WorldWideScience

Sample records for human birth weight

  1. Disease Human - MDC_LowBirthWeight

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the percentage of babies born in Miami-Dade County in 2006 with low birth weights. Low birth weight is...

  2. Disease Human - MDC_LowBirthWeight

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the percentage of babies born in Miami-Dade County in 2006 with low birth weights. Low birth weight is...

  3. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby, taken just after he or she is born. A low birth weight is less than 5.5 pounds. A high ... weight is more than 8.8 pounds. A low birth weight baby can be born too small, too early (premature), or both. This ...

  4. KIR and HLA-C: Immunogenetic regulation of human birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia E. Farrell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancies resulting in very small or very large babies are at higher risk of obstetric complications with increased morbidity for both mother and baby. Using data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway we have shown how human birth weight is still subject to stabilizing selection. Particular combinations of maternal/fetal immune genes have been implicated in pregnancies resulting in a low birth weight baby (<5th birth weight centile. More specifically, an inhibitory maternal KIRAA genotype with a paternally derived fetal HLA-C2 ligand. At the other end of the birth weight spectrum the presence of an activating maternal KIR2DS1 gene is associated with increased birth weight in linear or logistic regression analyses of all pregnancies >5th centile (p=0.005, OR=2.65. Thus, inhibitory maternal KIR combined with fetal HLA-C2 is more frequently associated with low birth weight, whereas activating maternal KIR with fetal HLA-C2 ligand is associated with increasing birth weight. Our findings using the MoBa cohort have replicated the association of KIR and HLA-C seen in poor placentation, and confirm the importance of maternal/fetal immune gene interactions in determining the outcome of pregnancy.

  5. Maternal KIR in combination with paternal HLA-C2 regulate human birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiby, Susan E; Apps, Richard; Chazara, Olympe; Farrell, Lydia E; Magnus, Per; Trogstad, Lill; Gjessing, Håkon K; Carrington, Mary; Moffett, Ashley

    2014-06-01

    Human birth weight is subject to stabilizing selection; babies born too small or too large are less likely to survive. Particular combinations of maternal/fetal immune system genes are associated with pregnancies where the babies are ≤ 5th birth weight centile, specifically an inhibitory maternal KIR AA genotype with a paternally derived fetal HLA-C2 ligand. We have now analyzed maternal KIR and fetal HLA-C combinations at the opposite end of the birth weight spectrum. Mother/baby pairs (n = 1316) were genotyped for maternal KIR as well as fetal and maternal HLA-C. Presence of a maternal-activating KIR2DS1 gene was associated with increased birth weight in linear or logistic regression analyses of all pregnancies >5th centile (p = 0.005, n = 1316). Effect of KIR2DS1 was most significant in pregnancies where its ligand, HLA-C2, was paternally but not maternally inherited by a fetus (p = 0.005, odds ratio = 2.65). Thus, maternal KIR are more frequently inhibitory with small babies but activating with big babies. At both extremes of birth weight, the KIR associations occur when their HLA-C2 ligand is paternally inherited by a fetus. We conclude that the two polymorphic immune gene systems, KIR and HLA-C, contribute to successful reproduction by maintaining birth weight between two extremes with a clear role for paternal HLA.

  6. Swimming and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Northstone, Kate; Golding, Jean

    2002-11-01

    Swimmers can be exposed to high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of chlorination disinfection. There are no published studies on the relation between swimming and birth weight. We explored this relation in a large birth cohort, the Avon (England) Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), in 1991-1992. Information on the amount of swimming per week during the first 18-20 weeks of pregnancy was available for 11,462 pregnant women. Fifty-nine percent never swam, 31% swam up to 1 hour per week, and 10% swam for longer. We used linear regression to explore the relation between birth weight and the amount of swimming, with adjustment for gestational age, maternal age, parity, maternal education level, ethnicity, housing tenure, drug use, smoking and alcohol consumption. We found little effect of the amount of swimming on birth weight. More highly educated women were more likely to swim compared with less educated women, whereas smokers were less likely to swim compared with nonsmokers. There appears to be no relation between the duration of swimming and birth weight.

  7. Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayana Regina de Souza Grance

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a homologous human milk supplement for very low-birth weight infant feeding, using an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of human milk fortified with this supplement and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. METHODS: For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45mL underwent a lactose removal process, lyophilization and then were diluted in 50mL of human milk. Measurements of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were performed. RESULTS: The composition of the supplemented milk was: lactose 9.22±1.00g/dL; proteins 2.20±0.36g/dL; lipids 2.91±0.57g/dL; calories 71.93±8.69kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6±32.4mOsmol/kgH2O; sodium 2.04±0.45mEq/dL; potassium 1.42±0.15mEq/dL; calcium 43.44±2.98mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69±1.24mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, human milk with the proposed supplement can meet the nutritional needs of the very low-birth weight preterm infant.

  8. [Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grance, Thayana Regina de Souza; Serafin, Paula de Oliveira; Thomaz, Débora Marchetti Chaves; Palhares, Durval Batista

    2015-01-01

    To develop a homologous additive of human milk for feeding the very low weight infants with an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of fortified human milk with this additive and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45 mL have undergone a lactose removal process, lyophilization and they were diluted in 50 mL of human milk. Doses of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were measured. The composition of the additive milk was lactose 9.22 ± 1.00 g/dL; proteins 2.20 ± 0.36 g/dL; lipids 2.91 ± 0.57 g/dL; calories 71.93 ± 8.69 kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6 ± 32.4 mOsmol/kg H2O; sodium 2.04 ± 0.45 mEq/dL; potassium 1.42 ± 0.15 mEq/dL; calcium 43.44 ± 2.98 mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69 ± 1.24 mg/dL. According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, the human milk with the proposed additive can achieve the nutritional needs of the very low birth weight preterm infant. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Additional Protein Fortification Is Necessary in Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants Fed Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaud, Jean-Charles; Houeto, Nellie; Buffin, Rachel; Loys, Claire-Marie; Godbert, Isabelle; Haÿs, Stephane

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, approximately one in three (49/152, 32.2%) extremely low-birth-weight infants were demonstrated to require additional protein intake to supplement the standard fortification to achieve satisfactory weight gain. This additional protein fortification also resulted in a rapid increase in length-for-age (P < 0.001) and head circumference-for-age (P = 0.02) z scores.

  10. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  11. Low birth weight in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, V James; Lai, Sue Min; Suminski, R; Crawford, G

    2015-05-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with infant morbidity and mortality. This is the first study of LBW in Kansas using vital statistics to determine maternal and health care system factors associated with LBW. Low birth weight. Determine if prenatal care, maternal socio-demographic or medical factors, or insurance status were associated with LBW. Birth certificate data were merged with Medicaid eligibility data and subjected to logistic regression analysis. Of the 37,081 single vaginal births, LBW rates were 5.5% overall, 10.8% for African Americans, and 5% for White Americans. Lacking private insurance was associated with 34% more LBW infants (AOR 1.34; 95% CI 1.13-1.58), increased comorbidity, and late or less prenatal care. Low birth weight was associated with maternal medical comorbidity and with previous adverse birth outcomes. Insurance status, prenatal care, and maternal health during pregnancy are associated with LBW. Private insurance was consistently associated with more prenatal care and better outcomes. This study has important implications regarding health care reform.

  12. Banked preterm versus banked term human milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Eugene; Miletin, Jan

    2010-06-16

    Human milk banking has been available in many countries for the last three decades. The milk provided from milk banking is predominantly term breast milk, but some milk banks provide preterm breast milk. There are a number of differences between donor term and donor preterm human milk. To determine the effect of banked preterm milk compared with banked term milk regarding growth and developmental outcome in very low birth weight infants (infants weighing less than 1500 g). We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, including a search of the Cochrane Neonatal Group specialized register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, January 2010). We searched the computerised bibliographic databases MEDLINE (1966 to February 2010), EMBASE (1988 to February 2010) and Web of Science (1975 to February 2010). We searched reference lists of all selected articles, review articles and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. We also searched abstracts from neonatal and pediatric meetings (PAS electronic version from 2000 to 2009, ESPR hand search from 2000 to 2009). We applied no language restrictions. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing banked donor preterm milk with banked donor term milk regarding growth and developmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants We planned to perform assessment of methodology regarding blinding of randomisation, intervention and outcome measurements as well as completeness of follow-up. We planned to evaluate treatment effect using a fixed-effect model using relative risk (RR), relative risk reduction, risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat (NNT) for categorical data and using mean, standard deviation and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. We planned an evaluation of heterogeneity. No studies met the inclusion criteria. There are no randomised trials that compare preterm banked milk to banked term milk to promote growth and

  13. Banked preterm versus banked term human milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, Eugene

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Human milk banking has been available in many countries for the last three decades. The milk provided from milk banking is predominantly term breast milk, but some milk banks provide preterm breast milk. There are a number of differences between donor term and donor preterm human milk. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of banked preterm milk compared with banked term milk regarding growth and developmental outcome in very low birth weight infants (infants weighing less than 1500 g). SEARCH STRATEGY: We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, including a search of the Cochrane Neonatal Group specialized register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, January 2010). We searched the computerised bibliographic databases MEDLINE (1966 to February 2010), EMBASE (1988 to February 2010) and Web of Science (1975 to February 2010). We searched reference lists of all selected articles, review articles and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. We also searched abstracts from neonatal and pediatric meetings (PAS electronic version from 2000 to 2009, ESPR hand search from 2000 to 2009). We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing banked donor preterm milk with banked donor term milk regarding growth and developmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We planned to perform assessment of methodology regarding blinding of randomisation, intervention and outcome measurements as well as completeness of follow-up. We planned to evaluate treatment effect using a fixed-effect model using relative risk (RR), relative risk reduction, risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat (NNT) for categorical data and using mean, standard deviation and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. We planned an evaluation of heterogeneity. MAIN RESULTS: No studies met the inclusion criteria. AUTHORS

  14. BIRTH WEIGHT : A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P SRIVASTAVA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure.Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his well­being and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.

  15. [Consequences of the composition of human milk for the nutrition of low-birth-weight neonates. III. Sodium and potassium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, G; Springer, S

    1990-12-01

    The concentrations of sodium and potassium were studied in the 24 hour pooled human milk of 37 mothers delivered preterm (PTM) and of 19 mothers delivered at term (TM) from the second to the eighth postnatal day and in addition in the PTM during the third week of lactation. During the 4th week of life the sodium balance was estimated in 31 very low birth weight infants fed a human milk formula enriched with NaCl (n = 11) or NaH2PO4 (n = 11) and in 9 infants fed the same formula without supplementary sodium. The concentrations of sodium decrease significantly during the first week of lactation. The values are significantly higher in PTM than in TM during the first 3 days but decrease in both milks to values between 1 and 2 mmol/100 ml. The concentrations of potassium increase up to the 4th day of lactation and fall to approximately 1.5 mmol/100 ml at the end of the first week of lactation. There are no differences between PTM and TM. In all three balance groups the sodium balance are positive. But only in the infants fed a sodium-supplemented human milk formula the weight gain was adequate according to the protein and caloric intakes. No signs of a pathological sodium retention could be observed during the balance period. The data suggest that a sodium intake of more than 2.5 mmol/kg/day is necessary for optimal growth. Thus, the phosphorus supplementation should be done generally as 1 mmol NaH2PO4/100 ml human milk in very low birth weight infants.

  16. The piglet's behavior after birth according to the birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work was the piglet's behavior observation till the fourteenth day after birth. We expected some differences in behavior between animal groups according to their birth weight. Thirty-five animals from five litters were included in the experiment. We divided the animals into two groups according to their birth weight: in the first group there were piglets with their birth weight over 1.45 kg; in the second group piglets with their birth weight to 1.35 kg were observ...

  17. Positive Effect of Human Milk Feeding during NICU Hospitalization on 24 Month Neurodevelopment of Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Italian Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dino Gibertoni; Luigi Corvaglia; Silvia Vandini; Paola Rucci; Silvia Savini; Rosina Alessandroni; Alessandra Sansavini; Maria Pia Fantini; Giacomo Faldella

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age in very low birth weight infants. A cohort of 316 very low birth weight newborns (weight ≤ 1500 g) was prospectively enrolled in a follow-up program on admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy, from January 2005 to June 2011. Neurodevelopment was evaluated at 24 months corrected age using the Griffiths ...

  18. Birth weight and stuttering: Evidence from three birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the association between birth weight and developmental stuttering. This study sought to determine whether birth weight was associated with childhood and/or adolescent stuttering in three British birth cohort samples. Logistic regression analyses were carried out on data from the Millenium Cohort Study (MCS), British Cohort Study (BCS70) and National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohorts comprised over 56,000 individuals. The outcome variables were parent-reported stuttering in childhood or in adolescence; the predictors, based on prior research, were birth weight, sex, multiple birth status, vocabulary score and mother's level of education. Birth weight was analysed both as a categorical variable (low birth weight, stuttering during childhood (age 3, 5 and 7 and MCS, BCS70 and NCDS, respectively) or at age 16, when developmental stuttering is likely to be persistent. None of the multivariate analyses revealed an association between birth weight and parent-reported stuttering. Sex was a significant predictor of stuttering in all the analyses, with males 1.6-3.6 times more likely than females to stutter. Our results suggest that birth weight is not a clinically useful predictor of childhood or persistent stuttering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Child Health USA 2014: Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... percent of infants born very preterm or at low birth weight. However, even babies born “late preterm” (34–36 weeks’ gestation) or at moderately low birth weight (1,500–2,499 grams) are more ...

  20. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18......-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as birth weight...... was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using a proportional probabilities regression model. RESULTS: Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams...

  1. Birth weight and childhood blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Vidar O; Steinthorsdottir, Sandra D; Eliasdottir, Sigridur B; Indridason, Olafur S; Palsson, Runolfur

    2012-12-01

    A large body of literature suggests an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in children, adolescents and adults. The most persistent findings have been observed in children with a history of low birth weight or intrauterine growth restriction, while a large number of studies carried out in populations with normally distributed birth weight have shown conflicting results. A recently reported strong direct association between high birth weight and blood pressure, and the significant positive effect of postnatal growth on blood pressure suggests that the fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis should be expanded to include the role of excessive fetal and postnatal growth. In this paper, we review recent studies on the relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in childhood, with a focus on confounding variables that may explain the conflicting results of published work in this field.

  2. Growth and Development in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants After the Introduction of Exclusive Human Milk Feedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colacci, Michael; Murthy, Karna; DeRegnier, Raye-Ann O; Khan, Janine Y; Robinson, Daniel T

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate associations of exclusive human milk (EHM) feedings with growth and neurodevelopment through 18 months corrected age (CA) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Study Design ELBW infants admitted from July 2011 to June 2013 who survived were reviewed. Infants managed from July 2011 to June 2012 were fed with bovine milk-based fortifiers and formula (BOV). Beginning in July 2012, initial feedings used a human milk-based fortifier to provide EHM feedings. Infants were grouped on the basis of feeding regimen. Primary outcomes were the Bayley-III cognitive scores at 6, 12, and 18 months and growth. Results Infants (n = 85; 46% received EHM) were born at 26 ± 1.9 weeks (p = 0.92 between groups) weighing 776 ± 139 g (p = 0.67 between groups). Cognitive domain scores were similar at 6 months (BOV: 96 ± 7; EHM: 95 ± 14; p = 0.70), 12 months (BOV: 97 ± 10; EHM: 98 ± 9; p = 0.86), and 18 months (BOV: 97 ± 16; EHM: 98 ± 14; p = 0.71) CA. Growth velocity prior to discharge (BOV: 12.1 ± 5.2 g/kg/day; EHM: 13.1 ± 4.0 g/kg/day; p = 0.33) and subsequent growth was similar between groups. Conclusion EHM feedings appear to support similar growth and neurodevelopment in ELBW infants as compared with feedings containing primarily bovine milk-based products.

  3. Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2015-01-01

    Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth...... weight and whether it was modified by the mothers' smoking habits. Methods: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, coffee intake and smoking during pregnancy were recorded prospectively in 89,539 pregnancies that ended with live born singletons. Information on birth weight was obtained from the Danish....../cup/day). Compared to non-coffee drinkers, intake of eight or more cups of coffee per day was associated with an adjusted birth weight difference of −65 g [95% confidence interval (CI) −92 to −39] for non-smokers and −79 g [95% CI −124 to −34] for women smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day. Women drinking eight...

  4. Positive effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on 24 month neurodevelopment of very low birth weight infants: an Italian cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibertoni, Dino; Corvaglia, Luigi; Vandini, Silvia; Rucci, Paola; Savini, Silvia; Alessandroni, Rosina; Sansavini, Alessandra; Fantini, Maria Pia; Faldella, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age in very low birth weight infants. A cohort of 316 very low birth weight newborns (weight ≤ 1500 g) was prospectively enrolled in a follow-up program on admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy, from January 2005 to June 2011. Neurodevelopment was evaluated at 24 months corrected age using the Griffiths Mental Development Scale. The effect of human milk nutrition on neurodevelopment was first investigated using a multiple linear regression model, to adjust for the effects of gestational age, small for gestational age, complications at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and socio-economic status. Path analysis was then used to refine the multiple regression model, taking into account the relationships among predictors and their temporal sequence. Human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization and higher socio-economic status were associated with better neurodevelopment at 24 months in both models. In the path analysis model intraventricular hemorrhage-periventricular leukomalacia and growth restriction at discharge proved to be directly and independently associated with poorer neurodevelopment. Gestational age and growth restriction at birth had indirect significant effects on neurodevelopment, which were mediated by complications that occurred at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and type of feeding. In conclusion, our findings suggest that mother's human milk feeding during hospitalization can be encouraged because it may improve neurodevelopment at 24 months corrected age.

