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Sample records for human bite mark

  1. Forensic odontology, part 4. Human bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J

    2011-04-23

    The aim of this paper is to give a brief overview of bite mark analysis: its usefulness and limitations. The study and analysis of such injuries is challenging and complex. The correct protocols for collection, management, preservation, analysis and interpretation of this evidence should be employed if useful information is to be obtained for the courts. It is now possible, with advances in digital technology, to produce more accurate and reproducible comparison techniques which go some way to preventing and reducing problems such as photographic distortions. Research needs to be continued to increase our knowledge of the behaviour of skin when bitten. However, when presented with a high quality bite mark showing good dental detail, and a limited, accessible number of potential biters, it can be extremely useful in establishing a link between the bitten person and the biter or excluding the innocent.

  2. Bite Mark Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Padmakumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bite mark analysis plays an important role in personal identi- fi cation in forensic odontology. They are commonly seen in violent crimes such as sexual assaults, homicides, child abuse, etc. Human bites are common on the face and are usually seen on prominent locations of the face such as the ears, nose and lips. Individual characteristics recorded in the bite marks such as fractures, rotations, attrition, and congenital malformations are helpful in identifying the individual who caused it. We are reporting the case of a 55-year-old lady with bite marks on her left ear, who was allegedly assaulted by the suspect. On the basis of characteristic features of the suspect’s dentition, it was concluded that the bite marks seen on the victim was most probably caused by the suspect.

  3. Comparison of the bite mark pattern and intercanine distance between humans and dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Kashyap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bite marks show uniqueness due to specific characteristics and arrangement of teeth, but when it comes to bite mark analysis, it is complicated by numerous factors such as animal bite, abuse etc., Humans and pet animals (dog bite marks analysis is by far the most demanding and complicated part of forensic dentistry. Aim: To analyze and compare bite marks of humans and the pet animals (dog using indirect method, so as to assess its usefulness and application in forensic odontology. Materials and Methods: 40 samples including 20 humans (10 males and 10 females and 20 dogs of different breed were included in the study. Bite registration of all the samples were obtained on modeling wax and intercanine distance were measured. Data were analyzed and results were tabulated. Results: Arch size and intercanine distance showed variable differences among humans and on average dogs showed more intercanine distance and arch size. Among dog breeds larger dogs showed larger variables when compared to smaller dogs. Conclusion: Assessment of bite marks evidences made by animals needs further investigation so that it can be a tool to assist the justice system to answer crucial questions.

  4. Comparison of the bite mark pattern and intercanine distance between humans and dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Bina; Anand, Sanjeev; Reddy, Sudhakara; Sahukar, Shruthi Basavaradhya; Supriya, Naga; Pasupuleti, Swetha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bite marks show uniqueness due to specific characteristics and arrangement of teeth, but when it comes to bite mark analysis, it is complicated by numerous factors such as animal bite, abuse etc., Humans and pet animals (dog) bite marks analysis is by far the most demanding and complicated part of forensic dentistry. Aim: To analyze and compare bite marks of humans and the pet animals (dog) using indirect method, so as to assess its usefulness and application in forensic odontology. Materials and Methods: 40 samples including 20 humans (10 males and 10 females) and 20 dogs of different breed were included in the study. Bite registration of all the samples were obtained on modeling wax and intercanine distance were measured. Data were analyzed and results were tabulated. Results: Arch size and intercanine distance showed variable differences among humans and on average dogs showed more intercanine distance and arch size. Among dog breeds larger dogs showed larger variables when compared to smaller dogs. Conclusion: Assessment of bite marks evidences made by animals needs further investigation so that it can be a tool to assist the justice system to answer crucial questions. PMID:26816456

  5. Comparison between five commonly used two-dimensional methods of human bite mark overlay production from the dental study casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloth, Saritha; Ganapathy, K S

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the most accurate bite mark overlay fabrication technique by studying two physical characteristics, i.e., area and rotation of biting edges of anterior teeth of thirty volunteers. The objective of the study was to evaluate the reliability and efficacy of five commonly used methods of human bite mark overlays using two dimensional (2D) digital images of dental study casts as a gold standard, to rank different methods according to statistically based determination of relative accuracy of each method and to determine its feasibility in Forensic science. Overlays were produced from the biting surfaces of six upper and six lower anterior teeth of 30 volunteers using the following five methods: a) hand tracing from study casts, b) hand tracing from wax impressions, c) xerographic method, d) radiopaque impression method and e) 2D computer-based method. Area of the biting edges of the anterior teeth and relative rotation of each anterior tooth were measured and compared. The xerographic method was determined to be the more accurate method with respect to tooth area and rotation. Hand tracing methods, from either wax impressions of teeth or directly from study casts, were determined to be inaccurate and subjective. It is recommended that forensic odontologists discontinue the use of hand tracing overlays in bite mark comparison cases as there is lot of scope for manipulation and observer bias.

  6. Human bites - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - human - self-care ... Human bites can occur in 2 ways: If someone bites you If your hand comes into contact ... bite to express anger or other negative feelings. Human bites may be more dangerous than animal bites. ...

  7. Human bites (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  8. Bite marks on skin and clay: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Gorea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bite marks are always unique because teeth are distinctive. Bite marks are often observed at the crime scene in sexual and in physical assault cases on the skin of the victims and sometimes on edible leftovers in burglary cases. This piece of evidence is often ignored, but if properly harvested and investigated, bite marks may prove useful in apprehending and successfully prosecuting the criminals. Due to the importance of bite marks, we conducted a progressive randomised experimental study conducted on volunteers. A total of 188 bite marks on clay were studied. Based on these findings, 93.34% of the volunteers could be identified from the bite marks on the clay. In addition, 201 impressions on skin were studied, and out of these cases, 41.01% of the same volunteers could be identified based on the bite mark impressions on the skin.

  9. Quantitative forensic evaluation of bite marks with the aid of a shape analysis computer program: Part 2; "SCIP" and bite marks in skin and foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, P; Bridges, T E; Brown, K A

    1995-12-01

    In a previous paper 1, we have shown that the use of an interactive shape analysis computer program ("SCIP") and the derivation of a quantitative Similarity Index 1 greatly facilitated the comparison of experimental flat wax bite marks with the dentition of various 'suspects' and the identification of the agent producing the bite. In this study, "SCIP" was employed in an attempt to quantify the comparison, in the form of the Similarity Index (S.I.), between the "offender's" teeth and the bite marks produced on foodstuffs and on human skin, under experimental conditions. The use of "SCIP" and the S.I. is recommended as a routine means of eliminating suspects in bite mark cases. If a reasonable number of reference points have been registered in the bitten material and particularly if the perpetrator has any unusual features in the anterior dentition, the matching of the bite mark with the actual offender is a possibility with this method.

  10. Microbial analysis of bite marks by sequence comparison of streptococcal DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darnell M Kennedy

    Full Text Available Bite mark injuries often feature in violent crimes. Conventional morphometric methods for the forensic analysis of bite marks involve elements of subjective interpretation that threaten the credibility of this field. Human DNA recovered from bite marks has the highest evidentiary value, however recovery can be compromised by salivary components. This study assessed the feasibility of matching bacterial DNA sequences amplified from experimental bite marks to those obtained from the teeth responsible, with the aim of evaluating the capability of three genomic regions of streptococcal DNA to discriminate between participant samples. Bite mark and teeth swabs were collected from 16 participants. Bacterial DNA was extracted to provide the template for PCR primers specific for streptococcal 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA gene, 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS and RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB. High throughput sequencing (GS FLX 454, followed by stringent quality filtering, generated reads from bite marks for comparison to those generated from teeth samples. For all three regions, the greatest overlaps of identical reads were between bite mark samples and the corresponding teeth samples. The average proportions of reads identical between bite mark and corresponding teeth samples were 0.31, 0.41 and 0.31, and for non-corresponding samples were 0.11, 0.20 and 0.016, for 16S rRNA, ITS and rpoB, respectively. The probabilities of correctly distinguishing matching and non-matching teeth samples were 0.92 for ITS, 0.99 for 16S rRNA and 1.0 for rpoB. These findings strongly support the tenet that bacterial DNA amplified from bite marks and teeth can provide corroborating information in the identification of assailants.

  11. A comparison of animal jaws and bite mark patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmann, Denise C; Brumit, Paula C; Schrader, Bruce A; Senn, David R

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the jaw shapes and bite mark patterns of wild and domestic animals to assist investigators in their analysis of animal bite marks. The analyses were made on 12 species in the Order Carnivora housed in the Mammalian Collection at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, Illinois. In addition to metric analysis, one skull from each species was photographed as a representative sample with an ABFO No. 2 scale in place. Bite patterns of the maxillary and mandibular dentition were documented using foamed polystyrene exemplars, which were also photographed. A total of 486 specimens were examined to analyze the jaw and bite mark patterns. A modified technique for measuring intercanine distances was developed to more accurately reflect the characteristics seen in animal bite marks. In it, three separate areas were measured on the canines, rather than just the cusp tip. This was to maximize the amount of information acquired from each skull, specifically to accommodate variances in the depth of bite injuries.

  12. A comparative study between xerographic, computer-assisted overlay generation and animated-superimposition methods in bite mark analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Meng Wei; Chong, Zhen Feng; Asif, Muhammad Khan; Rahmat, Rabiah A; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran

    2016-09-01

    This study was to compare the suitability and precision of xerographic and computer-assisted methods for bite mark investigations. Eleven subjects were asked to bite on their forearm and the bite marks were photographically recorded. Alginate impressions of the subjects' dentition were taken and their casts were made using dental stone. The overlays generated by xerographic method were obtained by photocopying the subjects' casts and the incisal edge outlines were then transferred on a transparent sheet. The bite mark images were imported into Adobe Photoshop® software and printed to life-size. The bite mark analyses using xerographically generated overlays were done by comparing an overlay to the corresponding printed bite mark images manually. In computer-assisted method, the subjects' casts were scanned into Adobe Photoshop®. The bite mark analyses using computer-assisted overlay generation were done by matching an overlay and the corresponding bite mark images digitally using Adobe Photoshop®. Another comparison method was superimposing the cast images with corresponding bite mark images employing the Adobe Photoshop® CS6 and GIF-Animator©. A score with a range of 0-3 was given during analysis to each precision-determining criterion and the score was increased with better matching. The Kruskal Wallis H test showed significant difference between the three sets of data (H=18.761, poverlay generation and lastly the xerographic method. The superior precision contributed by digital method is discernible despite the human skin being a poor recording medium of bite marks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An examination of the psychological aspects of bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, R A

    1984-03-01

    The intent of this paper is to present some psychological threads which appear to be operative for the perpetrator of bite marks. In the catalogue of multiple motivations, there appears to be a current theme of power, control, potency, and the attempt to have a psychological symbolization of the perpetrator's omniscient capacity for absorbing life essences. In an examination of these highly complex needs, the modern perpetrator appears to act out consistently with cultural biases coupled with immediate psychological needs which have pressed for expression. Due to a pattern of psychologically expressed ritualism, the perpetrator will often inadvertently leave important psychological clues at the crime scene. The attack style, mode of death, characteristics of the victim, etc.--these components reveal the information on the type of psychological needs that the perpetrator is trying to satisfy. In the cases of bite marks associated with violent crime, it becomes crucial to an "investigator" what type of personality characteristics are welded together to form this kind of need complex. After reviewing cases reported in the literature and after conducting psychological interviews with perpetrators, three major groups of perpetrators seem to be apparent. The first group is motivated out of an anger track, the second group is motivated out of sadistic biting, and the third is out of the more traditional "cannibal complex" motif.

  14. Identifikasi bite marks dengan ekstraksi DNA metode Chelex (Bite marks identification with Chelex methods in DNA extraction

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    Imelda Kristina Sutrisno

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the case of crime often encountered evidence in bite marks form that was found on the victim’s body. Generally, bitemarks identification use standard techniques that compare the interpretation picture with the tooth model of suspected person. However, sometimes the techniques do not obtain accurate results. Therefore another technique is needed to support the identification process,such as DNA analysis that use the remaining epithelium attached in saliva to identify the DNA of the suspected person. In this processes a limited DNA material could be met, not only less in quantity but also less in quality. Chelex known as one of an effective DNA extraction method in DNA forensic case is needed to overcome this problem. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the use of Chelex as DNA extraction method on a bitemarks sample models. Methods: The blood and bitemarks of 5 persons with were taken. The DNA of each subject was exctracted with Chelex and quantified the quantity with UV Spechtrophotometer. The DNA results was amplified by PCR at locus vWA and TH01 then vizualised by electrophoresis. Results: The electrophoresis’s results showed band at locus vWA and TH01 for blood sample and bite marks with no significant differences. Conclusion: The study showed that Chelex method could be use to extract DNA from bitemarks.Latar belakang: Dalam kasus kejahatan sering dijumpai bukti dalam bentuk bekas gigitan (bitemarks yang ditemukan pada tubuh korban. Umumnya, untuk mengidentifikasi bite marks menggunakan teknik standar yaitu membandingkan foto interpretasi dengan model gigi dari orang yang dicurigai. Namun demikian teknik ini terkadang tidak mendapatkan hasil yang akurat, sehingga diperlukan teknik lain untuk menunjang keberhasilan proses identifikasi pelaku, yakni melalui analisis DNA bitemarks, yang diperoleh dari saliva yang mengandung sisa epitel tersangka pelaku. Sampel DNA yang berasal dari bitemarks umumnya terbatas, tidak hanya

  15. Role of bite mark characteristics and localizations in finding an assailant

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    Huseyin Afsin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The location, size, and number of bite marks can be used as a beneficial indicator of the crime type and feasible group of suspects. This study aims to present information about the bite mark locations, the bite mark characteristics, and the perpetrator′s profile based on three cases which were carried out by the same biter. The attack bites, which observed in all of the three cases, were characterized by serious wounds and tissue loss. Analysis of bite mark characteristics and bite mark localizations of these three cases by the relevant experts provided helpful information for the police units which searched for the assailant. But, in order to conduct criminal profiling from bite marks objectively, the number of case series is advised to be expanded.

  16. Bite marks in mink—Induced experimentally and as reflection of aggressive encounters between mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen Henrik; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2014-01-01

    by an artificial tooth. Before pressure wasapplied, each mink was anaesthetized and pain treated.In order to investigate when bite marks from cage mates are inflicted and to what extendthey accumulate over time, 120 brown and 40 white juvenile mink were placed in groupsof four in climbing cages after weaning......, the pelt during the growth phase of the winter coat will producemarks that can be recognized as bite marks at pelting, (2) bite marks applied experimentally by use of an artificial tooth or occurring due to social/aggressive interactions (bites)between mink are only visible if pressure/bite on the mink......: (1) experimentally applied pressure on the skin can be recog-nized as bite marks in brown mink at pelting, (2) bite marks are easier to detect on brownmink than on white coloured mink (P tooth or occurring due to social...

  17. Inconsistency in opinions of forensic odontologists when considering bite mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Brown, Nathan Lee

    2016-09-01

    There has been controversy surrounding the principles of bite mark analysis, and also the opinions reached by forensic odontologists. The purpose of this study was to assess the consistency of opinions formed by forensic odontologists, both for individual odontologists after a period of time, and between odontologists. 23 forensic odontologists participated, and opinions on 4 cases per member were requested. The request was then repeated after a 8 week period. Results highlighted an inconsistency in opinions between odontologists, and also an inconsistency in opinion for individual members over time, even for experienced odontologists. Inconsistencies varied from whether the mark could be from human or animal, and also from adult or child. In conclusion, the authors recommend that bite mark evidence should be treated with caution.

  18. 三维锥形束CT用于人牙咬痕认定的有效性比较研究%Effectiveness Assessment of 3-D Cone Beam CT Used in Human Bite Marks Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴砚; 陈新民; 沈韵; 余锦豪; 唐莹; 张以鸣; 朱磊; 徐远志

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to use the 3-D cone beam CT (CBCT) as a new method in human bite marks identification which was carried out in experimental pigskin to assess its effectiveness in our laboratory. Bite marks were digital photographed according to American Board of Forensic Odontology (ABFO) guidelines. In this study, the data of the suspect's dental casts were collected by scanning in two ways: one was after plate scanning, in which the comparison overlays were generated by Adobe Photoshop8. 0 softwares the other was by CBCT, which generated comparison overlays automatically. The bite marks were blind identified with the two kinds of data of the suspect's dental casts respectively. ROC curve was used to analyze the sensitivity, specificity, and 95% confidence interval. The results showed that CBCT method got a larger area under the ROC curve: 0. 784 (SE=0. 074, 95% CI=0. 639-0. 929), and got a very high specificity (specificity 98. 7%, 95% CI=94. 5%-99. 8%). Thus, this study illustrates that the CBCT used in bite mark identification is an effective and accurate tool and has stronger ability to exclude suspects compared with the conventional method, but the comparison process needs further study to enhance its effectiveness in bite mark identification.%将三维锥形束CT(CBCT)用于人牙咬痕的认定,并通过猪皮载体上的实验咬痕开展其有效性分析.咬痕按照美国法医牙科协会(ABFO)指导原则进行数码拍照.嫌疑人牙模采用两种方法扫描采集数据:第一种是扫描仪扫描,再由常规方法Adobe Photoshop8.0软件生成比较overlay;第二种是使用CBCT三维扫描自动生成比较o-verlay.本研究将咬痕的数码相片分别与两种方法采集的牙模数据进行盲法比较认定,评定使用ROC曲线来分析灵敏度、特异度,并计算95%可信区间.结果显示CBCT法获得较大的ROC曲线下面积:0.784(SE=0.074,95%CI=0.639伍0.929);获得相当高的特异度(特异度98.7%,95

  19. A Finger Amputation Case Caused by Human Bite

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    Kamil Hakan Doğan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bite is a type of wound created with animal or human teeth. Bite wounds created by humans are encountered in situations as fighting, rape, murder and child abuse. Bite marks are usually observed on arms, neck, breasts, body, cheeks and legs. The teeth may penetrate to skin on the areas where bone or cartilage tissue lies underneath skin, and tissue loss may occur. Auricles are most frequent regions that occur tissue loss with bites. Finger amputation occurring with human bite is extremely rare. The case presented in this paper is a 28 years old man. In his medical history, the 3rd finger of his left hand was bitten during a fight two months ago. One centimeter shortness at the end point of the distal phalanx of the left 3rd finger because of tissue loss was found in the examination. In his left hand radiograph, bone defect at the middle part of the distal phalanx of 3rd finger was determined. The case has been discussed by comparing similar cases rarely reported in the literature. Keywords: Forensic medicine, human bite, amputation

  20. Guidelines for bite mark analysis. American Board of Forensic Odontology, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    Bite mark evidence is used in many courts and in the military justice system. Such evidence may be crucial to the resolution of the investigation. Detailed guidelines offer specific methods of collecting evidence.

  1. Case Report of a Newborn Injured By Human Bite

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    Emel Ataoğlu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bite is a type of wound received from the teeth of an animal, including humans. Human bites are third leading cause of all bites after dog and cat bites. Human bites are severe wounds due to the risk of contamination with mix oral flora and rapid tissue destruction. Bite wounds created by humans are seen in variety of circumstances including aggression, rape, murder, and child abuse. Oral cavity contains beta-hemolytic streptococci, anaerobes and other microorganisms. There have been reported cases of septicemia, severe necrotizing fasciitis, HIV infection, and death caused by human bites. Early reporting and treatment of bite wounds decrease the number and severity of wound infection. Here, we present the case of human bite in a nine-day-old girl and discuss the treatment approaches in the light of the relevant literature.

  2. Computer–based method of bite mark analysis: A benchmark in forensic dentistry?

    OpenAIRE

    Nandita Kottieth Pallam; Karen Boaz; Srikant Natrajan; Minu Raj; Nidhi Manaktala; Lewis, Amitha J

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to determine the technique with maximum accuracy in production of bite mark overlay. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects (10 males and 20 females; all aged 20–30 years) with complete set of natural upper and lower anterior teeth were selected for this study after obtaining approval from the Institutional Ethical Committee. The upper and lower alginate impressions were taken and die stone models were obtained from each impression; overlays were produced from the biting ...

  3. Applicability of Berry′s index in bite mark analysis

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    Palathottungal Joseph Antony

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study attempts to highlight the usefulness of applying Berry′s Index as an adjuvant to support and aid in bite analysis. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among 100 students between the ages of 18-30 from Mar Baselios Dental Collage, Kothamangalam. Out of the 100 subjects, there were 50 males and 50 females. The data obtained was tabulated and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, Version 16 (SPSS. Results: The mean value of the width of the upper central incisor for male and female was 0.7602 cm and 0.7765 cm respectively. The mean value of the bizygomatic width for male and female was 12.54 cm and 12.42 cm respectively. The correlation between the upper central incisor width and the bizygomatic width was inferred to have a good positive correlation with a value 0f 0.613. Pearson correlation coefficient with greater correlation between the upper central incisor width and the bizygomatic width in female patient (r = 0.678 compared with male patient (r = 0. 525. Conclusion: Berry′s Index can be a useful adjuvant to bite analysis by providing a means of determining the facial proportions of an individual from the width of the central incisors.

  4. Instrument for measuring human biting force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopola, Harri K.; Mantyla, Olavi; Makiniemi, Matti; Mahonen, Kalevi; Virtanen, Kauko

    1995-02-01

    Alongside EMG activity, biting force is the primary parameter used for assessing the biting problems of dentulous patients and patients with dentures. In a highly conductive oral cavity, dielectric measurement methods are preferred, for safety reasons. The maximum biting force for patients with removable dentures is not more than 100 ... 300 N. We report here on an instrument developed for measuring human biting force which consists of three units: a mouthpiece, a signal processing and interface unit (SPI), and a PC. The mouthpiece comprises a sensor head of thickness 3.4 mm, width 20 mm and length 30 mm constructed of two stainless steel plates and with a fiber optic microbending sensor between them. This is connected to the SPI unit by a three-meter fiber optic cable, and the SPI unit to the PC by an RS connection. A computer program has been developed that includes measurement, display, zeroing, and calibration operations. The instrument measures biting force as a function of time and displays the time-dependent force profile and maximum force on a screen or plots it in hard copy. The dynamic measurement range of the mouthpiece is from 0 to 1000 N, and the resolution of the instrument is 10 N. The results of preliminary clinical measurements and repeatability tests are reported.

  5. Quantitative forensic evaluation of bite marks with the aid of a shape analysis computer program: Part 1; The development of "SCIP" and the similarity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, P; Bridges, T E; Brown, K A

    1995-12-01

    Bite marks left on human tissue and bitten material have become an important aspect of scientific evidence used for the conviction or acquittal of a suspect. Expert opinion has often been based on subjective comparisons rather than any objective metrical analysis and many experts will agree that there is a need to employ additional comparative tests to achieve unbiased objectivity in their investigation. In this study, an interactive shape analysis computer program ("SCIP"-Shape Comparison Interactive Program) has been employed in an attempt to derive experimentally a quantitative comparison, in the form of a Similarity Index (S.I.), between the "offender's" teeth and the bite marks produced on a standard flat wax form. The S.I. values obtained using "SCIP" were evaluated in a variety of experimental bite mark situations. It was found that in no case could the S.I. values produced by comparison of the bite mark with the dental casts from non-perpetrators be confused with the much lower S.I. from comparison of the bite mark with the dental cast of the perpetrator. The use of the Similarity Index derived using the "SCIP" program is recommended as a simple, accurate and objective means of comparing bite marks in suitable forensic cases.

  6. Photography in bite mark and patterned injury documentation--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, F D

    1998-07-01

    Photography is an important means of collecting and preserving physical evidence as it relates to bite mark and patterned injuries in skin. Proper use and understanding of color, black-and-white, ultraviolet and infrared photography can greatly aid the collection and preservation of evidence. The techniques and equipment for the photo-documentation of this evidence are presented.

  7. Relevance of sampling and DNA extraction techniques for the analysis of salivary evidence from bite marks: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Briones, M L; Hernández-Cortés, R; Jaramillo-Rangel, G; Ortega-Martínez, M

    2015-08-21

    Bite mark evidence has been repeatedly found in criminal cases. Physical comparison of a bite mark to the teeth of available suspects may not always be possible. Experimental studies have shown that the analysis of DNA present in the saliva recovered from bite marks might help in the identification of individuals. However, the application of this approach to an actual criminal case has been reported only once before in forensic literature. Therefore, there is very limited scientific and technical information available on this subject. The current study focuses on a woman found dead in her home; the autopsy ruled the death to be a result of manual strangulation. A bite mark was found on each breast. The single swab technique was used to collect evidence from these bite marks, and an organic extraction method was employed for DNA isolation. Short tandem repeat (STR) sequence typing was performed using a commercially available kit, and the result was compared to the STR profile of a suspect. A full single-source STR profile was obtained from both bite marks, which matched the STR profile of the suspect. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report on the analysis of DNA isolated from bite marks on the victim used to identify the crime perpetrator. Our results indicated that, contrary to most theoretical indications, a single swab technique for evidence collection and an organic method for DNA isolation could be very useful in solving this class of criminal cases.

  8. Animal and Human Bites: Prophlaxis and Approach to the Treatment

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    Ahmet KARAKAŞ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal bites can cause complications ranging from slight injuries to serious infections. Infections can originate from the biter’s oral cavity and victims’s skin flora. Compared with animal bites, human bites have a higher risk of infection development. Most of the wound infections due to bites are caused by polymicrobials. Pasteurella species, streptococci, staphylococci, Moraxella, Corynebacterium, and Neisseria spp., Bergeyella zoohelcum and Capnocytophaga species are the most frequently isolated pathogens. Dogs (85-90 %, cats (5-10 %, humans (2-3 % and rodents (2-3 % are responsible for most of the bite injuries. Injuries due to dog bites occur mostly in men older than 20 years old and usually on the extremities. Cat bites and related injuries are found in 66 % on the upper extremities, typically on the hands. Bites of human origin are mostly occur in males between the ages of 20-30, and especially seen on the arms, fingers and head-neck regions. Most of the bites from rodents have a rat origin. Those bites often happen at night , especially on the face or hand of children under five years old who live in poor hygienic conditions. The dog bites are mostly due to the crush-style injuries and in 4-25 % of those injuries an infection develops in about 24 hours. Because of their sharp teeth, cats cause puncture-type wounds. Approximately 30-50 % of the cat bite wounds become infected 12 hours later. Hand, face and genital region wounds have a higher risk for the occurrence of an infection, because of their special anatomical structure. In case of risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, kidney failure, long term steroid use, splenectomy, extreme ages (children and elderly people and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, infection could easily spread to the deep tissues. The suturing of bite wounds remain controversial. Infected wounds and bites older than 24 hours could be left open. Cosmetically problematic wounds like on the face

  9. Analysis of bite marks in foodstuffs by computer tomography (cone beam CT)--3D reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Jeidson; Musse, Jamilly; Caetano, Catarina; Corte-Real, Francisco; Corte-Real, Ana Teresa

    2013-12-01

    The use of three-dimensional (3D) analysis of forensic evidence is highlighted in comparison with traditional methods. This three-dimensional analysis is based on the registration of the surface from a bitten object. The authors propose to use Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT), which is used in dental practice, in order to study the surface and interior of bitten objects and dental casts of suspects. In this study, CBCT is applied to the analysis of bite marks in foodstuffs, which may be found in a forensic case scenario. 6 different types of foodstuffs were used: chocolate, cheese, apple, chewing gum, pizza and tart (flaky pastry and custard). The food was bitten into and dental casts of the possible suspects were made. The dental casts and bitten objects were registered using an x-ray source and the CBCT equipment iCAT® (Pennsylvania, EUA). The software InVivo5® (Anatomage Inc, EUA) was used to visualize and analyze the tomographic slices and 3D reconstructions of the objects. For each material an estimate of its density was assessed by two methods: HU values and specific gravity. All the used materials were successfully reconstructed as good quality 3D images. The relative densities of the materials in study were compared. Amongst the foodstuffs, the chocolate had the highest density (median value 100.5 HU and 1,36 g/cm(3)), while the pizza showed to have the lowest (median value -775 HU and 0,39 g/cm(3)), on both scales. Through tomographic slices and three-dimensional reconstructions it was possible to perform the metric analysis of the bite marks in all the foodstuffs, except for the pizza. These measurements could also be obtained from the dental casts. The depth of the bite mark was also successfully determined in all the foodstuffs except for the pizza. Cone Beam Computed Tomography has the potential to become an important tool for forensic sciences, namely for the registration and analysis of bite marks in foodstuffs that may be found in a crime

  10. Human bite of the hand: clinical and surgical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Simancas-Pereira Hernán; Fonseca-Caro John Fredy; Acevedo-Granados Camilo Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: human bites of the hand carries a risk of infection and functional and/oraesthetic complications, according to the mechanism of trauma, duration and specificfactors of the victim and the aggressor. The management of acute episodes isessential and must be an interdisciplinary care.Objective: to review human bites of the hand.Methodology: Thematic review which included the evaluation of clinical casereports published in the last fifteen years in English and Spanish, obtained by el...

  11. Novel Low-Cost Sensor for Human Bite Force Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarred Fastier-Wooller

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and development of a low cost and reliable maximal voluntary bite force sensor which can be manufactured in-house by using an acrylic laser cutting machine. The sensor has been designed for ease of fabrication, assembly, calibration, and safe use. The sensor is capable of use within an hour of commencing production, allowing for rapid prototyping/modifications and practical implementation. The measured data shows a good linear relationship between the applied force and the electrical resistance of the sensor. The output signal has low drift, excellent repeatability, and a large measurable range of 0 to 700 N. A high signal-to-noise response to human bite forces was observed, indicating the high potential of the proposed sensor for human bite force measurement.

  12. Osteomyelitis and septic arthritis of the hand following human bites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnick, D.; Kerr, R.; Pineda, C.J.; Weisman, M.H.

    1985-10-01

    The spectrum of radiographic abnormalities accompanying bone and joint infection that results from human bites of the hand is presented in an analysis of 13 patients. Features include mono-articular involvement, predilection for a metacarpophalangeal joint, soft tissue swelling, joint space narrowing, bone erosions and periostitis. Magnification techniques may be required for early and accurate diagnosis. (orig.).

  13. Human Bites of the Face with Tissue Losses in Cosmopolitan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Milaki Asuku

    Abstract. A retrospective series of thirty-six cases of human bites to the face with tissue losses requiring .... other authors 3, 5The expression 'snatched lover' featured .... literature is replete with reports on re-implantation of ... review of 22 cases.

  14. Self inflicted human teeth bites: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Satinder Pal; Aggarwal, Akashdeep; Kaur, Sumeet; Singh, Dalbir

    2014-01-01

    Human infighting has been a part of our civilization since times immemorial. These incidences may go unnoticed or may attract attention of law enforcing agencies depending upon the severity of the offence. Though weapons are generally employed to inflict injuries, rare cases have been reported in literature where human teeth have been used to serve this purpose. Human bites may be self inflicted or self suffered in connivance with others to level an allegation against an adversary. We are pre...

  15. Simplified digital infra red photography: an alternative tool in Bite mark forensic investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decades ago, documentation of forensics evidences such as bitemarks, bloodstains and others which required sophisticated photographic techniques and equipments such as infrared (IR and ultraviolet (UV photography, became a problem since they only use film that must be developed. Therefore, direct evaluation of the photographic result could not be directly visualized. The equipments prices were relatively high. Moreover, most of the equipments were still not available and relatively expensive; and converted IR digital camera could not use for regular photography. Recently, digital camera made image documentation and editing easier. Purpose: This review was aimed to explore the different characteristics and benefits of regular digital camera in IR forensic photography as well as to simplify the equipments needed. Reviews: IR photography becomes easier since certain digital cameras could capture the IR image by using IR filters or to be switched to IR camera. The regular non-SLR digital camera had certain advantages compared to SLRs, such in focusing. However, since not every digital camera has the ability to capture IR light, laser pointer or TV remote could be used as a tester. Conclusion: Knowledge about IR Bite mark photography, characteristics of regular digital camera and its accesories could reduce the budget for an ideal standard forensic photographic equipments by modifications.Latar belakang: Puluhan tahun silam, dokumentasi bukti forensik seperti teraan gigit, bercak darah dan sebagainya yang memerlukan teknik dan peralatan yang canggih seperti fotografi infra merah (IR dan ultraviolet (UV merupakan masalah karena memakai film yang harus diproses terlebih dahulu untuk mengetahui hasilnya. Akibatnya, hasil pemotretan tidak bisa langsung dievaluasi, selain itu harganya relatif mahal, kamera digital yang diubah menjadi kamera IR tidak bisa untuk pemotretan biasa. Saat ini kamera digital dan program komputer mempermudah

  16. Digital analysis of bite marks and human identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, C M; Johansen, R J

    2001-04-01

    This article introduces the dental investigator to the basic concepts of digital imaging techniques as they apply to crime scene photographic evidence. In all aspects of forensic dentistry, analytical comparison methods demand rigorous attention to scale dimensions and the detection of photographic distortion in images of forensic interest. Dental radiographs, photographic slides, negatives, prints, and digital images are all amenable to digital techniques that are useful in controlling quality and expanding the abilities of the forensic dentist to compare known and questioned evidence. The intent of this article is to show accurate means of measuring physical parameters of dental evidence, correction of common photographic distortion and size discrepancies, elimination of examiner subjectivity, better control of image visualization, and standardization of comparison procedures.

  17. Reliability and Analysis of Changes in Bite Marks at Different Time Intervals and Temperature Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Khare Sinha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to assess time-dependent changes in the morphology of bitemarks and to investigate the utility of matching bitemarks on both perishable and non-perishable objects with the passage of time at different temperatures. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted at Maharana Pratap College of Dentistry and Research Centre, Gwalior, India. 20 volunteers were asked to bite 6 items each. These included perishable and nonperishable items. Perishable items were apple, banana and Burfi, (a milk-based popular sweet confectionary while non-perishable items included wax, clay, and rubber. Photographs were taken with a digital camera at 0-hours and 24-hours after biting these objects at temperature ranges of 24 ºC to 28 ºC and 36 ºC to 40 ºC, respectively. Life-size photographs of these bitten objects were printed on transparent overlays and compared to hand drawn transparencies prepared from suspect dentition using an X-ray viewer. The comparison of all the 960 transparencies was done by two researchers, independently. Results: All objects gave a positive identification of the biter on matching just after biting. After24-hours, all items also showed positive matching except banana and apples. Conclusion: This proposed method is simple, reliable and less technique sensitive. It narrows down the subjectivity of interpretation. It highlights that due to decomposition changes occur in perishable food items and more so in apples and bananas, making bitemarks less reliable evidence.

  18. Bacteroides pyogenes causing serious human wound infection from animal bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jillian S Y; Korman, Tony M; Yeung, Alex; Streitberg, Richard; Francis, Michelle J; Graham, Maryza

    2016-12-01

    Bacteroides pyogenes is part of the normal oral flora of domestic animals. There is one previous report of human infection, with B. pyogenes bacteremia following a cat bite (Madsen 2011). We report seven severe human infections where B. pyogenes was identified by Bruker matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDTI-TOF MS), but not by VITEK MS and was misidentified by VITEK ANC card. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Management of a case of human bite complicated by myonecrosis and compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaran, Sibel; Ozkan, Cenk; Coskun-Benlidayi, Ilke; Kozanoglu, Erkan

    2009-03-01

    Case reports concerning rare complications of human bite injuries are uncommon in the literature. Further, rehabilitation of the resultant dysfunction is also hardly reported. A 41-year-old housewife who had had a human bite during an altercation 6 months ago was referred to the rehabilitation department with a nonfunctioning right hand. Twelve days after the injury she developed a compartment syndrome with complicating myonecrosis, which required fasciotomy and resulted in amputation of the fifth digit on the 17th day. Soft-tissue defects were reconstructed with skin grafts. Unfortunately, the patient did not attend followup visits, and 6 months after the initial injury she had to be admitted to the rehabilitation department with a nonfunctional hand. She had marked limitations of range of motion of the wrist and almost all finger joints. A rehabilitation program was initiated to improve the functional limitations of her hand. After the rehabilitation program, she was able to use her right hand in her daily routine activities. Rehabilitation can still be useful in order to avoid permanent disability even in late and complicated cases of bite injuries.

  20. Dog bites in humans and estimating human rabies mortality in rabies endemic areas of Bhutan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenzin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dog bites in humans are a public health problem worldwide. The issues of increasing stray dog populations, rabies outbreaks, and the risk of dogs biting humans have been frequently reported by the media in Bhutan. This study aimed to estimate the bite incidence and identify the risk factors for dog bites in humans, and to estimate human deaths from rabies in rabies endemic south Bhutan. METHODS: A hospital-based questionnaire survey was conducted during 2009-2010 among dog bites victims who visited three hospitals in Bhutan for anti-rabies vaccine injection. Decision tree modeling was used to estimate human deaths from rabies following dog bite injuries in two rabies endemic areas of south Bhutan. RESULTS: Three hundred and twenty four dog bite victims were interviewed. The annual incidence of dog bites differed between the hospital catchment areas: 869.8 (95% CI: 722.8-1022.5, 293.8 (240-358.2 and 284.8 (251.2-323 per 100,000 people in Gelephu, Phuentsholing and Thimphu, respectively. Males (62% were more at risk than females (P<0.001. Children aged 5-9 years were bitten more than other age groups. The majority of victims (71% were bitten by stray dogs. No direct fatal injury was reported. In two hospital areas (Gelephu and Phuentsholing in south Bhutan the annual incidence of death from rabies was 3.14 (95% CI: 1.57-6.29 per 100,000 population. The decision tree model predicted an equivalent annual incidence of 4.67 (95% CI: 2.53-7.53 deaths/100,000 population at risk. In the absence of post exposure prophylaxis, the model predicted 19.24 (95% CI: 13.69-25.14 deaths/year in these two areas. CONCLUSIONS: Increased educational awareness of people about the risk of dog bites and rabies is necessary, particularly for children in rabies endemic areas of Bhutan.

  1. Geo(Im)pulseBite marks on early Holocene Tursiops truncatus fossils from the North Sea indicate scavenging by rays (Chondrichthyes, Rajidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netten, H.H. van; Reumer, J.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    A number of Tursiops truncatus mandibles in the collection of fossil marine mammals in the Rotterdam Natural History Museum have marks consisting of several parallel linear grooves. These marks are also found on four atlas complexes, a scapula and on one vertebra. The hypothesis that they are bite m

  2. Human Bite of a Staff Nurse on a Psychiatric Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suguna, Anbazhagan; Joseph, Bobby

    2016-04-01

    Occupational violence among health care professionals is a cause for concern, although often neglected especially in developing countries like India. Violence undermines the healing mission of the health care organization and interferes with the ability of the health care team to optimally contribute to positive patient outcomes. The authors discuss a case of a human bite of a staff nurse on a psychiatric unit in a tertiary care Indian hospital. The reported violence against this staff nurse lead to her admission for emergency care followed by emotional stress. Issues related to prevention of occupational violence are also discussed. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Geo(Im)pulseBite marks on early Holocene Tursiops truncatus fossils from the North Sea indicate scavenging by rays (Chondrichthyes, Rajidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Netten, H.H. van; Reumer, J.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    A number of Tursiops truncatus mandibles in the collection of fossil marine mammals in the Rotterdam Natural History Museum have marks consisting of several parallel linear grooves. These marks are also found on four atlas complexes, a scapula and on one vertebra. The hypothesis that they are bite marks and were caused by scavenging rays (Rajidae, Chondrichthyes) was tested with a real-life experiment using different shark and ray species, allowing them to scavenge on cow ribs as proxies for ...

  4. Describing the relationship between cat bites and human depression using data from an electronic health record.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Hanauer

    Full Text Available Data mining approaches have been increasingly applied to the electronic health record and have led to the discovery of numerous clinical associations. Recent data mining studies have suggested a potential association between cat bites and human depression. To explore this possible association in more detail we first used administrative diagnosis codes to identify patients with either depression or bites, drawn from a population of 1.3 million patients. We then conducted a manual chart review in the electronic health record of all patients with a code for a bite to accurately determine which were from cats or dogs. Overall there were 750 patients with cat bites, 1,108 with dog bites, and approximately 117,000 patients with depression. Depression was found in 41.3% of patients with cat bites and 28.7% of those with dog bites. Furthermore, 85.5% of those with both cat bites and depression were women, compared to 64.5% of those with dog bites and depression. The probability of a woman being diagnosed with depression at some point in her life if she presented to our health system with a cat bite was 47.0%, compared to 24.2% of men presenting with a similar bite. The high proportion of depression in patients who had cat bites, especially among women, suggests that screening for depression could be appropriate in patients who present to a clinical provider with a cat bite. Additionally, while no causative link is known to explain this association, there is growing evidence to suggest that the relationship between cats and human mental illness, such as depression, warrants further investigation.

  5. Necrotizing fasciitis due to Streptococcus mitis caused by accidental human bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Aliye; Kislak, Sumeyye; Mutlu, Nevzat Mehmet; Akcaboy, Zeynep Nur; Koksal, Asude; Sertcelik, Ahmet; Ünlü, Ramazan Erkin; Akinci, Esragul; Bodur, Hurrem

    2016-01-31

    Human bite wounds are more prone to infection than animal bites, which may cause necrotizing soft tissue infections such as myositis, fasciitis. Both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms may be responsible, including Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Peptostreptococcus spp. Necrotizing fasciitis is characterized by serious tissue destruction and systemic toxicity with high morbidity and mortality. We report a patient with Streptococcus mitis associated necrotizing fasciitis on the upper extremity resulting from an accidental human bite, which caused nearly fatal infection. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment should be given after a human bite to prevent infection. If the infection signs and symptoms develop, rapid diagnosis, appropriate antibiotic and surgical therapy should be administered immediately. Streptococcus mitis is a viridans streptococcus, usually known as a relatively benign oral streptococcus. To our knowledge, this is the first necrotizing fasciitis case due to Streptococcus mitis after human bite.

  6. Decline in human dog-bite cases during a street dog sterilisation programme in Jaipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, J F; Chawla, S K; Hiby, A R

    2013-05-04

    Human dog-bite injuries are a major public health problem, particularly where there are large populations of free-roaming or street dogs. Dog bites are also the major source of human rabies infections. There is little information on the means to reduce these injuries. Monthly human animal-bite injury records from January 2003 to June 2011 were obtained from the main government hospital in Jaipur, India. The data were analysed and compared with records of pregnancy in street dogs in Jaipur obtained from a street dog sterilisation programme. Human animal-bite injuries showed a seasonal pattern which followed by approximately 10 weeks the seasonal peak of street dog breeding. The number of human animal bites has declined significantly since 2003. It is concluded that a street dog sterilisation programme can reduce human dog-bite injuries by reducing the maternal protective behaviour of the street dogs, as well as reducing the total size of the roaming dog population.

  7. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 15 to 20 of every 100 following dog or human bites. Treatment If your child is bleeding from ... dangerous than those from tame, immunized (against rabies) dogs and cats. The health of the animal also is important, so if ...

  8. Postural And Eye-Positional Effects On Human Biting Force: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altay Tabancacı

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscle groups affected on biting force are called temporal muscle as a major and masseter muscle as a minor. According to the human posture stability, forces of these muscles vary with the force directions. In this case, experimental investigation is strictly important such that biting force under different postural and eye- positional situations is changed. In this study, seven-male and seven-female within the age-range of 17-24 are considered corresponding to having with restorated molar tooth and without that type of tooth. With the help of specially designed biting fork, different posture- and eye-positions are investigated for experimental biting force analysis. Changes in eye-positions are not indicated significant difference for all postural positions. On one hand, it is obtained that biting force of no-filling tooth in men becomes maximum if facial muscles give full effort to biting. On the other hand, effect of facial muscles for women is not clearly noticed depending on the postural differences.

  9. Assessing human-dog conflicts in Todos Santos, Guatemala: bite incidences and public perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunney, Meg; Jones, Andria; Stiles, Enid; Waltner-Toews, David

    2011-12-15

    The issues surrounding dog bites are a major public health concern, particularly in areas of low income where accessibility to adequate health care, veterinary medicine and sufficient management of canine population control is low. An understanding of the risk factors associated with human-dog conflicts may be important when establishing dog bite and disease prevention strategies. In May 2008, a census of 12 consociated neighbourhoods in Todos Santos, Guatemala was conducted to investigate dog bite incidences and the public perception of free-roaming dog populations. Approximately 16.5% (78/472) of households reported at least one dog bite between May 2006 and May 2008. In total, 85 incidents occurred: 49.4% (42/85) with adults (≥18 years) and 50.6% (43/85) children (dog bites by victim gender or among age categories, there was a non-significant trend of higher cumulative incidence of dog bites in children aged six to 17 years compared to other age categories. The anatomical location of the bite varied, but bites to the legs were the most common (73/85; 85.9%). Of the 85 reported dog bites, 5.9% (5/85) were from dogs from the victims' own households, 48.2% (41/85) were from a neighbour's dog, 9.4% (8/85) were from dogs regularly seen in the community, and 15.3% (13/85) were from dogs not regularly seen in the community; the ownership status of the latter two categories of dogs could not be determined. Approximately 21% (18/85) of respondents did not know the type of dog that bit. Residents were asked for their opinions on potential problems associated with dogs in the community. The majority of respondents strongly agreed that dogs posed physical risks (78.8%; 372/472), could transmit infections to people (88.6%; 418/472), scared the family (82.4%; 389/472) and were too high in number (82.6%; 390/472). There were significant but weak correlations between owning a dog and expressing negative perceptions of community dogs (Spearman rhodog bite was not significantly

  10. Human bite injuries in the oro-facial region at the Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Elison NM

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human bites in the maxillofacial region compromise function and aesthetics, resulting in social and psychological effects. There is paucity of information regarding human bite injuries in Tanzania. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence, treatment modalities and prognosis of human bite injuries in the oro-facial region at the Muhimbili National Hospital Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods In a prospective study the details of patients with human bite injuries in the oro-facial region who attended at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Muhimbili National Hospital between January 2001 and December 2005 were recorded. Data included information on age, sex, site, duration of the injury at the time of reporting to hospital, reasons, details of treatment offered and outcome after treatment. Results A total of 33 patients, 13 males and 20 females aged between 12 and 49 years with human bite injuries in the oro-facial region were treated. Thirty patients presented with clean uninfected wounds while 3 had infected wounds. The most (45.5% frequently affected site was the lower lip. Treatment offered included thorough surgical cleansing with adequate surgical debridement and primary suturing. Tetanus prophylaxis and a course of broad-spectrum antibiotics were given to all the patients. In 90% of the 30 patients who were treated by suturing, the healing was uneventful with only 10% experiencing wound infection or necrosis. Three patients who presented with wounds that had signs of infection were treated by surgical cleansing with debridement, antibiotics and daily dressing followed by delayed primary suturing. Conclusion Most of the human bite injuries in the oro-facial region were due to social conflicts. Although generally considered to be dirty or contaminated they could be successfully treated by surgical cleansing and primary suture with a favourable outcome. Management of such injuries often need

  11. [Assignment of a bite-mark on the victim's skin to the dentition of the perpetrator by means of anomalies in the number and position of the frontal teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Reinhard E; Scheuer, Hanna A; Schulz, Friedrich

    2005-01-01

    This report is about a bite mark on the breast of a female corpse. The woman had been killed by ligature strangulation at the age of 76 years. The investigation of the dental casts of a suspected man showed some anomalies in the dentition and orthodontic variations. A comparison of the bite mark with these anomalies demonstrated the correspondence of several details. Consequently, the probability that the suspect was responsible for the bite mark was regarded as being very high. During the further investigations the suspect admitted the offence including the bite injury to the breast. The authors emphasize the importance of an exact photographic documentation as an indispensable prerequisite for an odontological comparison.

  12. Prevent Bite Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Prevention > Prevent Bite Wounds ... animals or other humans. Consider the following statistics: there are about 4.5 million dog bites reported annually in the United States, along ...

  13. Management of human bites of the face in Enugu, Nigeria | Olaitan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Methods:A retrospective review of the cases of human bites of the face that presented within a ten year period was carried out. ... Information obtained includes age, gender of the patients as well as that of the assailants and the relationship of the assailants to the ...

  14. Capybara Bites: Report of Human Injury Caused by a Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Vieira, Camille; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2015-12-01

    Health care demand due to animal bites is frequent, especially in the emergency department (ED). In addition to the physical trauma caused by bites, one should be concerned with infectious diseases that can be transmitted. The range of the lesions depends on the animal species. Bites of Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (capybaras) in humans are relatively uncommon. Capybaras are docile animals; however, their large rodent incisive teeth could cause serious injury. Localized care, antibiotic therapy when necessary, careful examination of the structures, tetanus and rabies immunization as indicated, and follow-up are recommended for wild animal bites. The authors hereby describe and discuss the medical management of a case of multiple lesions from capybara bites on the right thigh of a man. A 54-year-old male patient was admitted to the ED with a compression bandage soaked with blood after being bitten by a capybara. At the clinical examination, the patient had two lacerating wounds and multiple abrasions on the anterior face of the right thigh. Rabies prophylaxis was administered and the wounds were irrigated and closed with sterile dressings. Oral amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium for 7 days was administered to the patient. The patient was followed up; 3 months after the attack he returned to his previous level of activity without any complication. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: We recommend that practitioners and physicians should provide prompt attention due to potentially significant morbidities, particularly rabies. The adequate care of the wound will allow better aesthetic and functional results to victims of wild animal bites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lizard Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mite Bites Mollusk Stings Puss Moth Caterpillar Stings Scorpion Stings Sea Urchin Stings Snakebites Spider Bites Stingray ... Mite Bites Mollusk Stings Puss Moth Caterpillar Stings Scorpion Stings Sea Urchin Stings Snakebites Spider Bites Stingray ...

  16. Snake bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - snakes ... Snake bites can be deadly if not treated quickly. Because of their smaller body size, children are ... risk for death or serious complications due to snake bites. The right antivenom can save a person's ...

  17. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they become infected, you can develop serious medical problems. To prevent animal bites and complications from bites Never pet, handle, ...

  18. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius can be misdiagnosed as Staphylococcus aureus in humans with dog bite wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börjesson, S; Gómez-Sanz, E; Ekström, K; Torres, C; Grönlund, U

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether S. pseudintermedius is misdiagnosed as S. aureus by clinical laboratories when isolated from humans with dog bite wounds. In addition, we attempted to determine whether S. pseudintermedius isolates related to dog bite wounds share phenotypic and genotypic traits. S. pseudintermedius was identified by PCR targeting the nuc gene. Isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility using VetMIC GP-mo microdilution panels. The occurrence of genes encoding leukocidins, exfoliatins, pyrogenic toxin superantigens and enterotoxins was determined by PCR. The relatedness of S. pseudintermedius isolates was investigated using Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Out of 101 isolates defined as S. aureus by human clinical microbiology laboratories, 13 isolates were re-identified as S. pseudintermedius and one isolate was confirmed to carry the mecA gene, i.e. methicillin-resistant (MRSP). The MRSP isolate was also defined as multi-resistant. Two methicillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius isolates were also multi-resistant and five were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the exception of three S. pseudintermedius isolates belonging to multi locus sequence type (MLST) 158, all the isolates belonged to unique STs. All isolates contained lukS/F-I, siet and se-int, and expA were identified in two isolates and expB and sec canine-sel in one isolate respectively. S. pseudintermedius is frequently misdiagnosed as S. aureus from humans with dog bite wounds showing that it can act as an opportunistic pathogen in humans. No common phenotypic and genotypic traits shared by the S. pseudintermedius isolates could be identified.

  19. Rat Bite Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Rat Bite Fever Page Content Article Body Rat-bite fever is a disease that occurs in humans who ... ingestion of contaminated food or milk products (Haverhill fever). Most cases in the United States are caused ...

  20. Piranha attacks on humans in southeast Brazil: epidemiology, natural history, and clinical treatment, with description of a bite outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Vidal; Sazima, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    There are many tales describing ferocious schools of piranha attacking humans, but there are few scientific data supporting such behavior. The very few documented instances of humans attacked and eaten by piranha schools include 3 that occurred after death by other causes (eg, heart failure and drowning). These predaceous fishes, however, do occasionally injure bathers and swimmers in lakes and rivers. The characteristic profile of most injuries is a single bite per victim, generally related to the fish defending its brood. This paper describes an outbreak of piranha bites in a dammed river portion in southeast Brazil. The outbreak was caused by the speckled piranha, Serrasalmus spilopleura, a widespread species which benefits from the growing tendency of damming rivers all over Brazil. This article focuses on the epidemiological and clinical aspects of the injuries, as well as on piranha biology, to gain a better understanding of the natural history of bite outbreaks.

