on ribosomal and other ..... unknown origin. .... with clinical and serological evidence of African tick-bite fever.

  7. [Diurnal biting activity and seasonal density of Lutzomyia (C) orestes (Diptera: Psychodidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo Mendoza, J; Aldecoa Gilí, T; Miqueli Negrín, E; Luis Pelegrino, J

    1991-01-01

    Daily bite activity and season density of Lutzomyia (C) orestes were recorded by means of the human bait technique in the Don Martin Cave, west of Havana Province, during one year. A correlation matrix test was carried out between density, temperature, relative humidity and rainfall.

  8. Corynebacterium kutscheri infection of skin and soft tissue following rat bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Natasha E; Korman, Tony M

    2007-10-01

    Corynebacterium kutscheri is a common bacterium isolated from the oral cavity of healthy mice and rats. We report the first well-documented case of C. kutscheri human infection which followed a rat bite. The microorganism was identified by conventional biochemical tests and confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

  9. Cheek-biting disorder: another stereotypic movement disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkhel, Sujit; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Akhtar, Sayeed

    2011-12-01

    Recurrent cheek biting, a form of self-injurious behavior is a rare entity which presents mostly to dentists and dermatologists. We report a case of recurrent severe cheek biting in an adult male leading to mucosal ulceration. The stereotypic pattern of cheek biting and associated behavior bears striking resemblance to other impulse control disorders.

  10. Possibilities of collecting evidences about crime act of sexual exploitation in human beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijalković Saša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Collecting evidences about organized crime act of sexual exploitation in human begins often is very difficult because of high level of organization, secrecy ant precaution taken during committing prostitution, pornography, sex tourism and human trafficking. On the other side, high illegal profit enable criminals to engage "expensive" and experienced lawyers, whose often make values and reliability of collected evidences questionable, appealing to irregularities during police collecting procedure. Among traditional criminalities methods and proofing activities, in the study, modern tendencies in special investigative measures and techniques are considered. After that, there is pointing at specificity, meaning and value of material tracks and objects, which are essential for proofing crime act or perpetrator’s guiltiness. On the end, there is pointing at importance of victims’ cooperation in collecting evidences about their sexual exploitation.

  11. Clinician and Patient Acceptability of Self-Collected Human Papillomavirus Testing for Cervical Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Constance; Kulasingam, Shalini L; Whitham, Hilary K; Hawes, Stephen E; Lin, John; Kiviat, Nancy B

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate clinician and patient attitudes toward home self-collected human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for cervical cancer screening. Women aged 21-65 years were recruited for a randomized trial comparing home self-collected HPV testing to standard clinician-collected Pap screening. Participants were surveyed about their attitudes toward self-collected HPV testing. Clinicians performing cervical cancer screening in University of Washington medical clinics were also surveyed to determine their acceptability of self-collected HPV testing. Over half (59.1%) of the 1,769 women surveyed preferred self-collected HPV testing to clinician-collected tests. Reasons most often cited were convenience or time saving (82.7%), and avoiding embarrassment or discomfort associated with pelvic exam (38.1%). Women who did not prefer self-collected HPV testing reported greater faith in clinician-collected samples (56.7%) or a desire for a clinic visit to address other issues (42.4%). One hundred eighteen (49.6%) of 238 physicians and midlevel providers surveyed completed the survey. The majority (78.0%) reported that they would recommend a self-collected HPV test if the test had qualities such as high sensitivity and cost effectiveness. Provider concerns mirrored those of patients, namely ensuring adequate sample collection and the opportunity to address other health concerns. Patients and clinicians are supportive of self-collected HPV testing. However, concerns regarding adequacy of samples that are self collected and the desire to see a provider in a clinic setting for other health needs highlight areas that need to be addressed if self collection proves to be a viable option for cervical cancer screening.

  12. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your mouth. Identify your triggers: These could be physical triggers, such as the presence of hangnails, or other triggers, such as boredom, stress, or anxiety. By figuring out what causes you to bite your nails, you can figure ...

  13. Simulation of a flow around biting teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusawa, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Eriko; Kuwahara, Kunio

    2008-11-01

    We simulated a flow around biting teeth. The decayed tooth is a disease that a majority of people are annoyed. These are often generated from a deep groove at occlusal surface. It is known that a person who bites well doesn't suffer from a decayed tooth easily. Biting forces reach as much as 60 kg/cm^2 by an adult male, and when chewing, upper and lower teeth approach to bite by those forces. The crushed food mixed with saliva becomes high viscosity fluid, and is pushed out of ditches of teeth in the direction of the cheek or the tongue. Teeth with complex three dimension curved surface are thought to form venturi at this time, and to generate big pressure partially. An excellent dental articulation will possibly help a natural generation of a flow to remove dental plaque, i.e. the cause of the decayed tooth. Moreover, the relation of this flow with the destruction of the filled metal or the polymer is doubted. In this research, we try to clarify the pressure distributions by this flow generation as well as its dynamics when chewing. One of our goals is to enable an objective design of the shape of the dental fillings and the artificial tooth. Tooth has a very small uneven ground and a bluff body. In this case, to calculate a computational numerical simulation to solve the Navier-Stokes equations three dimension Cartesian coordinate system is employed.

  14. [Surgical management of animal bites in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzet-Roumazeille, S; Jayyosi, L; Plenier, Y; Guyot, E; Guillard, T; François, C

    2016-10-01

    Children represent a population at risk, because of their short size, their naivety and their attraction to animals. The face and hands are the most specific locations in young children. Wounds are often multiple. In more than half the cases, the child knows the animal, which are dogs and cats by frequency argument. The bite episode occurs mostly when the child is alone with the pet without direct supervision, while playing or stroking the animal. As in all bites, pediatric lesions are infectious, functional and aesthetic emergencies, but the goal of this work was primarily to make a point on principles of surgical management of animal bites in children, highlighting pediatric specificities. Animal bites require psychological, anesthetic and surgical treatment, adapted to the child, in a specialized structure. Hospitalization and general anesthesia are more frequent in children. Any suspicion of mistreatment (and/or abuse) should lead to the child's hospitalization, even if wounds do not justify monitoring in a surgical environment. Emergency surgery is essential to limit functional and aesthetic consequences. The healing capacities of the child and the frequent lack of co-morbidity allow a conservative surgical treatment with suture, repositioning skin flaps and controlled healing in the first place. Immobilization, drainage, and antibiotics will complete the surgery. The healing process, however, leads to a specific management during scar remodeling phase and growth. Psychological care of the child and parents should not be forgotten, and has to start at the same time as surgical treatment at in acute phase.

  15. Brown recluse spider bite on the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Kori; Misra, Subhasis

    2014-05-01

    Brown recluse spiders are one of two types of spiders in the United States that can cause significant tissue damage and, in rare cases, death. Brown recluse spider bites are most often benign and self-limiting, but in a few cases can cause severe necrotic skin lesions.

  16. EduBites: Cliffs Notes for EPO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Carolyn; Bartolone, L.; Wenger, M.; Martin, A.; Nichols-Yehling, M.; Llamas, J.; Hurt, R. L.; Squires, G. K.

    2013-06-01

    We present a new resource for the astronomy education community, with the goal of improving our community’s knowledge and understanding of the educational research papers pertinent to our work. When launched, EduBites will be a searchable database of summaries of peer-reviewed education papers, written by astronomy educators and posted for the entire community to use. While we are all aware that we should be basing our E/PO work on a solid research foundation, many people in the community are pushed for time when it comes to staying on top of the educational literature. EduBites aims to reduce that workload for the benefit of the entire community. Our database will ultimately tackle papers across the whole of the astronomy education spectrum, including formal and informal education, outreach, grades K-16, pedagogy, evaluation, and many other topics. We are keen to hear from anyone on the community who would be interested in joining our review team, and will welcome feedback on the EduBites user experience. EduBites is still currently under development but, when launched, it will be found at edubites.ipac.caltech.edu

  17. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  18. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  19. Modeling collective human mobility: Understanding exponential law of intra-urban movement

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Xiao; Dong, Li; Xu, Ke

    2013-01-01

    It is very important to understand urban mobility patterns because most trips are concentrated in urban areas. In the paper, a new model is proposed to model collective human mobility in urban areas. The model can be applied to predict individual flows not only in intra-city but also in countries or a larger range. Based on the model, it can be concluded that the exponential law of distance distribution is attributed to decreasing exponentially of average density of human travel demands. Since the distribution of human travel demands only depends on urban planning, population distribution, regional functions and so on, it illustrates that these inherent properties of cities are impetus to drive collective human movements.

  20. Homicide by direct snake bite: a case of contract killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambade, Vipul Namdeorao; Borkar, Jaydeo Laxman; Meshram, Satin Kalidas

    2012-01-01

    It has been estimated that five million snake bite cases occur worldwide every year, causing about 100,000 deaths. Snake bite is exclusively accidental in nature. Suicide by snake bite is very rare and homicidal snake bite is not reported. In the present case, a contract killer was hired, who used a poisonous snake to kill an elderly couple by way of direct snake bite. We believe this to be the first case reported where a snake was directly used for the murder of two victims through a contract killer.

  1. Social collective intelligence combining the powers of humans and machines to build a smarter society

    CERN Document Server

    Miorandi, Daniele; Rovatsos, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The book focuses on Social Collective Intelligence, a term used to denote a class of socio-technical systems that combine, in a coordinated way, the strengths of humans, machines and collectives in terms of competences, knowledge and problem solving capabilities with the communication, computing and storage capabilities of advanced ICT.Social Collective Intelligence opens a number of challenges for researchers in both computer science and social sciences; at the same time it provides an innovative approach to solve challenges in diverse application domains, ranging from health to education

  2. Self-organized flexible leadership promotes collective intelligence in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Wolf, Max; Naguib, Marc; Krause, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Collective intelligence refers to the ability of groups to outperform individual decision-makers. At present, relatively little is known about the mechanisms promoting collective intelligence in natural systems. We here test a novel mechanism generating collective intelligence: self-organization according to information quality. We tested this mechanism by performing simulated predator detection experiments using human groups. By continuously tracking the personal information of all members prior to collective decisions, we found that individuals adjusted their response time during collective decisions to the accuracy of their personal information. When individuals possessed accurate personal information, they decided quickly during collective decisions providing accurate information to the other group members. By contrast, when individuals had inaccurate personal information, they waited longer, allowing them to use social information before making a decision. Individuals deciding late during collective decisions had an increased probability of changing their decision leading to increased collective accuracy. Our results thus show that groups can self-organize according to the information accuracy of their members, thereby promoting collective intelligence. Interestingly, we find that individuals flexibly acted both as leader and as follower depending on the quality of their personal information at any particular point in time.

  3. Bite marks on skin and clay: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Gorea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bite marks are always unique because teeth are distinctive. Bite marks are often observed at the crime scene in sexual and in physical assault cases on the skin of the victims and sometimes on edible leftovers in burglary cases. This piece of evidence is often ignored, but if properly harvested and investigated, bite marks may prove useful in apprehending and successfully prosecuting the criminals. Due to the importance of bite marks, we conducted a progressive randomised experimental study conducted on volunteers. A total of 188 bite marks on clay were studied. Based on these findings, 93.34% of the volunteers could be identified from the bite marks on the clay. In addition, 201 impressions on skin were studied, and out of these cases, 41.01% of the same volunteers could be identified based on the bite mark impressions on the skin.

  4. Towards a multidisciplinary practice for human remains: the conservation, collection, and display of human remains and objects made from them.©

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Towards a multidisciplinary practice for human remains: the conservation, collection, and display of human remains and objects made from them. This research discussion examines the breadth and complexity of a unique strand of museum collections, artefacts that often cross boundaries of classification, being defined as both material culture and human remains. It explores some of the controversial methods in which collections of human remains were amassed as well as the decision-making processe...

  5. The influence of gender and bruxism on the human maximum bite force Avaliação da influência do gênero e do bruxismo na força máxima de mordida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia dos Santos Calderon

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of gender and bruxism on the maximum bite force. The concordance for the physical examination of bruxism between examiners was also evaluated. One hundred and eighteen individuals, from both genders, bruxists and non-bruxists, with an average age of 24 years, were selected for this purpose. For group establishment, every individual was submitted to a specific physical examination for bruxism (performed by three different examiners. Subjects were then divided into four groups according to gender and the presence of bruxism. The maximum bite force was measured using a gnathodynamometer at the first molar area, three times on each side, performed twice. The two measurements were made with a 10-day interval. The highest value was recorded. The mean maximum bite force was statistically higher for males (587.2 N when compared to females (424.9 N (p0.05. The concordance between examiners for physical examination of bruxism was considered optimal.O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi avaliar a influência do gênero e do bruxismo na força máxima de mordida. A concordância interexaminadores para o exame físico de bruxismo também foi avaliada. Cento e dezoito voluntários, com idade média de 24 anos, divididos por gênero e pela presença de bruxismo, foram selecionados. Para o estabelecimento da amostra todos os voluntários foram submetidos a um exame físico específico para bruxismo (realizado por três examinadores. Então, os voluntários foram divididos em quarto grupos de acordo com o gênero e a presença de bruxismo. A força máxima de mordida foi mensurada, com o auxílio de um gnatodinamômetro, na região de primeiro molar, três vezes de cada lado, em duas sessões distintas. As sessões foram separadas por um intervalo de 10 dias. O maior valor dentre os doze obtidos, foi utilizado como sendo a força máxima. A força máxima de mordida foi estatisticamente maior para o g

  6. Collective action of women and human rights in Mexico: mobilizing pain amid the armed conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hincapié

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explains how the current human rights crisis affects women in Mexico. It is argued that this context affects women in two different ways: on the one hand, women have become targets of criminal organizations, using them as a means of income and a weapon of war. On the other hand, in this same scenario, a growing process of collective action has been developed by women who have adopted the language of human rights as a frame of identity and mobilization resource, claiming justice, promoting accountability and Effective action by the state authorities, which has contributed to broadening the field of defense of human rights.

  7. Identification of chromosomal locations associated with tail biting and being a victim of tail-biting behaviour in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kaitlin; Zanella, Ricardo; Ventura, Carlos; Johansen, Hanne Lind; Framstad, Tore; Janczak, Andrew; Zanella, Adroaldo J; Neibergs, Holly Louise

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify loci associated with tail biting or being a victim of tail biting in Norwegian crossbred pigs using a genome-wide association study with PLINK case-control analysis. DNA was extracted from hair or blood samples collected from 98 trios of crossbred pigs located across Norway. Each trio came from the same pen and consisted of one pig observed to initiate tail biting, one pig which was the victim of tail biting and a control pig which was not involved in either behaviour. DNA was genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. After quality assurance filtering, 53,952 SNPs remained comprising 74 animals (37 pairs) for the tail biter versus control comparison and 53,419 SNPs remained comprising 80 animals (40 pairs) for the victim of tail biting versus control comparison. An association with being a tail biter was observed on Sus scrofa chromosome 16 (SSC16; p = 1.6 × 10(-5)) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 3.9 × 10(-5)). An association with being the victim of tail biting was observed on Sus scrofa chromosomes 1 (SSC1; p = 4.7 × 10(-5)), 9 (SSC9; p = 3.9 × 10(-5)), 18 (SSC18; p = 7 × 10(-5) for 9,602,511 bp, p = 3.4 × 10(-5) for 9,653,881 bp and p = 5.3 × 10(-5) for 29,577,783 bp) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 6.1 × 10(-5)). An r(2) = 0.96 and a D' = 1 between the two SNPs at 9 Mb on SSC18 indicated extremely high linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that these two markers represent a single locus. These results provide evidence of a moderate genetic association between the propensity to participate in tail-biting behaviour and the likelihood of becoming a victim of this behaviour.

  8. Retrospective study of dog bite cases at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria and its environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoke Modupeoluwa Ehimiyein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A 10-year retrospective study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dog bites reported to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH, Ahmadu Bello University (ABU, Zaria, and to implement measures to control rabies exposure in the environment. Materials and Methods: Data on dog bite cases, reported to the VTH of ABU, Zaria, Nigeria between January, 2002 and December, 2011, were retrieved and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17.0, Chicago, IL, USA. Result: A total of 236 dog bite-related cases was presented, of which 1.7% dogs died of rabies. The number of cases (59.7% increased through time with the highest number (32 recorded in 2011. Majority of the cases were recorded between June and October of each year. Of the biting dogs, 22.5% were puppies (1-6 months and 77.5% were adults (above 6 months. The human victims were 92.4%, while the dog victims were 7.6%. Eight of the dogs were stray dogs, while 228 (96.6% were owned dogs. Of the owned dogs, 71.2% were free-roaming. Only 22% of the owned dogs were vaccinated. The most common offending breeds included the Nigerian Indigenous local breeds (73.3%, cross breeds (24.6%, Alsatians (0.8%, Terriers (0.8%, and Bulldogs (0.4%. Conclusion: In conclusion, rabies is endemic in Zaria, Nigeria, and the incidence of dog bites is on the rise. Strict measures including vaccination of the dogs and the leash law should be adopted to prevent dog bites.

  9. A Comparison of Collection Techniques for Gene Expression Analysis of Human Oral Taste Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Nicholas Steven; Liu, Dongli; Shaw, Jan; Hannan, Garry; Duesing, Konsta; Keast, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Variability in human taste perception is associated with both genetic and environmental factors. The influence of taste receptor expression on this variability is unknown, in part, due to the difficulty in obtaining human oral tissue that enables quantitative expression measures of taste genes. In a comparison of six current techniques (Oragene RNeasy Kit, Isohelix swab, Livibrush cytobrush, tongue saliva, cheek saliva collection, and fungiform papillae biopsy), we identify the fungiform papillae biopsy is the optimal sampling technique to analyse human taste gene expression. The fungiform papillae biopsy resulted in the highest RNA integrity, enabling amplification of all the assessed taste receptor genes (TAS1R1, TAS1R2, TAS1R3, SCNN1A and CD36) and taste tissue marker genes (NCAM1, GNAT3 and PLCβ2). Furthermore, quantitative expression was observed in a subset of taste genes assessed from the saliva collection techniques (cheek saliva, tongue saliva and Oragene RNA kit). These saliva collection techniques may be useful as a non-invasive alternative sampling technique to the fungiform papillae biopsy. Identification of the fungiform papillae biopsy as the optimal collection method will facilitate further research into understanding the effect of gene expression on variability in human taste perception.

  10. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in ticks collected from humans, South Korea, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seok-Min; Lee, Wook-Gyo; Ryou, Jungsang; Yang, Sung-Chan; Park, Sun-Whan; Roh, Jong Yeol; Lee, Ye-Ji; Park, Chan; Han, Myung Guk

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the infection rate for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) among ticks collected from humans during May-October 2013 in South Korea. Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks have been considered the SFTSV vector. However, we detected the virus in H. longicornis, Amblyomma testudinarium, and Ixodes nipponensis ticks, indicating additional potential SFTSV vectors.

  11. A Comparison of Collection Techniques for Gene Expression Analysis of Human Oral Taste Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Steven Archer

    Full Text Available Variability in human taste perception is associated with both genetic and environmental factors. The influence of taste receptor expression on this variability is unknown, in part, due to the difficulty in obtaining human oral tissue that enables quantitative expression measures of taste genes. In a comparison of six current techniques (Oragene RNeasy Kit, Isohelix swab, Livibrush cytobrush, tongue saliva, cheek saliva collection, and fungiform papillae biopsy, we identify the fungiform papillae biopsy is the optimal sampling technique to analyse human taste gene expression. The fungiform papillae biopsy resulted in the highest RNA integrity, enabling amplification of all the assessed taste receptor genes (TAS1R1, TAS1R2, TAS1R3, SCNN1A and CD36 and taste tissue marker genes (NCAM1, GNAT3 and PLCβ2. Furthermore, quantitative expression was observed in a subset of taste genes assessed from the saliva collection techniques (cheek saliva, tongue saliva and Oragene RNA kit. These saliva collection techniques may be useful as a non-invasive alternative sampling technique to the fungiform papillae biopsy. Identification of the fungiform papillae biopsy as the optimal collection method will facilitate further research into understanding the effect of gene expression on variability in human taste perception.

  12. Collective violence caused by climate change and how it threatens health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2014-06-14

    The weight of scientific evidence indicates that climate change is causally associated with collective violence. This evidence arises from individual studies over wide ranges of time and geographic location, and from two extensive meta-analyses. Complex pathways that underlie this association are not fully understood; however, increased ambient temperatures and extremes of rainfall, with their resultant adverse impacts on the environment and risk factors for violence, appear to play key roles. Collective violence due to climate change poses serious threats to health and human rights, including by causing morbidity and mortality directly and also indirectly by damage to the health-supporting infrastructure of society, forcing people to migrate from their homes and communities, damaging the environment, and diverting human and financial resources. This paper also briefly addresses issues for future research on the relationship between climate change and collective violence, the prevention of collective violence due to climate change, and States' obligations to protect human rights, to prevent collective violence, and to promote and support measures to mitigate and adapt to climate change.

  13. Canine human scent identifications with post-blast debris collected from improvised explosive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Allison M; Prada, Paola A; Furton, Kenneth G

    2010-06-15

    In this study it is demonstrated that human odor collected from items recovered at a post-blast scene can be evaluated using human scent specific canine teams to locate and identify individuals who have been in contact with the improvised explosive device (IED) components and/or the delivery vehicle. The purpose of the experiments presented here was to document human scent survivability in both peroxide-based explosions as well as simulated roadside IEDs utilizing double-blind field trials. Human odor was collected from post-blast device and vehicle components. Human scent specific canine teams were then deployed at the blast scene and in locations removed from the blast scene to validate that human odor remains in sufficient quantities for reliable canine detection and identification. Human scent specific canines have shown the ability to identify individuals who have been in contact with IEDs using post-blast debris with an average success from site response of 82.2% verifying that this technology has great potential in criminal, investigative, and military applications.