  5. Positive effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on 24 month neurodevelopment of very low birth weight infants: an Italian cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Gibertoni

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age in very low birth weight infants. A cohort of 316 very low birth weight newborns (weight ≤ 1500 g was prospectively enrolled in a follow-up program on admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy, from January 2005 to June 2011. Neurodevelopment was evaluated at 24 months corrected age using the Griffiths Mental Development Scale. The effect of human milk nutrition on neurodevelopment was first investigated using a multiple linear regression model, to adjust for the effects of gestational age, small for gestational age, complications at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and socio-economic status. Path analysis was then used to refine the multiple regression model, taking into account the relationships among predictors and their temporal sequence. Human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization and higher socio-economic status were associated with better neurodevelopment at 24 months in both models. In the path analysis model intraventricular hemorrhage-periventricular leukomalacia and growth restriction at discharge proved to be directly and independently associated with poorer neurodevelopment. Gestational age and growth restriction at birth had indirect significant effects on neurodevelopment, which were mediated by complications that occurred at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and type of feeding. In conclusion, our findings suggest that mother's human milk feeding during hospitalization can be encouraged because it may improve neurodevelopment at 24 months corrected age.

  6. Anthropometric measurements for detecting low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusharisupeni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background In several provinces of Eastern Indonesia, the majority of births take place at home (60% and are assisted by traditional birth attendants. Most of these newborns do not have their birth weight recorded, due to lack of available weighing scales or lack of skill to perform the measurement, especially in rural areas. As such, an early identification of low birth weight cases is needed to prevent infant morbidity and mortality. Objective To assess anthropometric measurements including calf, chest, and head circumferences as a method of choice for detecting low birth weight, as substitute for actual weighing. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed at Banjar Baru, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, from January to March 2012. Subjects were full term, singleton, and live-born infants during the study period, and obtained from private clinics by a purposive sampling procedure. Calf, chest, and head circumferences were measured to identify the most suitable substitute for birth weight using Pearson’s correlation, ROC, sensitivity, and specificity. Results In this study, a correlation was shown between birth weight and all anthropometric measurements. Optimal calf, chest, and head circumference cutoff points to identify low birth weight infants were 10.3 cm, 30.7 cm, and 31.2 cm, respectively. The area under the curves (AUC showed good accuracy for all measurement types. Calf circumference had the closest estimated true prevalence to the true prevalence (8� .52% and 8.6%, respec-.52% respec- 52% respec-%8.6%, respec-.6%, 6%, respec-%, respectively compared to the other measurement types. Conclusion Calf circumference is the most suitable measurement as a substitute for birth weight, due to its estimated true prevalence. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:177-80.].

  7. Anthropometric measurements for detecting low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusharisupeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In several provinces of Eastern Indonesia, the majority of births take place at home (60% and are assisted by traditional birth attendants. Most of these newborns do not have their birth weight recorded, due to lack of available weighing scales or lack of skill to perform the measurement, especially in rural areas. As such, an early identification of low birth weight cases is needed to prevent infant morbidity and mortality.Objective To assess anthropometric measurements including calf, chest, and head circumferences as a method of choice for detecting low birth weight, as substitute for actual weighing.Methods This cross-sectional study was performed at Banjar Baru, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, from January to March 2012. Subjects were full term, singleton, and live-born infants during the study period, and obtained from private clinics by a purposive sampling procedure. Calf, chest, and head circumferences were measured to identify the most suitable substitute for birth weight using Pearson’s correlation, ROC, sensitivity, and specificity.Results In this study, a correlation was shown between birth weight and all anthropometric measurements. Optimal calf, chest, and head circumference cutoff points to identify low birth weight infants were 10.3 cm, 30.7 cm, and 31.2 cm, respectively. The area under the curves (AUC showed good accuracy for all measurement types. Calf circumference had the closest estimated true prevalence to the true prevalence (8� .52% and 8.6%, respec-.52% respec- 52% respec-%8.6%, respec-.6%, 6%, respec-%, respectively compared to the other measurement types.Conclusion Calf circumference is the most suitable measurement as a substitute for birth weight, due to its estimated true prevalence.

  8. Severe acute malnutrition in very low birth weight preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enweronu-Laryea, Christabel C; Aryee, Irene N A; Adei, Eunice A P

    2012-05-01

    Malnutrition in preterm low birth weight infants has adverse long-term metabolic, growth, and neurodevelopmental effects. In the past 3 decades, parenteral nutrition, enriched preterm formula, and fortification of human milk have been used to alleviate these adverse effects. Unfortified human breast milk does not provide sufficient nutrients for the growth and development of preterm infants at the volumes recommended; however, it is usually the only source of nutrition available for such infants in low-resource countries. Many newborns, including very low birth weight infants, are surviving in these countries because of concerted efforts to achieve the fourth millennium development goal. These efforts have not addressed the nutrition needs of sick preterm very low birth weight infants. The authors report 3 cases of severe acute malnutrition in very low birth weight newborns and suggest possible interventions.

  9. Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Infantile Colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndregaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard;

    Background Infantile colic is a condition of unknown origin characterized by paroxysms of crying during the first months of life. A few studies have identified low birth weight (BW) as a risk factor among infants born at term, while the association between gestational age (GA) and infantile colic......, low BW was associated with infantile colic only in infants born at term (gestational weeks 37-41), but not in pre- or post-term infants. Conclusion The results indicate that low birth weight and preterm birth are independently associated with infantile colic. After adjusting for gestational age, low...... birth weight increased the risk of infantile colic in children born at term (gestational weeks 37-41)....

  10. Effect of birth weight and 12 weeks of exercise training on exercise-induced AMPK signaling in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Hingst, Janne Rasmuss; Frederiksen, Nicklas;

    2013-01-01

    Subjects with a low birth weight (LBW) display increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that this is associated with defects in muscle adaptations following acute and regular physical activity, evident by impairments in the exercise-induced activation of AMPK signaling....... the need for AMPK to control energy turnover during exercise. Thus, the remaining ¿3-associated AMPK activation by acute exercise after exercise training might be sufficient to maintain cellular energy balance........ We investigated 21 LBW and 21 normal birth weight (NBW) subjects during 1 hour of acute exercise performed at the same relative workload before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Multiple skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after exercise. Protein levels and phosphorylation status...... were determined by Western blotting. AMPK activities were measured using activity assays. Protein levels of AMPK isoforms a1 and ¿1 were significantly increased while ¿3 levels decreased with training independent of group. The LBW group had higher exercise-induced AMPK Thr(172) phosphorylation before...

  11. Low birth weight and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jensen, R B; Asklund, C

    2006-01-01

    size and function into adulthood. Current human data, however, are often based on highly selected hospital populations and lack precise distinctions between low birth weight, SGA, timing of growth restriction and a differentiation of catch-up growth patterns. Despite the methodological inadequacies...... are limited. Prospective studies, case-control investigations and registry surveys show that impaired intrauterine growth increases the risks of congenital hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer approximately two- to threefold. Although few studies focus on the effect of intrauterine growth on male...... pubertal development, testicular hormone production or sperm quality, available evidence points towards a subtle impairment of both Sertoli cell and Leydig cell function. Animal studies support the hypothesis that impaired perinatal growth restriction, depending on the timing, can affect postnatal testis...

  12. Quantitative, high-resolution epigenetic profiling of CpG loci identifies associations with cord blood plasma homocysteine and birth weight in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Anthony A; Emes, Richard D; Ismail, Khaled M K; Haworth, Kim E; Mein, Charles; Carroll, William D; Farrell, William E

    2011-01-01

    Supplementation with folic acid during pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of neural tube defects and low birth weight. It is thought that folate and other one-carbon intermediates might secure these clinical effects via DNA methylation. We examined the effects of folate on the human methylome using quantitative interrogation of 27,578 CpG loci associated with 14,496 genes at single-nucleotide resolution across 12 fetal cord blood samples. Consistent with previous studies, the majority of CpG dinucleotides located within CpG islands exhibited hypo-methylation while those outside CpG islands showed mid-high methylation. However, for the first time in human samples, unbiased analysis of methylation across samples revealed a significant correlation of methylation patterns with plasma homocysteine, LINE-1 methylation and birth weight centile. Additionally, CpG methylation significantly correlated with either birth weight or LINE-1 methylation were predominantly located in CpG islands. These data indicate that levels of folate-associated intermediates in cord blood reflect their influence and consequences for the fetal epigenome and potentially on pregnancy outcome. In these cases, their influence might be exerted during late gestation or reflect those present during the peri-conceptual period.

  13. Association between Greenness, Urbanicity, and Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisu, Keita; Holford, Theodore R.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Background More than half of the world's population lives in urban environments. Due to urban related factors (e.g. higher air pollution), urban residents may face higher risk of adverse health outcomes, while access to green space could benefit health. Purpose We explored associations between urban and green land-use and birth weight. Methods Connecticut, U.S., birth certificate data (2000-2006) were acquired (n=239,811), and land-use data were obtained from the National Land Cover Database. We focused on three land-uses; urban space, urban open space, and green space (i.e. forest, shrub, herbaceous, and cultivated land). We estimated fractions of greenness and urbanicity within 250 m from residence. A linear mixed effects model was conducted for birth weight and a logistic mixed effects model for low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA). Results An interquartile range (IQR) increment in the fraction of green space within 250 m of residence was associated with 3.2g (95% Confidence Interval [0.4, 6.0]) higher birth weight. Similarly, an IQR increase in green space was associated with 7.6% [2.6, 12.4] decreased risk of LBW. Exposure to urban space was negatively correlated with green space (Pearson correlation = −0.88), and it showed negative association with birth outcomes. Results were generally robust with different buffer sizes and controlling for fine particles (PM2.5) and traffic. Conclusions We found protective associations by green space on birth outcomes. Increasing green space and/or reducing urban space (e.g. the greening of city environments) may reduce the risk of adverse birth outcomes such as LBW and SGA. Populations living in urban environments will grow in the next half century, and allocation of green space among urban areas may play a critical role for public health in urban planning. PMID:26546769

  14. Birth statistics of high birth weight infants (macrosomia in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Ho Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; The authors analyzed the trend from the birth-related statistics of high birth weight infants (HBWIs over 50 years in Korea from 1960 to 2010. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; We used 2 data sources, namely, the hospital units (1960’s to 1990’s and Statistics Korea (1993 to 2010. The analyses include the incidence of HBWIs, birth weight distribution, sex ratio, and the relationship of HBWI to maternal age. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The hospital unit data indicated the incidence of HBWI as 3 to 7% in the 1960’s and 1970’s and 4 to 7% in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Data from Statistics Korea indicated the percentages of HBWIs among total live births decreased over the years: 6.7% (1993, 6.3% (1995, 5.1 % (2000, 4.5% (2000, and 3.5% (2010. In HBWIs, the birth weight rages and percentage of incidence in infants’ were 4.0 to 4.4 kg (90.3%, 4.5 to 4.9 kg (8.8%, 5.0 to 5.4 kg (0.8%, 5.5 to 5.9 kg (0.1%, and &gt;6.0 kg (0.0% in 2000 but were 92.2%, 7.2%, 0.6%, 0.0%, and 0.0% in 2009. The male to female ratio of HBWIs was 1.89 in 1993 and 1.84 in 2010. In 2010, the mother's age distribution correlated with low (4.9%, normal (91.0%, and high birth weights (3.6%: an increase in mother's age resulted in an increase in the frequency of low birth weight infants (LBWIs and HBWIs. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The incidence of HBWIs for the past 50 years has been dropping in Korea. The older the mother, the higher was the risk of a HBWI and LBWI. We hope that these findings would be utilized as basic data that will aid those managing HBWIs.

  15. Post discharge formula fortification of maternal human milk of very low birth weight preterm infants: an introduction of a feeding protocol in a University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer El Sakka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the growth parameters and nutritional biochemical markers and complications of fortification of human milk by post discharge formula of preterm very low birth weight newborns (VLBW. Fifty preterm infants less than 37 weeks with weight less than 1500 g were enrolled in the study. They received parental nutrition and feeding according to our protocol. When enteral feeding reached 100 cc/kg/day, infants were randomized into two groups: group I, Cases, n=25, where post discharge formula (PDF was used for fortification, group II, Controls, n=25 with no fortification. Infants of both groups were given 50% of required enteral feeding as premature formula. This protocol was used until infants’ weight reached 1800 g. Daily weight, weekly length and head circumference were recorded. Hemoglobin, albumin (Alb, electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and clinical complications were documented. Human milk fortification with PDF resulted in better growth with increase in weight 16.8 and 13.78 g/kg/day (P=0.0430, length 0.76 and 0.58 cm/week (P=0.0027, and head circumference of 0.59 and 0.5 cm/week (P=0.0217 in cases and controls respectively. Duration of hospital stay was less in cases (22.76 versus 28.52 days in Controls, P=0.02. No significant changes were found in serum electrolytes, BUN, or Alb between both groups. Hemoglobin was significantly higher in Cases, P=0.04. There were no significant clinical complications. Our feeding protocol of fortification of human milk with PDF in preterm very low birth weight newborns resulted in better growth and decrease in length of hospital stay. The use of PDF could be an alternative option for fortification of mothers’ milk for preterm VLBW infants in developing countries with low resources.

  16. Post Discharge Formula Fortification of Maternal Human Milk of Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: An Introduction of a Feeding Protocol in a University Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sakka, Abeer; El Shimi, Mohamed Sami; Salama, Kareem; Fayez, Hend

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the growth parameters and nutritional biochemical markers and complications of fortification of human milk by post discharge formula of preterm very low birth weight newborns (VLBW). Fifty preterm infants less than 37 weeks with weight less than 1500 g were enrolled in the study. They received parental nutrition and feeding according to our protocol. When enteral feeding reached 100 cc/kg/day, infants were randomized into two groups: group I, Cases, n=25, where post discharge formula (PDF) was used for fortification, group II, Controls, n=25 with no fortification. Infants of both groups were given 50% of required enteral feeding as premature formula. This protocol was used until infants’ weight reached 1800 g. Daily weight, weekly length and head circumference were recorded. Hemoglobin, albumin (Alb), electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and clinical complications were documented. Human milk fortification with PDF resulted in better growth with increase in weight 16.8 and 13.78 g/kg/day (P=0.0430), length 0.76 and 0.58 cm/week (P=0.0027), and head circumference of 0.59 and 0.5 cm/week (P=0.0217) in cases and controls respectively. Duration of hospital stay was less in cases (22.76 versus 28.52 days in Controls), P=0.02. No significant changes were found in serum electrolytes, BUN, or Alb between both groups. Hemoglobin was significantly higher in Cases, P=0.04. There were no significant clinical complications. Our feeding protocol of fortification of human milk with PDF in preterm very low birth weight newborns resulted in better growth and decrease in length of hospital stay. The use of PDF could be an alternative option for fortification of mothers’ milk for preterm VLBW infants in developing countries with low resources. PMID:27777705

  17. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne;

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...

  18. Analysis of Birth weight using Singular Value Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Nagarajan, D; Nagarajan, V; Seethalekshmi, V

    2010-01-01

    The researchers have drawn much attention about the birth weight of newborn babies in the last three decades. The birth weight is one of the vital roles in the babys health. So many researchers such as (2),(1) and (4) analyzed the birth weight of babies. The aim of this paper is to analyze the birth weight and some other birth weight related variable, using singular value decomposition and multiple linear regression.

  19. Birth Weight in Type 1 Diabetic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemyn Yves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate whether birth weight in mothers with diabetes mellitus type 1 is higher as compared to nondiabetic controls. Methods. A retrospective study was performed using an existing database covering the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data included the presence of diabetes type 1, hypertension, parity, maternal age, the use artificial reproductive technology, fetal- neonatal death, congenital anomalies, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery by Caesarean section or vaginally. Results. In the period studied, 354 women with diabetes type 1 gave birth and were compared with 177.471 controls. Women with type 1 diabetes more often had a maternal age of over 35 years (16.7% versus 12.0%, P=.008, OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.09–1.95. They more frequently suffered hypertension in pregnancy (19.5% versus 4.7%, P<.0001, OR 4.91; 95% CI 3.73–6.44. Perinatal death was significantly higher in the diabetes mellitus group (3.05% versus 0.73%, P<.0001, OR 4.28; 95% CI 2.22–8.01. Caesarean section was performed almost 5 times as frequently in the diabetes versus the control group (OR 4.57; 95% CI 3.70–5.65. Birth weight was significantly higher in diabetic pregnant women from 33 until 38 weeks included, but those reaching 39 weeks and later were not different with control groups. Conclusion. In Belgium, diabetic pregnancy still carries a high risk for fetal and maternal complications; in general birth weight is significantly higher but for those reaching term there is no significant difference in birth weight.

  20. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1 prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver, which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2 traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3 Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg, which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4 snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix, which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04 in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight.

  1. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  2. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  3. Birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumm, Hanne; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    interval 1.21-2.03) compared to women with birth weight 3,000-3,499 g. All women with birth weight =4,500 g were born large for gestational age and a birth weight of 4,500 g represented the 98.5th percentile of the birth weights. Women born of mothers diagnosed with diabetes were at increased risk of PCOS...

  4. Effects of maternal and infant characteristics on birth weight and gestation length in a colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Kelly J; Capozzi, Denise K; Newsome, Joseph T

    2008-12-01

    A retrospective study using maternal and birth statistics from an open, captive rhesus macaque colony was done to determine the effects of parity, exposure to simian retrovirus (SRV), housing, maternal parity, and maternal birth weight on infant birth weight, viability and gestation length. Retrospective colony statistics for a 23-y period indicated that birth weight, but not gestation length, differed between genders. Adjusted mean birth weights were higher in nonviable infants. Mothers positive for SRV had shorter gestations, but SRV exposure did not affect neonatal birth weights or viability. Infants born in cages had longer gestations than did those born in pens, but neither birth weight nor viability differed between these groups. Maternal birth weight did not correlate with infant birth weight but positively correlated with gestation length. Parity was correlated with birth weight and decreased viability. Increased parity of the mother was associated with higher birth weight of the infant. A transgenerational trend toward increasing birth weight was noted. The birth statistics of this colony were consistent with those of other macaque colonies. Unlike findings for humans, maternal birth weight had little predictive value for infant outcomes in rhesus macaques. Nonviable rhesus infants had higher birth weights, unlike their human counterparts, perhaps due to gestational diabetes occurring in a sedentary caged population. Similar to the situation for humans, multiparity had a protective effect on infant viability in rhesus macaques.