  1. Human intestinal parasites in non-biting synanthropic flies in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenusi, Adedotun Adesegun; Adewoga, Thomas O Sunday

    2013-01-01

    Filth-feeding and breeding, non-biting synanthropic flies have been incriminated in the dissemination of human enteropathogens in the environment. This study determined the species of non-biting synanthropic flies associated with four filthy sites in Ilishan, Ogun State, southwest Nigeria, and assessed their potentials for mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites. 7190 flies identified as Musca domestica (33.94%), Chrysomya megacephala (26.01%), Musca sorbens (23.23%), Lucilia cuprina (8.76%), Calliphora vicina (4.59%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.78%) and Fannia scalaris (0.70%) were examined for human intestinal parasites by the formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Eggs of the following parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (34.08%), Trichuris trichiura (25.87%), hookworms (20.45%), Taenia sp. (2.36%), Hymenolepis nana (1.11%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.56%), Strongyloides stercoralis (larvae; 3.89%) and cysts of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (27.26%), Entamoeba coli (22.67%), Giardia lamblia (3.34%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.81%) were isolated from the body surfaces and or gut contents of 75.24% of 719 pooled fly batches. The helminths A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura and the protozoans, E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli were the dominant parasites detected, both on body surfaces and in the gut contents of flies. C. megacephala was the highest carrier of parasites (diversity and number). More parasites were isolated from the gut than from body surfaces (P parasites than those from abattoir, garbage or open-air market. Synanthropic fly species identified in this study can be of potential epidemiological importance as mechanical transmitters of human intestinal parasites acquired naturally from filth and carried on their body surfaces and or in the gut, because of their vagility and feeding mechanisms.

  2. Bacterial Profiling Reveals Novel "Ca. Neoehrlichia", Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma Species in Australian Human-Biting Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofton, Alexander W; Doggett, Stephen; Ratchford, Andrew; Oskam, Charlotte L; Paparini, Andrea; Ryan, Una; Irwin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In Australia, a conclusive aetiology of Lyme disease-like illness in human patients remains elusive, despite growing numbers of people presenting with symptoms attributed to tick bites. In the present study, we surveyed the microbial communities harboured by human-biting ticks from across Australia to identify bacteria that may contribute to this syndrome. Universal PCR primers were used to amplify the V1-2 hyper-variable region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in DNA samples from individual Ixodes holocyclus (n = 279), Amblyomma triguttatum (n = 167), Haemaphysalis bancrofti (n = 7), and H. longicornis (n = 7) ticks. The 16S amplicons were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform and analysed in USEARCH, QIIME, and BLAST to assign genus and species-level taxonomies. Nested PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to confirm the NGS data and further analyse novel findings. All 460 ticks were negative for Borrelia spp. by both NGS and nested PCR analysis. Two novel "Candidatus Neoehrlichia" spp. were identified in 12.9% of I. holocyclus ticks. A novel Anaplasma sp. was identified in 1.8% of A. triguttatum ticks, and a novel Ehrlichia sp. was identified in both A. triguttatum (1.2%) ticks and a single I. holocyclus (0.6%) tick. Further phylogenetic analysis of novel "Ca. Neoehrlichia", Anaplasma and Ehrlichia based on 1,265 bp 16S rRNA gene sequences suggests that these are new species. Determining whether these newly discovered organisms cause disease in humans and animals, like closely related bacteria do abroad, is of public health importance and requires further investigation.

  3. Bacterial Profiling Reveals Novel "Ca. Neoehrlichia", Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma Species in Australian Human-Biting Ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W Gofton

    Full Text Available In Australia, a conclusive aetiology of Lyme disease-like illness in human patients remains elusive, despite growing numbers of people presenting with symptoms attributed to tick bites. In the present study, we surveyed the microbial communities harboured by human-biting ticks from across Australia to identify bacteria that may contribute to this syndrome. Universal PCR primers were used to amplify the V1-2 hyper-variable region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in DNA samples from individual Ixodes holocyclus (n = 279, Amblyomma triguttatum (n = 167, Haemaphysalis bancrofti (n = 7, and H. longicornis (n = 7 ticks. The 16S amplicons were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform and analysed in USEARCH, QIIME, and BLAST to assign genus and species-level taxonomies. Nested PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to confirm the NGS data and further analyse novel findings. All 460 ticks were negative for Borrelia spp. by both NGS and nested PCR analysis. Two novel "Candidatus Neoehrlichia" spp. were identified in 12.9% of I. holocyclus ticks. A novel Anaplasma sp. was identified in 1.8% of A. triguttatum ticks, and a novel Ehrlichia sp. was identified in both A. triguttatum (1.2% ticks and a single I. holocyclus (0.6% tick. Further phylogenetic analysis of novel "Ca. Neoehrlichia", Anaplasma and Ehrlichia based on 1,265 bp 16S rRNA gene sequences suggests that these are new species. Determining whether these newly discovered organisms cause disease in humans and animals, like closely related bacteria do abroad, is of public health importance and requires further investigation.

  4. Frequent and recent human acquisition of simian foamy viruses through apes' bites in central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Betsem

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Human infection by simian foamy viruses (SFV can be acquired by persons occupationally exposed to non-human primates (NHP or in natural settings. This study aimed at getting better knowledge on SFV transmission dynamics, risk factors for such a zoonotic infection and, searching for intra-familial dissemination and the level of peripheral blood (proviral loads in infected individuals. We studied 1,321 people from the general adult population (mean age 49 yrs, 640 women and 681 men and 198 individuals, mostly men, all of whom had encountered a NHP with a resulting bite or scratch. All of these, either Pygmies (436 or Bantus (1085 live in villages in South Cameroon. A specific SFV Western blot was used and two nested PCRs (polymerase, and LTR were done on all the positive/borderline samples by serology. In the general population, 2/1,321 (0.2% persons were found to be infected. In the second group, 37/198 (18.6% persons were SFV positive. They were mostly infected by apes (37/39 FV (mainly gorilla. Infection by monkey FV was less frequent (2/39. The viral origin of the amplified sequences matched with the history reported by the hunters, most of which (83% are aged 20 to 40 years and acquired the infection during the last twenty years. The (proviral load in 33 individuals infected by a gorilla FV was quite low (<1 to 145 copies per 10(5 cells in the peripheral blood leucocytes. Of the 30 wives and 12 children from families of FV infected persons, only one woman was seropositive in WB without subsequent viral DNA amplification. We demonstrate a high level of recent transmission of SFVs to humans in natural settings specifically following severe gorilla bites during hunting activities. The virus was found to persist over several years, with low SFV loads in infected persons. Secondary transmission remains an open question.

  5. Mosquito Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... larvae, then pupae, and then they become adult mosquitos. The males live for about a week to ... can live for months. What health problems can mosquito bites cause? Most mosquito bites are harmless, but ...

  6. Frederiksenia canicola gen. nov., sp. nov. isolated from dogs and human dog-bite wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korczak, Bożena M.; Bisgaard, Magne; Christensen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Polyphasic analysis was done on 24 strains of Bisgaard taxon 16 from five European countries and mainly isolated from dogs and human dog-bite wounds. The isolates represented a phenotypically and genetically homogenous group within the family Pasteurellaceae. Their phenotypic profile was similar...

  7. Man bites mosquito: understanding the contribution of human movement to vector-borne disease dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Adams

    Full Text Available In metropolitan areas people travel frequently and extensively but often in highly structured commuting patterns. We investigate the role of this type of human movement in the epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens such as dengue. Analysis is based on a metapopulation model where mobile humans connect static mosquito subpopulations. We find that, due to frequency dependent biting, infection incidence in the human and mosquito populations is almost independent of the duration of contact. If the mosquito population is not uniformly distributed between patches the transmission potential of the pathogen at the metapopulation level, as summarized by the basic reproductive number, is determined by the size of the largest subpopulation and reduced by stronger connectivity. Global extinction of the pathogen is less likely when increased human movement enhances the rescue effect but, in contrast to classical theory, it is not minimized at an intermediate level of connectivity. We conclude that hubs and reservoirs of infection can be places people visit frequently but briefly and the relative importance of human and mosquito populations in maintaining the pathogen depends on the distribution of the mosquito population and the variability in human travel patterns. These results offer an insight in to the paradoxical observation of resurgent urban vector-borne disease despite increased investment in vector control and suggest that successful public health intervention may require a dual approach. Prospective studies can be used to identify areas with large mosquito populations that are also visited by a large fraction of the human population. Retrospective studies can be used to map recent movements of infected people, pinpointing the mosquito subpopulation from which they acquired the infection and others to which they may have transmitted it.

  8. Molecular and morphological identification of a human biting tick, Amblyomma testudinarium (Acari: Ixodidae), in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li-Lian; Lu, Chun-Wei; Lin, Ying-Fang; Shih, Chien-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Genetic identity and morphological features of a human biting tick, Amblyomma testudinarium, were determined for the first time in Taiwan. Morphological features of adult male and female ticks of Am. testudinarium were observed and photographed by a stereo- microscope. The genetic identity was analyzed by comparing the sequences of mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA gene obtained from 18 strains of ticks representing 10 species of Amblyomma, and four outgroup species of Dermacentor and Rhipicephalus ticks. Nine major clades could be easily distinguished by neighbour-joining analysis and were congruent by maximum-parsimony method. All these Am. testudinarium ticks collected from Taiwan and Japan were genetically affiliated to a monophyletic group with highly homogeneous sequence (99.8-100% similarity), and can be discriminated from other species of Amblyomma and other genera of ticks (Dermacentor and Rhipicephalus) with a sequence divergence ranging from 6.9 to 23.9%. Moreover, intra- and inter-species analysis based on the genetic distance (GD) values indicated a lower level (GD  0.108) of Amblyomma ticks, as well as outgroup (GD > 0.172) species. Our results provide the first distinguished features of adult Am. testudinarium ticks and the first genetic identification of Am. testudinarium ticks collected from humans in Taiwan. Seasonal prevalence, host range, and vectorial capacity of this tick species in Taiwan need to be further clarified.

  9. Bug Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Wasp Stings Flea and Tick Bites Mosquito Bites Spider Bites What to Do Serious Stuff — Get Medical ... diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever. Spider Bites Most spider bites are minor, although they can cause mild ...

  10. Stork bite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... newborns. A stork bite is due to a stretching (dilation) of certain blood vessels. It may become ... all birthmarks during a routine well-baby exam . Prevention There is no known prevention. Alternative Names Salmon ...

  11. Tick Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that go outdoors, you need to beware of ticks. Ticks are small bloodsucking parasites. Many species transmit diseases ... of the diseases you can get from a tick bite are Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted ...

  12. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Humans with Tick Bites and Erythema Migrans, in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahfari, Setareh; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Fonville, Manoj; van der Giessen, Joke; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Sprong, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Background Tick-borne diseases are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases in Europe. Knowledge on the incidence and clinical presentation of other tick-borne diseases than Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis is minimal, despite the high human exposure to these pathogens through tick bites. Using molecular detection techniques, the frequency of tick-borne infections after exposure through tick bites was estimated. Methods Ticks, blood samples and questionnaires on health status were collected from patients that visited their general practitioner with a tick bite or erythema migrans in 2007 and 2008. The presence of several tick-borne pathogens in 314 ticks and 626 blood samples of this cohort were analyzed using PCR-based methods. Using multivariate logistic regression, associations were explored between pathogens detected in blood and self-reported symptoms at enrolment and during a three-month follow-up period. Results Half of the ticks removed from humans tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Borrelia miyamotoi and several Babesia species. Among 92 Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. positive ticks, 33% carried another pathogen from a different genus. In blood of sixteen out of 626 persons with tick bites or erythema migrans, DNA was detected from Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (n = 7), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (n = 5), Babesia divergens (n = 3), Borrelia miyamotoi (n = 1) and Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. (n = 1). None of these sixteen individuals reported any overt symptoms that would indicate a corresponding illness during the three-month follow-up period. No associations were found between the presence of pathogen DNA in blood and; self-reported symptoms, with pathogen DNA in the corresponding ticks (n = 8), reported tick attachment duration, tick engorgement, or antibiotic treatment at enrolment. Conclusions Based on molecular

  13. INFLUENCE OF VISUAL FEEDBACK ON HUMAN ISOMETRIC BITE-FORCE TREMOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROEKHUIJSEN, ML; VANWILLIGEN, JD

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to recent reports, during an isometric short forceful bite, visual feedback had a significant influence on the force tremor spectrum. The value of a 'half-value frequency', being the frequency f1/2 at which, with increasing frequency, the amplitude of the spectrum for the first time drop

  14. INFLUENCE OF VISUAL FEEDBACK ON HUMAN ISOMETRIC BITE-FORCE TREMOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROEKHUIJSEN, ML; VANWILLIGEN, JD

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to recent reports, during an isometric short forceful bite, visual feedback had a significant influence on the force tremor spectrum. The value of a 'half-value frequency', being the frequency f1/2 at which, with increasing frequency, the amplitude of the spectrum for the first time drop

  15. Study on Serviceability Evaluation of Drill-string with Slip Bite-mark%含卡瓦作业损伤钻柱的适用性评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝效华; 李金和; 童华

    2012-01-01

    针对卡瓦在钻柱表面上留下的作业损伤对钻柱断裂失效有严重影响的问题,提出一套系统的卡瓦作业损伤对钻柱断裂失效影响的评价方法.以卡瓦内悬挂钻柱的受力分析及卡瓦对钻柱损伤的弹塑性力学分析为基础,建立卡瓦对钻柱的损伤模型;基于断裂力学理论,推导卡瓦作业损伤对钻柱断裂失效的评价参数,并且将钻柱的工作载荷、断裂韧性和缺陷尺寸(卡瓦作业损伤)三者紧密的联系起来评价含卡瓦作业损伤钻柱的适用性.根据理论分析,建立适合油田人员参考的含卡瓦作业损伤钻柱失效评价曲线图,并提出含卡瓦作业损伤钻柱的三级评定方法,为油田安全操作提供有效参考.%The fracture failure of the drill-string is badly impacted on the problem that bite-mark on the surface of drill-string caused by slip, a system method of evaluating the impact of slip bite-mark on the fracture failure of the drill-string is established. The damage model of drill-string is established based on the stress analysis of the drill-string hoisted by the slip and the elasticity and plasticity. The evaluation parameters of the fracture failure caused by the slip is obtained by analyzing the theory of fracture mechanics, and the axial load, the fracture toughness and the defect size are closely linked up to evaluate the serviceability of the drill-string. The failure evaluation curves of the drill-string with slip bite-mark is appropriated for the oil fields, according to the theoretical analysis. The three-level evaluation method for drill-string with cracks is presented, and an effective reference is provide to the oil fields security operation.

  16. EMG activities of two heads of the human lateral pterygoid muscle in relation to mandibular condyle movement and biting force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraba, K; Hibino, K; Hiranuma, K; Negoro, T

    2000-04-01

    Electromyographic (EMG) activities of the superior (SUP) and inferior heads (INF) of the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPT) were recorded in humans during voluntary stepwise changes in biting force and jaw position that were adopted to exclude the effects of acceleration and velocity of jaw movements on the muscle activity. The SUP behaved like a jaw-closing muscle and showed characteristic activity in relation to the biting force. It showed a considerable amount of background activity (5-32% of the maximum) even in the intercuspal position without teeth clenching and reached a nearly maximum activity at relatively lower biting-force levels than the jaw-closing muscles during increment of the biting force. Stretch reflexes were found in the SUP, the function of which could be to stabilize the condyle against the biting force that pulls the condyle posteriorly. This notion was verified by examining the biomechanics on the temporomandibular joint. The complex movements of the mandibular condyle in a sagittal plane were decomposed into displacement in the anteroposterior direction (Ac) and angle of rotation (RAc) around a kinesiological specific point on the condyle. In relation to Ac, each head of the LPT showed quite a similar behavior to each other in all types of jaw movements across all subjects. Working ranges of the muscle activities were almost constant (Ac 3 mm for the INF). The amount of EMG activity of the SUP changed in inverse proportion to Ac showing a hyperbola-like relation, whereas that of the INF changed rather linearly. The EMG amplitude of the SUP showed a quasilinear inverse relation with RAc in the hinge movement during which the condyle rotated with no movement in the anteroposterior direction. This finding suggests that the SUP controls the angular relationship between the articular disk and the condyle. On the other hand, the position of the disk in relation to the maxilla, not to the condyle, is controlled indirectly by the INF because the disk

  17. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Pets and AnimalsPrevention and WellnessStaying Healthy Share Cat and Dog Bites Cat and dog bites are ...

  18. Manejo quirúrgico urgente de heridas faciales por mordedura humana Urgent surgical management of facial human bite wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernández García

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Las heridas por mordedura pueden generar algunas dificultades quirúrgicas en su manejo inicial debido a su especial predisposición a las complicaciones sépticas y la importante destrucción tisular frecuentemente asociada. Sin embargo, es importante su reparación inmediata, especialmente en el caso de amputaciones y colgajos por avulsión. Las mordeduras humanas se hallan envueltas además en consideraciones psicológicas que incrementan la dificultad del tratamiento debido a las espectativas estéticas de los pacientes que las sufren. Este trabajo analiza 7 casos de mordedura facial humana desde los puntos de vista epidemiológico y clínico. Presentamos y discutimos el uso de los tejidos amputados como fuente de injertos de piel, injertos condrales y el papel de los colgajos locales en dos tiempos en la cirugía de urgencia de estas lesiones.Bite wounds can create several surgical difficulties in their initial management due to the special facility for infectious complications and the frequent association with extensive tissue damage. However, the immediate repair its desirable, mainly in amputations and flap avulsions. The human bite wounds are also involved by psychological considerations that increase the difficulty of the treatment due to patient´s aesthetic expectations. This article analyzes 7 cases of facial human bites under the epidemiological and clinical points of view. The use of the amputated tissues to obtain skin grafts, condral grafts, and the role of local two stage flaps in the emergency surgery of these wounds are exposed and discussed.

  19. Bite through the tent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naue, Jana; Lutz-Bonengel, Sabine; Pietsch, Klaus; Sänger, Timo; Schlauderer, Nicola; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2012-05-01

    The authors report on a young boy who was bitten into his face by an unknown animal while being asleep in a tent. Given the bite marks and the location of the scene, members of the mustelidae and canidae families were the first "suspects." Deoxyribunucleic acid (DNA) recovered from the tent's wall was analyzed with regard to parts of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal ribunucleic acid (12S rRNA) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes as well as nuclear short tandem repeats (STRs). Since Sanger sequencing revealed a mixed sequence with a strong human component overlying the nonhuman contributor, an animal screening using a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with an intercalating dye and melt curve analysis was employed. The results were later confirmed by cloning. The applied commercial canine STR kit verified the animal family (canidae) but did not help in discriminating the species due to cross-species amplification. In the presented case, the real-time PCR assay offered the cheapest and fastest method for animal family determination, which then allowed for an appropriate and sample-saving strategy to characterize the causative animal species.

  20. Human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian area of southern Venezuela: spatial and temporal variations in biting and parity rates of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillet, M E; Basáñez, M G; Vivas-Martínez, S; Villamizar, N; Frontado, H; Cortez, J; Coronel, P; Botto, C

    2001-07-01

    We investigated some entomological factors underlying altitudinal prevalence variation in the Venezuelan Amazonia human onchocerciasis focus. Spatial and temporal variation in relative abundance, daily biting rate, proportion of parous flies, and monthly parous biting rate were studied for the three main simuliid vectors (based on their vectorial competence: Simulium oyapockense s.l. Floch & Abonnenc approximately = S. incrustatum Lutz variables included monthly rainfall and maximum river height. Simuliid species composition itself varied along the altitudinal and prevalence gradient. S. oyapockense s.l. prevailed below 150 m. Above this altitude and up to 240 m, S. incrustatum and S. guianense s.l. became more frequently and evenly collected along A but not along B, where S. incrustatum remained absent. The daily biting rate of S. oyapockense s.l. was higher during the dry season along A, whereas the converse took place along B. Daily biting rate of S. incrustatum was lowest during early rains. By contrast, the daily biting rate of S. guianense s.l. was highest during this period. There was a significant negative cross-correlation between proportion of parous of S. oyapockense s.l. and river height (2 and 3 mo lagged), whereas this variable (1 and 2 mo lagged) was positively correlated with the proportion of parous flies for S. incrustatum. Monthly parous biting rate values suggest that the months contributing most to onchocerciasis transmission in the area are likely to be the dry season and the transition periods between seasons.

  1. Bite by moray eel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JP Barreiros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries caused by moray eels are not a common problem, but are distributed throughout the globe, affecting mainly fishermen while manipulating hooked or netted fish. On a lesser scale, scuba divers and snorkelers, practicing or not spear fishing, are occasional victims of bites. With more than 185 species distributed among 15 genera, mostly in tropical to temperate shallow water, moray eels easily come into contact with humans and occasional injuries are not uncommon. The current study reports one case of moray eel bite and discusses the circumstances in which the accident happened, as well as wound evolution and therapy.

  2. Spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; Fan, Hui Wen

    2011-12-10

    Spiders are a source of intrigue and fear, and several myths exist about their medical effects. Many people believe that bites from various spider species cause necrotic ulceration, despite evidence that most suspected cases of necrotic arachnidism are caused by something other than a spider bite. Latrodectism and loxoscelism are the most important clinical syndromes resulting from spider bite. Latrodectism results from bites by widow spiders (Latrodectus spp) and causes local, regional, or generalised pain associated with non-specific symptoms and autonomic effects. Loxoscelism is caused by Loxosceles spp, and the cutaneous form manifests as pain and erythema that can develop into a necrotic ulcer. Systemic loxoscelism is characterised by intravascular haemolysis and renal failure on occasion. Other important spiders include the Australian funnel-web spider (Atrax spp and Hadronyche spp) and the armed spider (Phoneutria spp) from Brazil. Antivenoms are an important treatment for spider envenomation but have been less successful than have those for snake envenomation, with concerns about their effectiveness for both latrodectism and loxoscelism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Virtual three dimensions reconstruction and isoline analysis of human marks on the surface of animal fossils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU XianZhu; WANG YunFu; PEI ShuWen; WU XiuJie

    2009-01-01

    Animal fossils in archaeological sites are closely related to human activities. The environment and human activities, such as hunting-selection, cook process, traditional culture and habits can be partly Inferred from the variety of fauna, fragmentation of the bones, and the human marks on bones' aur-faces. So far, researches about marks on fossils are few in China, and are mainly observed directly by eyes. Light Microscopes and Scanning Electron Microscopes are also applied to the observation abroad. These methods could provide us a lot of information, but are mainly confined to 2 dimensions. In this paper, we analyze human marks on the surface of animal fossils through three dimensions re-construction and isoline analysis, which enable us observe and measure in 3 dimensions. This method gives us a lot of information as follows: the formation of the marks, the tools that produced the marks, the cutting edge, movement and micro-abrasion of the tools. Through study of human marks on the surface of animal fossils unearthed from Bailongdong Cave in Yunxi, Hubei Province, we have got the characteristics of the marks, and further deepen cognition of the cutting edge, cutting orientation, cut-ting sequence, as well as micro-abrasion of tools during the formation of these marks. This is the first to use virtual three dimensions reconstruction in studying the human marks on the surface of animal fossils in China.

  4. The first account of a bite by the New Zealand native spider Trite planiceps (Araneae: Salticidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derraik, José G B; Sirvid, Phil J; Rademaker, Marius

    2010-05-14

    New Zealand has very few arthropods that pose a threat to human health. While most New Zealand spiders are considered harmless, the bite effects of most species are unknown. Here, we describe a case of a bite by a native spider, in which a young man was bitten after rolling over in his bed. The spider was collected and identified as Trite planiceps (Salticidae, black headed jumping spider), a native species commonly encountered around homes. The initial reaction was a relatively painful, sting-like, sensation, followed by the appearance of two red puncture marks and an urticarial wheal. Symptoms eventually disappeared after 72 hours, and he has had no further dermatological problems. Trite planiceps is considered to be a rather docile spider with regard to humans, but even a docile species may still bite defensively as a last resort. Notes on this species and on treatment of spider bites are provided.

  5. CD56 marks human dendritic cell subsets with cytotoxic potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roothans, D.; Smits, E.; Lion, E.; Tel, J.; Anguille, S.

    2013-01-01

    Human plasmacytoid and myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), when appropriately stimulated, can express the archetypal natural killer (NK)-cell surface marker CD56. In addition to classical DC functions, CD56+ DCs are endowed with an unconventional cytotoxic capacity.

  6. PTK7 marks the first human developmental EMT in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Chan

    Full Text Available Epithelial to mesenchymal transitions (EMTs are thought to be essential to generate diversity of tissues during early fetal development, but these events are essentially impossible to study at the molecular level in vivo in humans. The first EMT event that has been described morphologically in human development occurs just prior to generation of the primitive streak. Because human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs are thought to most closely resemble cells found in epiblast-stage embryos prior to formation of the primitive streak, we sought to determine whether this first human EMT could be modeled in vitro with pluripotent stem cells. The data presented here suggest that generating embryoid bodies from hESCs or hiPSCs drives a procession of EMT events that can be observed within 24-48 hours after EB generation. These structures possess the typical hallmarks of developmental EMTs, and portions also display evidence of primitive streak and mesendoderm. We identify PTK7 as a novel marker of this EMT population, which can also be used to purify these cells for subsequent analyses and identification of novel markers of human development. Gene expression analysis indicated an upregulation of EMT markers and ECM proteins in the PTK7+ population. We also find that cells that undergo this developmental EMT retain developmental plasticity as sorting, dissociation and re-plating reestablishes an epithelial phenotype.

  7. Epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors for human rabies and animal bites during an outbreak of rabies in Maputo and Matola cities, Mozambique, 2014: Implications for public health interventions for rabies control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomão, Cristolde; Nacima, Amílcar; Cuamba, Lutero; Gujral, Lorna; Amiel, Olga; Baltazar, Cynthia; Cliff, Julie; Gudo, Eduardo Samo

    2017-07-01

    In Mozambique, the majority of rabies outbreaks are unreported and data on the epidemiological features of human rabies and animal bites are scarce. An outbreak of human rabies in adjacent Maputo and Matola cities in 2014 prompted us to investigate the epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors of human rabies and animal bites in the two cities. We reviewed cases of human rabies and animal bites from April to July 2014, and carried out a community investigation in July and August in the neighborhoods where cases of human rabies resided. This investigation included collection of clinical, demographic and epidemiological information and a case control study to investigate the risk factors associated with human rabies. Fourteen cases of human rabies were detected in Maputo (n = 10) and Matola (n = 3) cities and neighbouring Boane district (n = 1) between April and August 2014, all of whom had been admitted to hospital. All had a recent history of dog bite. Of the 14 rabid dogs, only one had been immunized. 819 cases of animal bites were registered, of which 64.6% (529/819) were from Maputo City. Dogs were responsible for 97.8% (801/819) of all animal bites, but only 27.0% (126/467) were immunized. Factors significantly associated with human rabies were: age <15 years (p = 0.05), bite by stray dog (p = 0.002), deep wound (p = 0.02), bite in the head (p = 0.001), bite by unimmunized dog (p = 0.01), no use of soap and water (p = 0.001), and no post-exposure prophylaxis (p = 0.01). Implementation of control measures for rabies is poor in Maputo and Matola cities, where cases of human rabies were strongly associated with bites by stray and unvaccinated dogs and irregular implementation of post-exposure measures.

  8. Insect Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most insect bites are harmless, though they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. Mosquito and flea bites usually itch. Insects can also spread diseases. In the United States, ...

  9. Dog Bite Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Dog bite emergencies What do I do if I’ ... vaccination records. What do I do if my dog bites someone? Dog bites are scary for everyone ...

  10. Spider Bites (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TV, Video Games, and the Internet First Aid: Spider Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Spider Bites ... rare. Signs and Symptoms Of a brown recluse spider bite: red blister in the center with surrounding ...

  11. Avoid Mosquito Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Avoid Mosquito Bites Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... finding a travel medicine clinic near you. Prevent Mosquito Bites While Traveling Mosquito bites are bothersome enough, ...

  12. Functional diversity of human protein kinase splice variants marks significant expansion of human kinome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamika Krishanpal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein kinases are involved in diverse spectrum of cellular processes. Availability of draft version of the human genomic data in the year 2001 enabled recognition of repertoire of protein kinases. However, over the years the human genomic data is being refined and the current release of human genomic data has helped us to recognize a larger repertoire of over 900 human protein kinases represented mainly by splice variants. Results Many of these identified protein kinases are alternatively spliced products. Interestingly, some of the human kinase splice variants appear to be significantly diverged in terms of their functional properties as represented by incorporation or absence of one or more domains. Many sets of protein kinase splice variants have substantially different domain organization and in a few sets of splice variants kinase domains belong to different subfamilies of kinases suggesting potential participation in different signal transduction pathways. Conclusions Addition or deletion of a domain between splice variants of multi-domain kinases appears to be a means of generating differences in the functional features of otherwise similar kinases. It is intriguing that marked sequence diversity within the catalytic regions of some of the splice variant kinases result in kinases belonging to different subfamilies. These human kinase splice variants with different functions might contribute to diversity of eukaryotic cellular signaling.

  13. Dog bites

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Leyva, Felipe; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Although no official data exists for Colombia, dog bites are not infrequent consults to the emergency department on a global scale. In the urban or rural setting, it is likely that Colombian emergency department physicians face patients with such consults in their clinical practice. It is imperative that those physicians become familiar with the current national guidelines and protocols for the attention of such patients, since he/she must act pertinently according to the resour...

  14. Dog bites

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Leyva, Felipe; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Although no official data exists for Colombia, dog bites are not infrequent consults to the emergency department on a global scale. In the urban or rural setting, it is likely that Colombian emergency department physicians face patients with such consults in their clinical practice. It is imperative that those physicians become familiar with the current national guidelines and protocols for the attention of such patients, since he/she must act pertinently according to the resour...

  15. Necrotizing Fasciitis Resulting from Human Bites: A Report of Two Cases of Disease Caused by Group A Streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Sikora

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition. Although bite wounds are common, they are not frequently reported as a cause of necrotizing fasciitis. In the present article, two cases of bite-associated necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A streptococcus are reported. Previously published cases are also reviewed.

  16. An analysis of some factors determining the sporozoite rates, human blood indexes, and biting rates of members of the Anopheles punctulatus complex in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkot, T R; Dye, C; Graves, P M

    1989-03-01

    The degree to which Anopheles punctulatus complex members feed on humans in different Papua New Guinea villages has a significant effect on sporozoite rates. Among villages, the human blood index (HBI) of the members of the complex varied with the average number of persons sharing a bednet. Although dogs are the preferred hosts by the 3 malaria vector species, the number of dogs did not significantly affect the HBI. The HBI was dependent upon the human-biting rate, implying increased avoidance of anophelines by people relative to other hosts at times of greater mosquito numbers. Human-biting rates and HBIs were also influenced by the distribution of alternative hosts relative to people.

  17. Australian wolf spider bites (Lycosidae): clinical effects and influence of species on bite circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; Framenau, Volker W

    2004-01-01

    Necrotic arachnidism continues to be attributed to wolf spider bites. This study investigates the clinical effects of bites by wolf spiders in Australia (family Lycosidae). Subjects were recruited prospectively from February 1999 to April 2001 from participating emergency departments or state poison information centers. Subjects were included if they had a definite bite by a wolf spider and had collected the spider, which was later identified by an arachnologist. Spiders were identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible and cephalothorax width was measured to correlate bite effects and spider size. There were 45 definite wolf spider bites (23 male and 22 female patients; age range 1 to 69 years, median age 28 years). Species level identifications (14 species) were possible for 31 of 43 spiders belonging to seven different generic groupings. Most bites were by spiders from four generic groupings, Tasmanicosa (including 'Lycosa') (15), Venatrix (8), Venator (10), and Hogna (7). Bites occurred more commonly in south-eastern Australia and occurred throughout the year, with 7 bites (16%) in late autumn or winter. In 7 cases (16%) the person was swimming in or cleaning a pool. Seventy-two percent of bites occurred on distal parts of limbs. Pain occurred in all bites and was severe in 11 cases (24%), with a median duration of 10 min (IQR: 2-60 min). Other effects included puncture marks/bleeding (33%), swelling (20%), redness (67%), and itchiness (13%). Minor systemic effects occurred in three patients (7%): nausea (two), headache (one) and malaise (one). There were no cases of necrotic ulcers [0%; 97.5% CI 0-8%]. Tasmanicosa spider bites caused significantly more itchiness and redness, and large spiders (>5 mm) more often caused severe pain and left fang marks. Wolf spider bites cause minor effects, no more severe than most other spiders, and do not appear to cause necrotic ulcers. The effects are likely to be due to mechanical injury, although minor local

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation of a Novel Integrated Bite Case Management Program for the Control of Human Rabies, Haiti 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Meltzer, Martin I; Tran, Cuc H; Atkins, Charisma Y; Etheart, Melissa D; Millien, Max F; Adrien, Paul; Wallace, Ryan M

    2017-06-01

    AbstractHaiti has the highest burden of rabies in the Western hemisphere, with 130 estimated annual deaths. We present the cost-effectiveness evaluation of an integrated bite case management program combining community bite investigations and passive animal rabies surveillance, using a governmental perspective. The Haiti Animal Rabies Surveillance Program (HARSP) was first implemented in three communes of the West Department, Haiti. Our evaluation encompassed all individuals exposed to rabies in the study area (N = 2,289) in 2014-2015. Costs (2014 U.S. dollars) included diagnostic laboratory development, training of surveillance officers, operational costs, and postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). We used estimated deaths averted and years of life gained (YLG) from prevented rabies as health outcomes. HARSP had higher overall costs (range: $39,568-$80,290) than the no-bite-case-management (NBCM) scenario ($15,988-$26,976), partly from an increased number of bite victims receiving PEP. But HARSP had better health outcomes than NBCM, with estimated 11 additional annual averted deaths in 2014 and nine in 2015, and 654 additional YLG in 2014 and 535 in 2015. Overall, HARSP was more cost-effective (US$ per death averted) than NBCM (2014, HARSP: $2,891-$4,735, NBCM: $5,980-$8,453; 2015, HARSP: $3,534-$7,171, NBCM: $7,298-$12,284). HARSP offers an effective human rabies prevention solution for countries transitioning from reactive to preventive strategies, such as comprehensive dog vaccination.

  19. Marked increase in leptospirosis infections in humans and dogs in the Netherlands, 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnacker, Roan; Goris, M.G.; Wierik, te M.J.; Broens, E.M.; Giessen, van der J.W.; Rosa, de M.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Hartskeerl, R.A.; Notermans, D.W.; Maassen, K.; Schimmer, B.

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, 97 human leptospirosis cases were notified in 2014. This represents a 4.6-fold increase in autochthonous cases (n = 60) compared with the annual average between 2010 and 2013. Most cases had symptom onset between June and November. This marked increase in humans coincided with

  20. Biting on human body parts of Simulium vectors and its implication for the manifestation of Onchocerca nodules along Osun River, southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; Sam-Wobo, Sammy Olufemi; Akinwale, Olaoluwa Pheabian; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Mafiana, Chiedu Felix

    2012-09-01

    The biting preference of Simulium vectors has been known to influence the distribution of Onchocerca nodules and microfilariae in human body. There is, however, variation in biting pattern of Simulium flies in different geographical locations. This study investigates the biting pattern on human parts by Simulium vectors along Osun river system where Simulium soubrense Beffa form has been implicated as the dominant vector and its possible implication on the distribution of Onchocerca nodules on human body along the river. Flies were collected by consented fly capturers on exposed human parts namely head/neck region, arms, upper limb and lower limb in Osun Eleja and Osun Budepo along Osun river in the wet season (August-September) and the dry season (November-December) in 2008. The residents of the communities were also screened for palpable Onchocerca nodules. The results showed that number of flies collected below the ankle region was significantly higher than the number collected on other exposed parts (p parts coupled with the presence of nodules at the head and upper trunk regions showed that Simulium vectors could obtain microfilariae from any part of the body, thus increasing the risk of onchocerciasis transmission.

  1. [Bacteriological study of oral cavity of people of Mexican origin to determine etiology agents of human infections in hand bite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañedo-Guzmán, Cristhyan Baruch; Espinosa-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Guzmán-Murillo, María Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Hand infections secondary to human bites often leave serious consequences on the functioning of the hand. Such infections are caused by different bacteria. Most bacteriological studies have been made to people of Anglo-Saxon origin or descent, and based on these findings; provide treatment to patients of different origins which may not always be as effective. Descriptive, internal stratified 17 patients were isolated samples of oral cavity and dental plaque bacterial species to identify and define the possible treatment according to the species identified. Microorganisms were isolated Gram (+) and Gram (-) belonging to the normal flora of the oral cavity and dental plaque in all the cases studied, presenting a variable number of microorganisms according to age but not by sex. The group of Gram-positive bacteria isolated showed sensitivity to: erythromycin, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin. In the group of Gram negative: kanamycin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, E. Corrodens sensitive to the group of quinolones as ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin as well as ceftriaxone and cefoperazone sulbactam. The bacterial species that are commonly found in normal flora of the oral cavity and dental plaque may be potential pathogens in a hand injury where to find the appropriate conditions for their development.

  2. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (ACARI: IXODIDAE) BITING A HUMAN BEING IN PORTOALEGRE CITY, RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENTZ, Márcia Bohrer; TROMBKA, Marcelo; da SILVA, Guilherme Liberato; SILVA, Carlos Eugênio

    2016-01-01

    We report the finding of a female brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) on the scalp of a male patient in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Human parasitism by this tick is rare and has seldomly been reported in the literature, despite its recognized importance since it can act as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of spotted fever. PMID:27074329

  3. Managing humans biting and humorous tales of a software engineering manager

    CERN Document Server

    Lopp, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The humor and insights in the 2nd Edition of Managing Humans are drawn from Michael Lopp's management experiences at Apple, Netscape, Symantec, and Borland, among others. This book is full of stories based on companies in the Silicon Valley where people have been known to yell at each other and occasionally throw chairs. It is a place full of dysfunctional bright people who are in an incredible hurry to find the next big thing so they can strike it rich and then do it all over again. Among these people are managers, a strange breed of people who, through a mystical organizational ritual, have

  4. Heridas por Mordedura / Bites Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coturel A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Injuries for animal bites are a common cause of consultation to emergency services. However there are still controversies about some aspects of their treatment. It is not recommended to brush the wound area but to flush the surface with isoosmolar saline. The primary wound closure is justified when improves the cosmetic outcome and has no increase risk of infection. Antibiotic prophylaxis is allways indicated in cats or humans bites. The drug of choice is amoxicillin clavulanate.The tetanus vaccine should be indicated when the patient has not full vaccination scheme and rabies vaccine in cases of suspected or confirmed infected animals.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation of a Novel Integrated Bite Case Management Program for the Control of Human Rabies, Haiti 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Meltzer, Martin I.; Tran, Cuc H.; Atkins, Charisma Y.; Etheart, Melissa D.; Millien, Max F.; Adrien, Paul; Wallace, Ryan M.

    2017-01-01

    Haiti has the highest burden of rabies in the Western hemisphere, with 130 estimated annual deaths. We present the cost-effectiveness evaluation of an integrated bite case management program combining community bite investigations and passive animal rabies surveillance, using a governmental perspective. The Haiti Animal Rabies Surveillance Program (HARSP) was first implemented in three communes of the West Department, Haiti. Our evaluation encompassed all individuals exposed to rabies in the study area (N = 2,289) in 2014–2015. Costs (2014 U.S. dollars) included diagnostic laboratory development, training of surveillance officers, operational costs, and postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). We used estimated deaths averted and years of life gained (YLG) from prevented rabies as health outcomes. HARSP had higher overall costs (range: $39,568–$80,290) than the no-bite-case-management (NBCM) scenario ($15,988–$26,976), partly from an increased number of bite victims receiving PEP. But HARSP had better health outcomes than NBCM, with estimated 11 additional annual averted deaths in 2014 and nine in 2015, and 654 additional YLG in 2014 and 535 in 2015. Overall, HARSP was more cost-effective (US$ per death averted) than NBCM (2014, HARSP: $2,891–$4,735, NBCM: $5,980–$8,453; 2015, HARSP: $3,534–$7,171, NBCM: $7,298–$12,284). HARSP offers an effective human rabies prevention solution for countries transitioning from reactive to preventive strategies, such as comprehensive dog vaccination. PMID:28719253

  6. Bites and stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Janice; Fahridin, Salma; Britt, Helena

    2009-11-01

    Of the 426 bite or sting problems managed, 312 (73%) were caused by insects. There were 114 other types of bites recorded, the most common being dog and spider bites. There were five cases of toxicity from aquatic animal stings or adverse reactions to bee stings (Table 1).

  7. Lokasi Gigitan Secara Anatomi dan Waktu Kematian Pascagigitan Anjing Rabies pada Korban Manusia di Bali (THE ANATOMICAL LOCATIONS OF BITE AND THE TIME OF DEATH IN HUMAN VICTIMS BITTEN BY RABIES INFECTED DOGS IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Suatha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies was a new emerging disease in Bali. After the first case of rabies in 2008 there were morethan one hundred of human victims in Bali. The aim of this study was to report the anatomical locationof human body bitten by rabies infected dogs in Bali, and also the day of victims death after the bitten. Aretrospective cross-sectional review of rabies incidences from September 2008 to the end of 2011 was usedin this study. A total of 122 rabies human victims data were used as a population sample. The data on theprofiles of individuals victim were colected , such as the age, gender, living place, anatomical bite site onhuman body, bite date, and type of biting animal. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptiveanalysis. The result showed that the anatomical location of human body that bitten by rabies infected dogwas occurred on leg (52%, hand (32%, body (6%, and head (4%. Of 122 victims, 61.5% were men and38.5% were woman. The death time of the human rabies victims in average occurred at day 95th after thebite date, and time of the victims death depended on the anatomical location of the bite. Bite that occurredon the head caused death in average on day 19th, on the body on day 83th, on the hand on day 122nd, and onleg on day 166th. In conclusion, the most victims of human rabies in Bali was men and the death was foundoccurred on day 95th after the bite date. The bite at the head caused death more quickly than the other partof human body.

  8. Spider Bite in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaei-Zadeh, Hossein

    2017-07-01

    Some of the world's most dangerous spiders have been certified in some areas of Iran. Spider bites are common in some geographical areas, and are sporadic in some regions. Spider bites can be classified as latrodectism or loxoscelism. If the patient had not seen the spider, the clinical manifestations of latrodectism could be easily mistaken for other types of bite or sting; or an infectious disease, and withdrawal symptoms, and also loxoscelism could be mistaken for cellulitis, various types of skin infection, or even a sting from a Gadim scorpion (Hemiscorpius lepturus). Given the nonspecific presentation of spider bites, one must keep the diagnosis in mind, and question patients, regarding possible exposure to spiders. Physicians recommend becoming familiar with the geographical distribution of Iranian dangerous spiders, clinical manifestations, and management of their bites. The most useful treatment for spider bite is anti-venom administration. Producing spider bite anti-venom in the Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute is under investigation.

  9. Animal bites - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - animals - self-care ... Most animal bites come from pets. Dog bites are common and most often happen to children. Cat bites are ... which can cause deeper puncture wounds. Most other animal bites are caused by stray or wild animals, ...

  10. An Innovative Miniature Bite Force Recorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Utreja, Ashok K; Sandhu, Navreet; Dhaliwal, Yadvinder S

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a detailed description of development of a new novel bite force recorder (gnathodynamometer) using solid state components is vividly explained. This state of the art authenticated device can be used to assess the complex function of human bite force, which is the net resultant combination of functional response of various craniomandibular structures consisting of interrelated components, like the muscles of mastication, joints, teeth and the neuromuscular system. The consistency and accuracy of the bite force recorder was reaffirmed by doing a detailed laboratory calibration and clinical testing on 30 adult subjects.

  11. Evaluation of the Human IgG Antibody Response to Aedes albopictus Saliva as a New Specific Biomarker of Exposure to Vector Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucoure, Souleymane; Mouchet, François; Cornelie, Sylvie; DeHecq, Jean Sébastien; Rutee, Abdul Hamid; Roca, Yelin; Walter, Annie; Hervé, Jean Pierre; Misse, Dorothée; Favier, François; Gasque, Philippe; Remoue, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Background The spread of Aedes albopictus, a vector for re-emergent arbovirus diseases like chikungunya and dengue, points up the need for better control strategies and new tools to evaluate transmission risk. Human antibody (Ab) responses to mosquito salivary proteins could represent a reliable biomarker for evaluating human-vector contact and the efficacy of control programs. Methodology/Principal Findings We used ELISA tests to evaluate specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to salivary gland extracts (SGE) in adults exposed to Aedes albopictus in Reunion Island. The percentage of immune responders (88%) and levels of anti-SGE IgG Abs were high in exposed individuals. At an individual level, our results indicate heterogeneity of the exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. In addition, low-level immune cross-reactivity between Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti SGEs was observed, mainly in the highest responders. Conclusion/Significance Ab responses to saliva could be used as an immuno-epidemiological tool for evaluating exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. Combined with entomological and epidemiological methods, a “salivary” biomarker of exposure to Aedes albopictus could enhance surveillance of its spread and the risk of arbovirus transmission, and could be used as a direct tool for the evaluation of Aedes albopictus control strategies. PMID:22363823

  12. Evaluation of the human IgG antibody response to Aedes albopictus saliva as a new specific biomarker of exposure to vector bites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Doucoure

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The spread of Aedes albopictus, a vector for re-emergent arbovirus diseases like chikungunya and dengue, points up the need for better control strategies and new tools to evaluate transmission risk. Human antibody (Ab responses to mosquito salivary proteins could represent a reliable biomarker for evaluating human-vector contact and the efficacy of control programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used ELISA tests to evaluate specific immunoglobulin G (IgG responses to salivary gland extracts (SGE in adults exposed to Aedes albopictus in Reunion Island. The percentage of immune responders (88% and levels of anti-SGE IgG Abs were high in exposed individuals. At an individual level, our results indicate heterogeneity of the exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. In addition, low-level immune cross-reactivity between Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti SGEs was observed, mainly in the highest responders. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Ab responses to saliva could be used as an immuno-epidemiological tool for evaluating exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. Combined with entomological and epidemiological methods, a "salivary" biomarker of exposure to Aedes albopictus could enhance surveillance of its spread and the risk of arbovirus transmission, and could be used as a direct tool for the evaluation of Aedes albopictus control strategies.

  13. An experimental model of tool mark striations by a serrated blade in human soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Rebekah; Kogon, Stanley; Shkrum, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Tool mark analysis is a method of matching a weapon with the injury it caused. In a homicidal stabbing using a serrated knife, a stab wound that involves a cartilage may leave striations from the serration points on the blade edge. Assessing tissue striations is a means of identifying the weapon as having a serrated blade. This prospective study examines the possibility that similar striations may be produced in human soft tissues. Using tissues taken at the time of hospital-consented autopsies, stab wound tracks were assessed in a variety of human tissues (aorta, skin, liver, kidney, and cardiac and skeletal muscle). Stab wounds were produced postmortem with similar serrated and smooth-edged blades. The walls of the stab wounds were exposed, documented by photography and cast with dental impression material. Striations were identified by naked-eye examination in the skin and aorta. Photodocumentation of fresh tissue was best achieved in the aorta. Striations were not identified in wound tracks produced by the smooth-edged blade. Three blinded forensic pathologists were assessed for their ability to detect striations in photographs of wound tracks and had substantial interobserver agreement (κ = 0.76) identifying striations. This study demonstrates that tool mark striations can be present in some noncartilaginous human tissues.

  14. PHD fingers in human diseases: Disorders arising from misinterpreting epigenetic marks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Lindsey A. [Rockefeller University, Laboratory of Chromatin Biology and Epigenetics, 1230 York Avenue, Box 78, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Allis, C. David [Rockefeller University, Laboratory of Chromatin Biology and Epigenetics, 1230 York Avenue, Box 78, New York, NY 10065 (United States)], E-mail: alliscd@rockefeller.edu; Wang, Gang G. [Rockefeller University, Laboratory of Chromatin Biology and Epigenetics, 1230 York Avenue, Box 78, New York, NY 10065 (United States)], E-mail: gwang@rockefeller.edu

    2008-12-01

    Histone covalent modifications regulate many, if not all, DNA-templated processes, including gene expression and DNA damage response. The biological consequences of histone modifications are mediated partially by evolutionarily conserved 'reader/effector' modules that bind to histone marks in a modification- and context-specific fashion and subsequently enact chromatin changes or recruit other proteins to do so. Recently, the Plant Homeodomain (PHD) finger has emerged as a class of specialized 'reader' modules that, in some instances, recognize the methylation status of histone lysine residues, such as histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4). While mutations in catalytic enzymes that mediate the addition or removal of histone modifications (i.e., 'writers' and 'erasers') are already known to be involved in various human diseases, mutations in the modification-specific 'reader' proteins are only beginning to be recognized as contributing to human diseases. For instance, point mutations, deletions or chromosomal translocations that target PHD fingers encoded by many genes (such as recombination activating gene 2 (RAG2), Inhibitor of Growth (ING), nuclear receptor-binding SET domain-containing 1 (NSD1) and Alpha Thalassaemia and Mental Retardation Syndrome, X-linked (ATRX)) have been associated with a wide range of human pathologies including immunological disorders, cancers, and neurological diseases. In this review, we will discuss the structural features of PHD fingers as well as the diseases for which direct mutation or dysregulation of the PHD finger has been reported. We propose that misinterpretation of the epigenetic marks may serve as a general mechanism for human diseases of this category. Determining the regulatory roles of histone covalent modifications in the context of human disease will allow for a more thorough understanding of normal and pathological development, and may provide innovative therapeutic strategies

  15. Eomesodermin and T-bet mark developmentally distinct human natural killer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kang; Reiner, Steven L.

    2017-01-01

    Immaturity of the immune system of human fetuses and neonates is often invoked to explain their increased susceptibility to infection; however, the development of the fetal innate immune system in early life remains incompletely explored. We now show that the most mature NK cells found in adult (or postnatal) human circulation (CD94–CD16+) are absent during ontogeny. Human fetal NK cells were found to express the 2 signature T-box transcription factors essential for the development of all murine NK and NK-like cells, eomesodermin (Eomes) and T-bet. The single-cell pattern of Eomes and T-bet expression during ontogeny, however, revealed a stereotyped pattern of reciprocal dominance, with immature NK cells expressing higher amounts of Eomes and more mature NK cells marked by greater abundance of T-bet. We also observed a stereotyped pattern of tissue-specific NK cell maturation during human ontogeny, with fetal liver being more restrictive to NK cell maturity than fetal bone barrow, spleen, or lung. These results support the hypothesis that maturation of human NK cells has a discrete restriction until postnatal life, and provide a framework to better understand the increased susceptibility of fetuses and newborns to infection. PMID:28289707

  16. Insect bites and stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to cause itching than pain. Insect and spider bites cause more deaths from venom reactions than bites from snakes. ... are harmless. If possible, bring the insect or spider that bit you with you when you go for medical treatment so it can be identified.

  17. Increased Infiltration of Macrophages in Omental Adipose Tissue Is Associated With Marked Hepatic Lesions in Morbid Human Obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raffaella Cancello; Joan Tordjman; Christine Poitou; Gaël Guilhem; Jean Luc Bouillot; Danielle Hugol; Christiane Coussieu; Arnaud Basdevant; Avner Bar Hen; Pierre Bedossa; Michèle Guerre-Millo; Karine Clément

    2006-01-01

    Increased Infiltration of Macrophages in Omental Adipose Tissue Is Associated With Marked Hepatic Lesions in Morbid Human Obesity Raffaella Cancello 1 2 3 , Joan Tordjman 1 2 3 , Christine Poitou 1 2 3...