  14. A survey on animal bite in children less than 16 years old in Bushehr 2001-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisoo Hatami

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Animal bite, particularly dog bite is a prevalent public health problem which has not been taken into consideration properly. Especially, children have less experience in handling dogs and do not consider the related dangers seriously. The aim of this study was to determine incidence and related factors of animal bite in children less than 16 years old in Bushehr. Methods: In a prospective survey, all children (or their parents younger than 16 years with an animal bite were interviewed from March 2001 to March 2006 in Bushehr. Some information was collected from their medical records. Results: A total of 240 children (mean age 9.14 years, minimum 90 days and maximum 15 years old were identified. The annual incidence of animal bite was 0.19 per 1000 children between 0-15 years of age. Animal bite was higher in 10-15 years old patients and its rate was low in younger children. The most common animal bite was dog bite (79.6% and in 84.2% of cases the animal was domestic. Most of the children (65% had single lesion. The affected region in under 5 years age group and ≥5 years age group were upper limb (41.5% and lower limb (55.3% respectively (P=0.0001. The prevalence of cat bite injury was almost two times higher in girls than boys. Also cat and monkey bites were more frequent in urban than rural areas. Inpatient treatment was required in 3 cases (1.3%. All patients received Rabies immunoglobulin and completed courses of vaccination (3 or 5 times according to animal being captured or escaped. No significant associations were found between the number of wounds (single or multiple, degree of wounds (superficial or deep, sex and age (<5 or ≥5 years old with the kind of animal (domestic or wild. Conclusion: Dog bite in children is frequent. Since the cost of post exposure prophylaxis is very high for national health sector, preventive strategies should focus on public education, especially for children.

  15. 78 FR 13688 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be Approved for Use in NIH Funded Research SUMMARY: In compliance with... Information Collection: The form is used by applicants to request that human embryonic stem cell lines be... within 60 days of the date of this publication. Proposed Collection: Request for Human Embryonic Stem...

  16. Influence of tail biting on weight gain, lesions and condemnations at slaughter of finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Maria F.P.P. Marques

    2012-10-01

    tail biting. Collectively, the observations of the present study show that complications associated with tail-biting found in slaughterhouses are probably underestimating field prevalence.

  17. 77 FR 25533 - Agency Requests for Approval of a New Information Collection(s): Human Subjects Experiments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ...(s): Human Subjects Experiments Related to Keyless Ignition Controls, Gear Selection Controls, and....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: OMB Control Number: 2127-New. Title: Human Subjects Experiments... available at www.regulations.gov . Human factors observational experiments are proposed to examine...

  18. The Human Group Optimizer (HGO): Mimicking the collective intelligence of human groups as an optimization tool for combinatorial problems

    CERN Document Server

    De Vincenzo, Ilario; Carbone, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    A large number of optimization algorithms have been developed by researchers to solve a variety of complex problems in operations management area. We present a novel optimization algorithm belonging to the class of swarm intelligence optimization methods. The algorithm mimics the decision making process of human groups and exploits the dynamics of this process as an optimization tool for combinatorial problems. In order to achieve this aim, a continuous-time Markov process is proposed to describe the behavior of a population of socially interacting agents, modelling how humans in a group modify their opinions driven by self-interest and consensus seeking. As in the case of a collection of spins, the dynamics of such a system is characterized by a phase transition from low to high values of the overall consenus (magnetization). We recognize this phase transition as being associated with the emergence of a collective superior intelligence of the population. While this state being active, a cooling schedule is a...

  19. Effects of bruxism on the maximum bite force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Jelena T.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bruxism is a parafunctional activity of the masticatory system, which is characterized by clenching or grinding of teeth. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence of bruxism has impact on maximum bite force, with particular reference to the potential impact of gender on bite force values. Methods. This study included two groups of subjects: without and with bruxism. The presence of bruxism in the subjects was registered using a specific clinical questionnaire on bruxism and physical examination. The subjects from both groups were submitted to the procedure of measuring the maximum bite pressure and occlusal contact area using a single-sheet pressure-sensitive films (Fuji Prescale MS and HS Film. Maximal bite force was obtained by multiplying maximal bite pressure and occlusal contact area values. Results. The average values of maximal bite force were significantly higher in the subjects with bruxism compared to those without bruxism (p 0.01. Maximal bite force was significantly higher in the males compared to the females in all segments of the research. Conclusion. The presence of bruxism influences the increase in the maximum bite force as shown in this study. Gender is a significant determinant of bite force. Registration of maximum bite force can be used in diagnosing and analysing pathophysiological events during bruxism.

  20. The influence of bubbles on the perception carbonation bite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Wise

    Full Text Available Although many people naively assume that the bite of carbonation is due to tactile stimulation of the oral cavity by bubbles, it has become increasingly clear that carbonation bite comes mainly from formation of carbonic acid in the oral mucosa. In Experiment 1, we asked whether bubbles were in fact required to perceive carbonation bite. Subjects rated oral pungency from several concentrations of carbonated water both at normal atmospheric pressure (at which bubbles could form and at 2.0 atmospheres pressure (at which bubbles did not form. Ratings of carbonation bite under the two pressure conditions were essentially identical, indicating that bubbles are not required for pungency. In Experiment 2, we created controlled streams of air bubbles around the tongue in mildly pungent CO2 solutions to determine how tactile stimulation from bubbles affects carbonation bite. Since innocuous sensations like light touch and cooling often suppress pain, we predicted that bubbles might reduce rated bite. Contrary to prediction, air bubbles flowing around the tongue significantly enhanced rated bite, without inducing perceived bite in blank (un-carbonated solutions. Accordingly, though bubbles are clearly not required for carbonation bite, they may well modulate perceived bite. More generally, the results show that innocuous tactile stimulation can enhance chemogenic pain. Possible physiological mechanisms are discussed.

  1. The influence of bubbles on the perception carbonation bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Paul M; Wolf, Madeline; Thom, Stephen R; Bryant, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Although many people naively assume that the bite of carbonation is due to tactile stimulation of the oral cavity by bubbles, it has become increasingly clear that carbonation bite comes mainly from formation of carbonic acid in the oral mucosa. In Experiment 1, we asked whether bubbles were in fact required to perceive carbonation bite. Subjects rated oral pungency from several concentrations of carbonated water both at normal atmospheric pressure (at which bubbles could form) and at 2.0 atmospheres pressure (at which bubbles did not form). Ratings of carbonation bite under the two pressure conditions were essentially identical, indicating that bubbles are not required for pungency. In Experiment 2, we created controlled streams of air bubbles around the tongue in mildly pungent CO2 solutions to determine how tactile stimulation from bubbles affects carbonation bite. Since innocuous sensations like light touch and cooling often suppress pain, we predicted that bubbles might reduce rated bite. Contrary to prediction, air bubbles flowing around the tongue significantly enhanced rated bite, without inducing perceived bite in blank (un-carbonated) solutions. Accordingly, though bubbles are clearly not required for carbonation bite, they may well modulate perceived bite. More generally, the results show that innocuous tactile stimulation can enhance chemogenic pain. Possible physiological mechanisms are discussed.

  2. Compartmental syndrome due to viper bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigasio, A; Battiston, B; De Filippo, G; Brunelli, G; Calabrese, S

    1991-01-01

    The case is reported of a young girl who was bitten on the hand by a viper and developed compartment syndrome of the intrinsic muscles more than 24 h later. Multiple dorsal and volar fasciotomies resolved the acute episode with complete restitutio ad integrum. The clinical case is discussed in detail and the literature on these rare complications of snake bites in European countries reviewed.

  3. Evaluation of home collection performed by a human milk bank in a university hospital in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glória Menezes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluation of procedures during household milking and transport of human milk associated with their quality control. Materials and methods. 48 donors registered in the Human Milk Bank of the Clinics Hospital of the Federal University at Uberlândia. Observations were made during home visits. A checklist was elaborated according to the technical standards for human milk banks, been associated with  physical-chemical, and microbiological controls. The chi-square test, logistic regression and Spearman test (p menor que 0.05 were used for data analysis. Results. The results suggest that most donors assimilated the guidelines of the milk bank staff and procedures were satisfactorily performed. Conclusion. It could be demonstrated that milking and home collection are safe and effective ways for obtaining donated human milk.

  4. Emergent Structural Mechanisms for High-Density Collective Motion Inspired by Human Crowds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottinelli, Arianna; Sumpter, David T. J.; Silverberg, Jesse L.

    2016-11-01

    Collective motion of large human crowds often depends on their density. In extreme cases like heavy metal concerts and black Friday sales events, motion is dominated by physical interactions instead of conventional social norms. Here, we study an active matter model inspired by situations when large groups of people gather at a point of common interest. Our analysis takes an approach developed for jammed granular media and identifies Goldstone modes, soft spots, and stochastic resonance as structurally driven mechanisms for potentially dangerous emergent collective motion.

  5. Emergent Structural Mechanisms for High-Density Collective Motion Inspired by Human Crowds

    CERN Document Server

    Bottinelli, Arianna; Silverberg, Jesse L

    2016-01-01

    Collective motion of large human crowds often depends on their density. In extreme cases like heavy metal concerts and Black Friday sales events, motion is dominated by physical interactions instead of conventional social norms. Here, we study an active matter model inspired by situations when large groups of people gather at a point of common interest. Our analysis takes an approach developed for jammed granular media and identifies Goldstone modes, soft spots, and stochastic resonance as structurally-driven mechanisms for potentially dangerous emergent collective motion.

  6. Child health update. Management of dog bites in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabhaney, Vikram; Goldman, Ran D

    2012-10-01

    A 4-year-old girl was playing with her neighbour's dog. The dog became excited and bit the girl on the forearm, leaving a puncture wound. As a result of the injury, she has presented to my office. Should she be treated with antibiotics? If so, which antibiotic should be used and for how long? Initiation of prophylactic antibiotics is indicated if the dog bite has undergone primary closure; if there is a moderate or severe bite wound; for puncture wounds (especially if penetration of bone, tendon sheath, or joint), facial bites, bites to the hands or feet, or genital area bites; or wounds sustained by victims who are immunocompromised or asplenic. The first-line choice of antibiotic is amoxicillin-clavulanate. Appropriate tetanus and rabies prophylaxis as indicated should also be a part of caring for a patient who has sustained a dog bite, as well as local debridement and thorough cleaning of the wound.

  7. Preliminary perspectives on DNA collection in anti-human trafficking efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanis, Sara H; Kim, Joyce; Minear, Mollie A; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Wagner, Jennifer K

    2014-01-01

    Forensic DNA methodologies have potential applications in the investigation of human trafficking cases. DNA and relationship testing may be useful for confirmation of biological relationship claims in immigration, identification of trafficked individuals who are missing persons, and family reunification of displaced individuals after mass disasters and conflicts. As these applications rely on the collection of DNA from non-criminals and potentially vulnerable individuals, questions arise as to how to address the ethical challenges of collection, security, and privacy of collected samples and DNA profiles. We administered a survey targeted to victims' advocates to gain preliminary understanding of perspectives regarding human trafficking definitions, DNA and sex workers, and perceived trust of authorities potentially involved in DNA collection. We asked respondents to consider the use of DNA for investigating adoption fraud, sex trafficking, and post-conflict child soldier cases. We found some key differences in perspectives on defining what qualifies as "trafficking." When we varied terminology between "sex worker" and "sex trafficking victim" we detected differences in perception on which authorities can be trusted. Respondents were supportive of the hypothetical models proposed to collect DNA. Most were favorable of DNA specimens being controlled by an authority outside of law enforcement. Participants voiced concerns focused on privacy, misuse of DNA samples and data, unintentional harms, data security, and infrastructure. These preliminary data indicate that while there is perceived value in programs to use DNA for investigating cases of human trafficking, these programs may need to consider levels of trust in authorities as their logistics are developed and implemented.

  8. Awareness of rabies and response to dog bites in a Bangladesh community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghosh, Sumon; Chowdhury, Sukanta; Haider, Najmul

    2016-01-01

    ). Of the respondents, 5.2% reported a history of dog bite in at least one family member, and 11.8% reported a history of dog bite in domestic animals during the previous year. The HHs having a higher number of family members (OR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.07–1.2), having a pet dog (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.4–3.2) and caring......Community awareness regarding rabies and treatment seeking behaviours are critical both for the prevention and control of the disease in human and animals. We conducted a study to explore people's awareness about rabies, their attitudes towards dogs and practices associated with treating dog bites...... in Satkhira Sadar, a south-western sub-district of Bangladesh. Of the total 3200 households (HHs) surveyed, the majority of the respondents have heard about rabies (73%) and there was a high level of awareness that dog bite is the main cause of rabies (86%), and that rabies can be prevented by vaccination (85...

  9. [Instrument to collect data for critical patients based on the theory of basic human needs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordinhão, Rosaura Costa; Almeida, Miriam de Abreu

    2012-06-01

    This is an exploratory study based on qualitative approach that aimed to collectively construct an instrument to collect data for patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), based on the Theory of Basic Human Needs (NHB). Data collection was through a focus group with four nurses from the ICU and four residents from the Nursing-Health Integrated Residency (RIS) program in seven meetings in 2009. The discussions produced in each session were analyzed as recommended by Horta. The instrument was divided into seven groups and 17 subgroups of needs. After testing and suggestions from participants, we elaborated the final version of the instrument and a guidance manualfor completing it, according to the need expressed by the group. Validation of the instrument and the manual and inclusion of teaching of the nursing process in the RIS activity program are suggested.

  10. VARYING A V BLOCK COMPLICATING SNAKE BITE - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Snake venom toxicities comprise mainly bleeding disorders and nephrotoxicity. Cardiotoxicity is a rare manifestation of snake bite. We describe the case of a previously healthy 23 - year - old man who developed coagulopathy and AV node dysfunction following snake bite. Electrocardiography showed all variatio ns of AV conduction dysfunction . This is the first account of AV node dysfu nction caused by a snake bite with cardiotoxi city presenting as atrioventricular block

  11. Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Renal Failure After Fire Ant Bites

    OpenAIRE

    Koya, Supriya; Crenshaw, Daryl; Agarwal, Anupam

    2007-01-01

    We describe a 59-year-old patient who developed acute renal failure because of rhabdomyolysis after extensive red fire ant bites. This case illustrates a serious systemic reaction that may occur from fire ant bites. Consistent with the clinical presentation in rhabdomyolysis associated with non-traumatic causes, hyperkalemia, hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia, and high anion gap acidosis were not observed in this patient. While local allergic reactions to fire ant bites are described in the lite...

  12. Case report: acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis following viper bite

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Anyi; Shan, Renfei; Huang, Daochao; Zhou, Jiajia; Keenoo, Anaswasseem; Qin, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The most serious complications of the central nervous system that occur after venomous snake bite are intracranial hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. We present a rarely seen central nervous system complication, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, after a treated Deinagkistrodon's viper bite. On April 5, 2015, a 50-year-old male farmer was bitten on his right leg by a Deinagkistrodon's viper. The bite rendered the victim unconscious for 14 days, during which he was treated with tetan...

  13. Utilization of a modified bite guard for preventing traumatic macroglossia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayazgan-Saracoglu, Banu; Kecik, Defne

    2011-01-01

    This clinical report describes the treatment of a patient having traumatic macroglossia due to schwannoma in the craniocervical region. Enlarged tongue or macroglossia may compromise vital functions of the patient. To avoid a chronic tongue bite trauma, a bite guard that was inspired from a habit breaker was fabricated. Tongue injury has significantly healed with the use of this appliance, and the patient was able to masticate without biting on his tongue.

  14. Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trongtokit, Yuwadee; Rongsriyam, Yupha; Komalamisra, Narumon; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn

    2005-04-01

    The mosquito repellent activity of 38 essential oils from plants at three concentrations was screened against the mosquito Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions using human subjects. On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of oil was applied per 30 cm2 of exposed skin. When the tested oils were applied at a 10% or 50% concentration, none of them prevented mosquito bites for as long as 2 h, but the undiluted oils of Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Pogostemon cablin (patchuli), Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and Zanthoxylum limonella (Thai name: makaen) were the most effective and provided 2 h of complete repellency. From these initial results, three concentrations (10%, 50% and undiluted) of citronella, patchouli, clove and makaen were selected for repellency tests against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus. As expected, the undiluted oil showed the highest protection in each case. Clove oil gave the longest duration of 100% repellency (2-4 h) against all three species of mosquito.

  15. GWAS of self-reported mosquito bite size, itch intensity and attractiveness to mosquitoes implicates immune-related predisposition loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Amy V; Tilley, Mera; Gutteridge, Alex; Hyde, Craig; Nagle, Michael; Ziemek, Daniel; Gorman, Donal; Fauman, Eric B; Chen, Xing; Miller, Melissa R; Tian, Chao; Hu, Youna; Hinds, David A; Cox, Peter; Scollen, Serena

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the interaction between humans and mosquitoes is a critical area of study due to the phenomenal burdens on public health from mosquito-transmitted diseases. In this study, we conducted the first genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of self-reported mosquito bite reaction size (n = 84,724), itchiness caused by bites (n = 69,057), and perceived attractiveness to mosquitoes (n = 16,576). In total, 15 independent significant (P mosquitoes is driven, at least in part, by the genetic determinants of bite reaction size.Our findings illustrate the complex genetic and immunological landscapes underpinning human interactions with mosquitoes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Bilateral parotid enlargement following snake bite:A rare sign

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madi Deepak; Achappa Basavaprabhu; John T Ramapuram; Chowta Nithyananda; Soundarya Mahalingam

    2013-01-01

    Snakebite is a common medical emergency in India. Unusual complications may occur after viper bite. Bilateral parotid enlargement after viper bite is a rare entity. An 18-year old gentleman presented to our hospital with history of viper bite. On examination he had cellulitis of right lower limb. He developed swelling of both the parotid glands 12 h after admission. He developed coagulopathy, acute renal failure and died within 48 h of hospital admission. Development of parotid swelling after snake bite is associated with poor prognosis. This case is found worth reporting as it is an unusual complication having prognostic value.

  17. Is extreme bite performance associated with extreme morphologies in sharks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Daniel R; Claes, Julien M; Mallefet, Jérôme; Herrel, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    As top predators in many oceanic communities, sharks are known to eat large prey and are supposedly able to generate high bite forces. This notion has, however, largely gone untested due to the experimental intractability of these animals. For those species that have been investigated, it remains unclear whether their high bite forces are simply a consequence of their large body size or the result of diet-related adaptation. As aquatic poikilotherms, sharks can grow very large, making them ideal subjects with which to investigate the effects of body size on bite force. Relative bite-force capacity is often associated with changes in head shape because taller or wider heads can, for example, accommodate larger jaw muscles. Constraints on bite force in general may also be released by changes in tooth shape. For example, more pointed teeth may allow a predator to penetrate prey more effectively than blunt, pavementlike teeth. Our analyses show that large sharks do not bite hard for their body size, but they generally have larger heads. Head width is the best predictor of bite force across the species included in our study as indicated by a multiple regression model. Contrary to our predictions, sharks with relatively high bite forces for their body size also have relatively more pointed teeth at the front of the tooth row. Moreover, species including hard prey in their diet are characterized by high bite forces and narrow and pointed teeth at the jaw symphysis.

  18. [An experimental study on human bitemarks digital analysis and its accuracy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Chen, Xinmin; Sun, Dahong

    2005-10-01

    This experiment was designed to study the method of human bitemarks digital analysis and its accuracy. The human bitemarks were made on the dog skin by human dentition. The related parameters of human bitemarks and suspects criminal dentitions were digitally recorded and managed. The digital picture of human bitemark was obtained, and the dental study model, bite in wax and bitemark on pig skin of suspected criminal were scanned. The overlay was prepared with Adobe Photoshop 5. 5 and the parameters were measured with AutoCAD R14, then their matches were compared. The result shows that the human bitemarks digital analysis is a more accurate approach to human bitemarks identification. Three methods for collecting evidence dental study model, bite in wax and bitemark on pig skin all can be used as aids in forensic sciences. Dental study model is the most accurate one of all the three methods mentioned above.

  19. Review of forensically important entomological specimens collected from human cadavers in Malaysia (2005-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Rajagopal; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Tan, Tian Chye; Lee, Han Lim; Azirun, Mohd Sofian

    2013-07-01

    Forensic entomological specimens collected from human decedents during crime scene investigations in Malaysia in the past 6 years (2005-2010) are reviewed. A total of 80 cases were recorded and 93 specimens were collected. From these specimens, 10 species of cyclorrphagic flies were identified, consisting of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) -38 specimens (40.86%), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) -36 specimens (38.70%), Chrysomya villeneuvi (Patton) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hemipyrellia liguriens (Wiedemann) -5 specimens (5.37%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) -1 specimen (1.08%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew)-1 specimen (1.08%) and Sarcophaga ruficornis (Fabricius) -4 specimens (4.30%). In two specimens (2.15%), the maggots were not identifiable. Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies were the commonest species found in human decedents from three different ecological habitats. S. nudiseta is an uncommon species found only on human cadavers from indoors. A total of 75 cases (93.75%) had a single fly infestation and 5 cases (6.25%) had double fly infestation. In conclusion, although large numbers of fly species were found on human decedents, the predominant species are still those of Chrysomya. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Geographic access to street food sources for dogs and its association with spatial patterns of animal bite injuries in Enugu, Nigeria, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olugasa, B O; Okeke, O S; Ishola, O O

    2014-12-01

    Accessibility of street food source to dogs in Enugu, the capital city of Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria was examined in relation to spatial patterns of animal bite injuries in the city. Retrospective data on animal bite injuries were retrieved from records of selected hospitals in Enugu and its environs during the period 2005-2011. Victim's residence and street point where animal bite incidence occurred were geo-referenced. Street food sources, including garbage disposal points, meat markets, slaughter facilities and public vehicle terminals in the city were observed and geo-referenced. Thematic maps were designed usingArcGIS 10.1. Spatial scan statistics was used to identify cluster pattern of animal bite injuries and fatal rabies cases. Coefficient of area correspondence (Ca) in spatial cluster with selected variables was computed. One hundred and thirty one cases of animal bite injury cases were retrieved with traceable addresses. These comprised cat bites (n = 1, 0.76%), goat bites (n = 1, 0.76%), monkey bites (n = 2, 1.5%) and dog bites (n = 127, 96.98%). Fatal outcomes (n = 4, 3.15%) were recorded. Males within the age group, 0-15 (46.5%) were at the highest risk. A diffused spatial pattern showed that majority of the study area experienced animal bite injury during the study period. A primary cluster of 15.03km radius and a secondary cluster of 1.11 km radius traversed residential and non-residential areas were identified as rabies high- and low-risk areas. Interspecies bites from non-carnivores (goats and monkeys) and resultant deaths with neurologic signs were pathognomonic for rabies-like-illness in Enugu State. High Ca (0.8) showed a strong correlation between access to street food sources for dogs and the distribution of animal bite injuries on humans. While access to street food may support the population of free-roaming dogs, it was also shown to be partly explanatory to spatial patterns of dog bite injury. Public education about responsible pet

  1. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: V. Quantitative properties of human collective knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Igor; Yoshida, Sachiyo; Wazny, Kerri; Chan, Kit Yee; Cousens, Simon

    2016-06-01

    The CHNRI method for setting health research priorities has crowdsourcing as the major component. It uses the collective opinion of a group of experts to generate, assess and prioritize between many competing health research ideas. It is difficult to compare the accuracy of human individual and collective opinions in predicting uncertain future outcomes before the outcomes are known. However, this limitation does not apply to existing knowledge, which is an important component underlying opinion. In this paper, we report several experiments to explore the quantitative properties of human collective knowledge and discuss their relevance to the CHNRI method. We conducted a series of experiments in groups of about 160 (range: 122-175) undergraduate Year 2 medical students to compare their collective knowledge to their individual knowledge. We asked them to answer 10 questions on each of the following: (i) an area in which they have a degree of expertise (undergraduate Year 1 medical curriculum); (ii) an area in which they likely have some knowledge (general knowledge); and (iii) an area in which they are not expected to have any knowledge (astronomy). We also presented them with 20 pairs of well-known celebrities and asked them to identify the older person of the pair. In all these experiments our goal was to examine how the collective answer compares to the distribution of students' individual answers. When answering the questions in their own area of expertise, the collective answer (the median) was in the top 20.83% of the most accurate individual responses; in general knowledge, it was in the top 11.93%; and in an area with no expertise, the group answer was in the top 7.02%. However, the collective answer based on mean values fared much worse, ranging from top 75.60% to top 95.91%. Also, when confronted with guessing the older of the two celebrities, the collective response was correct in 18/20 cases (90%), while the 8 most successful individuals among the

  2. [Qualitative and quantitative study of biting lice (Mallophaga) from selected species of Charadriiformes (Aves)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Złotorzycka, J; Modrzejwska, M; Towarnicka, I

    1997-01-01

    Biting lice were collected (mostly in Poland) from 15 species of Charadriiformes (Charadriidae, Scolopacidae, Laridae and Alcidae). We tried to determine the frequency of occurrence of particular species of Mallophaga. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of co-occurrence of external parasites (Mallophaga and some Astigmata) was also carried out. We stated that inter-species competition is not significant in shaping the fauna of external parasites of Charadriiformes.