  5. Impaired kidney growth in low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida M; Chellakooty, Marla; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is an important risk factor for hypertension and unfavorable prognoses of a number of renal diseases. It is also associated with reduced kidney size and nephron number. A differentiation between the effects of low birth weight versus being born premature or small...... growth-retarded infants (Premature children had smaller kidneys compared to mature at all ages (0 months, P= 0.001; 3 months, P= 0.007; and 18 months, P= 0.042), without any significant catch-up with age...... growth in response to formula feeding. CONCLUSION: Being small for gestational age is associated with small kidneys at birth and impaired kidney growth in early childhood. The present data suggest that intrauterine growth has a regulatory influence on nephron formation and renal function in humans...

  6. Effects of cord serum insulin, IGF-II, IGFBP-2, IL-6 and cortisol concentrations on human birth weight and length: pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Smerieri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The IGF system is recognised to be important for fetal growth. We previously described increased Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-2 cord serum concentrations in intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR compared with appropriate for gestational age (AGA newborns, and a positive relationship of IGFBP-2 with Interleukin (IL-6. The role of cortisol in the fetus at birth is largely unknown, and interactions among peptides are their real effect on birth size is unknown. Furthermore, almost all studies have previously assayed peptides in serum several years after birth, and follow-up data from pregnancy are always lacking. This study aimed at establishing and clarifying the effect of cord serum insulin, IGF-II, IGFBP-2, cortisol and IL-6 concentrations on birth length and weight. METHODS: 23 IUGR and 37 AGA subjects were followed up from the beginning of pregnancy, and were of comparable gestational age. Insulin, IGF-II, IGFBP-2, cortisol and IL-6 concentrations were assayed in cord serum at birth, and a multiple regression model was designed and applied to assess which were the significant biochemical determinants of birth size. RESULTS: Insulin, cortisol, and IL-6, showed similar concentrations in IUGR and AGA as previously described, whereas IGF-II was lower, and IGFBP-2 increased in IUGR compared with AGA. IGF-II serum concentration was found to have a significant positive effect on both birth length (r:(:0.546; p: 0.001 and weight (r:0.679; p: 0.0001. IGFBP-2 had a near significant negative effect on both birth weight (r:-0.342; p: 0.05 and length (r:-0.372; p:0.03. CONCLUSION: IGF-II cord serum concentration was shown to have a significant positive effect on both birth length and weight, whereas IGFBP-2 had a significant negative effect. Insulin, cortisol, and IL-6 cord serum concentrations had no significant effect on birth size.

  7. Maternal occupation during pregnancy, birth weight, and length of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Maribel; Cordier, Sylvaine; Martínez, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether maternal employment during pregnancy - overall and in selected occupational sectors - is associated with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), term low birth weight (LBW), length of gestation, and preterm delivery in a population-based birth cohort design....

  8. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  9. Association between birth weight and objectively measured sedentary time is mediated by central adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrand, Maria; Kolle, Elin; Hansen, Bjørge H

    2015-01-01

    .001). Results of the mediation analysis showed a significant indirect effect of birth weight on sedentary time through waist circumference (B: 1.30; 95% bias-corrected CI: 0.94, 1.72), and when waist circumference was controlled for, the effect of birth weight on sedentary time was attenuated by 32% (B = 2......BACKGROUND: Birth weight is an early correlate of disease later in life, and animal studies suggest that low birth weight is associated with reduced activity and increased sedentary time. Whether birth weight predicts later sedentary time in humans is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We examined the relation...... between birth weight and sedentary time in youth and examined whether this association was mediated by central adiposity. DESIGN: We used pooled cross-sectional data from 8 observational studies conducted between 1997 and 2007 that consisted of 10,793 youth (boys: 47%) aged 6-18 y from the International...

  10. Soluble human leukocyte antigen -G during pregnancy and infancy in Benin: Mother/child resemblance and association with the risk of malaria infection and low birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milet, Jacqueline; Cottrell, Gilles; Mondière, Amandine; Avokpaho, Euripide; Gineau, Laure; Sabbagh, Audrey; Massougbodji, Achille; Moutairou, Kabirou; Donadi, Eduardo A.; Favier, Benoit; Carosella, Edgardo; Moreau, Philippe; Rouas-Freiss, Nathalie; Courtin, David; Garcia, André

    2017-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) G is a tolerogenic molecule involved in the maternal-fetal immune tolerance phenomenon. Its expression during some infectious diseases leading to immune evasion has been established. A first study conducted in Benin has shown that the production of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) during the first months of life is strongly correlated with the maternal level at delivery and associated with low birth weight and malaria. However sHLA-G measurements during pregnancy were not available for mothers and furthermore, to date the evolution of sHLA-G in pregnancy is not documented in African populations. To extend these previous findings, between January 2010 and June 2013, 400 pregnant women of a malaria preventive trial and their newborns were followed up in Benin until the age of 2 years. Soluble HLA-G was measured 3 times during pregnancy and repeatedly during the 2 years follow-up to explore how sHLA-G evolved and the factors associated. During pregnancy, plasma levels of sHLA-G remained stable and increased significantly at delivery (p<0.001). Multigravid women seemed to have the highest levels (p = 0.039). In infants, the level was highest in cord blood and decreased before stabilizing after 18 months (p<0.001). For children, a high level of sHLA-G was associated with malaria infection during the follow-up (p = 0.02) and low birth weight (p = 0.06). The mean level of sHLA-G during infancy was strongly correlated with the mother’s level during pregnancy (<0.001), and not only at delivery. Moreover, mothers with placental malaria infection had a higher probability of giving birth to a child with a high level of sHLA-g (p = 0.006). High sHLA-G levels during pregnancy might be associated with immune tolerance related to placental malaria. Further studies are needed but this study provides a first insight concerning the potential role of sHLA-G as a biomarker of weakness for newborns and infants. PMID:28166246

  11. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, S.; Mens, P.F.; Karema, C.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Kaligirwa, N.; Vyankandondera, J.; de Vries, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall,

  12. Leche humana y nutrición en el prematuro pequeño Human milk and very low birth weight nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Torres

    2004-07-01

    con bacteriología ("Programa Lactario de 24 Horas". Resultados: La alimentación precoz con leche humana (nutrición enteral trófica y con fortificadores de leche humana mejoró la tolerancia enteral, y disminuyó los días en recuperar el peso de nacimiento, los días de ayuno y también el tiempo en alcanzar el aporte enteral total, todos de manera significativa. Las extracciones frecuentes de leche humana aumentaron el volumen disponible para aportar a los recién nacidos y permitió la relactación. Luego del alta, las madres pudieron mantener una lactancia materna parcial con curvas de crecimiento aceptables al año de edad corregida. Conclusión: Los recién nacidos prematuros de muy bajo peso, en condiciones estables, deben ser alimentados precozmente con leche humana y luego con la combinación de leche humana y fortificadores de leche humana. Nuestro estudio demostró un mejor crecimiento postnatal y mantuvo una buena producción láctea de las madres. Comentario: Alimentar a este grupo de recién nacidos de alto riesgo con leche humana y fortificadores de leche humana no sólo constituye un gran desafío por la alta motivación y compromiso que debe tener el equipo de salud neonatal, sino que implica abordar con firme decisión clínica la nutrición de bebés de alto riesgo, oponiéndose a respetadas corrientes de opinión, que no le otorgan un lugar apropiado a la alimentación natural. En nuestras comunidades latinoamericanas, conservar el amamantamiento por más largo tiempo es una recomendación sanitaria de máxima prioridad.Introduction: Enteral feeding strategies of very low birth weight (VLBW infants and when to start them have changed significantly in the last few years. Controversy exists on which is the best regimen to feed this high risk group, since human milk has insufficient quantities of some nutrients. Fortification of human milk improves growth rates and maintains immunologic, metabolic and emotional benefits. Objective: To examine if

  13. Mathematics Deficiencies in Children with Very Low Birth Weight or Very Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Anderson, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g) or very preterm birth (VPTB, less than 32 weeks gestational age or GA) have more mathematics disabilities or deficiencies (MD) and higher rates of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) than normal birth weight term-born children (NBW, greater than 2500 g and greater than 36 weeks GA).…

  14. Epigenetic signature of birth weight discordance in adult twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Heijmans, Bastiaan T

    2014-01-01

    Background: A low birth weight has been extensively related to poor adult health outcomes. Birth weight can be seen as a proxy for environmental conditions during prenatal development. Identical twin pairs discordant for birth weight provide an extraordinary model for investigating the association...... between birth weight and adult life health while controlling for not only genetics but also postnatal rearing environment. We performed an epigenome-wide profiling on blood samples from 150 pairs of adult monozygotic twins discordant for birth weight to look for molecular evidence of epigenetic signatures...... in association with birth weight discordance. Results: Our association analysis revealed no CpG site with genome-wide statistical significance (FDR twin...

  15. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that woman\\'s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother\\'s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.

  16. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  17. A National Census of Birth Weight in Purebred Dogs in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Groppetti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing professionalism in dog breeding, the physiological range of birth weight in this species remains unclear. Low birth weight can predispose to neonatal mortality and growth deficiencies in humans. To date, the influence of the morphotype on birth weight has never been studied in dogs. For this purpose, an Italian census of birth weight was collected from 3293 purebred pups based on maternal morphotype, size, body weight and breed, as well as on litter size and sex of pups. Multivariate analysis outcomes showed that birth weight (p < 0.001 and litter size (p < 0.05 increased with maternal size and body weight. Birth weight was also influenced by the maternal head and body shape, with brachycephalic and brachymorph dogs showing the heaviest and the lightest pups, respectively (p < 0.001. Birth weight decreased with litter size (p < 0.001, and male pups were heavier than females (p < 0.001. These results suggest that canine morphotype, not only maternal size and body weight, can affect birth weight and litter size with possible practical implications in neonatal assistance.

  18. Associations of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with adult health and human capital in countries of low and middle income: findings from five birth cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Adair, Linda S.; Fall, Caroline HD; Osmond, Clive; Aryeh D. Stein; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Dahly, Darren L; Bas, Isabelita; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa; Hallal, Pedro; Victora, Cesar G.; ,

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Fast weight gain and linear growth in children in low-income and middle-income countries are associated with enhanced survival and improved cognitive development, but might increase risk of obesity and related adult cardiometabolic diseases. We investigated how linear growth and relative weight gain during infancy and childhood are related to health and human capital outcomes in young adults. Methods We used data from five prospective birth cohort studies from Brazil, Guate...

  19. Evaluation of factors affecting birth weight and preterm birth in southern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Col-Araz, Nilgun

    2013-04-01

    To identify factors affecting birth weight and pre-term birth, and to find associations with electromagnetic devices such as television, computer and mobile phones. The study was conducted in Turkey at Gazintep University, Faculty of Medicine's Outpatient Clinic at the Paediatric Ward. It comprised 500 patients who presented at the clinic from May to December 2009. All participants were administered a questionnaire regarding their pregnancy history. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. In the study, 90 (19%) patients had pre-term birth, and 64 (12.9%) had low birth weight rate Birth weight was positively correlated with maternal age and baseline maternal weight (r = 0.115, p disease during pregnancy (p computer by mothers did not demonstrate any relationship with birth weight. Mothers who used mobile phones or computers during pregnancy had more deliveries before 37 weeks (p computers during pregnancy (p computers may have an effect on pre-term birth.

  20. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG.......Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  1. Birth weight and cognition in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Daren C; Lin, Jack J; Chambers, Karlee L; Kessler-Jones, Alanna; Jones, Jana E; Hsu, David A; Stafstrom, Carl E; Seidenberg, Michael; Hermann, Bruce P

    2014-06-01

    Birth weight is an important indicator of prenatal environment, and subtle variations of birth weight within the normal range have been associated with differential risk for cognitive and behavioral problems. Therefore, we aimed to determine if there are differences in birth weight between full-term children with uncomplicated new/recent-onset epilepsies and typically developing healthy controls. We further examined the relationships between birth weight and childhood/adolescent cognition, behavior, and academic achievement. One hundred eight children with new-onset/recent-onset epilepsy and 70 healthy controls underwent neuropsychological assessment. All participants were born full-term (>37 weeks) without birth complications. Parents were interviewed regarding their child's gestation, birth, and neurodevelopmental history. Birth weight of children with epilepsy was significantly lower than healthy controls (p = 0.023). Whereas birth weight (covaried with age, sex, handedness, and mother's education) was significantly associated with cognition in controls in multiple domains (intelligence, language, aspects of academic achievement), this relationship was absent in children with epilepsy. Birth weight was not associated with clinical epilepsy variables (age of onset, epilepsy syndrome) and was not predictive of a variety of other academic or psychiatric comorbidities of epilepsy. Although the origin of lower birth weight in children with epilepsy is unknown, these findings raise the possibility that abnormal prenatal environment may affect childhood-onset epilepsy. Furthermore, the positive relationship between birth weight and cognition evident in healthy controls was disrupted in children with epilepsy. However, birth weight was not related to academic and psychiatric comorbidities of childhood epilepsy. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International

  2. The influence of maternal body composition on birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.

  3. Birth weight and systolic blood pressure in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Rasmussen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the shape, sex- and age-dependency, and possible confounding of the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 197,954 adults from 20 Nordic cohorts (birth years 1910-1987), one of which included 166,249 Swedish male conscripts. Random-effects m......The authors investigated the shape, sex- and age-dependency, and possible confounding of the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 197,954 adults from 20 Nordic cohorts (birth years 1910-1987), one of which included 166,249 Swedish male conscripts. Random...... with a birth weight greater than 4 kg, SBP increased with birth weight (p groups (p

  4. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Thune, Inger; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Hankins, Gary D V; Malone, Fergal D; D'Alton, Mary E

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that woman's risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother's own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer. Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant's birth weight, mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3), anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years) 31 women (7.6%) were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile) had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR), 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-5.2; P = 0.012). The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6; P = 0.021). An infant's birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother's serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships. Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.

  5. Prevalence of Low Birth Weight and Obesity in Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, M.; Ayatollahi, S. M. T.

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and to document distribution of body mass index (BMI) at birth in Arak (central Iran) neonates of the 10,241 live neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in 2004 in Arak. A birth weight of less than 2500 g was classified as LBW. BMI based on the original supine length and weight…

  6. DENGUE DURING PREGNANCY: ASSOCIATION WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND PREMATURITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIBEIRO, Christiane Fernandes; LOPES, Vânia Glória Silami; Brasil, Patricia; da Silva, Licinio Esmeraldo; RIBEIRO, Pedro Henrique Fernandes Josephson; UGENTI, Luca Cipriani; NOGUEIRA, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dengue virus infection during pregnancy and its correlation with low birth weight, prematurity, and asphyxia. A non-concurrent cohort study reveals the association of dengue during pregnancy with prematurity and low birth weight, when birth occurred during the maternal-fetal viremia period (p = 0.016 and p < 0.0001, respectively). PMID:26910454

  7. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E

    2006-01-01

    for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term......AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with birth weights of 1500-2499 g had a 90% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.9), and children with birth weights of 2500-2999 g had a 50% increased risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) compared with children born at term with birth weights above 2999 g. The results were adjusted...

  8. Low birth weight is not associated with thyroid autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hansen, Pia Skov; Rudbeck, Annette Beck

    2006-01-01

    .002 (-0.010 to 0.014); P = 0.77]. When restricting the analysis to twin pairs with a within-pair difference in birth weight of 500 g or greater or to twin pairs born 4 wk or more before term, the regression coefficients were almost unchanged. Controlling for potential confounders (sex, zygosity......CONTEXT: Low birth weight has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of antibodies toward thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) in adult life. However, the association could also be due to genetic or environmental factors affecting both birth weight and the development...... of thyroid autoantibodies. The effect of these confounders can be minimized through investigation of twin pairs. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To examine the impact of low birth weight on the development of thyroid autoimmunity, we studied whether within-twin-cohort and within-twin-pair differences in birth weight...

  9. A Study of Surrogate Parameters of Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadam Y

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : Which anthropometric parameter is correlating highly with birth weight? Can we use this parameter as a screening test for predicting birth weight? What is their cut-off value? Hypothesis: Various anthropometric parameters of newborn correlate each other positively. Objective : To find out the most effective anthropometric parameter in the newborn to assess birth weight so that newborn with LBW can be identified.. Study design: Hospital based cross-sectional study. Participants : Newborn babies born in KIMS, Karad. Results : Relatively highest correlation was observed between birth weight & thigh circumfirence (T.C. (r = 0.8637 & next with chest circumfirence (C.C.. (r = 0.8247 Cut-off values of T.C. & C.C. had better sensitivity, specificity & predictive value for identifying LBW babies. Conclusion : T.C. is the best effective parameter to predict birth weight. Next to it is C.C.

  10. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E;

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with birth weights of 1500-2499 g had a 90% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.9), and children with birth weights of 2500-2999 g had a 50% increased risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) compared with children born at term with birth weights above 2999 g. The results were adjusted...... for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term...