  18. [Mammal bite management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Marín, Misael; Sandoval-Rodríguez, Jorge Issac; García-Ramírez, Raúl; Morales-Yépez, Héctor Adolfo

    Animal bites are a major public health problem, it is estimated that 2% of the population is bitten each year. Most bites are by dogs and the risk factors include young children, men, certain breeds of dogs and untrained dogs. The risk of infection after bites differs between animal species and depends on the animal teeth and oral flora. Animal bites are still a major cause of morbidity in patients of all ages and have caused several preventable childhood deaths. These wounds often become infected. If the wound requires it, early surgical evaluation must be performed. The use of antibiotics is only recommended for high risk bite wounds. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. Combining Synthetic Human Odours and Low-Cost Electrocuting Grids to Attract and Kill Outdoor-Biting Mosquitoes: Field and Semi-Field Evaluation of an Improved Mosquito Landing Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matowo, Nancy S; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Moore, Sarah J; Mmbando, Arnold S; Mapua, Salum A; Coetzee, Maureen; Okumu, Fredros O

    2016-01-01

    On-going malaria transmission is increasingly mediated by outdoor-biting vectors, especially where indoor insecticidal interventions such as long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) are widespread. Often, the vectors are also physiologically resistant to insecticides, presenting major obstacles for elimination. We tested a combination of electrocuting grids with synthetic odours as an alternative killing mechanism against outdoor-biting mosquitoes. An odour-baited device, the Mosquito Landing Box (MLB), was improved by fitting it with low-cost electrocuting grids to instantly kill mosquitoes attracted to the odour lure, and automated photo switch to activate attractant-dispensing and mosquito-killing systems between dusk and dawn. MLBs fitted with one, two or three electrocuting grids were compared outdoors in a malaria endemic village in Tanzania, where vectors had lost susceptibility to pyrethroids. MLBs with three grids were also tested in a large semi-field cage (9.6 × 9.6 × 4.5m), to assess effects on biting-densities of laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis on volunteers sitting near MLBs. Significantly more mosquitoes were killed when MLBs had two or three grids, than one grid in wet and dry seasons (Pmosquitoes, 99% were non-blood fed, suggesting host-seeking status. In the semi-field, the MLBs reduced mean number of malaria mosquitoes attempting to bite humans fourfold. The improved odour-baited MLBs effectively kill outdoor-biting malaria vector mosquitoes that are behaviourally and physiologically resistant to insecticidal interventions e.g. LLINs. The MLBs reduce human-biting vector densities even when used close to humans, and are insecticide-free, hence potentially antiresistance. The devices could either be used as surveillance tools or complementary mosquito control interventions to accelerate malaria elimination where outdoor transmission is significant.

  20. Combining Synthetic Human Odours and Low-Cost Electrocuting Grids to Attract and Kill Outdoor-Biting Mosquitoes: Field and Semi-Field Evaluation of an Improved Mosquito Landing Box.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy S Matowo

    Full Text Available On-going malaria transmission is increasingly mediated by outdoor-biting vectors, especially where indoor insecticidal interventions such as long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs are widespread. Often, the vectors are also physiologically resistant to insecticides, presenting major obstacles for elimination. We tested a combination of electrocuting grids with synthetic odours as an alternative killing mechanism against outdoor-biting mosquitoes.An odour-baited device, the Mosquito Landing Box (MLB, was improved by fitting it with low-cost electrocuting grids to instantly kill mosquitoes attracted to the odour lure, and automated photo switch to activate attractant-dispensing and mosquito-killing systems between dusk and dawn. MLBs fitted with one, two or three electrocuting grids were compared outdoors in a malaria endemic village in Tanzania, where vectors had lost susceptibility to pyrethroids. MLBs with three grids were also tested in a large semi-field cage (9.6 × 9.6 × 4.5m, to assess effects on biting-densities of laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis on volunteers sitting near MLBs.Significantly more mosquitoes were killed when MLBs had two or three grids, than one grid in wet and dry seasons (P<0.05. The MLBs were highly efficient against Mansonia species and malaria vector, An. arabiensis. Of all mosquitoes, 99% were non-blood fed, suggesting host-seeking status. In the semi-field, the MLBs reduced mean number of malaria mosquitoes attempting to bite humans fourfold.The improved odour-baited MLBs effectively kill outdoor-biting malaria vector mosquitoes that are behaviourally and physiologically resistant to insecticidal interventions e.g. LLINs. The MLBs reduce human-biting vector densities even when used close to humans, and are insecticide-free, hence potentially antiresistance. The devices could either be used as surveillance tools or complementary mosquito control interventions to accelerate malaria elimination where

  1. Redirected lysis of human melanoma cells by a MCSP/CD3-bispecific BiTE antibody that engages patient-derived T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torisu-Itakura, Hitoe; Schoellhammer, Hans F; Sim, Myung-Shin; Irie, Reiko F; Hausmann, Susanne; Raum, Tobias; Baeuerle, Patrick A; Morton, Donald L

    2011-10-01

    Melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP; also called HMW-MAA, CSPG4, NG2, MSK16, MCSPG, MEL-CSPG, or gp240) is a well characterized melanoma cell-surface antigen. In this study, a new bispecific T-cell engaging (BiTE) antibody that binds to MCSP and human CD3 (MCSP-BiTE) was tested for its cytotoxic activity against human melanoma cell lines. When unstimulated peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs) derived from healthy donors were cocultured with melanoma cells at effector:target ratios of 1:1, 1:5, or 1:10, and treated with MCSP-BiTE antibody at doses of 10, 100, or 1000 ng/mL, all MCSP-expressing melanoma cell lines (n=23) were lysed in a dose-dependent and effector:target ratio-dependent manner, whereas there was no cytotoxic activity against MCSP-negative melanoma cell lines (n=2). To investigate whether T cells from melanoma patients could act as effector cells, we cocultured unstimulated PBMCs with allogeneic melanoma cells from 13 patients (4 stage I/II, 3 stage III, and 6 stage IV) or with autologous melanoma cells from 2 patients (stage IV). Although cytotoxic activity varied, all 15 PBMC samples mediated significant redirected lysis by the BiTE antibody. When PBMC or CD8 T cells were prestimulated by anti-CD3 antibody OKT-3 and interleukin-2, the MCSP-BiTE concentrations needed for melanoma cell lysis decreased up to 1000-fold. As MCSP is expressed on most human melanomas, immunotherapy with MCSP/CD3-bispecific antibodies merits clinical investigation.

  2. Identification of human-derived volatile chemicals that interfere with attraction of the Scottish biting midge and their potential use as repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, James G; Seal, Nicola J; Cook, James I; Stanczyk, Nina M; Birkett, Michael A; Clark, Suzanne J; Gezan, Salvador A; Wadhams, Lester J; Pickett, John A; Mordue, A Jennifer

    2009-03-01

    The Scottish biting midge, Culicoides impunctatus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), is a major pest in Scotland, causing a significant impact to the Scottish tourist and forestry industries. C. impunctatus is a generalist feeder, preferring to feed on large mammals, and is notorious for its attacks on humans. Until now, there was anecdotal evidence for differential attraction of female host-seeking C. impunctatus to individual human hosts, and the mechanism for this phenomenon was unknown. Using extracts of human odor collected by air entrainment, electroantennogram recordings to identify the physiologically active components, followed by behavioral assays, we show, for the first time, the differential attraction of female C. impunctatus to human odors and the chemical basis for this phenomenon. Certain chemicals, found in greater amounts in extracts that cause low attractiveness to midges, elicit a repellent effect in laboratory assays and repellency trials in the field. Differences in the production of these natural human-derived compounds could help to explain differential "attractiveness" between different human hosts. A mixture of two compounds in particular, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and geranylacetone [(E)-6,10-dimethylundeca-5,9-dien-2-one], showed significant repellency (87, 77.4, 74.2, and 31.6% at hours 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively) in the field and have the potential to be developed as novel repellents.

  3. A qualitative investigation of the perceptions of female dog-bite victims and implications for the prevention of dog bites

    OpenAIRE

    Westgarth, Carri; Watkins, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Preventing dog bites is an increasingly important public health and political issue with implications for both human and animal health and welfare. Expert opinion is that most bites are preventable. Intervention materials have been designed to educate people on how to assess the body language of dogs, evaluate risk, and take appropriate action. The effectiveness of this approach is rarely evaluated and the incidence of dog bites is thought to be increasing. Is the traditional approach to dog ...

  4. First report of clinical presentation of a bite by a running spider, Philodromus sp. (Araneae: Philodromidae), with recommendations for spider bite management

    OpenAIRE

    Maureen Coetzee; Ansie Dippenaar; John Frean; Hunt, Richard H

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the clinical progression of symptoms over a period of 5 days of a bite inflicted by a Philodromus sp. spider. Commonly known as ‘running spiders’, these are not considered to be harmful to humans. This report, however, is the first description of an actual bite by a member of this group of spiders showing cytotoxic envenomation. Management of the bites should be as recommended for other cytotoxic spider bites.

  5. First report of clinical presentation of a bite by a running spider, Philodromus sp. (Araneae: Philodromidae, with recommendations for spider bite management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Coetzee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the clinical progression of symptoms over a period of 5 days of a bite inflicted by a Philodromus sp. spider. Commonly known as ‘running spiders’, these are not considered to be harmful to humans. This report, however, is the first description of an actual bite by a member of this group of spiders showing cytotoxic envenomation. Management of the bites should be as recommended for other cytotoxic spider bites.

  6. Multiple Localization of Endogenous MARK4L Protein in Human Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Magnani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously shown that the sustained expression of MARK4L transcripts in glioma and neural progenitors (NHNPs declines after exposure to antisense MARK4L oligonucleotides in glioblastoma cell lines. Array-CGH confirmed the genomic duplication of MARK4L identified by FISH in a glioblastoma cell line. This background together with literature data on the exogenous association of MARK4 with interphase centrosome prompted us to investigate the sub-cellular localization of the endogenous MARK4L protein aiming at achieving insights on its possible role in the pathomechanisms of glioma.

  7. Lifting techniques for finger marks on human skin previous enhancement by Swedish Black powder--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapecar, Matej

    2009-12-01

    An examination was done to investigate whether certain lifting techniques can lift recovered latent fingerprints on human skin surfaces of living subjects. For recovery Swedish Soot powder mixture (Swedish Black) was used. Donors intentionally placed fingerprints on the skin surface of living subjects. Finger marks were then in all cases recovered with Swedish Black powder. The procedure was repeated after 1 h and 4 h. Treated finger marks were secured and preserved as latent fingerprint evidence by different lifting processes. Having examined skin surfaces and finger marks we observed that the lifters such as white instant lifter, white fingerprint gelatin, black fingerprint gelatin, silicone, transparent adhesive tape, are suitable. Moreover, white fingerprint gelatin and white instant lifter proved to be very good at lifting treated finger marks. Black fingerprint gelatin was very good also, but finger marks were examined by slant light.

  8. First Pediatric Case of Tularemia after a Coyote Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno B. Chomel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bite-transmitted tularemia is a rare event in humans and most of the cases have been associated with cat bites. We report the first pediatric case of tularemia caused by a coyote (Canis latrans bite. Coyotes can be healthy carriers of Francisella tularensis and transmit this infectious agent through a bite. Pediatricians should be aware of this risk after a carnivore bite and implement appropriate antibiotic therapy, as amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (Augmentin may have prolonged the typical two to three days’ incubation period commonly observed for tularemia after an animal bite and was not effective in preventing clinical signs in this child. Finally, it emphasizes again the importance of early and late serum samples for appropriate serodiagnostic.

  9. First Pediatric Case of Tularemia after a Coyote Bite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Morton, Jane A.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Chang, Chao-chin

    2016-01-01

    Bite-transmitted tularemia is a rare event in humans and most of the cases have been associated with cat bites. We report the first pediatric case of tularemia caused by a coyote (Canis latrans) bite. Coyotes can be healthy carriers of Francisella tularensis and transmit this infectious agent through a bite. Pediatricians should be aware of this risk after a carnivore bite and implement appropriate antibiotic therapy, as amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (Augmentin) may have prolonged the typical two to three days' incubation period commonly observed for tularemia after an animal bite and was not effective in preventing clinical signs in this child. Finally, it emphasizes again the importance of early and late serum samples for appropriate serodiagnostic. PMID:26885419

  10. Rat-bite fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptobacillary fever; Streptobacillosis; Haverhill fever; Epidemic arthritic erythema; Spirillary fever; Sodoku ... Rat-bite fever can be caused by 2 different bacteria, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. Both of these are found in ...

  11. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  12. Animal Bites - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Animal Bites - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... Library of Medicine Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Expand Section Animal Bites and Scratches - Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  13. Marked variation in predicted and observed variability of tandem repeat loci across the human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shields Denis C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tandem repeat (TR variants in the human genome play key roles in a number of diseases. However, current models predicting variability are based on limited training sets. We conducted a systematic analysis of TRs of unit lengths 2–12 nucleotides in Whole Genome Shotgun (WGS sequences to define the extent of variation of 209,214 unique repeat loci throughout the genome. Results We applied a multivariate statistical model to predict TR variability. Predicted heterozygosity correlated with heterozygosity in the CEPH polymorphism database (correlation ρ = 0.29, p Conclusion Variability among 2–12-mer TRs in the genome can be modeled by a few parameters, which do not markedly differ according to unit length, consistent with a common mechanism for the generation of variability among such TRs. Analysis of the distributions of observed and predicted variants across the genome showed a general concordance, indicating that the repeat variation dataset does not exhibit strong regional ascertainment biases. This revealed a deficit of variant repeats in chromosomes 19 and Y – likely to reflect a reduction in 2-mer repeats in the former and a reduced level of recombination in the latter – and excesses in chromosomes 6, 13, 20 and 21.

  14. Structural effects of protein aging: terminal marking by deamidation in human triosephosphate isomerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio de la Mora-de la Mora

    Full Text Available Deamidation, the loss of the ammonium group of asparagine and glutamine to form aspartic and glutamic acid, is one of the most commonly occurring post-translational modifications in proteins. Since deamidation rates are encoded in the protein structure, it has been proposed that they can serve as molecular clocks for the timing of biological processes such as protein turnover, development and aging. Despite the importance of this process, there is a lack of detailed structural information explaining the effects of deamidation on the structure of proteins. Here, we studied the effects of deamidation on human triosephosphate isomerase (HsTIM, an enzyme for which deamidation of N15 and N71 has been long recognized as the signal for terminal marking of the protein. Deamidation was mimicked by site directed mutagenesis; thus, three mutants of HsTIM (N15D, N71D and N15D/N71D were characterized. The results show that the N71D mutant resembles, structurally and functionally, the wild type enzyme. In contrast, the N15D mutant displays all the detrimental effects related to deamidation. The N15D/N71D mutant shows only minor additional effects when compared with the N15D mutation, supporting that deamidation of N71 induces negligible effects. The crystal structures show that, in contrast to the N71D mutant, where minimal alterations are observed, the N15D mutation forms new interactions that perturb the structure of loop 1 and loop 3, both critical components of the catalytic site and the interface of HsTIM. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of TIM sequences, we propose the conservation of this mechanism for mammalian TIMs.

  15. Early insights into the function of KIAA1199, a markedly overexpressed protein in human colorectal tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Tiwari

    Full Text Available We previously reported that the expression of KIAA1199 in human colorectal tumors (benign and malignant is markedly higher than that in the normal colonic mucosa. In this study, we investigated the functions of the protein encoded by this gene, which are thus far unknown. Immunostaining studies were used to reveal its subcellular localization, and proteomic and gene expression experiments were conducted to identify proteins that might interact with KIAA1199 and molecular pathways in which it might play roles. Using colon cancer cell lines, we showed that both endogenous and ectopically expressed KIAA1199 is secreted into the extracellular environment. In the cells, it was found mainly in the perinuclear space (probably the ER and cell membrane. Both cellular compartments were also over-represented in lists of proteins identified by mass spectrometry as putative KIAA1199 interactors and/or proteins encoded by genes whose transcription was significantly changed by KIAA1199 expression. These proteomic and transcriptomic datasets concordantly link KIAA1199 to several genes/proteins and molecular pathways, including ER processes like protein binding, transport, and folding; and Ca(2+, G-protein, ephrin, and Wnt signaling. Immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed KIAA1199's interaction with the cell-membrane receptor ephrin A2 and with the ER receptor ITPR3, a key player in Ca(2+ signaling. By modulating Ca(2+ signaling, KIAA1199 could affect different branches of the Wnt network. Our findings suggest it may negatively regulate the Wnt/CTNNB1 signaling, and its expression is associated with decreased cell proliferation and invasiveness.

  16. Marked induction of matrix metalloproteinase-10 by respiratory syncytial virus infection in human nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Satoshi; Kojima, Takashi; Obata, Kazufumi; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Yokota, Shin-Ichi; Nomura, Kazuaki; Obonai, Toshimasa; Fuchimoto, Jun; Himi, Tetsuo; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Norimasa

    2013-12-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important pathogen of bronchiolitis, asthma, and severe lower respiratory tract disease in infants and young children. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play key roles in viral infection, inflammation and remodeling of the airway. However, the roles and regulation of MMPs in human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) after RSV infection remain unclear. To investigate the regulation of MMP induced after RSV infection in HNECs, an RSV-infected model of HNECs in vitro was used. It was found that mRNA of MMP-10 was markedly increased in HNECs after RSV infection, together with induction of mRNAs of MMP-1, -7, -9, and -19. The amount of MMP-10 released from HNECs was also increased in a time-dependent manner after RSV infection as was that of chemokine RANTES. The upregulation of MMP-10 in HNECs after RSV infection was prevented by inhibitors of NF-κB and pan-PKC with inhibition of RSV replication, whereas it was prevented by inhibitors of JAK/STAT, MAPK, and EGF receptors without inhibition of RSV replication. In lung tissue of an infant with severe RSV infection in which a few RSV antibody-positive macrophages were observed, MMP-10 was expressed at the apical side of the bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar epithelial cells. In conclusion, MMP-10 induced by RSV infection in HNECs is regulated via distinct signal transduction pathways with or without relation to RSV replication. MMP-10 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RSV diseases and it has the potential to be a novel marker and therapeutic target for RSV infection.

  17. Human intelligence and polymorphisms in the DNA methyltransferase genes involved in epigenetic marking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Haggarty

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in syndromes associated with mental impairment but little is known about the role of epigenetics in determining the normal variation in human intelligence. We measured polymorphisms in four DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B and DNMT3L involved in epigenetic marking and related these to childhood and adult general intelligence in a population (n = 1542 consisting of two Scottish cohorts born in 1936 and residing in Lothian (n = 1075 or Aberdeen (n = 467. All subjects had taken the same test of intelligence at age 11yrs. The Lothian cohort took the test again at age 70yrs. The minor T allele of DNMT3L SNP 11330C>T (rs7354779 allele was associated with a higher standardised childhood intelligence score; greatest effect in the dominant analysis but also significant in the additive model (coefficient = 1.40(additive; 95%CI 0.22,2.59; p = 0.020 and 1.99(dominant; 95%CI 0.55,3.43; p = 0.007. The DNMT3L C allele was associated with an increased risk of being below average intelligence (OR 1.25(additive; 95%CI 1.05,1.51; p = 0.011 and OR 1.37(dominant; 95%CI 1.11,1.68; p = 0.003, and being in the lowest 40(th (p(additive = 0.009; p(dominant = 0.002 and lowest 30(th (p(additive = 0.004; p(dominant = 0.002 centiles for intelligence. After Bonferroni correction for the number variants tested the link between DNMT3L 11330C>T and childhood intelligence remained significant by linear regression and centile analysis; only the additive regression model was borderline significant. Adult intelligence was similarly linked to the DNMT3L variant but this analysis was limited by the numbers studied and nature of the test and the association was not significant after Bonferroni correction. We believe that the role of epigenetics in the normal variation in human intelligence merits further study and that this novel finding should be tested in other cohorts.

  18. Human intelligence and polymorphisms in the DNA methyltransferase genes involved in epigenetic marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggarty, Paul; Hoad, Gwen; Harris, Sarah E; Starr, John M; Fox, Helen C; Deary, Ian J; Whalley, Lawrence J

    2010-06-25

    Epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in syndromes associated with mental impairment but little is known about the role of epigenetics in determining the normal variation in human intelligence. We measured polymorphisms in four DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B and DNMT3L) involved in epigenetic marking and related these to childhood and adult general intelligence in a population (n = 1542) consisting of two Scottish cohorts born in 1936 and residing in Lothian (n = 1075) or Aberdeen (n = 467). All subjects had taken the same test of intelligence at age 11yrs. The Lothian cohort took the test again at age 70yrs. The minor T allele of DNMT3L SNP 11330C>T (rs7354779) allele was associated with a higher standardised childhood intelligence score; greatest effect in the dominant analysis but also significant in the additive model (coefficient = 1.40(additive); 95%CI 0.22,2.59; p = 0.020 and 1.99(dominant); 95%CI 0.55,3.43; p = 0.007). The DNMT3L C allele was associated with an increased risk of being below average intelligence (OR 1.25(additive); 95%CI 1.05,1.51; p = 0.011 and OR 1.37(dominant); 95%CI 1.11,1.68; p = 0.003), and being in the lowest 40(th) (p(additive) = 0.009; p(dominant) = 0.002) and lowest 30(th) (p(additive) = 0.004; p(dominant) = 0.002) centiles for intelligence. After Bonferroni correction for the number variants tested the link between DNMT3L 11330C>T and childhood intelligence remained significant by linear regression and centile analysis; only the additive regression model was borderline significant. Adult intelligence was similarly linked to the DNMT3L variant but this analysis was limited by the numbers studied and nature of the test and the association was not significant after Bonferroni correction. We believe that the role of epigenetics in the normal variation in human intelligence merits further study and that this novel finding should be tested in other cohorts.

  19. Marine animal stings or bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poisonous bites or stings from any form of sea life, including jellyfish. There are about 2,000 species ... bites or stings from various types of marine life, including: jellyfish ... sea urchins, sea anemone, hydroid, coral, cone shell, sharks, ...

  20. Animal bite - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100214.htm Animal bite - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To ... D.A.M., Inc. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Animal Bites A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  1. Compartment Syndrome Following Snake Bite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dhar, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    .... The local effects of snake bite include tissue necrosis, edema, and compartment syndrome. Patients may also be left with permanent physical deformities due to residual sequelae of the snake bite...

  2. Insect bite reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods. Insect bite reactions are commonly seen in clinical practice. The present review touches upon the medically important insects and their places in the classification, the sparse literature on the epidemiology of insect bites in India, and different variables influencing the susceptibility of an individual to insect bites. Clinical features of mosquito bites, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites Epstein-Barr virus NK (HMB-EBV-NK disease, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, Skeeter syndrome, papular pruritic eruption of HIV/AIDS, and clinical features produced by bed bugs, Mexican chicken bugs, assassin bugs, kissing bugs, fleas, black flies, Blandford flies, louse flies, tsetse flies, midges, and thrips are discussed. Brief account is presented of the immunogenic components of mosquito and bed bug saliva. Papular urticaria is discussed including its epidemiology, the 5 stages of skin reaction, the SCRATCH principle as an aid in diagnosis, and the recent evidence supporting participation of types I, III, and IV hypersensitivity reactions in its causation is summarized. Recent developments in the treatment of pediculosis capitis including spinosad 0.9% suspension, benzyl alcohol 5% lotion, dimethicone 4% lotion, isopropyl myristate 50% rinse, and other suffocants are discussed within the context of evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and key findings of a recent systematic review. We also touch upon a non-chemical treatment of head lice and the ineffectiveness of egg-loosening products. Knockdown resistance (kdr as the genetic mechanism making the lice nerves insensitive to permethrin is discussed along with the surprising contrary clinical evidence from Europe about efficacy of permethrin in children with head lice carrying kdr-like gene. The review also presents a brief account of insects as vectors of diseases and ends with discussion of prevention of insect bites and some

  3. Tick Bite by Nymphal Amblyomma testudinarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong Ho; Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Young Min

    2016-01-01

    Ticks are parasites that usually suck the blood of wild or domestic animals; rarely, they ingest human blood and spread various febrile infectious diseases along with skin problems. Out of 40 cases of tick bite reported in Korea, only 3 were caused by nymphal ticks, and tick bites by nymphal Amblyomma testudinarium have not been reported previously. Herein, we report a rare case of tick bite by nymphal A. testudinarium. A 57-year-old woman presented with an asymptomatic solitary erythematous nodule on the left thigh that had been present for 6 days. The tick, which the patient removed from the lesion and brought to the hospital, was identified as a nymphal A. testudinarium. Doxycycline (200 mg) was used as treatment, and after seven days of use, the patient improved and no other lesions were detected. PMID:27904278

  4. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  5. Mosquito Bites are Bad!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-11

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of mosquito bites and how to prevent getting them.  Created: 8/11/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/11/2016.

  6. Rat bite fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, W.; Boot, R.G.A.; Ho, H.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Rat bite fever (RBF) is a bacterial zoonosis for which two causal bacterial species have been identified: Streptobacillis moniliformis and Spirillum minus. Haverhill fever (HF) is a form of S. moniliformis infection believed to develop after ingestion of contaminated food or water. Here the

  7. Can masticatory electromyography be normalised to submaximal bite force?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, S R; Burden, A M; Yates, J M; Zioupos, P; Winwood, K

    2015-05-01

    The combination of bite force and jaw muscle electromyography (EMG) provides an insight into the performance of the stomatognathic system, especially in relation to dynamic movement tasks. Literature has extensively investigated possible methods for normalising EMG data encapsulating many different approaches. However, bite force literature trends towards normalising EMG to a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), which could be difficult for ageing populations or those with poor dental health or limiting conditions such as temporomandibular disorder. The objectives of this study were to (i) determine whether jaw-closing muscle activity is linearly correlated with incremental submaximal and maximal bite force levels and (ii) assess whether normalising maximal and submaximal muscle activity to that produced when performing a low submaximal bite force (20 N) improves repeatability of EMG values. Thirty healthy adults (15 men, 15 women; mean age 21 ± 1·2 years) had bite force measurements obtained using a custom-made button strain gauge load cell. Masseter and anterior temporalis muscle activities were collected bilaterally using surface EMG sensors whilst participants performed maximal biting and three levels of submaximal biting. Furthermore, a small group (n = 4 females) were retested for reliability purposes. Coefficients of variation and intra-class correlation coefficients showed markedly improved reliability when EMG data were normalised compared to non-normalised. This study shows that jaw muscle EMG may be successfully normalised to a very low bite force. This may open possibilities for comparisons between at-risk sample groups that may otherwise find it difficult to produce maximal bite force values.

  8. A two year study of verified spider bites in Switzerland and a review of the European spider bite literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nentwig, Wolfgang; Gnädinger, Markus; Fuchs, Joan; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2013-10-01

    During a two-year study, all spider bites recorded by Swiss primary care physicians were reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre and all collected spiders were identified. A total of 14 verified spider bites were recorded, involving five species from four families: Zoropsis spinimana (five cases), Cheiracanthium punctorium (four cases), Tegenaria atrica (three cases) and one case of Malthonica ferruginea (= Tegenaria ferruginea) (both Agelenidae), and one case of Amaurobius ferox (Amaurobiidae). The bites of all spider species produced relatively mild symptoms. Local symptoms such as moderate to severe pain, circumscribed swelling and redness were the only effects in most cases. Systemic symptoms were rare. There was complete recovery in all cases and all lesions healed completely without further damage or secondary disorders. Following a review of the European spider bite literature, the number of spider species capable of biting humans in Europe is considered to be much larger than could be concluded from this study. Most spider bites are restricted to species living synanthropically, thus promoted by climate and habitat change. The annual frequency of spider bites in Switzerland is estimated at 10-100 bites per million inhabitants, but this is predicted to increase due to the continuous arrival of new alien species, many of which have a high potential to establish in urban areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-biting Muscidae and control methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, G.; Jespersen, Jørgen B.

    1994-01-01

    Many non-biting muscids (filth flies) are characterised by the habit of visiting manure or rotting organic material to Seed and/or oviposit. As these flies also often have close associations with human beings, as well as human habitations and domestic animals, they are potentially both a nuisance...... and a contributory factor in the transmission of diseases. The authors examine the biology, economic importance and control of four of the most important nonbiting muscids:...

  10. Detection of a Potential New Bartonella Species “Candidatus Bartonella rondoniensis” in Human Biting Kissing Bugs (Reduviidae; Triatominae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Maureen; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Mediannikov, Oleg; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Background Among the Reduviidae family, triatomines are giant blood-sucking bugs. They are well known in Central and South America where they transmit Trypanosoma cruzi to mammals, including humans, through their feces. This parasitic protozoan is the causative agent of Chagas disease, a major public health issue in endemic areas. Because of the medical and economic impact of Chagas disease, the presence of other arthropod-borne pathogens in triatomines was rarely investigated. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, seven triatomines species involved in the transmission of T. cruzi were molecularly screened for the presence of known pathogens generally associated with arthropods, such as Rickettsia, Bartonella, Anaplasmataceae, Borrelia species and Coxiella burnetii. Of all included triatomine species, only Eratyrus mucronatus specimens tested positive for Bartonella species for 56% of tested samples. A new genotype of Bartonella spp. was detected in 13/23 Eratyrus mucronatus specimens, an important vector of T. cruzi to humans. This bacterium was further characterized by sequencing fragments of the ftsZ, gltA and rpoB genes. Depending on the targeted gene, this agent shares 84% to 91% of identity with B. bacilliformis, the agent of Carrion’s disease, a deadly sandfly-borne infectious disease endemic in South America. It is also closely related to animal pathogens such as B. bovis and B. chomelii. Conclusions As E. mucronatus is an invasive species that occasionally feeds on humans, the presence of potentially pathogenic Bartonella-infected bugs could present another risk for human health, along with the T. cruzi issue. PMID:28095503

  11. Detection of a Potential New Bartonella Species "Candidatus Bartonella rondoniensis" in Human Biting Kissing Bugs (Reduviidae; Triatominae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Laroche

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Reduviidae family, triatomines are giant blood-sucking bugs. They are well known in Central and South America where they transmit Trypanosoma cruzi to mammals, including humans, through their feces. This parasitic protozoan is the causative agent of Chagas disease, a major public health issue in endemic areas. Because of the medical and economic impact of Chagas disease, the presence of other arthropod-borne pathogens in triatomines was rarely investigated.In this study, seven triatomines species involved in the transmission of T. cruzi were molecularly screened for the presence of known pathogens generally associated with arthropods, such as Rickettsia, Bartonella, Anaplasmataceae, Borrelia species and Coxiella burnetii. Of all included triatomine species, only Eratyrus mucronatus specimens tested positive for Bartonella species for 56% of tested samples. A new genotype of Bartonella spp. was detected in 13/23 Eratyrus mucronatus specimens, an important vector of T. cruzi to humans. This bacterium was further characterized by sequencing fragments of the ftsZ, gltA and rpoB genes. Depending on the targeted gene, this agent shares 84% to 91% of identity with B. bacilliformis, the agent of Carrion's disease, a deadly sandfly-borne infectious disease endemic in South America. It is also closely related to animal pathogens such as B. bovis and B. chomelii.As E. mucronatus is an invasive species that occasionally feeds on humans, the presence of potentially pathogenic Bartonella-infected bugs could present another risk for human health, along with the T. cruzi issue.

  12. Outdoor post-mortem bite injuries by Tapinoma nigerrimum (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) on a human corpse: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Teresa; Vercillo, Vannio

    2015-07-01

    Ants are among the insects that colonize exposed human and animal corpses during the early stage of decomposition. In Calabria, Italy (as well as in other countries), Formicidae have been observed preying on immature stages of Diptera and other insects, as well as causing irregular scalloped areas of superficial skin loss on human corpses and animal carcasses. We present a case of injuries on a human corpse caused by ant feeding. The macroscopic appearance is described and the results of a histochemical investigation of the skin lesions caused by worker ants are reported for the first time. The investigation was carried out on the fresh corpse of a 53-year-old man discovered in a rural area of Cosenza province (Calabria, southern Italy). Numerous irregular areas of superficial skin loss caused by the ant Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) were observed on the body surface, inflicted very early in the post-mortem period. Because the classification of lesions is of crucial importance for forensic investigations, the macroscopic appearance and distribution pattern of the lesions on the corpse are illustrated. The histochemical investigation of the damaged skin explains, for the first time, the mechanism of production of the lesions.

  13. Seasonal and nocturnal domiciliary human landing/biting behaviour of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) evansi and Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) panamensis (Diptera; Psychodidae) in a periurban area of a city on the Caribbean coast of eastern Venezuela (Barcelona; Anzoátegui State).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R; De Sousa, L; Devera, R; Jorquera, A; Ledezma, E

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, in addition to American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), a significant number of cases of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) have been reported in periurban areas of Barcelona city (Anzoátegui State, Venezuela). We studied the bionomics of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) evansi and Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) panamensis, possible vectors of AVL and ACL, respectively, in El Rincón, a periurban village of that city. To evaluate the seasonal domiciliary landing/biting activity of sandflies on human bait, a house was chosen in El Rincón. Landing catches were carried out between 18:00 and 06:00, once a month for a year. The results show the presence of 2 species, Lu. (Lu.) evansi (89.9%) and Lu. (Psy.) panamensis (10.1%). Lu. evansi was most abundant in the months of October and July, associated with the bimodal cycle of annual rainfall in the area. Maximum landing/biting activity of Lu. evansi was observed at 24:00 and 03:00. These findings suggest that at this time of the year and at these hours there is heightened risk of the transmission of AVL. Lu. panamensis monthly abundance also shows a direct association with rainfall and maximum landing/biting activity was observed between 02:00 and 03:00. The lower domiciliary abundance of Lu. panamensis suggests its greater importance in the extradomiciliary transmission of ACL.

  14. Food aroma affects bite size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

  15. Myocarditis following katipo spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Ruth; Harrison, Nigel; Gibbons, Derek

    2010-05-14

    We report the case of a 22-year-old man who developed severe myocarditis following a presumed katipo spider bite. Katipo spiders are thought to be one of the most poisonous native creatures in New Zealand. No deaths from katipo spider bites have been reported since the 19th Century. A literature search reveals no previously reported cases of myocarditis following a bite from a katipo spider. The clinical presentation of latrodectism is discussed.

  16. An Analytical Study of Mammalian Bite Wounds Requiring Inpatient Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Geun Lee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMammalian bite injuries create a public health problem because of their frequency, potential severity, and increasing number. Some researchers have performed fragmentary analyses of bite wounds caused by certain mammalian species. However, little practical information is available concerning serious mammalian bite wounds that require hospitalization and intensive wound management. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to perform a general review of serious mammalian bite wounds.MethodsWe performed a retrospective review of the medical charts of 68 patients who were referred to our plastic surgery department for the treatment of bite wounds between January 2003 and October 2012. The cases were analyzed according to the species, patient demographics, environmental factors, injury characteristics, and clinical course.ResultsAmong the 68 cases of mammalian bite injury, 58 (85% were caused by dogs, 8 by humans, and 2 by cats. Most of those bitten by a human and both of those bitten by cats were male. Only one-third of all the patients were children or adolescents. The most frequent site of injury was the face, with 40 cases, followed by the hand, with 16 cases. Of the 68 patients, 7 were treated with secondary intention healing. Sixty-one patients underwent delayed procedures, including delayed direct closure, skin graft, composite graft, and local flap.ConclusionsBased on overall findings from our review of the 68 cases of mammalian bites, we suggest practical guidelines for the management of mammalian bite injuries, which could be useful in the treatment of serious mammalian bite wounds.

  17. [Arthropod bite reactions and pyodermias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengge, U R

    2008-08-01

    Tourists in the tropics often develop reactions to bites or stings of mosquitoes, fleas, mites, ants, bedbugs, beetles, larva, millipedes, spiders and scorpions. In addition, they may have fresh or salt water exposure to sponges, corals, jellyfish and sea urchins with resultant injury and inflammation. Bacterial skin infections (pyodermias) can follow bites or stings as well as mechanical trauma. The most common bacteria involved in skin infections are staphylococci and streptococci. For tourists, bacterial infections are often complicating a pruritic bite reaction and scratching. It is important to know the cause of the bite reaction and pyoderma in order to take appropriate therapeutic measures.

  18. "Fight-bite": not just a hand problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, C P T Jay B; Knox, Maj Jeffrey B; Wimberly, Robert L; Ellis, Henry B; Riccio, Anthony I

    2014-09-01

    Human bite wounds around the knee are rarely seen, yet may require the same urgent attention as a fight bite to the hand. Two cases of polymicrobial septic arthritis of the knee secondary to a human bite wound are described. In both the cases, the diagnosis of the septic arthritis was delayed because the intra-articular wound was unrecognized. The injuries were initially deemed superficial and managed with local wound care. In each case, the knee was flexed at the time of injury and the quadriceps tendon was penetrated by a tooth which inoculated the knee joint. Septic arthritis of the knee presented, in both cases, 72 hours after the injury. These infections proved challenging to treat and required multiple surgeries and prolonged antibiotic therapy. The "fight bite" phenomenon of the hand is widely recognized and the same phenomenon can occur at the knee.

  19. Tooth-marked small theropod bone: an extremely rare trace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2001-01-01

    Tooth-marked dinosaur bones provide insight into feeding behaviours and biting strategies of theropod dinosaurs. The majority of theropod tooth marks reported to date have been found on herbivorous dinosaur bones, although some tyrannosaurid bones with tooth marks have also been reported. In 1988...

  20. Fatal snake bites – sociodemography, latency pattern of injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background India is a thickly populated country; apart from having biodiversity among people, climate does change from place to place. Western Ghats of South India harbors variety of plantations and diverse creatures. Agriculture is the primary occupation of the people and some tribes living in these regions. Here majority are callous/ ignorant in employing neither advanced farming techniques nor safety precautions, hence are exposed to bites and stings by animals. Of these, snake bites cause significant mortality and morbidity. Proper care for some of these individuals is out of reach. Identification of offending snake, snake bite injury or findings of envenomation is a key not only for the administration of antisnake venom but also for the victim to realize that he needs an expert care. Unless he believes it to be a critical snake bite and not a thorn prick, scorpion sting or a spider bite he will not approach a health care provider. To know about these dangerous signs that may help the victim to realize it as a case of snake bite, current study is employed on fatal cases in this region. Methods 60 fatal snakebite cases were studied retrospectively for 5 years with an objective to know the socio-demography, latency and pattern of injuries in rural Southern India. Results Most of the victims were males, in the age group of 31-50 years and were at risk of snake bites while farming. Large sample of subjects approached traditional therapists and were deprived of essential care in the critical first few hours after snake bite. Fang marks (90%), local ecchymoses (50%) and internal hemorrhage (28.3%), were the frequent demonstrable signs appreciated at autopsy. Conclusion Snakebite is a neglected, endemic, occupational (farming) disease of the poor and there is need for National Snakebite Prevention Programme for curtailing this menace. PMID:23522302

  1. Take an Adventure Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Brandt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Adventure Bites - Cooking with Kids program enhanced nutrition curriculum by including a Life Skill development focus and a family night - to improve youth nutrition behaviors. The data was collected using the WSU 4-H Life Skills pre-post youth evaluations, staff surveys, a parent retrospective pre-post survey, and comparison data from non-program sites. The results support adding Life Skills and family night events into youth nutrition curricula. There are opportunities to improve evaluation and do further testing, to determine what the individual impact of Life Skill development and/or individual impact of having family nights had on changes in youth behaviors regarding nutrition.

  2. Criticism of Humanity--A Case Study of A Dog's Tale by Mark Twain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜海洋

    2014-01-01

    There is a discussion of human nature since an-cient times. Adam and Eve who in the Bible and the seven dead-ly sins of Pope Gregory have already been known by people. Hu-man has been exploring the original human nature for a long time, which could be known from the statement of Marx and Engels and CRIMINAL MAN written by Cesare Lombroso who was a original criminal anthropology. People tried to find out the good and the evil of human nature, in order to know themselves deeply. The argument between the good and the evil of human nature has been under discussion for ages. This paper takes A Dog’s Tale as an example to criticize the evil of human nature, such as interest tendency, aggressiveness, ungratefulness to make people do some soul- searching. Eventually, people push aside or abandon the evil of human nature to achieve self-improvement.%对人性的讨论自古就有,圣经中的亚当夏娃,教宗额我略一世的七宗罪等早已被人们所知晓;从马克思,恩格斯对人性的阐述,到刑事人类学派创始人龙勃罗梭的《犯罪人论》,都可以看出人们不断地对人性进行着探索。人们试图从中发现人性的本真,善恶,以使人类更为深刻地了解自己。人性的善恶之争从未停止,而本文将以马克·吐温狗的自述为例,来对人的趋利性、攻击性、忘恩负义等恶性进行批判,以使得人们更为深刻地自省,最终能够减轻或摒弃人类恶的本性,以达到自我的提升。

  3. TMEM119 marks a subset of microglia in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Jun-ichi; Kino, Yoshihiro; Asahina, Naohiro; Takitani, Mika; Miyoshi, Junko; Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Yuko

    2016-02-01

    Microglia are resident myeloid cells of the central nervous system (CNS), activated in the brains of various neurological diseases. Microglia are ontogenetically and functionally distinct from monocyte-derived macrophages that infiltrate the CNS under pathological conditions. However, a lack of specific markers that distinguish resident microglia from circulating blood-derived macrophages in human brain tissues hampers accurate evaluation of microglial contributions to the human brain pathology. By comparative analysis of five comprehensive microglial transcriptome datasets, we identified an evolutionarily conserved protein TMEM119 as the most promising candidate for human microglial markers. TMEM119 was expressed on immortalized human microglia, in which the expression levels were not elevated by exposure to lipopolysaccharide, IFNγ, IL-4, IL-13 or TGFβ1. Notably, TMEM119 immunoreactivity was expressed exclusively on a subset of Iba1(+) CD68(+) microglia with ramified and amoeboid morphologies in the brains of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), whereas Iba1(+) CD68(+) infiltrating macrophages do not express TMEM119 in demyelinating lesions of multiple sclerosis and necrotic lesions of cerebral infarction. TMEM119 mRNA levels were elevated in AD brains, although the protein levels were not significantly different between AD and non-AD cases by western blot and morphometric analyses. TMEM119-positive microglia did not consistently express polarized markers for M1 (CD80) or M2 (CD163, CD209) in AD brains. These results suggest that TMEM119 serves as a reliable microglial marker that discriminates resident microglia from blood-derived macrophages in the human brain. © 2015 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  4. Esthetic correction in open bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Parlani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deleterious oral habits, which are persistent, can lead to poor esthetics of a beautiful face. Conventional treatment modalities for an open bite usually include orthodontic treatment and/or skeletal surgery. This article focuses on a different treatment modality for an anterior open bite.

  5. Funnel-web spider bite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002844.htm Funnel-web spider bite To use the sharing features on this ... effects of a bite from the funnel-web spider. Male funnel-web spiders are more poisonous than females. This article ...

  6. Spider bites - Assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitberg, George; Segal, Leslie

    2009-11-01

    Spider bite is common, but most species cause minimal or no effects. Patients may be misinformed regarding the nature and consequences of a bite. Understanding the current literature can assist the physician in the management of spider bite patients. This article reviews the current literature on spider bites and describes the clinical assessment and management of the medically important spider bites. Most spider bite is minor and causes nothing more than local irritation. Some spiders can cause significant morbidity and rarely, mortality. Lay identification of the spider has not been shown to be reliable. Latrodectism (red back spider envenomation) is characterised by pain (local, radiating, and regional); systemic symptoms occur less commonly. Funnel web spider bite is a medical emergency; a pressure immobilisation bandage should be applied and the patient transferred to a hospital with available antivenom and resuscitation facilities. Clinicians must consider spider bite in the differential diagnosis of unexplained autonomic and neurological dysfunction, particularly in children. In Australia, skin ulceration is more likely to be an infective, inflammatory or traumatic cause than a case of necrotising arachnidism.

  7. Safety and comparability of controlled human Plasmodium falciparum infection by mosquito bite in malaria-naive subjects at a new facility for sporozoite challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela K Talley

    Full Text Available Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI studies which recapitulate mosquito-borne infection are a critical tool to identify protective vaccine and drug candidates for advancement to field trials. In partnership with the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, the CHMI model was established at the Seattle Biomedical Research Institute's Malaria Clinical Trials Center (MCTC. Activities and reagents at both centers were aligned to ensure comparability and continued safety of the model. To demonstrate successful implementation, CHMI was performed in six healthy malaria-naïve volunteers.All volunteers received NF54 strain Plasmodium falciparum by the bite of five infected Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes under controlled conditions and were monitored for signs and symptoms of malaria and for parasitemia by peripheral blood smear. Subjects were treated upon diagnosis with chloroquine by directly observed therapy. Immunological (T cell and antibody and molecular diagnostic (real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction [qRT-PCR] assessments were also performed.All six volunteers developed patent parasitemia and clinical malaria. No serious adverse events occurred during the study period or for six months post-infection. The mean prepatent period was 11.2 days (range 9-14 days, and geometric mean parasitemia upon diagnosis was 10.8 parasites/µL (range 2-69 by microscopy. qRT-PCR detected parasites an average of 3.7 days (range 2-4 days earlier than blood smears. All volunteers developed antibodies to the blood-stage antigen merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1, which persisted up to six months. Humoral and cellular responses to pre-erythrocytic antigens circumsporozoite protein (CSP and liver-stage antigen 1 (LSA-1 were limited.The CHMI model was safe, well tolerated and characterized by consistent prepatent periods, pre-symptomatic diagnosis in 3/6 subjects and adverse event profiles as reported at established centers. The MCTC

  8. Loss of CD44dim Expression from Early Progenitor Cells Marks T-Cell Lineage Commitment in the Human Thymus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canté-Barrett, Kirsten; Mendes, Rui D.; Li, Yunlei; Vroegindeweij, Eric; Pike-Overzet, Karin; Wabeke, Tamara; Langerak, Anton W.; Pieters, Rob; Staal, Frank J. T.; Meijerink, Jules P. P.

    2017-01-01

    Human T-cell development is less well studied than its murine counterpart due to the lack of genetic tools and the difficulty of obtaining cells and tissues. Here, we report the transcriptional landscape of 11 immature, consecutive human T-cell developmental stages. The changes in gene expression of cultured stem cells on OP9-DL1 match those of ex vivo isolated murine and human thymocytes. These analyses led us to define evolutionary conserved gene signatures that represent pre- and post-αβ T-cell commitment stages. We found that loss of dim expression of CD44 marks human T-cell commitment in early CD7+CD5+CD45dim cells, before the acquisition of CD1a surface expression. The CD44−CD1a− post-committed thymocytes have initiated in frame T-cell receptor rearrangements that are accompanied by loss of capacity to differentiate toward myeloid, B- and NK-lineages, unlike uncommitted CD44dimCD1a− thymocytes. Therefore, loss of CD44 represents a previously unrecognized human thymocyte stage that defines the earliest committed T-cell population in the thymus. PMID:28163708

  9. Doping Human Serum Albumin with Retinoate Markedly Enhances Electron Transport Across the Protein

    CERN Document Server

    Amdursky, Nadav; Sheves, Mordechai; Cahen, David

    2012-01-01

    Electrons can migrate via proteins over distances that are considered long for non-conjugated systems. Proteins' nano-scale dimensions and the enormous flexibility of their structures and chemistry makes them fascinating subjects for investigating the mechanism of their electron transport (ETp) capacity. One particular attractive research direction is that of tuning their ETp efficiency by doping them with external small molecules. Here we report that solid-state ETp across human serum albumin (HSA) increases by more than two orders of magnitude upon retinoate (RA) binding to HSA. RA was chosen because optical spectroscopy has provided evidence for the non-covalent binding of at least three RA molecules to HSA and indications for their relative structural positions. The temperature dependence of ETp shows that both the activation energy and the distance-decay constant decrease with increasing RA binding to HSA. Furthermore, the observed transition from temperature-activated ETp above 190K to temperature-indep...

  10. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib induces a marked adipogenic differentiation of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Borriello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The introduction of specific BCR-ABL inhibitors in chronic myelogenous leukemia therapy has entirely mutated the prognosis of this hematologic cancer from being a fatal disorder to becoming a chronic disease. Due to the probable long lasting treatment with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs, the knowledge of their effects on normal cells is of pivotal importance. DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated the effects of dasatinib treatment on human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs. RESULTS: Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that dasatinib induces MSCs adipocytic differentiation. Particularly, when the TKI is added to the medium inducing osteogenic differentiation, a high MSCs percentage acquires adipocytic morphology and overexpresses adipocytic specific genes, including PPARγ, CEBPα, LPL and SREBP1c. Dasatinib also inhibits the activity of alkaline phosphatase, an osteogenic marker, and remarkably reduces matrix mineralization. The increase of PPARγ is also confirmed at protein level. The component of osteogenic medium required for dasatinib-induced adipogenesis is dexamethasone. Intriguingly, the increase of adipocytic markers is also observed in MSCs treated with dasatinib alone. The TKI effect is phenotype-specific, since fibroblasts do not undergo adipocytic differentiation or PPARγ increase. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that dasatinib treatment affects bone marrow MSCs commitment and suggest that TKIs therapy might modify normal phenotypes with potential significant negative consequences.

  11. Dog ecology, dog bites and rabies vaccination rates in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Y.J. Atuman; A. B. Ogunkoya; D.A.Y. Adawa; A.J. Nok; M.B. Biallah

    2014-01-01

    A study of dog ecology, dog bites and rabies vaccination rates was carried out in Bauchi the capital city of Bauchi State, Nigeria using direct street counts and questionnaire survey administered on 10% of the city streets selected by stratified random sampling. The questionnaire was designed to obtain data in order to determine the dog to human population ratio, dog management and care, cases of dog bites, consequences of the bites and frequencies of rabies outbreak. The estimated dog popula...

  12. Stretch Marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to get rid of stretch marks, but the truth is that most don't work and are ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  13. Stretch marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretch marks can appear when there is rapid stretching of the skin. They are often seen when ... often disappear after the cause of the skin stretching is gone. Avoiding rapid weight gain helps reduce ...

  14. Epidemiological aspects of snake bites on a Liberian rubber plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahel, E

    1980-12-01

    During a one-year period 95 patients with a history of snake bite were admitted to the hospital of a Liberian rubber plantation. The population at risk included the field workers (tappers and slashers) with an incidence of 4.2 symptomatic snake bites per thousand per year. The incidence of symptomatic bites was 1.7 per thousand in the group of non-field employees and 0.4 per thousand per year in the group of non-employees. The temporary disability was between 3 and 5 days, and the loss of workings days due to snake bites was one day per 10,000 working days on the plantation. Among the 95 patients 27 did not show any symptoms of envenoming except occasional fang marks. 64 patients developed cytotoxic symptoms alone. In this group, the night adder (Causus maculatus) was the main responsible snake. 4 patients showed signs of systemic envenoming. Two were haematological and two were neurological in nature and caused by Bitis species and Naja species, respectively. No fatalities were noted. A definite maximum of snake bites was observed during October and November which corresponds to the transition from rainy to dry season.

  15. Sensitivity to bites by the bedbug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, K; Kempke, D; Naylor, R A; Siva-Jothy, M T

    2009-06-01

    Bedbugs are a public health problem and can cause significant economic losses, but little is known about the effects of bites on humans. We reviewed case reports and published papers on bedbug bites to assess the empirical basis of the commonly cited figure that only approximately 80% of the population are sensitive to bedbug bites. We found the sensitivity estimate to be based on only one study carried out 80 years ago. However, this study did not account for the now well-established fact that only repeated exposure to external allergens leads to skin reactions. In our sample, 18 of 19 persons showed a skin reaction after bedbug exposure, but in most cases only after repeated controlled exposure. With repeated exposure, the latency between bite and skin reactions decreased from approximately 10 days to a few seconds. Our results are relevant for the hospitality industry, where apparently increasing infestation rates are likely to lead to an increase in the number of tourists and hotel employees exposed to bedbugs. Medical and public health professionals may expect to see an increase in the prevalence of people with bedbug bite sensitivity. The significance of the delayed reaction time of skin to bites may also have implications in litigation cases where people seek compensation.

  16. Suspected dog bite associated HIV horizontal transmission in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganizani Mlawanda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dog bites may lead to transmission of bacteria and viruses over and above tetanus and rabies. Theoretically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C may be transmitted after dog bites where transfer of blood from one victim to another occur in clinical practice HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C are not considered when making treatment decisions, nor adequate patient history taken to consider all potential risks after dog bites in succession.Objective: To present case of suspected HIV transmission after dog bites in close succession involving two HIV sero-discordant victims.Management and outcome: HIV rapid test and/or HIV Ribonucleic acid (RNA polymerasechain reaction (PCR results for the victim(s at presentation and a month later.Results: Two night patrol guards presented to casualty after dog bites in close succession by the same dog. They were managed according to the dog bite protocol. Thinking out of the box, the first victim was found to be HIV positive by rapid test whilst the second victim was negative based on both HIV rapid test and HIV RNA PCR. One month after the dogbites, a case of HIV sero-conversion was confirmed in the second victim despite post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP.Discussion: Although an isolated case, shouldn’t clinicians re-think the significance of HIV transmission after animal bites where there is repeated blood exposure in several people insuccession?Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware of the potential of HIV, Hepatitis B and C transmission, when faced with dog bites in succession. 