  3. Epidemiological patterns of animal bites in the Babol County, North of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saber Ghaffari-Fam; Seyed Reza Hosseini; Amin Daemi; Hassan Heydari; Rahim Malekzade; Erfan Ayubi; Hossein Ali Nikbakht

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the current situation of animal bites in the Babol County, North of Iran. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on recently collected data of 3 798 victims bitten (656 females and 3 142 males) from 2010 to 2014 in the Health Center of Babol, Iran. The interest variables in the study included demographic variables, charac-teristics of animal, some of the time patterns, and some clinical patterns provided to victims. Results: The average age of victims was (33.68 ± 17.23) years. The age group with the max proportion (for males, 32.1%;for females, 26.2%) of bites occurred in 18–30 years old group for males and 30–45 years for females. The ratio of male victims to female ones was 4.78. In terms of place of incident, 2 502 (65.9%) cases of animal bites occurred in rural areas. Dogs and cats were the most dominant biters with 3 340 (87.9%) and 395 (10.4%) bites, respectively. For the kinds of biters, 3 643 (95.9%) were pets, 133 (3.5%) were strays and 22 (0.6%) were wild animals. Most of the lesions were on shoulder as well as upper organs (46.9%) and lower organs (41.0%), respectively. Conclusions: Since the average age of the subjects with injuries on the head and upper organs was lower than that of victims with other organs injured and since that pet dogs were the major biter, structured monitoring programs that focus on specified target groups in collaboration with other organizations are essential to control the animal bites.

  4. Mechanics of bite force production and its relationship to diet in bats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharlene E. Santana; Elizabeth R. Dumont; Julian L. Davis

    2010-01-01

    .... Mechanistic studies of bite force production have identified morphological features associated with bite force, and linked bite force with diet, but this approach has rarely been used in mammals. 2...

  5. Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in two horse populations in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schurink Anouk

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect bite hypersensitivity is a common allergic disease in horse populations worldwide. Insect bite hypersensitivity is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. However, little is known about genes contributing to the genetic variance associated with insect bite hypersensitivity. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify and quantify genomic associations with insect bite hypersensitivity in Shetland pony mares and Icelandic horses in the Netherlands. Methods Data on 200 Shetland pony mares and 146 Icelandic horses were collected according to a matched case–control design. Cases and controls were matched on various factors (e.g. region, sire to minimize effects of population stratification. Breed-specific genome-wide association studies were performed using 70 k single nucleotide polymorphisms genotypes. Bayesian variable selection method Bayes-C with a threshold model implemented in GenSel software was applied. A 1 Mb non-overlapping window approach that accumulated contributions of adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms was used to identify associated genomic regions. Results The percentage of variance explained by all single nucleotide polymorphisms was 13% in Shetland pony mares and 28% in Icelandic horses. The 20 non-overlapping windows explaining the largest percentages of genetic variance were found on nine chromosomes in Shetland pony mares and on 14 chromosomes in Icelandic horses. Overlap in identified associated genomic regions between breeds would suggest interesting candidate regions to follow-up on. Such regions common to both breeds (within 15 Mb were found on chromosomes 3, 7, 11, 20 and 23. Positional candidate genes within 2 Mb from the associated windows were identified on chromosome 20 in both breeds. Candidate genes are within the equine lymphocyte antigen class II region, which evokes an immune response by recognizing many foreign molecules. Conclusions The genome-wide association

  6. A human haploid gene trap collection to study lncRNAs with unusual RNA biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, Aleksandra E; Vlatkovic, Irena; Neesen, Jürgen; Barlow, Denise P; Pauler, Florian M

    2016-01-01

    Many thousand long non-coding (lnc) RNAs are mapped in the human genome. Time consuming studies using reverse genetic approaches by post-transcriptional knock-down or genetic modification of the locus demonstrated diverse biological functions for a few of these transcripts. The Human Gene Trap Mutant Collection in haploid KBM7 cells is a ready-to-use tool for studying protein-coding gene function. As lncRNAs show remarkable differences in RNA biology compared to protein-coding genes, it is unclear if this gene trap collection is useful for functional analysis of lncRNAs. Here we use the uncharacterized LOC100288798 lncRNA as a model to answer this question. Using public RNA-seq data we show that LOC100288798 is ubiquitously expressed, but inefficiently spliced. The minor spliced LOC100288798 isoforms are exported to the cytoplasm, whereas the major unspliced isoform is nuclear localized. This shows that LOC100288798 RNA biology differs markedly from typical mRNAs. De novo assembly from RNA-seq data suggests that LOC100288798 extends 289kb beyond its annotated 3' end and overlaps the downstream SLC38A4 gene. Three cell lines with independent gene trap insertions in LOC100288798 were available from the KBM7 gene trap collection. RT-qPCR and RNA-seq confirmed successful lncRNA truncation and its extended length. Expression analysis from RNA-seq data shows significant deregulation of 41 protein-coding genes upon LOC100288798 truncation. Our data shows that gene trap collections in human haploid cell lines are useful tools to study lncRNAs, and identifies the previously uncharacterized LOC100288798 as a potential gene regulator.

  7. Human rights abuses and collective resilience among sex workers in four African countries: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorgie, Fiona; Vasey, Katie; Harper, Eric; Richter, Marlise; Nare, Prince; Maseko, Sian; Chersich, Matthew F

    2013-07-26

    Sex work is a criminal offence, virtually throughout Africa. This criminalisation and the intense stigma attached to the profession shapes interactions between sex workers and their clients, family, fellow community members, and societal structures such as the police and social services. We explore the impact of violence and related human rights abuses on the lives of sex workers, and how they have responded to these conditions, as individuals and within small collectives. These analyses are based on data from 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with female, male and transgender sex workers in Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Data were collected by sex worker outreach workers trained to conduct qualitative research among their peers. In describing their experiences of unlawful arrests and detention, violence, extortion, vilification and exclusions, participants present a picture of profound exploitation and repeated human rights violations. This situation has had an extreme impact on the physical, mental and social wellbeing of this population. Overall, the article details the multiple effects of sex work criminalisation on the everyday lives of sex workers and on their social interactions and relationships. Underlying their stories, however, are narratives of resilience and resistance. Sex workers in our study draw on their own individual survival strategies and informal forms of support and very occasionally opt to seek recourse through formal channels. They generally recognize the benefits of unified actions in assisting them to counter risks in their environment and mobilise against human rights violations, but note how the fluctuant and stigmatised nature of their profession often undermines collective action. While criminal laws urgently need reform, supporting sex work self-organisation and community-building are key interim strategies for safeguarding sex workers' human rights and improving health outcomes in these communities. If

  8. Collecting Protein Biomarkers in Breath Using Electret Filters: A Preliminary Method on New Technical Model and Human Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li

    Full Text Available Biomarkers in exhaled breath are useful for respiratory disease diagnosis in human volunteers. Conventional methods that collect non-volatile biomarkers, however, necessitate an extensive dilution and sanitation processes that lowers collection efficiencies and convenience of use. Electret filter emerged in recent decade to collect virus biomarkers in exhaled breath given its simplicity and effectiveness. To investigate the capability of electret filters to collect protein biomarkers, a model that consists of an atomizer that produces protein aerosol and an electret filter that collects albumin and carcinoembryonic antigen-a typical biomarker in lung cancer development- from the atomizer is developed. A device using electret filter as the collecting medium is designed to collect human albumin from exhaled breath of 6 volunteers. Comparison of the collecting ability between the electret filter method and other 2 reported methods is finally performed based on the amounts of albumin collected from human exhaled breath. In conclusion, a decreasing collection efficiency ranging from 17.6% to 2.3% for atomized albumin aerosol and 42% to 12.5% for atomized carcinoembryonic antigen particles is found; moreover, an optimum volume of sampling human exhaled breath ranging from 100 L to 200 L is also observed; finally, the self-designed collecting device shows a significantly better performance in collecting albumin from human exhaled breath than the exhaled breath condensate method (p0.05. In summary, electret filters are potential in collecting non-volatile biomarkers in human exhaled breath not only because it was simpler, cheaper and easier to use than traditional methods but also for its better collecting performance.

  9. Rattlesnake bites in children: antivenin treatment and surgical indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Brian A; Hosalkar, Harish S

    2002-09-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons working in the Americas may be consulted in the care of patients bitten by venomous rattlesnakes (genus Crotalus ), particularly with regard to the possibilities of compartment syndrome and soft-tissue destruction. Despite considerable evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of antivenin in the treatment of rattlesnake bites in adults, controversy persists regarding the roles of antivenin and surgery in the treatment of rattlesnake envenomations in children. Our hypothesis is that aggressive use of antivenin is just as effective and safe for children as it is for adults. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of twenty-four consecutive patients who had been managed at our hospital because of a bite from a western diamondback rattlesnake. Nineteen of the twenty-four patients had been envenomated. The uniformity of collected data was facilitated by the use of an intensive-care-unit protocol during the ten-year period that was reviewed. A questionnaire was developed for long-term follow-up. Aggressive use of polyvalent equine antivenin safely prevented the need for surgery in sixteen of the nineteen envenomated patients. Of the three patients who had surgical treatment, two were managed with limited soft-tissue debridement and one was managed with a fasciotomy of the leg because of a compartment syndrome that occurred when adequate antivenin was withheld. No serious adverse effects were noted in association with the antivenin, and no functional impairments were noted at the time of discharge. Antivenin, rather than surgery, is the proper initial treatment of severe rattlesnake envenomations in children.

  10. Naming the body (or the bones): Human remains, anthropological/medical collections, religious beliefs, and restitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    Human bones and biological remains conserved in anthropological, medical, and archaeological collections are foci of ethical debate, as recently illustrated by the affair of Charles Byrne's bones. In the near future, curators will have to choose between global conservation of all (or almost all) anthropological collections and systematic restitution to their original communities or families. Various proposals and examples of restitution and nonrestitution are given (with justifications) in order to support the concept that the body (especially the dead body) is not property. We propose that the only element supporting arguments in favor of restitution could be the name of the individual, highlighting the importance of all identification processes for such "artifacts." This is undoubtedly a universal value: naming the dead, identifying and then burying the person, i.e., reversing the progression along the timeline from individual to scientific specimen. Such elements could be of great interest to all universities and medical institutions that keep human remains in their collections for educational or historical purposes when they are confronted with ethical problems and/or repatriation requests.

  11. Persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk collected from Dalian and Shenyang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunisue, T.; Someya, M.; Tanabe, S. [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Kayama, F. [Jichi Medical School, Tochigi (Japan); Kayama, F. [CREST-JST, Kawaguchi (Japan); Jin Yihe [China Medical Univ., Shenyang (China)

    2004-09-15

    During the past few decades, numerous investigations on pollution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as dioxins, PCBs and DDTs in human breast milk have been conducted in various countries with a view to assessing risks for infants. In developed countries, it was found that levels of POPs in human breast milk have decreased in recent decades. On the other hand, in some developing and former soviet countries, it is suspected that organochlorine insecticides such as DDT and HCH are still in use, and relatively high levels of these contaminants have been observed in human breast milk. China, which has the largest ground area among Asian countries, produced large quantities of technical HCH and DDT in the past and mainly used these organochlorine insecticides in agricultural fields. In fact, high levels of HCHs and DDTs have been detected in seawater, sediment and fish from China. In addition, relatively high levels of PCBs have been detected in aquatic media along industrialized areas. Thus, in China, because of anticipated higher levels of pollution by POPs in the environment, some investigations on pollution by these contaminants in environmental media have been recently conducted. However, no information on human exposure to POPs in northeastern parts of China is available, although a few investigations have been conducted in southeastern parts around Hong Kong. The present study attempted to elucidate the contamination status of POPs in human breast milk collected from primiparae in Dalian and Shenyang, northeastern China.

  12. Onychophagia (Nail biting), anxiety, and malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachan, Avesh; Chaturvedi, T P

    2012-01-01

    Nail biting is a stress removing habit adopted by many children and adults. People usually do it when they are nervous, stressed, hungry, or bored. All of these situations are having a common phenomenon between them is anxiety. Onychophagia is also a sign of other emotional or mental disorders. It is a habit that is not easy to quit and reflection of extreme nervousness or inability to handle stressful conditions. This abnormal habit may cause various malocclusions associated with dentoalveolar segment of the oral cavity. Crowding and rotations of incisors are common with this habit.

  13. Onychophagia (Nail biting, anxiety, and malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avesh Sachan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nail biting is a stress removing habit adopted by many children and adults. People usually do it when they are nervous, stressed, hungry, or bored. All of these situations are having a common phenomenon between them is anxiety. Onychophagia is also a sign of other emotional or mental disorders. It is a habit that is not easy to quit and reflection of extreme nervousness or inability to handle stressful conditions. This abnormal habit may cause various malocclusions associated with dentoalveolar segment of the oral cavity. Crowding and rotations of incisors are common with this habit.

  14. The Effect of a Unique Pacifier on Anterior Open Bite and Overjet in the Primary Dentition: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Arthur J; Kim, Amy S; Scott, Jo Anna M; Berg, Joel H

    2016-01-01

    Pacifiers are the most common device used by children to satisfy their sucking needs. Because of their design, reports of anterior open bite and increased overjet are common. The purposes of this pilot study were to measure the effects of a unique pacifier in toddlers who have existing open bites and increased overjets; and secondly to determine the feasibility of recruiting and retaining toddlers for a six-month study. Toddlers with existing open bite and increased overjet currently using a conventional pacifier were recruited from a university pediatric dental clinic. Baseline information was obtained. Visual examination and intraoral measurements were obtained. The study pacifier was introduced to replace the existing pacifier. Follow-up data was collected at three and six months post-intervention. Eight of the 11 toddlers (73 percent) completed the study. Recruitment was challenging because of the inclusion criteria and transportation; retaining participants required numerous reminders to parents. There was a significant difference between initial and final open bite and overjet measurements. It is feasible to recruit and retain toddlers but it required significant staff interventions. There was a significant improvement in reducing existing open bite and overjet with the pacifier after six months.

  15. Blood groups and human groups: collecting and calibrating genetic data after World War Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangham, Jenny

    2014-09-01

    Arthur Mourant's The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups (1954) was an "indispensable" reference book on the "anthropology of blood groups" containing a vast collection of human genetic data. It was based on the results of blood-grouping tests carried out on half-a-million people and drew together studies on diverse populations around the world: from rural communities, to religious exiles, to volunteer transfusion donors. This paper pieces together sequential stages in the production of a small fraction of the blood-group data in Mourant's book, to examine how he and his colleagues made genetic data from people. Using sources from several collecting projects, I follow how blood was encountered, how it was inscribed, and how it was turned into a laboratory resource. I trace Mourant's analytical and representational strategies to make blood groups both credibly 'genetic' and understood as relevant to human ancestry, race and history. In this story, 'populations' were not simply given, but were produced through public health, colonial and post-colonial institutions, and by the labour and expertise of subjects, assistants and mediators. Genetic data were not self-evidently 'biological', but were shaped by existing historical and geographical identities, by political relationships, and by notions of kinship and belonging.

  16. How not to train your dragon: a case of a Komodo dragon bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borek, Heather A; Charlton, Nathan P

    2015-06-01

    Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) are the world's largest lizards, known for killing prey that exceed their body mass. Reports of bites to humans in the popular press suggest high degrees of morbidity and mortality. Reports in the medical literature are lacking. We describe the case of a zookeeper who was bitten by a Komodo dragon, with a resultant mallet finger. We further discuss the various potential mechanisms of Komodo dragon lethality, including sepsis and venom deposition theories that are useful in guiding management.

  17. A new reference collection of documented human skeletons from Mérida, Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi-Keb, J R; Albertos-González, V M; Ortega-Muñoz, A; Tiesler, V G

    2013-10-01

    This report documents the history and composition of a new reference collection currently composed of 84 identified human skeletons from the modern cemetery of Xoclán in Mérida, Yucatan, Mexico. The skeletal sample is the first of its kind in the Yucatan peninsula, a region with a population short of two million mostly local and non-local Mexican residents and descendants of the ancient Maya. The growing collection is curated at the Facultad de Ciencias Antropológicas (School of Anthropological Sciences) of the Autonomous University of Yucatan. Here we describe recovery procedures, preservation, background information and validation measures of the individuals who make up the collection. Detailed information on the generational pattern, sex, and age distribution, along with socioeconomic context and provenance of the skeletons are provided. The majority of the skeletal series is represented by males and by older individuals of both sexes. Almost all of these individuals come from Mérida's middle and lower socioeconomic sectors and died within the urban city boundaries. Biographic information was collected on each individual at the municipal civil registry and confronted with information of national and municipal censuses (2000 and 2005), to be validated and to be discussed here in terms of the representativeness of the reference series and its potential uses in forensic, anthropological and medical research.

  18. DETECTION OF HUMAN ENTEROVIRUS AND ADENOVIRUS IN SHELLFISH COLLECTED IN MOROCCO MEDITERRANEAN COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Benabbes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the screening for the presence of enteric human virus in shellfish (clam and cockle collected from two production area in Moroccan Mediterranean coast. Between October 2006 and April 2008, forty four samples were collected and tested for viral contamination using cell culture (HEp-2 and Vero cells and integrated cell culture PCR. Overall, 88.6 % of all analysed samples were contaminated by at least one of the studied viruses, Adenovirus was detected in 52.3 % of the samples and Enterovirus in 36.3%. The presence of viruses in shellfish production area can represent a potential health risk by causing gastroenteritis. The procedure used in this study may be a tool for monitoring shellfish viral contamination in Morocco.

  19. Can Human-Like Bots Control Collective Mood: Agent-Based Simulations of Online Chats

    CERN Document Server

    Tadic, Bosiljka

    2013-01-01

    Using agent-based modeling approach, in this paper, we study self-organized dynamics of interacting agents in the presence of chat Bots. Different Bots with tunable ``human-like'' attributes, which exchange emotional messages with agents, are considered, and collective emotional behavior of agents is quantitatively analysed. In particular, using detrended fractal analysis we determine persistent fluctuations and temporal correlations in time series of agent's activity and statistics of avalanches carrying emotional messages of agents when Bots favoring positive/negative affects are active. We determine the impact of Bots and identify parameters that can modulate it. Our analysis suggests that, by these measures, the emotional Bots induce collective emotion among interacting agents by suitably altering the fractal characteristics of the underlying stochastic process.Positive-emotion Bots are slightly more effective than the negative ones. Moreover, the Bots which are periodically alternating between positive a...

  20. [Collective memories of women who have experienced maternal near miss: health needs and human rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Cláudia de Azevedo; Tanaka, Ana Cristina dʼAndretta

    2016-09-19

    The collective memories of women that have experienced maternal near miss can help elucidate serious obstetric events, like maternal death. Their experience is authentic and representative, with the construction of a common identity. This identity lends quality to a group's memory, and such memory is thus a social phenomenon. The study analyzed the experience of twelve women who nearly died during the gestational and postpartum cycle. The thematic oral history method was used, from the perspective of health needs and human rights. Six collective memories comprised the discourses: unmet health needs; healthcare deficiencies; denial of contact with the newborn child; violation of rights; absence of demand for rights; and compensation for unmet rights and needs. To understand these women's health needs is to acknowledge the women as bearers of rights and to individualize care, respecting their autonomy, guaranteeing access to technologies, and establishing an effective bond with health professionals.

  1. Dog-bite induced sepsis : a report of four cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenga, S; Tulleken, JE; Moller, LVM; Jackson, SA; Van der Werf, TS; Zijlstra, JG

    1997-01-01

    Occasionally, a dog-bite is complicated by a systemic overwhelming infection. We report four consecutive patients who were admitted to our intensive care unit because of sepsis syndrome following dog-bites. The history of these patients did not reveal any immunocompromising conditions. Capnocytophag

  2. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... correct dose. For bites that itch , apply an ice pack or an over-the-counter anti-itch cream, such as hydrocortisone. Another option is to take an over-the-counter oral antihistamine. To reduce swelling , apply an ice pack to the bite. If you experience any ...

  3. Primate bites in Gibraltar--minor casualty quirk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A C

    1989-10-01

    In one year 55 patients presented to the casualty department of St Bernard's Hospital, Gibraltar, with a primate bite. The implications of such wounds on the health of these patients is contrasted with the morbidity and mortality associated with primate bites in the African subcontinent.