  11. Racial differences in IGF1 methylation and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughen, Jennifer K; Sipahi, Levent; Uddin, Monica; Misra, Dawn P; Misra, Vinod K

    2015-01-01

    The birth weight of Black neonates in the United States is consistently smaller than that of their White counterparts. Epigenetic differences between the races may be involved in such disparities. The goal of these analyses was to model the role of IGF1 methylation in mediating the association between race and birth weight. Data was collected on a cohort of 87 live born infants. IGF1 methylation was measured in DNA isolated from the mononuclear fraction of umbilical cord blood collected after delivery. Quantitative, loci-specific methylation was assessed using the Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadArray (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Locus specific methylation of the IGF1 CpG site was validated on a subset of the original sample (N = 61) using pyrosequencing. Multiple linear regression was used to examine relationships between IGF1 methylation, race, and birth weight. A formal mediation analysis was then used to estimate the relationship of IGF1 methylation to race and birth weight. Black race was associated with a 7.45% decrease in gestational age-adjusted birth weight (aBW) (P = 0.04) and Black infants had significantly higher IGF1 methylation than non-Black infants (P aBW (P = 0.02). Including IGF1 methylation as a covariate, the effect of Black race on aBW was attenuated. A formal mediation analysis showed that the controlled direct effect of Black race on aBW was -6.26% (95% CI = -14.15, 1.06); the total effect of Black race on IGF1 methylation was -8.12% (95% CI = -16.08, -0.55); and the natural indirect effect of Black race on aBW through IGF1 methylation was -1.86% (95% CI = -5.22, 0.18). The results of the mediation analysis along with the multivariable regression analyses suggest that IGF1 methylation may partially mediate the relationship between Black race and aBW. Such epigenetic differences may be involved in racial disparities observed in perinatal outcomes.

  12. Low birth weight infants and Calmette-Guérin bacillus vaccination at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Jensen, Henrik; Garly, May-Lill

    2004-01-01

    In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW) children are often not vaccinated with Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG) at birth. Recent studies have suggested that BCG may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant mortality. We evaluated the consequences of not vaccinating LBW children at birth...

  13. Birth weight of twins: 2. Fetal genetic effect on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Beiguelman

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for the birth weights of twins born at three southeastern Brazilian hospitals, after adjustment of the natural logarithms of these weights for gestational age, its quadratic and cubic terms, sex, and their interactions. The data indicate that fetal genetic effect on birth weight might have the opportunity to be demonstrated by children born to undernourished women. Undernourishment, acting as a selective force, might enhance the existence of genotypes that determine less need of food for normal development.Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse foram calculados para o peso de gêmeos nascidos em três maternidades do sudeste brasileiro, depois de ajustar os logaritmos naturais desses pesos para a idade gestacional, seus termos quadrático e cúbico, sexo e interações dessas variáveis. Os dados obtidos indicaram que o efeito genético fetal sobre o peso ao nascer teria a oportunidade de ser demonstrado por recém-nascidos de mães subnutridas. A subnutrição, atuando como força seletiva, realçaria a existência de genótipos que determinam menor necessidade nutricional para o desenvolvimento normal.

  14. HOSPITAL BIRTHS OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT IN THE CITY OF CUIABÁ THE PERIOD 2000 TO 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Sampaio Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocurrence of low birth weight infants varies among contries, and even a general inidcator of health status of a population to be highly associated with socieconomic conditions(3. Newborns with low birth weight are more vulnerable to problems that increase the risk of morbidity and mortality(9. Several factors may be associated with low newborn weight among mothers with less than 20 years or over 35 years(16,17. Objectives: To describe the low-weight births in hospitals in the city of Cuiaba in the period 2000 to 2008 using the variables of the birth certificate (race, sex of infant and maternal age Method: a quantitative study, cross-sectional, restrospective and described with the use of secundary sources of data obtained from the Information System on Live Births (SINASC. The study population was constituted by the set of all vital statistics records of hospital deliveries of low birth weight infants n= 6.523, in the municipality of Cuiabá – MT in the period 2000 to 2008. Included only information from births and hospital births only, and with body weight equal to or less than 2,500g, this criterion is basead on the WHO classification. Results/Conclusion: The low birth weight hospital in the city of Cuiabá – MT in the period 2000 to 2008, has a prevalence of 6,6%, ocurred among newborns with GA between 37 and 41 weeks (43,3% n= 2827. The low weight births in the state of MT, evolve with the growing reduction of body weight, the highest prevalence being concentrated in the range of 1500 to 2499g weight. The low birth weight are more prevalent in females (53,7%, n=3506 and mullattos (70.4% n= 4595. 49% of mother of lbw infants are those who are aged 21 to 35 years of age (49,7%, n= 3240.

  15. A birth-weight questionnaire indicated that life style modifies the birth weight and metabolic syndrome relationship at age 36

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, S.J. te; Twisk, J.W.R.; Mechelen, van W.; Kemper, H.C.G.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigating the relationship between birth weight and the metabolic syndrome and the modifying effects of lifestyle in adults (36.5 years). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: 273 subjects completed a birth-weight questionnaire; waist circumference, HDL and triglyceride concentrations, blood pres

  16. A birth-weight questionnaire indicated that life style modifies the birth weight and metabolic syndrome relationship at age 36

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, S.J. te; Twisk, J.W.R.; Mechelen, van W.; Kemper, H.C.G.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigating the relationship between birth weight and the metabolic syndrome and the modifying effects of lifestyle in adults (36.5 years). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: 273 subjects completed a birth-weight questionnaire; waist circumference, HDL and triglyceride concentrations, blood

  17. IGF-IR signal transduction protein content and its activation by IGF-I in human placentas: relationship with gestational age and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Germán; Castro, Juan José; Garcia, Mirna; Kakarieka, Elena; Johnson, M Cecilia; Cassorla, Fernando; Mericq, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    The human placenta expresses the IGF-I and IGF-IR proteins and their intracellular signal components (IRS-1, AKT and mTOR). The aim of this study was to assess the IGF-IR content and activation of downstream signaling molecules in placentas from newborns who were classified by gestational age and birth weight. We studied placentas from 25 term appropriate (T-AGA), 26 term small (T-SGA), 22 preterm AGA (PT-AGA), and 20 preterm SGA (PT-SGA) newborns. The total and phosphorylated IGF-IR, IRS-1, AKT, and mTOR contents were determined by Western Blot and normalized by actin or with their respective total content. The effect of IGF-I was determined by stimulating placental explants with recombinant IGF-I 10-8 mol/L for 15, 30, and 60 minutes. The IGF-IR content was higher in T-SGA compared to T-AGA placentas, and the IRS-1 content was higher in PT-placentas compared with their respective T-placentas. The effect of IGF-I on the phosphorylated forms of IGF-IR was increased in T-SGA (150%) and PT-SGA (300%) compared with their respective AGA placentas. In addition, AKT serine phosphorylation was higher in PT-SGA compared to PT-AGA and T-SGA placentas (90% and 390% respectively). The higher protein content and response to IGF-I of IGF-IR, IRS-1, and AKT observed in SGA placentas may represent a compensatory mechanism in response to fetal growth restriction.

  18. IGF-IR signal transduction protein content and its activation by IGF-I in human placentas: relationship with gestational age and birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Iñiguez

    Full Text Available The human placenta expresses the IGF-I and IGF-IR proteins and their intracellular signal components (IRS-1, AKT and mTOR. The aim of this study was to assess the IGF-IR content and activation of downstream signaling molecules in placentas from newborns who were classified by gestational age and birth weight. We studied placentas from 25 term appropriate (T-AGA, 26 term small (T-SGA, 22 preterm AGA (PT-AGA, and 20 preterm SGA (PT-SGA newborns. The total and phosphorylated IGF-IR, IRS-1, AKT, and mTOR contents were determined by Western Blot and normalized by actin or with their respective total content. The effect of IGF-I was determined by stimulating placental explants with recombinant IGF-I 10-8 mol/L for 15, 30, and 60 minutes.The IGF-IR content was higher in T-SGA compared to T-AGA placentas, and the IRS-1 content was higher in PT-placentas compared with their respective T-placentas. The effect of IGF-I on the phosphorylated forms of IGF-IR was increased in T-SGA (150% and PT-SGA (300% compared with their respective AGA placentas. In addition, AKT serine phosphorylation was higher in PT-SGA compared to PT-AGA and T-SGA placentas (90% and 390% respectively.The higher protein content and response to IGF-I of IGF-IR, IRS-1, and AKT observed in SGA placentas may represent a compensatory mechanism in response to fetal growth restriction.

  19. Seasonality of birth weight in Chile: environmental and socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torche, Florencia; Corvalan, Alejandro

    2010-11-01

    Research suggests a relationship between birth weight and season of birth, but findings vary across countries and underlying factors are not well understood. We examine the seasonality of birth weight and explore alternative hypotheses for its etiology-exposure to environmental factors and varying socioeconomic composition of mothers-in Chile. Birth weight of approximately 5 million Chilean singleton live births 37 of 41 weeks of gestation between 1987 and 2007 were analyzed for seasonality by using regression models with month dummies and parametric sinusoidal specifications. Multivariate models with socioeconomic covariates and interactions across geographic regions examine potential factors accounting for seasonal variation. Marked 12-month and 6-month periodic cycles were found. The amplitude and phase of the seasonal variation change across geographic regions. In the low-latitude northern region, there is a spring peak and a fall nadir, while in middle-latitude colder regions, a bimodal periodicity emerges with peaks in spring and fall, a pronounced winter nadir, and smaller nadir in the summer. Socioeconomic composition of mothers is found to vary with annual periodicity, but it does not account for the seasonality in birth weight. Environmental factors rather than the socioeconomic composition of mothers likely account for seasonal variation in birth weight. The change in periodicity of birth weight across latitudes is consistent with a beneficial exposure to sunlight both early and late in the pregnancy, and a detrimental late exposure to cold temperatures only in areas with low winter temperatures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Which factors could explain the low birth weight paradox?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight children are unusual among well-off families. However, in Brazil, low birth weight rate was higher in a more developed city than in a less developed one. The study objective was to find out the reasons to explain this paradox. METHODS: A study was carried out in two municipalities, Ribeirão Preto (Southeastern Brazil and São Luís (Northeastern Brazil, which low birth weight rates were 10.7% and 7.6% respectively. Data from two birth cohorts were analyzed: 2,839 newborns in Ribeirão Preto in 1994 and 2,439 births in São Luís in 1997-1998. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Low birth weight risk factors in São Luís were primiparity, maternal smoking and maternal age less than 18 years. In Ribeirão Preto, the associated variables were family income between one and three minimum wages, maternal age less than 18 and equal to or more than 35 years, maternal smoking and cesarean section. In a combined model including both cohorts, Ribeirão Preto presented a 45% higher risk of low birth weight than São Luís. When adjusted for maternal smoking habit, the excess risk for low birth weight in Ribeirão Preto compared to São Luís was reduced by 49%, but the confidence interval was marginally significant. Differences in cesarean section rates between both cities contributed to partially explain the paradox. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking was the most important risk factor for explaining the difference in low birth weight between both cities. The other factors contributed little to explain the difference in low birth weight rates.

  1. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Wildenschild

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, 3,000-3,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams. In additional analyses, birth weight was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, using a proportional probabilities regression model. RESULTS: Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams, FRs adjusted for gestational age, year of birth, and maternal socio-demographic and medical factors were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.73;1.34, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87;1.12, and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.94;1.24 for birth weight <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams, respectively. Estimates remained unchanged after further adjustment for markers of the participant's mother's fecundability. We obtained similar results when we restricted to women who were born at term, and to women who had attempted to conceive for a maximum of 6 cycles before study entry. Results remained similar when we estimated FRs according to z-scores of birth weight. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that birth weight appears not to be an important determinant of fecundability.

  2. Breast-feeding among Mothers of Low Birth Weight Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre, Francine

    1990-01-01

    The physical and emotional condition of the mother delivering a premature or low birth weight infant may be quite different than that of the mother of a healthy term infant when initiating breast-feeding. Despite this difference, incidence and duration of lactation among mothers of pre-term or low birth weight infants was found to be quite good compared with that of mothers of term infants. Considerable problems, however, are encountered by premature or low birth weight infants when breast-fe...

  3. Bio- Social Determinants Of Birth Weight In Rural Urban Nagpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawande U.H

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Questions: What are the bio â€" social determinants of birth weight of babies born in an urban- rural area? Objectives: 1. To study the biosocial determinants of birth weight 2. To determine which of the these affects birth weight. Design : Cross- sectional study. Setting : General hospital in Nagpur Participants: Mothers and their babies who were delivered in hospital. Study Variables : Mother’s age, parity, inter- pregnancy interval, socio-economic status, literacy status, antenatal care. Outcome Variable: Birth weight of the Infant. Statistical Analysis: Chi square test. Results: The proportion of low birth weight babies was high in teenage mothers(41.9% and those over the age of 30 years. Primi and grand multiparity were associated with higher prevalence of low birth weight babies (43.2% & 43.9% respectively. Interpregnancy interval of less than one and a half years had a high prevalence of LBW babies (44.7% but an interval of 5 years was also a risk as there were other associated risk factors like secondary sterility, tuberculosis etc. Low socio-economic status and low literacy levels were associated with significant proportion of LBW babies. Those mothers who had received adequate antenatal care gave birth to a significantly lower proportion of LBW babies than those who has not received antenatal care. Conclusion: Birthweight is determined by biosocial factors which are recognisable and some of which can be controlled.

  4. Birth Weight and Intelligence in Young Adulthood and Midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-06-01

    We examined the associations between birth weight and intelligence at 3 different adult ages. The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort is comprised of children born in Copenhagen from 1959 to 1961. Information on birth weight and ≥1 tests of intelligence was available for 4696 members of the cohort. Intelligence was assessed at a mean age of 19 years with the Børge Priens Prøve test, at age 28 years with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and at age 50 years with the Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000 R. Birth weight was significantly associated with intelligence at all 3 follow-up assessments, with intelligence scores increasing across 4 birth weight categories and declining for the highest birth weight category. The adjusted differences between those in the 5 IQ points at all 3 follow-up assessments, corresponding to one-third of a SD. The association was stable from young adulthood into midlife,and not weaker at age 50 years. Adjustment for potential confounding factors, including infant socioeconomic status and gestational age, did not dilute the associations, and associations with intelligence were evident across the normal birth weight range and so were not accounted for by low birth weight only. The association between birth weight and intelligence is stable from young adulthood into midlife. These long-term cognitive consequences may imply that even small shifts in the distribution of birth size, in normal-sized infants as well, may have a large impact at the population level. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Piglets’ Surface Temperature Change at Different Weights at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva dos Santos, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets’ weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS). Images of piglets’ surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI) were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (−0.824 and −0.815) with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglet’s surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight. PMID:25049971

  6. Piglets' surface temperature change at different weights at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva Dos Santos, Rita

    2014-03-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets' weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS). Images of piglets' surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI) were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (-0.824 and -0.815) with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglet's surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight.

  7. Piglets’ Surface Temperature Change at Different Weights at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets’ weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW: T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS. Images of piglets’ surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (−0.824 and −0.815 with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglet’s surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight.

  8. Pre-Eclampsia, Birth Weight, and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Haikun; Hardin, James; Gregg, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are primarily inherited, but perinatal or other environmental factors may also be important. In an analysis of 87,677 births from 1996 through 2002, insured by the South Carolina Medicaid program, birth weight was significantly inversely associated with the odds of ASD (OR = 0.78, p = 0.001 for each additional…

  9. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant catch-up growth seem associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases in later life, but individual studies showed conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis for 147,252 children of 31...

  10. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, S.; Mens, P.F.; Karema, C.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Kaligirwa, N.; Vyankandondera, J.; de Vries, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall, th

  11. Birth Weight and Length as Predictors for Adult Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Sabroe, Svend; Rothman, Kenneth J.;

    1999-01-01

    Adult height has been found to be inversely associated with mortality. Recently, it has been suggested that growth in utero is linked with adult risk of several chronic diseases. The authors examined possible associations between birth weight, birth length, and adult height in young Danish men. T...

  12. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, S.; Mens, P.F.; Karema, C.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Kaligirwa, N.; Vyankandondera, J.; de Vries, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall, th

  13. Parental socioeconomic status and birth weight distribution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-03-17

    Mar 17, 2013 ... effects of socio-economic factors on the birth weight pattern of Nigerian babies. ... mine family' socio-economic classes using the method recommended by .... ers are usually given iron supplementation. This had been shown ...

  14. Weight at birth and all-cause mortality in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina W; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2008-01-01

    investigated the association of birth weight with adult all-cause mortality using a Danish school-based cohort of 216,464 men and women born from 1936 through 1979. The cohort was linked to vital statistic registers. The main outcome was all-cause mortality from ages 25 through 68 years. Associations...... with death from cancer, circulatory disease, and all other causes were also examined. RESULTS: During 5,205,477 person-years of follow-up, 11,149 deaths occurred among men and 6609 among women. The cumulative hazard ratios of the association between birth weight categories and all-cause mortality...... was constant for all ages investigated and did not differ between men and women. Compared with subjects having birth weights in the reference category (3251-3750 g), those with the lowest birth weights (2000-2750 g) had 17% higher mortality (95% confidence interval = 1.11-1.22), and those with the highest...

  15. Maternal factors in predicting low birth weight babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Hematram; Lee, Nagarajah

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the association between maternal factors and low birth weight among newborns at a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study where mothers were followed through from first booking till delivery. There were 666 mothers who delivered from May 2007 to March 2008. Infants' birth weight were compared with maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, fathers BMI, parity, ethnicity, per capita monthly income, and maternal blood pressure during pregnancy. A multiple logistic regressions was used to determine the relationship of maternal factors and low birth weight, while the ROC curve was constructed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the predictive model. Among the significant risk factors of low birth weight were older age (35 years and above), low pre-pregnancy BMI (per capita monthly income were included in the analysis.

  16. Racial differences in IGF1 methylation and birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Straughen, Jennifer K.; Sipahi, Levent; Uddin, Monica; Misra, Dawn P; Misra, Vinod K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The birth weight of Black neonates in the United States is consistently smaller than that of their White counterparts. Epigenetic differences between the races may be involved in such disparities. The goal of these analyses was to model the role of IGF1 methylation in mediating the association between race and birth weight. Data was collected on a cohort of 87 live born infants. IGF1 methylation was measured in DNA isolated from the mononuclear fraction of umbilical cord blood coll...