  17. Animal Bites of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your bite may be infected include: Swelling Redness Warmth Continued pain beyond 24 hours Drainage from the wound Signs that your infection may be spreading include: Red streaks up the arm or forearm Swollen glands ...

  18. Traveler's Health: Avoid Bug Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children Fish ... insect repellents that contain at least 20% DEET (products include Cutter Backwoods and Off! Deep Woods) for ...

  19. Reversible myocarditis after spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Hasan; Ak, Ahmet; Bayir, Aysegul; Avci, Ahmet

    2013-04-08

    Black widow spiders (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus) are poisonous spiders endemic in Turkey. Latrodectus bites may cause myocarditis with increased cardiac enzymes. We treated two men (aged 20 and 33 years) who had myocarditis after black spider bites with leucocytosis and elevated levels of troponin I, creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB fraction. Both patients had normal results on an ECG, and one patient had abnormal echocardiography with minimal left ventricular wall movement disorder. Both patients were hospitalised in the intensive care unit and treated with intravenous fluids, analgesics, spasmolytic drugs, tetanus prophylaxis and cardiac monitoring. The levels of troponin I, creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB fraction improved, and the patients were discharged home on the third and fifth hospital day without complications. Myocarditis after a Latrodectus bite is rare, but may be associated with serious complications. Therefore, in regions endemic with Latrodectus spiders, prudent treatment of spider bites may include cardiac evaluation and monitoring.

  20. Ticks and Diseases: Bite Fright!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Ticks and Diseases Bite Fright! Past Issues / Spring - Summer ... can bring on serious health problems. What Are Ticks? If you spend any time outdoors, you've ...

  1. Spider Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antibiotic ointment. Apply a cool compress. Use a cloth dampened with cold water or filled with ice. ... may include: At first, slight swelling and faint red marks Intense pain and stiffness Severe abdominal pain ...

  2. Compartment Syndrome Following Snake Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Dhar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Snake bites are an important public health problem worldwide. Snake venom causes both systemic and local complications, which can prove fatal if not treated on time. The local effects of snake bite include tissue necrosis, edema, and compartment syndrome. Patients may also be left with permanent physical deformities due to residual sequelae of the snake bite. Compartment syndrome after a snake bite is an uncommon occurrence. The effects are more pronounced in children possibly due to the the reduced total dilution volume in children. The administration of anti-snake venom is the only specific therapy. Compartment syndrome occurs due to a vicious cycle of edema causing hypoxia and acidosis, which further increases capillary permeability and fluid extravasation. This results in a volume increase in the closed fascial compartment, which ultimately compromises circulation and causes irreversible muscle and nerve damage. Our report describes a case of upper limb compartment syndrome following a snake bite on the right wrist of a five-year-old girl who presented eight-hours after the snake bite to the emergency department of Nizwa Regional Referral Hospital. The patient received early and appropriate care but progressed to develop compartment syndrome for which she had to be taken to the operating theatre for emergency fasciotomy. All clinicians should be able to recognize the early symptoms and signs of an evolving compartment syndrome in absence of intracompartmental measuring equipment. The timely fasciotomy in our patient helped the patient achieve excellent functional results.

  3. [Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis following a spider bite: three cases from Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Z; Saidi, W; Boussofara, L; Ghariani, N; Belajouza, C; Sriha, B; Denguezli, M; Nouira, R

    2010-12-01

    acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a severe eruption induced in most cases by medication; more rarely, it is associated with viral infection, food allergens or toxins. The literature contains only very rare reports of AGEP caused by a spider bite. We describe three cases of AGEP in Tunisian women following a spider bite. three Tunisian women were hospitalized in the dermatology department during the summer months presenting acute febrile pustulosis and rash occurring after a spider bite. The diagnosis of AGEP was confirmed with certainty based on the EuroSCAR score. Two patients presented marked eosinophilia. The outcome was favourable in all cases after symptomatic treatment. the factors militating in favour of spider-bite origin in these three patients were: (1) the presence of skin lesions characteristic of a spider bite; (2) the chronology of events, with eruption occurring 24 to 48 hours after the bite; and (3) the exclusion of the common causes of AGEP and the presence of marked eosinophilia in two of the cases. Our cases and the few cases published in the literature indicate that spider bites may be added to the list of the possible causes of AGEP. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. [Snake bite injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchányi, B; Szalontay, T; Zacher, G

    2000-05-14

    Authors treated five patients who suffered venomous snake-bite injury. Although these snakes are not native in Hungary, this kind of injury is estimated to be more frequent, because of the increasing number of the private collections and illegal import of these reptiles. The local and general symptoms, the therapeutic steps are summarised in this study considering the literature as well. Two patients did not show any systemic or local symptoms at the level of injury, they needed only short observation, and woundcare. The other three patients had serious transient systematic symptoms (vasolability, hypotension/shock, coagulopathy, confusion). Two of them were given specific antivenom. As the third patient did not agree with the serum therapy, plasmapheresis was the choice to treat him, and it seemed to be effective. Few hours later the patients needed surgery because of serious compartment syndrome of their affected upper extremity. Surgical decompression of all the compartments and different possibilities of the secondary skin closure technique are demonstrated. Two patient healed completely, but the right thumb of the third was lost. Authors summarise the effects of the poisons, the symptoms, and the basic therapeutic steps during the first aid and in the primary hospital phase, respectively. They point out the indications of the serum therapy and the correct surgical decompression of the injured extremity.

  5. Isolation of Bartonella quintana from a Woman and a Cat following Putative Bite Transmission▿

    OpenAIRE

    Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Maggi, Ricardo G; Sigmon, Betsy; Nicholson, William L.

    2006-01-01

    We report here the detection of Bartonella quintana, after putative bite transmission, in pre-enrichment blood cultures from a woman and from two feral barn cats. Prospective molecular epidemiological studies are necessary to characterize the risk of human Bartonella quintana infection following cat bites.

  6. CTCF and CohesinSA-1 Mark Active Promoters and Boundaries of Repressive Chromatin Domains in Primary Human Erythroid Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie A Steiner

    Full Text Available CTCF and cohesinSA-1 are regulatory proteins involved in a number of critical cellular processes including transcription, maintenance of chromatin domain architecture, and insulator function. To assess changes in the CTCF and cohesinSA-1 interactomes during erythropoiesis, chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high throughput sequencing and mRNA transcriptome analyses via RNA-seq were performed in primary human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC and primary human erythroid cells from single donors.Sites of CTCF and cohesinSA-1 co-occupancy were enriched in gene promoters in HSPC and erythroid cells compared to single CTCF or cohesin sites. Cell type-specific CTCF sites in erythroid cells were linked to highly expressed genes, with the opposite pattern observed in HSPCs. Chromatin domains were identified by ChIP-seq with antibodies against trimethylated lysine 27 histone H3, a modification associated with repressive chromatin. Repressive chromatin domains increased in both number and size during hematopoiesis, with many more repressive domains in erythroid cells than HSPCs. CTCF and cohesinSA-1 marked the boundaries of these repressive chromatin domains in a cell-type specific manner.These genome wide data, changes in sites of protein occupancy, chromatin architecture, and related gene expression, support the hypothesis that CTCF and cohesinSA-1 have multiple roles in the regulation of gene expression during erythropoiesis including transcriptional regulation at gene promoters and maintenance of chromatin architecture. These data from primary human erythroid cells provide a resource for studies of normal and perturbed erythropoiesis.

  7. Mortality following snake bite envenomation by Bitis arietans in an HIV positive child: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Gregory B; Street, Matthew; Ramguthy, Yammesh; Doedens, Linda

    2016-07-01

    Snake bites occur commonly in the rural areas of South Africa. Hospitals where snake bites are uncommon should always have protocols on standby in the event of such cases presenting. This is the first reported case documenting the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on snake bite in South African children.A case report and review of relevant information about the case was undertaken.We present a case of a 1-year-old child referred from a peripheral hospital following a snake bite to the left upper limb with a compartment syndrome and features of cytotoxic envenomation. The patient presented late with a wide area of necrotic skin on the arm requiring extensive debridement. The underlying muscle was not necrotic. Polyvalent antivenom (South African Institute of Medical Research Polyvalent Snakebite Antiserum) administration was delayed by 4 days after the snake bite. The patient was also diagnosed with HIV and a persistent thrombocytopenia possibly due to both HIV infection and the snake bite venom. Lower respiratory tract infections with subsequent overwhelming sepsis ultimately resulted in the child's death.The case highlights the challenge of treating a snake bite in a young child with HIV and the detrimental outcome of delayed treatment. A protocol is essential in the management of snake bites in all hospitals.Level IV, Case report.This case highlights the interaction of snake bite envenomation and HIV infection on thrombocytopenia.

  8. Mortality following snake bite envenomation by Bitis arietans in an HIV positive child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Gregory B.; Street, Matthew; Ramguthy, Yammesh; Doedens, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Snake bites occur commonly in the rural areas of South Africa. Hospitals where snake bites are uncommon should always have protocols on standby in the event of such cases presenting. This is the first reported case documenting the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on snake bite in South African children. A case report and review of relevant information about the case was undertaken. We present a case of a 1-year-old child referred from a peripheral hospital following a snake bite to the left upper limb with a compartment syndrome and features of cytotoxic envenomation. The patient presented late with a wide area of necrotic skin on the arm requiring extensive debridement. The underlying muscle was not necrotic. Polyvalent antivenom (South African Institute of Medical Research Polyvalent Snakebite Antiserum) administration was delayed by 4 days after the snake bite. The patient was also diagnosed with HIV and a persistent thrombocytopenia possibly due to both HIV infection and the snake bite venom. Lower respiratory tract infections with subsequent overwhelming sepsis ultimately resulted in the child's death. The case highlights the challenge of treating a snake bite in a young child with HIV and the detrimental outcome of delayed treatment. A protocol is essential in the management of snake bites in all hospitals. Level IV, Case report. This case highlights the interaction of snake bite envenomation and HIV infection on thrombocytopenia. PMID:27399076

  9. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous ... one’s greatest efforts, bug bites still happen. Fortunately, most bug bites and stings can be safely treated ...

  10. A computational model for histone mark propagation reproduces the distribution of heterochromatin in different human cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwämmle, Veit; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin is a highly compact and dynamic nuclear structure that consists of DNA and associated proteins. The main organizational unit is the nucleosome, which consists of a histone octamer with DNA wrapped around it. Histone proteins are implicated in the regulation of eukaryote genes and they carry numerous reversible post-translational modifications that control DNA-protein interactions and the recruitment of chromatin binding proteins. Heterochromatin, the transcriptionally inactive part of the genome, is densely packed and contains histone H3 that is methylated at Lys 9 (H3K9me). The propagation of H3K9me in nucleosomes along the DNA in chromatin is antagonizing by methylation of H3 Lysine 4 (H3K4me) and acetylations of several lysines, which is related to euchromatin and active genes. We show that the related histone modifications form antagonized domains on a coarse scale. These histone marks are assumed to be initiated within distinct nucleation sites in the DNA and to propagate bi-directionally. We propose a simple computer model that simulates the distribution of heterochromatin in human chromosomes. The simulations are in agreement with previously reported experimental observations from two different human cell lines. We reproduced different types of barriers between heterochromatin and euchromatin providing a unified model for their function. The effect of changes in the nucleation site distribution and of propagation rates were studied. The former occurs mainly with the aim of (de-)activation of single genes or gene groups and the latter has the power of controlling the transcriptional programs of entire chromosomes. Generally, the regulatory program of gene transcription is controlled by the distribution of nucleation sites along the DNA string.

  11. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable...... substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further...

  12. [Compartment syndrome following adder bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roed, Casper; Bayer, Lasse; Lebech, Anne-Mette Kjaer; Poulsen, Jesper Brøndum; Katzenstein, Terese

    2009-01-26

    Bites from the adder, Vipera Berus, can have serious clinical consequences due to systemic effects. Meanwhile, the local swelling calls for attention as well. Two cases of seven- and eleven-year-old boys are reported. The first patient was bitten in the 5th toe, the second in the thumb. Both developed fasciotomy-requiring compartment syndrome of the lower and upper limb, respectively. Recognition of this most seldom complication of an adder bite is vital to save the limb. We recommend that the classical signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome serve as indication for surgery. However, compartment pressure measurement can be helpful in the assessment of children.

  13. Animal bite injuries to the face : A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simao, Niverso Rodrigues; Borba, Alexandre Meireles; da Silva, Andre Luis Fernandes; Vieira, Evanice Menezes Marcal; Carvalhosa, Artur Aburad; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2013-08-01

    Traumatic lacerations to the skin are problems frequently seen and treated by emergency centers around the world. Among all wounds, dog and cat bites are commonly seen. As in many mammals, different species of microorganisms are found in dog and cat mouths with a potential pathological effect to humans, as represented by rabies. The injuries have disfiguration effect with possible psychological repercussion to the patient. This article aimed presenting up to date considerations regarding the management of animal bite injuries to the face, exemplified by a case report that should be the interest of all professions that deal with facial tissues, as dentists do. How to cite this article: Simao NR, Borba AM, da Silva ALF, Vieira EMM, Carvalhosa AA, Bandeca MC, Borges AH. Animal bite injuries to the face: A Case Report. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):68-72.

  14. An unusual complication of snake bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Grace

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior pituitary hypofunction is a well-known complication following snake bite. However, central diabetes insipidus as a complication of snake bite is only rarely reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of central diabetes insipidus, which developed as sequelae to viper bite.

  15. Chromosome aberrations induced in human lymphocytes by U-235 fission neutrons: I. Irradiation of human blood samples in the "dry cell" of the TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajgelj, A; Lakoski, A; Horvat, D; Remec, I; Skrk, J; Stegnar, P

    1991-11-01

    A set-up for irradiation of biological samples in the TRIGA Mark II research reactor in Ljubljana is described. Threshold activation detectors were used for characterisation of the neutron flux, and the accompanying gamma dose was measured by TLDs. Human peripheral blood samples were irradiated "in vitro" and biological effects evaluated according to the unstable chromosomal aberrations induced. Biological effects of two types of cultivation of irradiated blood samples, the first immediately after irradiation and the second after 96 h storage, were studied. A significant difference in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations between these two types of samples was obtained, while our dose-response curve fitting coefficients alpha 1 = (7.71 +/- 0.09) x 10(-2) Gy-1 (immediate cultivation) and alpha 2 = (11.03 +/- 0.08) x 10(-2) Gy-1 (96 h delayed cultivation) are in both cases lower than could be found in the literature.

  16. Bites and Scratches (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... small. A child who is bitten by an animal may need antibiotics, a tetanus booster, or rarely, a series of rabies shots. A bite or scratch on a child's face, hand, or foot is ... unfamiliar or wild animal, note the location of the animal. Some animals ...

  17. [Viper (Vipera berus) snake bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, J; Kornalík, F

    2000-07-19

    Cases of snake bites (Vipera berus) have as compared with past years a rising trend in the Czech Republic. This ensues among other factors from a higher prevalence of snakes due to the improving ecological situation. The morbidity of snake bites is of no epidemiological importance, the frequency of snake bites amounts to several tens per year and in some clinically manifest intoxication does not develop. Nevertheless in individual cases, in children weakened subjects, a viper bite may be manifested by a serious and in exceptional instances fatal affection. Within the framework of first aid the authors do not recommend application of a tourniquet or dissecting of the wound because of undesirable potentiation of tissue traumatization. Non-specific treatment involves the administration of corticoids and antihistaminics. Specific immunotherapy, administration of horse antiserum (Ipser Europe, Pasteur Mérieux, France) is indicated only in case of systemic or very severe local symptoms and is associated with the risk of a severe allergic reaction. In case of severe systemic symptoms, symptomatic treatment in a health institution of the appropriate type is of fundamental importance. In all cases observation of the affected subject is recommended to rule out intoxication or the development of possible complications.

  18. Do animals bite more during a full moon? Retrospective observational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, C; Bradley, P; Smith, M; Scally, A J; Wilson, B J

    To test the hypothesis that the incidence of animal bites increases at the time of a full moon. Retrospective observational analysis. Accident and emergency department at a general hospital in an English city. 1621 consecutive patients, irrespective of age and sex. Number of patients who attended an accident and emergency department during 1997 to 1999 after being bitten by an animal. The number of bites in each day was compared with the lunar phase in each month. The incidence of animal bites rose significantly at the time of a full moon. With the period of the full moon as the reference period, the incidence rate ratio of the bites for all other periods of the lunar cycle was significantly lower (P full moon is associated with a significant increase in animal bites to humans.

  19. CLINICO EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF WILD ANIMAL BITE VICTIMS ATTENDING ANTI RABIES CLINIC AT GOVERNMENT TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN MANDYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnavi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Rabies is an acute viral disease that causes fatal encephalitis in virtually all the warm blooded animals including man. In India it is estimated that annually 17.4 million animal bite cases occur and 20, 000 deaths occur due to human rabies. Dogs are responsible for about 97%of the human rabies, followed by cats (2%, jackals, mongoose and others (1%. There is scarcity of literature regarding human rabies due to wild animals. OBJECTIVES: To describe the socio- demographic characteristics of wild animal bite victims attending Anti Rabies Clinic (ARC, Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences (MIMS, Mandya and to describe the circumstances, characteristics of bite and post exposure prophylactic measures taken to prevent rabies. METHODOLOGY: This hospital based case record analysis was done for a period of 3 years from January 2011 to December 2013 at Anti Rabies Clinic (ARC, Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences, Mandya. The details regarding the socio demographic characteristics of bite victims, characteristics of the bite wound and post exposure prophylactic measures taken to prevent rabies were collected using case records of wild animal bite victims. RESULTS: A total of 12, 798 animal bite victims had attended ARC during the study period, of which 67 (0.52% cases were exposed to wild animals. Of these 67 cases, 45 (67.2% of the victims were exposed to monkey and 13 (19.4% were exposed to wild boar. 45 (67.2% of the wild animal bite victims were in the age group of 15 to 60 years, 49 (73.1% were males and 22 (32.8% belonging to class IV socio economic status. Many of the monkey bites happened when the monkey was trying to snatch food from the victims and while other wild animal bites happened when the farmers were guarding their field. 40 (59.7% had bites on upper limb. 51 (76.1% had washed the wound with soap and water before coming to ARC. RIG was advised to all victims but was taken by 49 (73.1% of the bite victims. All four doses

  20. Population dynamics and spatial structure of human-biting mosquitoes, inside and outside of houses, in the Chockwe irrigation scheme, southern Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Derek Charlwood

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Focal control of malaria vectors, a potentially cost-effective alternative to conventional control, requires a spatio-temporal understanding of the mosquitoes. Trapping of African malaria vectors has generally been limited to inside houses making distribution estimates dependent on the location of dwellings. The development of tent-traps to sample outdoor biting mosquitoes has enabled more independent estimates. Here we describe both temporal and spatial variation in mosquito movements in an irrigation project village in southern Mozambique. Six hundred and ninety-three tent-trap collections (525 of which were paired with light-trap collections, 552 exit collections and 391 collections of mosquitoes resting inside houses were undertaken from March 2005 to April 2006. Fifteen species of mosquito were collected (five exclusively as larvae. Mansonia africana was the most common finding, numbers being greatest away from the village. Only Anopheles funestus, An. tenebrosus and Culex quinquefasciatus were collected in greater numbers in light-traps compared to tent-traps. Among the common mosquitoes, correlations in numbers of mosquito collected in paired tent and in light-traps were significant for all but An. tenebrosus. Inverse distance weighting was used to produce raster density maps of the most common mosquitoes. All species, with minor variations, in both hot and cool seasons, were collected in greatest numbers close to the edges of the village where water suitable for larval development was available. All exophilic anophelines species tested negative for sporozoites. It is suggested that focal control of larvae, applied by the villagers themselves, could be a suitable alternative to conventional control in this and similar villages.

  1. Population dynamics and spatial structure of human-biting mosquitoes, inside and outside of houses, in the Chockwe irrigation scheme, southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlwood, J Derek; Macia, Gracieta A; Manhaca, Maria; Sousa, Bruno; Cuamba, Nelson; Bragança, Mauro

    2013-05-01

    Focal control of malaria vectors, a potentially cost-effective alternative to conventional control, requires a spatio-temporal understanding of the mosquitoes. Trapping of African malaria vectors has generally been limited to inside houses making distribution estimates dependent on the location of dwellings. The development of tent-traps to sample outdoor biting mosquitoes has enabled more independent estimates. Here we describe both temporal and spatial variation in mosquito movements in an irrigation project village in southern Mozambique. Six hundred and ninety-three tent-trap collections (525 of which were paired with light-trap collections), 552 exit collections and 391 collections of mosquitoes resting inside houses were undertaken from March 2005 to April 2006. Fifteen species of mosquito were collected (five exclusively as larvae). Mansonia africana was the most common finding, numbers being greatest away from the village. Only Anopheles funestus, An. tenebrosus and Culex quinquefasciatus were collected in greater numbers in light-traps compared to tent-traps. Among the common mosquitoes, correlations in numbers of mosquito collected in paired tent and in light-traps were significant for all but An. tenebrosus. Inverse distance weighting was used to produce raster density maps of the most common mosquitoes. All species, with minor variations, in both hot and cool seasons, were collected in greatest numbers close to the edges of the village where water suitable for larval development was available. All exophilic anophelines species tested negative for sporozoites. It is suggested that focal control of larvae, applied by the villagers themselves, could be a suitable alternative to conventional control in this and similar villages.

  2. Analysis of cases caused by acute spider bite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zihni Sulaj; Gentian Vyshka; Amarda Gashi

    2015-01-01

    We performed a retrospective study of 176 patients in the University Hospital Center of Tirana (Albania), during the period 2001-2011, admitted with the diagnosis of a suspected spider bite. Three fatalities were registered during this decade covered from our study, with a clinical picture of marked hypertension, tachycardia and acute cardiac failure leading to death within a minimum of 25 hours and a maximum of 42 hours from the occurrence. Out of the total of 176 patients, we had 59% (104 cases) females, and 41% males. The overwhelming majority of the patients lived in rural areas (155 of the cases); extremities were mostly affected from the bites. A summary of clinical signs and a brief review of the available literature are made in the results and discussion section of this paper. Authors advocate that special precautions should be taken especially in severe forms of interesting autonomous nerve system, with aggressive fluid resuscitation, supportive therapy and close monitoring of vital signs.

  3. [Spider bites: araneidism of medical importance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Philip; Rollard, Christine; De Haro, Luc

    2005-01-15

    LIMITED RISKS: Although most species of spiders are venomous, only ten or so are able to induce human envenomations. From a systematic point of view, it is possible to distinguish the araneomorph spiders - or "true" spiders - from the mygalomorph spiders. Dangerous species for humans can be found in both groups. Regarding "true' spiders, two kinds of envenomation are frequent, ubiquitous and potentially severe: latrodectism (neurotoxic symptomatology) due to the Widow spiders of the Latrodectus species,and loxoscelism (viscero-cutaneous symptomatology). Regarding the mygalomorph spiders, the Australian species responsible for atraxism (neurotoxic symptomatology) are considered as the most dangerous. Most of the other mygalomorph spiders, when they bite, only provoke benign loco regional problems. A supplementary defensive weapon exists in certain South-American species: urticating hairs which may induce severe ocular damage.

  4. From eggs to bites: do ovitrap data provide reliable estimates of Aedes albopictus biting females?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Manica

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Aedes albopictus is an aggressive invasive mosquito species that represents a serious health concern not only in tropical areas, but also in temperate regions due to its role as vector of arboviruses. Estimates of mosquito biting rates are essential to account for vector-human contact in models aimed to predict the risk of arbovirus autochthonous transmission and outbreaks, as well as nuisance thresholds useful for correct planning of mosquito control interventions. Methods targeting daytime and outdoor biting Ae. albopictus females (e.g., Human Landing Collection, HLC are expensive and difficult to implement in large scale schemes. Instead, egg-collections by ovitraps are the most widely used routine approach for large-scale monitoring of the species. The aim of this work was to assess whether ovitrap data can be exploited to estimate numbers of adult biting Ae. albopictus females and whether the resulting relationship could be used to build risk models helpful for decision-makers in charge of planning of mosquito-control activities in infested areas. Method Ovitrap collections and HLCs were carried out in hot-spots of Ae. albopictus abundance in Rome (Italy along a whole reproductive season. The relationship between the two sets of data was assessed by generalized least square analysis, taking into account meteorological parameters. Result The mean number of mosquito females/person collected by HLC in 15′ (i.e., females/HLC and the mean number of eggs/day were 18.9 ± 0.7 and 39.0 ± 2.0, respectively. The regression models found a significant positive relationship between the two sets of data and estimated an increase of one biting female/person every five additional eggs found in ovitraps. Both observed and fitted values indicated presence of adults in the absence of eggs in ovitraps. Notably, wide confidence intervals of estimates of biting females based on eggs were observed. The patterns of exotic arbovirus outbreak

  5. From eggs to bites: do ovitrap data provide reliable estimates of Aedes albopictus biting females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Mattia; Rosà, Roberto; Della Torre, Alessandra; Caputo, Beniamino

    2017-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is an aggressive invasive mosquito species that represents a serious health concern not only in tropical areas, but also in temperate regions due to its role as vector of arboviruses. Estimates of mosquito biting rates are essential to account for vector-human contact in models aimed to predict the risk of arbovirus autochthonous transmission and outbreaks, as well as nuisance thresholds useful for correct planning of mosquito control interventions. Methods targeting daytime and outdoor biting Ae. albopictus females (e.g., Human Landing Collection, HLC) are expensive and difficult to implement in large scale schemes. Instead, egg-collections by ovitraps are the most widely used routine approach for large-scale monitoring of the species. The aim of this work was to assess whether ovitrap data can be exploited to estimate numbers of adult biting Ae. albopictus females and whether the resulting relationship could be used to build risk models helpful for decision-makers in charge of planning of mosquito-control activities in infested areas. Ovitrap collections and HLCs were carried out in hot-spots of Ae. albopictus abundance in Rome (Italy) along a whole reproductive season. The relationship between the two sets of data was assessed by generalized least square analysis, taking into account meteorological parameters. The mean number of mosquito females/person collected by HLC in 15' (i.e., females/HLC) and the mean number of eggs/day were 18.9 ± 0.7 and 39.0 ± 2.0, respectively. The regression models found a significant positive relationship between the two sets of data and estimated an increase of one biting female/person every five additional eggs found in ovitraps. Both observed and fitted values indicated presence of adults in the absence of eggs in ovitraps. Notably, wide confidence intervals of estimates of biting females based on eggs were observed. The patterns of exotic arbovirus outbreak probability obtained by introducing these estimates

  6. From eggs to bites: do ovitrap data provide reliable estimates of Aedes albopictus biting females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Mattia; Rosà, Roberto; della Torre, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Background Aedes albopictus is an aggressive invasive mosquito species that represents a serious health concern not only in tropical areas, but also in temperate regions due to its role as vector of arboviruses. Estimates of mosquito biting rates are essential to account for vector-human contact in models aimed to predict the risk of arbovirus autochthonous transmission and outbreaks, as well as nuisance thresholds useful for correct planning of mosquito control interventions. Methods targeting daytime and outdoor biting Ae. albopictus females (e.g., Human Landing Collection, HLC) are expensive and difficult to implement in large scale schemes. Instead, egg-collections by ovitraps are the most widely used routine approach for large-scale monitoring of the species. The aim of this work was to assess whether ovitrap data can be exploited to estimate numbers of adult biting Ae. albopictus females and whether the resulting relationship could be used to build risk models helpful for decision-makers in charge of planning of mosquito-control activities in infested areas. Method Ovitrap collections and HLCs were carried out in hot-spots of Ae. albopictus abundance in Rome (Italy) along a whole reproductive season. The relationship between the two sets of data was assessed by generalized least square analysis, taking into account meteorological parameters. Result The mean number of mosquito females/person collected by HLC in 15′ (i.e., females/HLC) and the mean number of eggs/day were 18.9 ± 0.7 and 39.0 ± 2.0, respectively. The regression models found a significant positive relationship between the two sets of data and estimated an increase of one biting female/person every five additional eggs found in ovitraps. Both observed and fitted values indicated presence of adults in the absence of eggs in ovitraps. Notably, wide confidence intervals of estimates of biting females based on eggs were observed. The patterns of exotic arbovirus outbreak probability obtained by

  7. H3K4me1 marks DNA regions hypomethylated during aging in human stem and differentiated cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, A.F.; Mentink, A.; Boer, de J.; et, al.

    2015-01-01

    In differentiated cells, aging is associated with hypermethylation of DNA regions enriched in repressive histone post-translational modifications. However, the chromatin marks associated with changes in DNA methylation in adult stem cells during lifetime are still largely unknown. Here, DNA methylat

  8. Animal Bite Management Practices: Study at Three Municipal Corporation Hospitals of Ahmedabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyas Sheetal, Gupta Kinnari, Bhatt Gneyaa, Tiwari Hemant

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Rabies is a deadly Zoonotic disease most often transmitted to humans through a dog bite. Most of these deaths could be prevented through post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, including immediate wound washing, rabies immunoglobulin administration and vaccination. Aims: To study attitude and pre-treatment practices among the study population. Methods: Cross sectional study was carried out by conducting exit interview of 100 cases of animal bite each from three hospitals run by Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. Observations: Total 300 cases of animal bites were studied in the present study. Most common biting animal was dog as 97.33% cases gave history of dog bite. Almost half of the cases belonged to age group less than 20 years with mean age of 19+ 20.2 years and male to female ratio was 3:1. Right lower limb was the most common (45.7% biting site and majority (59% had category III bites. Immediate pre-treatment of wound was practiced by 72% of cases before visiting hospitals however only 5.7% had gone for immediate washing of wound with soap and water. The local applications at the site of bite were tobacco snuff, red chilli, turmeric, and miscellaneous things like Garlic, Jaggery, Kerosene, Lime, Bandage, Soframycine, Ghee, Wheat flour etc. which were practiced by 66% of cases. The average time interval between bite and visiting the hospital was 32 hours. Conclusions: With the availability of safe and effective tissue culture vaccines prevention of rabies is virtually assured by immediate and appropriate post exposure treatment. There is need for creating awareness in public and medical community about proper wound management, judicious use of anti-rabies serum and use of modern tissue culture vaccine after animal bite.

  9. Bites by Australian mygalomorph spiders (Araneae, Mygalomorphae), including funnel-web spiders (Atracinae) and mouse spiders (Actinopodidae: Missulena spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; Gray, Mike R

    2004-02-01

    A number of mygalomorph spiders cause bites in Australia, including the funnel-web spiders (Hexathelidae, Atracinae: Hadronyche and Atrax) and mouse spiders (Actinopodidae: Missulena). There is ongoing debate about the significance of bites by mouse spiders and the frequency of severe envenoming by funnel-web spiders. We conducted a prospective cohort study of definite spider bites with expert spider identification and include the analysis of mygalomorph spiders here. Subjects were recruited prospectively from February 1999 to April 2003 from patients presenting to participating hospitals or contacting a state poison information centre. Forty-nine cases of bites by mygalomorph spiders were included: 16 were by funnel-web spiders, 13 by mouse spiders and 20 by other trapdoor spiders (Families Idiopidae and Nemesiidae). Of the 49 bites, 45 (92%) occurred on distal limbs (hands and feet). Local effects included severe pain (53%), puncture marks (61%) and bleeding (27%), local redness (33%). Itchiness did not occur. The following were highly statistically associated with mygalomorph spider bites compared to all other spiders (pweb spider bites, there were 10 cases with minor local effects, four with moderate envenoming (non-specific systemic or local neurotoxicity) and two with severe envenoming requiring antivenom. In addition to local effects, mouse spider bites caused local paraesthesia in three cases, local diaphoresis in one case and non-specific systemic effects in five cases, but not severe envenoming. True trapdoor spider bites caused only minor effects. The data from a mixed species sample of funnel-web spiders confirms previous observations suggesting that only a small proportion of funnel-web bites cause severe effects. Mouse spider bites are unlikely to cause major envenoming but the clinical effects are consistent with neurotoxic venom and are more severe than the trapdoor spiders.

  10. Behavior of exposed human lymphocytes to a neutron beam of the Reactor TRIGA Mark III; Comportamiento de linfocitos humanos expuestos a un haz de neutrones del Reactor Triga Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajal R, M. I.; Arceo M, C.; Aguilar H, F.; Guerrero C, C., E-mail: citlali.guerrero@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The living beings are permanently exposed to radiations of natural origin: cosmic and geologic, as well as the artificial radiations that come from sources elaborated by the man. The artificial sources have an important use in the medical area. Particularly has been increased the neutrons use due to the effectiveness that they have to damage the cells with regard to other radiation types. The biological indicator of exposition to ionizing radiation more reliable is the chromosomal aberrations study, specifically the dicentrics in human lymphocytes. This test allows, establishing the exposition dose in function of the damage quantity. The dicentrics have a behavior in function of the dose. The calibration curve that describes this behavior is specific for each type of ionizing radiation. In the year 2006 beginning was given to the expositions of human lymphocytes to a neutron beam generated in the reactor TRIGA Mark III of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in Mexico. Up to 2008 the response dose curve comprised an interval of exposition time of up to 30 minutes. Moreover, the interval between 10 an 20 minutes is included, since was observed that this last is indispensable for the adjustment waited in a lineal model. (Author)

  11. Seasonal Variation in Biting Rates of Simulium damnosum sensu lato, Vector of Onchocerca volvulus, in Two Sudanese Foci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam M A Zarroug

    Full Text Available The abundance of onchocerciasis vectors affects the epidemiology of disease in Sudan, therefore, studies of vector dynamics are crucial for onchocerciasis control/elimination programs. This study aims to compare the relative abundance, monthly biting-rates (MBR and hourly-based distribution of onchocerciasis vectors in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci. These seasonally-based factors can be used to structure vector control efforts to reduce fly-biting rates as a component of onchocerciasis elimination programs.A cross-sectional study was conducted in four endemic villages in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci during two non-consecutive years (2007-2008 and 2009-2010. Both adults and aquatic stages of the potential onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum sensu lato were collected following standard procedures during wet and dry seasons. Adult flies were collected using human landing capture for 5 days/month. The data was recorded on handheld data collection sheets to calculate the relative abundance, MBR, and hourly-based distribution associated with climatic factors. The data analysis was carried out using ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation tests.Data on vector surveillance revealed higher relative abundance of S. damnosum s.l. in Abu- Hamed (39,934 flies than Galabat (8,202 flies. In Abu-Hamed, vector populations increased in January-April then declined in June-July until they disappeared in August-October. Highest black fly density and MBR were found in March 2007 (N = 9,444, MBR = 58,552.8 bites/person/month, and March 2010 (N = 2,603, MBR = 16,138.6 bites/person/month while none of flies were collected in August-October (MBR = 0 bites/person/month. In Galabat, vectors increased in September-December, then decreased in February-June. The highest vector density and MBR were recorded in September 2007 (N = 1,138, MBR = 6,828 bites/person/month and September 2010 (N = 1,163, MBR = 6,978 bites/person/month, whereas, none appeared in collection from April to

  12. Swiss prospective study on spider bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnädinger, Markus; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Fuchs, Joan; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2013-09-04

    Knowledge of spider bites in Central Europe derives mainly from anecdotal case presentations; therefore we aimed to collect cases systematically. From June 2011 to November 2012 we prospectively collected 17 cases of alleged spider bites, and together with two spontaneous notifications later on, our database totaled 19 cases. Among them, eight cases could be verified. The causative species were: Cheiracanthium punctorium (3), Zoropsis spinimana (2), Amaurobius ferox, Tegenaria atrica and Malthonica ferruginea (1 each). Clinical presentation was generally mild, with the exception of Cheiracanthium punctorium, and patients recovered fully without sequelae. In Switzerland, spider bites generally have a benign clinical course, which is characterised by minor effects, with rapid and complete recovery. Since only verified spider bites can be regarded as spider bites, in the case of clinically important arachnidism, the spider should be sent to an expert for identification. Our study may help to diminish spider fear and reassure people who have experienced a bite.

  13. The body bites back!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Steve

    2011-09-01

    How should we think about the body in science education? What ought it mean to be alive and live within epistemologies and pedagogies? What does it mean to be human in science education? In response to Auli Arvola Orlander and Per-Olof Wickram's article, this essay explores some of the possibilities and questions that the body evokes in science education research and practice. Drawing on selected theorizing in science education, environmental education and science and technology studies, the author suggests that we should strive to be more in tune with the seemingly mundane corporeal aspects of our performances and representations. This shift in attention has the potential to open up research, policy and practice agendas associated with relationships between pedagogies and embodied and disembodied knowledge and knowing. Such agendas might start by considering situated and embodied emotions in science education.

  14. A verified spider bite and a review of the literature confirm Indian ornamental tree spiders (Poecilotheria species) as underestimated theraphosids of medical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Joan; von Dechend, Margot; Mordasini, Raffaella; Ceschi, Alessandro; Nentwig, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Literature on bird spider or tarantula bites (Theraphosidae) is rare. This is astonishing as they are coveted pets and interaction with their keepers (feeding, cleaning the terrarium or taking them out to hold) might increase the possibility for bites. Yet, this seems to be a rare event and might be why most theraphosids are considered to be harmless, even though the urticating hairs of many American species can cause disagreeable allergic reactions. We are describing a case of a verified bite by an Indian ornamental tree spider (Poecilotheria regalis), where the patient developed severe, long lasting muscle cramps several hours after the bite. We present a comprehensive review of the literature on bites of these beautiful spiders and conclude that a delayed onset of severe muscle cramps, lasting for days, is characteristic for Poecilotheria bites. We discuss Poecilotheria species as an exception from the general assumption that theraphosid bites are harmless to humans.

  15. The influence of bite size and multiple bites on oral texture sensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A. de; Engelen, L.; Prinz, J.F.; Weenen, H.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of bite size on sensory mouthfeel and afterfeel sensations was explored in two studies in which single bites of vanilla custard desserts were varied from 2 to 11 mL (study 1) and in which series of five bites of two different custard desserts were presented consecutively (study 2). In

  16. The influence of bite size and multiple bites on oral texture sensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Engelen, L.; Prinz, J.F.; Weenen, H.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of bite size on sensory mouth- and afterfeel sensations was explored in two studies in which single bites of vanilla custard desserts were varied from 2 to 11 ml (study 1) and in which series of five bites of two different custard desserts were presented consecutively (study 2). In sin

  17. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites ... take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use ...

  18. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites ... take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use ...

  19. In vitro hydroquinone-induced instauration of histone bivalent mark on human retroelements (LINE-1) in HL60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Monica; Mandruzzato, Martina; Garzia, Alba C; Sahnane, Nora; Magnani, Elena; Macchi, Filippo; Oulad-Abdelghani, Mustapha; Oudet, Pierre; Bollati, Valentina; Fustinoni, Silvia; Furlan, Daniela; Bonapace, Ian M

    2016-12-13

    Benzene is extensively used in industry despite its leukemogenic activity, representing a significant occupational hazard. We investigated if long-term treatment with low-doses hydroquinone (HQ), a benzene metabolite, might be sufficient to alter in vitro the epigenetic signature underlining LINE-1 sequences, a poorly explored step in health risks associated with benzene exposure. In HL-60 cell line, exploring the epigenetic events occurring in chromatin, we found the transient instauration of the distinctive signature combining the repressive H3Lys27 tri-methylation mark and the activating H3Lys4 tri-methylation mark (H3K27me3/H3K4me3), indicating a tendency toward a poised chromatin conformation. These alterations are lost in time after short-term treatments, while the long-term setting, performed using a concentration within the levels of total HQ in peripheral blood of benzene-exposed workers, showed a gradual increase in H3K4me3. We observed the absence of statistically significant variations in DNA methylation and expression levels of LINE-1, despite a decrease in protein levels of UHRF1, DNA methyl-transferases and histone methyl-transferases. In conclusion, in vitro treatment with low-dose HQ determined the instauration of a reversible poised state of chromatin in LINE-1 sequences, suggesting that prolonged exposure could cause persistent epigenetic alterations.

  20. Nonpigmented Chromobacterium violaceum bacteremic cellulitis after fish bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ching-Huei

    2011-10-01

    A case of nonpigmented Chromobacterium violaceum bacteremic cellulitis after fish bite in Taiwan is reported. The patient was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin and doxycycline for an extended period. Chromobacterium violaceum should be listed in the differential diagnosis of patients with nonspecific cellulitis associated with marked leukocytosis and rapid progression to septicemia either with or without a distinct history of exposure to water or soil. A combination of prompt diagnosis, optimal antimicrobial therapy, and adequate therapeutic duration for C violaceum infection is the key for successful therapy.

  1. INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR NURSING STAFF REGARDING APPROACH TO A PATIENT WITH SPIDER PHOBIA AND/OR BITE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Agroudi, Mahfouz Ahmad; Ahmed, Salwa Abdalla Mohammad; Morsy, Tosson A

    2016-04-01

    Spider bites are uncommon medical events, since there are limited number of spiders world-wide with fangs strong enough to pierce human skin, and most spiders bite humans only as a final defense when being crushed between skin and another object. Thus, most lesions attributed to spider bites are caused by some other etiology. The spiders that can cause medically significant bites include widow and false widow spiders (worldwide), recluse spiders (mostly North and South America), Australian funnel web spiders (eastern coastal Australia) and Phoneutria spiders (Brazil). Acute spider bites most commonly result in a solitary papule, pustule, or wheal. Systemic symptoms can accompany envenomation of widow; funnel web, and Phoneutria spiders, and less often, those of recluse spiders.

  2. The spatiotemporal program of DNA replication is associated with specific combinations of chromatin marks in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Picard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The duplication of mammalian genomes is under the control of a spatiotemporal program that orchestrates the positioning and the timing of firing of replication origins. The molecular mechanisms coordinating the activation of about [Formula: see text] predicted origins remain poorly understood, partly due to the intrinsic rarity of replication bubbles, making it difficult to purify short nascent strands (SNS. The precise identification of origins based on the high-throughput sequencing of SNS constitutes a new methodological challenge. We propose a new statistical method with a controlled resolution, adapted to the detection of replication origins from SNS data. We detected an average of 80,000 replication origins in different cell lines. To evaluate the consistency between different protocols, we compared SNS detections with bubble trapping detections. This comparison demonstrated a good agreement between genome-wide methods, with 65% of SNS-detected origins validated by bubble trapping, and 44% of bubble trapping origins validated by SNS origins, when compared at the same resolution. We investigated the interplay between the spatial and the temporal programs of replication at fine scales. We show that most of the origins detected in regions replicated in early S phase are shared by all the cell lines investigated whereas cell-type-specific origins tend to be replicated in late S phase. We shed a new light on the key role of CpG islands, by showing that 80% of the origins associated with CGIs are constitutive. Our results further show that at least 76% of CGIs are origins of replication. The analysis of associations with chromatin marks at different timing of cell division revealed new potential epigenetic regulators driving the spatiotemporal activity of replication origins. We highlight the potential role of H4K20me1 and H3K27me3, the coupling of which is correlated with increased efficiency of replication origins, clearly identifying those

  3. To bite or not to bite! A questionnaire-based survey assessing why some people are bitten more than others by midges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weeks Emma NI

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Scottish biting midge, Culicoides impunctatus, responsible for more than 90% of biting attacks on human beings in Scotland, is known to demonstrate a preference for certain human hosts over others. Methods In this study we used a questionnaire-based survey to assess the association between people's perception of how badly they get bitten by midges and their demographic, lifestyle and health related characteristics. Results Most people (85.8% reported being bitten sometimes, often or always with only 14.2% reporting never being bitten by midges when in Scotland. There was no association between level of bites received and age, smoking, diet, exercise, medication, eating strongly flavoured foods or alcohol consumption. However, there was a strong association between the probability of being bitten and increasing height (in men and BMI (in women. A large proportion of participants (33.8% reported experiencing a bad/severe reaction to midge bites while 53.1% reported a minor reaction and 13.1% no reaction at all. Also, women tend to react more than men to midge bites. Additionally, the results indicated that the susceptibility to being bitten by midges is hereditary. Conclusions This study suggests that midges prefer to bite men that are tall and women that have a large BMI, and that the tendency for a child to be bitten or not could be inherited from their parent. The study is questionnaire-based; therefore, the interpretation of the results may be limited by the subjectivity of the answers given by the respondents. Although the results are relevant only to the Scottish biting midge, the approach used here could be useful for investigating human-insect interactions for other insects, particularly those which transmit pathogens that cause disease.

  4. Connecting behaviour and performance: the evolution of biting behaviour and bite performance in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, S E; Dumont, E R

    2009-11-01

    Variation in behaviour, performance and ecology are traditionally associated with variation in morphology. A neglected part of this ecomorphological paradigm is the interaction between behaviour and performance, the ability to carry out tasks that impact fitness. Here we investigate the relationship between biting behaviour and performance (bite force) among 20 species of ecologically diverse bats. We studied the patterns of evolution of plasticity in biting behaviour and bite force, and reconstructed ancestral states for behaviour and its plasticity. Both behavioural and performance plasticity exhibited accelerating evolution over time, and periods of rapid evolution coincided with major dietary shifts from insect-feeding to plant-feeding. We found a significant, positive correlation between behavioural plasticity and bite force. Bats modulated their performance by changing their biting behaviour to maximize bite force when feeding on hard foods. The ancestor of phyllostomids was likely a generalist characterized by high behavioural plasticity, a condition that also evolved in specialized frugivores and potentially contributed to their diversification.

  5. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Nail Biting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Watson, T. Steuart; Kazmerski, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a…

  6. Talking to Patients about Preventing Tick Bites

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-14

    This podcast will help health care providers identify patients who are at increased risk of getting tick bites and provide these patients with tick bite prevention and removal tips.  Created: 2/14/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/14/2012.

  7. Animal Bites Epidemiology in Shahroud City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amiri

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rabies is an infectious central nervous system disease that infects all mammals and man. This study aimed at investigating the epidemiology of animal bites in Shahroud. Methods: In this deh1ive study all the data related to animal bite cases in shahroud in 2008-2009 were collected based on the data registration notebooks. Results: A total of 588 cases of animal bite were reported in 2008-2009 the majority of whom (82.1% were male. Of this total 35.7% were urban and 64.3% were rural. Just 2 of the cases were foreigners. The incidence rate of animal bite in the city was 159 (27% compared to 429 cases (73% in villages. Dogs and cats accounted for about 79.1% and 12.6% of the cases respectively. 12 cases were also wolf fox and Reynard bites. All cases have completed vaccination. In 82.3% of animal bites the biter was alive after 10 days and in 2% biters were dead and in 15.6% the biter reported invisible after 10 days. The incidence rate of animal bites in Shahroud was 246 in one hundred thousand. Conclusions: Animal bites are one of the most important problems of public health. Educational activities along with the promotion of out- organizing cooperation can play a significant role in controlling this problem

  8. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Replace the nail-biting habit with a good habit: When you feel like biting your nails, try playing with a stress ball or silly putty instead. This will help keep your hands busy and away from your mouth. Identify your triggers: These could be physical triggers, ...

  9. Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix with marked cytological atypia-clinical follow-up and human papillomavirus genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kay; Ellenson, Lora H; Pirog, Edyta C

    2007-10-01

    The majority of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) of the cervix regress spontaneously; however, a small proportion of LSILs progress to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) if the lesion is not excised. The guidelines for which patients with LSIL should be treated and which may be followed safely are not well established. The goal of this study was to identify a subgroup of patients with LSIL who may require surgical treatment. We hypothesized that patients with LSILs with marked cytological atypia (LSIL-MA) may be at higher risk for subsequent HSIL. In addition, we were interested in whether LSIL-MA was associated with specific human papillomavirus genotypes. Consecutive patients with biopsy diagnosis of LSIL (n = 30) and LSIL-MA (n = 30) were identified. Marked atypia was defined as 5 or more cells with nuclear enlargement of at least 5 times the size of an intermediate cell nucleus or multinucleation with 5 or more nuclei. Patient follow-up was recorded for up to 24 months. Human papillomavirus genotyping was performed using SPF10 PCR and line probe assay. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion on follow-up was significantly more common in patients with LSIL-MA (36%) than in patients with LSIL (7%), and negative follow-up was significantly more common in patients with LSIL (50%) than LSIL-MA (23%). Cases of LSIL and LSIL-MA showed similar spectrum of human papillomavirus genotypes. Marked cytological atypia in LSILs identifies a subset of patients with a high rate of HSIL on follow-up. In such patients, an excisional cone biopsy should be strongly considered.

  10. Bite force and state of dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helkimo, E; Carlsson, G E; Helkimo, M

    1977-01-01

    The maximal bite force and the strength of the finger-thumb grip of 125 Skolt Lapps, aged 15 to 65, was measured with a specially devised apparatus. The bite force was measured with the biting fork placed between the first molars and between the incisors, respectively. The finger-thumb grip was measured by letting the subject press the prongs of the fork between the thumb and forefinger of each hand as hard as possible. The range of inter-individual variation of the maximal bite force and finger-thumb grip was great. The mean values were higher for the males than for the females. In the males the maximal bite force thus measured in the molar region was 39 kg (382 N) and 18 kg (176 N) in the incisor region. The corresponding values for the females were 22 kg (216 N) and 11 kg (108 N). The finger-thumb grip strength for males was, on the average, 10 kg (98 N); that of the females, 7 KG (69 N). The average difference in bite force between the men and the women was larger in the group with natural teeth than in the one with complete dentures. The values found for the bite force decreased with increasing age, especially for the females. Most of this reduction with increasing age was probably due to the age-dependent deterioration of the dentition. In both sexes the bite force was notably smaller among the denture wearers than among the dentate persons. The number of natural teeth varied closely with the bite force, i.e. the greater number of natural teeth the greater the bite force.

  11. Biting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Distraction works wonders with kids this age. If emotions and energy levels are running high or if boredom has set in, help redirect a little one's attention to a more positive activity, like dancing to music, coloring, or playing a game. Discipline usually is ...

  12. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (CD143) marks hematopoietic stem cells in human embryonic, fetal, and adult hematopoietic tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokubaitis, Vanta J.; Sinka, Lidia; Driessen, Rebecca; Whitty, Genevieve; Haylock, David N.; Bertoncello, Ivan; Smith, Ian; Peault, Bruno; Tavian, Manuela; Simmons, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that mAb BB9 reacts with a subset of CD34(+) human BM cells with hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) characteristics. Here we map B89 expression throughout hernatopoietic development and show that the earliest definitive HSCs that arise at the ventral wall of the aorta and surrou

  13. Interview with Mark Watson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Shaw

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mark Watson is a British comedian and novelist. His five novels to date – 'Bullet Points' (2004, 'A Light-Hearted Look At Murder' (2007, 'Eleven' (2010, 'The Knot' (2012 and 'Hotel Alpha' (2014 – explore human relationships and communities in contemporary society. His latest novel Hotel Alpha tells the story of an extraordinary hotel in London and two mysterious disappearances that raise questions no one seems willing to answer. External to the novel, readers can also discover more about the hotel and its inhabitants in one hundred extra stories that expand the world of the novel and can be found at http://www.hotelalphastories.com. In conversation here with Dr Katy Shaw, Mark offers some reflections on his writing process, the field of contemporary literature, and the vitality of the novel form in the twenty-first century.

  14. CXCR6 marks a novel subset of T-bet(lo)Eomes(hi) natural killer cells residing in human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmann, Kerstin A; Robertson, Francis; Hansi, Navjyot; Gill, Upkar; Pallant, Celeste; Christophides, Theodoros; Pallett, Laura J; Peppa, Dimitra; Dunn, Claire; Fusai, Giuseppe; Male, Victoria; Davidson, Brian R; Kennedy, Patrick; Maini, Mala K

    2016-05-23

    Natural killer cells (NK) are highly enriched in the human liver, where they can regulate immunity and immunopathology. We probed them for a liver-resident subset, distinct from conventional bone-marrow-derived NK. CXCR6+ NK were strikingly enriched in healthy and diseased liver compared to blood (p hi)Eomes(lo)(CXCR6-) and T-bet(lo)Eomes(hi)(CXCR6+); the latter was virtually absent in the periphery. The small circulating CXCR6+ subset was predominantly T-bet(hi)Eomes(lo), suggesting its lineage was closer to CXCR6- peripheral than CXCR6+ liver NK. These data reveal a large subset of human liver-resident T-bet(lo)Eomes(hi) NK, distinguished by their surface expression of CXCR6, adapted for hepatic tolerance and inducible anti-viral immunity.