  4. Bullous reactions to bed bug bites reflect cutaneous vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates bullous cutaneous reactions and sequential histopathology in an individual sensitized to bed bug bites in an effort to better understand the allergic response and histology associated with these bites. There was a progression of the inflammatory response across time ranging from...

  5. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... counter oral antihistamine. To reduce swelling , apply an ice pack to the bite. If you experience any serious symptoms after a bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or a board-certified dermatologist immediately. Make sure you tell the doctor about your recent ...

  6. Proximate determinants of bite force in Anolis lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittorski, Antoine; Losos, Jonathan B; Herrel, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Performance measures associated with the vertebrate jaw system may provide important insights into vertebrate ecology and evolution because of their importance in many ecologically relevant tasks. Previous studies have shown that in many taxa, evolution toward higher bite force has gone hand in hand with the evolution of larger body size. However, independent of differences in overall body size, bite force may vary depending on head size and shape as well. Moreover, the underlying musculature may also drive variation in bite force. Here, we investigate the proximate determinants of bite force in lizards of the genus Anolis. We dissected the jaw muscles and quantified muscle mass, fibre length, and cross-sectional area. Data were analysed for both sexes independently given the sexual dimorphism detected in the dataset. Our results show that the traits that explain bite force are similar in both males and females with overall body size and muscle mass being the principal determinants. Among the different muscles examined, the adductor externus and the pseudotemporalis groups were the best determinants of bite force. However, models run for males predicted the variation in bite force better than models for females, suggesting that selection on morphology improving bite force may be stronger in males. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  7. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... correct dose. For bites that itch , apply an ice pack or an over-the-counter anti-itch cream, such as hydrocortisone. Another option is to take an over-the-counter oral antihistamine. To reduce swelling , apply an ice pack to the bite. If you experience any ...

  8. Bite angle effects of diphosphines in carbonylation reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.N.M. van Leeuwen; Z. Freixa

    2008-01-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: * Introduction * Rhodium-Catalyzed Hydroformylation o Introduction o Steric Bite Angle Effect and Regioselectivity o Electronic Bite Angle Effect and Activity o Isotope Effects [24] * Platinum-Catalyzed Alkene Hydroformylation * Palladium-Catalyzed CO/Ethene Co

  9. Online integrated solution to collect data, generate information and manage events in the human biomonitoring field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, M Fátima; Tedim, João; Aguiar, Pedro; Miguel, J Pereira; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Joas, Reinhard; Van Tongelen, Birgit

    2007-05-01

    In the ambit of Work Package 1 of the ESBIO Project, an online integrated solution to collect data, to generate information, and to manage mainly information-sharing events related with human biomonitoring within Europe has been designed and is being implemented. The present paper summarises the methodological approaches used by the authors as proposers, general promoters and disseminators of this strategic concept, as well as the first outcomes and future actions to be taken, in the short and longer term, to face present and future challenges to make this innovative solution happen.

  10. Sympatric distribution of three human Taenia tapeworms collected between 1935 and 2005 in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Rim, Han-Jong; Eom, Keeseon S

    2008-12-01

    Taeniasis has been known as one of the prevalent parasitic infections in Korea. Until recently, Taenia saginata had long been considered a dominant, and widely distributed species but epidemiological profiles of human Taenia species in Korea still remain unclear. In order to better understand distribution patterns of human Taenia tapeworms in Korea, partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cox1 and ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) were determined, along with morphological examinations, on 68 Taenia specimens obtained from university museum collections deposited since 1935. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-preserved specimens. Phylogenetic relationships among the genotypes (cox1 haplotype) detected in this study were inferred using the neighbor-joining method as a tree building method. Morphological and genetic analyses identified 3 specimens as T. solium, 51 specimens as T. asiatica, and 14 specimens as T. saginata. Our results indicate that all 3 Taenia tapeworms are sympatrically distributed in Korea with T. asiatica dominating over T. saginata and T. solium.

  11. Carbon dioxide baited trap catches do not correlate with human landing collections of Anopheles aquasalis in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwat, Hélène; Andriessen, Rob; Rijk, Marjolein de; Koenraadt, Constantianus Johanna Maria; Takken, Willem

    2011-05-01

    Three types of carbon dioxide-baited traps, i.e., the Centers for Disease Control Miniature Light Trap without light, the BioGents (BG) Sentinel Mosquito Trap (BG-Sentinel) and the Mosquito Magnet® Liberty Plus were compared with human landing collections in their efficiency in collecting Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) aquasalis mosquitoes. Of 13,549 total mosquitoes collected, 1,019 (7.52%) were An. aquasalis. Large numbers of Culex spp were also collected, in particular with the (BG-Sentinel). The majority of An. aquasalis (83.8%) were collected by the human landing collection (HLC). None of the trap catches correlated with HLC in the number of An. aquasalis captured over time. The high efficiency of the HLC method indicates that this malaria vector was anthropophilic at this site, especially as carbon dioxide was insufficiently attractive as stand-alone bait. Traps using carbon dioxide in combination with human odorants may provide better results.

  12. Animal bite incidence in the County of Shush, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Ali Kassiri; Masoud Lotfi; Babak Shahkarami; Seyed-Sahar Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the epidemiology of animal bites during a five-year period(2004-2008) inShushCounty,Khuzestan province, southwesternIran.Methods:In a descriptive cross sectional study, all cases of animal bites referred to the health centers inShushCounty were investigated during2004-2008.The necessary data were recorded on the special questionnaire that contains questions about bite animal, age, sex, occupation, treatment, the bite site on the body and so forth.Results:Out of a total of2283 cases that underwent the animal bites during the mentioned five years,1771 people(77.6%) were male and511(22.4%) were female .Most cases were related to age groups10-20(33.4%) and20-30(22%) years.The average incidence rate of animal bite during these years was determined as2.82 cases per1000 people.The highest incidence rate was related to the year2007 with3 cases per1000 people.Animal bites in the winter(29.3%) and fall(29%) were more common.Almost86.5% and13.5% of the cases occurred in rural areas and urban areas, respectively.Nearly30% and20.4% of cases were students and farmers, respectively.A total of2155(94.4%) and86(3.8%) bites occurred by the dog and cat, respectively.The greatest bite place on the body was in the feet(81.4%) and in the hands(13%(. During the study period,2162 cases(94.7%) were treated with an incomplete regimen, and120 cases(5.3%) were treated with a complete regimen.Conclusions:Because the cost of prevention after biting for the health system is high, so, preventive programs must be concentrated on public health instruction, particularly in villagers, students, farmers and the owners of the domestic animals.

  13. A survey of adult anophelines in French Guiana: enhanced descriptions of species distribution and biting responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusfour, Isabelle; Carinci, Romuald; Issaly, Jean; Gaborit, Pascal; Girod, Romain

    2013-12-01

    In French Guiana, Anopheles darlingi is considered the main malaria vector. However, several reports have hypothesized the implication of other anopheline species in malaria transmission for the territory. Data on the ecology of these other potential vectors is rare or even unexplored in French Guiana. The aim of this study was to describe the biting habits of several anopheline species in multiple localities in French Guiana. Six sampling sites yielded 1,083 anopheline adults. Results indicated the presence of An. darlingi in all study locations and it was the only species to be collected inside villages. Other anophelines collected included An. aquasalis, An. braziliensis, An. intermedius, An. mediopunctatus, An. nuneztovari, An. oswaldoi, and An. triannulatus, all of which were associated with open areas and forests. The environment and time, at which biting behavior was recorded, varied for each species. It was noted that An. oswaldoi showed a daytime rhythm in open areas. This study is the first to report on the biting habits of a range of anophelines in French Guiana that may play a role in malaria transmission. This information is vital to fully describe the risk of malaria transmission and thereby design appropriate vector control measures and malaria prevention programs.

  14. Dog ecology, dog bites and rabies vaccination rates in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.J. Atuman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of dog ecology, dog bites and rabies vaccination rates was carried out in Bauchi the capital city of Bauchi State, Nigeria using direct street counts and questionnaire survey administered on 10% of the city streets selected by stratified random sampling. The questionnaire was designed to obtain data in order to determine the dog to human population ratio, dog management and care, cases of dog bites, consequences of the bites and frequencies of rabies outbreak. The estimated dog population of street counts and compound counts were 5310 and 7670, respectively. The overall human to dog ratio of 4.1:1 was established. The mean number of individuals per dog owning compound was 9.6 ± 0.498 (SEM and the mean number of dogs owned per dog owning compound was 2.3 ± 0.108 (SEM. Majority of the dogs owned were local breeds (62.8% aged between 1 and 5 years old and managed under partial or no confinement. The dogs were mostly used for security (69.5% purposes. Dog owners reported low vaccination coverage (26.4%, level considered not sufficient to prevent rabies transmission. About 12.4% of dog bite victims died and majority of which (71.43% manifested nervous signs before death. Domestic dogs have been shown to be tolerated and kept in Bauchi but poorly managed in terms of feeding, confinement and vaccination thereby constituting a continuous risk to domestic animals and humans.

  15. Histopathological study of the mite biting (Dermanyssus gallinae in poultry skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Hobbenaghi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The red mite of poultry, Dremanyssus gallinae, is the most important hematophagous ectoparasite of poultry. In this study, pathologic changes of its biting on the poultry skin have been investigated. Thirty-two (Control = 16 and Treatment = 16 four weeks old Ross broilers (308 were infested with the mite on skin of hock joins. Samples were collected after 1, 24, 72 hours and 10 days. The skin samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and histological sections were prepared using routine Hematoxylin & Eosin staining method. Results showed that in all cases, except within first hour of infestation, lymphocytic infiltration was always a constant pathologic feature. Necrosis of feather's follicles was a prominent pathologic feature ensued due to vascular disturbances and resulted in loss of feather. Hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis and acanthosis were observed after 72 hours. These findings reveal that mite biting induces local epidermal hyperplasia.

  16. Histopathological study of the mite biting (Dermanyssus gallinae) in poultry skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Tavassoli, Mousa; Alimehr, Manochehr; Shokrpoor, Sara; Ghorbanzadeghan, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The red mite of poultry, Dremanyssus gallinae, is the most important hematophagous ectoparasite of poultry. In this study, pathologic changes of its biting on the poultry skin have been investigated. Thirty-two (Control = 16 and Treatment = 16) four weeks old Ross broilers (308) were infested with the mite on skin of hock joins. Samples were collected after 1, 24, 72 hours and 10 days. The skin samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and histological sections were prepared using routine Hematoxylin & Eosin staining method. Results showed that in all cases, except within first hour of infestation, lymphocytic infiltration was always a constant pathologic feature. Necrosis of feather's follicles was a prominent pathologic feature ensued due to vascular disturbances and resulted in loss of feather. Hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis and acanthosis were observed after 72 hours. These findings reveal that mite biting induces local epidermal hyperplasia.

  17. Aspectos epidemiológicos de las mordeduras caninas Epidemiological aspects of dog bites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Palacio

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Las mordeduras de animales a personas suponen un importante problema de salud pública. Dentro de éstas, las más frecuentes son las producidas por perros. Un primer paso necesario en la prevención de este tipo de accidentes es conocer los factores de riesgo implicados. El presente trabajo revisa la bibliografía más relevante en cuanto a la incidencia, los factores de riesgo y la prevención de las mordeduras de perros en personas. Así, según las características de las víctimas, se revisan determinados aspectos, como la edad, el sexo, la localización y la gravedad de las lesiones. En relación con los perros agresores, se describen las razas implicadas y el historial previo del animal. Igualmente, se describen los contextos en que se producen las mordeduras, en relación con la fecha, el número de perros, los lugares más frecuentes, la relación e interacción víctima-perro y la participación de las distintas categorías de agresividad del etograma canino. En el último apartado se recogen las recomendaciones más habituales halladas en la bibliografía para prevenir y reducir la incidencia de mordeduras sobre la población general.Animal bites in humans are an important public health problem. Most of these bites are dog bites. The first step in preventing this kind of accident is to identify the associated risk factors. The present article reviews the most important published articles on the incidence of dog bites, their risk factors, and preventive measures. Concerning victim profiles, features such as age, sex, location, and the severity of the wounds are reviewed. Regarding dogs, the most frequent breeds involved and the dog's previous history of aggression are described. In addition, the different contexts in which bites occur are reported. Thus, factors such as dates, number of dogs, places, victim-dog relationship and interaction, and the distinct involved categories of aggression of the canine ethogram are reviewed. The most

  18. The degrees of freedom problem in human standing posture: collective and component dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Wang

    Full Text Available The experiment was setup to investigate the coordination and control of the degrees of freedom (DFs of human standing posture with particular reference to the identification of the collective and component variables. Subjects stood in 3 postural tasks: feet side by side, single left foot quiet stance and single left foot stance with body rocking at the ankle joint in the sagittal plane. All three postural tasks showed very high coherence (∼ 1 of center of pressure (COP--center of mass (COM in the low frequency range. The ankle and hip coherence was mid range (∼.5 with the tasks having different ankle/hip compensatory cophase patterns. The findings support the view that the in-phase relation of the low frequency components of the COP-COM dynamic is the collective variable in the postural tasks investigated. The motions of the individual joints (ankle, knee, hip, neck and couplings of pair wise joint synergies (e.g., ankle-hip provide a supporting cooperative role to the preservation of the collective variable in maintaining the COM within the stability region of the base of support (BOS and minimizing the amount of body motion consistent with the task constraint.

  19. Fecal collection, ambient preservation, and DNA extraction for PCR amplification of bacterial and human markers from human feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechvatal, Jordan M; Ram, Jeffrey L; Basson, Marc D; Namprachan, Phanramphoei; Niec, Stephanie R; Badsha, Kawsar Z; Matherly, Larry H; Majumdar, Adhip P N; Kato, Ikuko

    2008-02-01

    Feces contain intestinal bacteria and exfoliated epithelial cells that may provide useful information concerning gastrointestinal tract health. Intestinal bacteria that synthesize or metabolize potential carcinogens and produce anti-tumorigenic products may have relevance to colorectal cancer, the second most common cause of cancer deaths in the USA. To facilitate epidemiological studies relating bacterial and epithelial cell DNA and RNA markers, preservative/extraction methods suitable for self-collection and shipping of fecal samples at room temperature were tested. Purification and PCR amplification of fecal DNA were compared after preservation of stool samples in RNAlater (R) or Paxgene (P), or after drying over silica gel (S) or on Whatman FTA cards (W). Comparisons were made to samples frozen in liquid nitrogen (N2). DNA purification methods included Whatman (accompanying FTA cards), Mo-Bio Fecal (MB), Qiagen Stool (QS), and others. Extraction methods were compared for amount of DNA extracted, DNA amplifiable in a real-time SYBR-Green quantitative PCR format, and the presence of PCR inhibitors. DNA can be extracted after room temperature storage for five days from W, R, S and P, and from N2 frozen samples. High amounts of total DNA and PCR-amplifiable Bacteroides spp. DNA (34%+/-9% of total DNA) with relatively little PCR inhibition were especially obtained with QS extraction applied to R preserved samples (method QS-R). DNA for human reduced folate carrier (SLC19A1) genomic sequence was also detected in 90% of the QS-R extracts. Thus, fecal DNA is well preserved by methods suitable for self-collection that may be useful in future molecular epidemiological studies of intestinal bacteria and human cancer markers.

  20. Inconsistency in opinions of forensic odontologists when considering bite mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Brown, Nathan Lee

    2016-09-01

    There has been controversy surrounding the principles of bite mark analysis, and also the opinions reached by forensic odontologists. The purpose of this study was to assess the consistency of opinions formed by forensic odontologists, both for individual odontologists after a period of time, and between odontologists. 23 forensic odontologists participated, and opinions on 4 cases per member were requested. The request was then repeated after a 8 week period. Results highlighted an inconsistency in opinions between odontologists, and also an inconsistency in opinion for individual members over time, even for experienced odontologists. Inconsistencies varied from whether the mark could be from human or animal, and also from adult or child. In conclusion, the authors recommend that bite mark evidence should be treated with caution.

  1. Human Development IX: a model of the wholeness of man, his consciousness, and collective consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Hermansen, Tyge Dahl; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Rald, Erik; Nielsen, Maj Lyck; Merrick, Joav

    2006-11-14

    In this paper we look at the rational and the emotional interpretation of reality in the human brain and being, and discuss the representation of the brain-mind (ego), the body-mind (Id), and the outer world in the human wholeness (the I or "soul"). Based on this we discuss a number of factors including the coherence between perception, attention and consciousness, and the relation between thought, fantasies, visions and dreams. We discuss and explain concepts as intent, will, morals and ethics. The Jungian concept of the human collective conscious and unconscious is also analyzed. We also hypothesis on the nature of intuition and consider the source of religious experience of man. These phenomena are explained based on the concept of deep quantum chemistry and infinite dancing fractal spirals making up the energetic backbone of the world. In this paper we consider man as a real wholeness and debate the concepts of subjectivity, consciousness and intent that can be deduced from such a perspective.

  2. Human Development IX: A Model of the Wholeness of Man, His Consciousness, and Collective Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we look at the rational and the emotional interpretation of reality in the human brain and being, and discuss the representation of the brain-mind (ego, the body-mind (Id, and the outer world in the human wholeness (the I or “soul”. Based on this we discuss a number of factors including the coherence between perception, attention and consciousness, and the relation between thought, fantasies, visions and dreams. We discuss and explain concepts as intent, will, morals and ethics. The Jungian concept of the human collective conscious and unconscious is also analyzed. We also hypothesis on the nature of intuition and consider the source of religious experience of man. These phenomena are explained based on the concept of deep quantum chemistry and infinite dancing fractal spirals making up the energetic backbone of the world. In this paper we consider man as a real wholeness and debate the concepts of subjectivity, consciousness and intent that can be deduced from such a perspective.

  3. A study on the levels of a polybrominated biphenyl in Chinese human milk samples collected in 2007 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Wen, Sheng; Li, Jingguang; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-09-01

    The levels of a 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) were measured in human milk samples collected in 2007 and 2011 from residents in China by high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass chromatography (HRGC-HRMS) with isotope dilution. The median concentrations of BB-153 from the samples collected in 2007 and 2011 were 8.3 and 7.2 pg/g lipid weight, respectively. The levels of BB-153 in the human milk collected from rural areas were not significantly different to those collected from the urban areas in China. Meanwhile, significant positive correlations were found between the levels of BB-153 in human milk and the consumption of animal-origin foods. In the present study, the mean levels of BB-153 in human milk from Chinese mothers were found to be lower than those from European and American mothers.

  4. Seasonal and diurnal biting activities and zoonotic filarial infections of two Simulium species (Diptera: Simuliidae in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Y.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal and daily biting activity patterns, and natural filarial infections of adult black flies attracted to human bait were investigated at Ban Pang Faen, a rural area in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand. Collections were carried out twice a month from 06-00 to 18-00 hours from January 2005 to February 2006. Among ten Simulium species collected, S. nodosum and S. asakoae were predominant occupying 57.3% and 37.2% of the total 16, 553 females, respectively. These two predominant species showed different patterns in seasonal abundance: majority of S. nodosum (86.7% were collected in hot season (from mid February to mid May, while most of S. asakoae (74.5% were collected in rainy season (from mid May to mid October. For the daily biting activity, S. nodosum had two patterns: the main one was unimodal with a peak from 17-00 to 18-00, and the other was bimodal and had the major peak from 16-00 to 18-00 and the minor one from 07-00 to 09-00. The pattern of S. asakoae was mostly unimodal with a peak from 06-00 to 10-00. The filarial larvae found in S. nodosum and S. asakoae were morphologically different from each other. The short and thick infective larvae found in S. asakoae differed from all known filarial larvae; it is suggested that they might be a bird parasite, Splendidofilariinae or Lemdaninae. The infection of the mammophilic S. nodosum with large Onchocerca type infective larvae was confirmed in this area. Natural filarial infections were found in each month (except December in either S. nodosum or S. asakoae or in both. Monthly infection rates with all stages of larvae were 0.6-5.0% for S. nodosum, and 1.0-4.0% for S. asakoae. It is suggested that people in this village are exposed to the risk of infection with zoonotic filariae throughout the year.

  5. Another one bites the dust: bite force and ecology in three caviomorph rodents (Rodentia, Hystricognathi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Federico; Echeverría, Alejandra Isabel; Casinos, Adrià; Vassallo, Aldo Iván

    2014-04-01

    Mammals have developed sophisticated strategies adapting to particular locomotor modes, feeding habits, and social interactions. Many rodent species have acquired a fossorial, semi-fossorial, or even subterranean life-style, converging on morphological, anatomical, and ecological features but diverging in the final arrangement. These ecological variations partially depend on the functional morphology of their digging tools. Muscular and mechanical features (e.g., lever arms relationship) of the bite force were analyzed in three caviomorph rodents with similar body size but different habits and ecological demands of the jaws. In vivo forces were measured at incisors' tip using a strain gauge load cell force transducer whereas theoretical maximal performance values, mechanical advantages, and particular contribution of each adductor muscle were estimated from dissections in specimens of Ctenomys australis (subterranean, solitary), Octodon degus (semi-fossorial, social), and Chinchilla laniger (ground-dweller, colonial). Our results showed that C. australis bites stronger than expected given its small size and C. laniger exhibited the opposite outcome, while O. degus is close to the expected value based on mammalian bite force versus body mass regressions; what might be associated to the chisel-tooth digging behavior and social interactions. Our key finding was that no matter how diverse these rodents' skulls were, no difference was found in the mechanical advantage of the main adductor muscles. Therefore, interspecific differences in the bite force might be primarily due to differences in the muscular development and force, as shown for the subterranean, solitary and territorial C. australis versus the more gracile, ground-dweller, and colonial C. laniger.

  6. Animal Bites in Borujerd: An Overview of Animal Bites in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabouri Ghannad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Rabies has been reported as the most important endemic zoonotic disease in Iran and still remains as a major public health problem. Objectives The main objective of the current research was to study the epidemiology of animal bites in Borujerd County in Iran and to compare its prevalence to other parts of Iran from April 2006 to September 2011. Patients and Methods The data were recorded in questionnaires and analyzed by SPSS version 16. Chi-square test was performed to evaluate the relationship among variables and P value was set as 0.05. Results Dog bites were the most common (69.8%, followed by cat (17.2%, fox and wolf (1.4%, sheep and cow (2.8%, monkey and donkey (5%, mouse and squirrel (2.2% and other animals (1.6%. Leg was the most common bite site forming 46.6% of cases, followed by hands (41.8%, buttocks (4.6%, head (4% and body (2.9%. Most of the subjects belonged to the age group < 10 (175.2 per 100000 populations. The injury location was associated significantly with sex and the residential status. Conclusions This study strongly highlights a high priority goal for health authorities to develop educational programs, recommended for the general population to inform them about the benefits of continuing the medication. Vaccination of domestic dogs and also eradication of stray ones, in addition to educational programs should be prioritized by health authorities.