  17. Birth weight-for-gestational age is associated with DNA methylation at birth and in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Golareh; Hajj, Hanine; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Just, Allan C; Hivert, Marie-France; Burris, Heather H; Lin, Xihong; Litonjua, Augusto A; Oken, Emily; DeMeo, Dawn L; Gillman, Matthew W; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2016-01-01

    Both higher and lower fetal growth are associated with cardio-metabolic health later in life, suggesting that prenatal developmental programming determines long-term cardiovascular disease risk. Epigenetic mechanisms, which orchestrate fetal growth and development, may offer insight on the early programming of health and disease. We investigated whether birth weight-for-gestational is associated with DNA methylation at birth and mid-childhood, measured via the Infinium 450K array. Participants were from Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort of pregnant women and their children in Eastern Massachusetts. After exclusion of participants with maternal type 1 or 2 diabetes and gestational age birth weight-for-gestational age z-score was associated with cord blood DNA methylation at 34 CpGs (false discovery rate P birth weight, and several other CpGs map to genes relevant to fetal growth and development. Namely, higher birth weight-for-gestational age was associated with higher methylation at four CpGs at the PBX1 locus (e.g., β (95% CI) for lead signal at cg06750897 = 1.9 (1.2, 2.6)), which encodes a transcription factor that regulates embryonic development. Birth weight-for-gestational age was also associated with mid-childhood blood DNA methylation at four of the 34 CpGs identified in cord blood analyses, including sites at the PBX1 locus described. We identified CpG sites where birth weight-for-gestational age was associated with DNA methylation at birth, and for a subset of these sites, birth weight-for-gestational age was also associated with DNA methylation at mid-childhood.

  18. Relationship between maternal hemoglobin concentration and neonatal birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhavat, Leila; Davar, Robab; Hosseinidezoki, Somaiasadat

    2011-11-01

    Pregnancy considerably increases iron needs in a mother and her fetus. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal hemoglobin concentration in labor with neonatal birth weight. A population-based study in Shahid Sadughi Hospital in Yazd, Iran, was performed by comparing 1842 singleton term pregnancies of patients with and without anemia and their newborns. Maternal characteristics, including hemoglobin values, were recorded at the labor visit. Maternal anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration lower than 10 g/dl during pregnancy. Main outcome measures included birth weight and Apgar score. Linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze data. Anemia (Hb 13 g/dl) increased the risk of low birth weight but it was not significant. The risk of a low Apgar score was significantly increased in women with anemia. The minimum incidence of low birth weight occurs in association with a hemoglobin concentration of 10-13 g/dl. Maternal anemia was significantly associated with effect on birth weight. Also Hb > 13 g/dl was also associated with an increased risk of low birth weight.

  19. Determinants of birth weight in Portugal: 1988 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Vicente; Santos, Carlota

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse temporal birth weight variation, its relationship to the frequency of premature births in Portugal, and the influence of native and immigrant mothers' characteristics as well as to determine the possible existence of a pattern of temporal change in birth weight in the Iberian Peninsula as a whole. Individual mother-child data from the Portuguese National Institute of Statistics regarding live births (N = 2,661,542) permitted an analysis, for the first time, of weight at birth in Portugal from a bio-demographic perspective. The results obtained show that from 1988 to 2011 there was a gradual decline in the average weight at birth in Portugal that may be related to shifts in the duration of gestation. An initial rapid decline in the relative frequency of post-term births took place, followed by small variations from 1995 on. Logistic regressions indicated a pattern unaffected by maternal origin or the sex of the newborn. With regard to weeks of gestation, the odds values obtained were < 1 when the reference category was < 28 weeks. For this factor, no significant differences were found in relation to the mother's origin. Portuguese mothers over 35 years were associated with a higher incidence of low birth weight. Regardless of maternal origin, being a newborn of parity 1, and with the mother not in a couple, resulted in unfavourable outcomes with regard to low birth weight. On the other hand, long gestation periods and having secondary or university education constituted a protective factor.

  20. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that woman's risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother's own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant's birth weight, mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3, anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years 31 women (7.6% were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR, 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.2-5.2; P = 0.012. The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6; P = 0.021. An infant's birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother's serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.

  1. Incidence of low birth weight among Love Canal residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, N J; Polan, A K

    1984-12-01

    The incidence of low birth weight among white live-born infants from 1940 through 1978 was studied in various sections of the Love Canal. A statistically significant excess was found in the historic swale area from 1940 through 1953, the period when various chemicals were dumped in this disposal site. Potential confounding factors such as medical-therapeutic histories, smoking, education, maternal age, birth order, length of gestation, and urban-rural difference did not appear to account for this observation. Low birth weight rates were comparable to those of upstate New York from 1954 through 1978, the period when there was no deposition of chemical wastes.

  2. Determinants of low birth weight in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzur Kader

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW is an important risk factor for childhood morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is an important public health concern. The study was aimed to identify the important socioeconomic, anthropometric and nutritional determinants associated with LBW. Factors included maternal household wealth status, age, literacy, nutritional status, parity, stature, gestational age and chewing betel nut or tobacco. Methods: The study included data of 4436 enrolled pregnant women in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention Matlab (MINIMat trial from November 2001 to October 2003. A random subset of (n= 3267 single live birth infants born between May 2002 and June 2004 with complete information on birth weight was analyzed. Pearson’s chi square test and logistic regression analysis were done to assess the association between the factors and LBW. Results: Almost one third of the infants were born with LBW and mean birth weight was 2693 g. Maternal poor wealth status, BMI less than 18.5, short stature (height < 152 cm and preterm (<37 weeks birth were found to be strong predictors of LBW. Women’s age, hemoglobin status and chewing tobacco or betel nut were not found to be associated with LBW. Conclusion: Women’s wealth status, literacy, maternal nutrition and prevention of preterm birth are the key factors that need to be considered to improve birth weight of infants. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 130-134

  3. Gut microbiota of the very-low-birth-weight infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Sharon; Stintzi, Alain; Shah, Prakeshkumar; Mack, David; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    The microbiome, of which the bacterial component alone (microbiota), is estimated to include 10 times more cells than human cells of the body, blooms immediately after birth and evolves in composition and complexity throughout childhood. The gut microbiome has a profound impact on gastrointestinal tract development, maintenance of mucosal surface integrity, and contributes to the nutritional status of the host and thus plays a pivotal role in health and disease. New technologies have enabled the detailed characterization of normal microbial symbionts and dysbiosis-disease associations. This review summarizes the stepwise establishment of the intestinal microbiota, influential environmental factors, and how this may be perturbed in preterm very-low-birth-weight infants. The contribution of the microbiota to provision of energy and nutrients for intestinal development and the nutritional status of the host are reviewed. In addition, the crucial role of the gut microbiota in maintaining mucosal integrity is explored along with how its breakdown can lead to sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Finally, the role of enteral feeding type (human milk, formula, and nutrient fortification) in mediating these processes is discussed, and guidance is provided for nutritional strategies to promote health in these fragile infants.

  4. Obesity, gestational weight gain and preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael;

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of obesity and gestational weight gain on the risk of subtypes of preterm birth, because little is known about these associations. The study included 62 167 women within the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom self-reported information about...

  5. The domestication of human birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Stefanović

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations of the burial places of newborns at the prehistoric site at Lepenski Vir (Serbia revealed the possibility that deliveries took place inside houses that were heated. Warm houses provided a thermally stable environment which, in turn, could solve the problem of thermoregulation, that is critical for the survival of babies. In this study it is shown that the creation of these good conditions for giving birth could have been an important step in human evolution that could have led to a demographic expansion.

  6. [Risk factors for low birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortman, M

    1998-05-01

    Low birthweight (LBW) is the main known determinant of infant mortality. In spite of the sharp decrease in infant mortality rates and of the rise in survival rates for children with LBW, no important decrease in LBW rates has been observed in Neuquen, Argentina. The purpose of this study was to try to understand the risk factors for LBW, the frequency of LBW in the population, and the role of prenatal care in its prevention, as well as to develop a risk factor scale that could be used to identify women at higher risk of giving birth to a child with LBW. With this in mind we performed a cross-sectional study based on 50% of the data entered into the Perinatal Information System for 1988-1995 by the 29 hospitals in Neuquen province (46,171 births). The distribution of birthweight and the frequency of potential risk factors for LBW were examined. The relationship between such factors and LBW was studied using a logistic regression model. On the basis of the results obtained, an additive scale was drawn up and validated with the remaining 50% of the data for registered births. The highest odds ratio (OR) was seen in women who had no prenatal care (OR = 8.78; 95%CI: 6.7 to 11.4). ORs for inadequate prenatal care, lateness in attending the first prenatal visit, preeclampsia or eclampsia, hemorrhage and anomalies of the placenta or placental membranes, and a history of a previous child with LBW were greater than 2.0. The risk of having children with LBW was also higher in women over the age of 40, women under 20, single women, smoking mothers, women with an intergenesic interval of less than 18 months, and women with a body mass index of less than 20. Finally, there was a direct linear relationship between points on the risk scale and the risk of having a LBW infant.

  7. DNA Methylation Changes in the IGF1R Gene in Birth Weight Discordant Adult Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Pei-Chien; Van Dongen, Jenny; Tan, Qihua;

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) can have an impact on health outcomes in later life, especially in relation to pre-disposition to metabolic disease. Several studies suggest that LBW resulting from restricted intrauterine growth leaves a footprint on DNA methylation in utero, and this influence likely...... persists into adulthood. To investigate this further, we performed epigenome-wide association analyses of blood DNA methylation using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip profiles in 71 adult monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs who were extremely discordant for birth weight. A signal mapping to the IGF1R gene (cg...... was particularly pronounced in older twins (random-effects meta-analysis p = .008, 98 older birth-weight discordant MZ twin pairs). The results suggest that severe intra-uterine growth differences (birth weight discordance >20%) are associated with methylation changes in the IGF1R gene in adulthood, independent...

  8. Maternal maya ancestry and birth weight in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcorra, Hugo; Vázquez-Vázquez, Adriana; Mendez, Nina; Carlos Salazar, Juan; Datta-Banik, Sudip

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between maternal Maya ancestry and the birth weight of infants born in Yucatan, Mexico, during 2013. A total of 30,435 singletons born at term (≥37 weeks) in Yucatan during 2013 were analyzed. Birth weights, gestational ages, and maternal socioeconomic data were provided by the Ministry of Health of Yucatan. Maternal Maya ancestry was defined by the presence of Maya surnames in: (1) non-Maya surnames (NM-NM), (2) one Maya surname (NM-M), and (3) two Maya surnames (M-M). Biological and socioeconomic parameters were compared between the categories of ancestry through one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a multiple regression model was used to analyze the association between ancestry and infants' birth weight controlling for influence of covariates. Mean birth weight was 3,114 g (SD = 406) (NM-NM: 3,150 g [SD = 404], NM-M: 3,106 g [SD = 402], M-M: 3,088 g [SD = 408]). With the biological and socioeconomic variables statistically adjusted for, the presence of one and two maternal Maya surnames was associated with decreases in birth weight of 42 g and 63 g, respectively. None of the interactions between ancestry and other predictors was statistically significant. The lower mean birth weights of Maya infants are consistent with studies reporting poor growth and nutritional status of Maya children from Yucatan. Historically adverse socioeconomic conditions experienced by the Maya population are probably linked to the relatively lower birth weights of their infants. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:436-439, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Relationship between Folic Acid Intake and Infant Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Esmailzadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Folic acid is a B vitamin which 5mg daily intake before gestation and until the tenth week of pregnancy is recommended. Since no study has been conducted in some regions of East Azerbaijan including Bostanabad, Khosroshahr and Sarab and no prevalence was spotted in country specific studies, therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between folic acid intake and infant birth weight. Material and Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort. In this study, 1939 of pregnant women who were referred to health care centers before pregnancy were selected randomly. They were divided into two groups: first group of pregnant women who regularly took folic acid before pregnancy and second group included the women who did not take folic acid supplements. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using T-Test and ANOVA. Results: This study was conducted on 1939 mothers who had an average age of 25.98 years and average infants birth weight was 3.209 kg. Totally, 92.9% of the mothers had regular consumption of folic acid during pregnancy. Analysis of the results showed that with increasing maternal BMI, birth weight also increased. It showed a significant relationship between regular folic acid intake and increase in infant birth weight. Conclusion : Our results showed that both high maternal pre-pregnancy weight and folic acid intake lead to higher birth weight infants.

  10. Physiological response to hypoxia in piglets of different birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Ramírez-Necoechea

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to extend the characterization of the proposed naturalistic experimental model of piglets born with hypoxia by assessing the relationship between birth weight, intra partum asphyxia and gross indicators of neurophysiological alterations in newborn piglets. Three groups of 50 piglets each were classified according to their birth weight into normal (1000-1350 g, low (below 1000 g, and high (over 1350 g. In comparison to piglets within normal weight, those born with high birth weights showed acid-base imbalance as reflected by lower pH levels (7.03±0.01, hypercapnia (88.50±13.20 mmHg, and lactic acidosis (lactate levels: 89.40±26.30. These piglets had lower viability scores (5.40±0.60 and longer periods of time to contact the udder (52.30±8.30 than piglets with normal birth weight. In conclusion, data show that piglets with birth weight over 1350 g are at a higher risk of gross neurophysiological deficits, probably secondary to neonatal hypoxia.

  11. Maternal serum magnesium level and low birth weight neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammadreza Parizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of study was to compare the serum level of magnesium in mothers having low birth weight with those having normal birth weight neonates. Methods: In a case-control study, women who delivered low birth weight neonate (cases, compared with normal birth weight (controls in serum concentration of magnesium. Blood samples collected within 24 h after delivery. Concentration of magnesium assessed by standard atomic absorption spectro-photometry. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to control of potential confounding variables. Results: A total of 116 mothers (67 cases and 49 control were studied. Mothers in two groups did not differ in age, body mass index, and socioeconomic or demographic factors. Maternal magnesium concentration did not differ between two groups 0.86 ± 0.11 m.mol/l versus 0.94 ± 0.22 m.mol/l respectively ( P = 0.09. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between serum magnesium levels of low birth weight infants′ mother and normal weight infants′ mother.

  12. Predictors of birth weight and gestational age among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harville, Emily W; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2012-10-01

    Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994-1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24-32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context.

  13. Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160596.html Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth? Monitoring is ... HealthDay News) -- Mothers-to-be who've had weight-loss surgery may have increased odds for premature delivery, ...

  14. Risk Factors Related to Low Birth Weight in Cienfuegos Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rafael Zerquera Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the low birth weight still constitutes a complex a complex health problem. It is determined by some factors and it is the most important predictive index of infantile mortality. Objective: identifying the risk factors related to low birth weight. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted. There were analyzed the 77 birth of children with inferior weigh to 2500g, occurred in 2010 at the municipality of Cienfuegos, puerperas were included, mothers of those children. The pregnancy's follow-up cards, patient’s clinical records and municipal and provincial statistics were checked. In addition to the socio-demographic characteristics, the nutritional state, numbers of pregnancies, heavy profit during pregnancy, age, toxic habits and diseases correlated to pregnancy were analyzed. Results: the index of low birth weigh oscillated between 3.6 and 6.7 per month. The 52% of low birth weight newborn’s mothers had school university level. The 74 % of mothers work. The 70.1 % were smokers and the 57, 1 % developed a gravidum hypertensive disease. Conclusions: the most associated factors to low birth weight were, the mother’s habit to smoke, as well as the diseases that affected them during pregnancy, fundamentally the hypertensive disease and the vaginal sepsis.

  15. Prenatal Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Infant Birth Weight in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Correa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic evidence provides some support for a causal association between maternal secondhand smoke (SHS exposure during pregnancy and reduction in infant birth weight. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the magnitude of this association in China, where both prevalence and dose of SHS exposure are thought to be higher than in U.S. populations. Women who gave birth in Beijing and Changchun September 2000–November 2001 were interviewed to quantify self-reported prenatal SHS exposure. Their medical records were reviewed for data on pregnancy complications and birth outcomes. Non-smoking women who delivered term babies (≥37 weeks gestation were included in the study (N = 2,770. Nearly a quarter of the women (24% reported daily SHS exposure, 47% reported no prenatal exposure, and 75% denied any SHS exposure from the husband smoking at home. Overall, no deficit in mean birth weight was observed with exposure from all sources of SHS combined (+11 grams, 95% CI: +2, +21. Infants had higher mean birth weights among the exposed than the unexposed for all measures of SHS exposure. Future studies on SHS exposure and infant birth weight in China should emphasize more objective measures of exposure to quantify and account for any exposure misclassification.

  16. Birth weight discordance and perinatal mortality among triplets

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    Egić Amira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of multiple births has increased in the last decade. Perinatal mortality in triplets is significantly greater than in twin and singleton births. OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to describe the extent of birth weight discordance among triplets and to identify its association with an increased risk of perinatal mortality. METHOD A retrospective analysis of triplet births, for the period 1993-2003, was conducted at the Gynaecological-Obstetric Clinic "Narodni Front" in Belgrade. Birth weight discordance was defined as the difference in birth weight between the largest and the smallest triplet's weight of more than 20%. RESULTS. The rate of triplets has increased by almost 75% between the first (7.7% and the last (29.6% 5-year period of the last decade. Triplets are becoming more common because of the frequent use of assisted reproductive technology as a treatment for infertility. In the period 1993-2003, there were a total of 40 triplet live births (24 weeks and greater with incidence of 0.06%. There was no clear association between maternal age, parity, method of conception, birth gestational age, and disorders complicating pregnancy with birth discordance more than 20%. Regarding birth weight groups, statistical significance occurred only in the <999 grams group for discordant and in the 2000-2499 grams group for concordant triplets. Overall, the perinatal mortality rate in the group was 10.8%, the foetal mortality rate was 1.7% (2/120, and the neonatal (0-28 days mortality rate was 9.1% (11/120. An odds ratio of 95% confidence interval shows 3 times greater risk for adverse perinatal outcome in the discordant group. However, the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION. Increasing birth weight discordance may increase the risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Triplet pregnancies, being high risk, require intensive antenatal care in order to prevent preterm delivery and ultrasound in order to diagnose foetal

  17. Total and Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Offspring Birth and Early Childhood Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheers Andersson, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) has in numerous studies been associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and childhood weight. However, these associations might be explained by genetic confounding as offspring inherit their mother's genetic potential to gain weight. Furthermore, little is known abo....... Larger family-based studies with long follow-up are needed to confirm our findings....