  15. Visible to near-infrared refractive properties of freshly-excised human-liver tissues: marking hepatic malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannios, Panagiotis; Toutouzas, Konstantinos G.; Matiatou, Maria; Stasinos, Konstantinos; Konstadoulakis, Manousos M.; Zografos, George C.; Moutzouris, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    The refractive index is an optical constant that plays a significant role in the description of light-matter interactions. When it comes to biological media, refraction is understudied despite recent advances in the field of bio-optics. In the present article, we report on the measurement of the refractive properties of freshly excised healthy and cancerous human liver samples, by use of a prism-coupling technique covering the visible and near-infrared spectral range. Novel data on the wavelength-dependent complex refractive index of human liver tissues are presented. The magnitude of the real and imaginary part of the refractive index is correlated with hepatic pathology. Notably, the real index contrast is pointed out as a marker of discrimination between normal liver tissue and hepatic metastases. In view of the current progress in optical biosensor technologies, our findings may be exploited for the development of novel surgical and endoscopic tools. PMID:27297034

  16. [Meningitis due to Capnocytophaga canimorsus without dog bite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouet, Alain; Smati, Salim; Ferrer, Marie-Hélène; Martinez, Jean-Yves; Guilloton, Laurent; Felten, Dominique

    2006-03-01

    Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a fusiform and filamentous gram-negative rod, part of the normal oral flora of dogs and cause rare human febrile acute meningitis, usually severe but curable. A sixty years old man presented a severe acute meningitis with fever and confusion. CSF show 4,000 cells/mm3 with 83% neutrophilis, increased protein level (5,02 g/L), very low glucose and positive Gram stain result. The patient fully and quickly recovered with antibiotherapy for 22 days. Bacteriological diagnosis was made by genomic study from CSF culture. The patient has a close contact with his dog without being recently bitten. Diagnosis, suggested by bites or contact with dog or cat, gram-negative bacilli with gram stain of CSF specimen, is possible by prolonged culture of CSF or blood sample, with if necessary genomic study. Antibioprophylaxis is strongly recommended in cases of deep bite wounds and for immunocompromised patients.

  17. Susceptibility to Frost-Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna

    1966-11-01

    Full Text Available The body protects its susceptible parts e.g. hands and feet from cold injury by allowing a surge of blood to flow through them on exposure to severe cold. This occurs through alternate vasodilatation and vasoconstriction known as Lewis Hunting Reaction. This phenomenon is influenced by several factors, which indirectly may also affect individual susceptibility to cold injury. The role of nutrition, adequate insulation of the body and positive heat balance in relation to the protective mechanism have been reviewed and discussed. Available literature on various factors has been surveyed and discussed in the light of recent advances in the physiology of cold exposure. Certain tests based on the present knowledge, to be developed and standardised for screening susceptible individuals to frost-bite have been suggested.

  18. Intra-population plasticity of Anopheles darlingi's (Diptera, Culicidae biting activity patterns in the state of Amapá, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voorham Jaco

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the variation in Anopheles darlingi's biting activity compared to An. marajoara in the same locality and to biting activity data from other regions. METHODS: Using human bait, eight observations of the biting activity of An. darlingi and An. marajoara were carried out during 1999 and 2000 in the municipality of São Raimundo do Pirativa, state of Amapá, Brazil. Each observation consisted of three consecutive 13-hour collections, close to full moon. There were shifts of collectors in the observation points and nocturnal periods. RESULTS: An. darlingi revealed considerable plasticity of biting activity in contrast to An. marajoara, which showed well-defined crepuscular biting peaks. No significant correlation between density and biting activity was found, but a significant correlation existed between time and proportional crepuscular activity, indicating underlying ecological processes not yet understood. Two of the four available data sets having multiple observations at one locality showed considerable plasticity of this species' biting patterns as well. CONCLUSION: Intra-population variation of biting activity can be as significant as inter-population variation. Some implications in malaria vector control and specific studies are also discussed.

  19. Marked antitumor activity of cat's whiskers tea (Orthosiphon stamineus extract in orthotopic model of human colon tumor in nude mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foaud Saleih R Al-Suede

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Orthosiphon stamineus is used to treat kidney ailments including angiogenesis-dependent diseases. O. stamineus has shown to possess strong anti-angiogenic activity. In present study, an orthotopic nude mouse model of colon cancer was employed to study the factors that influence suppression of tumor by standardized 50% ethanol extract of O. stamineus leaves (EOS. Human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116 were surgically injected into the cecal wall of mice. Two different oral doses (100 and 200 mg/kg/day were given for 5 weeks. EOS suppressed 61.62±3.7% and 82.8±1.5% tumor growth at 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Tumor histology revealed significant reduction in vascularization. Anti-angiogenic efficacy of EOS was investigated in human endothelial cells (HUVEC. In vitro, EOS inhibited migration and tube formation of HUVECs. HPLC data showed high content of rosmarinic acid in EOS. This work supports previous anti-tumor works on the plant in which suppression of VEGFR phosphorylation is thought to be involved.

  20. Cytogenetic analyses of Azadirachtin reveal absence of genotoxicity but marked antiproliferative effects in human lymphocytes and CHO cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosesso, Pasquale; Bohm, Lothar; Pepe, Gaetano; Fiore, Mario; Carpinelli, Alice; Gäde, Gerd; Nagini, Siddavaram; Ottavianelli, Alessandro; Degrassi, Francesca

    2012-09-18

    In this work we have examined the genotoxic potential of the bioinsecticide Azadirachtin A (AZA) and its influence on cell proliferation on human lymphocytes and Chinese Hamster ovary (CHO) cells. AZA genotoxicity was assessed by the analysis of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in the absence and presence of rat liver S9 metabolism. Primary DNA damage was also investigated by means of the comet assay. The results obtained clearly indicate that AZA is not genotoxic in mammalian cells. On the other hand, AZA proved to interfere with cell cycle progression as shown by modulation of frequencies of first (M1) and second division (M2) metaphases detected by 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling. Accumulation of M1 metaphases were more pronounced in human lymphocytes. In the transformed CHO cell line, however, significant increases of multinucleated interphases and polyploid cells were observed at long treatment time. At higher dose-levels, the incidence of polyploidy was close to 100%. Identification of spindle structure and number of centrosomes by fluorescent immunostaining with α- and γ-tubulin antibodies revealed aberrant mitoses exhibiting multipolar spindles with several centrosomal signals. These findings suggest that AZA can act either through a stabilizing activity of microtubules or by inhibition of Aurora A, since both mechanisms are able to generate genetically unstable polyploid cells with multipolar spindles and multinucleated interphases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Microarray Analyses Reveal Marked Differences in Growth Factor and Receptor Expression Between 8-Cell Human Embryos and Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlismas, Antonis; Bletsa, Ritsa; Mavrogianni, Despina; Mamali, Georgina; Pergamali, Maria; Dinopoulou, Vasiliki; Partsinevelos, George; Drakakis, Peter; Loutradis, Dimitris; Kiessling, Ann A

    2016-01-15

    Previous microarray analyses of RNAs from 8-cell (8C) human embryos revealed a lack of cell cycle checkpoints and overexpression of core circadian oscillators and cell cycle drivers relative to pluripotent human stem cells [human embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem (hES/iPS)] and fibroblasts, suggesting growth factor independence during early cleavage stages. To explore this possibility, we queried our combined microarray database for expression of 487 growth factors and receptors. Fifty-one gene elements were overdetected on the 8C arrays relative to hES/iPS cells, including 14 detected at least 80-fold higher, which annotated to multiple pathways: six cytokine family (CSF1R, IL2RG, IL3RA, IL4, IL17B, IL23R), four transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) family (BMP6, BMP15, GDF9, ENG), one fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family [FGF14(FH4)], one epidermal growth factor member (GAB1), plus CD36, and CLEC10A. 8C-specific gene elements were enriched (73%) for reported circadian-controlled genes in mouse tissues. High-level detection of CSF1R, ENG, IL23R, and IL3RA specifically on the 8C arrays suggests the embryo plays an active role in blocking immune rejection and is poised for trophectoderm development; robust detection of NRG1, GAB1, -2, GRB7, and FGF14(FHF4) indicates novel roles in early development in addition to their known roles in later development. Forty-four gene elements were underdetected on the 8C arrays, including 11 at least 80-fold under the pluripotent cells: two cytokines (IFITM1, TNFRSF8), five TGFBs (BMP7, LEFTY1, LEFTY2, TDGF1, TDGF3), two FGFs (FGF2, FGF receptor 1), plus ING5, and WNT6. The microarray detection patterns suggest that hES/iPS cells exhibit suppressed circadian competence, underexpression of early differentiation markers, and more robust expression of generic pluripotency genes, in keeping with an artificial state of continual uncommitted cell division. In contrast, gene expression patterns of the 8C embryo suggest that

  2. Microarray Analyses Reveal Marked Differences in Growth Factor and Receptor Expression Between 8-Cell Human Embryos and Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlismas, Antonis; Bletsa, Ritsa; Mavrogianni, Despina; Mamali, Georgina; Pergamali, Maria; Dinopoulou, Vasiliki; Partsinevelos, George; Drakakis, Peter; Loutradis, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    Previous microarray analyses of RNAs from 8-cell (8C) human embryos revealed a lack of cell cycle checkpoints and overexpression of core circadian oscillators and cell cycle drivers relative to pluripotent human stem cells [human embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem (hES/iPS)] and fibroblasts, suggesting growth factor independence during early cleavage stages. To explore this possibility, we queried our combined microarray database for expression of 487 growth factors and receptors. Fifty-one gene elements were overdetected on the 8C arrays relative to hES/iPS cells, including 14 detected at least 80-fold higher, which annotated to multiple pathways: six cytokine family (CSF1R, IL2RG, IL3RA, IL4, IL17B, IL23R), four transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) family (BMP6, BMP15, GDF9, ENG), one fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family [FGF14(FH4)], one epidermal growth factor member (GAB1), plus CD36, and CLEC10A. 8C-specific gene elements were enriched (73%) for reported circadian-controlled genes in mouse tissues. High-level detection of CSF1R, ENG, IL23R, and IL3RA specifically on the 8C arrays suggests the embryo plays an active role in blocking immune rejection and is poised for trophectoderm development; robust detection of NRG1, GAB1, -2, GRB7, and FGF14(FHF4) indicates novel roles in early development in addition to their known roles in later development. Forty-four gene elements were underdetected on the 8C arrays, including 11 at least 80-fold under the pluripotent cells: two cytokines (IFITM1, TNFRSF8), five TGFBs (BMP7, LEFTY1, LEFTY2, TDGF1, TDGF3), two FGFs (FGF2, FGF receptor 1), plus ING5, and WNT6. The microarray detection patterns suggest that hES/iPS cells exhibit suppressed circadian competence, underexpression of early differentiation markers, and more robust expression of generic pluripotency genes, in keeping with an artificial state of continual uncommitted cell division. In contrast, gene expression patterns of the 8C embryo suggest that

  3. Behavior of exposed human lymphocytes to a neutron beam of the reactor TRIGA Mark III; Comportamiento de linfocitos humanos expuestos a un haz de neutrones del reactor Triga Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajal R, M. I.

    2012-07-01

    Excessive exposure to ionizing radiation occurs in people who require radiation treatment, also in those for work can come to receive doses above the permitted levels. A third possibility of exposure is the release of radioactive material in which the general population is affected. Most of the time the exhibition is partial and only rarely occurs throughout the body. For various reasons, situations arise where it is impossible to determine by conventional physical methods, the amount of radiation you were exposed to the affected person and in these cases where the option to follow is the Biological Dosimetry, where the analysis of chromosomes dicentrics is used to estimate the dose of ionizing radiation exposure. A calibration curve is generated from in vitro analysis of dicentric chromosome, which are found in human lymphocytes, treated with different types and doses of radiation. The dicentric is formed from two lesions, one on each chromosome and their union results in a structure having two centromeres, acentric fragment with her for the union of several chromosomes leads to more complex structures as tri-centric s, tetra or penta-centric s, which have the same origin. The dose-response curve is estimated by observing the frequency of dicentrics and extrapolated to a dose-effect curve previously established, for which it is necessary that each lab has its own calibration curves, taking into account that for a Let low radiation, dose-effect curve follows a linear-quadratic model Y=C + {alpha}D + {beta}D. The production of dicentric chromosomes with a high Let, was studied using a beam of neutrons generated in the reactor TRIGA Mark III with an average energy of 1 MeV, adjusting the linear model Y={alpha}D. The dose-response relationship is established in blood samples from the same donor, the coefficient {alpha} of the dose-response is Y = (0.3692 {+-} 0.011 * D), also shows that saturation is reached in system 4 Gy. (Author)

  4. Hematological changes in mice exposed to biting of the bedbug: Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hamid, Yousrya M; Soliman, Mohamed I

    2010-12-01

    The studies on hematologic changes in humans or animals as a result of bedbug bites are lacking. This study was undertaken to examine changes in the blood picture of mice (Mus musculus) exposed to Cimex lectularius biting. As compared to the check animals, mice exposed to bedbug bites either once or twice within 7 days showed insignificantly higher WBC's (1.6 and 2.8% increase, respectively) and lower HGB content (0.5 and 0.8% decrease, respectively) and significantly higher PLT's (P < 0.01) by 2.2% and 3.0%, respectively. Significantly higher (P < 0.01) RBC's counts in mice bitten once than those of normal animals or those exposed to twice bites (5.3 and 5.9% increase, respectively). Bedbug biting exerts its effects largely upon the differential WBC's. Mice bitten once or twice showed significantly lower number of neutrophils (1.2% & 12.1% decrease, respectively) than those for normal animals. Mice exposed to twice bites showed significantly (P < 0.01) higher numbers of lymphocyte (18.8%), monocyte (13.6%), eosinophil (200.0%) and basophil (500%) than those of normal mice.

  5. Black widow spider bites experience from tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bshabshe, Ali; Alfaifi, Musa; Alsayed, Ahmed Fouad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Black widow spiders are one of the most poisonous species to humans; there are more than 30 species of widow spiders in the globe but good thing that not all of them are dangerous. Some of these spiders produce toxic venoms, which cause broad spectrum of clinical manifestations including skin lesions, neurotoxicity, cardiac toxicity and death in some occasions. In Saudi Arabia there were no much reports of black widow spider bites apart from the case series by BUCUR and his group in ALBAHA region. Settings: In 2 years period a total of 8 patients were presented to the emergency departments diagnosed to have black widow spider bites based on description by the patients. Results: 100 % of the cohort were males, aged between 25-58 years. The time between bite and presentation to emergency room was one hour in average (30 min to 4 hours). 75% occured during summer season. All of them 100% had one bite only and reported the bite to be at nighttime in 75% of the times. The average pain score at presentation was 4 /10.100% of the bites were in the lower extremities and almost all progressed to have lower back pain. Three patients had gastrointestinal tract manifestation in form of abdominal cramps and nausea. One had bilateral ptosis, none of them had cardiac or pulmonary complications. The outcome was excellent in all patients and the average of hospital stay was 2.5 days (1-5). PMID:28469986

  6. CD8αα expression marks terminally differentiated human CD8+ T cells expanded in chronic viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Jane Walker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The T cell co-receptor CD8αβ enhances T cell sensitivity to antigen, however studies indicate CD8αα has the converse effect and acts as a co-repressor. Using a combination of Thymic Leukaemia antigen (TL tetramer, which directly binds CD8αα, anti-CD161 and anti-Vα7.2 antibodies we have been able for the first time to clearly define CD8αα expression on human CD8 T cells subsets. In healthy controls CD8αα is most highly expressed by CD161 bright (CD161++ mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT cells, with CD8αα expression highly restricted to the TCR Vα7.2+ cells of this subset. We also identified CD8αα-expressing populations within the CD161 mid (CD161+ and negative (CD161- non-MAIT CD8 T cell subsets and show TL-tetramer binding to correlate with expression of CD8β at low levels in the context of maintained CD8α expression (CD8α+CD8βlow. In addition, we found CD161-CD8α+CD8βlow populations to be significantly expanded in the peripheral blood of HIV-1 and hepatitis B (mean of 47% and 40% of CD161- T cells respectively infected individuals. Such CD8αα expressing T cells are an effector-memory population (CD45RA-, CCR7-, CD62L- that express markers of activation and maturation (HLA-DR+, CD28-, CD27-, CD57+ and are functionally distinct, expressing greater levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ on stimulation and perforin at rest than their CD8α+CD8βhigh counterparts. Antigen-specific T cells in HLA-B*4201+HIV-1 infected patients are found within both the CD161-CD8α+CD8βhigh and CD161-CD8α+CD8βlow populations. Overall we have clearly defined CD8αα expressing human T cell subsets using the TL-tetramer, and have demonstrated CD161-CD8α+CD8βlow populations, highly expanded in disease settings, to co-express CD8αβ and CD8αα. Co-expression of CD8αα on CD8αβ T cells may impact on their overall function in-vivo and contribute to the distinctive phenotype of highly differentiated populations in HBV and HIV-1 infection.

  7. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like biting your nails, try playing with a stress ball or silly putty instead. This will help ... of hangnails, or other triggers, such as boredom, stress, or anxiety. By figuring out what causes you ...

  8. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule Managing a practice Prior authorization assistance Teledermatology Compliance Choosing ... this safe, but awful-tasting formula discourages many people from biting their nails. Get regular manicures: Spending ...

  9. [Bites of venomous snakes in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, Andreas; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Schneemann, Markus

    2016-06-08

    Although snake bites are rare in Europe, there are a constant number of snake bites in Switzerland. There are two domestic venomous snakes in Switzerland: the aspic viper (Vipera aspis) and the common European adder (Vipera berus). Bites from venomous snakes are caused either by one of the two domestic venomous snakes or by an exotic venomous snake kept in a terrarium. Snake- bites can cause both a local and/or a systemic envenoming. Potentially fatal systemic complications are related to disturbances of the hemostatic- and cardiovascular system as well as the central or peripheral nervous system. Beside a symptomatic therapy the administration of antivenom is the only causal therapy to neutralize the venomous toxins.

  10. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a difference Career planning Media Relations Toolkit AAD apps Academy meeting Chronic urticaria—for members Chronic urticaria— ... like biting your nails, try playing with a stress ball or silly putty instead. This will help ...

  11. Management of vascular trauma from dog bites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akingba, A George; Robinson, Eric A; Jester, Andrea L; Rapp, Brian M; Tsai, Anthony; Motaganahalli, Raghu L; Dalsing, Michael C; Murphy, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Vascular trauma from large-dog bites present with a combination of crush and lacerating injuries to the vessel, as well as significant adjacent soft tissue injury and a high potential for wound complications...

  12. The 'bite' in paediatric food allergy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    Health professionals need to educate .... spread, peanut butter, polony), vegetables/mashed potato (margarine, butter, Aromat added?) History. It is not ... Cheese curls, Niknaks, cheese bites and other chips containing cheese. Smarties ...

  13. Tarantula bite leads to death and gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Kalyan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Chilobrachys hardwikii-giant black hairy spider bite produced two deaths, one case of gangrene of the foot and urticarial rashes in another person in a remote village of Churulia 30 km from Asansol.

  14. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Grant Strauss and Katz Scholarship Sulzberger Institute Grant Young Investigator Awards ... this safe, but awful-tasting formula discourages many people from biting their nails. Get regular manicures: Spending ...

  15. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a difference Career planning Media Relations Toolkit AAD apps Academy meeting Chronic urticaria—for members Chronic urticaria— ... Injured skin Nail care Artificial nails Healthy nails Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Younger skin ...

  16. Rat Bite Fever Resembling Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripa Akter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat bite fever is rare in Western countries. It can be very difficult to diagnose as blood cultures are typically negative and a history of rodent exposure is often missed. Unless a high index of suspicion is maintained, the associated polyarthritis can be mistaken for rheumatoid arthritis. We report a case of culture-positive rat bite fever in a 46-year-old female presenting with fever and polyarthritis. The clinical presentation mimicked rheumatoid arthritis. Infection was complicated by discitis, a rare manifestation. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare zoonotic infection. We also review nine reported cases of rat bite fever, all of which had an initial presumptive diagnosis of a rheumatological disorder. Rat bite fever is a potentially curable infection but can have a lethal course if left untreated.

  17. Spider bite-induced erythema multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Selçuk; Er, Onur; Afsar, Fatma Sule; Ermete, Murat

    2013-09-01

    Erythema multiforme (EM) is an immune-mediated mucocutaneous eruption characterized by symmetrically distributed, polymorphic targetoid lesions, mostly on the distal parts of the extremities. It occurs mostly in the setting of an infection in certain predisposed individuals. A 30-year-old pregnant woman was presented with a necrotic erythematous lesion on her right thigh following a spider bite. As she was pregnant for 16 weeks, no systemic medication was given. On the 8th day of the spider bite an erythematous vesicular and targetoid rash was seen on the distal parts of her extremities. Based on the clinical and histopathological findings, lesions were diagnosed as EM. She had not used any medication for 4 months and she gave no prior history of herpetic infection. So her EM lesions were thought to be an ID reaction most probably due to the spider bite. As far as we know, this is the first reported case of EM induced by a spider bite.

  18. Epidemiology of the brown recluse spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Jacqueline

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide a comprehensive epidemiological and clinical description of the brown recluse spider bite. Review of evidenced-based scientific literature and practice guidelines. A specific descriptive case study is interwoven through the article to tie in the clinical presenting figure associated with this bite. The brown recluse lives in a circumscribed area of the United States (the south central Midwest) with a few less common recluse species living in the more sparsely populated southwest United States. In these areas, where spider populations may be dense, recluse spiders may be a cause of significant morbidity. Most spider bites are asymptomatic but what makes this bite so devastating is the toxin injected by the brown recluse spider, which can cause considerable systemic symptoms as well as necrotic skin ulcers (necrotic arachnidism). The article presents process for diagnosis and stresses the importance of identifying the spider if at all possible.

  19. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Part 1: Structure Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook Study notes Image library 3-D animated ... hair, and nail care Nail care Nail biting "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site= ...

  20. [Acute compartment syndrome following snake bite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H E; Barbier, P; Frey, H P; Janggen, F M; Rothen, H U

    1986-04-01

    The experience with snake bites, causing local complications is discussed. Whenever systemic envenomation occurs, antivenin is the treatment of choice. Tissue necroses are treated by early debridement and a possible closed compartment syndrome demands the open fasciotomy.

  1. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting ...

  2. Beware of Bug Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Updates Spider Bites Ticks and Lyme Disease: Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention Barbecue Basics: Tips to ... Consumer Updates by email. Email Address More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical ...

  3. Take a Bite Out of Mosquito Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mosquito stings Share | Take a Bite Out of Mosquito Stings This article has been reviewed by Thanai ... lactic acid and carbon dioxide attract the female mosquito to skin. She inserts the tip of her ...

  4. Frequent blood feeding enables insecticide-treated nets to reduce transmission by mosquitoes that bite predominately outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Tanya L; Beebe, Nigel W; Bugoro, Hugo; Apairamo, Allan; Chow, Weng K; Cooper, Robert D; Collins, Frank H; Lobo, Neil F; Burkot, Thomas R

    2016-03-10

    The effectiveness of vector control on malaria transmission by long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) depends on the vectors entering houses to blood feed and rest when people are inside houses. In the Solomon Islands, significant reductions in malaria have been achieved in the past 20 years with insecticide-treated bed nets, IRS, improved diagnosis and treatment with artemisinin combination therapies; despite the preference of the primary vector, Anopheles farauti, to feed outdoors and early in the evening and thereby avoid potential exposure to insecticides. Rational development of tools to complement LLINs and IRS by attacking vectors outdoor requires detailed knowledge of the biology and behaviours of the target species. Malaria transmission in Central Province, Solomon Islands was estimated by measuring the components comprising the entomological inoculation rate (EIR) as well as the vectorial capacity of An. farauti. In addition, the daily and seasonal biting behaviour of An. farauti, was examined and the duration of the feeding cycle was estimated with a mark-release-recapture experiment. Anopheles farauti was highly exophagic with 72% captured by human landing catches (HLC) outside of houses. Three-quarters (76%) of blood feeding on humans was estimated to occur before 21.00 h. When the hourly location of humans was considered, the proportion of exposure to mosquito bites on humans occurring indoors (πi) was only 0.130 ± 0.129. Peak densities of host seeking An. farauti occurred between October and January. The annual EIR was estimated to be 2.5 for 2012 and 33.2 for 2013. The length of the feeding cycle was 2.1 days. The short duration of the feeding cycle by this species offers an explanation for the substantial control of malaria that has been achieved in the Solomon Islands by LLINs and IRS. Anopheles farauti is primarily exophagic and early biting, with 13% of mosquitoes entering houses to feed late at night during

  5. Bite-related and septic syndromes caused by cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Richard L; Velez, Ana P; Mizrachi, Michelle; Lamarche, Jorge; Gompf, Sandra

    2009-07-01

    Bite infections can contain a mix of anaerobes and aerobes from the patient's skin and the animal's oral cavity, including species of Pasteurella, Streptococcus, Fusobacterium, and Capnocytophaga. Domestic cat and dog bite wounds can produce substantial morbidity and often require specialised care techniques and specific antibiotic therapy. Bite wounds can be complicated by sepsis. Disseminated infections, particularly those caused by Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Pasteurella multocida, can lead to septic shock, meningitis, endocarditis, and other severe sequelae. An emerging syndrome in veterinary and human medicine is meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections shared between pets and human handlers, particularly community-acquired MRSA disease involving the USA300 clone. Skin, soft-tissue, and surgical infections are the most common. MRSA-associated infections in pets are typically acquired from their owners and can potentially cycle between pets and their human acquaintances.

  6. Tick bite granuloma : recommendations for surgical treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hirota, Keisuke; Kurosawa, Yoshinaga; Goto, Keisuke; Adachi, Koji; Yoshida, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Tick bite is known as a possible cause of some infectious diseases such as Lyme disease, spotted fever and related illnesses. The reaction to a tick bite may persist for several months to several years and can sometimes cause histopathological granuloma. The long-term reaction to salivary extracts from the tick could be responsible for development of granuloma in our patient. We recommended complete resection as the only sure way to treat formed granuloma.

  7. Etiological aspects of anterior open bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Ljiljana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Open bite is a multifactorial phenomenon and no single factor can account for open-bite. Etiology plays an important role in diagnosis. Heredity, unfavorable growth patterns, incorrect jaw postoure, are the characteristics of skeletal open bite. Digit sucking. Depending on where the thumb is placed, a number of different types of dental problems can develop. Malocclusions of the late mixed or permanent dentitions, caused by thumb sucking are not self corrected and orthodontic treatment is necessary for their correction. Lymphatic tissue. In order to produce oral respiration, the mandible is postured inferiorly with the tongue protruded and resting against the oral floor. This postural alteration induces dental and skeletal modifications similar to those caused by thumb sucking. This may cause excessive eruption of the posterior teeth, leading to an increase in the vertical dimension of the face and result in development of anterior open bite. Tongue thrust. Tongue habits cause an anterior open bite or they develop secondarily to thumb sucking. In skeletal open bite the tongue habit acts as a secondary factor which helps to maintain or exacerbate the condition. Many orthodontists have had a discouraging experience of completing dental treatment, with what appeared to be good results, only to discover that the case had relapsed because the patient had a tongue thrust swallowing pattern. Conclusion. Dentoalveolar or habitual open bite is caused by habits, which influence the growth and development of dentoalveolar processes and contribute to occlusal disharmonies. Prior to eruption of adult dentition, open bite related to oral habits is usually not a concern as when the habits stop, because the erupting dentition tends to improve spontaneously. Treatment is usually not necessary until permanent teeth erupt (~6 years old. .

  8. Control of biting lice, Mallophaga - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Caselli, Alice; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Canale, Angelo

    2017-06-03

    The chewing lice (Mallophaga) are common parasites of different animals. Most of them infest terrestrial and marine birds, including pigeons, doves, swans, cormorants and penguins. Mallophaga have not been found on marine mammals but only on terrestrial ones, including livestock and pets. Their bites damage cattle, sheep, goats, horses and poultry, causing itch and scratch and arousing phthiriasis and dermatitis. Notably, Mallophaga can vector important parasites, such as the filarial heartworm Sarconema eurycerca. Livestock losses due to chewing lice are often underestimated, maybe because farmers notice the presence of the biting lice only when the infestation is too high. In this review, we examined current knowledge on the various strategies available for Mallophaga control. The effective management of their populations has been obtained through the employ of several synthetic insecticides. However, pesticide overuse led to serious concerns for human health and the environment. Natural enemies of Mallophaga are scarcely studied. Their biological control with predators and parasites has not been explored yet. However, the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae has been reported as effective in vitro and in vivo experiments against Damalinia bovis infestation on cattle. Furthermore, different Bacillus thuringiensis preparations have been tested against Mallophaga, the most effective were B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki, kenyae and morrisoni. Lastly, plant-borne insecticides have been evaluated against Mallophaga. Tested products mainly contained bioactive principles from two Meliaceae, Azadirachta indica, and Carapa guianensis. High efficacy of neem-borne preparations was reported, leading to the development of several products currently marketed. Overall, our review highlighted that our knowledge about Mallophaga vector activity and control is extremely patchy. Their control still relied on the employ of chemical pesticides widely used to fight other

  9. Evaluation of Basophil Infiltration into the Skin Lesions of Tick Bites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Nakahigashi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been described that basophils play an essential role in antibody-mediated acquired immunity against ticks in mice. However, it is still unknown whether basophil infiltration has any significance in the infestation with ticks in humans. In this report, we have evaluated the infiltration of basophils into human skin lesions of tick bites.

  10. Subcutaneous abscess caused by Pasteurella multocida in a patient due to a cat bite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Zhi-yong; GAO Yan-yu; WANG Xiao-hui

    2005-01-01

    @@ Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida), a Gramnegative pathogen, is mainly associated with animal infections. Human P. multocida infections are occasionally encountered and most human cases are due to the animal exposure or contact, especially due to cat bites.1 In China, P. multocida infections are rarely described.

  11. Marked Differences in C9orf72 Methylation Status and Isoform Expression between C9/ALS Human Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaara Cohen-Hadad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We established two human embryonic stem cell (hESC lines with a GGGGCC expansion in the C9orf72 gene (C9, and compared them with haploidentical and unrelated C9 induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. We found a marked difference in C9 methylation between the cells. hESCs and parental fibroblasts are entirely unmethylated while the iPSCs are hypermethylated. In addition, we show that the expansion alters promoter usage and interferes with the proper splicing of intron 1, eventually leading to the accumulation of repeat-containing mRNA following neural differentiation. These changes are attenuated in C9 iPSCs, presumably owing to hypermethylation. Altogether, this study highlights the importance of neural differentiation in the pathogenesis of disease and points to the potential role of hypermethylation as a neuroprotective mechanism against pathogenic mRNAs, envisaging a milder phenotype in C9 iPSCs.

  12. An urban Northeastern United States alligator bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Suzanne Moore; Shoff, William H

    2014-05-01

    Individuals who live and work in the Southeastern coastal range of the 3 US crocodilian carnivores, American alligators, American crocodiles, and caiman, understand the risks of reptile-human encounters. Individuals who live in other parts of the country maybe exposed through contact with exotic pets at private homes, small menageries, or petting zoos or from escaped or abandoned animals. During these encounters, individuals may be severely injured.Emergency medical services, law enforcement, and animal welfare workers in nonhabitat areas are usually not trained in the handling and safe removal of injured individuals from the scene when the reptile is present. The emergency management of large crocodilian injuries is similar to that of other major trauma; however, providers also must take into consideration the significant crush component potentially inflicted by the tremendous bite power and shaking inflicting during attacks by these large reptiles, appropriate antibiotic coverage for less common organisms that inhabit their mouths, and management of possible psychological distress, including posttraumatic stress disorder produced by such an unusual attack. Emergency physicians should support the development of a readily available national database of scientifically collect information on attacks to inform appropriate care and support efforts to explore responsible measures that the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and other appropriate local, state, and federal agencies can take to ensure ethical and biologically sustainable management of our large reptiles, which also helps to ensure the safety of the public.

  13. Pleistocene Hominins as a Resource for Carnivores: A c. 500,000-Year-Old Human Femur Bearing Tooth-Marks in North Africa (Thomas Quarry I, Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Daujeard

    Full Text Available In many Middle Pleistocene sites, the co-occurrence of hominins with carnivores, who both contributed to faunal accumulations, suggests competition for resources as well as for living spaces. Despite this, there is very little evidence of direct interaction between them to-date. Recently, a human femoral diaphysis has been recognized in South-West of Casablanca (Morocco, in the locality called Thomas Quarry I. This site is famous for its Middle Pleistocene fossil hominins considered representatives of Homo rhodesiensis. The bone was discovered in Unit 4 of the Grotte à Hominidés (GH, dated to c. 500 ky and was associated with Acheulean artefacts and a rich mammalian fauna. Anatomically, it fits well within the group of known early Middle Pleistocene Homo, but its chief point of interest is that the diaphyseal ends display numerous tooth marks showing that it had been consumed shortly after death by a large carnivore, probably a hyena. This bone represents the first evidence of consumption of human remains by carnivores in the cave. Whether predated or scavenged, this chewed femur indicates that humans were a resource for carnivores, underlining their close relationships during the Middle Pleistocene in Atlantic Morocco.

  14. Pleistocene Hominins as a Resource for Carnivores: A c. 500,000-Year-Old Human Femur Bearing Tooth-Marks in North Africa (Thomas Quarry I, Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daujeard, Camille; Geraads, Denis; Gallotti, Rosalia; Lefèvre, David; Mohib, Abderrahim; Raynal, Jean-Paul; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    In many Middle Pleistocene sites, the co-occurrence of hominins with carnivores, who both contributed to faunal accumulations, suggests competition for resources as well as for living spaces. Despite this, there is very little evidence of direct interaction between them to-date. Recently, a human femoral diaphysis has been recognized in South-West of Casablanca (Morocco), in the locality called Thomas Quarry I. This site is famous for its Middle Pleistocene fossil hominins considered representatives of Homo rhodesiensis. The bone was discovered in Unit 4 of the Grotte à Hominidés (GH), dated to c. 500 ky and was associated with Acheulean artefacts and a rich mammalian fauna. Anatomically, it fits well within the group of known early Middle Pleistocene Homo, but its chief point of interest is that the diaphyseal ends display numerous tooth marks showing that it had been consumed shortly after death by a large carnivore, probably a hyena. This bone represents the first evidence of consumption of human remains by carnivores in the cave. Whether predated or scavenged, this chewed femur indicates that humans were a resource for carnivores, underlining their close relationships during the Middle Pleistocene in Atlantic Morocco.

  15. The Crown Bite Jumping Herbst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Reuel

    2003-01-01

    The Crown Bite Jumping Herbst Appliance is evaluated and combined with Straight Wire Arch Fixed Orthodontics in treatment of Class II, Division I malocclusions. This article will evaluate a combined orthodontic approach of "straightening teeth" and an orthognathic approach of "moving jaws or making skeletal changes." Orthodontic treatment cannot be accomplished well without establishing a healthy temporomandibular joint. This is defined by Keller as a joint that is "noiseless, painless and has a normal range of motion without deviation and deflection." It is not prudent to separate orthodontic treatment as its own entity without being aware of the changes in the temporomandibular joint before, during and after treatment. In other words, "If you're doing orthodontics you're doing TMJ treatment." One should treat toward a healthy, beautiful face asking, "Will proposed treatment achieve this goal?" Treatment should be able to be carried out in an efficient manner, minimizing treatment time, be comfortable and affordable for the patient, and profitable for the dentist. The finished treatment should meet Andrews' Six Keys of Occlusion, or Loudon's Twelve Commandments. Above all, do no harm to the patient. We think that a specific treatment plan can embrace these tenets. The focus will be to show Class II treatment using a modified Herbst Appliance and fixed straight wire orthodontics.

  16. Analysis of cases caused by acute spider bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihni Sulaj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We performed a retrospective study of 176 patients in the University Hospital Center of Tirana (Albania, during the period 2001–2011, admitted with the diagnosis of a suspected spider bite. Three fatalities were registered during this decade covered from our study, with a clinical picture of marked hypertension, tachycardia and acute cardiac failure leading to death within a minimum of 25 h and a maximum of 42 h from the occurrence. Out of the total of 176 patients, we had 59% (104 cases females, and 41% males. The overwhelming majority of the patients lived in rural areas (155 of the cases; extremities were mostly affected from the bites. A summary of clinical signs and a brief review of the available literature are made in the results and discussion section of this paper. Authors advocate that special precautions should be taken especially in severe forms of interesting autonomous nerve system, with aggressive fluid resuscitation, supportive therapy and close monitoring of vital signs.

  17. Prevalence rate and epidemiological determinants of animal bite in Ahvaz County, Khuzestan Province, Southwestern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Ali Kassiri; Reza Mosavi; Abbas Jashireh; Masoud Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the prevalence rate and epidemiological aspects of animal bite in AhvazCounty(western part),KhuzestanProvince,SouthwesternIran during the2nd half2003-2007.Methods:In this descriptive cross-sectional investigation a questionnaire was completed for each victim.The questionnaire included questions like, occupation, gender, age group, attacker animal, vaccination type(complete or non-complete), bite place on the body, type of dog bite(stray or domestic dog), residential area(urban or rural).Data analysis was done by SPSS software using descriptive statistics.Results:The total number of4186 cases had been found.The highest number of bitten persons were in2007(1079 cases) and2005(1032 cases). The maximum prevalence rate belonged to2005(2.04/1000 population).Also,Most of the victims were males(80%).Eighty percent of the bites were from urban regions.The majority of cases were related to10-19 years age group(32.8%).The highest frequencies of bites were students(28.9%). Upper extremities were the most common bite place(61.4%).About91.3% of cases were injured by dogs.Furthermore, around83.7% of animal bites treated by incomplete rabies prophylaxis regimen.No cases of human rabies were observed in our study.Conclusions:The dogs were the major attacker animal, affecting mostly the age group10-19 years old and men.Therefore, we should pay more attention about controlling this problem.

  18. Tick bite protection with permethrin-treated summer-weight clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nathan J; Rainone, Erin E; Dyer, Megan C; González, M Liliana; Mather, Thomas N

    2011-03-01

    The number of tick bites received by individuals wearing either permethrin-treated or untreated summer clothing (T-shirt, shorts, socks, and sneakers) was compared during a controlled indoor study. Pathogen-free nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say were placed on the left shoe, right leg, and left arm of 15 (5/treatment group/d) human volunteers wearing untreated outfits or outfits treated with permethrin either commercially or using a do-at-home treatment kit. The number and location of ticks attached to subjects' skin were recorded 2.5 h postinfestation. Subjects wearing outfits treated with permethrin received 3.36 times fewer tick bites than subjects wearing untreated outfits. No statistically significant differences in number of tick bites were detected between commercial permethrin treatment (19.33%) and the do-at-home permethrin application method (24.67%). The success of permethrin-treated clothing in reducing tick bites varied depending on the specific article of clothing. Subjects wearing permethrin-treated sneakers and socks were 73.6 times less likely to have a tick bite than subjects wearing untreated footware. Subjects wearing permethrin-treated shorts and T-shirts were 4.74 and 2.17 times, respectively, less likely to receive a tick bite in areas related to those specific garments than subjects wearing untreated shorts and T-shirts. Ticks attached to subjects were classified as alive or dead before removal. On subjects wearing untreated outfits, 97.6% of attached nymphs were alive, whereas significantly fewer (22.6%) attached nymphs were alive on subjects wearing repellent-treated outfits. Results of this study demonstrate the potential of permethrin-treated summer clothing for significantly reducing tick bites and tick-borne pathogen transmission.

  19. In vivo human cardiac shortening and lengthening velocity is region dependent and not coupled with heart rate: 'longitudinal' strain rate markedly underestimates apical contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöhr, Eric J; Stembridge, Mike; Esformes, Joseph I

    2015-04-20

    What is the central question of this study? Regulation of cardiac function is typically achieved by changes in heart rate (HR) and cardiac shortening velocity (strain rate; SR), but their interdependence in vivo remains poorly understood. What is the main finding and its importance? Using resistance exercise to increase heart rate and arterial resistance physiologically in humans and measuring regional cardiac SR (at the base and apex), we found that HR and SR were not strictly coupled because SR at the base and apex responded differently, despite the same HR. Importantly, our data show that the region-averaged 'longitudinal' SR, which is currently popular in the clinical setting, markedly underestimates the contribution of the apex. The fundamental importance of cardiac shortening and lengthening velocity (i.e. strain rate; SR) has been demonstrated in vitro. Currently, the interdependence between in vivo SR and HR is poorly understood because studies have typically assessed region-averaged 'longitudinal' strain rate, which is likely to underestimate the apical contribution, and have used non-physiological interventions that may also have been influenced by multicollinearity caused by concomitant reductions in arterial resistance. Resistance exercise acutely raises HR, blood pressure and arterial resistance and transiently disassociates these cardiovascular factors following exercise. Therefore, we measured SR, HR, blood pressure and arterial resistance in nine healthy men (aged 20 ± 1 years) immediately before, during and after double-leg-press exercise at 30 and 60% of maximal strength. Resistance exercise caused a disproportionate SR response at the left ventricular base and apex (interaction effect, P < 0.05). Consequently, associations between HR and regional peak SR were inconsistent and mostly very weak (r(2)  = 0.0004-0.24). Likewise, the areas under the curve for systolic and diastolic SR and their relationship with systolic and diastolic duration

  20. Mastering Marking Madness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brooke

    2009-01-01

    Teachers are smart people, so why does marking reduce them to stressed and soulless messes? Because in their hearts they know that students do not learn from it, and that drives them nuts. Researchers like Lorna Earl and Dylan Wiliam have looked closely at marking systems and have proven what teachers already know deep down: marking student work…

  1. [In relation to Cleopatra and snake bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, R

    2001-10-01

    Cleopatra VII, one of the last Egyptian sovereigns of the ptolomeic dynasty, is envisioned as a mythic figure, surrounded by intrigues and mystery. her mysterious death was caused, according to history, by a snake bite. This article shows some instances of great Cleopatra's life and the state of the art on snake venoms. Even at the present time, snake bites are a public health problem in Asia, Africa, Central and South America, causing more than 25,000 deaths every year. Most snake venoms have a protein structure and cause neurotoxic and hemolytic effects, altering coagulation and fibrinolysis. The mortality due to snake bites fluctuates between 1 and 22%. Specific treatment includes the use of specific antiserums with highly purified components.

  2. Lethal case of Vipera bersus bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranca, Sebastian; Cocis, Mihaela; Antal, Oana

    2016-01-01

    Adder bites are rare events, but they can be fatal. Three adder types live in Romania - Vipera ammodytes, Vipera ursini and Vipera berus. Most adder bites happen during the summer with a peak incidence between July and August. Here we present the case of a 56 years old male patient who was bitten by an adder. The clinical presentation was severe from the beginning with a GCS of 3 points, respiratory and cardiovascular failure; despite of adequate treatment the patient developed multiorgan dysfunction and died 36 hours after the ICU admission. The aim of this report is to raise awareness that snake bites can have a life-threatening course and need immediate attention and medical care.

  3. Bone-breaking bite force of Basilosaurus isis (Mammalia, Cetacea from the late Eocene of Egypt estimated by finite element analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Snively

    Full Text Available Bite marks suggest that the late Eocence archaeocete whale Basilosaurus isis (Birket Qarun Formation, Egypt fed upon juveniles of the contemporary basilosaurid Dorudon atrox. Finite element analysis (FEA of a nearly complete adult cranium of B. isis enables estimates of its bite force and tests the animal's capabilities for crushing bone. Two loadcases reflect different biting scenarios: 1 an intitial closing phase, with all adductors active and a full condylar reaction force; and 2 a shearing phase, with the posterior temporalis active and minimized condylar force. The latter is considered probable when the jaws were nearly closed because the preserved jaws do not articulate as the molariform teeth come into occulusion. Reaction forces with all muscles active indicate that B. isis maintained relatively greater bite force anteriorly than seen in large crocodilians, and exerted a maximum bite force of at least 16,400 N at its upper P3. Under the shearing scenario with minimized condylar forces, tooth reaction forces could exceed 20,000 N despite lower magnitudes of muscle force. These bite forces at the teeth are consistent with bone indentations on Dorudon crania, reatract-and-shear hypotheses of Basilosaurus bite function, and seizure of prey by anterior teeth as proposed for other archaeocetes. The whale's bite forces match those estimated for pliosaurus when skull lengths are equalized, suggesting similar tradeoffs of bite function and hydrodynamics. Reaction forces in B. isis were lower than maxima estimated for large crocodylians and carnivorous dinosaurs. However, comparison of force estimates from FEA and regression data indicate that B. isis exerted the largest bite forces yet estimated for any mammal, and greater force than expected from its skull width. Cephalic feeding biomechanics of Basilosaurus isis are thus consistent with habitual predation.

  4. Taking the Bite out of Bruxism (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Operating Room? Taking the Bite Out of Bruxism KidsHealth > For Kids > Taking the Bite Out of ... have bruxism (say: BRUK-siz-um). What Is Bruxism? Bruxism is the term for grinding or clenching ...

  5. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... plans and activities Video library Find a dermatologist Home Public and patients Skin, hair, and nail care ... bites and stings can be safely treated at home. To treat bug bites and stings at home, ...

  6. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD, Memorial Award and Lectureship Grants from outside organizations Health Volunteers Overseas Grant Honorary International Society Annual ... an ice pack to the bite. If you experience any serious symptoms after a bug bite, such ...

  7. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme ... and tuck your shirt into your pants. You can also pre-treat outer layers of clothing with ...

  8. etiology and pathogenesis of anterior open bite: a review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-11

    Nov 11, 2010 ... Malocclusion requiring treatment was diagnosed in more than ... sucking and lip biting (20-22), nail biting (22) and ... pathologies associated with AOB include cleft lip and palate as well as trauma in condylar fractures or Le.

  9. Effects of interocclusal distance on bite force and masseter EMG in healthy participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, T; Takeuchi, T; Honda, K; Tomonaga, A; Tanosoto, T; Ohata, N; Svensson, P

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of interocclusal distance (IOD) on bite force and masseter electromyographic (EMG) activity during different isometric contraction tasks. Thirty-one healthy participants (14 women and 17 men, 21·2 ± 1·8 years) were recruited. Maximal Voluntary Occlusal Bite Force (MVOBF) between the first molars and masseter EMG activity during all the isometric-biting tasks were measured. The participants were asked to bite at submaximal levels of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% MVOBF with the use of visual feedback. The thickness of the force transducer was set at 8, 12, 16 and 20 mm (= IOD), and sides were tested in random sequence. MVOBF was significantly higher at 8 mm compared with all other IODs (P EMG (P EMG activity compared with the balancing side (P EMG at any IODs. The results replicated the finding that higher occlusal forces can be generated between the first molars at shorter IODs. The new finding in this study was that an effect of hand dominance could be found on masseter muscle activity during isometric biting. This may suggest that there can be a general dominant side effect on human jaw muscles possibly reflecting differences in motor unit recruitment strategies.

  10. Age- and bite-structured models for vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Rock

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The biology and behaviour of biting insects is a vitally important aspect in the spread of vector-borne diseases. This paper aims to determine, through the use of mathematical models, what effect incorporating vector senescence and realistic feeding patterns has on disease. A novel model is developed to enable the effects of age- and bite-structure to be examined in detail. This original PDE framework extends previous age-structured models into a further dimension to give a new insight into the role of vector biting and its interaction with vector mortality and spread of disease. Through the PDE model, the roles of the vector death and bite rates are examined in a way which is impossible under the traditional ODE formulation. It is demonstrated that incorporating more realistic functions for vector biting and mortality in a model may give rise to different dynamics than those seen under a more simple ODE formulation. The numerical results indicate that the efficacy of control methods that increase vector mortality may not be as great as predicted under a standard host–vector model, whereas other controls including treatment of humans may be more effective than previously thought.

  11. Kissing Bug (Triatoma spp.) Intrusion into Homes: Troublesome Bites and Domiciliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Stephen A; Shirazi, F Mazda; Boesen, Keith; Beatty, Norman L; Dorn, Patricia L; Smith, Shannon; Schmidt, Justin O

    2016-01-01

    Kissing bugs (Triatoma spp.) frequently enter homes and bite human and pet occupants. Bites may lead to severe allergic reactions and, in some cases, death. Kissing bugs are also vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the cause of Chagas disease. In general, modern houses in the United States are not conducive to domiciliation of kissing bugs (bugs living out their entire life within the home with the presence of eggs, nymphs, adults, and exuviae). Construction features such as concrete foundations, solid walls and ceilings, window screens, tight thresholds for doors and windows, and other measures impede bug entry into homes, and air conditioning reduces the need for open doors and windows. Where Chagas disease is endemic in Mexico and Central and South America, homes often have thatch roofs, adobe walls, and open doors and windows. We investigated numerous instances of kissing bug intrusions into homes in Southern Arizona, California, and Louisiana and documented the reactions to kissing bug bites. Our work confirms the importance of modern home construction in limiting kissing bug intrusions. Older homes, especially those lacking modern screening, caulking, and weather stripping to reduce air leakage, may be subject to kissing bug intrusions and domiciliation. We describe a community in Southern Arizona where domiciliation of homes by Triatoma recurva is common. We also provide recent data regarding kissing bug bites and allergic reactions to the bites.

  12. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  13. Black widow spider bite: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisford, Kristine; Kautz, Donald D

    2011-01-01

    This article is a case study of a patient cared for in the hours before her death. After the patient's death, we learned the patient died of a black widow spider bite. This article sheds light on the potential seriousness of this venom and allows for more rapid detection and treatment of those who are unfortunate enough to be bitten. The authors have documented the sequence of events for the patient, outlined the care the patient received, examined the pathophysiology of the body to a spider bite, and then made a passionate appeal for other nurses who work in critical care to do the same with patients in similar situations.

  14. [Local complications after poisonous snake bite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzbari, R; Seidler, D; Deutinger, M

    1994-01-01

    The case of a zoo keeper who was bitten on the left finger by a venomous snake (Vipera xanthina) is reported. The administration of antivenom prevented the development of systemic poisoning but had no effect on the extent of the local complications. A compartment syndrome with a concomitant severe reaction at the bite site required fasciotomy of the upper and lower arm. The extensor tendon of the involved finger ruptured spontaneously, many weeks after wound healing was completed. Therefore, delayed local complications following snake bites may occur, even if signs of systemic poisoning are missing.

  15. Bite Angle Effects in Hydroformylation Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    van LEEUWEN

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in rhodium catalyzed hydroformylation using xanthene-based ligands will be reviewed.The calculated natural bite angles of the ligands discussed are in the range 100-123℃ While the general trend is clear-higher 1:b ratios at wider angles, small changes in the bite angle do not exhibit a regular effect on the selectivity of the reaction.The same is true for the rate of CO dissociation;the larger the rate of the CO dissociation, the larger the rate of hydroformylation, but for small changes the effects do not comply with this rule.

  16. Bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes after a cat bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida Ringsborg; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2011-01-01

    Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite.......Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite....

  17. Bacteriology of the teeth from a great white shark: potential medical implications for shark bite victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, J D; Spotte, S; Gadbaw, J J

    1984-11-01

    Bacteria were cultured for the first time from the teeth of a great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). Isolates included Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and other genera. All are common in the marine environment and some may be associated with wound infections in humans. Shark bite lacerations may serve as a source of these potentially infectious bacteria, particularly Vibrio spp., and should be treated immediately. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns are shown for representatives of Vibrio isolates and indicate that a variety of new agents may be appropriate chemotherapy for shark bite victims.

  18. Epidemiological and clinical manifestations of patients hospitalized with brown recluse spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyachenko, P; Ziv, M; Rozenman, D

    2006-10-01

    Necrotic arachnidism represents a common health problem and standard treatments are usually safe and effective. The aim of this study was to review documented Loxosceles species spider envenomations and identify the natural history of affected patients. A retrospective single-centre study included 52 patients with necrotic arachnidism hospitalized in the dermatology department between 1997 and 2004. We examined the relationship between the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory parameters and degree of lesion severity, length of hospitalization and time to complete healing. The bites occurred predominantly in rural areas, 67% between April and August. Only 35% of the patients sought medical care within 24 h post bite. Most bites were of the extremities (67%). Time to complete healing ranged from 14 days to more than 8 weeks (mean, 4.8 weeks). A marked relationship was found between age, comorbidities, lesion severity and time to complete healing (P spider bites frequently induce necrotic, slowly healing ulcers on the fatty areas of the body. Early, appropriate systemic therapy may provide clinical benefit.