  7. Afibrinogenemia following snake bite (Crotalus durissus terrificus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. S. Amaral

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports two cases of afibrinogenemia with normal platelet count following Crotalus durissus terrificus, snake bite Both patients presented high output acute renal failure and case two also had increased blood levels of CPK and LDH compatible with the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. Case one was given an unknown amount of antivenom and was treated with epsilonaminocaproic acid and a fresh whole blood transfusion and showed recovery of the coagulation disturbance 40 hours following these measures. Case two was given an adequate amount of crotalide antivenom and the coagulation tests performed 12 hours later showed a normal partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen 86 mg/100ml. Case one presented no haemorrhagic disturbances. Case two presented persistent bleeding following venopuncture and after removal of impetigo crust in the legs. Acute renal failure was treated conservatively and both patients were discharged from the hospital with recovery of the renal function.

  8. Slow Death by Many Mosquito Bites

    CERN Document Server

    Redner, S

    2014-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a single diffusing particle (a "man") with diffusivity $D_M$ that is attacked by another diffusing particle (a "mosquito") with fixed diffusivity $D_m$. Each time the mosquito meets and bites the man, the diffusivity of the man is reduced by a fixed amount, while the diffusivity of the mosquito is unchanged. The mosquito is also displaced by a small distance $\\pm a$ with respect to the man after each encounter. The man is defined as dead when $D_M$ reaches zero. At the moment when the man dies, his probability distribution of displacements $x$ is given by a Cauchy form, which asymptotically decays as $x^{-2}$, while the distribution of times $t$ when the man dies asymptotically decays as $t^{-3/2}$, which has the same form as the one-dimensional first-passage probability.

  9. Traumatic Amputation of Finger From an Alligator Snapping Turtle Bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert D; Nielsen, Cynthia L

    2016-06-01

    Legend states that the alligator snapping turtle (Macrochelys temminckii) should be handled with extreme caution as it has jaw strength powerful enough to bite a wooden broomstick in half. Tales of bite injuries from what is the largest freshwater turtle in North America exist anecdotally, yet there are few descriptions of medical encounters for such. The risk of infection from reptilian bites to the hand in an aquatic environment warrants thorough antibiotic treatment in conjunction with hand surgery consultation. We present the first case report of a near total amputation of an index finger in an adolescent boy who had been bitten by a wild "gator snapper."

  10. Accidental hypothermia and frost-bite in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, P G

    1987-02-02

    Two members of an Australian Antarctic expedition suffered hypothermia and frost-bite when they were stranded onshore after their small boat was swamped. Their efforts at field survival until recovery, six hours later, are described. At rescue one patient was found to have frost-bite and a core temperature of 30 degrees C. He was treated successfully by rapid rewarming in a hot bath. The other victim was considerably less hypothermic and suffered only mild frost-bite. Contrary to expectations the tall thin patient fared much better than the short heavier one. Possible explanations for this difference are discussed.

  11. Brown recluse spider bite to the upper lip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Ryan K; Conner, Kelly B; Tan, Poliana C; Hopkins, Robert H

    2012-03-01

    Brown recluse spiders are predominantly found in south central United States. Their bites usually cause mild self-limiting reactions, although localized tissue necrosis and rare systemic, potentially fatal, envenomations are known to occur. Herein, we report an atypical presentation of a brown recluse bite in a 20 year old female who was admitted to the intensive care unit due to angioedema and cellulitis. We photographically document the bite site for twenty-four hours following envenomation. She received glucocorticoids, antihistamines, antibiotics and dapsone while hospitalized and was subsequently discharged with complete resolution of symptoms without the development of tissue necrosis or scarring.

  12. Empirical analysis of collective human behavior for extraordinary events in blogosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Sano, Yukie; Watanabe, Hayafumi; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2011-01-01

    To explain collective human behavior in blogosphere, we survey more than 1.8 billion entries and observe statistical properties of word appearance. We first estimate the basic properties of number fluctuation of ordinary words that appear almost uniformly. Then, we focus on those words that show dynamic growth with a tendency to diverge on a certain day, and also news words, that are typical keywords for natural disasters, grow suddenly with the occurrence of events and decay gradually with time. In both cases, the functional forms of growth and decay are generally approximated by power laws with exponents around -1 for a period of about 80 days. Our empirical analysis can be applied for the prediction of word frequency in blogosphere.

  13. Applying Multiple Data Collection Tools to Quantify Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Communication on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Philip M; Leader, Amy; Yom-Tov, Elad; Budenz, Alexandra; Fisher, Kara; Klassen, Ann C

    2016-12-05

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. There are several vaccines that protect against strains of HPV most associated with cervical and other cancers. Thus, HPV vaccination has become an important component of adolescent preventive health care. As media evolves, more information about HPV vaccination is shifting to social media platforms such as Twitter. Health information consumed on social media may be especially influential for segments of society such as younger populations, as well as ethnic and racial minorities. The objectives of our study were to quantify HPV vaccine communication on Twitter, and to develop a novel methodology to improve the collection and analysis of Twitter data. We collected Twitter data using 10 keywords related to HPV vaccination from August 1, 2014 to July 31, 2015. Prospective data collection used the Twitter Search API and retrospective data collection used Twitter Firehose. Using a codebook to characterize tweet sentiment and content, we coded a subsample of tweets by hand to develop classification models to code the entire sample using machine learning procedures. We also documented the words in the 140-character tweet text most associated with each keyword. We used chi-square tests, analysis of variance, and nonparametric equality of medians to test for significant differences in tweet characteristic by sentiment. A total of 193,379 English-language tweets were collected, classified, and analyzed. Associated words varied with each keyword, with more positive and preventive words associated with "HPV vaccine" and more negative words associated with name-brand vaccines. Positive sentiment was the largest type of sentiment in the sample, with 75,393 positive tweets (38.99% of the sample), followed by negative sentiment with 48,940 tweets (25.31% of the sample). Positive and neutral tweets constituted the largest percentage of tweets mentioning prevention or protection (20

  14. Risk factors for stereotypic behavior and self-biting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): animal's history, current environment, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; Capitanio, John P; McCowan, Brenda

    2013-10-01

    Captive rhesus macaques sometimes exhibit undesirable abnormal behaviors, such as motor stereotypic behavior (MSB) and self-abuse. Many risk factors for these behaviors have been identified but the list is far from comprehensive, and large individual differences in rate of behavior expression remain. The goal of the current study was to determine which experiences predict expression of MSB and self-biting, and if individual differences in personality can account for additional variation in MSB expression. A risk factor analysis was performed utilizing data from over 4,000 rhesus monkeys at the California National Primate Research Center. Data were analyzed using model selection, with the best fitting models evaluated using Akaike Information Criterion. Results confirmed previous research that males exhibit more MSB and self-biting than females, MSB decreases with age, and indoor reared animals exhibit more MSB and self-biting than outdoor reared animals. Additionally, results indicated that animals exhibited less MSB and self-biting for each year spent outdoors; frequency of room moves and number of projects positively predicted MSB; pair separations positively predicted MSB and self-biting; pair housed animals expressed less MSB than single housed and grate paired animals; and that animals expressed more MSB and self-biting when in bottom rack cages, or cages near the room entrance. Based on these results we recommend limiting exposure to these risk factors when possible. Our results also demonstrated a relationship between personality and MSB expression, with animals low on gentle temperament, active in response to a human intruder, and high on novel object contact expressing more MSB. From these results we propose that an animal's MSB is related to its predisposition for an active personality, with active animals expressing higher rates of MSB.

  15. Culicoides biting midges, arboviruses and public health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Simon; Groschup, Martin H; Garros, Claire; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Purse, Bethan V

    2013-10-01

    The emergence of multiple strains of bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recent discovery of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in Europe have highlighted the fact that exotic Culicoides-borne arboviruses from remote geographic areas can enter and spread rapidly in this region. This review considers the potential for this phenomenon to impact on human health in Europe, by examining evidence of the role of Culicoides biting midges in the zoonotic transmission and person-to-person spread of arboviruses worldwide. To date, the only arbovirus identified as being primarily transmitted by Culicoides to and between humans is Oropouche virus (OROV). This member of the genus Orthobunyavirus causes major epidemics of febrile illness in human populations of South and Central America and the Caribbean. We examine factors promoting sustained outbreaks of OROV in Brazil from an entomological perspective and assess aspects of the epidemiology of this arbovirus that are currently poorly understood, but may influence the risk of incursion into Europe. We then review the secondary and rarely reported role of Culicoides in the transmission of high-profile zoonotic infections, while critically reviewing evidence of this phenomenon in endemic transmission and place this in context with the presence of other potential vector groups in Europe. Scenarios for the incursions of Culicoides-borne human-to-human transmitted and zoonotic arboviruses are then discussed, along with control measures that could be employed to reduce their impact. These measures are placed in the context of legislative measures used during current and ongoing outbreaks of Culicoides-borne arboviruses in Europe, involving both veterinary and public health sectors.

  16. 75 FR 52351 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Resource for the Collection and Evaluation of Human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-21098] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Resource for the Collection and Evaluation of Human Tissues and... Institutes of Health (NIH), has submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review...

  17. Can human-like Bots control collective mood: agent-based simulations of online chats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Bosiljka; Šuvakov, Milovan

    2013-10-01

    Using an agent-based modeling approach, in this paper, we study self-organized dynamics of interacting agents in the presence of chat Bots. Different Bots with tunable ‘human-like’ attributes, which exchange emotional messages with agents, are considered, and the collective emotional behavior of agents is quantitatively analyzed. In particular, using detrended fractal analysis we determine persistent fluctuations and temporal correlations in time series of agent activity and statistics of avalanches carrying emotional messages of agents when Bots favoring positive/negative affects are active. We determine the impact of Bots and identify parameters that can modulate that impact. Our analysis suggests that, by these measures, the emotional Bots induce collective emotion among interacting agents by suitably altering the fractal characteristics of the underlying stochastic process. Positive emotion Bots are slightly more effective than negative emotion Bots. Moreover, Bots which periodically alternate between positive and negative emotion can enhance fluctuations in the system, leading to avalanches of agent messages that are reminiscent of self-organized critical states.

  18. Influence of nail biting and finger sucking habits on the oral carriage of Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoz G Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral habits like thumb sucking and nail biting are pernicious habits that act as an adaptive function in obtaining pleasure and subduing anxiety. These habits may also act as carriers of numerous microorganisms into the oral cavity, of which, Enterobacteriaceae members are transient pathogens, which might result in debilitating systemic conditions. Aim: To study the oral carriage of Enterobacteriaceae in children having habit of nail biting and thumb sucking. And to study the association of the organism with the individual′s respective plaque indices. Subjects and Methods: Totally, 40 chronic nail biters, 40 chronic thumb suckers, and 20 controls (no habit (8-15 years old were enrolled in the study. Appropriate history and their plaque indices recorded. Sterile containers were used to collect the salivary samples and later cultured on Agar plates. Biochemical tests categorized the organisms into subspecies. Statistical Analysis Used: ANNOVA, Student′s t-test. Results: Presence of a nail biting habit indicated a higher plaque index, which in turn showed a higher carriage of Enterobacteria spps, predominantly Escherichia coli. Conclusions: Oral surgical intervention in individuals with pernicious oral habits need to be counseled and educated on the possible complications, which might otherwise provide an environment that disseminates these microorganisms resulting in a broad range of local and systemic infections.

  19. An investigation into the concurrent collection of human scent and epithelial skin cells using a non-contact sampling device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Norma Iris; Mendel, Julian; Holness, Howard; La Salvia, Joel; Moroose, Tina; Eckenrode, Brian; Stockham, Rex; Furton, Kenneth; Mills, DeEtta

    2016-09-01

    In criminal investigations, the collection of human scent often employs a non-contact, dynamic airflow device, known as the Scent Transfer Unit 100 (STU-100), to transfer volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from an object/person onto a collection material that is subsequently presented to human scent discriminating canines. Human scent is theorized to be linked to epithelial skin cells that are shed at a relatively constant rate allowing both scent and cellular material to be deposited into the environment and/or onto objects. Simultaneous collection of cellular material, with adequate levels of nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (nDNA), and human scent using a non-invasive methodology would facilitate criminal investigations. This study evaluated the STU-100 for the concurrent collection of human scent and epithelial skin cells from a porous (paper) and non-porous (stainless steel bar) object that was held for a specified period of time in the dominant hand of twenty subjects (10 females and 10 males). Human scent analysis was performed using headspace static solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS). A polycarbonate filter was used to trap epithelial skin cells which, upon extraction, were subsequently analyzed, inter-laboratory, using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The STU-100 proved to be inadequate for collecting the minimum number of epithelial skin cells required to obtain nuclear DNA concentrations above the limit of detection for the qPCR kit. With regard to its use for human scent collection, a reduction in the number and mass of compounds was observed when compared to samples that were directly collected. However, when the indirect collection of human scent from the two different objects was compared, a greater number and mass of compounds was observed from the non-porous object than from the porous object. This outcome suggests that the matrix composition of the scent source could affect the

  20. Quantitative forensic evaluation of bite marks with the aid of a shape analysis computer program: Part 1; The development of "SCIP" and the similarity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, P; Bridges, T E; Brown, K A

    1995-12-01

    Bite marks left on human tissue and bitten material have become an important aspect of scientific evidence used for the conviction or acquittal of a suspect. Expert opinion has often been based on subjective comparisons rather than any objective metrical analysis and many experts will agree that there is a need to employ additional comparative tests to achieve unbiased objectivity in their investigation. In this study, an interactive shape analysis computer program ("SCIP"-Shape Comparison Interactive Program) has been employed in an attempt to derive experimentally a quantitative comparison, in the form of a Similarity Index (S.I.), between the "offender's" teeth and the bite marks produced on a standard flat wax form. The S.I. values obtained using "SCIP" were evaluated in a variety of experimental bite mark situations. It was found that in no case could the S.I. values produced by comparison of the bite mark with the dental casts from non-perpetrators be confused with the much lower S.I. from comparison of the bite mark with the dental cast of the perpetrator. The use of the Similarity Index derived using the "SCIP" program is recommended as a simple, accurate and objective means of comparing bite marks in suitable forensic cases.

  1. Collective behavior quantification on human odor effects against female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes-Open source development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Abdul Halim; Moghavvemi, Mahmoud; Leong, Cherng Shii; Lau, Yee Ling; Safdari Ghandari, Alireza; Apau, Alexlee; Mahamd Adikan, Faisal Rafiq

    2017-01-01

    Classifying and quantifying mosquito activity includes a plethora of categories, ranging from measuring flight speeds, repellency, feeding rates, and specific behaviors such as home entry, swooping and resting, among others. Entomologists have been progressing more toward using machine vision for efficiency for this endeavor. Digital methods have been used to study the behavior of insects in labs, for instance via three-dimensional tracking with specialized cameras to observe the reaction of mosquitoes towards human odor, heat and CO2, although virtually none was reported for several important fields, such as repellency studies which have a significant need for a proper response quantification. However, tracking mosquitoes individually is a challenge and only limited number of specimens can be studied. Although tracking large numbers of individual insects is hailed as one of the characteristics of an ideal automated image-based tracking system especially in 3D, it also is a costly method, often requiring specialized hardware and limited access to the algorithms used for mapping the specimens. The method proposed contributes towards (a) unlimited open source use, (b) a low-cost setup, (c) complete guide for any entomologist to adapt in terms of hardware and software, (d) simple to use, and (e) a lightweight data output for collective behavior analysis of mosquitoes. The setup is demonstrated by testing a simple response of mosquitoes in the presence of human odor versus control, one session with continuous human presence as a stimuli and the other with periodic presence. A group of female Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) mosquitoes are released into a white-background chamber with a transparent acrylic panel on one side. The video feed of the mosquitoes are processed using filtered contours in a threshold-adjustable video. The mosquitoes in the chamber are mapped on the raster where the coordinates of each mosquito are recorded with the corresponding timestamp. The average

  2. Collective behavior quantification on human odor effects against female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes—Open source development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Cherng Shii; Lau, Yee Ling; Safdari Ghandari, Alireza; Apau, Alexlee; Mahamd Adikan, Faisal Rafiq

    2017-01-01

    Classifying and quantifying mosquito activity includes a plethora of categories, ranging from measuring flight speeds, repellency, feeding rates, and specific behaviors such as home entry, swooping and resting, among others. Entomologists have been progressing more toward using machine vision for efficiency for this endeavor. Digital methods have been used to study the behavior of insects in labs, for instance via three-dimensional tracking with specialized cameras to observe the reaction of mosquitoes towards human odor, heat and CO2, although virtually none was reported for several important fields, such as repellency studies which have a significant need for a proper response quantification. However, tracking mosquitoes individually is a challenge and only limited number of specimens can be studied. Although tracking large numbers of individual insects is hailed as one of the characteristics of an ideal automated image-based tracking system especially in 3D, it also is a costly method, often requiring specialized hardware and limited access to the algorithms used for mapping the specimens. The method proposed contributes towards (a) unlimited open source use, (b) a low-cost setup, (c) complete guide for any entomologist to adapt in terms of hardware and software, (d) simple to use, and (e) a lightweight data output for collective behavior analysis of mosquitoes. The setup is demonstrated by testing a simple response of mosquitoes in the presence of human odor versus control, one session with continuous human presence as a stimuli and the other with periodic presence. A group of female Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) mosquitoes are released into a white-background chamber with a transparent acrylic panel on one side. The video feed of the mosquitoes are processed using filtered contours in a threshold-adjustable video. The mosquitoes in the chamber are mapped on the raster where the coordinates of each mosquito are recorded with the corresponding timestamp. The average

  3. Documented bites by a yellow sac spider (Cheiracanthium punctorium in Italy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Papini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Italy reports of human envenomations by yellow sac spiders have been sporadic. Since increasing clinical information would improve understanding of the danger of yellow sac spiders to humans, we report the case of a 7-year-old child and her father bitten by a documented Cheiracanthium punctorium. They developed acute persistent pain with local skin signs and numbness, and required emergency treatment. The father recovered completely within 1 to 2 hours and the child within 3 to 4 days after treatment, probably as a result of spontaneous evolution. Clinicians should be aware of the risks and immediate management of spider bites.

  4. Spider Bite: A Rare Case of Acute Necrotic Arachnidism with Rapid and Fatal Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Anna Maria; Scozzafava, Annamaria; Filippelli, Orazio; Serafino, Giuseppe; Verre, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The spider bites are quite frequent and often resolve quickly without leaving outcomes; only some species are capable of causing necrotic and systematic lesions in humans. Among them, we should mention the genus Loxosceles. The venom released from the spider bite of Loxosceles species is composed of proteins, enzymes, and nonenzymatic polypeptides. The phospholipase D family was identified as the active component of the venom. This family of enzymes is responsible for the local and systemic effects observed in loxoscelism. Phospholipases D interact with cell membranes triggering alterations which involve the complement system and activation of neutrophils and they cause the dermonecrotic skin lesions and systemic effects. We describe a fatal case of acute intoxication caused by a spider bite probably belonging to the species Loxosceles. The initial lesion was localized to a finger of a hand. Clinical course was worsening with deep necrotic lesions on limb, shock, hemolysis, acute kidney failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. All therapies were ineffective. This is the first fatal case described in Europe. PMID:27651958

  5. Spider Bite: A Rare Case of Acute Necrotic Arachnidism with Rapid and Fatal Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pezzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spider bites are quite frequent and often resolve quickly without leaving outcomes; only some species are capable of causing necrotic and systematic lesions in humans. Among them, we should mention the genus Loxosceles. The venom released from the spider bite of Loxosceles species is composed of proteins, enzymes, and nonenzymatic polypeptides. The phospholipase D family was identified as the active component of the venom. This family of enzymes is responsible for the local and systemic effects observed in loxoscelism. Phospholipases D interact with cell membranes triggering alterations which involve the complement system and activation of neutrophils and they cause the dermonecrotic skin lesions and systemic effects. We describe a fatal case of acute intoxication caused by a spider bite probably belonging to the species Loxosceles. The initial lesion was localized to a finger of a hand. Clinical course was worsening with deep necrotic lesions on limb, shock, hemolysis, acute kidney failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. All therapies were ineffective. This is the first fatal case described in Europe.

  6. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Younger skin Kids’ zone About skin: Your body's largest organ About hair: Not just on your ... bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or a board-certified ...

  7. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MOC webinars and videos FAQs MOC resources Recognized Credit Basic Derm Curriculum Teaching and learning guides Suggested ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  8. Two cases of viper bite: still an important health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrija Hajra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Viper venoms act mainly as hemotoxic. Manifestations of snakebites depend on specific toxins that constitute the venom. The local and systemic snake bite related symptoms are directly linked to the toxicity of the venom. Edema, ecchymoses, hematoma, and gangrenous lesions are reported to occur as local symptoms. Systemic symptoms may include fever, nausea, vomiting, delirium, jaundice, circulatory collapse, convulsions, and coma. Death from secondary infections, neurotoxicity, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, intracranial hemorrhage, and acute renal failure are the well-known facts. For reduction of morbidity and mortality, it is important that antiserum is administered at the appropriate dose as early as possible after snake bite. There are several case reports about various complications of viperid bite. Here we are discussing two cases of viper bite. These cases are unique because of the extensive tissue necrosis. One of them succumbed to septicemia after acute pancreatitis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1274-1277

  9. Dilemmas in Treatment of Recurrent Recalcitrant Dental Anterior Open Bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencar, Adrian J

    2016-01-01

    An anterior open bite is one of the most difficult occlusal abnormalities to treat. Quite often this aberration entails dental component and/or skeletal component. The skeletal open bite will require intrusion of the posterior sextants with the assistance of bite blocks, temporary anchorage devices, high pull headgear, and as a last resort - orthognathic surgery. The orthodontic treatment should be augmented with the orofacial myofunctional therapy. In this article, the author describes 3 different variations of treatment of the dental anterior open bite, first on acrylic models, and then on the actual patients. Consideration should be given to patients with a 'short upper lip," and in this case, surgical correction should be entertained.