  18. Hypospadias - prevalence, birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Karin Baekgaard; Udesen, Ann; Garne, Ester

    2015-01-01

    of 16.9 per 10,000 births. The prevalence was significantly higher in 2000-2009 compared to 1986-1999 (plow birth weight) infants among cases with hypospadias. Infants with isolated hypospadias were more likely to have mild hypospadias (68......AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypospadias over 24 years in a Danish population and to describe the relation to birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies. METHODS: Population-based study of all cases (live births, fetal deaths and elective terminations...... of pregnancy) with hypospadias born in the period 1986-2009 in Funen County and reported to the EUROCAT registry of congenital anomalies. Cases were included only if surgery for hypospadias was performed. RESULTS: 223 cases of hypospadias were registered during the period 1986-2009 with an overall prevalence...

  19. Race, ethnicity, concentrated poverty, and low birth weight disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L; Bruce, Marino A

    2008-07-01

    This study examines the extent to which the relationship between area socioeconomic position (SEP) and low birth weight (LBW) varies by race and ethnicity. A cross-sectional, secondary data analysis was performed with 1992-1994 Vital Statistics and 1990 U.S. Census data for selected metropolitan areas. Low birth weight (poverty was defined as poor persons living in neighborhoods with 40% or more poverty in metropolitan areas. The results showed that the relationship between concentrated poverty and LBW varied by race and ethnicity. Concentrated poverty was significant for Latinos, even when controlling for maternal health and MSA-level factors. By contrast, maternal health characteristics, such as pre-term birth, teen birth and tobacco use, explained much of the variance in African-American and White LBW These findings extend the discussion about race, class, and health disparities to include Latinos and shows how the relationship between SEP and LBW can vary within an ethnic group.

  20. RISK FACTORS IN PREGNANCY AND THEIR RELATION TO BIRTH WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Azordegan

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available In 17 hospitals, 13123 new births were born during 1989 in Tehran. Some well-trained personnel observed the events, filling the required questionnaires, interviewing, and collecting necessary information. Among them 730 newborns was low birth weight (less than 2500 grams which was considered as cases. Immediately after each case was born, two normal newborn were randomly selected as controls. So at the end of data collection, a total of 1460 births were considered controls. In a case-control study the effect of some risk factors during pregnancy of mothers on birth weight and death rate of newborn during first 4 weeks of their life were fully investigated. Some of the findings are as follows: The past history of miscarriages will decrease the birth weight of the newborn and thereby will increase the death rate in the first 28 days of their life. In this respect the difference between case and control was highly significant. Other variables like past history of premature birth, chronic diseases, hemorrhage and severe vomiting showed the same results.

  1. CALF CIRCUMFERENCE AT BIRTH: A SCREENING METHOD FOR DETECTION OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW babies run a higher risk of morbidity and mortality in the perinatal period. However, in our country where almost 70-80% births take place at home and peripheral hospitals, taking accurate weight is a problem due to unavailability of weighing scale and trained personnel. Hence there is a constant search for newer methods to detect LBW babies so that early interventions can be instituted. Various authors have used different surrogate anthropometric measurements from different parts of our country. In the present study, an attempt was made to validate the feasibility of using calf circumference as a predictor of LBW babies that can be used by a trained or untrained person. Objectives: To study various anthropometric measurements including calf circumference in newborns and to correlate various measurements with birth weight. Methods: The present study was conducted in the department of Social & Preventive Medicine, MLB Medical College, Jhansi (UP for a period of one year. The study included 1100 consecutively delivered neonates in the maternity ward of MLB Medical College Hospital, Jhansi (UP. The birth weight (Wt, crown heel length (CHL, crown rump length (CRL, head circumference (HC, chest circumference (CC, mid arm circumference (MAC, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC by standard techniques. All the measurements were taken by a single person throughout the study period with in 24 hours of delivery. Standard statistical methods were adopted for determination of critical limit, sensitivity, specificity and correlation coefficient of different anthropometric measurements in relation to birth weight. Results: Analysis of data indicates that out of 1100 newborns, 55.64% were low birth weight. The percentage of newborns > 2500gm was 44.36. Overall average birth weight was 2348 ± 505gm. Out of 1100 newborns, 608 (55.27% were males and 492 (44.73% were females. Average birth weight for males was 2412

  2. Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Susan L; Racu, Camellia; Gregg, Vanessa; Simmens, Samuel J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this pilot research was to investigate whether infants of mothers with panic disorder (PD) would be at higher risk for prematurity and low birth weight (corrected for gestational age) than controls. Medical records were reviewed for 25 mothers with PD and 33 mothers without a lifetime history of anxiety disorders or other major psychopathology as determined by diagnostic interview. Mothers also completed questionnaires concerning demographic information and life stresses. Compared to controls, infants with PD mothers were not significantly more likely to be born prematurely or earlier than controls but did show smaller birth weight corrected for gestational age, even after accounting for possible confounding influences. Additional research is needed to confirm these preliminary findings. Studying PD mothers during pregnancy could provide insight concerning mechanisms for the development of low birth weight and psychopathology.

  3. Hearing loss in low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostakis, D; Petmezakis, J; Papazissis, G; Messaritakis, J; Matsaniotis, N

    1982-07-01

    The hearing of 98 perinatal intensive care survivors with a mean birth weight of 1,540 g was assessed at a mean age of 6 1/2 years. They represented 73% of the long-term survivors with birth weights of 1,800 g or less who had been cared for in our neonatal unit during the three-year period 1971 through 1973. Nine of the 98 infants had sensorineural hearing loss, and 14 had exudative otitis media. During their neonatal period, the infants with hearing loss experienced more frequent apneic attacks, hyperbilirubinemia (serum bilirubin level, greater than 14 mg/dL), and hypothermia compared with their healthy counterparts. There was no evidence that the duration of stay in the incubator or the use of stay in the incubator or the use of ototoxic drugs had affected the hearing of these low-birth-weight infants.

  4. Is adolescent pregnancy a risk factor for low birth weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzira Maria D'avila Nery Guimarães

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether adolescent pregnancy is a risk factor for low birth weight (LBW babies. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of mothers and their newborns from a birth cohort in Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. Data were collected consecutively from March to July 2005. Information collected included socioeconomic, biological and reproductive aspects of the mothers, using a standardized questionnaire. The impact of early pregnancy on birth weight was evaluated by multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: We studied 4,746 pairs of mothers and their babies. Of these, 20.6% were adolescents (< 20 years of age. Adolescent mothers had worse socioeconomic and reproductive conditions and perinatal outcomes when compared to other age groups. Having no prenatal care and smoking during pregnancy were the risk factors associated with low birth weight. Adolescent pregnancy, when linked to marital status "without partner", was associated with an increased proportion of low birth weight babies. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescence was a risk factor for LBW only for mothers without partners. Smoking during pregnancy and lack of prenatal care were considered to be independent risk factors for LBW.

  5. Birth weight in Kohkilooyeh and Boyer Ahmad province, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goshtasbi Nasab A

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The newborn's weight at birth is an important measure for newborn's health in all communities. Among developed countries, 70 percent of low birth weight (LBW newborns are preterm. The corresponding figure for undeveloped countries is only 30 percent, there are also evidence of intra-uterine growth retardation among these countries. Among effective factors on LBW, maternal related factors have important role in promotion and improvement of infants and mother's health. This study is a descriptive-analytic one and was conducted cross-sectionally through a questionnair. The study population determined by simple random sampling from newborns under coverage of urban health centers in Kohgiloye and Boyerahmad province. Necessary data collected from existing medical and health records filed in the health centers. Among 285 newborns, 88.4 percent considered with normal weight, 4 percent with IBW and 11.6 percent with more than normal weight. 7.4 percent of cases were immature. 85.3 percent of the mothers in study population were in immune range of age for pregnancy and 7.6 percent of them were illiterate. Except the sex of newborn (P=0.0008 and gestational age at birth (P<0.001 none of the variables demonstrated a significant statistical relation with the birth weight. The results of this study confirm other research's findings and reveal that with improving material factors such as mother's age, employment and literacy, the factors which are effective on birth weight, will be dependent on physiological factors such as sex of newborn and gestational age at birth.

  6. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  7. Nutritional support of very low birth weight newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditzenberger, Georgia

    2009-06-01

    Nutritional support to promote optimal postnatal growth for very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns less than 1500 g at birth during the initial prolonged hospitalization is a significant issue. This article reviews the concepts involved in the nutritional support of VLBW newborns, including definitions and discussions of growth, optimal postnatal growth, body composition, initial weight loss, growth expectations, growth assessment tools used during the postnatal period, the relation between inadequate nutrition and neurodevelopment, the relation between protein intake and cognitive outcome, postnatal nutrition balance, the potential for programming of future adult-onset chronic conditions, a review of fetal nutritional intake, and current recommendations for nutritional support of VLBW newborns.

  8. Life expectancies and outcomes in extremely low birth weight neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayeri F, Amini E, Shariat M, Mansoori B

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "n Background: Much has changed in neonatal care for extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight <1000g infants over the recent years in Iran, resulting in an increase in their survival rate. We determined neonatal survival and short-term morbidity rates among ELBW infants, and the correlation of these factors with mortality risk. "n"nMethods: All single live-born ELBW babies delivered at Vali-e-Asr Hospital over a four-year period were identified. Data that were prospectively collected included: maternal age, prenatal and perinatal complications, antenatal steroid use, birth weight, gestational age, route of delivery, sex, need for resuscitation, APGAR score, need for mechanical  ventilation, and complications including respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, sepsis, jaundice, intraventricular  hemorrhage (IVH, necrotizing entrocolitis (NEC metabolic and hematologic and cardiac disorders. Information was statistically analyzed and a probability value of <0.05 was considered significant. "n"nResults: A total of 93 neonates were included in the study. The survival rate in the delivery room was 36.6%. The lowest birth weight was 400g, with a mean birth weight of 850.43(±136.48g, and the lowest gestational age was 22 weeks. The mean gestational period was 28.31(±2.77 weeks. The most frequent complication after birth was RDS(69.89% and the least frequent was NEC (6.4%. Short and normal gestation was observed in 44.08% and 48.4% of the neonates, respectively. There was a significant relationship between neonatal mortality and the need for resuscitation after birth, RDS and need for a respirator (p<0.05. "n"nFurthermore, there was significant increase in mortality among neonates with gestational age <30 weeks, birth weight under 750g and lack of steroids before birth (p<0.05. "n"nConclusions: To enhance perinatal and neonatal care and decrease the rate of preterm labor, improved standard resuscitation and increased administration of antenatal

  9. Birth weight, early life weight gain and age at menarche: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, F; Chang, V W; Brar, P; Parekh, N

    2017-11-01

    Adiposity in pre- and postnatal life may influence menarcheal age. Existing evidence is primarily cross-sectional, failing to address temporality, for which the role of adiposity in early life remains unclear. The current study sought to systematically review longitudinal studies evaluating the associations between birth weight and infant/childhood weight status/weight gain in relation to menarcheal age. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Global Health (Ovid) and CINAHL were systematically searched. Selected studies were limited to English-language articles presenting multi-variable analyses. Seventeen studies reporting risk estimates for birth weight (n = 3), infant/childhood weight gain/weight status (n = 4) or both (n = 10), in relation to menarcheal age were included. Lower vs. higher birth weight was associated with earlier menarche in nine studies and later menarche in one study, while three studies reported a null association. Greater BMI or weight gain over time and greater childhood weight were significantly associated with earlier menarche in nine of nine and six of seven studies, respectively. Studies suggested that lower birth weight and higher body weight and weight gain in infancy and childhood may increase the risk of early menarche. The pre- and postnatal period may thus be an opportune time for weight control interventions to prevent early menarche, and its subsequent consequences. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  10. Birth weight and altitude: a study in Peruvian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortola, J P; Frappell, P B; Aguero, L; Armstrong, K

    2000-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that at high altitude birth weight decreases once a critical barometric pressure (Pb) is reached. Birth weight data covering the 1-year period from November 1997 to October 1998 were collected in Peru from the data files of 15 community and mining centers between sea level and 4575 m altitude. These centers are scattered along the main road that joins Lima (on the Pacific shore) to Cerro de Pasco (4330 m) and surroundings. Above approximately 2000 m (ie, at Pb below approximately 590 mm Hg, inspired O(2) partial pressure of approximately 114 mm Hg) and up to approximately 4500 m altitude birth weight declined at an average of 65 g for every additional 500 m altitude (or 105 g for every additional 50 mm Hg drop in Pb). This pattern did not differ between sexes. Averages and modal distributions of the birth weight from 2 hospitals in Cerro de Pasco (4330 m) serving different social groups were similar. Body length at birth was similar at various altitudes, with the exception of the 2 highest locations above 4500 m, where it was slightly reduced. From these data, together with additional data collected in the North of Peru (Chacas, 3360 m) and with results from other ethnic groups previously published, we conclude that the drop in birth weight at altitude is (1) apparent once the critical Pb of approximately 590 mm Hg is reached, corresponding to an altitude of approximately 2000 m, (2) proportional to the increase in altitude between approximately 2000 m and 4500 m, and (3) independent from socioeconomic factors.

  11. What is the strongest predictor of birth weight: Gestational age, hbalc, maternal weight, weight gain, or birth weight of sibling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Dethlefsen, Claus

    Aim: To assess the effect of various maternal characteristics in diabetic pregnancies on birthweight (BW) taking into account birthweight of an elderly sibling.  Method: We identified all pregnant diabetic women in North Jutland County. Birthweight and certain maternal characteristics including H...... for various increments in each of the 9 variables are seen in the table. All significant values are in bold face.  Conclusion: Weight of sibling is a very strong predictor of birthweight attenuating the predictive power of all other variablesapart from gestational age....... adjusted for age and sex using a Danish reference. E.g. an observed sibling weight of 3800 g with expected BW 3400 g predicts 11.8% extra weight equal to 134 grams (114x11.8) and one extra gestational day predicts an additional weight of 27 grams.  Results: The effects in terms of additional grams in BW...

  12. Effects of Second Trimester Maternal Hemoglobin Levels on Birth Weight and Birth Time

    OpenAIRE

    DÜNDAR, Özgür; ÇİFTPINAR, Tolga; TÜTÜNCÜ, Levent; ERGÜR, Ali Rüştü; ATAY, Mehmet Vedat; MÜNGEN, Ercüment; YERGÖK, Yusuf Ziya

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of our study is to investigate the effects of anemia at the second trimester on birth weight and birth time. Patients and Methods: The medical reports of 1116 pregnant women who attended and delivered at our clinic between January 2005 and October 2007 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups as having <9 gr/dl hemoglobin or ≥9 gr/dl hemoglobin levels. The gestational and the perinatal outcomes of the normal a...

  13. Immigration policy and birth weight: Positive externalities in Italian law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Luca; Pieroni, Luca

    2015-09-01

    A decade ago, the political party of the Italian center-right voted a law restricting immigration. The law became effective in early 2005, when the Italian parliament approved the decree for its application, but one of its articles, granting amnesty for illegal immigrant workers, became immediately effective in July 2002. As a result, 650,000 immigrants were granted the status of foreign nationals in Italy. In this paper, we examine whether the increase in the prevalence of "regular immigrants" has led to an improvement in health outcomes of babies born to migrant women, measured in terms of birth weight. Two hitherto unexploited birth sample surveys published by Italian Institute of Statistics were used for this study. Our estimates show that regularized immigration reduced the probability of low birth weight.

  14. [An epidemiologic study on low-birth-weight babies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, K

    1984-07-01

    A case-control study was made in Gunma Prefecture of 1,390 mothers of babies born weighing 2,500 grams or less and an equal number of mothers of 3,000-up to-4,000 gram babies matched by place and month of birth. A correlation was found between low-birth-weight babies and maternal age, stature, menstrual history and past history. The mother's occupation, educational career, smoking habits, amount of sleep each day, date of issue of the Mother's Handbook and the number of the periodical health examinations received can be listed as socio-medical factors. Bleeding and lower abdominal pain during pregnancy, anemia and toxemia of pregnancy are found as prenatal factors. Low-birth-weight babies are found to be correlated with multiple pregnancy, breech presentation, placenta previa and premature separation of the placenta, also.

  15. Housing instability and birth weight among young urban mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Bianca V; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Kershaw, Trace; Lewis, Jessica B; Stasko, Emily C; Tobin, Jonathan N; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-02-01

    Housing instability is an understudied social condition that may be a severe stressor during pregnancy. Aims of this study are to identify correlates of housing instability and to explore the association between housing instability and birth weight among pregnant teens and young mothers. Participants included pregnant women ages 14-21 from seven community hospitals and health centers in New York City (N = 623). Data were collected via structured surveys during the second trimester of pregnancy (14 to 24 weeks gestation, M = 19.35, SD = 3.20). Birth weight was obtained through labor and delivery logs. Housing instability was operationalized as two or more moves within the past year. More than one in four (28.5 %) pregnant teens and young women in this sample reported housing instability. Women who reported housing instability were less likely to be enrolled in school, have parents as main source of financial support, live in a single-family home or apartment, or be food secure; they were more likely to smoke (all p < 0.05). After adjusting for important clinical, behavioral, and demographic factors typically associated with lower birth weight, housing instability remained a significant predictor of lower birth weight (B (SE) = -83.96(35.47), p = 0.018). Results highlight the importance of housing stability during pregnancy for infant health. Future interventions and policies should ensure that women are housing stable before, during, and after pregnancy.