  19. Over-expression of TSC-22 (TGF-beta stimulated clone-22) markedly enhances 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptosis in a human salivary gland cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, D; Kawamata, H; Omotehara, F; Miwa, Y; Hino, S; Begum, N M; Yoshida, H; Sato, M

    2000-06-01

    We have recently isolated TSC-22 (transforming growth factor-beta-stimulated clone-22) cDNA as an anticancer, drug-inducible (with vesnarinone) gene in a human salivary gland cancer cell line, TYS. We have also reported that TSC-22 negatively regulates the growth of TYS cells and that down-regulation of TSC-22 in TYS cells plays a major role in salivary gland tumorigenesis (Nakashiro et al, 1998). In this study, we transfected TYS cells with an expression vector encoding the TSC-22-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein, and we established TSC-22-GFP-expressing TYS cell clones. Next, we examined (a) the subcellular localization of the fusion protein, (b) the sensitivity of the transfectants to several anticancer drugs (5-fluorouracil, cis-diaminedichloroplatinum, peplomycin), and (c) induction of apoptotic cell death in the transfectants by 5-fluorouracil treatment. The TSC-22-GFP fusion protein was clearly localized to the cytoplasm, but not to the nucleus. Over-expression of the TSC-22-GFP fusion protein did not affect cell growth, but significantly increased the sensitivity of the cells to the anticancer drugs (p way ANOVA). Furthermore, over-expression of the TSC-22-GFP fusion protein markedly enhanced 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that over-expression of TSC-22-GFP protein in TYS cells enhances the chemosensitivity of the cells via induction of apoptosis.

  20. Capnocytophaga canimorsus Sepsis Following a Minor Dog Bite to the Finger: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedy, Nicolas J; Coghill, Sarah; Chandrashekar, Nanda Kumar S; Bindra, Randy R

    2016-01-01

    Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a gram-negative bacillus present in the oral cavities of 22% to 74% of healthy dogs. Capnocytophaga canimorsus has unique virulence factors that enable it to evade the human immune system and cause life-threatening sepsis following a dog bite. We report a previously well 68-year-old woman who presented with septic shock and multiorgan failure following a seemingly minor dog bite to the finger. The patient required intensive care treatment, intravenous antibiotic therapy, and multiple surgical procedures including amputation of the affected finger. The septicemia and coagulopathy that ensued resulted in gangrene and amputation of additional fingers and toes. The purpose of this report is to raise awareness of this organism among hand surgeons when faced with a patient presenting in septic shock and minimal signs at the site of a dog bite.

  1. Reduction of biting and chewing of horses using differential reinforcement of other behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Adam E; Bailey, Shana R; Hall, Ezra G; St Peter, Claire C

    2012-09-01

    Biting and chewing by horses on crossties can result in injury to the handler and damage to equipment. Operant-conditioning techniques have been used to train horses and could be used to reduce or eliminate undesirable biting and chewing. Presently, a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) schedule, in the context of a reversal design, was effective in reducing biting and chewing in two horses. In DRO schedules, a reinforcer is delivered contingent on the absence of a target behavior for a specified interval. Positive-reinforcement procedures offer an alternative to aversive-control techniques typically used in equine training and may provide for better equine welfare and horse-human interaction.

  2. Tick bite fever and Q fever — a South African perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lnirnctii, the cause of Q fever, is also widespread in the region, it is far less often identified as a cause of human disease. These two conditions are the focus of this brief review. ... Molecular taxonomic methods based on ribosomal and other ..... unknown origin. .... with clinical and serological evidence of African tick-bite fever.

  3. [Diurnal biting activity and seasonal density of Lutzomyia (C) orestes (Diptera: Psychodidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo Mendoza, J; Aldecoa Gilí, T; Miqueli Negrín, E; Luis Pelegrino, J

    1991-01-01

    Daily bite activity and season density of Lutzomyia (C) orestes were recorded by means of the human bait technique in the Don Martin Cave, west of Havana Province, during one year. A correlation matrix test was carried out between density, temperature, relative humidity and rainfall.

  4. Corynebacterium kutscheri infection of skin and soft tissue following rat bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Natasha E; Korman, Tony M

    2007-10-01

    Corynebacterium kutscheri is a common bacterium isolated from the oral cavity of healthy mice and rats. We report the first well-documented case of C. kutscheri human infection which followed a rat bite. The microorganism was identified by conventional biochemical tests and confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

  5. Cheek-biting disorder: another stereotypic movement disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkhel, Sujit; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Akhtar, Sayeed

    2011-12-01

    Recurrent cheek biting, a form of self-injurious behavior is a rare entity which presents mostly to dentists and dermatologists. We report a case of recurrent severe cheek biting in an adult male leading to mucosal ulceration. The stereotypic pattern of cheek biting and associated behavior bears striking resemblance to other impulse control disorders.

  6. A prospective study on the incidence of dog bites and management in a rural Cambodian, rabies-endemic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsich, Aurelia; Goutard, Flavie; Sorn, San; Tarantola, Arnaud

    2016-08-01

    Rabies circulates intensely in Cambodia, mainly affecting rural populations. We conducted a prospective study to estimate the baseline incidence of potentially infective dog bites in rural villages of Siem Reap province, Cambodia. The study was conducted in a convenience sample of 844 families totaling 1779 persons in four villages. The study collected data in a total of 802.3 person-years. Trained village health workers (VHW) exhaustively documented consecutive dog bites at the end of each month. Between May 15th and November 15th, 2011, a total of 40 attacks (43 bites; 1.07 bites per attack) were notified by 39 persons (50% female; one suffered two distinct incidents) to VHW. The all-age attack rate for bites over this 6-month period was 2.3% (CI95%: 1.7-3.1%), with a global incidence rate estimated at 4.84 bites/100 person-years (CI95%: 3.5-6.6). The mean age in bite victims was 20.8±18.9years (median 12.5; interquartile range 6-36; range 1-63). The dog was identified in 39 (97.5%) of cases, being the household dog in 9 (22.5%) of cases. Bites were classified as severe (WHO Category III-broken skin with bleeding) in 33 (82.5%) of cases with a severe dog bites incidence estimated at 4/100 person-years (CI95%: 2.8-5.6). The bites involved the hand or face in 1 (2.5%) case each (both Category III). In 20 incidents (50%), only rice was applied to the wounds. There were no suspected or confirmed human rabies deaths during the study period but one dog died after biting (2 others were lost to follow-up and 14 were put down by their owner). Our study documented an extremely high incidence of dog bites in of rural Cambodian adults and children. Adapted control policies for canine vaccination are urgently needed.

  7. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your mouth. Identify your triggers: These could be physical triggers, such as the presence of hangnails, or other triggers, such as boredom, stress, or anxiety. By figuring out what causes you to bite your nails, you can figure ...

  8. Simulation of a flow around biting teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusawa, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Eriko; Kuwahara, Kunio

    2008-11-01

    We simulated a flow around biting teeth. The decayed tooth is a disease that a majority of people are annoyed. These are often generated from a deep groove at occlusal surface. It is known that a person who bites well doesn't suffer from a decayed tooth easily. Biting forces reach as much as 60 kg/cm^2 by an adult male, and when chewing, upper and lower teeth approach to bite by those forces. The crushed food mixed with saliva becomes high viscosity fluid, and is pushed out of ditches of teeth in the direction of the cheek or the tongue. Teeth with complex three dimension curved surface are thought to form venturi at this time, and to generate big pressure partially. An excellent dental articulation will possibly help a natural generation of a flow to remove dental plaque, i.e. the cause of the decayed tooth. Moreover, the relation of this flow with the destruction of the filled metal or the polymer is doubted. In this research, we try to clarify the pressure distributions by this flow generation as well as its dynamics when chewing. One of our goals is to enable an objective design of the shape of the dental fillings and the artificial tooth. Tooth has a very small uneven ground and a bluff body. In this case, to calculate a computational numerical simulation to solve the Navier-Stokes equations three dimension Cartesian coordinate system is employed.

  9. [Surgical management of animal bites in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzet-Roumazeille, S; Jayyosi, L; Plenier, Y; Guyot, E; Guillard, T; François, C

    2016-10-01

    Children represent a population at risk, because of their short size, their naivety and their attraction to animals. The face and hands are the most specific locations in young children. Wounds are often multiple. In more than half the cases, the child knows the animal, which are dogs and cats by frequency argument. The bite episode occurs mostly when the child is alone with the pet without direct supervision, while playing or stroking the animal. As in all bites, pediatric lesions are infectious, functional and aesthetic emergencies, but the goal of this work was primarily to make a point on principles of surgical management of animal bites in children, highlighting pediatric specificities. Animal bites require psychological, anesthetic and surgical treatment, adapted to the child, in a specialized structure. Hospitalization and general anesthesia are more frequent in children. Any suspicion of mistreatment (and/or abuse) should lead to the child's hospitalization, even if wounds do not justify monitoring in a surgical environment. Emergency surgery is essential to limit functional and aesthetic consequences. The healing capacities of the child and the frequent lack of co-morbidity allow a conservative surgical treatment with suture, repositioning skin flaps and controlled healing in the first place. Immobilization, drainage, and antibiotics will complete the surgery. The healing process, however, leads to a specific management during scar remodeling phase and growth. Psychological care of the child and parents should not be forgotten, and has to start at the same time as surgical treatment at in acute phase.

  10. Brown recluse spider bite on the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Kori; Misra, Subhasis

    2014-05-01

    Brown recluse spiders are one of two types of spiders in the United States that can cause significant tissue damage and, in rare cases, death. Brown recluse spider bites are most often benign and self-limiting, but in a few cases can cause severe necrotic skin lesions.

  11. EduBites: Cliffs Notes for EPO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Carolyn; Bartolone, L.; Wenger, M.; Martin, A.; Nichols-Yehling, M.; Llamas, J.; Hurt, R. L.; Squires, G. K.

    2013-06-01

    We present a new resource for the astronomy education community, with the goal of improving our community’s knowledge and understanding of the educational research papers pertinent to our work. When launched, EduBites will be a searchable database of summaries of peer-reviewed education papers, written by astronomy educators and posted for the entire community to use. While we are all aware that we should be basing our E/PO work on a solid research foundation, many people in the community are pushed for time when it comes to staying on top of the educational literature. EduBites aims to reduce that workload for the benefit of the entire community. Our database will ultimately tackle papers across the whole of the astronomy education spectrum, including formal and informal education, outreach, grades K-16, pedagogy, evaluation, and many other topics. We are keen to hear from anyone on the community who would be interested in joining our review team, and will welcome feedback on the EduBites user experience. EduBites is still currently under development but, when launched, it will be found at edubites.ipac.caltech.edu

  12. Rat bite fever, a fatal case of Streptobacillus moniliformis infection in a 14-month-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Priya; Ali, Zabiullah; Fowler, David R

    2011-03-01

    Streptobacillus moniliformis is the primary cause of rat bite fever in North America. Children under 12 years of age are primarily infected, presenting with an acute syndrome of fever, rash, and polyarthritis. Common vectors include rats and mice. Transmission is predominantly from a bite or scratch, but contact with or ingestion of food contaminated with feces or saliva has also been reported. We report a fatal case of S. moniliformis infection in a 14-month-old-boy. At home, the child was exposed to filthy living conditions and the family had pet ferrets. Autopsy revealed a red-pink, mostly confluent rash and a circumscribed area suspicious for a possible bite mark. Cerebrospinal fluid cultures were positive for S. moniliformis. This case highlighted key features, such as the morbiliform rash, but lacked lymphadenopathy or joint manifestations. It is important to consider rat or rodent exposure as a source of infection.

  13. Homicide by direct snake bite: a case of contract killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambade, Vipul Namdeorao; Borkar, Jaydeo Laxman; Meshram, Satin Kalidas

    2012-01-01

    It has been estimated that five million snake bite cases occur worldwide every year, causing about 100,000 deaths. Snake bite is exclusively accidental in nature. Suicide by snake bite is very rare and homicidal snake bite is not reported. In the present case, a contract killer was hired, who used a poisonous snake to kill an elderly couple by way of direct snake bite. We believe this to be the first case reported where a snake was directly used for the murder of two victims through a contract killer.

  14. On denture marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrman, H I; DiZinno, J A; Wasén, J; René, N

    1999-06-01

    During the last decades in Sweden dentures have been permanently marked with a stainless steel metal band incorporated into the acrylic and containing the patient's birth date, a special number, and "S" for Sweden. The last recommendation issued by the National Board of Health and Welfare states that "the patients shall always be offered denture marking and be informed about the benefit thereof. Denture marking is not permitted if the patient refuses it". Requirements for denture markers have been that they should be biologically inert (when incorporated into the denture), not be expensive, be easy to inscribe, be possible to retrieve after an accident, and survive elevated temperatures for a reasonable time under normal circumstances. Although the frequency of edentulousness has decreased in recent years due to the improvement in oral health there remains a need to address the issue of marking of complete dentures, because there is a large variation in the oral status of populations in different countries. Given that only one marked denture can reveal the identity of a deceased person when all other methods fail to do so, makes it worthwhile. Furthermore, denture marking is important in long-term care facilities. We have investigated the issue of denture marking in Europe and in the United States. The results from the European survey show that denture marking is, to our knowledge regulated by law only in Sweden and Iceland. In the US denture marking is so far mandatory in 21 states while New York State requires dentures to be marked if the patient requests it and several other states impose the obligation to mark dentures on long-term care facilities. Since there is no international consensus regarding the issue of denture marking it is important to address it. A survey from the Nordic countries has shown that if denture marking was in general use, the contribution to the establishment of identity by forensic odontology in cases of fire would increase by about 10

  15. Reliability of cut mark analysis in human costal cartilage: the effects of blade penetration angle and intra- and inter-individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, K; Cardoso, H F V

    2013-09-10

    Identification of tool class characteristics from cut marks in either bone or cartilage is a valuable source of data for the forensic scientist. Various animal models have been used in experimental studies for the analysis of individual and class characteristics. However, human tissue has seldom been used and it is likely to differ from that of non-humans in key aspects. This study wishes to assess how the knife's blade angle, and both intra- and inter-individual variation in cartilage samples affect the ability of costal cartilage to retain the original class characteristics of the knife, as measured microscopically by the distance between consecutive striations. The 120 cartilaginous samples used in this study originated from the ribcage of 6 male cadavers which were submitted to autopsy at the North Branch of the National Institute of Legal Medicine, in Portugal. Three different serrated knives were purchased from a large department store, and were used in the experimental cuts. Samples of costal cartilage from 2 individuals were assigned to each knife. Each individual provided 20 cartilage samples. Cartilage samples were manually cut using each of the three knives, following two motions: one straight up-and-down cutting motion and parallel and one perpendicular to the blade's teeth long axis forward cutting motion. Casts of the samples were made with Mikrosil(®). Image capture and processing were performed with an Olympus stereomicroscope and its software. The blade's penetration angle and inter-individual variation were shown to affect the identification of the tool class characteristics from the striation pattern observed in a kerf wall, although this seems to be related only to the degree of calcification of the costal cartilage. Intra-individual variation does not seem to significantly affect the identification of the tool class characteristics from the striation pattern observed in a kerf wall, for the same knife following the same motion. Although this

  16. The influence of gender and bruxism on the human maximum bite force Avaliação da influência do gênero e do bruxismo na força máxima de mordida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia dos Santos Calderon

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of gender and bruxism on the maximum bite force. The concordance for the physical examination of bruxism between examiners was also evaluated. One hundred and eighteen individuals, from both genders, bruxists and non-bruxists, with an average age of 24 years, were selected for this purpose. For group establishment, every individual was submitted to a specific physical examination for bruxism (performed by three different examiners. Subjects were then divided into four groups according to gender and the presence of bruxism. The maximum bite force was measured using a gnathodynamometer at the first molar area, three times on each side, performed twice. The two measurements were made with a 10-day interval. The highest value was recorded. The mean maximum bite force was statistically higher for males (587.2 N when compared to females (424.9 N (p0.05. The concordance between examiners for physical examination of bruxism was considered optimal.O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi avaliar a influência do gênero e do bruxismo na força máxima de mordida. A concordância interexaminadores para o exame físico de bruxismo também foi avaliada. Cento e dezoito voluntários, com idade média de 24 anos, divididos por gênero e pela presença de bruxismo, foram selecionados. Para o estabelecimento da amostra todos os voluntários foram submetidos a um exame físico específico para bruxismo (realizado por três examinadores. Então, os voluntários foram divididos em quarto grupos de acordo com o gênero e a presença de bruxismo. A força máxima de mordida foi mensurada, com o auxílio de um gnatodinamômetro, na região de primeiro molar, três vezes de cada lado, em duas sessões distintas. As sessões foram separadas por um intervalo de 10 dias. O maior valor dentre os doze obtidos, foi utilizado como sendo a força máxima. A força máxima de mordida foi estatisticamente maior para o g

  17. Marking as Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Val

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of assessment which has received little attention compared with perennial concerns, such as standards or reliability, is the role of judgment in marking. This paper explores marking as an act of judgment, paying particular attention to the nature of judgment and the processes involved. It brings together studies which have explored…

  18. Marking as Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Val

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of assessment which has received little attention compared with perennial concerns, such as standards or reliability, is the role of judgment in marking. This paper explores marking as an act of judgment, paying particular attention to the nature of judgment and the processes involved. It brings together studies which have explored…

  19. Retrospective study of dog bite cases at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria and its environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoke Modupeoluwa Ehimiyein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A 10-year retrospective study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dog bites reported to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH, Ahmadu Bello University (ABU, Zaria, and to implement measures to control rabies exposure in the environment. Materials and Methods: Data on dog bite cases, reported to the VTH of ABU, Zaria, Nigeria between January, 2002 and December, 2011, were retrieved and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17.0, Chicago, IL, USA. Result: A total of 236 dog bite-related cases was presented, of which 1.7% dogs died of rabies. The number of cases (59.7% increased through time with the highest number (32 recorded in 2011. Majority of the cases were recorded between June and October of each year. Of the biting dogs, 22.5% were puppies (1-6 months and 77.5% were adults (above 6 months. The human victims were 92.4%, while the dog victims were 7.6%. Eight of the dogs were stray dogs, while 228 (96.6% were owned dogs. Of the owned dogs, 71.2% were free-roaming. Only 22% of the owned dogs were vaccinated. The most common offending breeds included the Nigerian Indigenous local breeds (73.3%, cross breeds (24.6%, Alsatians (0.8%, Terriers (0.8%, and Bulldogs (0.4%. Conclusion: In conclusion, rabies is endemic in Zaria, Nigeria, and the incidence of dog bites is on the rise. Strict measures including vaccination of the dogs and the leash law should be adopted to prevent dog bites.

  20. Effects of bruxism on the maximum bite force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Jelena T.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bruxism is a parafunctional activity of the masticatory system, which is characterized by clenching or grinding of teeth. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence of bruxism has impact on maximum bite force, with particular reference to the potential impact of gender on bite force values. Methods. This study included two groups of subjects: without and with bruxism. The presence of bruxism in the subjects was registered using a specific clinical questionnaire on bruxism and physical examination. The subjects from both groups were submitted to the procedure of measuring the maximum bite pressure and occlusal contact area using a single-sheet pressure-sensitive films (Fuji Prescale MS and HS Film. Maximal bite force was obtained by multiplying maximal bite pressure and occlusal contact area values. Results. The average values of maximal bite force were significantly higher in the subjects with bruxism compared to those without bruxism (p 0.01. Maximal bite force was significantly higher in the males compared to the females in all segments of the research. Conclusion. The presence of bruxism influences the increase in the maximum bite force as shown in this study. Gender is a significant determinant of bite force. Registration of maximum bite force can be used in diagnosing and analysing pathophysiological events during bruxism.

  1. The influence of bubbles on the perception carbonation bite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Wise

    Full Text Available Although many people naively assume that the bite of carbonation is due to tactile stimulation of the oral cavity by bubbles, it has become increasingly clear that carbonation bite comes mainly from formation of carbonic acid in the oral mucosa. In Experiment 1, we asked whether bubbles were in fact required to perceive carbonation bite. Subjects rated oral pungency from several concentrations of carbonated water both at normal atmospheric pressure (at which bubbles could form and at 2.0 atmospheres pressure (at which bubbles did not form. Ratings of carbonation bite under the two pressure conditions were essentially identical, indicating that bubbles are not required for pungency. In Experiment 2, we created controlled streams of air bubbles around the tongue in mildly pungent CO2 solutions to determine how tactile stimulation from bubbles affects carbonation bite. Since innocuous sensations like light touch and cooling often suppress pain, we predicted that bubbles might reduce rated bite. Contrary to prediction, air bubbles flowing around the tongue significantly enhanced rated bite, without inducing perceived bite in blank (un-carbonated solutions. Accordingly, though bubbles are clearly not required for carbonation bite, they may well modulate perceived bite. More generally, the results show that innocuous tactile stimulation can enhance chemogenic pain. Possible physiological mechanisms are discussed.

  2. The influence of bubbles on the perception carbonation bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Paul M; Wolf, Madeline; Thom, Stephen R; Bryant, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Although many people naively assume that the bite of carbonation is due to tactile stimulation of the oral cavity by bubbles, it has become increasingly clear that carbonation bite comes mainly from formation of carbonic acid in the oral mucosa. In Experiment 1, we asked whether bubbles were in fact required to perceive carbonation bite. Subjects rated oral pungency from several concentrations of carbonated water both at normal atmospheric pressure (at which bubbles could form) and at 2.0 atmospheres pressure (at which bubbles did not form). Ratings of carbonation bite under the two pressure conditions were essentially identical, indicating that bubbles are not required for pungency. In Experiment 2, we created controlled streams of air bubbles around the tongue in mildly pungent CO2 solutions to determine how tactile stimulation from bubbles affects carbonation bite. Since innocuous sensations like light touch and cooling often suppress pain, we predicted that bubbles might reduce rated bite. Contrary to prediction, air bubbles flowing around the tongue significantly enhanced rated bite, without inducing perceived bite in blank (un-carbonated) solutions. Accordingly, though bubbles are clearly not required for carbonation bite, they may well modulate perceived bite. More generally, the results show that innocuous tactile stimulation can enhance chemogenic pain. Possible physiological mechanisms are discussed.

  3. Annual incidence of snake bite in rural bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwanur Rahman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snake bite is a neglected public health problem in the world and one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in many areas, particularly in the rural tropics. It also poses substantial economic burdens on the snake bite victims due to treatment related expenditure and loss of productivity. An accurate estimate of the risk of snake bite is largely unknown for most countries in the developing world, especially South-East Asia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook a national epidemiological survey to determine the annual incidence density of snake bite among the rural Bangladeshi population. Information on frequency of snake bite and individuals' length of stay in selected households over the preceding twelve months was rigorously collected from the respondents through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Point estimates and confidence intervals of the incidence density of snake bite, weighted and adjusted for the multi-stage cluster sampling design, were obtained. Out of 18,857 study participants, over one year a total of 98 snake bites, including one death were reported in rural Bangladesh. The estimated incidence density of snake bite is 623.4/100,000 person years (95% C I 513.4-789.2/100,000 person years. Biting occurs mostly when individuals are at work. The majority of the victims (71% receive snake bites to their lower extremities. Eighty-six percent of the victims received some form of management within two hours of snake bite, although only three percent of the victims went directly to either a medical doctor or a hospital. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Incidence density of snake bite in rural Bangladesh is substantially higher than previously estimated. This is likely due to better ascertainment of the incidence through a population based survey. Poor access to health services increases snake bite related morbidity and mortality; therefore, effective public health actions are warranted.

  4. Mark Raidpere portreefotod Kielis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Kieli Linnagaleriis avatud 2. Ars Baltica fototriennaalil 'Can You Hear Me?' esindab Eestit Mark Raidpere seeriaga 'Portreed 1998'. Näituse Eesti-poolne kuraator Anu Liivak, kataloogiteksti kirjutas Anders Härm. Tuntumaid osalejaid triennaalil Wolfgang Tillmans

  5. Mark 1 Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Mark I Test Facility is a state-of-the-art space environment simulation test chamber for full-scale space systems testing. A $1.5M dollar upgrade in fiscal year...

  6. Compartmental syndrome due to viper bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigasio, A; Battiston, B; De Filippo, G; Brunelli, G; Calabrese, S

    1991-01-01

    The case is reported of a young girl who was bitten on the hand by a viper and developed compartment syndrome of the intrinsic muscles more than 24 h later. Multiple dorsal and volar fasciotomies resolved the acute episode with complete restitutio ad integrum. The clinical case is discussed in detail and the literature on these rare complications of snake bites in European countries reviewed.

  7. Mark IVA microprocessor support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    The requirements and plans for the maintenance support of microprocessor-based controllers in the Deep Space Network Mark IVA System are discussed. Additional new interfaces and 16-bit processors have introduced problems not present in the Mark III System. The need for continuous training of maintenance personnel to maintain a level of expertise consistent with the sophistication of the required tools is also emphasized.

  8. Marks of Metal Copenhell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet.......Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet....

  9. COMPUTER HARDWARE MARKING

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe de protection des biens

    2000-01-01

    As part of the campaign to protect CERN property and for insurance reasons, all computer hardware belonging to the Organization must be marked with the words 'PROPRIETE CERN'.IT Division has recently introduced a new marking system that is both economical and easy to use. From now on all desktop hardware (PCs, Macintoshes, printers) issued by IT Division with a value equal to or exceeding 500 CHF will be marked using this new system.For equipment that is already installed but not yet marked, including UNIX workstations and X terminals, IT Division's Desktop Support Service offers the following services free of charge:Equipment-marking wherever the Service is called out to perform other work (please submit all work requests to the IT Helpdesk on 78888 or helpdesk@cern.ch; for unavoidable operational reasons, the Desktop Support Service will only respond to marking requests when these coincide with requests for other work such as repairs, system upgrades, etc.);Training of personnel designated by Division Leade...

  10. A comparative study of overlay generation methods in bite mark analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Mihir; Daniel, Mariappan Jonathan; Srinivasan, Subramanian Vasudevan

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the best method of overlay generation out of the three methods, i.e., manual, photocopying, and computer assisted method. Impressions of maxillary and mandibular arches of 25 individuals participating in the study were made and dental study models were prepared. Overlay production was done by manual, photocopying, and computer assisted methods. Finally, the overlays obtained by each method were compared. Kruskal Wallis ANOVA H test was used for the comparison of manual, photocopying, and computer assisted overlay generation methods. H value being highest in case of computer assisted overlays, thus, making it the best method of overlay generation out of the three methods. We conclude that the method of computer assisted overlay generation is the best among the three methods used in our study.

  11. A comparative study of overlay generation methods in bite mark analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mihir Khatri; Mariappan Jonathan Daniel; Subramanian Vasudevan Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the best method of overlay generation out of the three methods, i.e., manual, photocopying, and computer assisted method. Materials and Methods: Impressions of maxillary and mandibular arches of 25 individuals participating in the study were made and dental study models were prepared. Overlay production was done by manual, photocopying, and computer assisted methods. Finally, the overlays obtained by each method were compared. Results: Kruskal Wallis ANOVA H test was used for...

  12. Genetic and non-genetic indirect effects for bite mark traits in group housed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Berg, Peer; Janss, Luc

    irrespective of relatedness. Kin selection theory predicts that an individual will interact differently with family members vs. non-family members. We showed that mink interact differently either due to sex or the family relationship with their group mates. Our results show that IGEs are very important...

  13. A comparative study of overlay generation methods in bite mark analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Khatri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the best method of overlay generation out of the three methods, i.e., manual, photocopying, and computer assisted method. Materials and Methods: Impressions of maxillary and mandibular arches of 25 individuals participating in the study were made and dental study models were prepared. Overlay production was done by manual, photocopying, and computer assisted methods. Finally, the overlays obtained by each method were compared. Results: Kruskal Wallis ANOVA H test was used for the comparison of manual, photocopying, and computer assisted overlay generation methods. H value being highest in case of computer assisted overlays, thus, making it the best method of overlay generation out of the three methods. Conclusion: We conclude that the method of computer assisted overlay generation is the best among the three methods used in our study.

  14. Child health update. Management of dog bites in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabhaney, Vikram; Goldman, Ran D

    2012-10-01

    A 4-year-old girl was playing with her neighbour's dog. The dog became excited and bit the girl on the forearm, leaving a puncture wound. As a result of the injury, she has presented to my office. Should she be treated with antibiotics? If so, which antibiotic should be used and for how long? Initiation of prophylactic antibiotics is indicated if the dog bite has undergone primary closure; if there is a moderate or severe bite wound; for puncture wounds (especially if penetration of bone, tendon sheath, or joint), facial bites, bites to the hands or feet, or genital area bites; or wounds sustained by victims who are immunocompromised or asplenic. The first-line choice of antibiotic is amoxicillin-clavulanate. Appropriate tetanus and rabies prophylaxis as indicated should also be a part of caring for a patient who has sustained a dog bite, as well as local debridement and thorough cleaning of the wound.

  15. Smoking Leaves Lasting Marks on DNA: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161060.html Smoking Leaves Lasting Marks on DNA: Study Changes related to disease found in more ... cigarettes can leave a lasting imprint on human DNA, altering more than 7,000 genes in ways ...

  16. Awareness of rabies and response to dog bites in a Bangladesh community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghosh, Sumon; Chowdhury, Sukanta; Haider, Najmul

    2016-01-01

    ). Of the respondents, 5.2% reported a history of dog bite in at least one family member, and 11.8% reported a history of dog bite in domestic animals during the previous year. The HHs having a higher number of family members (OR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.07–1.2), having a pet dog (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.4–3.2) and caring......Community awareness regarding rabies and treatment seeking behaviours are critical both for the prevention and control of the disease in human and animals. We conducted a study to explore people's awareness about rabies, their attitudes towards dogs and practices associated with treating dog bites...... in Satkhira Sadar, a south-western sub-district of Bangladesh. Of the total 3200 households (HHs) surveyed, the majority of the respondents have heard about rabies (73%) and there was a high level of awareness that dog bite is the main cause of rabies (86%), and that rabies can be prevented by vaccination (85...

  17. VARYING A V BLOCK COMPLICATING SNAKE BITE - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Snake venom toxicities comprise mainly bleeding disorders and nephrotoxicity. Cardiotoxicity is a rare manifestation of snake bite. We describe the case of a previously healthy 23 - year - old man who developed coagulopathy and AV node dysfunction following snake bite. Electrocardiography showed all variatio ns of AV conduction dysfunction . This is the first account of AV node dysfu nction caused by a snake bite with cardiotoxi city presenting as atrioventricular block

  18. Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Renal Failure After Fire Ant Bites

    OpenAIRE

    Koya, Supriya; Crenshaw, Daryl; Agarwal, Anupam

    2007-01-01

    We describe a 59-year-old patient who developed acute renal failure because of rhabdomyolysis after extensive red fire ant bites. This case illustrates a serious systemic reaction that may occur from fire ant bites. Consistent with the clinical presentation in rhabdomyolysis associated with non-traumatic causes, hyperkalemia, hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia, and high anion gap acidosis were not observed in this patient. While local allergic reactions to fire ant bites are described in the lite...

  19. Case report: acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis following viper bite

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Anyi; Shan, Renfei; Huang, Daochao; Zhou, Jiajia; Keenoo, Anaswasseem; Qin, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The most serious complications of the central nervous system that occur after venomous snake bite are intracranial hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. We present a rarely seen central nervous system complication, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, after a treated Deinagkistrodon's viper bite. On April 5, 2015, a 50-year-old male farmer was bitten on his right leg by a Deinagkistrodon's viper. The bite rendered the victim unconscious for 14 days, during which he was treated with tetan...

  20. Utilization of a modified bite guard for preventing traumatic macroglossia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayazgan-Saracoglu, Banu; Kecik, Defne

    2011-01-01

    This clinical report describes the treatment of a patient having traumatic macroglossia due to schwannoma in the craniocervical region. Enlarged tongue or macroglossia may compromise vital functions of the patient. To avoid a chronic tongue bite trauma, a bite guard that was inspired from a habit breaker was fabricated. Tongue injury has significantly healed with the use of this appliance, and the patient was able to masticate without biting on his tongue.

  1. Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trongtokit, Yuwadee; Rongsriyam, Yupha; Komalamisra, Narumon; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn

    2005-04-01

    The mosquito repellent activity of 38 essential oils from plants at three concentrations was screened against the mosquito Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions using human subjects. On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of oil was applied per 30 cm2 of exposed skin. When the tested oils were applied at a 10% or 50% concentration, none of them prevented mosquito bites for as long as 2 h, but the undiluted oils of Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Pogostemon cablin (patchuli), Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and Zanthoxylum limonella (Thai name: makaen) were the most effective and provided 2 h of complete repellency. From these initial results, three concentrations (10%, 50% and undiluted) of citronella, patchouli, clove and makaen were selected for repellency tests against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus. As expected, the undiluted oil showed the highest protection in each case. Clove oil gave the longest duration of 100% repellency (2-4 h) against all three species of mosquito.

  2. GWAS of self-reported mosquito bite size, itch intensity and attractiveness to mosquitoes implicates immune-related predisposition loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Amy V; Tilley, Mera; Gutteridge, Alex; Hyde, Craig; Nagle, Michael; Ziemek, Daniel; Gorman, Donal; Fauman, Eric B; Chen, Xing; Miller, Melissa R; Tian, Chao; Hu, Youna; Hinds, David A; Cox, Peter; Scollen, Serena

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the interaction between humans and mosquitoes is a critical area of study due to the phenomenal burdens on public health from mosquito-transmitted diseases. In this study, we conducted the first genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of self-reported mosquito bite reaction size (n = 84,724), itchiness caused by bites (n = 69,057), and perceived attractiveness to mosquitoes (n = 16,576). In total, 15 independent significant (P mosquitoes is driven, at least in part, by the genetic determinants of bite reaction size.Our findings illustrate the complex genetic and immunological landscapes underpinning human interactions with mosquitoes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Bilateral parotid enlargement following snake bite:A rare sign

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madi Deepak; Achappa Basavaprabhu; John T Ramapuram; Chowta Nithyananda; Soundarya Mahalingam

    2013-01-01

    Snakebite is a common medical emergency in India. Unusual complications may occur after viper bite. Bilateral parotid enlargement after viper bite is a rare entity. An 18-year old gentleman presented to our hospital with history of viper bite. On examination he had cellulitis of right lower limb. He developed swelling of both the parotid glands 12 h after admission. He developed coagulopathy, acute renal failure and died within 48 h of hospital admission. Development of parotid swelling after snake bite is associated with poor prognosis. This case is found worth reporting as it is an unusual complication having prognostic value.

  4. Is extreme bite performance associated with extreme morphologies in sharks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Daniel R; Claes, Julien M; Mallefet, Jérôme; Herrel, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    As top predators in many oceanic communities, sharks are known to eat large prey and are supposedly able to generate high bite forces. This notion has, however, largely gone untested due to the experimental intractability of these animals. For those species that have been investigated, it remains unclear whether their high bite forces are simply a consequence of their large body size or the result of diet-related adaptation. As aquatic poikilotherms, sharks can grow very large, making them ideal subjects with which to investigate the effects of body size on bite force. Relative bite-force capacity is often associated with changes in head shape because taller or wider heads can, for example, accommodate larger jaw muscles. Constraints on bite force in general may also be released by changes in tooth shape. For example, more pointed teeth may allow a predator to penetrate prey more effectively than blunt, pavementlike teeth. Our analyses show that large sharks do not bite hard for their body size, but they generally have larger heads. Head width is the best predictor of bite force across the species included in our study as indicated by a multiple regression model. Contrary to our predictions, sharks with relatively high bite forces for their body size also have relatively more pointed teeth at the front of the tooth row. Moreover, species including hard prey in their diet are characterized by high bite forces and narrow and pointed teeth at the jaw symphysis.

  5. Augmented marked graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, King Sing

    2014-01-01

    Petri nets are a formal and theoretically rich model for the modelling and analysis of systems. A subclass of Petri nets, augmented marked graphs possess a structure that is especially desirable for the modelling and analysis of systems with concurrent processes and shared resources.This monograph consists of three parts: Part I provides the conceptual background for readers who have no prior knowledge on Petri nets; Part II elaborates the theory of augmented marked graphs; finally, Part III discusses the application to system integration. The book is suitable as a first self-contained volume

  6. Geographic access to street food sources for dogs and its association with spatial patterns of animal bite injuries in Enugu, Nigeria, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olugasa, B O; Okeke, O S; Ishola, O O

    2014-12-01

    Accessibility of street food source to dogs in Enugu, the capital city of Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria was examined in relation to spatial patterns of animal bite injuries in the city. Retrospective data on animal bite injuries were retrieved from records of selected hospitals in Enugu and its environs during the period 2005-2011. Victim's residence and street point where animal bite incidence occurred were geo-referenced. Street food sources, including garbage disposal points, meat markets, slaughter facilities and public vehicle terminals in the city were observed and geo-referenced. Thematic maps were designed usingArcGIS 10.1. Spatial scan statistics was used to identify cluster pattern of animal bite injuries and fatal rabies cases. Coefficient of area correspondence (Ca) in spatial cluster with selected variables was computed. One hundred and thirty one cases of animal bite injury cases were retrieved with traceable addresses. These comprised cat bites (n = 1, 0.76%), goat bites (n = 1, 0.76%), monkey bites (n = 2, 1.5%) and dog bites (n = 127, 96.98%). Fatal outcomes (n = 4, 3.15%) were recorded. Males within the age group, 0-15 (46.5%) were at the highest risk. A diffused spatial pattern showed that majority of the study area experienced animal bite injury during the study period. A primary cluster of 15.03km radius and a secondary cluster of 1.11 km radius traversed residential and non-residential areas were identified as rabies high- and low-risk areas. Interspecies bites from non-carnivores (goats and monkeys) and resultant deaths with neurologic signs were pathognomonic for rabies-like-illness in Enugu State. High Ca (0.8) showed a strong correlation between access to street food sources for dogs and the distribution of animal bite injuries on humans. While access to street food may support the population of free-roaming dogs, it was also shown to be partly explanatory to spatial patterns of dog bite injury. Public education about responsible pet

  7. Epidemiological study of animal bites and rabies in Lorestan Province in West of Iran during 2004-2014 for preventive purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Chegeni Sharafi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the progress made, animal bites and rabies are one of the important health problems in the country. The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of animal bites and rabies during 2004-2014 in Lorestan Province to prevent them in population of the province for the future prospective aspects. Materials and Methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, all those cases bitten in the province, during 2004 and 2014, were studied. The required information about the age, sex, the bitten organ, type of the invasive animal time, and location of the event were collected in questionnaires and then analyzed. Results: The total number of cases of animal rabies during the period of study was 43,892, shown at the rate of 223.23 in 100,000 people. Seventy-eight percent of animal bites in rural areas, 41.42% in the ages 10-29-year-old, 26.8% of cases were students, 56.77% leg bites, and 82.5% of dog bites. Four cases of human rabies were observed during this period. Conclusions: Rate of animal bites and rabies is high in Lorestan Province. Controlling animals such as dogs and cats in the province through training people at risk, especially among the students, rural areas and inter-sectorial coordination to eliminate stray animals should be considered over and over. Preventive actions to avoid bites are a priority.

  8. Mechanics of bite force production and its relationship to diet in bats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharlene E. Santana; Elizabeth R. Dumont; Julian L. Davis

    2010-01-01

    .... Mechanistic studies of bite force production have identified morphological features associated with bite force, and linked bite force with diet, but this approach has rarely been used in mammals. 2...

  9. Fathoming Mark Twain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggar, Joanna

    1988-01-01

    Relates the efforts of completing two collections of the works and papers of Mark Twain. Describes the combined efforts of the University of Iowa and the University of California to publish both a scholarly edition and a reader's edition devoted to Twain. (KO)

  10. Teaching with Mark Dion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Mark Dion creates sculptures, installations, and interactive environments that sometimes seem contrary to what one expects from visual artists. Remarkable curiosity cabinets and carefully arranged artifacts from specific places and time periods make up a large part of his work. His work does not neatly fit into traditional lessons about elements…

  11. Marked metric measure spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Depperschmidt, Andrej; Pfaffelhuber, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A marked metric measure space (mmm-space) is a triple (X,r,mu), where (X,r) is a complete and separable metric space and mu is a probability measure on XxI for some Polish space I of possible marks. We study the space of all (equivalence classes of) marked metric measure spaces for some fixed I. It arises as state space in the construction of Markov processes which take values in random graphs, e.g. tree-valued dynamics describing randomly evolving genealogical structures in population models. We derive here the topological properties of the space of mmm-spaces needed to study convergence in distribution of random mmm-spaces. Extending the notion of the Gromov-weak topology introduced in (Greven, Pfaffelhuber and Winter, 2009), we define the marked Gromov-weak topology, which turns the set of mmm-spaces into a Polish space. We give a characterization of tightness for families of distributions of random mmm- spaces and identify a convergence determining algebra of functions, called polynomials.

  12. Marked PCP is decidable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halava, V.; Hirvensalo, M.; de Wolf, R.

    2001-01-01

    We show that the marked version of the Post Correspondence Problem, where the words on a list are required to differ in the first letter, is decidable. On the other hand, we prove that the PCP remains undecidable if we only require the words to differ in the first two letters. Thus we locate the

  13. Onychophagia (Nail biting), anxiety, and malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachan, Avesh; Chaturvedi, T P

    2012-01-01

    Nail biting is a stress removing habit adopted by many children and adults. People usually do it when they are nervous, stressed, hungry, or bored. All of these situations are having a common phenomenon between them is anxiety. Onychophagia is also a sign of other emotional or mental disorders. It is a habit that is not easy to quit and reflection of extreme nervousness or inability to handle stressful conditions. This abnormal habit may cause various malocclusions associated with dentoalveolar segment of the oral cavity. Crowding and rotations of incisors are common with this habit.

  14. Onychophagia (Nail biting, anxiety, and malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avesh Sachan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nail biting is a stress removing habit adopted by many children and adults. People usually do it when they are nervous, stressed, hungry, or bored. All of these situations are having a common phenomenon between them is anxiety. Onychophagia is also a sign of other emotional or mental disorders. It is a habit that is not easy to quit and reflection of extreme nervousness or inability to handle stressful conditions. This abnormal habit may cause various malocclusions associated with dentoalveolar segment of the oral cavity. Crowding and rotations of incisors are common with this habit.

  15. How not to train your dragon: a case of a Komodo dragon bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borek, Heather A; Charlton, Nathan P

    2015-06-01

    Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) are the world's largest lizards, known for killing prey that exceed their body mass. Reports of bites to humans in the popular press suggest high degrees of morbidity and mortality. Reports in the medical literature are lacking. We describe the case of a zookeeper who was bitten by a Komodo dragon, with a resultant mallet finger. We further discuss the various potential mechanisms of Komodo dragon lethality, including sepsis and venom deposition theories that are useful in guiding management.

  16. Dog-bite induced sepsis : a report of four cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenga, S; Tulleken, JE; Moller, LVM; Jackson, SA; Van der Werf, TS; Zijlstra, JG

    1997-01-01

    Occasionally, a dog-bite is complicated by a systemic overwhelming infection. We report four consecutive patients who were admitted to our intensive care unit because of sepsis syndrome following dog-bites. The history of these patients did not reveal any immunocompromising conditions. Capnocytophag

  17. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... correct dose. For bites that itch , apply an ice pack or an over-the-counter anti-itch cream, such as hydrocortisone. Another option is to take an over-the-counter oral antihistamine. To reduce swelling , apply an ice pack to the bite. If you experience any ...

  18. Primate bites in Gibraltar--minor casualty quirk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A C

    1989-10-01

    In one year 55 patients presented to the casualty department of St Bernard's Hospital, Gibraltar, with a primate bite. The implications of such wounds on the health of these patients is contrasted with the morbidity and mortality associated with primate bites in the African subcontinent.

  19. Bullous reactions to bed bug bites reflect cutaneous vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates bullous cutaneous reactions and sequential histopathology in an individual sensitized to bed bug bites in an effort to better understand the allergic response and histology associated with these bites. There was a progression of the inflammatory response across time ranging from...

  20. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... counter oral antihistamine. To reduce swelling , apply an ice pack to the bite. If you experience any serious symptoms after a bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or a board-certified dermatologist immediately. Make sure you tell the doctor about your recent ...

  1. Proximate determinants of bite force in Anolis lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittorski, Antoine; Losos, Jonathan B; Herrel, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Performance measures associated with the vertebrate jaw system may provide important insights into vertebrate ecology and evolution because of their importance in many ecologically relevant tasks. Previous studies have shown that in many taxa, evolution toward higher bite force has gone hand in hand with the evolution of larger body size. However, independent of differences in overall body size, bite force may vary depending on head size and shape as well. Moreover, the underlying musculature may also drive variation in bite force. Here, we investigate the proximate determinants of bite force in lizards of the genus Anolis. We dissected the jaw muscles and quantified muscle mass, fibre length, and cross-sectional area. Data were analysed for both sexes independently given the sexual dimorphism detected in the dataset. Our results show that the traits that explain bite force are similar in both males and females with overall body size and muscle mass being the principal determinants. Among the different muscles examined, the adductor externus and the pseudotemporalis groups were the best determinants of bite force. However, models run for males predicted the variation in bite force better than models for females, suggesting that selection on morphology improving bite force may be stronger in males. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  2. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... correct dose. For bites that itch , apply an ice pack or an over-the-counter anti-itch cream, such as hydrocortisone. Another option is to take an over-the-counter oral antihistamine. To reduce swelling , apply an ice pack to the bite. If you experience any ...

  3. Bite angle effects of diphosphines in carbonylation reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.N.M. van Leeuwen; Z. Freixa

    2008-01-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: * Introduction * Rhodium-Catalyzed Hydroformylation o Introduction o Steric Bite Angle Effect and Regioselectivity o Electronic Bite Angle Effect and Activity o Isotope Effects [24] * Platinum-Catalyzed Alkene Hydroformylation * Palladium-Catalyzed CO/Ethene Co

  4. Mark Twain on phrenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James L

    2003-12-01

    Mark Twain was a noted 19th century American writer and humorist. He often elaborated upon the personalities of his characters, and his observational skills reflected a strong interest in psychology. Similarly, he found an interest in phrenology, a pseudoscience that purported to characterize personality traits according to elevations or depressions on the head. Twain's style is clearly reflected in the interesting essay he wrote regarding his personal experience with phrenology.

  5. Telicity marking in Hungarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Kardos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the encoding of telicity in Hungarian. While proposing a mereological, scalar semantic analysis, it shows that Hungarian uses a telicity-marking strategy in which it contrasts with English, where telicity is not the direct consequence of an overt marker but arises as a cumulative effect of specific, well-definable properties of various components of verbal predicates including the head verb and its argument(s. A major contribution of the analysis, which mainly addresses telicity marking in the class of non-creation/non-consumption predicates in neutral sentences, lies in the fact that it reveals important cross-linguistic differences with respect to the aspectual role of verbal particles and resultative/locative expressions and the referential properties of telic verbal predicates. As for the former, it is demonstrated that Hungarian verbal particles and resultative/locative expressions mark telicity by directly placing bounds on events by virtue of serving an event maximalizing function, whereas the English counterparts of these elements do not have such direct event-bounding effects. As for the latter, it emerges that in Hungarian quantized reference is a necessary and sufficient condition for telicity in cases where in English it is only sufficient.

  6. Animal bite incidence in the County of Shush, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Ali Kassiri; Masoud Lotfi; Babak Shahkarami; Seyed-Sahar Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the epidemiology of animal bites during a five-year period(2004-2008) inShushCounty,Khuzestan province, southwesternIran.Methods:In a descriptive cross sectional study, all cases of animal bites referred to the health centers inShushCounty were investigated during2004-2008.The necessary data were recorded on the special questionnaire that contains questions about bite animal, age, sex, occupation, treatment, the bite site on the body and so forth.Results:Out of a total of2283 cases that underwent the animal bites during the mentioned five years,1771 people(77.6%) were male and511(22.4%) were female .Most cases were related to age groups10-20(33.4%) and20-30(22%) years.The average incidence rate of animal bite during these years was determined as2.82 cases per1000 people.The highest incidence rate was related to the year2007 with3 cases per1000 people.Animal bites in the winter(29.3%) and fall(29%) were more common.Almost86.5% and13.5% of the cases occurred in rural areas and urban areas, respectively.Nearly30% and20.4% of cases were students and farmers, respectively.A total of2155(94.4%) and86(3.8%) bites occurred by the dog and cat, respectively.The greatest bite place on the body was in the feet(81.4%) and in the hands(13%(. During the study period,2162 cases(94.7%) were treated with an incomplete regimen, and120 cases(5.3%) were treated with a complete regimen.Conclusions:Because the cost of prevention after biting for the health system is high, so, preventive programs must be concentrated on public health instruction, particularly in villagers, students, farmers and the owners of the domestic animals.

  7. Dog ecology, dog bites and rabies vaccination rates in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.J. Atuman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of dog ecology, dog bites and rabies vaccination rates was carried out in Bauchi the capital city of Bauchi State, Nigeria using direct street counts and questionnaire survey administered on 10% of the city streets selected by stratified random sampling. The questionnaire was designed to obtain data in order to determine the dog to human population ratio, dog management and care, cases of dog bites, consequences of the bites and frequencies of rabies outbreak. The estimated dog population of street counts and compound counts were 5310 and 7670, respectively. The overall human to dog ratio of 4.1:1 was established. The mean number of individuals per dog owning compound was 9.6 ± 0.498 (SEM and the mean number of dogs owned per dog owning compound was 2.3 ± 0.108 (SEM. Majority of the dogs owned were local breeds (62.8% aged between 1 and 5 years old and managed under partial or no confinement. The dogs were mostly used for security (69.5% purposes. Dog owners reported low vaccination coverage (26.4%, level considered not sufficient to prevent rabies transmission. About 12.4% of dog bite victims died and majority of which (71.43% manifested nervous signs before death. Domestic dogs have been shown to be tolerated and kept in Bauchi but poorly managed in terms of feeding, confinement and vaccination thereby constituting a continuous risk to domestic animals and humans.

  8. Hypoxia-controlled EphA3 marks a human endometrium-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell that supports vascular growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine To

    Full Text Available Eph and ephrin proteins are essential cell guidance cues that orchestrate cell navigation and control cell-cell interactions during developmental tissue patterning, organogenesis and vasculogenesis. They have been extensively studied in animal models of embryogenesis and adult tissue regeneration, but less is known about their expression and function during human tissue and organ regeneration. We discovered the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α-controlled expression of EphA3, an Eph family member with critical functions during human tumour progression, in the vascularised tissue of regenerating human endometrium and on isolated human endometrial multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (eMSCs, but not in other highly vascularised human organs. EphA3 affinity-isolation from human biopsy tissue yielded multipotent CD29+/CD73+/CD90+/CD146+ eMSCs that can be clonally propagated and respond to EphA3 agonists with EphA3 phosphorylation, cell contraction, cell-cell segregation and directed cell migration. EphA3 silencing significantly inhibited the ability of transplanted eMSCs to support neovascularisation in immunocompromised mice. In accord with established roles of Eph receptors in mediating interactions between endothelial and perivascular stromal cells during mouse development, our findings suggest that HIF-1α-controlled expression of EphA3 on human MSCs functions during the hypoxia-initiated early stages of adult blood vessel formation.