  10. Insect Repellents: Protect Your Child from Insect Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Choosing an Insect Repellent for Your Child Page Content Mosquitoes, biting ... sunscreen needs to be reapplied often. Reactions to Insect Repellents If you suspect that your child is ...

  11. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Part 1: Structure Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook Study notes Image library 3-D animated ... nail care Injured skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site= ...

  12. New Mexico rattlesnake bites: demographic review and guidelines for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, D J; Omer, G E; Moneim, M S

    1991-10-01

    The demographic features, treatment, and outcome of 36 rattlesnake envenomation cases are reviewed. Two populations at special risk are identified: (1) young children (12/36) who sustain lower extremity bites, and (2) adults who consume alcohol and handle snakes (10/36) who sustain upper extremity bites. Antivenin was used in 22 cases with only one serious case of serum sickness. Three definite diagnoses of compartment syndrome were made on the basis of elevated compartment pressures. Hand bites accounted for 20 of the 36 cases. The greatest functional disability followed digit bites in that 11 patients developed decreased motion and sensation. The indications for fasciotomy and debridement are discussed, both for digit and non-digit envenomations. General treatment recommendations are given.

  13. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... order of modules Video library Quiz library Basement Membrane Zone lecture Full lecture Part 1: Structure Part ... Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How to remove a ...

  14. Risk of Disease from Mosquito and Tick Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect repellents help reduce the risk of mosquito and tick bites, which can transmit diseases including West Nile Virus, malaria, encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya virus, Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and ehrlichiosis.

  15. Novel system for bite-force sensing and monitoring based on magnetic near field communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantada, Andres Diaz; Bris, Carlos González; Morgado, Pilar Lafont; Maudes, Jesús Sanz

    2012-01-01

    Intraoral devices for bite-force sensing have several applications in odontology and maxillofacial surgery, as bite-force measurements provide additional information to help understand the characteristics of bruxism disorders and can also be of help for the evaluation of post-surgical evolution and for comparison of alternative treatments. A new system for measuring human bite forces is proposed in this work. This system has future applications for the monitoring of bruxism events and as a complement for its conventional diagnosis. Bruxism is a pathology consisting of grinding or tight clenching of the upper and lower teeth, which leads to several problems such as lesions to the teeth, headaches, orofacial pain and important disorders of the temporomandibular joint. The prototype uses a magnetic field communication scheme similar to low-frequency radio frequency identification (RFID) technology (NFC). The reader generates a low-frequency magnetic field that is used as the information carrier and powers the sensor. The system is notable because it uses an intra-mouth passive sensor and an external interrogator, which remotely records and processes information regarding a patient's dental activity. This permits a quantitative assessment of bite-force, without requiring intra-mouth batteries, and can provide supplementary information to polysomnographic recordings, current most adequate early diagnostic method, so as to initiate corrective actions before irreversible dental wear appears. In addition to describing the system's operational principles and the manufacture of personalized prototypes, this report will also demonstrate the feasibility of the system and results from the first in vitro and in vivo trials.

  16. Novel System for Bite-Force Sensing and Monitoring Based on Magnetic Near Field Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sanz Maudes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Intraoral devices for bite-force sensing have several applications in odontology and maxillofacial surgery, as bite-force measurements provide additional information to help understand the characteristics of bruxism disorders and can also be of help for the evaluation of post-surgical evolution and for comparison of alternative treatments. A new system for measuring human bite forces is proposed in this work. This system has future applications for the monitoring of bruxism events and as a complement for its conventional diagnosis. Bruxism is a pathology consisting of grinding or tight clenching of the upper and lower teeth, which leads to several problems such as lesions to the teeth, headaches, orofacial pain and important disorders of the temporomandibular joint. The prototype uses a magnetic field communication scheme similar to low-frequency radio frequency identification (RFID technology (NFC. The reader generates a low-frequency magnetic field that is used as the information carrier and powers the sensor. The system is notable because it uses an intra-mouth passive sensor and an external interrogator, which remotely records and processes information regarding a patient’s dental activity. This permits a quantitative assessment of bite-force, without requiring intra-mouth batteries, and can provide supplementary information to polysomnographic recordings, current most adequate early diagnostic method, so as to initiate corrective actions before irreversible dental wear appears. In addition to describing the system’s operational principles and the manufacture of personalized prototypes, this report will also demonstrate the feasibility of the system and results from the first in vitro and in vivo trials.

  17. Novel System for Bite-Force Sensing and Monitoring Based on Magnetic Near Field Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantada, Andres Diaz; Bris, Carlos González; Morgado, Pilar Lafont; Maudes, Jesús Sanz

    2012-01-01

    Intraoral devices for bite-force sensing have several applications in odontology and maxillofacial surgery, as bite-force measurements provide additional information to help understand the characteristics of bruxism disorders and can also be of help for the evaluation of post-surgical evolution and for comparison of alternative treatments. A new system for measuring human bite forces is proposed in this work. This system has future applications for the monitoring of bruxism events and as a complement for its conventional diagnosis. Bruxism is a pathology consisting of grinding or tight clenching of the upper and lower teeth, which leads to several problems such as lesions to the teeth, headaches, orofacial pain and important disorders of the temporomandibular joint. The prototype uses a magnetic field communication scheme similar to low-frequency radio frequency identification (RFID) technology (NFC). The reader generates a low-frequency magnetic field that is used as the information carrier and powers the sensor. The system is notable because it uses an intra-mouth passive sensor and an external interrogator, which remotely records and processes information regarding a patient's dental activity. This permits a quantitative assessment of bite-force, without requiring intra-mouth batteries, and can provide supplementary information to polysomnographic recordings, current most adequate early diagnostic method, so as to initiate corrective actions before irreversible dental wear appears. In addition to describing the system's operational principles and the manufacture of personalized prototypes, this report will also demonstrate the feasibility of the system and results from the first in vitro and in vivo trials. PMID:23112669

  18. Black mamba bites. A report of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilligan, R

    1987-08-01

    The clinical features of confirmed cases of black mamba snakebites in a 14-month-old child and a 34-year-old man are presented. The steps taken in management are described and reviewed. The importance of early aggressive treatment and general principles of mamba bite management are discussed. To date there has been no reported case of confirmed and medically treated black mamba bite in a child so young.

  19. Inhibitory reflex responses of masseter muscle in anterior open bite

    OpenAIRE

    Priyada, SANTILAKANAWONG; Hiroaki, KIRIMOTO; Yoichiro, SEKI; Kunimichi, SOMA; Orthodontic Science, Department of Orofacial Development and Function, Division of Oral Health Sciences, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University

    2003-01-01

    Animal studies indicated that loss of occlusal contact between maxillary and mandibular teeth causes altered functional activity of periodontal mechanoreceptors. The alteration of periodontal mechanoreceptors may influence jawmuscle reflex and masticatory muscle activity. In this study, the inhibitory reflex response of masseter muscle in subjects with anterior open bite was investigated. The study population included 10 subjects with anterior open bite with no muscle pain or craniomandibular...

  20. Fatal snake bites – sociodemography, latency pattern of injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background India is a thickly populated country; apart from having biodiversity among people, climate does change from place to place. Western Ghats of South India harbors variety of plantations and diverse creatures. Agriculture is the primary occupation of the people and some tribes living in these regions. Here majority are callous/ ignorant in employing neither advanced farming techniques nor safety precautions, hence are exposed to bites and stings by animals. Of these, snake bites cause significant mortality and morbidity. Proper care for some of these individuals is out of reach. Identification of offending snake, snake bite injury or findings of envenomation is a key not only for the administration of antisnake venom but also for the victim to realize that he needs an expert care. Unless he believes it to be a critical snake bite and not a thorn prick, scorpion sting or a spider bite he will not approach a health care provider. To know about these dangerous signs that may help the victim to realize it as a case of snake bite, current study is employed on fatal cases in this region. Methods 60 fatal snakebite cases were studied retrospectively for 5 years with an objective to know the socio-demography, latency and pattern of injuries in rural Southern India. Results Most of the victims were males, in the age group of 31-50 years and were at risk of snake bites while farming. Large sample of subjects approached traditional therapists and were deprived of essential care in the critical first few hours after snake bite. Fang marks (90%), local ecchymoses (50%) and internal hemorrhage (28.3%), were the frequent demonstrable signs appreciated at autopsy. Conclusion Snakebite is a neglected, endemic, occupational (farming) disease of the poor and there is need for National Snakebite Prevention Programme for curtailing this menace. PMID:23522302

  1. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis associated with spider bite*

    OpenAIRE

    Milman, Laura de Mattos; Müller,Giana Paula; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Grill, Aline Barcellos; Rhoden, Deise Louise Bohn; Mello-da-Silva, Carlos Augusto; Vettorato,Gerson

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is an acute febrile rash, usually induced by drugs, which recently has been linked to spider bite. We report a case of a male patient, 48 years old, with an erythematous rash accompanied by fever and small non-follicular pustules. He reported previous pain in the buttock with the onset of a necrotic plaque. The lesion was compatible with spider bite of the genus Loxosceles. According to the EuroSCAR group instrument, the patient scor...

  2. Habitual biting of oral mucosa: A conservative treatment approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjot Kaur Bhatia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic biting of oral mucosa is an innocuous self inflicted injury, commonly seen in children suffering from developmental and psychological problems and has rarely been reported in normal unaffected individuals. The management strategies vary from counseling, prescription of sedatives to different prosthetic shields. The paper highlights the efficacy of a simple approach using soft mouth guard in the management of self inflicted lesions due to habitual biting of oral mucosa in two normal healthy children.

  3. The impact of snake bite on household economy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S M K; Basher, A; Molla, A A; Sultana, N K; Faiz, M A

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the different types of costs for treatment of snake bite patients, to quantify household economic impact and to understand the coping mechanisms required to cover the costs for snake bite patients in Bangladesh. The patients admitted to four tertiary level hospitals in Bangladesh were interviewed using structured questionnaires including health-care-related expenditures and the way in which the expenditures were covered. Of the snakes which bit the patients, 54.2% were non-venomous, 45.8% were venomous and 42.2% of the patients were given polyvalent antivenom. The total expenditure related to snake bite varies from US$4 (US$1 = Taka 72) to US$2294 with a mean of US$124 and the mean income loss was US$93. Expenditure for venomous snake bite was US$231, which is about seven times higher than non-venomous snake bite (US$34). The treatment imposes a major economic burden on affected families, especially in venomous snake bite cases.

  4. Studying the effects of Bite plane application in intruding and extruding the teeth in patients with deep bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shirazi

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep bite is a major clinical problem manifested as higher than normal overbite in anterior region of the jaws. Various studies were conducted to identify the effects of using bite plan and its results. 14 subjects with deep bite were selected out of 400 students of a school who had not proximal caries and had not lost any permanent teeth with healthy periodontal condition. 8 patients were considered as case group and the 6 other as the control group. In case group, a simple labial arc with acrylic palate that caused a gap in occlusion was placed. 2 lateral radiographs were obtained both pre and post 14 months treatment period. After cephalometric analysis, due to bite plane application significant intrusion in mandibular  incisors were observed as well as elongation in both maxillary and mandibular molars.

  5. The effect of deltamethrin-treated net fencing around cattle enclosures on outdoor-biting mosquitoes in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Marta Ferreira; Abonuusum, Ayimbire; Lorenz, Lena Maria; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Bauer, Burkhard; Garms, Rolf; Kruppa, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Classic vector control strategies target mosquitoes indoors as the main transmitters of malaria are indoor-biting and -resting mosquitoes. However, the intensive use of insecticide-treated bed-nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying have put selective pressure on mosquitoes to adapt in order to obtain human blood meals. Thus, early-evening and outdoor vector activity is becoming an increasing concern. This study assessed the effect of a deltamethrin-treated net (100 mg/m(2)) attached to a one-meter high fence around outdoor cattle enclosures on the number of mosquitoes landing on humans. Mosquitoes were collected from four cattle enclosures: Pen A - with cattle and no net; B - with cattle and protected by an untreated net; C - with cattle and protected by a deltamethrin-treated net; D - no cattle and no net. A total of 3217 culicines and 1017 anophelines were collected, of which 388 were Anopheles gambiae and 629 An. ziemanni. In the absence of cattle nearly 3 times more An. gambiae (p<0.0001) landed on humans. The deltamethrin-treated net significantly reduced (nearly three-fold, p<0.0001) culicine landings inside enclosures. The sporozoite rate of the zoophilic An. ziemanni, known to be a secondary malaria vector, was as high as that of the most competent vector An. gambiae; raising the potential of zoophilic species as secondary malaria vectors. After deployment of the ITNs a deltamethrin persistence of 9 months was observed despite exposure to African weather conditions. The outdoor use of ITNs resulted in a significant reduction of host-seeking culicines inside enclosures. Further studies investigating the effectiveness and spatial repellence of ITNs around other outdoor sites, such as bars and cooking areas, as well as their direct effect on vector-borne disease transmission are needed to evaluate its potential as an appropriate outdoor vector control tool for rural Africa.

  6. HOCOMOCO: A comprehensive collection of human transcription factor binding sites models

    KAUST Repository

    Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.

    2012-11-21

    Transcription factor (TF) binding site (TFBS) models are crucial for computational reconstruction of transcription regulatory networks. In existing repositories, a TF often has several models (also called binding profiles or motifs), obtained from different experimental data. Having a single TFBS model for a TF is more pragmatic for practical applications. We show that integration of TFBS data from various types of experiments into a single model typically results in the improved model quality probably due to partial correction of source specific technique bias. We present the Homo sapiens comprehensive model collection (HOCOMOCO, http://autosome.ru/HOCOMOCO/, http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/ hocomoco/) containing carefully hand-curated TFBS models constructed by integration of binding sequences obtained by both low- and high-throughput methods. To construct position weight matrices to represent these TFBS models, we used ChIPMunk software in four computational modes, including newly developed periodic positional prior mode associated with DNA helix pitch. We selected only one TFBS model per TF, unless there was a clear experimental evidence for two rather distinct TFBS models. We assigned a quality rating to each model. HOCOMOCO contains 426 systematically curated TFBS models for 401 human TFs, where 172 models are based on more than one data source. The Author(s) 2012.

  7. HOCOMOCO: a comprehensive collection of human transcription factor binding sites models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.; Medvedeva, Yulia A.; Schaefer, Ulf; Kasianov, Artem S.; Vorontsov, Ilya E.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Makeev, Vsevolod J.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factor (TF) binding site (TFBS) models are crucial for computational reconstruction of transcription regulatory networks. In existing repositories, a TF often has several models (also called binding profiles or motifs), obtained from different experimental data. Having a single TFBS model for a TF is more pragmatic for practical applications. We show that integration of TFBS data from various types of experiments into a single model typically results in the improved model quality probably due to partial correction of source specific technique bias. We present the Homo sapiens comprehensive model collection (HOCOMOCO, http://autosome.ru/HOCOMOCO/, http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/hocomoco/) containing carefully hand-curated TFBS models constructed by integration of binding sequences obtained by both low- and high-throughput methods. To construct position weight matrices to represent these TFBS models, we used ChIPMunk software in four computational modes, including newly developed periodic positional prior mode associated with DNA helix pitch. We selected only one TFBS model per TF, unless there was a clear experimental evidence for two rather distinct TFBS models. We assigned a quality rating to each model. HOCOMOCO contains 426 systematically curated TFBS models for 401 human TFs, where 172 models are based on more than one data source. PMID:23175603

  8. The proteomes of human parotid and submandibular/sublingual gland salivas collected as the ductal secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Paul; Hagen, Fred K; Hardt, Markus; Liao, Lujian; Yan, Weihong; Arellanno, Martha; Bassilian, Sara; Bedi, Gurrinder S; Boontheung, Pinmannee; Cociorva, Daniel; Delahunty, Claire M; Denny, Trish; Dunsmore, Jason; Faull, Kym F; Gilligan, Joyce; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Halgand, Frédéric; Hall, Steven C; Han, Xuemei; Henson, Bradley; Hewel, Johannes; Hu, Shen; Jeffrey, Sherry; Jiang, Jiang; Loo, Joseph A; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Navazesh, Mahvash; Niles, Richard; Park, Sung Kyu; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Richert, Megan; Robinson, Sarah; Sondej, Melissa; Souda, Puneet; Sullivan, Mark A; Takashima, Jona; Than, Shawn; Wang, Jianghua; Whitelegge, Julian P; Witkowska, H Ewa; Wolinsky, Lawrence; Xie, Yongming; Xu, Tao; Yu, Weixia; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Wong, David T; Yates, John R; Fisher, Susan J

    2008-05-01

    Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications--914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual saliva--were made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in plasma and/or tears are also present in saliva along with unique components. The proteins identified are involved in numerous molecular processes ranging from structural functions to enzymatic/catalytic activities. As expected, the majority mapped to the extracellular and secretory compartments. An immunoblot approach was used to validate the presence in saliva of a subset of the proteins identified by mass spectrometric approaches. These experiments focused on novel constituents and proteins for which the peptide evidence was relatively weak. Ultimately, information derived from the work reported here and related published studies can be used to translate blood-based clinical laboratory tests into a format that utilizes saliva. Additionally, a catalogue of the salivary proteome of healthy individuals allows future analyses of salivary samples from individuals with oral and systemic diseases, with the goal of identifying biomarkers with diagnostic and/or prognostic value for these conditions; another possibility is the discovery of therapeutic targets.

  9. Good agreements between self and clinician-collected specimens for the detection of human papillomavirus in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Lopes Mandu de Campos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Women infected with human papillomavirus (HPV are at a higher risk of developing cervical lesions. In the current study, self and clinician-collected vaginal and cervical samples from women were processed to detect HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR with PGMY09/11 primers. HPV genotypes were determined using type-specific PCR. HPV DNA detection showed good concordance between self and clinician-collected samples (84.6%; kappa = 0.72. HPV infection was found in 30% women and genotyping was more concordant among high-risk HPV (HR-HPV than low-risk HPV (HR-HPV. HPV16 was the most frequently detected among the HR-HPV types. LR-HPV was detected at a higher frequency in self-collected; however, HR-HPV types were more frequently identified in clinician-collected samples than in self-collected samples. HPV infections of multiple types were detected in 20.5% of clinician-collected samples and 15.5% of self-collected samples. In this study, we demonstrated that the HPV DNA detection rate in self-collected samples has good agreement with that of clinician-collected samples. Self-collected sampling, as a primary prevention strategy in countries with few resources, could be effective for identifying cases of HR-HPV, being more acceptable. The use of this method would enhance the coverage of screening programs for cervical cancer.

  10. Retrospective Cohort Study to Assess the Risk of Rabies in Biting Dogs, 2013–2015, Republic of Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M. Medley

    2017-06-01

    .5 95% CI 2.0–10.1, respectively. Rabid dogs were four times more likely to have bitten multiple people (RR = 4.0 95% CI 1.9–8.3. Most rabid dogs died or were killed before quarantine (75% and all died by day 3 of quarantine, compared to <1% of quarantined case-negatives. The greatest risk of death was predicted to be for persons bitten on the head or neck from symptomatic dogs. Bites from dogs deemed healthy by veterinary assessors and which were available for quarantine presented less than a 0.05% risk of rabies death to the victim. Conclusions: Vaccination of all persons exposed to a suspected rabid dog is a highly effective approach to minimize human rabies deaths. However, this may place undue financial burden on bite victims that have had a low-risk exposure and over-prescription may contribute to regional supply shortages. The results here indicate that in a low-resource country such as Haiti, a well-trained veterinary assessor can provide an accurate risk assessment of biting dogs based on a standard case investigation protocol. In canine rabies endemic countries with limited access to PEP, or where PEP costs may cause undue burden on bite victims, structured risk assessments by trained professionals may be a reliable method of triaging PEP for bite victims. Evaluating rabies risk through a matrix of bite location and risk factor in the dog presents a clear delineation of high and low risk encounters and should be used to develop data-derived PEP recommendations.

  11. Protective efficacy of menthol propylene glycol carbonate compared to N, N-diethyl-methylbenzamide against mosquito bites in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Munga, Stephen; Mahande, Aneth M; Msangi, Shandala; Mazigo, Humphrey D; Adrias, Araceli Q; Matias, Jonathan R

    2012-09-05

    The reduction of malaria parasite transmission by preventing human-vector contact is critical in lowering disease transmission and its outcomes. This underscores the need for effective and long lasting arthropod/insect repellents. Despite the reduction in malaria transmission and outcomes in Tanzania, personal protection against mosquito bites is still not well investigated. This study sought to determine the efficacy of menthol propylene glycol carbonate (MR08), Ocimum suave as compared to the gold standard repellent N, N-diethyl-methylbenzamide (DEET), either as a single dose or in combination (blend), both in the laboratory and in the field against Anopheles gambiae s.l and Culex quinquefasciatus. In the laboratory evaluations, repellents were applied on one arm while the other arm of the same individual was treated with a base cream. Each arm was separately exposed in cages with unfed female mosquitoes. Repellents were evaluated either as a single dose or as a blend. Efficacy of each repellent was determined by the number of mosquitoes that landed and fed on treated arms as compared to the control or among them. In the field, evaluations were performed by human landing catches at hourly intervals from 18:00  hr to 01:00  hr. A total of 2,442 mosquitoes were collected during field evaluations, of which 2,376 (97.30%) were An. gambiae s.l while 66 (2.70%) were Cx. quinquefaciatus. MR08 and DEET had comparatively similar protective efficacy ranging from 92% to 100 for both single compound and blends. These findings indicate that MR08 has a similar protective efficacy as DEET for personal protection outside bed nets when used singly and in blends. Because of the personal protection provided by MR08, DEET and blends as topical applicants in laboratory and field situations, these findings suggest that, these repellents could be used efficiently in the community to complement existing tools. Overall, Cx. quinquefasciatus were significantly prevented from blood

  12. Protective efficacy of menthol propylene glycol carbonate compared to N, N-diethyl-methylbenzamide against mosquito bites in Northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kweka Eliningaya J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reduction of malaria parasite transmission by preventing human-vector contact is critical in lowering disease transmission and its outcomes. This underscores the need for effective and long lasting arthropod/insect repellents. Despite the reduction in malaria transmission and outcomes in Tanzania, personal protection against mosquito bites is still not well investigated. This study sought to determine the efficacy of menthol propylene glycol carbonate (MR08, Ocimum suave as compared to the gold standard repellent N, N-diethyl-methylbenzamide (DEET, either as a single dose or in combination (blend, both in the laboratory and in the field against Anopheles gambiae s.l and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods In the laboratory evaluations, repellents were applied on one arm while the other arm of the same individual was treated with a base cream. Each arm was separately exposed in cages with unfed female mosquitoes. Repellents were evaluated either as a single dose or as a blend. Efficacy of each repellent was determined by the number of mosquitoes that landed and fed on treated arms as compared to the control or among them. In the field, evaluations were performed by human landing catches at hourly intervals from 18:00 hr to 01:00 hr. Results A total of 2,442 mosquitoes were collected during field evaluations, of which 2,376 (97.30% were An. gambiae s.l while 66 (2.70% were Cx. quinquefaciatus. MR08 and DEET had comparatively similar protective efficacy ranging from 92% to 100 for both single compound and blends. These findings indicate that MR08 has a similar protective efficacy as DEET for personal protection outside bed nets when used singly and in blends. Because of the personal protection provided by MR08, DEET and blends as topical applicants in laboratory and field situations, these findings suggest that, these repellents could be used efficiently in the community to complement existing tools. Overall, Cx

  13. Anthropophilic biting behaviour of Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai Howard, Dyar & Knab associated with Fishermen’s activities in a malaria-endemic area in the Colombian Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Eduardo Escovar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available On the southwest Pacific Coast of Colombia, a field study was initiated to determine the human-vector association between Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai and fishermen, including their nearby houses. Mosquitoes were collected over 24-h periods from mangrove swamps, marshlands and fishing vessels in three locations, as well as in and around the houses of fishermen. A total of 6,382 mosquitoes were collected. An. neivai was most abundant in mangroves and fishing canoes (90.8%, while Anopheles albimanus was found indoors (82% and outdoors (73%. One An. neivai and one An. albimanus collected during fishing activities in canoes were positive for Plasmodium vivax , whereas one female An. neivai collected in a mangrove was positive for P. vivax . In the mangroves and fishing canoes, An. neivai demonstrated biting activity throughout the day, peaking between 06:00 pm-07:00 pm and there were two minor peaks at dusk and dawn. These peaks coincided with fishing activities in the marshlands and mangroves, a situation that places the fishermen at risk of contracting malaria when they are performing their daily activities. It is recommended that protective measures be implemented to reduce the risk that fishermen will contract malaria.