  16. Low Birth Weight, Preschool Education, and School Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Judy A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Arteaga, Irma

    2010-01-01

    Studies have documented a strong relationship between low birth-weight status and adverse child outcomes such as poor school performance and need for special education services. Following a cohort of more than 1,300 low-income and predominately African American children in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, the authors investigate whether birth…

  17. Very Low Birth Weight and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert A.; Potgieter, Stephanus Theron; Pirila, Silja; De Cock, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that reaction time performance of term-born children with a normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g) who fulfill the DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary school age is sensitive for the presentation rate of stimuli. They have been found t

  18. Screening for Dysregulation among Toddlers Born Very Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; MacLean, Peggy; Duvall, Susanne Woolsey; Lowe, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children born very low birth weight (VLBW) are at increased risk for regulatory difficulties. However, identifying toddlers at risk has been impeded by a lack of screening measures appropriate for this population. Methods: We studied the nature of dysregulation in toddlers born VLBW (N = 32) using the Infant-Toddler Social and…

  19. Weight at Birth and All-Cause Mortality in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    :: We investigated the association of birth weight with adult all-cause mortality using a Danish school-based cohort of 216,464 men and women born from 1936 through 1979. The cohort was linked to vital statistic registers. The main outcome was all-cause mortality from ages 25 through 68 years...

  20. Born with low birth weight in rural Southern India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Nihal; Grunnet, Louise G; Poulsen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in the Indian population and may represent an important predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the metabolic syndrome. Intensive metabolic examinations in ethnic LBW Asian Indians have been almost exclusively performed in immigrants living outside India...

  1. Maternal autonomy and low birth weight in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Priyanka; Anderson, Alex K

    2011-09-01

    The prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) is a major public health issue in India (30.0%) and is the highest among South-Asian countries. Maternal autonomy or the mother's status in the household indicates her decision-making power with respect to movement, finance, healthcare use, and other household activities. Evidence suggests that autonomy of the mother is significantly associated with the child's nutritional status. Although previous studies in India reported the determinants of LBW, literature on the association between mother's autonomy and birth weight are lacking. This study, therefore, aims to examine the influence of maternal autonomy on birth weight of the newborn. The study, a secondary data analysis, examined data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Family Survey (NFHS 3) of India. A maternal autonomy score was created through proximal component factor analysis and categorized as high, medium, and low autonomy levels. The main outcome variable included birth weight of the index child obtained from health cards and mother's recall. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. Results from the study indicate that 20.0% of the index children included in the analysis were born at LBW. Low maternal autonomy was an independent predictor of LBW (odds ratio [OR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.53, p=0.007) after adjusting for other factors, and medium autonomy level was not significant. These findings clearly indicate the importance of empowering women in India to combat the high incidence of LBW.

  2. Low Birth Weight, Preschool Education, and School Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Judy A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Arteaga, Irma

    2010-01-01

    Studies have documented a strong relationship between low birth-weight status and adverse child outcomes such as poor school performance and need for special education services. Following a cohort of more than 1,300 low-income and predominately African American children in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, the authors investigate whether birth…

  3. Poor birth weight recovery among low birth weight/preterm infants following hospital discharge in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namiiro Flavia B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy infants typically regain their birth weight by 21 days of age; however, failure to do so may be due to medical, nutritional or environmental factors. Globally, the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is high, but few studies have assessed the postnatal weight changes in this category of infants, especially in Africa. The aim was to determine what proportion of LBW infants had not regained their birth weight by 21 days of age after discharge from the Special Care Unit of Mulago hospital, Kampala. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted assessing weight recovery of 235 LBW infants attending the Kangaroo Clinic in the Special Care Unit of Mulago Hospital between January and April 2010. Infants aged 21 days with a documented birth weight and whose mothers gave consent to participate were included in the study. Baseline information was collected on demographic characteristics, history on pregnancy, delivery and postnatal outcome through interviews. Pertinent infant information like gestation age, diagnosis and management was obtained from the medical records and summarized in the case report forms. Results Of the 235 LBW infants, 113 (48.1% had not regained their birth weight by 21 days. Duration of hospitalization for more than 7 days (AOR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.3 - 7.6; p value Conclusion Failure to regain birth weight among LBW infants by 21 days of age is a common problem in Mulago Hospital occurring in almost half of the neonates attending the Kangaroo clinic. Currently, the burden of morbidity in this group of high-risk infants is undetected and unaddressed in many developing countries. Measures for consideration to improve care of these infants would include; discharge after regaining birth weight and use of total parenteral nutrition. However, due to the pressure of space, keeping the baby and mother is not feasible at the moment hence the need for a strong community system to boost care of the infant. Close

  4. Role of maternal serum homocysteine level on fetal birth weight

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    Afrina Begum

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study has been conducted to investigate the role of plasma homocysteine on neonatal birth weight.Methods: This prospective cross sectional analytical study was conducted in the inpatient department of obstetrics & gynecology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital on 120 term, singleton pregnant women. Pregnant women with plasma total bomocysteine >15 µmol/L were termed as having hyperhomocysteinemia (case, n = 25, while women with plasma total homocysteine ≤15 µmol/L were considered as notmal (control, n = 95. Neonatal birth weight was the main outcome variable which was compared between case and control groups. Result: The entire women in the case group were in their 3rd decades, while 80% of the control group were in this age range and 10% was below 20 and 10% above 30 years old. The cases were older than the controls (25.6 ± 2.0 vs. 23.7 ± 4.7 years, p = 0.051 . Over three-quarters (76% of the cases were SSC level educated, while majority (84.2% of the controls was primary level educated. Eighty percent of the neonates born of mothers with hyperhomocysteinemia were of low birth weight as opposed to only 9.5% in the control group. The mothers of case-group carry nearly 40(95% of CI= 11.5 - 126.4 times higher risk of having low birth weight babies than the mothers with nonnal homocysteine level. The mean birth weight of neonates of case group was observed to be significantly higher (2.8 ± 0.4 kg than that of control group (2.2 ± 0.4 kg. Correlation between the two variables shows that as plasma homocysteine level of women increases the birth weight of neonates decreases bearing an inverse relationship between these two variables (r = - 0.326, p < 0.001 . Conclusion: Pregnant women with elevated plasma total homocysteine carry much higher risk of giving low birth weight babies than the women with normal or low level of total homocysteine. Thus, measuring total homcysteine during pregnancy is of much clinical importance as

  5. Effect of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy on neonatal birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Sarafraz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim &Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 hrs per day. Fasting individuals abstain from drinking liquids and eating foods. Manypregnant women and gynecologists are concerned about the possible complicationsassociated with fasting and effects on fetal health. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on neonatalbirth weight.Materials and Methods: The current historical cohort study was performed on pregnant women attending maternity hospitals in Kashan in 2008. Twofasting and non-fasting groups were compared. Multiple pregnancies and gestational age less than 37 weeks were considered as the exclusion criteria. In fasting and non-fasting groups, age, parity, gestational age, body mass index (BMI, mother's occupation, prenatal care attendance and intended or unintended pregnancy were matched. For the statistical analysis of the data, covariance analysis and SPSS v16.0 were used. Results: In this study, 293 cases were evaluated among whom 31.7% did notfast. In the two groups, the mean age, gestational age, parity and weight gain during pregnancy were not significantly different. The mean birth weight was 3338 g (±498 g and 3343 g (± 339 g in fasting and non-fasting groups respectively. The results showed that the mean birth weight of the neonates in fasting and non-fasting groups was not significantly different (p=0. 931 Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that there is no significant relationship between the neonatal birth weight and maternal fasting during pregnancy. Therefore we declare thatfasting for pregnant women who receive prenatal care has no effects on neonatal birth weight.

  6. Effect of Ramadan Fasting during Pregnancy on Neonatal Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1Nahid Sarafraz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim &Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 hrs per day. Fasting individuals abstain from drinking liquids and eating foods. Manypregnant women and gynecologists are concerned about the possible complicationsassociated with fasting and effects on fetal health. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on neonatalbirth weight. Materials and Methods: The current historical cohort study was performed on pregnant women attending maternity hospitals in Kashan in 2008. Twofasting and non-fasting groups were compared. Multiple pregnancies and gestational age less than 37 weeks were considered as the exclusion criteria. In fasting and non-fasting groups, age, parity, gestational age, body mass index (BMI, mother's occupation, prenatal care attendance and intended or unintended pregnancy were matched. For the statistical analysis of the data, covariance analysis and SPSS v16.0 were used. Results: In this study, 293 cases were evaluated among whom 31.7% did notfast. In the two groups, the mean age, gestational age, parity and weight gain during pregnancy were not significantly different. The mean birth weight was 3338 g (±498 g and 3343 g (± 339 g in fasting and non-fasting groups respectively. The results showed that the mean birth weight of the neonates in fasting and non-fasting groups was not significantly different (p=0. 931 Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that there is no significant relationship between the neonatal birth weight and maternal fasting during pregnancy. Therefore we declare thatfasting for pregnant women who receive prenatal care has no effects on neonatal birth weight.

  7. IS LOW BIRTH WEIGHT ASSOCIATED WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutan Nalini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Daily we see lots of still birth cases and the agony associated with it after carrying the fetus for so many months with the negative outcome it is quite disheartening. Malnutrition is quite rampant in the country as far as the females are concerned and in the name of the religion and rituals, it complicates the issue further. If the mother is malnourished, the chance of low birth weight baby is high. OBJECTIVES To correlate the prevalence of cardiac anomalies in low birth weight fetuses. MATERIAL AND METHOD The study was carried out in 40 stillbirth fetuses with detailed account of nutritional status of the mother, consanguinity, history of previous pregnancies, miscarriages, socio-economic status and exposure to drugs/radiation. The number of cases with fetus having cardiac anomalies was quite significant. RESULTS Out of total 40 stillbirth fetuses, 29 (72.5% stillbirths were from less than 2.5kg and 11 (27.5% were from more than 2.5kg. Cardiac anomalies were present in 16 and 02 cases respectively. Fused heart-01, mesocardia-01, Dextrocardia with CORV-02, Interrupted aortic arch-02, Abnormal origin of right subclavian artery-01, Tetralogy of Fallot-01, VSD-07, ASD-01, transposition of great vessels-01, persistent truncus arteriosus with tricuspid atresia, elongated hypertrophied abnormally positioned Rt. Atrium, rudimentary Rt. Ventricle-01, mal-attachment of ductus arteriosus-03, double superior vena cava-01, dilated caval system-01. CONCLUSION Considering the high incidence of cardiac anomalies in fetuses of low birth weight, we must try to create awareness and support the expectant mothers to avoid the low birth weight babies and thus the congenital anomalies.

  8. The neglected sociobehavioral risk factors of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Momeni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW is one of the most important health indicators in the world. It has certain known and unknown causes. The present study was designed to evaluate the role of socio-behavioral factors on neonatal birth weight.Methods: The current case-control study was conducted on 300 eligible neonates (150 LBW infants as cases and 150 normal body weight infants as controls in 2015. The national pregnancy care forms of the neonates kept in heath care centers in Kerman were used. The data was analyzed running Independent samples t-test, Chi square test, and Fisher’s Exact test in SPSS. The significance level was set as 0.05.Results: Preterm birth (P<0.001, number of primary care during pregnancy (P=0.001, mother’s age (P=0.049, consumption of supplements during pregnancy (P=0.03, and history of substance abuse in mothers (P=0.03 were found to have significant roles in having LBW neonate.Conclusion: Identifying the sociobehavioral risk factors of Preterm labor and modifying them to prevent preterm birth are essential approaches to prevent LBW. Governments should pay special attention to nutritional status of teenage and young girls to have healthy mothers and babies in the future. Women of childbearing age should be screened and educated about risky behaviors. Pregnancy care and support should be delivered to all pregnant women according to the standard methods.Keywords: Low Birth Weight; Risk Factors; Behavior; Preterm Labor

  9. Gestational Weight Gain and Fetal Birth Weight in Rural Regions of Rasht/Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Panahandeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Proper nutrition during pregnancy is essential for optimal fetal growth. Investigation of the relation between pregnancy weight gain and birth weight in rural regions of Rasht, center of Guilan Province in Iran, was the purpose of this study. Methods: In this cohort study, prenatal data of 918 women who attended local health centers with singleton term pregnancies were recorded. Maternal demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, total pregnancy weight gain and birth weight were recorded by health workers. The women were stratified based on their pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI into four groups: underweight women, women with normal weight, overweight women and obese women. The relation between weight gain and low birth weight (LBW, birth weight <2500 g and macrosomia (birth weight >4000 g was studied in these four groups. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, independent t-test, Pearson correlation and logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals. Findings: More than 50% of underweight women and women with normal weight and almost 30% of overweight and obese women gained weight less than what is mentioned in the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommendations. The incidence rate of LBW was 7.1% and that of macrosomia was 5%. Mean weight gain of women with LBW was significantly less than mean weight gain of women who had an infant with a birth weight more than 2500 g (P=0.002. Women who gained weight less than the recommended range had higher rate of LBW in their infants (P=0.01 and the incidence of macrosomia in women with a weight gain above the recommended weight was higher than that in others (P=0.012. Pregnancy weight gain less than what is mentioned in the IOM guideline was the only predictor for LBW (OR=2.79, CI=1.16-6.73, P=0.02. Conclusion:Pregnancy weight gains less than what is mentioned in the IOM recommendation was a significant predictor of LBW, regardless of pre-pregnancy BMI.

  10. Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight; Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Önal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW (defined as a birth weight of less than 2500 grams is associated with fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, impaired cognitive development, and the advent of chronic diseases in later life. The global incidence of LBW is around 15,5%. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for low birthweight in the centre of Denizli province. A case-control study was carried out and mothers of 295 newborns with birthweight between 1500-2499 g (cases and 302 newborns with birthweight between 2500-4000 g (controls were analyzed. The questionnare was applied to women using face to face technics between July,2009 and June,2010 . The questionnare included birth weight and birth lenght of newborn, the date of last pregnacy and type of last delivery, profile of mother, anthropometric measures, life styles, habits, addictions, sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics of mother and father of newborn. Analysis included frequency and percent distributions, means, standart deviations. In group comparisions for categorical variable, chi square test and odds ratio (OR was used. Logistic regression model was performed for some selected risk factors. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program, Version 10 was used for data entry and analysis. When backward logistic regression model was performed for some selected factors in relation to low birth weight, there was a positive relationship between multiple pregnancy [OR(95%CI 18.50 (8.54, 40.39], BMI lower than 20 kg/m2 of mother before pregnancy andemployment status [OR(95%CI 1.98 (1.23, 3.19], weight gain of 7 kg and under during pregnanacy [OR(95%CI 2.49 (1.56, 3.96], a history of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 3.44 (1.69, 7.02], first- degree and second- degree relative’s histories of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 4.28 (2.61, 6.94], X- ray exposure in the three months before and

  11. Epigenome-wide association study on identical twins discordant for birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Christiansen, Lene

    induces persistent epigenetic modification detectable at adult ages, we performed a genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in peripheral blood of 150 pairs of identical Danish twins discordant for birth weight using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip featuring 485,000 CpG sites across...... the genome. After quality control and data preprocessing using free R package minfi, data were analysed by a mixed effects model including fixed effect variables such as birth weight difference, age and sex of twin pairs; random effect variables such as batch, well, and sample position on the array, etc....... Statistical analysis revealed 12 probes with p valuetwins is not associated...

  12. Decision-making under risk and ambiguity in low-birth-weight pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, Eimear; Kraak, Lynn; van den Broek, Jan; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) in humans is a risk factor for later cognitive, behavioural and emotional problems. In pigs, LBW is associated with higher mortality, but little is known about consequences for surviving piglets. Alteration in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in LBW pigs suggests a

  13. Glomerular number and function are influenced by spontaneous and induced low birth weight in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreuder, Michiel F; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Fodor, M

    2005-01-01

    A link exists between low birth weight and diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and insulin resistance. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been used to explain this association and has been shown to lead to a nephron endowment in humans. A reduction...... in glomerular number has been described in animal models with induced low birth weight as well but not in animals with spontaneous low birth weight. It therefore is debatable whether the models are suitable. The effect on glomerular number and size was studied in rats with naturally occurring IUGR...... and experimental IUGR, induced by bilateral uterine artery ligation. Design-based stereologic methods were used. Urinary protein excretion was determined as a measure of renal damage. Results showed a decrease of approximately 20% in glomerular number in both groups of IUGR (control 35,400, naturally occurring...

  14. Glomerular number and function are influenced by spontaneous and induced low birth weight in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreuder, Michiel F; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Fodor, M;

    2005-01-01

    A link exists between low birth weight and diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and insulin resistance. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been used to explain this association and has been shown to lead to a nephron endowment in humans. A reduction...... in glomerular number has been described in animal models with induced low birth weight as well but not in animals with spontaneous low birth weight. It therefore is debatable whether the models are suitable. The effect on glomerular number and size was studied in rats with naturally occurring IUGR...... and experimental IUGR, induced by bilateral uterine artery ligation. Design-based stereologic methods were used. Urinary protein excretion was determined as a measure of renal damage. Results showed a decrease of approximately 20% in glomerular number in both groups of IUGR (control 35,400, naturally occurring...