  9. Analysis of 4-Year Dog-Bite Cases Treated At Ahmadu Bello University Health Centre, Zaria, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istifanus Anekoson Joshua

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Rabies is one of the most typical zoonosis; the disease is endemic in Nigeria and remains an important public health issue. The disease is transmitted mainly through the bite of rabid animal and dog is very important because of the close relationship between humans and dogs. The aim of the study was to analyze the 4 year dog bite cases treated at Ahmadu Bello University (ABU Medical Centre (UHC Zaria, Nigeria. METHOD: A longitudinal study was conducted between 2008 and 2011. Relevant information were obtained using structured questionnaire, interview and participant’s observation was used to study the ecology of the dogs. The medical and veterinary doctors were involved in the collection of the information. Data were analyzed with the aid of SPSS Version 17.0 and Chi square statistics was used to test for significance of association at P< 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 132 cases of dog bite were recorded for the period of the study. Majority (35.4% of the victims of the bite were within the age bracket of 1-10 years (mean age 25± 1.7 years, minimum age - 1 year and maximum age- 68 years, male: female ratio 1: 1.9 , 43.6% were staff family, The most common site of the bites was leg (35.2%. First aid treatment given to the victims before presentation at the hospital, were inadequate. Sixty (45.5% of the victims were given treatment against rabies. 63.6% of the dogs involved in the biting were aged 1-4 years, 55% were not vaccinated against rabies, 81.8% were local breed of dog, 13.6% were stray dogs and the most common likely cause of the bites was provocation (54.5%. CONCLUSION: Dog bite is a common medical condition seen in UHC, ABU Zaria. Factors such as poor vaccination of dogs by owners, high proportion of stray dogs, and poor first aid treatment of dog bite injuries, among others are of public health importance. There is need for intensive public enlightenment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 661-666

  10. Aspectos epidemiológicos de las mordeduras caninas Epidemiological aspects of dog bites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Palacio

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Las mordeduras de animales a personas suponen un importante problema de salud pública. Dentro de éstas, las más frecuentes son las producidas por perros. Un primer paso necesario en la prevención de este tipo de accidentes es conocer los factores de riesgo implicados. El presente trabajo revisa la bibliografía más relevante en cuanto a la incidencia, los factores de riesgo y la prevención de las mordeduras de perros en personas. Así, según las características de las víctimas, se revisan determinados aspectos, como la edad, el sexo, la localización y la gravedad de las lesiones. En relación con los perros agresores, se describen las razas implicadas y el historial previo del animal. Igualmente, se describen los contextos en que se producen las mordeduras, en relación con la fecha, el número de perros, los lugares más frecuentes, la relación e interacción víctima-perro y la participación de las distintas categorías de agresividad del etograma canino. En el último apartado se recogen las recomendaciones más habituales halladas en la bibliografía para prevenir y reducir la incidencia de mordeduras sobre la población general.Animal bites in humans are an important public health problem. Most of these bites are dog bites. The first step in preventing this kind of accident is to identify the associated risk factors. The present article reviews the most important published articles on the incidence of dog bites, their risk factors, and preventive measures. Concerning victim profiles, features such as age, sex, location, and the severity of the wounds are reviewed. Regarding dogs, the most frequent breeds involved and the dog's previous history of aggression are described. In addition, the different contexts in which bites occur are reported. Thus, factors such as dates, number of dogs, places, victim-dog relationship and interaction, and the distinct involved categories of aggression of the canine ethogram are reviewed. The most

  11. Evaluation of Methods for Sampling the Malaria Vector Anopheles darlingi (Diptera, Culicidae) in Suriname and the Relation With Its Biting Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat-van Laar, H.; Rijk, de M.; Andriessen, R.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of CO2-baited and human-baited mosquito traps for the sampling of Anopheles darlingi Root was evaluated and compared with human landing collections in Suriname. Biting preferences of this mosquito on a human host were studied and related to trapping data. Traps used were the Center

  12. Ceremony marking Einstein Year

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Sunday 13th November at 10:00amat Geneva's St. Peter's Cathedral To mark Einstein Year and the importance of the intercultural dialogue of which it forms a part, a religious service will take place on Sunday 13 November at 10 a.m. in St. Peter's Cathedral, to which CERN members and colleagues are warmly welcomed. Pastor Henry Babel, senior minister at the Cathedral, will speak on the theme: 'God in Einstein's Universe'. Diether Blechschmidt will convey a message on behalf of the scientific community.

  13. Ceremony marking Einstein Year

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Sunday 13th November at 10:00amat Geneva's St. Peter's Cathedral To mark Einstein Year and the importance of the intercultural dialogue of which it forms a part, a religious service will take place on Sunday 13 November at 10 a.m. in St. Peter's Cathedral, to which CERN members and colleagues are warmly welcomed. Pastor Henry Babel, senior minister at the Cathedral, will speak on the theme: 'God in Einstein's Universe'. Diether Blechschmidt will convey a message on behalf of the scientific community.

  14. Another one bites the dust: bite force and ecology in three caviomorph rodents (Rodentia, Hystricognathi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Federico; Echeverría, Alejandra Isabel; Casinos, Adrià; Vassallo, Aldo Iván

    2014-04-01

    Mammals have developed sophisticated strategies adapting to particular locomotor modes, feeding habits, and social interactions. Many rodent species have acquired a fossorial, semi-fossorial, or even subterranean life-style, converging on morphological, anatomical, and ecological features but diverging in the final arrangement. These ecological variations partially depend on the functional morphology of their digging tools. Muscular and mechanical features (e.g., lever arms relationship) of the bite force were analyzed in three caviomorph rodents with similar body size but different habits and ecological demands of the jaws. In vivo forces were measured at incisors' tip using a strain gauge load cell force transducer whereas theoretical maximal performance values, mechanical advantages, and particular contribution of each adductor muscle were estimated from dissections in specimens of Ctenomys australis (subterranean, solitary), Octodon degus (semi-fossorial, social), and Chinchilla laniger (ground-dweller, colonial). Our results showed that C. australis bites stronger than expected given its small size and C. laniger exhibited the opposite outcome, while O. degus is close to the expected value based on mammalian bite force versus body mass regressions; what might be associated to the chisel-tooth digging behavior and social interactions. Our key finding was that no matter how diverse these rodents' skulls were, no difference was found in the mechanical advantage of the main adductor muscles. Therefore, interspecific differences in the bite force might be primarily due to differences in the muscular development and force, as shown for the subterranean, solitary and territorial C. australis versus the more gracile, ground-dweller, and colonial C. laniger.

  15. Animal Bites in Borujerd: An Overview of Animal Bites in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabouri Ghannad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Rabies has been reported as the most important endemic zoonotic disease in Iran and still remains as a major public health problem. Objectives The main objective of the current research was to study the epidemiology of animal bites in Borujerd County in Iran and to compare its prevalence to other parts of Iran from April 2006 to September 2011. Patients and Methods The data were recorded in questionnaires and analyzed by SPSS version 16. Chi-square test was performed to evaluate the relationship among variables and P value was set as 0.05. Results Dog bites were the most common (69.8%, followed by cat (17.2%, fox and wolf (1.4%, sheep and cow (2.8%, monkey and donkey (5%, mouse and squirrel (2.2% and other animals (1.6%. Leg was the most common bite site forming 46.6% of cases, followed by hands (41.8%, buttocks (4.6%, head (4% and body (2.9%. Most of the subjects belonged to the age group < 10 (175.2 per 100000 populations. The injury location was associated significantly with sex and the residential status. Conclusions This study strongly highlights a high priority goal for health authorities to develop educational programs, recommended for the general population to inform them about the benefits of continuing the medication. Vaccination of domestic dogs and also eradication of stray ones, in addition to educational programs should be prioritized by health authorities.

  16. Afibrinogenemia following snake bite (Crotalus durissus terrificus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. S. Amaral

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports two cases of afibrinogenemia with normal platelet count following Crotalus durissus terrificus, snake bite Both patients presented high output acute renal failure and case two also had increased blood levels of CPK and LDH compatible with the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. Case one was given an unknown amount of antivenom and was treated with epsilonaminocaproic acid and a fresh whole blood transfusion and showed recovery of the coagulation disturbance 40 hours following these measures. Case two was given an adequate amount of crotalide antivenom and the coagulation tests performed 12 hours later showed a normal partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen 86 mg/100ml. Case one presented no haemorrhagic disturbances. Case two presented persistent bleeding following venopuncture and after removal of impetigo crust in the legs. Acute renal failure was treated conservatively and both patients were discharged from the hospital with recovery of the renal function.

  17. Slow Death by Many Mosquito Bites

    CERN Document Server

    Redner, S

    2014-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a single diffusing particle (a "man") with diffusivity $D_M$ that is attacked by another diffusing particle (a "mosquito") with fixed diffusivity $D_m$. Each time the mosquito meets and bites the man, the diffusivity of the man is reduced by a fixed amount, while the diffusivity of the mosquito is unchanged. The mosquito is also displaced by a small distance $\\pm a$ with respect to the man after each encounter. The man is defined as dead when $D_M$ reaches zero. At the moment when the man dies, his probability distribution of displacements $x$ is given by a Cauchy form, which asymptotically decays as $x^{-2}$, while the distribution of times $t$ when the man dies asymptotically decays as $t^{-3/2}$, which has the same form as the one-dimensional first-passage probability.

  18. Combined analysis of pharmacokinetic and efficacy data of preclinical studies with statins markedly improves translation of drug efficacy to human trialss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, E. van de; Kleemann, R.; Jansen, H.T.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Offerman, E.H.; Wortelboer, H.M.; DeGroot, J.

    2013-01-01

    Correct prediction of human pharmacokinetics (PK) and the safety and efficacy of novel compounds based on preclinical data, is essential but often fails. In the current study, we aimed to improve the predictive value of ApoE*3Leiden (E3L) trans-genic mice regarding the cholesterol-lowering efficacy

  19. Traumatic Amputation of Finger From an Alligator Snapping Turtle Bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert D; Nielsen, Cynthia L

    2016-06-01

    Legend states that the alligator snapping turtle (Macrochelys temminckii) should be handled with extreme caution as it has jaw strength powerful enough to bite a wooden broomstick in half. Tales of bite injuries from what is the largest freshwater turtle in North America exist anecdotally, yet there are few descriptions of medical encounters for such. The risk of infection from reptilian bites to the hand in an aquatic environment warrants thorough antibiotic treatment in conjunction with hand surgery consultation. We present the first case report of a near total amputation of an index finger in an adolescent boy who had been bitten by a wild "gator snapper."

  20. Accidental hypothermia and frost-bite in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, P G

    1987-02-02

    Two members of an Australian Antarctic expedition suffered hypothermia and frost-bite when they were stranded onshore after their small boat was swamped. Their efforts at field survival until recovery, six hours later, are described. At rescue one patient was found to have frost-bite and a core temperature of 30 degrees C. He was treated successfully by rapid rewarming in a hot bath. The other victim was considerably less hypothermic and suffered only mild frost-bite. Contrary to expectations the tall thin patient fared much better than the short heavier one. Possible explanations for this difference are discussed.

  1. Brown recluse spider bite to the upper lip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Ryan K; Conner, Kelly B; Tan, Poliana C; Hopkins, Robert H

    2012-03-01

    Brown recluse spiders are predominantly found in south central United States. Their bites usually cause mild self-limiting reactions, although localized tissue necrosis and rare systemic, potentially fatal, envenomations are known to occur. Herein, we report an atypical presentation of a brown recluse bite in a 20 year old female who was admitted to the intensive care unit due to angioedema and cellulitis. We photographically document the bite site for twenty-four hours following envenomation. She received glucocorticoids, antihistamines, antibiotics and dapsone while hospitalized and was subsequently discharged with complete resolution of symptoms without the development of tissue necrosis or scarring.

  2. Risk factors for stereotypic behavior and self-biting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): animal's history, current environment, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; Capitanio, John P; McCowan, Brenda

    2013-10-01

    Captive rhesus macaques sometimes exhibit undesirable abnormal behaviors, such as motor stereotypic behavior (MSB) and self-abuse. Many risk factors for these behaviors have been identified but the list is far from comprehensive, and large individual differences in rate of behavior expression remain. The goal of the current study was to determine which experiences predict expression of MSB and self-biting, and if individual differences in personality can account for additional variation in MSB expression. A risk factor analysis was performed utilizing data from over 4,000 rhesus monkeys at the California National Primate Research Center. Data were analyzed using model selection, with the best fitting models evaluated using Akaike Information Criterion. Results confirmed previous research that males exhibit more MSB and self-biting than females, MSB decreases with age, and indoor reared animals exhibit more MSB and self-biting than outdoor reared animals. Additionally, results indicated that animals exhibited less MSB and self-biting for each year spent outdoors; frequency of room moves and number of projects positively predicted MSB; pair separations positively predicted MSB and self-biting; pair housed animals expressed less MSB than single housed and grate paired animals; and that animals expressed more MSB and self-biting when in bottom rack cages, or cages near the room entrance. Based on these results we recommend limiting exposure to these risk factors when possible. Our results also demonstrated a relationship between personality and MSB expression, with animals low on gentle temperament, active in response to a human intruder, and high on novel object contact expressing more MSB. From these results we propose that an animal's MSB is related to its predisposition for an active personality, with active animals expressing higher rates of MSB.

  3. Culicoides biting midges, arboviruses and public health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Simon; Groschup, Martin H; Garros, Claire; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Purse, Bethan V

    2013-10-01

    The emergence of multiple strains of bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recent discovery of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in Europe have highlighted the fact that exotic Culicoides-borne arboviruses from remote geographic areas can enter and spread rapidly in this region. This review considers the potential for this phenomenon to impact on human health in Europe, by examining evidence of the role of Culicoides biting midges in the zoonotic transmission and person-to-person spread of arboviruses worldwide. To date, the only arbovirus identified as being primarily transmitted by Culicoides to and between humans is Oropouche virus (OROV). This member of the genus Orthobunyavirus causes major epidemics of febrile illness in human populations of South and Central America and the Caribbean. We examine factors promoting sustained outbreaks of OROV in Brazil from an entomological perspective and assess aspects of the epidemiology of this arbovirus that are currently poorly understood, but may influence the risk of incursion into Europe. We then review the secondary and rarely reported role of Culicoides in the transmission of high-profile zoonotic infections, while critically reviewing evidence of this phenomenon in endemic transmission and place this in context with the presence of other potential vector groups in Europe. Scenarios for the incursions of Culicoides-borne human-to-human transmitted and zoonotic arboviruses are then discussed, along with control measures that could be employed to reduce their impact. These measures are placed in the context of legislative measures used during current and ongoing outbreaks of Culicoides-borne arboviruses in Europe, involving both veterinary and public health sectors.

  4. Heterochromatin marks HP1γ, HP1α and H3K9me3, and DNA damage response activation in human testis development and germ cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, J; Moudry, P; Hodny, Z

    2011-01-01

    activation in CIS; and enhanced HP1α in teratoma structures with epithelial and neuronal differentiation. Differential expression of the three heterochromatin markers suggests their partly non-overlapping roles, and separation of heterochromatinization from DDR activation highlights distinct responses......Heterochromatinization has been implicated in fundamental biological and pathological processes including differentiation, senescence, ageing and tumourigenesis; however, little is known about its regulation and roles in human cells and tissues in vivo. Here, we show distinct cell-type- and cancer...

  5. Documented bites by a yellow sac spider (Cheiracanthium punctorium in Italy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Papini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Italy reports of human envenomations by yellow sac spiders have been sporadic. Since increasing clinical information would improve understanding of the danger of yellow sac spiders to humans, we report the case of a 7-year-old child and her father bitten by a documented Cheiracanthium punctorium. They developed acute persistent pain with local skin signs and numbness, and required emergency treatment. The father recovered completely within 1 to 2 hours and the child within 3 to 4 days after treatment, probably as a result of spontaneous evolution. Clinicians should be aware of the risks and immediate management of spider bites.

  6. Spider Bite: A Rare Case of Acute Necrotic Arachnidism with Rapid and Fatal Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Anna Maria; Scozzafava, Annamaria; Filippelli, Orazio; Serafino, Giuseppe; Verre, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The spider bites are quite frequent and often resolve quickly without leaving outcomes; only some species are capable of causing necrotic and systematic lesions in humans. Among them, we should mention the genus Loxosceles. The venom released from the spider bite of Loxosceles species is composed of proteins, enzymes, and nonenzymatic polypeptides. The phospholipase D family was identified as the active component of the venom. This family of enzymes is responsible for the local and systemic effects observed in loxoscelism. Phospholipases D interact with cell membranes triggering alterations which involve the complement system and activation of neutrophils and they cause the dermonecrotic skin lesions and systemic effects. We describe a fatal case of acute intoxication caused by a spider bite probably belonging to the species Loxosceles. The initial lesion was localized to a finger of a hand. Clinical course was worsening with deep necrotic lesions on limb, shock, hemolysis, acute kidney failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. All therapies were ineffective. This is the first fatal case described in Europe. PMID:27651958

  7. Spider Bite: A Rare Case of Acute Necrotic Arachnidism with Rapid and Fatal Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pezzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spider bites are quite frequent and often resolve quickly without leaving outcomes; only some species are capable of causing necrotic and systematic lesions in humans. Among them, we should mention the genus Loxosceles. The venom released from the spider bite of Loxosceles species is composed of proteins, enzymes, and nonenzymatic polypeptides. The phospholipase D family was identified as the active component of the venom. This family of enzymes is responsible for the local and systemic effects observed in loxoscelism. Phospholipases D interact with cell membranes triggering alterations which involve the complement system and activation of neutrophils and they cause the dermonecrotic skin lesions and systemic effects. We describe a fatal case of acute intoxication caused by a spider bite probably belonging to the species Loxosceles. The initial lesion was localized to a finger of a hand. Clinical course was worsening with deep necrotic lesions on limb, shock, hemolysis, acute kidney failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. All therapies were ineffective. This is the first fatal case described in Europe.

  8. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Younger skin Kids’ zone About skin: Your body's largest organ About hair: Not just on your ... bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or a board-certified ...

  9. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MOC webinars and videos FAQs MOC resources Recognized Credit Basic Derm Curriculum Teaching and learning guides Suggested ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  10. Two cases of viper bite: still an important health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrija Hajra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Viper venoms act mainly as hemotoxic. Manifestations of snakebites depend on specific toxins that constitute the venom. The local and systemic snake bite related symptoms are directly linked to the toxicity of the venom. Edema, ecchymoses, hematoma, and gangrenous lesions are reported to occur as local symptoms. Systemic symptoms may include fever, nausea, vomiting, delirium, jaundice, circulatory collapse, convulsions, and coma. Death from secondary infections, neurotoxicity, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, intracranial hemorrhage, and acute renal failure are the well-known facts. For reduction of morbidity and mortality, it is important that antiserum is administered at the appropriate dose as early as possible after snake bite. There are several case reports about various complications of viperid bite. Here we are discussing two cases of viper bite. These cases are unique because of the extensive tissue necrosis. One of them succumbed to septicemia after acute pancreatitis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1274-1277

  11. Dilemmas in Treatment of Recurrent Recalcitrant Dental Anterior Open Bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencar, Adrian J

    2016-01-01

    An anterior open bite is one of the most difficult occlusal abnormalities to treat. Quite often this aberration entails dental component and/or skeletal component. The skeletal open bite will require intrusion of the posterior sextants with the assistance of bite blocks, temporary anchorage devices, high pull headgear, and as a last resort - orthognathic surgery. The orthodontic treatment should be augmented with the orofacial myofunctional therapy. In this article, the author describes 3 different variations of treatment of the dental anterior open bite, first on acrylic models, and then on the actual patients. Consideration should be given to patients with a 'short upper lip," and in this case, surgical correction should be entertained.

  12. Insect Repellents: Protect Your Child from Insect Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Choosing an Insect Repellent for Your Child Page Content Mosquitoes, biting ... sunscreen needs to be reapplied often. Reactions to Insect Repellents If you suspect that your child is ...

  13. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Part 1: Structure Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook Study notes Image library 3-D animated ... nail care Injured skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site= ...

  14. New Mexico rattlesnake bites: demographic review and guidelines for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, D J; Omer, G E; Moneim, M S

    1991-10-01

    The demographic features, treatment, and outcome of 36 rattlesnake envenomation cases are reviewed. Two populations at special risk are identified: (1) young children (12/36) who sustain lower extremity bites, and (2) adults who consume alcohol and handle snakes (10/36) who sustain upper extremity bites. Antivenin was used in 22 cases with only one serious case of serum sickness. Three definite diagnoses of compartment syndrome were made on the basis of elevated compartment pressures. Hand bites accounted for 20 of the 36 cases. The greatest functional disability followed digit bites in that 11 patients developed decreased motion and sensation. The indications for fasciotomy and debridement are discussed, both for digit and non-digit envenomations. General treatment recommendations are given.

  15. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... order of modules Video library Quiz library Basement Membrane Zone lecture Full lecture Part 1: Structure Part ... Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How to remove a ...

  16. Risk of Disease from Mosquito and Tick Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect repellents help reduce the risk of mosquito and tick bites, which can transmit diseases including West Nile Virus, malaria, encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya virus, Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and ehrlichiosis.

  17. Snake bites in Kenya: a preliminary survey of four areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, M D; Dunachie, S J; Brooker, S; Haynes, J; Church, J; Warrell, D A

    1997-01-01

    Primary data were collected on the incidence, severity and species responsible for snake bites in 4 areas of Kenya: (i) Kakamega and western Kenya, (ii) Lake Baringo and Laikipia, (iii) Kilifi and Malindi, and (iv) northern Kenya. The overall average frequency of snake bite was 13.8 per 100,000 population per year (range 1.9-67.9). The minimum rate of snake bite mortality was 0.45/100,000/year. Thirty-four of the 50 units visited reported no knowledge of death from snake bite in the last 5 years. Possible reasons for the low estimates are discussed. Traditional treatments were common, especially the use of herbal remedies and incisions at the wound site.

  18. Novel system for bite-force sensing and monitoring based on magnetic near field communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantada, Andres Diaz; Bris, Carlos González; Morgado, Pilar Lafont; Maudes, Jesús Sanz

    2012-01-01

    Intraoral devices for bite-force sensing have several applications in odontology and maxillofacial surgery, as bite-force measurements provide additional information to help understand the characteristics of bruxism disorders and can also be of help for the evaluation of post-surgical evolution and for comparison of alternative treatments. A new system for measuring human bite forces is proposed in this work. This system has future applications for the monitoring of bruxism events and as a complement for its conventional diagnosis. Bruxism is a pathology consisting of grinding or tight clenching of the upper and lower teeth, which leads to several problems such as lesions to the teeth, headaches, orofacial pain and important disorders of the temporomandibular joint. The prototype uses a magnetic field communication scheme similar to low-frequency radio frequency identification (RFID) technology (NFC). The reader generates a low-frequency magnetic field that is used as the information carrier and powers the sensor. The system is notable because it uses an intra-mouth passive sensor and an external interrogator, which remotely records and processes information regarding a patient's dental activity. This permits a quantitative assessment of bite-force, without requiring intra-mouth batteries, and can provide supplementary information to polysomnographic recordings, current most adequate early diagnostic method, so as to initiate corrective actions before irreversible dental wear appears. In addition to describing the system's operational principles and the manufacture of personalized prototypes, this report will also demonstrate the feasibility of the system and results from the first in vitro and in vivo trials.

  19. Novel System for Bite-Force Sensing and Monitoring Based on Magnetic Near Field Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sanz Maudes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Intraoral devices for bite-force sensing have several applications in odontology and maxillofacial surgery, as bite-force measurements provide additional information to help understand the characteristics of bruxism disorders and can also be of help for the evaluation of post-surgical evolution and for comparison of alternative treatments. A new system for measuring human bite forces is proposed in this work. This system has future applications for the monitoring of bruxism events and as a complement for its conventional diagnosis. Bruxism is a pathology consisting of grinding or tight clenching of the upper and lower teeth, which leads to several problems such as lesions to the teeth, headaches, orofacial pain and important disorders of the temporomandibular joint. The prototype uses a magnetic field communication scheme similar to low-frequency radio frequency identification (RFID technology (NFC. The reader generates a low-frequency magnetic field that is used as the information carrier and powers the sensor. The system is notable because it uses an intra-mouth passive sensor and an external interrogator, which remotely records and processes information regarding a patient’s dental activity. This permits a quantitative assessment of bite-force, without requiring intra-mouth batteries, and can provide supplementary information to polysomnographic recordings, current most adequate early diagnostic method, so as to initiate corrective actions before irreversible dental wear appears. In addition to describing the system’s operational principles and the manufacture of personalized prototypes, this report will also demonstrate the feasibility of the system and results from the first in vitro and in vivo trials.

  20. Novel System for Bite-Force Sensing and Monitoring Based on Magnetic Near Field Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantada, Andres Diaz; Bris, Carlos González; Morgado, Pilar Lafont; Maudes, Jesús Sanz

    2012-01-01

    Intraoral devices for bite-force sensing have several applications in odontology and maxillofacial surgery, as bite-force measurements provide additional information to help understand the characteristics of bruxism disorders and can also be of help for the evaluation of post-surgical evolution and for comparison of alternative treatments. A new system for measuring human bite forces is proposed in this work. This system has future applications for the monitoring of bruxism events and as a complement for its conventional diagnosis. Bruxism is a pathology consisting of grinding or tight clenching of the upper and lower teeth, which leads to several problems such as lesions to the teeth, headaches, orofacial pain and important disorders of the temporomandibular joint. The prototype uses a magnetic field communication scheme similar to low-frequency radio frequency identification (RFID) technology (NFC). The reader generates a low-frequency magnetic field that is used as the information carrier and powers the sensor. The system is notable because it uses an intra-mouth passive sensor and an external interrogator, which remotely records and processes information regarding a patient's dental activity. This permits a quantitative assessment of bite-force, without requiring intra-mouth batteries, and can provide supplementary information to polysomnographic recordings, current most adequate early diagnostic method, so as to initiate corrective actions before irreversible dental wear appears. In addition to describing the system's operational principles and the manufacture of personalized prototypes, this report will also demonstrate the feasibility of the system and results from the first in vitro and in vivo trials. PMID:23112669

  1. 'A bite before bed': exposure to malaria vectors outside the times of net use in the highlands of western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Mary K; Kahindi, Sam C; Oriango, Robin M; Owaga, Chrispin; Ayoma, Elizabeth; Mabuka, Danspaid; Nyangau, Dennis; Abel, Lucy; Atieno, Elizabeth; Awuor, Stephen; Drakeley, Chris; Cox, Jonathan; Stevenson, Jennifer

    2015-06-25

    The human population in the highlands of Nyanza Province, western Kenya, is subject to sporadic epidemics of Plasmodium falciparum. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) are used widely in this area. These interventions are most effective when Anopheles rest and feed indoors and when biting occurs at times when individuals use LLINs. It is therefore important to test the current assumption of vector feeding preferences, and late night feeding times, in order to estimate the extent to which LLINs protect the inhabitants from vector bites. Mosquito collections were made for six consecutive nights each month between June 2011 and May 2012. CDC light-traps were set next to occupied LLINs inside and outside randomly selected houses and emptied hourly. The net usage of residents, their hours of house entry and exit and times of sleeping were recorded and the individual hourly exposure to vectors indoors and outdoors was calculated. Using these data, the true protective efficacy of nets (P*), for this population was estimated, and compared between genders, age groups and from month to month. Primary vector species (Anopheles funestus s.l. and Anopheles arabiensis) were more likely to feed indoors but the secondary vector Anopheles coustani demonstrated exophagic behaviour (p malaria vectors from 1.3 to 0.47 bites per night. The P* for the population over the study period was calculated as 51% and varied significantly with age and season (p malaria vector bites. It is likely that P* would be estimated to be greater if the overall suppression of the local vector population due to widespread community net use could be taken into account. However, the overlap of early biting habit of vectors and human activity in this region indicates that additional methods of vector control are required to limit transmission. Regular surveillance of both vector behaviour and domestic human-behaviour patterns would assist the planning of future

  2. Relationship between articulation paper mark size and percentage of force measured with computerized occlusal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadeer, Sarah; Kerstein, Robert; Kim, Ryan Jin Yung; Huh, Jung-Bo; Shin, Sang-Wan

    2012-02-01

    Articulation paper mark size is widely accepted as an indicator of forceful tooth contacts. However, mark size is indicative of contact location and surface area only, and does not quantify occlusal force. The purpose of this study is to determine if a relationship exists between the size of paper marks and the percentage of force applied to the same tooth. Thirty dentate female subjects intercuspated into articulation paper strips to mark occlusal contacts on their maxillary posterior teeth, followed by taking photographs. Then each subject made a multi-bite digital occlusal force percentage recording. The surface area of the largest and darkest articulation paper mark (n = 240 marks) in each quadrant (n = 60 quadrants) was calculated in photographic pixels, and compared with the force percentage present on the same tooth. Regression analysis shows a bi-variant fit of force % on tooth (Pforce indicated a low positive correlation. The coefficient of determination showed a low causative relationship between mark area and force (r(2) = 0.067). The largest paper mark in each quadrant was matched with the most forceful tooth in that same quadrant only 38.3% of time. Only 6 2/3% of mark surface area could be explained by applied occlusal force, while most of the mark area results from other factors unrelated to the applied occlusal force. The findings of this study indicate that size of articulation paper mark is an unreliable indicator of applied occlusal force, to guide treatment occlusal adjustments.

  3. Black mamba bites. A report of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilligan, R

    1987-08-01

    The clinical features of confirmed cases of black mamba snakebites in a 14-month-old child and a 34-year-old man are presented. The steps taken in management are described and reviewed. The importance of early aggressive treatment and general principles of mamba bite management are discussed. To date there has been no reported case of confirmed and medically treated black mamba bite in a child so young.

  4. Inhibitory reflex responses of masseter muscle in anterior open bite

    OpenAIRE

    Priyada, SANTILAKANAWONG; Hiroaki, KIRIMOTO; Yoichiro, SEKI; Kunimichi, SOMA; Orthodontic Science, Department of Orofacial Development and Function, Division of Oral Health Sciences, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University

    2003-01-01

    Animal studies indicated that loss of occlusal contact between maxillary and mandibular teeth causes altered functional activity of periodontal mechanoreceptors. The alteration of periodontal mechanoreceptors may influence jawmuscle reflex and masticatory muscle activity. In this study, the inhibitory reflex response of masseter muscle in subjects with anterior open bite was investigated. The study population included 10 subjects with anterior open bite with no muscle pain or craniomandibular...

  5. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis associated with spider bite*

    OpenAIRE

    Milman, Laura de Mattos; Müller,Giana Paula; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Grill, Aline Barcellos; Rhoden, Deise Louise Bohn; Mello-da-Silva, Carlos Augusto; Vettorato,Gerson

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is an acute febrile rash, usually induced by drugs, which recently has been linked to spider bite. We report a case of a male patient, 48 years old, with an erythematous rash accompanied by fever and small non-follicular pustules. He reported previous pain in the buttock with the onset of a necrotic plaque. The lesion was compatible with spider bite of the genus Loxosceles. According to the EuroSCAR group instrument, the patient scor...

  6. Habitual biting of oral mucosa: A conservative treatment approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjot Kaur Bhatia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic biting of oral mucosa is an innocuous self inflicted injury, commonly seen in children suffering from developmental and psychological problems and has rarely been reported in normal unaffected individuals. The management strategies vary from counseling, prescription of sedatives to different prosthetic shields. The paper highlights the efficacy of a simple approach using soft mouth guard in the management of self inflicted lesions due to habitual biting of oral mucosa in two normal healthy children.

  7. Shark Mark Recapture Database (MRDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Shark Mark Recapture Database is a Cooperative Research Program database system used to keep multispecies mark-recapture information in a common format for...

  8. The impact of snake bite on household economy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S M K; Basher, A; Molla, A A; Sultana, N K; Faiz, M A

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the different types of costs for treatment of snake bite patients, to quantify household economic impact and to understand the coping mechanisms required to cover the costs for snake bite patients in Bangladesh. The patients admitted to four tertiary level hospitals in Bangladesh were interviewed using structured questionnaires including health-care-related expenditures and the way in which the expenditures were covered. Of the snakes which bit the patients, 54.2% were non-venomous, 45.8% were venomous and 42.2% of the patients were given polyvalent antivenom. The total expenditure related to snake bite varies from US$4 (US$1 = Taka 72) to US$2294 with a mean of US$124 and the mean income loss was US$93. Expenditure for venomous snake bite was US$231, which is about seven times higher than non-venomous snake bite (US$34). The treatment imposes a major economic burden on affected families, especially in venomous snake bite cases.

  9. Studying the effects of Bite plane application in intruding and extruding the teeth in patients with deep bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shirazi

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep bite is a major clinical problem manifested as higher than normal overbite in anterior region of the jaws. Various studies were conducted to identify the effects of using bite plan and its results. 14 subjects with deep bite were selected out of 400 students of a school who had not proximal caries and had not lost any permanent teeth with healthy periodontal condition. 8 patients were considered as case group and the 6 other as the control group. In case group, a simple labial arc with acrylic palate that caused a gap in occlusion was placed. 2 lateral radiographs were obtained both pre and post 14 months treatment period. After cephalometric analysis, due to bite plane application significant intrusion in mandibular  incisors were observed as well as elongation in both maxillary and mandibular molars.

  10. The Four Marks of Holistic Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twietmeyer, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    What, to borrow a theological phrase, are the marks of a truly holistic kinesiology department? "In Kinesis and the Nature of the Human Person" (2010), I examined the theoretical impact of Aristotle's definition of "kinesis" and Polanyi's theory of "tacit knowledge" on kinesiology. The intention here, however, is practical rather than theoretical.…

  11. The Four Marks of Holistic Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twietmeyer, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    What, to borrow a theological phrase, are the marks of a truly holistic kinesiology department? "In Kinesis and the Nature of the Human Person" (2010), I examined the theoretical impact of Aristotle's definition of "kinesis" and Polanyi's theory of "tacit knowledge" on kinesiology. The intention here, however, is practical rather than theoretical.…

  12. A rare case of multiple rattlesnake bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Yanko T; Kristeva, Sasha A; Prancheva, Maria G

    2013-01-01

    The rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) is a venomous viper inhabiting the southeastern parts of the United States. It is not found in the Balkans and Europe habitats. Subjects of the species are grown and seen in museums, exhibitions and terrariums, and sometimes in private collections. This may generate potentially toxic exposures to the venom in accidental contact. Acute poisoning with rattlesnake poison in Bulgaria is exotic, rare and even casuistic. The venom of the rattlesnake exhibits neuropathic, proteolytic and hemolytic activities. Antivenom is not currently easily available in Bulgaria--it is not usually stored in hospitals because it is very rarely used and therefore rather expensive. We present a case of multiple envenomation (two different occasions) of one and the same person who kept rattlesnakes in a private terrarium. Local toxic syndrome was observed with burning and stinging pain at bite site combined with limited hemorrhage and necrosis. The hemolytic reaction and the local toxic results were successfully managed without resorting to any specific antidotal therapy.

  13. A Marked Poisson Process Driven Latent Shape Model for 3D Segmentation of Reflectance Confocal Microscopy Image Stacks of Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanta, Sindhu; Jordan, Michael I; Kose, Kivanc; Brooks, Dana H; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Dy, Jennifer G

    2017-01-01

    Segmenting objects of interest from 3D data sets is a common problem encountered in biological data. Small field of view and intrinsic biological variability combined with optically subtle changes of intensity, resolution, and low contrast in images make the task of segmentation difficult, especially for microscopy of unstained living or freshly excised thick tissues. Incorporating shape information in addition to the appearance of the object of interest can often help improve segmentation performance. However, the shapes of objects in tissue can be highly variable and design of a flexible shape model that encompasses these variations is challenging. To address such complex segmentation problems, we propose a unified probabilistic framework that can incorporate the uncertainty associated with complex shapes, variable appearance, and unknown locations. The driving application that inspired the development of this framework is a biologically important segmentation problem: the task of automatically detecting and segmenting the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) in 3D reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) images of human skin. RCM imaging allows noninvasive observation of cellular, nuclear, and morphological detail. The DEJ is an important morphological feature as it is where disorder, disease, and cancer usually start. Detecting the DEJ is challenging, because it is a 2D surface in a 3D volume which has strong but highly variable number of irregularly spaced and variably shaped "peaks and valleys." In addition, RCM imaging resolution, contrast, and intensity vary with depth. Thus, a prior model needs to incorporate the intrinsic structure while allowing variability in essentially all its parameters. We propose a model which can incorporate objects of interest with complex shapes and variable appearance in an unsupervised setting by utilizing domain knowledge to build appropriate priors of the model. Our novel strategy to model this structure combines a spatial Poisson

  14. Antioxidant components of naturally-occurring oils exhibit marked anti-inflammatory activity in epithelial cells of the human upper respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswal Shyam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The upper respiratory tract functions to protect lower respiratory structures from chemical and biological agents in inspired air. Cellular oxidative stress leading to acute and chronic inflammation contributes to the resultant pathology in many of these exposures and is typical of allergic disease, chronic sinusitis, pollutant exposure, and bacterial and viral infections. Little is known about the effective means by which topical treatment of the nose can strengthen its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defenses. The present study was undertaken to determine if naturally-occurring plant oils with reported antioxidant activity can provide mechanisms through which upper respiratory protection might occur. Methods Controlled exposure of the upper respiratory system to ozone and nasal biopsy were carried out in healthy human subjects to assess mitigation of the ozone-induced inflammatory response and to assess gene expression in the nasal mucosa induced by a mixture of five naturally-occurring antioxidant oils - aloe, coconut, orange, peppermint and vitamin E. Cells of the BEAS-2B and NCI-H23 epithelial cell lines were used to investigate the source and potential intracellular mechanisms of action responsible for oil-induced anti-inflammatory activity. Results Aerosolized pretreatment with the mixed oil preparation significantly attenuated ozone-induced nasal inflammation. Although most oil components may reduce oxidant stress by undergoing reduction, orange oil was demonstrated to have the ability to induce long-lasting gene expression of several antioxidant enzymes linked to Nrf2, including HO-1, NQO1, GCLm and GCLc, and to mitigate the pro-inflammatory signaling of endotoxin in cell culture systems. Nrf2 activation was demonstrated. Treatment with the aerosolized oil preparation increased baseline levels of nasal mucosal HO-1 expression in 9 of 12 subjects. Conclusions These data indicate that selected oil-based antioxidant

  15. Retrospective Cohort Study to Assess the Risk of Rabies in Biting Dogs, 2013–2015, Republic of Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M. Medley

    2017-06-01

    .5 95% CI 2.0–10.1, respectively. Rabid dogs were four times more likely to have bitten multiple people (RR = 4.0 95% CI 1.9–8.3. Most rabid dogs died or were killed before quarantine (75% and all died by day 3 of quarantine, compared to <1% of quarantined case-negatives. The greatest risk of death was predicted to be for persons bitten on the head or neck from symptomatic dogs. Bites from dogs deemed healthy by veterinary assessors and which were available for quarantine presented less than a 0.05% risk of rabies death to the victim. Conclusions: Vaccination of all persons exposed to a suspected rabid dog is a highly effective approach to minimize human rabies deaths. However, this may place undue financial burden on bite victims that have had a low-risk exposure and over-prescription may contribute to regional supply shortages. The results here indicate that in a low-resource country such as Haiti, a well-trained veterinary assessor can provide an accurate risk assessment of biting dogs based on a standard case investigation protocol. In canine rabies endemic countries with limited access to PEP, or where PEP costs may cause undue burden on bite victims, structured risk assessments by trained professionals may be a reliable method of triaging PEP for bite victims. Evaluating rabies risk through a matrix of bite location and risk factor in the dog presents a clear delineation of high and low risk encounters and should be used to develop data-derived PEP recommendations.

  16. Evaluation of methods for sampling the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi (Diptera, Culicidae) in Suriname and the relation with its biting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwat, H; De Rijk, M; Andriessen, R; Koenraadt, C J M; Takken, W

    2011-09-01

    The effectiveness of CO2-baited and human-baited mosquito traps for the sampling of Anopheles darlingi Root was evaluated and compared with human landing collections in Suriname. Biting preferences of this mosquito on a human host were studied and related to trapping data. Traps used were the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Miniature Light trap, the BG Sentinel mosquito trap, the Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus mosquito trap (MM-Plus), and a custom-designed trap. Carbon dioxide and humans protected by a bed net were used as bait in the studies. The number of An. darlingi collected was greater with human landing collections than with all other collection methods. An. darlingi did not show a preference for protected humans over CO2 bait. The BG Sentinel mosquito trap with CO2 or human odor as bait and the MM-Plus proved the best alternative sampling tools for An. darlingi. The BG Sentinel mosquito trap with CO2 or human odor as bait was also very efficient at collecting Culex spp. In a field study on biting preferences of wild An. darlingi, the females showed directional biting behavior (P < 0.001), with a majority of females (93.3%) biting the lower legs and feet when approaching a seated human host. Higher efficiency of the closer-to-the-ground collecting MM-Plus and BG Sentinel mosquito trap when compared with the other trapping methods may be a result of a possible preference of this mosquito species for low-level biting. It is concluded that odor-baited sampling systems can reliably collect An. darlingi, but the odor bait needs to be improved, for instance, by including host-specific volatiles, to match live human baits.

  17. Mark Kostabi soovib muuta inimesi õnnelikumaks / Kalev Mark Kostabi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kostabi, Kalev Mark, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Kalev Mark Kostabi oma sisekujunduslikest eelistustest, ameeriklaste ja itaallaste kodude sisekujunduse erinevustest, kunstist kui ruumikujunduse ühest osast, oma New Yorgi ja Rooma korterite kujundusest

  18. Mark Kostabi soovib muuta inimesi õnnelikumaks / Kalev Mark Kostabi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kostabi, Kalev Mark, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Kalev Mark Kostabi oma sisekujunduslikest eelistustest, ameeriklaste ja itaallaste kodude sisekujunduse erinevustest, kunstist kui ruumikujunduse ühest osast, oma New Yorgi ja Rooma korterite kujundusest

  19. Biting behavior of Anopheles mosquitoes in Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry A. Klein

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito collections were made in and near Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil, to determine anopheline anthropophilic/zoophilic behavior. Collections from a non-illuminated, bovine-baited trap and indoor and outdoor human-bait collections were compared. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles deaneorum were more anthropophilic than the other anophelines collected. The remainder of the Anopheles species were collected much morefrequently in bovine-baited traps than in human-bait collections. Anopheles darlingi and An. deaneorum were more frequently collected inside houses than the other anopheline species. But, when collections were made in a house with numerous openings in the walls, there were few differences in the percentages of each species biting man indoors versus outdoors. Anopheles darlingi was the predominant mosquito collected, both inside and outside houses, and had the strongest anthropophilic feeding behavior of the anophelines present.Para determinar o comportamento antropofilico e zoofilico dos anofelinos, foram capturados mosquitos na periferia e na zona urbana de Costa Marques, Rondônia, Brasil. Foram comparadas as capturas feitas à noite, com iscas bovinas e humanas, dentro efora de casa. O Anopheles darlingi e o Anopheles deaneorumforam mais antropojilicos do que os outros anofelinos capturados. O restante das espécies anofelinas foi capturado mais freqüentemente nas iscas bovinas do que nas humanas. Anopheles darlingi e Anopheles deaneorumforam capturados dentro de casa com mais freqüência do que as outras espécies anofelinas. Porém, quando a captura foi feita em casas com muitas aberturas nas paredes houve pouca diferença nas porcentagens de cada espécie sugadora de humanos dentro efora de casa. Anopheles darlingi foi o mosquito capturado com mais freqüência, dentro e fora de casa, e apresentava maior antropofilia em relação aos outros anofelinos presentes.

  20. A snake bite case developing thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asım Adıgön

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a twenty four year old man whowas bitten by a snake on his right leg. It was a severeenvenomation with ensuing marked edema and severepain with complicated coagulation defects. After medicaltreatmant with antivenom the patient discharged withoutany complication. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(2: 293-295

  1. Our Clinical Experiences in Snake Bites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Altun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluate 25 cases who were admitted to the emergency service and transferred to the intensive care unit subsequently due to snakebite, prospectively. Clinical courses, toxic effects, complications and treatment approaches were aimed to be presented. Among the patients, 16 were female and 9 were male; the mean age was 42.1 (17-74 years. It was determined that all the cases were admitted to the hospital during working in the field in Eastern Anatolia Region, between the months of May and June, and between the hours of 15:00 to 18:00. When the cases were considered in terms of bitten body part, 15 were bitten from upper extremity and 10 were bitten from lower extremity. Within an hour the patients were admitted to a health facility with the complaints of nausea, pain, numbness, swelling and redness, and patients were transferred to emergency unit approximately within 1 hour (0.5 to 2 hours following the first intervention. Tetanus immunization is administered in all cases as the first intervention. Antivenom was administered to the 9 (36% of the patients in whom steroid, antihistamine and prophylactic antibiotic therapy was given in the intensive care unit. Under the control of infection clinic, antibiotic therapy was initiated to 13 (52% patients in who cellulitis, abscess, lymphedema and compartment syndrome were developed. Healing was observed approximately within 4 days (2-6 days and recovery was observed in all the cases. Patients admitted due to snake bites should be followed closely for at least 6 to 8 hours. According to the patient’s clinical condition and laboratory test results, early intervention therapy should be regulated and antivenom therapy should be administered in the presence of systemic symptoms.

  2. Medical grand rounds. West Virginia University Health Sciences Center. Bites and stings. Part 1. Spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, I H

    1989-04-01

    Most animals can bite or sting. In narrowing the kingdom down to those that harm humans, the field still is vast. It would be interesting to explore the rich variety of pathology produced in us by moray eels, lionfish, sea urchins, jellyfish, sting rays, fire ants, kissing bugs, flies, lice, mosquitoes, ticks, mites, fleas, puss caterpillars, centipedes, snakes, dogs and cats, camels, and myriad other creatures including homo sapiens (not a trivial biter)--but for this grand rounds, the topic will simply be spiders (Part 1), bees and vespid (Part 2). Vespids are the wasps, yellow jackets and hornets.

  3. Assessment of open and incomplete bite correction by incisor overlap and optical density of polyvinyl siloxane bite registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpack, Nir; Einy, Shmuel; Beni, Lea; Vardimon, Alexander D

    2006-04-01

    Open bite (OB) is a generalized term, which could incorporate subgroups that react differently to vertical correction. The objectives of the present study were to detect vertical treatment changes in incomplete bite (IB: inter-incisor overlap with no lower incisor contact with teeth or palate) and OB (no inter-incisor overlap) groups compared with a complete bite (CB: inter-incisor overlap with full lower incisor contact with teeth or palate) control group, to evaluate treatment response of the central and lateral incisors, and to study the vertico-sagittal interaction. Dental casts were taken at three time points, pre-treatment, post-treatment, and after one year of retention, from 54 Class II patients (22 males and 32 females with a mean age of 11 years 6 months) divided into three groups: CB (n = 21), IB (n = 18) and OB (n = 15). Measurements included incisor overlap (mm) and optical density (OD/mm2) of occlusal bite registration made of polyvinl siloxane. Both CB and IB groups demonstrated post-retention bite opening. However, bite opening in the CB group was three times greater than that in the IB group (e.g. lower lateral = -1.42 mm, 118 OD/mm2 versus -0.40 mm, 107 OD/mm2). Conversely, the OB group showed a significant (P < 0.001) bite closure (e.g. lower lateral = 1.30 mm, -377 OD/mm2). Overjet changes affected OD measurements, causing diversity in OD and millimetric measurements of the lateral incisors in the IB group. In conclusion, the OB group demonstrated a significant stable vertical correction; a post-treatment non-contact inter-incisor relationship was determined by a vertico-sagittal relapse; and full compensation of an IB was not possible.

  4. Improving Marking Quality through a Taxonomy of Mark Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Pollitt, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    At the heart of most assessments lies a set of questions, and those who write them must achieve "two" things. Not only must they ensure that each question elicits the kind of performance that shows how "good" pupils are at the subject, but they must also ensure that each mark scheme gives more marks to those who are…

  5. The effect of temperature and menthol on carbonation bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Paul M; Bryant, Bruce

    2014-09-01

    Temperature and chemesthesis interact, but this interaction has not been fully examined for most irritants. The current experiments focus on oral pungency from carbonation. Previous work showed that cooling carbon dioxide (CO2) solutions to below tongue temperature enhanced rated bite. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of warming to above tongue temperature have not been examined. In Experiment 1, subjects sampled CO2 solutions at 4 nominal concentrations (0.0, 2.0, 2.8, and 4.0 v/v) × 5 temperatures (18.3, 24.5, 29.9, 34.5, and 39.6 (o)C). Subjects dipped their tongue tips into samples and rated bite. As in previous work, subjects rated cool solutions (25.0 (o)C and lower) as more intense. Warming solutions above tongue temperature (39.6 (o)C) did not affect ratings. Experiment 2 examined warmer temperatures (18.3, 33.9, 39.0, 44.9, and 48.2 ºC). Bite was enhanced only at 48.2 ºC, and a follow-up experiment suggested that enhancement was probably due to confusion between carbonation bite and mild heat pain. Experiment 3 examined the effect of menthol cooling by pretreating the tongue with menthol. Unlike physical cooling, menthol cooling had little or no effect on rated bite. The results are discussed in the context of candidate transduction mechanisms for carbonation sensation.

  6. A clinical and epidemiological study on spider bites in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yildirim Cesaretli; Ozcan Ozkan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To classify and characterize spider bites among inquiries to the National Poison Information Center (NPIC) between1995 and2004, in terms of the epidemiology and clinical symptomatology.Methods: Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained from theNPIC’s patient records. The following information was recorded for each spider bite: demographics, circumstances of the bite, and local and systemic effects.Results: A total of82 cases were reported. The accidents were mostly seen during August. The gender distribution was59.76%male, 37.20% female, and2.44% unknown and the20-29 age group presented more spider bites. Most of the cases were in the Central Anatolia, Marmara, Mediterranean, and Black Sea regions. Local symptoms were observed in60.87% of the cases, including local pain, edema, redness, itching, debris, burning, and numbness. Systemic symptoms were observed such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, lethargy, anxiety, weakness, somnolence, dyspnea, hypertension, hypotension, and hyperthermia.Conclusions: In conclusion, these findings emphasize the presence of medically important spider species in Turkey. All patients and especially pediatric patients should be admitted to the hospital. Identification of spider species may be considered a useful clinical and epidemiological tool in determining the incidence and risk of spider bites.

  7. Sweaty skin: an invitation to bite?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Verhulst, N.O.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Aedes aegypti have a preference for human blood, which determines their importance as vectors of pathogens responsible for human diseases. Volatile organic chemicals are the principal cues by which humans are being located. Human sweat contains components that are

  8. Sweaty skin: an invitation to bite?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Verhulst, N.O.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Aedes aegypti have a preference for human blood, which determines their importance as vectors of pathogens responsible for human diseases. Volatile organic chemicals are the principal cues by which humans are being located. Human sweat contains components that are

  9. Factors Associated with Tick Bite Preventive Practices among Farmworkers in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Ghane Kisomi

    Full Text Available Farmworkers are at high-risk for tick bites, which potentially transmit various tick-borne diseases. Previous studies show that personal prevention against tick bites is key, and certain factors namely, knowledge, experience of tick bites, and health beliefs influence compliance with tick bites preventive behaviour. This study aimed to assess these factors and their associations with tick bite preventive practices among Malaysian farmworkers.A total of eight cattle, goat and sheep farms in six states in Peninsular Malaysia participated in a cross-sectional survey between August and October 2013.A total of 151 (72.2% out of 209 farmworkers answered the questionnaire. More than half of the farmworkers (n = 91 reported an experience of tick bites. Farms with monthly acaricide treatment had significantly (P<0.05 a low report of tick bites. Tick bite exposure rates did not differ significantly among field workers and administrative workers. The mean total knowledge score of ticks for the overall farmworkers was 13.6 (SD±3.2 from 20. The mean total tick bite preventive practices score for all farmworkers was 8.3 (SD±3.1 from 15. Fixed effect model showed the effects of four factors on tick bite prevention: (1 farms, (2 job categories (administrative workers vs. field workers, (3 perceived severity of tick bites, and (4 perceived barriers to tick bite prevention.A high proportion of farmworkers, including administrative workers, reported an experience of tick bites. The effectiveness of monthly acaricide treatment was declared by low reports of tick bites on these farms. Tick bite preventive practices were insufficient, particularly in certain farms and for administrative workers. Our findings emphasise the need to have education programmes for all farmworkers and targeting farms with low prevention practices. Education and health programmes should increase the perception of the risk of tick bites and remove perceived barriers of tick bite prevention.

  10. The relationship between skull morphology, masticatory muscle force and cranial skeletal deformation during biting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Ibacache, Viviana; Zapata Muñoz, Víctor; O'Higgins, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The human skull is gracile when compared to many Middle Pleistocene hominins. It has been argued that it is less able to generate and withstand high masticatory forces, and that the morphology of the lower portion of the modern human face correlates most strongly with dietary characteristics. This study uses geometric morphometrics and finite element analysis (FEA) to assess the relationship between skull morphology, muscle force and cranial deformations arising from biting, which is relevant in understanding how skull morphology relates to mastication. The three-dimensional skull anatomies of 20 individuals were reconstructed from medical computed tomograms. Maximal contractile muscle forces were estimated from muscular anatomical cross-sectional areas (CSAs). Fifty-nine landmarks were used to represent skull morphology. A partial least squares analysis was performed to assess the association between skull shape and muscle force, and FEA was used to compare the deformation (strains) generated during incisor and molar bites in two individuals representing extremes of morphological variation in the sample. The results showed that only the proportion of total muscle CSA accounted for by the temporalis appears associated with skull morphology, albeit weekly. However, individuals with a large temporalis tend to possess a relatively wider face, a narrower, more vertically oriented maxilla and a lower positioning of the coronoid process. The FEAs showed that, despite differences in morphology, biting results in similar modes of deformation for both crania, but with localised lower magnitudes of strains arising in the individual with the narrowest, most vertically oriented maxilla. Our results suggest that the morphology of the maxilla modulates the transmission of forces generated during mastication to the rest of the cranium by deforming less in individuals with the ability to generate proportionately larger temporalis muscle forces.