  14. 77 FR 9666 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; New Proposed Collection; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ...; New Proposed Collection; Comment Request Stress and Cortisol Measurement for the National Children's... (OMB) for review and approval. Proposed Collection Title: Stress and Cortisol Measurement Substudy for the National Children's Study (NCS). Type of Information Collection Request: NEW. Need and Use...

  15. Self-organized flexible leadership promotes collective intelligence in human groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurvers, R.H.J.M.; Wolf, Max; Naguib, Marc; Krause, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Collective intelligence refers to the ability of groups to outperform individual decision-makers. At present, relatively little is known about the mechanisms promoting collective intelligence in natural systems. We here test a novel mechanism generating collective intelligence: self-organization

  16. Balancing Human and Inter-Agent Influences for Shared Control of Bio-Inspired Collectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    multiple uavs ,” IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine, 2009. [4] Z. Kira and M. A. Potter, “Exerting human control over decentral- ized robot swarms ,” in...how influence is shared between the human and the swarm and (2) the resulting success of the human- swarm interaction. Note that related literature...control is shared: persistence and span. We define per- sistence as how long the human signals the swarm and span as how many agents the human

  17. Our Clinical Experiences in Snake Bites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Altun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluate 25 cases who were admitted to the emergency service and transferred to the intensive care unit subsequently due to snakebite, prospectively. Clinical courses, toxic effects, complications and treatment approaches were aimed to be presented. Among the patients, 16 were female and 9 were male; the mean age was 42.1 (17-74 years. It was determined that all the cases were admitted to the hospital during working in the field in Eastern Anatolia Region, between the months of May and June, and between the hours of 15:00 to 18:00. When the cases were considered in terms of bitten body part, 15 were bitten from upper extremity and 10 were bitten from lower extremity. Within an hour the patients were admitted to a health facility with the complaints of nausea, pain, numbness, swelling and redness, and patients were transferred to emergency unit approximately within 1 hour (0.5 to 2 hours following the first intervention. Tetanus immunization is administered in all cases as the first intervention. Antivenom was administered to the 9 (36% of the patients in whom steroid, antihistamine and prophylactic antibiotic therapy was given in the intensive care unit. Under the control of infection clinic, antibiotic therapy was initiated to 13 (52% patients in who cellulitis, abscess, lymphedema and compartment syndrome were developed. Healing was observed approximately within 4 days (2-6 days and recovery was observed in all the cases. Patients admitted due to snake bites should be followed closely for at least 6 to 8 hours. According to the patient’s clinical condition and laboratory test results, early intervention therapy should be regulated and antivenom therapy should be administered in the presence of systemic symptoms.

  18. Medical grand rounds. West Virginia University Health Sciences Center. Bites and stings. Part 1. Spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, I H

    1989-04-01

    Most animals can bite or sting. In narrowing the kingdom down to those that harm humans, the field still is vast. It would be interesting to explore the rich variety of pathology produced in us by moray eels, lionfish, sea urchins, jellyfish, sting rays, fire ants, kissing bugs, flies, lice, mosquitoes, ticks, mites, fleas, puss caterpillars, centipedes, snakes, dogs and cats, camels, and myriad other creatures including homo sapiens (not a trivial biter)--but for this grand rounds, the topic will simply be spiders (Part 1), bees and vespid (Part 2). Vespids are the wasps, yellow jackets and hornets.

  19. Collective movements of pedestrians: How we can learn from simple experiments with non-human (ant) crowds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahhoseini, Zahra; Sarvi, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Understanding collective behavior of moving organisms and how interactions between individuals govern their collective motion has triggered a growing number of studies. Similarities have been observed between the scale-free behavioral aspects of various systems (i.e. groups of fish, ants, and mammals). Investigation of such connections between the collective motion of non-human organisms and that of humans however, has been relatively scarce. The problem demands for particular attention in the context of emergency escape motion for which innovative experimentation with panicking ants has been recently employed as a relatively inexpensive and non-invasive approach. However, little empirical evidence has been provided as to the relevance and reliability of this approach as a model of human behaviour. This study explores pioneer experiments of emergency escape to tackle this question and to connect two forms of experimental observations that investigate the collective movement at macroscopic level. A large number of experiments with human and panicking ants are conducted representing the escape behavior of these systems in crowded spaces. The experiments share similar architectural structures in which two streams of crowd flow merge with one another. Measures such as discharge flow rates and the probability distribution of passage headways are extracted and compared between the two systems. Our findings displayed an unexpected degree of similarity between the collective patterns emerged from both observation types, particularly based on aggregate measures. Experiments with ants and humans commonly indicated how significantly the efficiency of motion and the rate of discharge depend on the architectural design of the movement environment. Our findings contribute to the accumulation of evidence needed to identify the boarders of applicability of experimentation with crowds of non-human entities as models of human collective motion as well as the level of measurements (i

  20. Widespread occurrence of perchlorate in water, foodstuffs and human urine collected from Kuwait and its contribution to human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomirah, Husam F; Al-Zenki, Sameer F; Alaswad, Marivi C; Alruwaih, Noor A; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-06-01

    Perchlorate is a thyroid hormone-disrupting compound and is reported to occur widely in the environment. Little is known on human exposure to perchlorate in Kuwait. In this study, 218 water samples, 618 commonly consumed foodstuffs and 532 urine samples collected from Kuwait were analysed to assess the exposure of the Kuwaiti population to perchlorate. For the estimation of daily intake of perchlorate, food consumption rates were obtained from the National Nutrition Survey in the State of Kuwait (NNSSK). The results showed that leafy vegetables accounted for a major share of perchlorate exposure among the Kuwaiti population at 0.062 µg kg(-)(1) bw day(-)(1) (36.2%), followed by fruits at 0.026 µg kg(-)(1) bw day(-)(1) (15.3%) and non-leafy vegetables at 0.017 µg kg(-)(1) bw day(-)(1) (10.1%). The urinary perchlorate geometric mean (GM) concentrations ranged from 8.51 to 17.1 µg l(-)(1) for the five age groups, which were higher than those reported in other countries. The estimated urinary perchlorate exposure for the Kuwaiti general population was 0.42 µg kg(-)(1) bw day(-)(1), which was higher than that reported for the United States. The dietary intake of perchlorate for the Kuwaiti population ranged from 0.14 to 0.67 µg kg(-)(1) bw day(-)(1) for the five age groups, with a mean total daily intake of 0.17 µg kg(-)(1) bw day(-)(1) for the general population. The highest estimated dietary mean daily intake of perchlorate (0.67 µg kg(-)(1) bw day(-)(1)) was found for children at 3-5 years. The estimated dietary perchlorate exposure in Kuwait is higher than the recommended mean reference dose (RfD) but lower than that of provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA).

  1. Assessment of open and incomplete bite correction by incisor overlap and optical density of polyvinyl siloxane bite registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpack, Nir; Einy, Shmuel; Beni, Lea; Vardimon, Alexander D

    2006-04-01

    Open bite (OB) is a generalized term, which could incorporate subgroups that react differently to vertical correction. The objectives of the present study were to detect vertical treatment changes in incomplete bite (IB: inter-incisor overlap with no lower incisor contact with teeth or palate) and OB (no inter-incisor overlap) groups compared with a complete bite (CB: inter-incisor overlap with full lower incisor contact with teeth or palate) control group, to evaluate treatment response of the central and lateral incisors, and to study the vertico-sagittal interaction. Dental casts were taken at three time points, pre-treatment, post-treatment, and after one year of retention, from 54 Class II patients (22 males and 32 females with a mean age of 11 years 6 months) divided into three groups: CB (n = 21), IB (n = 18) and OB (n = 15). Measurements included incisor overlap (mm) and optical density (OD/mm2) of occlusal bite registration made of polyvinl siloxane. Both CB and IB groups demonstrated post-retention bite opening. However, bite opening in the CB group was three times greater than that in the IB group (e.g. lower lateral = -1.42 mm, 118 OD/mm2 versus -0.40 mm, 107 OD/mm2). Conversely, the OB group showed a significant (P < 0.001) bite closure (e.g. lower lateral = 1.30 mm, -377 OD/mm2). Overjet changes affected OD measurements, causing diversity in OD and millimetric measurements of the lateral incisors in the IB group. In conclusion, the OB group demonstrated a significant stable vertical correction; a post-treatment non-contact inter-incisor relationship was determined by a vertico-sagittal relapse; and full compensation of an IB was not possible.

  2. The effect of temperature and menthol on carbonation bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Paul M; Bryant, Bruce

    2014-09-01

    Temperature and chemesthesis interact, but this interaction has not been fully examined for most irritants. The current experiments focus on oral pungency from carbonation. Previous work showed that cooling carbon dioxide (CO2) solutions to below tongue temperature enhanced rated bite. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of warming to above tongue temperature have not been examined. In Experiment 1, subjects sampled CO2 solutions at 4 nominal concentrations (0.0, 2.0, 2.8, and 4.0 v/v) × 5 temperatures (18.3, 24.5, 29.9, 34.5, and 39.6 (o)C). Subjects dipped their tongue tips into samples and rated bite. As in previous work, subjects rated cool solutions (25.0 (o)C and lower) as more intense. Warming solutions above tongue temperature (39.6 (o)C) did not affect ratings. Experiment 2 examined warmer temperatures (18.3, 33.9, 39.0, 44.9, and 48.2 ºC). Bite was enhanced only at 48.2 ºC, and a follow-up experiment suggested that enhancement was probably due to confusion between carbonation bite and mild heat pain. Experiment 3 examined the effect of menthol cooling by pretreating the tongue with menthol. Unlike physical cooling, menthol cooling had little or no effect on rated bite. The results are discussed in the context of candidate transduction mechanisms for carbonation sensation.

  3. Epidemiological aspects of snake bites on a Liberian rubber plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahel, E

    1980-12-01

    During a one-year period 95 patients with a history of snake bite were admitted to the hospital of a Liberian rubber plantation. The population at risk included the field workers (tappers and slashers) with an incidence of 4.2 symptomatic snake bites per thousand per year. The incidence of symptomatic bites was 1.7 per thousand in the group of non-field employees and 0.4 per thousand per year in the group of non-employees. The temporary disability was between 3 and 5 days, and the loss of workings days due to snake bites was one day per 10,000 working days on the plantation. Among the 95 patients 27 did not show any symptoms of envenoming except occasional fang marks. 64 patients developed cytotoxic symptoms alone. In this group, the night adder (Causus maculatus) was the main responsible snake. 4 patients showed signs of systemic envenoming. Two were haematological and two were neurological in nature and caused by Bitis species and Naja species, respectively. No fatalities were noted. A definite maximum of snake bites was observed during October and November which corresponds to the transition from rainy to dry season.

  4. A clinical and epidemiological study on spider bites in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yildirim Cesaretli; Ozcan Ozkan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To classify and characterize spider bites among inquiries to the National Poison Information Center (NPIC) between1995 and2004, in terms of the epidemiology and clinical symptomatology.Methods: Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained from theNPIC’s patient records. The following information was recorded for each spider bite: demographics, circumstances of the bite, and local and systemic effects.Results: A total of82 cases were reported. The accidents were mostly seen during August. The gender distribution was59.76%male, 37.20% female, and2.44% unknown and the20-29 age group presented more spider bites. Most of the cases were in the Central Anatolia, Marmara, Mediterranean, and Black Sea regions. Local symptoms were observed in60.87% of the cases, including local pain, edema, redness, itching, debris, burning, and numbness. Systemic symptoms were observed such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, lethargy, anxiety, weakness, somnolence, dyspnea, hypertension, hypotension, and hyperthermia.Conclusions: In conclusion, these findings emphasize the presence of medically important spider species in Turkey. All patients and especially pediatric patients should be admitted to the hospital. Identification of spider species may be considered a useful clinical and epidemiological tool in determining the incidence and risk of spider bites.

  5. Sweaty skin: an invitation to bite?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Verhulst, N.O.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Aedes aegypti have a preference for human blood, which determines their importance as vectors of pathogens responsible for human diseases. Volatile organic chemicals are the principal cues by which humans are being located. Human sweat contains components that are

  6. Sweaty skin: an invitation to bite?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Verhulst, N.O.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Aedes aegypti have a preference for human blood, which determines their importance as vectors of pathogens responsible for human diseases. Volatile organic chemicals are the principal cues by which humans are being located. Human sweat contains components that are

  7. Factors Associated with Tick Bite Preventive Practices among Farmworkers in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Ghane Kisomi

    Full Text Available Farmworkers are at high-risk for tick bites, which potentially transmit various tick-borne diseases. Previous studies show that personal prevention against tick bites is key, and certain factors namely, knowledge, experience of tick bites, and health beliefs influence compliance with tick bites preventive behaviour. This study aimed to assess these factors and their associations with tick bite preventive practices among Malaysian farmworkers.A total of eight cattle, goat and sheep farms in six states in Peninsular Malaysia participated in a cross-sectional survey between August and October 2013.A total of 151 (72.2% out of 209 farmworkers answered the questionnaire. More than half of the farmworkers (n = 91 reported an experience of tick bites. Farms with monthly acaricide treatment had significantly (P<0.05 a low report of tick bites. Tick bite exposure rates did not differ significantly among field workers and administrative workers. The mean total knowledge score of ticks for the overall farmworkers was 13.6 (SD±3.2 from 20. The mean total tick bite preventive practices score for all farmworkers was 8.3 (SD±3.1 from 15. Fixed effect model showed the effects of four factors on tick bite prevention: (1 farms, (2 job categories (administrative workers vs. field workers, (3 perceived severity of tick bites, and (4 perceived barriers to tick bite prevention.A high proportion of farmworkers, including administrative workers, reported an experience of tick bites. The effectiveness of monthly acaricide treatment was declared by low reports of tick bites on these farms. Tick bite preventive practices were insufficient, particularly in certain farms and for administrative workers. Our findings emphasise the need to have education programmes for all farmworkers and targeting farms with low prevention practices. Education and health programmes should increase the perception of the risk of tick bites and remove perceived barriers of tick bite prevention.

  8. How can Human Intelligence Enhance Collection in an Era of Un-manned Technology and Reduced Personnel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS “ Intelligence can provide a competitive advantage only if its various pieces are matched with operational experience and...HOW CAN HUMAN INTELLIGENCE ENHANCE COLLECTION IN AN ERA OF UN-MANNED TECHNOLOGY AND REDUCED PERSONNEL? A thesis presented to...

  9. Identification, expression, and characterization of a major salivary allergen (Cul s 1) of the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis relevant for summer eczema in horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salivary proteins of Culicoides biting midges are thought to play a key role in the induction of summer eczema (SE), a seasonal recurrent allergic dermatitis in horses. The present study describes the identification of a candidate allergen in artificially collected saliva of the North American speci...

  10. Geo(Im)pulseBite marks on early Holocene Tursiops truncatus fossils from the North Sea indicate scavenging by rays (Chondrichthyes, Rajidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netten, H.H. van; Reumer, J.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    A number of Tursiops truncatus mandibles in the collection of fossil marine mammals in the Rotterdam Natural History Museum have marks consisting of several parallel linear grooves. These marks are also found on four atlas complexes, a scapula and on one vertebra. The hypothesis that they are bite m

  11. 76 FR 16609 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Identification of Human Cell Lines Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ...; Identification of Human Cell Lines Project AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST...) profiling up to 1500 human cell line samples as part of the Identification of Human Cell Lines Project. All... for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and will be used to differentiate among cell lines, as...

  12. THE BITING ACTIVITY OF ANOPHELES DTHALI IN A RURAL AREA OF MAMASANI UNDER IMPACT OF ORGANO-PHOSPHOROUS SPRAYING, SOUTHERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Eshghy

    1983-08-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles dthali Patton which is one of the 7 malaria vectors in Iran was not taken in to consideration until November 1965 when definite sporozaites were found for the first time in its salivary glands in Bandar Abbas, south of Iran. Afterwards, efforts have been made to get complete ecological and epidemiological information on this species. The areas of study were two districts of Mamasani, an agricultural area, located 200 km north of the Persian Gulf. The objective of the present paper is to summarize and discuss briefly the field investigations concerning the nocturnal biting cycle and behavior of An. dthali as well as the comparative attractiveness of man and cattle to these vectors under the impact of the organophosphouous insecticides. On the basis of the data collected, it was found that most of the bites take place between 21.00-24.00 hr. Biting pattern under local condition indicated that the number of bites per cow was much greater than the number of bites per man.

  13. Investigation of the Cases Presenting To Manisa Moris Şinasi Children’s Hospital with a Tick Bite Between 2007 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonay İnceboz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the cases with a tick bite in Moris Sinasi Children’s Hospital between January 2007 and December 2010. We aimed to retrospectively determine the types of the tick, distribution of the cases according to months and years and personal characteristics of the cases. Materials and Methods: Total number of cases with tick bite in this period was 433. All withdrawn samples were put into alcohol and glycerine and examined under the light microscope. Demographic characteristics including residential areas of the patients, symptoms related to tick borne diseases of the patients and species and other characteristics of ticks removed from the subjects were investigated. Results: Of all 433 children, 182 (42% were female and 251 (58%, male. In 285 (65.8% of 433 tick bite suspected samples, various ectoparasites were detected microscopically. Removed ticks were classified in five genera. The overwhelmingly dominant genera were Hyalomma nymph and it comprised 54% of the collected samples. In terms of ages of children with tick bite suspected samples, 68 (15.7% were 0-1 year old and accordingly 207 (47.8% were 2-5 years old, 124 (28.6% were 6-10 years old and 34 (7.9% were 11-16 years old. Conclusion: Children are at risk for tick bites and tick-borne diseases, and therefore attention should be given, especially during the summer months. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2011; 9: 116-21

  14. The relationship between skull morphology, masticatory muscle force and cranial skeletal deformation during biting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Ibacache, Viviana; Zapata Muñoz, Víctor; O'Higgins, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The human skull is gracile when compared to many Middle Pleistocene hominins. It has been argued that it is less able to generate and withstand high masticatory forces, and that the morphology of the lower portion of the modern human face correlates most strongly with dietary characteristics. This study uses geometric morphometrics and finite element analysis (FEA) to assess the relationship between skull morphology, muscle force and cranial deformations arising from biting, which is relevant in understanding how skull morphology relates to mastication. The three-dimensional skull anatomies of 20 individuals were reconstructed from medical computed tomograms. Maximal contractile muscle forces were estimated from muscular anatomical cross-sectional areas (CSAs). Fifty-nine landmarks were used to represent skull morphology. A partial least squares analysis was performed to assess the association between skull shape and muscle force, and FEA was used to compare the deformation (strains) generated during incisor and molar bites in two individuals representing extremes of morphological variation in the sample. The results showed that only the proportion of total muscle CSA accounted for by the temporalis appears associated with skull morphology, albeit weekly. However, individuals with a large temporalis tend to possess a relatively wider face, a narrower, more vertically oriented maxilla and a lower positioning of the coronoid process. The FEAs showed that, despite differences in morphology, biting results in similar modes of deformation for both crania, but with localised lower magnitudes of strains arising in the individual with the narrowest, most vertically oriented maxilla. Our results suggest that the morphology of the maxilla modulates the transmission of forces generated during mastication to the rest of the cranium by deforming less in individuals with the ability to generate proportionately larger temporalis muscle forces.

  15. Myroides odoratimimus soft tissue infection in an immunocompetent child following a pig bite: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Maraki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Myroides are aerobic Gram-negative bacteria that are common in environmental sources, but are not components of the normal human microflora. Myroides organisms behave as low-grade opportunistic pathogens, causing infections in severely immunocompromised patients and rarely, in immunocompetent hosts. A case of Myroides odoratimimus cellulitis following a pig bite in an immunocompetent child is presented, and the medical literature on Myroides spp. soft tissue infections is reviewed.

  16. Antibiotic treatment following a dog bite in an immunocompromized patient in order to prevent Capnocytophaga canimorsus infection: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hloch, Ondrej; Mokra, Dana; Masopust, Jan; Hasa, Jan; Charvat, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Background Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a commensal bacterium found in the saliva of dogs and cats. Clinically significant infections in humans after a bite are often associated with the presence of immune deficiency. Early recognition and appropriate treatment are crucial for patient survival. In addition, patients with immune deficiency are susceptible to serious life-threatening nosocomial infections, which may also influence the prognosis of patients with Capnocytophaga canimorsus infecti...