  11. Myroides odoratimimus soft tissue infection in an immunocompetent child following a pig bite: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Maraki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Myroides are aerobic Gram-negative bacteria that are common in environmental sources, but are not components of the normal human microflora. Myroides organisms behave as low-grade opportunistic pathogens, causing infections in severely immunocompromised patients and rarely, in immunocompetent hosts. A case of Myroides odoratimimus cellulitis following a pig bite in an immunocompetent child is presented, and the medical literature on Myroides spp. soft tissue infections is reviewed.

  12. Antibiotic treatment following a dog bite in an immunocompromized patient in order to prevent Capnocytophaga canimorsus infection: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hloch, Ondrej; Mokra, Dana; Masopust, Jan; Hasa, Jan; Charvat, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Background Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a commensal bacterium found in the saliva of dogs and cats. Clinically significant infections in humans after a bite are often associated with the presence of immune deficiency. Early recognition and appropriate treatment are crucial for patient survival. In addition, patients with immune deficiency are susceptible to serious life-threatening nosocomial infections, which may also influence the prognosis of patients with Capnocytophaga canimorsus infecti...

  13. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis associated with spider bite*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Laura de Mattos; Müller, Giana Paula; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Grill, Aline Barcellos; Rhoden, Deise Louise Bohn; Mello-da-Silva, Carlos Augusto; Vettorato, Gerson

    2016-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is an acute febrile rash, usually induced by drugs, which recently has been linked to spider bite. We report a case of a male patient, 48 years old, with an erythematous rash accompanied by fever and small non-follicular pustules. He reported previous pain in the buttock with the onset of a necrotic plaque. The lesion was compatible with spider bite of the genus Loxosceles. According to the EuroSCAR group instrument, the patient scored +10 indicating definite diagnosis of AGEP. As the patient had a compatible lesion and had no other triggers of AGEP, in an Loxosceles endemic area, the AGEP would be associated with spider bite, as described in other publications. PMID:27579754

  14. Snake bite on scrotum � a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Arshad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year old man was bitten by a snake on his scrotum. This interesting and unusual case occurred in the rural area of District Aligarh, India. The uniqueness of the case lies in the fact that scrotum is an extremely rare and unusual site for snake bite. Further, with negligible local signs of envenoming the patient presented with classical signs of neurotoxicity. Due to numerous superstitions associated with snake bite, the patient was treated with traditional home made ointment before coming to hospital. The authors realized that the case may be brought to the notice of the readers because the scrotal bite by the snake with no local signs of envenomation is the first reported case.

  15. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis associated with spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Laura de Mattos; Müller, Giana Paula; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Grill, Aline Barcellos; Rhoden, Deise Louise Bohn; Mello-da-Silva, Carlos Augusto; Vettorato, Gerson

    2016-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is an acute febrile rash, usually induced by drugs, which recently has been linked to spider bite. We report a case of a male patient, 48 years old, with an erythematous rash accompanied by fever and small non-follicular pustules. He reported previous pain in the buttock with the onset of a necrotic plaque. The lesion was compatible with spider bite of the genus Loxosceles. According to the EuroSCAR group instrument, the patient scored +10 indicating definite diagnosis of AGEP. As the patient had a compatible lesion and had no other triggers of AGEP, in an Loxosceles endemic area, the AGEP would be associated with spider bite, as described in other publications.

  16. Segmental Orthodontics for the Correction of Cross Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Rinku

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cross bite is a condition where one or more teeth may be abnormally malposed buccally or lingually or labially with reference to the opposing tooth or teeth. Cross bite correction is highly recommended as this kind of malocclusion do not diminish with age. Uncorrected cross bite may lead to abnormal wear of lower anteriors and cuspal interference, mandibular shift resulting in mandibular asymmetry and temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome. There are several methods for treating this type of malocclusion. In this article, segmental orthodontics has been highlighted by using 2 × 4 appliance therapy and lingual button with cross elastics. This appliance offers many advantages as it provides complete control of anterior tooth position, is extremely well tolerated, requires no adjustment by the patient and allows accurate and rapid positioning of teeth. PMID:27616858

  17. Mosquito bite-caused eosinophilic dermatitis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, K V; Evans, A G

    1991-06-15

    Eight cats had lesions on the nasal bridge, ears, and footpads, with histologic and hematologic features of a recently described seasonal form of eosinophilic granuloma complex. Four cats were examined in detail, and it was established that 2 of the 4 reacted to mosquito extract on intradermal skin testing read at 20 minutes. Neither of the 2 cats tested had deposits of immunoglobulins in lesional or perilesional skin. Lesions on all 4 cats resolved when kept at home behind insect screening, but flared up if the screening was removed. Mosquitoes that were observed to be biting and causing lesions were collected and identified. Other species of laboratory-reared mosquitoes were allowed to bite nonlesional skin of 1 affected cat, causing pruritus, erythematous crusting, and ulcerative lesions at the bite site, which was characterized histologically as eosinophilic dermatitis.

  18. Cerebellar infarct with neurogenic pulmonary edema following viper bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salil Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Russell′s viper (Daboia russelli bites are well known to cause bleeding complications. However, thrombotic complications are rare. We present the case details of a female who was bitten by a Russell′s viper (Daboia russelli in her village. She then developed features of envenomation in the form of hemorrhagic episodes. She received 27 vials of polyvalent anti-snake venom to which the hemorrhagic complications responded. After about 48 h of the bite she developed features of cerebellar infarct along with pulmonary edema which was in all probability neurogenic in origin. She was managed with mechanical ventilation and extra ventricular drainage with good recovery. We discuss the likely pathogenesis of the infarct and pulmonary edema occurring in a patient with viper bite and other features of envenomation.

  19. Bite force and temporomandibular disorder in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenneberg, B; Kjellberg, H; Kiliaridis, S

    1995-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the functional condition of the stomatognathic system in children suffering from juvenile chronic arthritis, with respect to bite force and temporomandibular disorder in relation to radiographic abnormalities of the mandibular condyle, occlusal factors and systemic disease parameters. Thirty-five children with juvenile chronic arthritis were compared to 89 healthy children with an Angle Class I occlusion and 62 children with an Angle Class II malocclusion. Subjective symptoms and clinical signs of temporomandibular disorder and radiographic mandibular condylar changes were more common in children with juvenile chronic arthritis than in the two comparison groups. Maximal molar and incisal bite forces and maximal molar bite force endurance times were also significantly reduced in children with juvenile chronic arthritis. It is concluded that the differences between the groups are caused mainly by the systemic inflammatory disease itself, but a functional influence of weakened masticatory muscles cannot be excluded.

  20. Screening of oomycete fungi for their potential role in reducing the biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) larval populations in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Kirsty; Kurtböke, D Ipek

    2011-05-01

    Biting midges are globally distributed pests causing significant economic losses and transmitting arbovirus diseases to both animals and humans. Current biological and chemical control strategies for biting midge target destruction of adult forms, but strategies directed at immature stages of the insect have yet to be explored in Australia. In the present study, coastal waters of Hervey Bay region in Queensland, Australia were screened to detect the habitats of biting midge at immature stages. These results were then correlated to local environmental conditions and naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungal flora, in particular the Oomycete fungi, to determine their reducing effect on insect immature stages in the search for biological control agents in the region. The dominant species of biting midge found within this study was Culicoides subimmaculatus occuring between mean high water neaps and mean high water spring tide levels. Within this intertidal zone, the presence of C. subimmaculatus larvae was found to be influenced by both sediment size and distance from shore. Halophytophthora isolates colonized both dead and alive pupae. However, the association was found to be surface colonization rather than invasion causing the death of the host. Lack of aggressive oomycete fungal antagonists towards midge larvae might correlate with increased incidences of biting midge infestations in the region.

  1. Screening of Oomycete Fungi for Their Potential Role in Reducing the Biting Midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae Larval Populations in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ipek Kurtböke

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Biting midges are globally distributed pests causing significant economic losses and transmitting arbovirus diseases to both animals and humans. Current biological and chemical control strategies for biting midge target destruction of adult forms, but strategies directed at immature stages of the insect have yet to be explored in Australia. In the present study, coastal waters of Hervey Bay region in Queensland, Australia were screened to detect the habitats of biting midge at immature stages. These results were then correlated to local environmental conditions and naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungal flora, in particular the Oomycete fungi, to determine their reducing effect on insect immature stages in the search for biological control agents in the region. The dominant species of biting midge found within this study was Culicoides subimmaculatus occuring between mean high water neaps and mean high water spring tide levels. Within this intertidal zone, the presence of C. subimmaculatus larvae was found to be influenced by both sediment size and distance from shore. Halophytophthora isolates colonized both dead and alive pupae. However, the association was found to be surface colonization rather than invasion causing the death of the host. Lack of aggressive oomycete fungal antagonists towards midge larvae might correlate with increased incidences of biting midge infestations in the region.

  2. Proximal lower limb vein thrombosis following vipera berus hand bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, T; Prüller, F; Froehlich, H; Werner, S; Hafner, F; Brodmann, M

    2010-05-01

    Vipera berus has a wide geographical distribution throughout Central and Northern Europe. The symptoms after a bite usually are mild, life threatening symptoms are mainly described in children. We describe a case of popliteal vein thrombosis of the right leg after systemic envenoming with Vipera berus venom after a bite in the right hand by a female Vipera berus in the alpine region of Styria, Austria. Changes of the plasmatic coagulation system were obvious in our patient. These changes were due to an activation of the coagulation system and might be the reason for the thrombotic event in this usually healthy young male person.

  3. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis due to insect bites?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen J Bhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is a rare severe cutaneous adverse reaction pattern that is mostly caused by the intake of drugs and rarely associated with viral infections, food allergens or toxins. Here we present the report of three patients who got admitted in our hospital for generalized pustulosis and fever after insect bites. The diagnosis of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis was made by EuroSCAR scoring. The drug etiology was excluded and spider bite was implicated as the etiological agent in these cases of AGEP which are the first such reported cases in India.

  4. [Snake bite in a 53-year-old female tourist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertheau, S; Aghdassi, A; Otto, M; Hegenscheid, K; Runge, S; Lerch, M M; Simon, P

    2015-02-01

    Snake bites are rare events in Germany and are not life-threatening with usually only mild clinical symptoms. The most widespread venomous snake is the common European adder (Vipera berus). Here we present the case of a 53-year-old woman who was bitten by a common adder. Although the patient was initially in stable condition she developed edematous swelling of the complete lower limb, subcutaneous bleeding, and rhabdomyolysis. The aim of this report is to raise awareness that even in a central European country like Germany snake bites with a life-threatening course can occur and need immediate attention and medical care.

  5. Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following monkey bite in a 2-month-old infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Srinivasan; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Raghavan, Renitha; Mahadevan, Subramanian; Madhugiri, Venkatesh S; Sistla, Sujatha

    2016-05-01

    Although cerebral abscesses caused by animal bites have been reported, they are extremely rare in infants and have not been described following monkey bite. A 55-day-old male infant presented with a multi-loculated Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following a monkey bite on the scalp. There was a clinical response to antibiotic therapy and repeated surgical aspiration followed by a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. This is the first report of a patient with a brain abscess following a monkey bite.

  6. Feeding biomechanics and theoretical calculations of bite force in bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) during ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habegger, Maria L; Motta, Philip J; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N

    2012-12-01

    Evaluations of bite force, either measured directly or calculated theoretically, have been used to investigate the maximum feeding performance of a wide variety of vertebrates. However, bite force studies of fishes have focused primarily on small species due to the intractable nature of large apex predators. More massive muscles can generate higher forces and many of these fishes attain immense sizes; it is unclear how much of their biting performance is driven purely by dramatic ontogenetic increases in body size versus size-specific selection for enhanced feeding performance. In this study, we investigated biting performance and feeding biomechanics of immature and mature individuals from an ontogenetic series of an apex predator, the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas (73-285cm total length). Theoretical bite force ranged from 36 to 2128N at the most anterior bite point, and 170 to 5914N at the most posterior bite point over the ontogenetic series. Scaling patterns differed among the two age groups investigated; immature bull shark bite force scaled with positive allometry, whereas adult bite force scaled isometrically. When the bite force of C. leucas was compared to those of 12 other cartilaginous fishes, bull sharks presented the highest mass-specific bite force, greater than that of the white shark or the great hammerhead shark. A phylogenetic independent contrast analysis of anatomical and dietary variables as determinants of bite force in these 13 species indicated that the evolution of large adult bite forces in cartilaginous fishes is linked predominantly to the evolution of large body size. Multiple regressions based on mass-specific standardized contrasts suggest that the evolution of high bite forces in Chondrichthyes is further correlated with hypertrophication of the jaw adductors, increased leverage for anterior biting, and widening of the head. Lastly, we discuss the ecological significance of positive allometry in bite force as a possible

  7. Hypopituitarism and AutoimmuneThyroiditis Following Snake Bite: An Unusual Clinical Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Sahana; Abi, Manesh S; Hickson, Ravali; David, Thambu; Rajaratnam, Simon

    2014-11-01

    Snake venom can cause local tissue damage and lead to coagulopathy, shock, neurotoxicity and acute kidney injury. Hypopituitarism is a rare complication following snake bite. It has been described following Russell's viper bite from Burma and South India. Herein we describe a patient who presented with severe thyrotoxicosis and partial hypopituitarism following snake bite.

  8. The riddle of the large loss in bite force after fast jaw-closing movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slager, GEC; Nagashima, T; van Willigen, JD

    In unloading experiments (in which the resistance to a forceful static bite is suddenly removed); it is shown that the residual bite force (when the jaw system is arrested shortly after the unloading) is remarkably small. For example, of a 100-N initial bite force, only 18 N is left after a jaw

  9. Contribution of the digastric muscles to the control of bite force in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanWilligen, JD; Slager, GEC; Broekhuijsen, ML

    1997-01-01

    The contribution of the (co-contracting) digastric muscles to the rapid decline in bite-force magnitude after unloading of a static bite was investigated by asking participants to perform two different biting tasks with sudden unloading, and correlating the degree of co-contraction of the digastrics

  10. Cervical vertebral column morphology and head posture in preorthodontic patients with anterior open bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Phong; Sarauw, Martin Toft; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2014-03-01

    Cervical vertebral column morphology and head posture were examined and related to craniofacial morphology in preorthodontic children and adolescents with anterior open bite. One hundred eleven patients (ages, 6-18 years) with an anterior open bite of more than 0 mm were divided into 2 groups of skeletal or dentoalveolar open bite. The skeletal open-bite group comprised 38 subjects (19 girls, 19 boys). The dentoalveolar open-bite group comprised 73 subjects (43 girls, 30 boys). Visual assessment of the cervical column and measurements of craniofacial morphology and head posture were made on profile radiographs. Deviations in the cervical vertebral column morphology occurred in 23.7% of the subjects in the skeletal open-bite group and in 19.2% in the dentoalveolar open-bite group, but the difference was not significant. Head posture was significantly more extended in the skeletal open-bite group compared with the dentoalveolar open-bite group (craniovertical angle [Mx/VER], P vertical craniofacial dimensions (P column morphology is described for the first time in children and adolescents with open bite. No significant differences in the cervical vertebral column's morphologic deviations were found between the skeletal and the dentoalveolar open-bite groups. Significant differences were found in head posture between the groups and with regard to associations with craniofacial dimensions. This might indicate a respiratory etiologic component in children with anterior open bite. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mark-specific hazard ratio model with missing multivariate marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraska, Michal; Gilbert, Peter B

    2016-10-01

    An objective of randomized placebo-controlled preventive HIV vaccine efficacy (VE) trials is to assess the relationship between vaccine effects to prevent HIV acquisition and continuous genetic distances of the exposing HIVs to multiple HIV strains represented in the vaccine. The set of genetic distances, only observed in failures, is collectively termed the 'mark.' The objective has motivated a recent study of a multivariate mark-specific hazard ratio model in the competing risks failure time analysis framework. Marks of interest, however, are commonly subject to substantial missingness, largely due to rapid post-acquisition viral evolution. In this article, we investigate the mark-specific hazard ratio model with missing multivariate marks and develop two inferential procedures based on (i) inverse probability weighting (IPW) of the complete cases, and (ii) augmentation of the IPW estimating functions by leveraging auxiliary data predictive of the mark. Asymptotic properties and finite-sample performance of the inferential procedures are presented. This research also provides general inferential methods for semiparametric density ratio/biased sampling models with missing data. We apply the developed procedures to data from the HVTN 502 'Step' HIV VE trial.

  12. CLINICAL KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES OF CLINICIANS TOWARD RABIES CAUSED BY ANIMAL BITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION : Rabies is a zoonotic disease that is typically transmitted through bites from infected animals. The majority of reported cases involve wild animals like bats , raccoons and skunks , but domesticated animals like dogs and cats are also a risk. Humans are equ ally susceptible to the rabies virus if bitten by an infected animal. Once the symptoms have appeared , Rabies is always fatal. Death usually occurs less than a week after the onset of signs. METHODOLOGY: A cross - sectional study was conducted in which all th e doctors including JRs , Interns , PG students and SRs and Consultants in the department of Surgery , Medicine , Pediatrics and Emergency Medical Officers were taken . Selection was done on the basis of consent to participate in the study by doctors of the var ious departments handling or required to handle dog /animal bite cases. RESULTS : It can be seen that only 76.92% knew all the Reservoirs of Rabies infection , and the difference in knowledge of senior doctor , 43(41.34 is comparable to junior doctors , 37(35. 57 and the difference is statistically not significant. Regarding different Modes ofTransmission , 90.38% had correct knowledge. The Junior doctors , i.e , 39(37.50 had correct answer whereas , 55(52.88 senior doctors i.e all answered correctlywhich is sta tistically significant . CONCLUSION: There is an apparent lack of awareness among doctors regarding appropriate animal wound management and vaccine administration. Reorientation programmes and continued medical education (CME for the medical practitioners are required to highlight WHO guidelines regarding treatment of animal bite

  13. Using sensitivity analysis to validate the predictions of a biomechanical model of bite forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, William Irvin; Crompton, Robin Huw

    2004-02-01

    Biomechanical modelling has become a very popular technique for investigating functional anatomy. Modern computer simulation packages make producing such models straightforward and it is tempting to take the results produced at face value. However the predictions of a simulation are only valid when both the model and the input parameters are accurate and little work has been done to verify this. In this paper a model of the human jaw is produced and a sensitivity analysis is performed to validate the results. The model is built using the ADAMS multibody dynamic simulation package incorporating the major occlusive muscles of mastication (temporalis, masseter, medial and lateral pterygoids) as well as a highly mobile temporomandibular joint. This model is used to predict the peak three-dimensional bite forces at each teeth location, joint reaction forces, and the contributions made by each individual muscle. The results for occlusive bite-force (1080N at M1) match those previously published suggesting the model is valid. The sensitivity analysis was performed by sampling the input parameters from likely ranges and running the simulation many times rather than using single, best estimate values. This analysis shows that the magnitudes of the peak retractive forces on the lower teeth were highly sensitive to the chosen origin (and hence fibre direction) of the temporalis and masseter muscles as well as the laxity of the TMJ. Peak protrusive force was also sensitive to the masseter origin. These result shows that the model is insufficiently complex to estimate these values reliably although the much lower sensitivity values obtained for the bite forces in the other directions and also for the joint reaction forces suggest that these predictions are sound. Without the sensitivity analysis it would not have been possible to identify these weaknesses which strongly supports the use of sensitivity analysis as a validation technique for biomechanical modelling.

  14. Method of marking an animal or plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy, R.J.

    1994-04-27

    This patent describes a method of marking (non-human) animals and plants, involving the use of isotopes, in order to verify the authenticity of animal or plant products in subsequent use, for example free range meat, eggs or other foods. Most elements exist in more than one atomic form in nature. By altering the ratios of the stable isotopes of one or more elements naturally present in the plant or animal, it is possible to differentiate between true and counterfeit products. Altering the isotopic balance leaves the products suitability for human consumption unchanged. (UK).

  15. Surgical skin-marking techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granick, M S; Heckler, F R; Jones, E W

    1987-04-01

    Surgical skin-marking inks and dyes are in everyday use for designing and planning incisions in plastic and reconstructive surgery. We have traced the historical development of surgical skin-marking techniques from ancient times to the present. The biochemical characteristics of the commonly used marking agents are discussed. A three-part experiment utilizing a pig model was carried out to test the tissue inflammatory response to the various dyes and inks when used intradermally as tattoos, the persistence of such tattoos, and the ease of skin erasure for each of eight stains. Methylene blue and gentian violet are recommended as the best all-purpose marking agents. The use of proprietary inks is discouraged.

  16. Eesti vajab riigiarhitekti / Mark Soosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2006-01-01

    Linnade tekkimisest Eestis, linnaehitusest ja linnaplaneerimisest. Pärnu muinsuskaitsealast ja uute korruselamute ehitamisest. Arhitektuuriameti loomise ja riigiarhitekti ametikoha vajalikkusest. Kommenteerivad Ülar Mark, Triin Ojari, Harry Liivrand, Karin Paulus

  17. 77 FR 10533 - Stephen L. Marks: Debarment Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Stephen L. Marks: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug... pharmacist in Pennsylvania. Mr. Marks managed and operated Pharmacy Services, Inc. (PSI, Inc.), a pharmacy...

  18. Lane marking aided vehicle localization

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    International audience; A localization system that exploits L1-GPS estimates, vehicle data, and features from a video camera as well as lane markings embedded in digital navigation maps is presented. A sensitivity analysis of the detected lane markings is proposed in order to quantify both the lateral and longitudinal errors caused by 2D-world hypothesis violation. From this, a camera observation model for vehicle localization is proposed. The paper presents also a method to build a map of th...

  19. Civilsamfundets ABC: M for Marked

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink; Meyer, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Bogstaveligt talt: Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til M for Marked.......Bogstaveligt talt: Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til M for Marked....

  20. First bite syndrome after bimaxillary osteotomy: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholey, April Louise; Suida, Mohamed Imran

    2015-07-01

    We present what is to the best of our knowledge the first reported case of first bite syndrome as a delayed complication of bimaxillary osteotomy. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Schmallenberg virus in Culicoides spp. biting midges, the Netherlands, 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Meiswinkel, R.; Weezep, van E.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.; Kooi, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    To determine which species of Culicoides biting midges carry Schmallenberg virus (SBV), we assayed midges collected in the Netherlands during autumn 2011. SBV RNA was found in C. scoticus, C. obsoletus sensu stricto, and C. chiopterus. The high proportion of infected midges might explain the rapid

  2. Effects of bite blocks and hearing status on vowel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Harlan; Denny, Margaret; Guenther, Frank H.; Matthies, Melanie L.; Menard, Lucie; Perkell, Joseph S.; Stockmann, Ellen; Tiede, Mark; Vick, Jennell; Zandipour, Majid

    2005-09-01

    This study explores the effects of hearing status and bite blocks on vowel production. Normal-hearing controls and postlingually deaf adults read elicitation lists of /hVd/ syllables with and without bite blocks and auditory feedback. Deaf participants' auditory feedback was provided by a cochlear prosthesis and interrupted by switching off their implant microphones. Recording sessions were held before prosthesis was provided and one month and one year after. Long-term absence of auditory feedback was associated with heightened dispersion of vowel tokens, which was inflated further by inserting bite blocks. The restoration of some hearing with prosthesis reduced dispersion. Deaf speakers' vowel spaces were reduced in size compared to controls. Insertion of bite blocks reduced them further because of the speakers' incomplete compensation. A year of prosthesis use increased vowel contrast with feedback during elicitation. These findings support the inference that models of speech production must assign a role to auditory feedback in error-based correction of feedforward commands for subsequent articulatory gestures.

  3. Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP Triggered by a Spider Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Makris

    2009-01-01

    Discussion: A spider bite may represent a possible causative factor of AGEP. A spider's venom contains sphingomyelinase that stimulates the release of IL8 and GM-CSF, which are involved in AGEP pathogenesis. Whether or not the con-current use of antibiotics has an effect in AGEP appearance when combined with a spider's venom, cannot be excluded.

  4. Innovation in prediction planning for anterior open bite correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuzian, Mohammed; Almukhtar, Anas; O'Neil, Michael; Benington, Philip; Al Anezi, Thamer; Ayoub, Ashraf

    2015-05-01

    This study applies recent advances in 3D virtual imaging for application in the prediction planning of dentofacial deformities. Stereo-photogrammetry has been used to create virtual and physical models, which are creatively combined in planning the surgical correction of anterior open bite. The application of these novel methods is demonstrated through the surgical correction of a case.

  5. Equine insect bite hypersensitivity : Pathogenesis, diagnosis and immunomodulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, C.

    2016-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a seasonal allergic dermatitis primarily caused by Culicoides midges like C. obsoletus. The welfare of IBH-affected horses is compromised due to severe itch with secondary dermatitis and skin infections. Similar to most allergies, IBH can only be controlled rath

  6. Orthodontic and orthopaedic treatment for anterior open bite in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentini-Oliveira, D.; Carvalho, F. R.; Qingsong, Y.; Junjie, L.; Saconato, H.; Machado, M. A. C.; Prado, L. B. F.; Prado, G. F.

    2007-01-01

    Background Anterior open bite occurs when there is a lack of vertical overlap of the upper and lower incisors. The aetiology is multifactorial including: oral habits, unfavourable growth patterns, enlarged lymphatic tissue with mouth breathing. Several treatments have been proposed to correct this m

  7. A case of Spider bite localized to the eyelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Karadag, Ayse Serap; Karadag, Remzi; Cecen, Ilhan; Calka, Omer

    2013-03-01

    Loxosceles Spiders have a worldwide distribution and are considered one of the most medically important groups of Spiders. The venom from Spiders of the genus Loxosceles, the most famous being Loxosceles reclusa (brown recluse Spider), can promote severe local and systemic damages. This report describes a girl presenting with a Spider bite over her right upper eyelid.

  8. Bite Block Vowel Production in Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacks, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored vowel production and adaptation to articulatory constraints in adults with acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) plus aphasia. Method: Five adults with acquired AOS plus aphasia and 5 healthy control participants produced the vowels [iota], [epsilon], and [ash] in four word-length conditions in unconstrained and bite block…

  9. Effects of bite blocks and hearing status on vowel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Harlan; Denny, Margaret; Guenther, Frank H; Matthies, Melanie L; Menard, Lucie; Perkell, Joseph S; Stockmann, Ellen; Tiede, Mark; Vic, Jennell; Zandipour, Majid

    2005-09-01

    This study explores the effects of hearing status and bite blocks on vowel production. Normal-hearing controls and postlingually deaf adults read elicitation lists of /hVd/ syllables with and without bite blocks and auditory feedback. Deaf participants' auditory feedback was provided by a cochlear prosthesis and interrupted by switching off their implant microphones. Recording sessions were held before prosthesis was provided and one month and one year after. Long-term absence of auditory feedback was associated with heightened dispersion of vowel tokens, which was inflated further by inserting bite blocks. The restoration of some hearing with prosthesis reduced dispersion. Deaf speakers' vowel spaces were reduced in size compared to controls. Insertion of bite blocks reduced them further because of the speakers' incomplete compensation. A year of prosthesis use increased vowel contrast with feedback during elicitation. These findings support the inference that models of speech production must assign a role to auditory feedback in error-based correction of feedforward commands for subsequent articulatory gestures.

  10. Orthodontic and orthopaedic treatment for anterior open bite in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentini-Oliveira, D.; Carvalho, F. R.; Qingsong, Y.; Junjie, L.; Saconato, H.; Machado, M. A. C.; Prado, L. B. F.; Prado, G. F.

    2007-01-01

    Background Anterior open bite occurs when there is a lack of vertical overlap of the upper and lower incisors. The aetiology is multifactorial including: oral habits, unfavourable growth patterns, enlarged lymphatic tissue with mouth breathing. Several treatments have been proposed to correct this m

  11. Extreme skeletal open bite correction with vertical elastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Escalante, Marco Antonio; Aliaga-Del Castillo, Aron; Soldevilla, Luciano; Janson, Guilherme; Yatabe, Marilia; Zuazola, Ricardo Voss

    2017-09-12

    Severe skeletal open bites may be ideally treated with a combined surgical-orthodontic approach. Alternatively, compensations may be planned to camouflage the malocclusion with orthodontics alone. This case report describes the treatment of an 18-year-old man who presented with a severe open bite involving the anterior and posterior teeth up to the first molars, increased vertical dimension, bilateral Class III molar relationship, bilateral posterior crossbite, dental midline deviation, and absence of the maxillary right canine and the mandibular left first premolar. A treatment plan including the extraction of the mandibular right first premolar and based on uprighting and vertical control of the posterior teeth, combined with extrusion of the anterior teeth using multiloop edgewise archwire mechanics and elastics was chosen. After 6 months of alignment and 2 months of multiloop edgewise archwire mechanics, the open bite was significantly reduced. After 24 months of treatment, anterior teeth extrusion, posterior teeth intrusion, and counterclockwise mandibular rotation were accomplished. Satisfactory improvement of the overbite, overjet, sagittal malocclusion, and facial appearance were achieved. The mechanics used in this clinical case demonstrated good and stable results for open-bite correction at the 2-year posttreatment follow-up.

  12. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  13. Dog bite injuries of genitalia in male infant and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Bothra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to highlight genital dog bites in male infant and children in developing countries and their management. We managed three cases (9 months, 5 years, and 8 years of genital dog bite between January 1997 and July 2008. Two had unprovoked stray dog bites and the third was bitten by his pet dog when disturbed during eating. Extent of injury varied from small-lacerated wound to near emasculation. Primary repair was done after thorough washing and debridement under antibiotic cover. In the 9-month-old male infant who was near emasculated, scrotum was closed with the available skin and a small penile stump was reconstructed after meatoplasty. Immunization against tetanus and rabies was done for all cases.Postoperative recovery was uneventful, and the wound healed primarily in all cases. Parents of the infant were asked for feminizing genitoplasty but they refused so they were advised for hormonal replacement and penile reconstruction at adolescence. Male children are the most common victims of genital dog bites. These injuries can be repaired primarily with good outcome provided strict cleaning, debridement, wound repair, antibiotic cover, and immunization is applied.

  14. Inflectional marking in Hungarian aphasics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacWhinney, B; Osmán-Sági, J

    1991-08-01

    How do aphasics deal with the rich inflectional marking available in agglutinative languages like Hungarian? For the Hungarian noun alone, aphasics have to deal with over 15 basic case markings and dozens of possible combinations of these basic markings. Using the picture description task of MacWhinney and Bates (1978), this study examined the use of inflectional markings in nine Broca's and five Wernicke's aphasic speakers of Hungarian. The analysis focused on subject, direct object, indirect object, and locative nominal arguments. Compared to normals, both groups had a much higher rate of omission of all argument types. Subject ellipsis was particularly strong, as it is in normal Hungarian. There was a tendency for Broca's to omit the indirect object and for Wernicke's to omit the direct object. Across argument types, Wernicke's had a much higher level of pronoun usage than did Broca's. Broca's also showed a very high level of article omission. Compared to similar data reported by Slobin (this issue) for Turkish, the Hungarian aphasics showed an elevated level of omission of case markings. Addition errors were quite rare, but there were 14 substitutions of one case marking for another. These errors all involved the substitution of some close semantic competitor. There were no errors in the basic rules for vowel harmony or morpheme order. Overall the results paint a picture of a group of individuals whose grammatical abilities are damaged and noisy, but still largely functional. Neither the view of Broca's as agrammatic nor the view of Wernicke's as paragrammatic was strongly supported.

  15. Insecticide susceptibility status of human biting mosquitoes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Matowo Pc

    al., 1999). The occurrence of insecticide resistant Culex mosquitoes has also been reported in Wete, ... Emerged pupae were sucked from the larval containers .... Key: aWHO criteria for assessing susceptibility to insecticides of mosquitoes; ...

  16. A case: Acute myocardial infarction in a child due to spider bite

    OpenAIRE

    Laho, Edmond; Puca, Edmond

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a case of a ten-years-old girl, who suffered myocardial ischemia following by "black widow" spider bite. A few minutes after the bite, her parents saw a small, black and shiny lesion in insect bite. The clinical signs began about 3-4 hours after the bite. The venom of the Latrodectus mactans "black widow" is toxic, resulting about 5-6 % fatality rate. The case of a black widow spider bite resulting in myocardial ischemia is very rare and has not been d...

  17. A case: Acute myocardial infarction in a child due to spider bite

    OpenAIRE

    Laho, Edmond; Puca, Edmond

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a case of a ten-years-old girl, who suffered myocardial ischemia following by "black widow" spider bite. A few minutes after the bite, her parents saw a small, black and shiny lesion in insect bite. The clinical signs began about 3-4 hours after the bite. The venom of the Latrodectus mactans "black widow" is toxic, resulting about 5-6 % fatality rate. The case of a black widow spider bite resulting in myocardial ischemia is very rare and has not been d...

  18. The management of dog bite injuries of genitalia in paediatric age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Bertozzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dog bite injuries are common in children and represent an important health-care problem. Most dog bite injuries involve the face or an extremity. Victims tend to seek medical care quickly. Dog bites to the external genitalia are rarely reported, but they potentially result in morbidity if improperly managed. Morbidity is also directly related to the severity of initial wound. Guidelines for the management of dog bites include irrigation, dιbridment, antibiotic therapy, consideration of tetanus and rabies immunisation and suture of wounds or surgical reconstruction. Literature review was conducted and focused to analyze the management of dog bite lesions involving external genitalia.

  19. Taphonomic marks on pig tissue due to cadaveric Coleoptera activity under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Visciarelli, Elena C; Centeno, Néstor D

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study taphonomic marks that cadaveric coleopteran can produce under controlled conditions. To evaluate this, pig trotters were initially exposed to adults of Dermestes maculatus De Geer at 21 ± 5°C and a 12:12-h day/night cycle. Observations were made and photographs taken every 4-5 days for 9 months. When feeding and reproducing, D. maculatus produced, in both adult and larvae stages, different types of marks such as holes, striations, scratches, and pits in several kinds of tissue such as integumental, connective, and muscular, in both their fresh and dried stages. Bite marks were also evident. The results in this study provide not only taphonomic but also biological and forensic information. This is the first time that this kind of experiment has been performed. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Bite force evaluation in subjects with cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Renata Sipert

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the masticatory function of subjects with cleft lip and palate by analyzing the bite force developed by these individuals. Bite force was evaluated in a group of 27 individuals with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (14 males and 13 females - aged 18-26 years and compared to the data achieved from a group of 20 noncleft subjects (10 males and 10 females - aged 18-26 years. Measurement was achieved on three positions within the dental arch (incisors, right molars and left molars, three times at each position considering the highest value for each one. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Mann-Whitney test ( α = 5%. There was a significant deficit in bite force in male individuals with cleft lip and palate compared to the male control group (p=0.02, p=0.004, p=0.003 for incisors, right and left molars, respectively. For the female group, the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.79, p=0.06, p=0.47. In the group of individuals with clefts, 92.6% were under orthodontic treatment, which could be a reason for the present findings, since it can decrease the bite force more remarkably in males than in females. In conclusion, the bite force is significantly reduced in men when comparing the cleft group to the noncleft group. In females, this reduction was not significant in the same way. However, the main reason for this reduction and for the different behavior between genders should be further investigated.

  1. Open Fracture of the Forearm Bones due to Horse Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ashutosh Santoshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fractures have been described mainly following falling accidents in horse-related injuries. Horse bites are uncommon accidents. We present a case of open fracture of the forearm due to horse bite. Case Report: A 35-year-old male farm-worker presented to the emergency room with alleged history of horse bite to the right forearm about 2 hours prior to presentation while feeding the horse. There was deformity of the forearm with multiple puncture wounds, deep abrasions and small lacerations on the distal-third of the forearm. Copious irrigation with normal saline was done and he was administered anti-tetanus and post-exposure rabies prophylaxis. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy was commenced. Radiographs revealed fracture of radius and ulna in the mid-shaft region. He underwent emergency wound debridement, and the ulna was stabilised with an intra-medullary square nail. Seventy-two hours later, he underwent re-debridement and conversion osteosynthesis. He had an uneventful recovery and at three-month follow-up, the fractures had healed radiographically in anatomic alignment. At two-year follow-up, he is doing well, is pain free and has a normal range of motion compared to the contralateral side. Conclusion: Horse bites behave as compound fractures however rabies prophylaxis will be needed and careful observation is needed. Early radical debridement, preliminary skeletal stabilisation, re-debridement and conversion osteosynthesis to plate, and antibiotic prophylaxis were the key to the successful management of our patient. Keywords: Horse; animal bite; forearm; open fracture

  2. Surveillance of rabies prevalence and bite protocols in captive mammals in American zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelepsky, Jacqueline; Harrison, Tara M

    2010-09-01

    A national survey questionnaire was conducted in 32 zoos throughout 17 U.S. states between February and May 2008. The questionnaire consisted of six questions that evaluated rabies prevalence on zoo grounds; captive mammalian bites among zoo visitors and personnel; and the outcome of each incident. The survey was completed by zoo staff after review of their most recent bite incident reports. Rabies was documented, albeit minimally, on zoo grounds in both wild and collection animals. The information collected documented that mammalian bites occur commonly. An average of 9.1 bite incidents per zoo involving zoo visitors were reported in the last 5 yr, compared to an average of 7.5 bite incidents per zoo involving personnel within the last 5 yr. Zoo personnel had a larger variety of mammals inflicting bites of greater injury severity, with an average rating 3.83 out of 5. While victim profile and severity of the wound differed between visitor and personnel bites, the majority of bites were not reported to the local health department. Lack of reporting may be due to low rabies risk, fear of media involvement, and an unknown conclusion for the offending animal. Animals involved in reported attacks had an average quarantine of 47.5 days when the bite involved a zoo visitor versus an average quarantine of 18 days when the bite involved personnel. These results demonstrate the need for a standardized protocol following a bite incident, including cooperation with the local health department, as necessary.

  3. Perawatan Maloklusi Klas III Skeletal disertai Open Bite dengan Teknik Begg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Ika Anggaraeni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Overjet negatif pada maloklusi klas III dapat terjadi karena penyimpangan hubungan incisivus atas dan bawah, adanya malrelasi antara maksila dan mandibula, atau kombinasi keduanya. Maloklusi klas III dapat disertai dengan crowding, deep bite, maupun open bite. Tujuan perawatan adalah untuk mengoreksi cross bite dan open bite, memperoleh overjet dan overbite normal serta hubungan oklusal yang stabil. Pasien laki-laki usia 15 tahun dengan maloklusi Angle klas III dan relasi skeletal klas III, mandibula protrusif, cross bite anterior (overjet -3 mm, open bite 12-22 terhadap 43-34, cross bite posterior bilateral, dan pergeseran garis tengah inter incisivus rahang bawah kekanan 0,7 mm. Perawatan ortodontik dilakukan dengan alat cekat teknik Begg, diawali dengan pencabutan gigi 34 dan 44 serta grinding gigi anterior rahang atas. Elastik intermaksiler klas III, elastik cross posterior, dan elastik vertikal digunakan untuk koreksi cross bite anterior dan posterior serta open bite. Kesimpulan dari hasil perawatan dengan teknik Begg, cross bite anterior dan posterior serta open bite terkoreksi (overjet 2 mm dan overbite 2 mm. Garis tengah inter incisivus rahang bawah dan rahang atas sejajar dengan garis tengah wajah. Maj Ked Gi; Desember 2013; 20(2: 192-198.

  4. Long-term complications of snake bites to the upper extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, D J; Wright, T; Cowin, J A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine long-term complications of upper-extremity snake envenomations. The records of 73 patients, who were seen for snake bites were obtained; 46 of these patients had bites to the upper extremity, and 27 had bites to the lower extremity. These patients were graded according to the severity of the bite. The snakes involved were eastern diamondback rattlesnake, coral snake, pigmy rattlesnake, water moccasin, and unknown. Fourteen of the 46 patients receiving upper extremity bites were examined by a hand surgeon and an occupational hand therapist 1 to 3.2 years after their bite. Subjective pain data, range-of-motion, intrinsic, extrinsic, finger-flexion tightness, grip strength, pinch strength and objective sensory data were collected. Four patients had continued pain and tissue atrophy at the bite site. There were no long-term sequelae from a missed compartment syndrome.

  5. Cervical vertebral column morphology and head posture in preorthodontic patients with anterior open bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Phong; Sarauw, Martin Toft; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cervical vertebral column morphology and head posture were examined and related to craniofacial morphology in preorthodontic children and adolescents with anterior open bite. METHODS: One hundred eleven patients (ages, 6-18 years) with an anterior open bite of more than 0 mm were...... divided into 2 groups of skeletal or dentoalveolar open bite. The skeletal open-bite group comprised 38 subjects (19 girls, 19 boys). The dentoalveolar open-bite group comprised 73 subjects (43 girls, 30 boys). Visual assessment of the cervical column and measurements of craniofacial morphology and head...... posture were made on profile radiographs. RESULTS: Deviations in the cervical vertebral column morphology occurred in 23.7% of the subjects in the skeletal open-bite group and in 19.2% in the dentoalveolar open-bite group, but the difference was not significant. Head posture was significantly more...

  6. Fechamento primário das mordeduras na face Primary closure of bite injuries to the face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Lessa Soares de Macedo

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available As mordeduras representam uma lesão comum geralmente vista nas emergências dos hospitais, correspondendo a cerca de 1% dos atendimentos. Os autores conduziram um estudo para avaliar a conduta de fechamento primário das mordeduras na face dos pacientes atendidos na emergência do Serviço de Cirurgia Plástica do Hospital Regional da Asa Norte (HRAN, Brasília-DF de janeiro a dezembro de 1999. O estudo compreendeu 42 pacientes, com média de idade de 17 anos (variação de um a 50 anos e 29 (69,0% dos pacientes eram homens. As mordeduras caninas foram as mais freqüentes (71,4%, seguidas pelas mordeduras humanas (26,2%. O tempo médio entre a agressão e o atendimento no Serviço de Cirurgia Plástica do HRAN foi de 16 horas. A orelha foi o sítio principal (40,0%, seguido pelo lábio. O tratamento utilizado foi a sutura direta em 28 (66,7% pacientes, retalhos locais em 12 (28,6% pacientes e enxerto em dois casos. Não houve infecção nos casos estudados. Os achados sugerem que o fechamento imediato das lesões na face é seguro, até em casos após várias horas da lesão.Mammalian bite wounds represent a common type of injury usually seen in the emergency room, constituting approximately 1% of visits to emergency departments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the management of the bites injuries to the face presenting to Department of Plastic Surgery, Regional Hospital of North Wing, Brasília, Brazil, from January to December, 1999. There were 42 patients, with a mean age of 17 years, ranging between 1 and 50 years: 29 (69,0% patients were males. Dog bites were responsible for 71,4% of all bite wounds, following by human bites (26,2%. The mean duration of injury before presentation was 16 hours. The ear was the most common site of injury (40,0%, followed by the lips. Surgical treatment consisted of primary closure, either by direct suturing (66,7%, local flap (28,6% or skin grafting (4,7%. There was no infection in this study. The

  7. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Year Award Arnold P. Gold Foundation Humanism in Medicine Award Diversity Mentorship Program Eugene Van Scott Award ... states Private payer Medicare physician payment MACRA implementation Alternative payment models Fee schedule State policy State policy ...

  8. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Fellow Quality Improvement Project Award Advocate of the Year Award Arnold P. Gold Foundation Humanism in ... Learning Center Residents and Fellows Resource Center Join the AAD Directions in Residency Boards study tools Online ...

  9. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Arnold P. Gold Foundation Humanism in Medicine Award Diversity Mentorship Program Eugene Van Scott Award and Phillip ... councils, committees, and task forces AccessDerm Camp Discovery Diversity Mentorship Program Health Volunteers Overseas International Native American ...

  10. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Year Award Arnold P. Gold Foundation Humanism in Medicine Award Diversity Mentorship Program Eugene Van ... in Dermatology JAAD Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding ...

  11. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Fellow Quality Improvement Project Award Advocate of the Year Award Arnold P. Gold Foundation Humanism in ... Learning Center Residents and Fellows Resource Center Join the AAD Directions in Residency Boards study tools Online ...

  12. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fellow Quality Improvement Project Award Advocate of the Year Award Arnold P. Gold Foundation Humanism in Medicine ... state legislation State advocacy grants Advocate of the Year Award Step therapy legislation Scope of practice Melanoma ...

  13. Down-regulation of TSC-22 (transforming growth factor beta-stimulated clone 22) markedly enhances the growth of a human salivary gland cancer cell line in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashiro, K; Kawamata, H; Hino, S; Uchida, D; Miwa, Y; Hamano, H; Omotehara, F; Yoshida, H; Sato, M

    1998-02-01

    We have recently isolated TSC-22 (transforming growth factor beta-stimulated clone 22) cDNA as a new anticancer drug (Vesnarinone)-inducible gene in a human salivary gland cancer cell line, TYS. We conducted the present study to examine whether up-regulation or down-regulation of TSC-22 can affect the growth of TYS cells in vitro and in vivo. We constructed an expression vector containing sense- or antisense-oriented human TSC-22 cDNA under the transcriptional control of the SR alpha promoter. We cotransfected TYS cells with the sense or antisense expression vector and pSV2neo and obtained more than 200 G418-resistant colonies in each sense or antisense transfectant. Approximately 80% of representative G418-resistant clones expressed the transcripts from transfected sense or antisense TSC-22 cDNA. To avoid the clonal heterogeneity of the cells, we mixed all of the G418-resistant colonies together in each sense or antisense transfectant and examined the expression of TSC-22 protein, in vitro growth, and the tumorigenicity in nude mice. The expression of TSC-22 protein was examined by solid-phase ELISA using a specific antibody against recombinant TSC-22 protein. The expression of TSC-22 protein was up-regulated in the sense transfectants and down-regulated in the antisense transfectants. Contrary to our expectation, up-regulation of TSC-22 protein did not affect both in vitro and in vivo growth of TYS cells. However, down-regulation of TSC-22 markedly enhanced the growth of TYS cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we examined the expression of TSC-22 mRNA in several human salivary gland tumors. The mRNA expression of TSC-22 in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors was significantly decreased when compared to that in tumor-free salivary glands (P way ANOVA), and in some salivary gland tumors, the expression of TSC-22 mRNA was not detectable by reverse transcription-PCR. These results suggest that down-regulation of TSC-22 may play a major role on salivary

  14. Mark Napier / Mark Napier ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Napier, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Ameerika kunstnikust Mark Napierist (sünd. 1961) ja tema loomingust, 2001. a. tehtud meiliintervjuu kunstnikuga. Võrguteosest "The Digital Landfill" (1998), koos Andy Deckiga loodud tööst "GrafficJam" (1999), töödest "Shredder" (1998), "Feed", "Riot", "P-Soup" (2000), võrgukunstist ja muust

  15. Vastab Mark Lubotski / Mark Lubotski ; interv. Toomas Velmet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lubotski, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Hamburgi Muusikakõrgkooli viiuliprofessor Mark Lubotskist, kes viibis Tallinnas oktoobris 2008 ja oli IV rahvusvahelise Heino Elleri nimelise viiuldajate konkursi žürii esimeheks. Tema sidemetest Eesti muusikutega, pagemisest Läände, Heino Elleri nimelisest konkursist ja tööst žüriis

  16. Mark Napier / Mark Napier ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Napier, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Ameerika kunstnikust Mark Napierist (sünd. 1961) ja tema loomingust, 2001. a. tehtud meiliintervjuu kunstnikuga. Võrguteosest "The Digital Landfill" (1998), koos Andy Deckiga loodud tööst "GrafficJam" (1999), töödest "Shredder" (1998), "Feed", "Riot", "P-Soup" (2000), võrgukunstist ja muust

  17. [Tetanus after cat scratch and bites in a previously immunized patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fica, Alberto; Gaínza, Daniela; Ortigosa, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    Tetanus is declining due to vaccination, professional labor management and appropriate wound care. Tetanus cases have been reported despite immunization. We report the case of a previously healthy 21 years old female patient that presented a mild generalized tetanus requiring admission after mild and recurrent cat scratch and bites. She had received six vaccine shots during childhood, and a booster dose five years earlier after a rabbit bite. Symptoms appeared seven weeks after the last contact, and included headache, muscle spasms and mild opisthotonus. Laboratory evaluation, including CSF analysis and microbiological investigation, as well as imaging studies were all normal. The patient received 6,000 IU of human antitoxin immunoglobulin. No autonomic manifestations or respiratory compromise were registered. Symptoms resolved rapidly and she was discharge after seven days with an order to complete a tetanus toxoid immunization schedule with three doses. Tetanus is possible in urban settings with a declining epidemiologic curve of disease in previously immunized patients. Severity of disease is modulated by previous vaccination.

  18. Contextual analysis and epidemiology of spider bite in southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, Maykon P; Cardoso, Danon C; Raymundo, Melissa S

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this work was to conduct an epidemiological and clinical review of 1126 cases of envenoming by spider recorded in the national notifiable diseases information system (SINAN) files of the Municipal Health Secretary of the Criciúma region, Santa Catarina State, Brazil from 1994 to 2006. This work presents a critical analysis carried out by the application of the chi(2) test, with different regional contextual parameters, including the incidence coefficient. Spider envenoming accounts for more than 50% of all cases recorded in the SINAN files for poisonous animals and is the main cause of human envenomation in the Criciúma region. The majority of the spider bites (57.4%) were reported in the hottest months, from December to May. The anatomic region that suffered the most bites was the hand. Nearly 50% of the accidents were recorded in the group aged 20-49 years. The spiders most frequently involved in accidents for all age groups were of the Loxosceles genus. Although the data collected lack further epidemiological and, especially, clinical details, this does not affect the conclusions of the study, which could be used in the planning of actions aimed at improving environmental health.

  19. Mortality and management of 96 shark attacks and development of a shark bite severity scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Ashley K; Burgess, George H; Perrin, Karen; Brown, Jennifer A; Mozingo, David W; Lottenberg, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Humans share a fascination and fear of sharks. We predict that most shark attacks are nonfatal but require skilled, timely medical intervention. The development of a shark bite severity scoring scale will assist communication and understanding of such an injury. We retrospectively reviewed records of the prospectively maintained International Shark Attack File (ISAF) at the University of Florida. The ISAF contains 4409 investigations, including 2979 documented attacks, 96 of which have complete medical records. We developed a Shark-Induced Trauma (SIT) Scale and calculated the level of injury for each attack. Medical records were reviewed for the 96 documented shark attack victims since 1921. Calculated levels of injury in the SIT Scale reveal 40 Level 1 injuries (41.7%), 16 Level 2 injuries (16.7%), 18 Level 3 injuries (18.8%), 14 Level 4 injuries (14.6%), and eight Level 5 injuries (8.3%). The overall mortality of shark attacks was 8.3 per cent. However, SIT Scale Level 1 injuries comprised the greatest percentage of cases at 41.7 per cent. Injury to major vascular structures increases mortality and necessitates immediate medical attention and definitive care by a surgeon. Shark bites deserve recognition with prompt resuscitation, washout, débridement, and follow up for prevention of infection and closure of more complex wounds.

  20. Amputation of finger by horse bite with complete avulsion of both flexor tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Lior; Stahl, Shalom; Rovitsky, Alexey; Peled, Eli

    2011-08-08

    Amputation of fingers with tendon avulsion occurs through a traction injury, and most occur through a ring avulsion mechanism. Usually the flexor digitorum profundus is torn out with the amputated finger. Replantation usually is recommended only when the amputation is distal to the flexor digitorum superficialis insertion. Animal bites are relatively common, with a decreasing order of frequency of dogs, cats, and humans. Horse bites are relatively infrequent but are associated with crush injuries and tissue loss when they occur. This article describes a 23-year-old man with amputation of his middle finger at the level of the proximal phalanx after being bitten by a horse. The amputated stump was avulsed with the middle finger flexor digitorum profundus and flexor digitorum superficialis torn from the muscle-tendon junction from approximately the middle of the forearm. The patient had no other injuries, and he was able to move his other 4 fingers with only mild pain. As the amputated digit was not suitable for replantation, the wound was irrigated and debrided. The edges of the phalanx were trimmed, and the edges of the wound were sutured. Tetanus toxoid and rabies vaccine were administered, along with intravenous amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The patient was discharged from the hospital 2 days later, with no sign of infection of the wound or compartment syndrome of the forearm. This case demonstrates the weakest point in the myotendinous junction and emphasizes the importance of a careful physical examination in patients with a traumatic amputation. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.