  17. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis associated with spider bite*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Laura de Mattos; Müller, Giana Paula; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Grill, Aline Barcellos; Rhoden, Deise Louise Bohn; Mello-da-Silva, Carlos Augusto; Vettorato, Gerson

    2016-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is an acute febrile rash, usually induced by drugs, which recently has been linked to spider bite. We report a case of a male patient, 48 years old, with an erythematous rash accompanied by fever and small non-follicular pustules. He reported previous pain in the buttock with the onset of a necrotic plaque. The lesion was compatible with spider bite of the genus Loxosceles. According to the EuroSCAR group instrument, the patient scored +10 indicating definite diagnosis of AGEP. As the patient had a compatible lesion and had no other triggers of AGEP, in an Loxosceles endemic area, the AGEP would be associated with spider bite, as described in other publications. PMID:27579754

  18. Snake bite on scrotum � a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Arshad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year old man was bitten by a snake on his scrotum. This interesting and unusual case occurred in the rural area of District Aligarh, India. The uniqueness of the case lies in the fact that scrotum is an extremely rare and unusual site for snake bite. Further, with negligible local signs of envenoming the patient presented with classical signs of neurotoxicity. Due to numerous superstitions associated with snake bite, the patient was treated with traditional home made ointment before coming to hospital. The authors realized that the case may be brought to the notice of the readers because the scrotal bite by the snake with no local signs of envenomation is the first reported case.

  19. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis associated with spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Laura de Mattos; Müller, Giana Paula; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Grill, Aline Barcellos; Rhoden, Deise Louise Bohn; Mello-da-Silva, Carlos Augusto; Vettorato, Gerson

    2016-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is an acute febrile rash, usually induced by drugs, which recently has been linked to spider bite. We report a case of a male patient, 48 years old, with an erythematous rash accompanied by fever and small non-follicular pustules. He reported previous pain in the buttock with the onset of a necrotic plaque. The lesion was compatible with spider bite of the genus Loxosceles. According to the EuroSCAR group instrument, the patient scored +10 indicating definite diagnosis of AGEP. As the patient had a compatible lesion and had no other triggers of AGEP, in an Loxosceles endemic area, the AGEP would be associated with spider bite, as described in other publications.

  20. Segmental Orthodontics for the Correction of Cross Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Rinku

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cross bite is a condition where one or more teeth may be abnormally malposed buccally or lingually or labially with reference to the opposing tooth or teeth. Cross bite correction is highly recommended as this kind of malocclusion do not diminish with age. Uncorrected cross bite may lead to abnormal wear of lower anteriors and cuspal interference, mandibular shift resulting in mandibular asymmetry and temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome. There are several methods for treating this type of malocclusion. In this article, segmental orthodontics has been highlighted by using 2 × 4 appliance therapy and lingual button with cross elastics. This appliance offers many advantages as it provides complete control of anterior tooth position, is extremely well tolerated, requires no adjustment by the patient and allows accurate and rapid positioning of teeth. PMID:27616858

  1. Cerebellar infarct with neurogenic pulmonary edema following viper bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salil Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Russell′s viper (Daboia russelli bites are well known to cause bleeding complications. However, thrombotic complications are rare. We present the case details of a female who was bitten by a Russell′s viper (Daboia russelli in her village. She then developed features of envenomation in the form of hemorrhagic episodes. She received 27 vials of polyvalent anti-snake venom to which the hemorrhagic complications responded. After about 48 h of the bite she developed features of cerebellar infarct along with pulmonary edema which was in all probability neurogenic in origin. She was managed with mechanical ventilation and extra ventricular drainage with good recovery. We discuss the likely pathogenesis of the infarct and pulmonary edema occurring in a patient with viper bite and other features of envenomation.

  2. Bite force and temporomandibular disorder in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenneberg, B; Kjellberg, H; Kiliaridis, S

    1995-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the functional condition of the stomatognathic system in children suffering from juvenile chronic arthritis, with respect to bite force and temporomandibular disorder in relation to radiographic abnormalities of the mandibular condyle, occlusal factors and systemic disease parameters. Thirty-five children with juvenile chronic arthritis were compared to 89 healthy children with an Angle Class I occlusion and 62 children with an Angle Class II malocclusion. Subjective symptoms and clinical signs of temporomandibular disorder and radiographic mandibular condylar changes were more common in children with juvenile chronic arthritis than in the two comparison groups. Maximal molar and incisal bite forces and maximal molar bite force endurance times were also significantly reduced in children with juvenile chronic arthritis. It is concluded that the differences between the groups are caused mainly by the systemic inflammatory disease itself, but a functional influence of weakened masticatory muscles cannot be excluded.

  3. Non-biting flying insects as carriers of pathogenic bacteria in a Brazilian hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Borges Kappel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Insects have been described as mechanical vectors of nosocomial infections. Methods Non-biting flying insects were collected inside a pediatric ward and neonatal-intensive care unit (ICU of a Brazilian tertiary hospital. Results Most (86.4% of them were found to carry one or more species of bacteria on their external surfaces. The bacteria isolated were Gram-positive bacilli (68.2% or cocci (40.9%, and Gram-negative bacilli (18.2%. Conclusions Insects collected inside a hospital were carrying pathogenic bacteria; therefore, one must consider the possibility they may act as mechanical vectors of infections, in especially for debilitated or immune-compromised patients in the hospital environments where the insects were collected.

  4. Screening of oomycete fungi for their potential role in reducing the biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) larval populations in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Kirsty; Kurtböke, D Ipek

    2011-05-01

    Biting midges are globally distributed pests causing significant economic losses and transmitting arbovirus diseases to both animals and humans. Current biological and chemical control strategies for biting midge target destruction of adult forms, but strategies directed at immature stages of the insect have yet to be explored in Australia. In the present study, coastal waters of Hervey Bay region in Queensland, Australia were screened to detect the habitats of biting midge at immature stages. These results were then correlated to local environmental conditions and naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungal flora, in particular the Oomycete fungi, to determine their reducing effect on insect immature stages in the search for biological control agents in the region. The dominant species of biting midge found within this study was Culicoides subimmaculatus occuring between mean high water neaps and mean high water spring tide levels. Within this intertidal zone, the presence of C. subimmaculatus larvae was found to be influenced by both sediment size and distance from shore. Halophytophthora isolates colonized both dead and alive pupae. However, the association was found to be surface colonization rather than invasion causing the death of the host. Lack of aggressive oomycete fungal antagonists towards midge larvae might correlate with increased incidences of biting midge infestations in the region.

  5. Screening of Oomycete Fungi for Their Potential Role in Reducing the Biting Midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae Larval Populations in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ipek Kurtböke

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Biting midges are globally distributed pests causing significant economic losses and transmitting arbovirus diseases to both animals and humans. Current biological and chemical control strategies for biting midge target destruction of adult forms, but strategies directed at immature stages of the insect have yet to be explored in Australia. In the present study, coastal waters of Hervey Bay region in Queensland, Australia were screened to detect the habitats of biting midge at immature stages. These results were then correlated to local environmental conditions and naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungal flora, in particular the Oomycete fungi, to determine their reducing effect on insect immature stages in the search for biological control agents in the region. The dominant species of biting midge found within this study was Culicoides subimmaculatus occuring between mean high water neaps and mean high water spring tide levels. Within this intertidal zone, the presence of C. subimmaculatus larvae was found to be influenced by both sediment size and distance from shore. Halophytophthora isolates colonized both dead and alive pupae. However, the association was found to be surface colonization rather than invasion causing the death of the host. Lack of aggressive oomycete fungal antagonists towards midge larvae might correlate with increased incidences of biting midge infestations in the region.

  6. Comparison of different light sources for trapping Culicoides biting midges, mosquitoes and other dipterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Mikel; Alarcón-Elbal, Pedro María; Valle-Mora, Javier; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2016-08-15

    The response of Culicoides biting midges, mosquitoes and other dipterans to different wavelengths was evaluated in a farm meadow in northern Spain. A total of 9449 specimens of 23 species of Culicoides, 5495 other ceratopogonids (non-biting midges), 602 culicids and 12428 other mixed dipterans were captured. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suction light traps fitted with five light emitting diodes (LEDs) (white, green, red, blue, ultraviolet) were run for 15 consecutive nights. Significantly more Culicoides were collected in those traps fitted with green, blue or ultraviolet (UV) lights than in red and white-baited LED traps for the most abundant species captured: C. punctatus (37.5%), C. cataneii (26.5%) and C. obsoletus/C. scoticus (20.4%). Similar results were obtained for non-Culicoides ceratopogonids, mosquitoes and other mixed dipterans. Wavelengths in green (570nm) resulted effective for targeting some Culicoides species, culicids and other midges. In a second trial, the effectiveness of 4-W white and UV tubes was compared to traps fitted with UV LED and a standard incandescent light bulb. More specimens of all taxa were collected with fluorescent black light (UV) traps than with the other light sources, except culicids, which were recovered in high numbers from fluorescent white light traps.

  7. Transconsonantal coarticulatory patterns in VCV utterances: Effects of a bite block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusova, Yana; Weismer, Gary

    2002-05-01

    The concept of coordinative structures, or articulatory synergies, envisions a collection of articulators organized to achieve a specific articulatory goal or acoustic goal. The mandible figures prominently in concepts of articulatory synergies because of its potential interaction with labial and lingual shaping of the vocal tract. What happens to these hypothesized synergies when one component is taken out of the collective? Bite block articulation is a common experimental approach to eliminating the jaw from its synergistic role in articulation, and studies have shown that the speech mechanism is able to reorganize its target configurations almost immediately when speaking with a fixed jaw. In the current study we examine vowel-to-vowel, transconsonantal effects with and without a bite block. Although there is one study [Sussman, Fruchter, and Cable, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1995)] showing stability of coarticulatory effects in biteblock conditions, that conclusion was based primarily on locus equations. In the current study, we hypothesize that more traditional acoustic measures of right-to-left and left-to-right coarticulation will show that reducing an articulatory synergy by holding one of its components constant will result in different-from-typical coarticulatory behaviors. [Work supported by NIDCD Award No. DC 000319.

  8. Proximal lower limb vein thrombosis following vipera berus hand bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, T; Prüller, F; Froehlich, H; Werner, S; Hafner, F; Brodmann, M

    2010-05-01

    Vipera berus has a wide geographical distribution throughout Central and Northern Europe. The symptoms after a bite usually are mild, life threatening symptoms are mainly described in children. We describe a case of popliteal vein thrombosis of the right leg after systemic envenoming with Vipera berus venom after a bite in the right hand by a female Vipera berus in the alpine region of Styria, Austria. Changes of the plasmatic coagulation system were obvious in our patient. These changes were due to an activation of the coagulation system and might be the reason for the thrombotic event in this usually healthy young male person.

  9. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis due to insect bites?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen J Bhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is a rare severe cutaneous adverse reaction pattern that is mostly caused by the intake of drugs and rarely associated with viral infections, food allergens or toxins. Here we present the report of three patients who got admitted in our hospital for generalized pustulosis and fever after insect bites. The diagnosis of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis was made by EuroSCAR scoring. The drug etiology was excluded and spider bite was implicated as the etiological agent in these cases of AGEP which are the first such reported cases in India.

  10. [Snake bite in a 53-year-old female tourist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertheau, S; Aghdassi, A; Otto, M; Hegenscheid, K; Runge, S; Lerch, M M; Simon, P

    2015-02-01

    Snake bites are rare events in Germany and are not life-threatening with usually only mild clinical symptoms. The most widespread venomous snake is the common European adder (Vipera berus). Here we present the case of a 53-year-old woman who was bitten by a common adder. Although the patient was initially in stable condition she developed edematous swelling of the complete lower limb, subcutaneous bleeding, and rhabdomyolysis. The aim of this report is to raise awareness that even in a central European country like Germany snake bites with a life-threatening course can occur and need immediate attention and medical care.

  11. Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following monkey bite in a 2-month-old infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Srinivasan; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Raghavan, Renitha; Mahadevan, Subramanian; Madhugiri, Venkatesh S; Sistla, Sujatha

    2016-05-01

    Although cerebral abscesses caused by animal bites have been reported, they are extremely rare in infants and have not been described following monkey bite. A 55-day-old male infant presented with a multi-loculated Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following a monkey bite on the scalp. There was a clinical response to antibiotic therapy and repeated surgical aspiration followed by a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. This is the first report of a patient with a brain abscess following a monkey bite.

  12. Feeding biomechanics and theoretical calculations of bite force in bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) during ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habegger, Maria L; Motta, Philip J; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N

    2012-12-01

    Evaluations of bite force, either measured directly or calculated theoretically, have been used to investigate the maximum feeding performance of a wide variety of vertebrates. However, bite force studies of fishes have focused primarily on small species due to the intractable nature of large apex predators. More massive muscles can generate higher forces and many of these fishes attain immense sizes; it is unclear how much of their biting performance is driven purely by dramatic ontogenetic increases in body size versus size-specific selection for enhanced feeding performance. In this study, we investigated biting performance and feeding biomechanics of immature and mature individuals from an ontogenetic series of an apex predator, the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas (73-285cm total length). Theoretical bite force ranged from 36 to 2128N at the most anterior bite point, and 170 to 5914N at the most posterior bite point over the ontogenetic series. Scaling patterns differed among the two age groups investigated; immature bull shark bite force scaled with positive allometry, whereas adult bite force scaled isometrically. When the bite force of C. leucas was compared to those of 12 other cartilaginous fishes, bull sharks presented the highest mass-specific bite force, greater than that of the white shark or the great hammerhead shark. A phylogenetic independent contrast analysis of anatomical and dietary variables as determinants of bite force in these 13 species indicated that the evolution of large adult bite forces in cartilaginous fishes is linked predominantly to the evolution of large body size. Multiple regressions based on mass-specific standardized contrasts suggest that the evolution of high bite forces in Chondrichthyes is further correlated with hypertrophication of the jaw adductors, increased leverage for anterior biting, and widening of the head. Lastly, we discuss the ecological significance of positive allometry in bite force as a possible

  13. Abundance, biting behaviour and parous rate of anopheline mosquito species in relation to malaria incidence in gold-mining areas of southern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J E; Rubio-Palis, Y; Páez, E; Pérez, E; Sánchez, V

    2007-12-01

    A longitudinal entomological and epidemiological study was conducted in five localities of southern Venezuela between January 1999 and April 2000 to determine the abundance, biting behaviour and parity of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to climate variables and malaria incidence. A total of 3685 female anopheline mosquitoes, representing six species, were collected. The most abundant species were Anopheles marajoara Galvão & Damasceno (60.7%) and Anopheles darlingi Root (35.1%), which together represented 95.8% of the total anophelines collected. Abundance and species distribution varied by locality. Malaria prevalence varied from 12.5 to 21.4 cases per 1000 population. Transmission occurred throughout the year; the annual parasite index (API) for the study period was 813.0 cases per 1000 population, with a range of 71.6-2492 per 1000 population, depending on locality. Plasmodium vivax (Grassi & Feletti) (Coccidia: Plasmodiidae) accounted for 78.6% of cases, Plasmodium falciparum (Welch) for 21.4% and mixed infections (Pv+Pf) for 0.05) between mosquito abundance and rainfall. Correlations between malaria incidence by parasite species and mosquito abundance were not significant (P > 0.05). Monthly parous rates were similar for An. marajoara and An. darlingi throughout the year, with two peaks that coincided with the dry-rainy transition period and the period of less rain. Peaks in the incidence of malaria cases were observed 1 month after major peaks in biting rates of parous anophelines. Anopheles darlingi engages in biting activity throughout the night, with two minor peaks at 23.00-00.00 hours and 03.00-04.00 hours. Anopheles marajoara has a different pattern, with a biting peak at 19.00-21.00 hours and 76.6% of biting occurring before midnight. Although both vectors bite indoors and outdoors, they showed a highly significant (P Venezuela and to provide relevant information to be considered when planning and implementing vector control

  14. Hypopituitarism and AutoimmuneThyroiditis Following Snake Bite: An Unusual Clinical Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Sahana; Abi, Manesh S; Hickson, Ravali; David, Thambu; Rajaratnam, Simon

    2014-11-01

    Snake venom can cause local tissue damage and lead to coagulopathy, shock, neurotoxicity and acute kidney injury. Hypopituitarism is a rare complication following snake bite. It has been described following Russell's viper bite from Burma and South India. Herein we describe a patient who presented with severe thyrotoxicosis and partial hypopituitarism following snake bite.

  15. The riddle of the large loss in bite force after fast jaw-closing movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slager, GEC; Nagashima, T; van Willigen, JD

    In unloading experiments (in which the resistance to a forceful static bite is suddenly removed); it is shown that the residual bite force (when the jaw system is arrested shortly after the unloading) is remarkably small. For example, of a 100-N initial bite force, only 18 N is left after a jaw

  16. Contribution of the digastric muscles to the control of bite force in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanWilligen, JD; Slager, GEC; Broekhuijsen, ML

    1997-01-01

    The contribution of the (co-contracting) digastric muscles to the rapid decline in bite-force magnitude after unloading of a static bite was investigated by asking participants to perform two different biting tasks with sudden unloading, and correlating the degree of co-contraction of the digastrics

  17. Cervical vertebral column morphology and head posture in preorthodontic patients with anterior open bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Phong; Sarauw, Martin Toft; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2014-03-01

    Cervical vertebral column morphology and head posture were examined and related to craniofacial morphology in preorthodontic children and adolescents with anterior open bite. One hundred eleven patients (ages, 6-18 years) with an anterior open bite of more than 0 mm were divided into 2 groups of skeletal or dentoalveolar open bite. The skeletal open-bite group comprised 38 subjects (19 girls, 19 boys). The dentoalveolar open-bite group comprised 73 subjects (43 girls, 30 boys). Visual assessment of the cervical column and measurements of craniofacial morphology and head posture were made on profile radiographs. Deviations in the cervical vertebral column morphology occurred in 23.7% of the subjects in the skeletal open-bite group and in 19.2% in the dentoalveolar open-bite group, but the difference was not significant. Head posture was significantly more extended in the skeletal open-bite group compared with the dentoalveolar open-bite group (craniovertical angle [Mx/VER], P vertical craniofacial dimensions (P column morphology is described for the first time in children and adolescents with open bite. No significant differences in the cervical vertebral column's morphologic deviations were found between the skeletal and the dentoalveolar open-bite groups. Significant differences were found in head posture between the groups and with regard to associations with craniofacial dimensions. This might indicate a respiratory etiologic component in children with anterior open bite. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Heterogeneous feeding patterns of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, on individual human hosts in rural Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C Harrington

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito biting frequency and how bites are distributed among different people can have significant epidemiologic effects. An improved understanding of mosquito vector-human interactions would refine knowledge of the entomological processes supporting pathogen transmission and could reveal targets for minimizing risk and breaking pathogen transmission cycles.We used human DNA blood meal profiling of the dengue virus (DENV vector, Aedes aegypti, to quantify its contact with human hosts and to infer epidemiologic implications of its blood feeding behavior. We determined the number of different people bitten, biting frequency by host age, size, mosquito age, and the number of times each person was bitten. Of 3,677 engorged mosquitoes collected and 1,186 complete DNA profiles, only 420 meals matched people from the study area, indicating that Ae. aegypti feed on people moving transiently through communities to conduct daily business. 10-13% of engorged mosquitoes fed on more than one person. No biting rate differences were detected between high- and low-dengue transmission seasons. We estimate that 43-46% of engorged mosquitoes bit more than one person within each gonotrophic cycle. Most multiple meals were from residents of the mosquito collection house or neighbors. People ≤ 25 years old were bitten less often than older people. Some hosts were fed on frequently, with three hosts bitten nine times. Interaction networks for mosquitoes and humans revealed biologically significant blood feeding hotspots, including community marketplaces.High multiple-feeding rates and feeding on community visitors are likely important features in the efficient transmission and rapid spread of DENV. These results help explain why reducing vector populations alone is difficult for dengue prevention and support the argument for additional studies of mosquito feeding behavior, which when integrated with a greater understanding of human behavior will refine estimates of

  19. Bartonella henselae infection in a family experiencing neurological and neurocognitive abnormalities after woodlouse hunter spider bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bartonella species comprise a group of zoonotic pathogens that are usually acquired by vector transmission or by animal bites or scratches. Methods PCR targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) region was used in conjunction with BAPGM (Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium) enrichment blood culture to determine the infection status of the family members and to amplify DNA from spiders and woodlice. Antibody titers to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (Bvb) genotypes I-III, B. henselae (Bh) and B. koehlerae (Bk) were determined using an IFA test. Management of the medical problems reported by these patients was provided by their respective physicians. Results In this investigation, immediately prior to the onset of symptoms two children in a family experienced puncture-like skin lesions after exposure to and presumptive bites from woodlouse hunter spiders. Shortly thereafter, the mother and both children developed hive-like lesions. Over the ensuing months, the youngest son was diagnosed with Guillain-Barre (GBS) syndrome followed by Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). The older son developed intermittent disorientation and irritability, and the mother experienced fatigue, headaches, joint pain and memory loss. When tested approximately three years after the woodlouse hunter spider infestation, all three family members were Bartonella henselae seroreactive and B. henselae DNA was amplified and sequenced from blood, serum or Bartonella alpha-proteobacteria (BAPGM) enrichment blood cultures from the mother and oldest son. Also, B. henselae DNA was PCR amplified and sequenced from a woodlouse and from woodlouse hunter spiders collected adjacent to the family’s home. Conclusions Although it was not possible to determine whether the family’s B. henselae infections were acquired by spider bites or whether the spiders and woodlice were merely accidental hosts, physicians should consider the possibility that B

  20. A newly assembled human skeletal reference collection of modern and identified Filipinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Matthew C; Lee, Amanda B; Santos, Jana Andrea D; Vesagas, Nicole Marie C; Crozier, Rebecca

    2017-02-01

    A collection of 75 modern skeletons from the Philippines has recently been created, and is being housed at the Archaeological Studies Program of the University of the Philippines, Diliman, Philippines. All individuals lived during the 20th century, and almost all died within the 21st century. These individuals were accessioned from exhumed and abandoned tombs at the Manila North Cemetery, and most have documented age and sex from tombstone inscriptions. This paper describes the first season of recovery and the collection's current demographic composition, with the future addition of more individuals to the collection expected to follow. The Philippines has an immediate need for forensic resources given its large vulnerable population, widespread diaspora, and exposure to natural disasters. Having a collection of modern Filipinos available for study is critical to the advancement of forensic anthropology and skeletal biology, especially for this heavily understudied population and region of the world.