  15. Differential effects of cigarette smoking on birth weight by maternal body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz-Partington, Sean; Condous, George; Mongelli, Max

    2016-07-01

    Links between low birth weight and tobacco exposure in utero are well established, as are associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) and birth weight. This study further develops those relationships. In particular, this article analyses whether high maternal weight acts to dampen the previously established link between tobacco exposure and low birth weight. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken, reviewing the birth weights of 13,473 live singleton pregnancies born at a Sydney regional hospital between 1998 and 2003. Results demonstrated a statistically significant decline in reduced birth weight as BMI increased. That is, as body weight increases, tobacco use has a smaller effect on reducing birth weight. Inversely, the effect on reducing birth weight for each cigarette smoked by leaner women was greater. In effect, the adverse influence of tobacco use on birth weight appears to be modulated by increasing maternal BMI.

  16. Aquatic Activities During Pregnancy Prevent Excessive Maternal Weight Gain and Preserve Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Mariano; Mottola, Michelle F; Perales, Maria; Refoyo, Ignacio; Barakat, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of a supervised and regular program of aquatic activities throughout gestation on maternal weight gain and birth weight. A randomized clinical trial. Instituto de Obstetricia, Ginecología y Fertilidad Ghisoni (Buenos Aires, Argentina). One hundred eleven pregnant women were analyzed (31.6 ± 3.8 years). All women had uncomplicated and singleton pregnancies; 49 were allocated to the exercise group (EG) and 62 to the control group (CG). The intervention program consisted of 3 weekly sessions of aerobic and resistance aquatic activities from weeks 10 to 12 until weeks 38 to 39 of gestation. Maternal weight gain, birth weight, and other maternal and fetal outcomes were obtained by hospital records. Student unpaired t test and χ(2) test were used; P values ≤.05 indicated statistical significance. Cohen's d was used to determinate the effect size. There was a higher percentage of women with excessive maternal weight gain in the CG (45.2%; n = 28) than in the EG (24.5%; n = 12; odds ratio = 0.39; 95% confidence interval: 0.17-0.89; P = .02). Birth weight and other pregnancy outcomes showed no differences between groups. Three weekly sessions of water activities throughout pregnancy prevents excessive maternal weight gain and preserves birth weight. The clinicaltrial.gov identifier: NCT 02602106.

  17. Full-term newborns with normal birth weight requiring special care in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full-term newborns with normal birth weight requiring special care in a ... weight compared with preterm/low birth weight newborns that require special care at ... with normal birth weight and are associated with modifiable risk factors that can ...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON BIRTH WEIGHT IN BEETAL GOAT KIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Afzal and K. Javed1 and M. Shafiq

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Data on pedigree, breeding and performance records (N=1850 of Beetal goats maintained at the Angora Goat Farm Rakh Kharewala, District Layyah, Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar District. Okara and Livestock Experiment Station, Allahdad (Jahanian District Khenawal during the period from 1988 to 2000 were used. Least squares analysis revealed that year of birth, sire, flock, sex of kid and type of birth were significant (P<0.01 sources of variation for birth weight in Beetal kids. The kids born at Bahadurnagar were heavier (3.65 ± 0.13 kg as compared to the kids born at Allahdad (3.55 ± 0.08 kg or Rakh Kharewala (2.96 ± 0.05 kg. Birth weights for male and female kids were 3.48 ± 0.06 and 3.29 ± 0.06 kg, respectively. Single born kids were heavier (3.69 ± 0.06 kg than twins (3.37 ± 0.06 kg and triplets (3.08 ± 0.08 kg. There was an appreciable twining rate (47.9% in these flocks.

  19. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Karen M; Wisborg, Kirsten; Agerbo, Esben;

    2006-01-01

    for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term......AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with gestational ages of 34-36 completed weeks had a 70% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (rate ratio (RR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 2.5). Children with gestational ages below 34 completed weeks had an almost threefold increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.8 to 4.1). Children born at term...

  20. Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL Analysis for Production Traits of Birth Weight and Weight 360 days in Backcross Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENDANG TRI MARGAWATI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Four half-sib families (n = 382 consisting predominantly of ITT x Merino x Merino backcross progeny, including some F2 progeny were used to analyze QTL for two production traits (Birth weight = BW1 and Body weight at 360 days = BW360. The study exploited differences in weight performance between the Merino and ITT sheep. A total of 141 informative microsatellite markers were used in a genome-wide scan covering the 26 autosomal sheep chromosomes. QTL analysis was conducted online using QTL Express. This study reports the effect of QTL for birth weight on Chromosomes 5 (p < 0.05 at 112cM (0cM-128cM. Location of candidate genes for birth weight was predicted at the region of flanking markers MCM527-BMS1247. A QTL for BW360 days existed on Chromosome 18 (p < 0.01 at 104cM (25.0-125cM. Location of candidate genes related to production traits for body weight 360 days was predicted at the segment of flanking markers of CSSM018-TMR1. Only the QTL on Chromosome 18 retained significance (p < 0.01 under experiment-wide significance testing. This QTL region is being examined for candidate genes by investigating to the homologous human chromosomal segments.

  1. [Does shift work cause spontaneous abortion, preterm birth or low birth weight?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Viskum, Sven; Omland, Øyvind; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2007-03-05

    In Denmark 30% of females in the reproductive age regularly have shift work. 22 epidemiological papers were studied looking at associations between shift work and abortion, stillbirth, preterm birth, and birth weight. No convincing associations were observed between rotating shift work or fixed nightshift and negative pregnancy outcome. Some epidemiological support was found for a relation between fixed nightshift and late abortions/stillbirth. If fixed night work for all pregnant women is avoided, seven late abortion/stillbirths a year can be prevented. Fixed night work for pregnant women should be avoided.

  2. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born with ......, and children born at term with low birth weights (1500-2499 g) have an increased risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. These findings have important public health perspectives because the majority of preterm babies are born close to term.......AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with gestational ages of 34-36 completed weeks had a 70% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (rate ratio (RR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 2.5). Children with gestational ages below 34 completed weeks had an almost threefold increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.8 to 4.1). Children born at term...

  3. Early weight changes after birth and serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin level in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomohide; Nagasaki, Hiraku; Asato, Yoshihide; Ohta, Takao

    2011-12-01

    Extra-uterine growth retardation (EUGR) is associated with an increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases later in life. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between early weight change after birth in preterm infants and adiponectin (adn) multimeric complexes. Subjects included 28 preterm infants born between weeks 24 and 33 of gestation. Serum adn multimeric complexes and the anthropometric parameters were measured in preterm infants at birth and at corrected term. Bodyweight (BW) decreased during the first week of life, with birthweight restored at approximately 19 days after birth. Nineteen of the subjects had EUGR at corrected term. Total (T)-adn, high-molecular-weight (H)-adn, and the ratio of H-adn to T-adn (H/T-adn) were significantly elevated at corrected term than at birth. Postmenstrual age, birthweight, birth length and lowest BW after birth were positively correlated with H-adn and H/T-adn. Weight reduction after birth was negatively correlated with H-adn. Age to restore birthweight was negatively correlated with T-adn, H-adn and H/T-adn. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated age to restore birthweight as the major predictor of T-adn and H-adn. Early weight changes after birth may alter serum adn level in preterm infants at corrected term. The appropriate nutritional support in the early postnatal period could reduce the prevalence of EUGR and the future risk for cardiometabolic diseases. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....

  5. Elevated progesterone and its impact on birth weight after fresh embryo transfers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yetunde Ibrahim; Miriam J Haviland; Michele R Hacker; Alan S Penzias; Kim L Thornton; Denny Sakkas

    2017-01-01

    .... Generalized linear models were used to calculate mean birth weight and z-scores. Results We analyzed 817 fresh IVF embryo transfers in which birth weight, gestational age, and progesterone (ng/mL...

  6. Trends of preterm birth and low birth weight in Japan: a one hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorifuji Takashi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proportions of preterm birth (PTB, ie., delivered before 37 gestational weeks and low birth weight (LBW, ie., birth weight less than 2500 g at delivery have been rising in developed countries. We sought to examine the factors contributing to the rise in Japan, with particular focus on the effects of obstetric interventions. Methods We used a database maintained by one large regional hospital in Shizuoka, Japan. We restricted the analysis to mothers who delivered live singleton births from 1997 to 2010 (n = 19,221. We assessed the temporal trends in PTB and LBW, then divided the study period into four intervals and compared the proportions of PTB and LBW. We also compared the newborns’ outcomes between the intervals. Results PTB, in particular medically indicated PTB, increased considerably. The increase was largely explained by changes in caesarean sections. The neonatal outcomes did not worsen, and instead the Apgar scores and proportions requiring neonatal intensive care unit (NICU admission improved. In particular, the risks of NICU admission in the interval from 2007 to 2010 were decreased among all births [odds ratio (OR: 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.75, 0.95] and medically indicated births (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.68 compared with the interval from 1997 to 2000. Conclusions Despite the increases in PTB as well as LBW, the present study suggests benefits of obstetric interventions. Rather than simple categorization of PTB or LBW, indicators such as perinatal mortality or other outcomes may be more appropriate for evaluation of perinatal health in developed countries.

  7. Social competence of 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) has long been used as an indicator of public health. Low birth weight is not a proxy for any dimension of other maternal or perinatal health outcomes. Low birth weight infants require special care, and have more chronic conditions, learning delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders compared to infants of normal birth weight (NBW). Social competence is viewed as a primary component of healthy function and development and is an important predictor o...

  8. Validity of recalled v. recorded birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shenkin, S. D.; Zhang, M.G.; De, G.; Mathur, S.; Mina, T.H.; Reynolds, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes. If birth weight records are not available, studies may use recalled birth weight. It is unclear whether this is reliable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing recalled with recorded birth weights. We followed the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EM...

  9. Birth weight and exposure to kitchen wood smoke during pregnancy in rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Erick; Bruce, Nigel; Delgado, Hernán

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to establish whether domestic use of wood fuel is associated with reduced birth weight, independent of key maternal, social, and economic confounding factors. We studied 1,717 women and newborn children in rural and urban communities in rural Guatemala. We identified subjects through home births reported by traditional birth attendants in six rural districts (n = 572) and all public hospital births in Quetzaltenango city during the study period (n = 1,145). All were seen within 72 hr of delivery, and data were collected on the type of household fuel used, fire type, and socioeconomic and other confounding factors. Smoking among women in the study community was negligible. Children born to mothers habitually cooking on open fires (n = 861) had the lowest mean birth weight of 2,819 g [95% confidence interval (CI), 2,790-2,848]; those using a chimney stove (n = 490) had an intermediate mean of 2,863 g (95% CI, 2,824-2,902); and those using the cleanest fuels (electricity or gas, n = 365) had the highest mean of 2,948 g (95% CI, 2,898-2,998) (pstove), and 16.0% (electricity/gas), (trend (p = 0.08). Confounding factors were strongly associated with fuel type, but after adjustment wood users still had a birth weight 63 g lower (p = 0.05; 95% CI, 0.4-126). This is the first report of an association between biofuel use and reduced birth weight in a human population. Although there is potential for residual confounding despite adjustment, the better-documented evidence on passive smoking and a feasible mechanism through carbon monoxide exposure suggest this association may be real. Because two-thirds of households in developing countries still rely on biofuels and women of childbearing age perform most cooking tasks, the attributable risk arising from this association, if confirmed, could be substantial.

  10. Intergenerational predictors of birth weight in the Philippines: correlations with mother's and father's birth weight and test of maternal constraint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Kuzawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birth weight (BW predicts many health outcomes, but the relative contributions of genes and environmental factors to BW remain uncertain. Some studies report stronger mother-offspring than father-offspring BW correlations, with attenuated father-offspring BW correlations when the mother is stunted. These findings have been interpreted as evidence that maternal genetic or environmental factors play an important role in determining birth size, with small maternal size constraining paternal genetic contributions to offspring BW. Here we evaluate mother-offspring and father-offspring birth weight (BW associations and evaluate whether maternal stunting constrains genetic contributions to offspring birth size. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data include BW of offspring (n = 1,101 born to female members (n = 382 and spouses of male members (n = 275 of a birth cohort (born 1983-84 in Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines. Regression was used to relate parental and offspring BW adjusting for confounders. Resampling testing was used to evaluate whether false paternity could explain any evidence for excess matrilineal inheritance. In a pooled model adjusting for maternal height and confounders, parental BW was a borderline-significantly stronger predictor of offspring BW in mothers compared to fathers (sex of parent interaction p = 0.068. In separate multivariate models, each kg in mother's and father's BW predicted a 271±53 g (p25% and likely 50% would be needed to explain these differences. There was no interaction between maternal stature and maternal BW (interaction p = 0.520 or paternal BW (p = 0.545. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Each kg change in mother's BW predicted twice the change in offspring BW as predicted by a change in father's BW, consistent with an intergenerational maternal effect on offspring BW. Evidence for excess matrilineal BW heritability at all levels of maternal stature points to indirect genetic

  11. Does Mother's IQ Explain the Association between Birth Weight and Cognitive Ability in Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J.; Der, Geoff; Shenkin, Susan D.

    2005-01-01

    There is a significant association between birth weight and cognitive test scores in childhood, even among individuals born at term and with normal birth weight. The association is not explained by the child's social background. Here we examine whether mother's cognitive ability accounts for the birth weight-cognitive ability association. We…

  12. Experience in application of enriched breast milk in feeding children with very low birth weight

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    Panina O.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing of very low and extremely low birth weight infants is one of the most difficult problems of modern perinatol-ogy. It is impossible to carry out this task without organization of fee-ding of this group of children. The aim of our research was to study clinical efficiency of breast milk fortifiers administration (human milk fortifier when preterm infants feeding. Materials and methods. In consequence of this clinical research (with included 60 premature infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestational age with less than 1500g birth weight the following advantages before other types of feeding were revealed. Results. Mother and child solidarity in the course of breast feeding make deep favorable mutual emotional pressure. It was succeeded to keep all breast feeding advantages and to provide preterm infants special needs in feedstuffs. Human milk fortifiers administration provides higher body weight gain intensity; reduces length of stay in a hospital. It should not go unnoticed high tolerability and lack of complications at its medication usability was noted. Human milk fortifier divorce with small quantity of breast milk and that is especially important for very low and extremely low birth weight infants feeding. Conclusion. All above-mentioned allows recommending human milk fortifiers «PRE NAN FM 85» administration for breast milk in neonatal practice

  13. Mathematics deficiencies in children with very low birth weight or very preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Anderson, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW, mathematics disabilities or deficiencies (MD) and higher rates of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) than normal birth weight term-born children (NBW, >2500 g and >36 weeks GA). MD are found even in children without global disorders in cognition or neurosensory status and when IQ is controlled, and they are associated with other learning problems and weaknesses in perceptual motor abilities and executive function. Factors related to poorer mathematics outcomes include lower birth weight and GA, neonatal complications, and possible abnormalities in brain structure. While little is known about the nature of MD in these children, studies of MLD in other neurodevelopmental disorders and in children with learning disabilities provide useful models for further investigation. Further investigation of the neuropsychological and neuropathological correlates of distinct types of mathematics difficulties is also needed. Studies along these lines will yield information about the unique features of MD in children with VLBW/VPTB and about the nature and origins of poor mathematics achievement more generally.

  14. Impact of Second Trimester Maternal Dietary Intake on Gestational Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malshani L. Pathirathna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor maternal nutrition is a major contributor to the high incidence of low birth weight deliveries in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the impact of second trimester maternal dietary intake on gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight. A longitudinal study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. Participants were 141 pregnant women at 18–24 weeks gestation who were followed up until delivery. Maternal dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire at 21.1 ± 1.8 gestational weeks. Gestational weight gain was examined at the end of 28 weeks gestation and at the end of pregnancy. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated using NutriSurvey 2007 (EBISpro, Willstaett, Germany nutrient analysis software, modified for Sri Lankan foods. The mean total gestational weight gain of women with low carbohydrate intake (229–429 g/day was 2.2 kg less than that of women with moderate carbohydrate intake (430–629 g/day (95% confidence interval (CI 0.428–4.083 kg; p = 0.016. Similarly, babies of women with low carbohydrate intake were 312 g lighter compared with those of women with a moderate carbohydrate intake (95% CI 91–534 g; p = 0.006. Our results suggest that second trimester maternal carbohydrate intake has significant impacts on total gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight.

  15. The Effect of an Increased Minimum Wage on Infant Mortality and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Markowitz, Sara; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of state minimum wage laws on low birth weight and infant mortality in the United States. We estimated the effects of state-level minimum wage laws using a difference-in-differences approach on rates of low birth weight (minimum wage above the federal level was associated with a 1% to 2% decrease in low birth weight births and a 4% decrease in postneonatal mortality. If all states in 2014 had increased their minimum wages by 1 dollar, there would likely have been 2790 fewer low birth weight births and 518 fewer postneonatal deaths for the year.

  16. Predicting live birth, preterm delivery, and low birth weight in infants born from in vitro fertilisation: a prospective study of 144,018 treatment cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which baseline couple characteristics affect the probability of live birth and adverse perinatal outcomes after assisted conception is unknown.We utilised the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority database to examine the predictors of live birth in all in vitro fertilisation (IVF cycles undertaken in the UK between 2003 and 2007 (n = 144,018. We examined the potential clinical utility of a validated model that pre-dated the introduction of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI as compared to a novel model. For those treatment cycles that resulted in a live singleton birth (n = 24,226, we determined the associates of potential risk factors with preterm birth, low birth weight, and macrosomia. The overall rate of at least one live birth was 23.4 per 100 cycles (95% confidence interval [CI] 23.2-23.7. In multivariable models the odds of at least one live birth decreased with increasing maternal age, increasing duration of infertility, a greater number of previously unsuccessful IVF treatments, use of own oocytes, necessity for a second or third treatment cycle, or if it was not unexplained infertility. The association of own versus donor oocyte with reduced odds of live birth strengthened with increasing age of the mother. A previous IVF live birth increased the odds of future success (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.46-1.71 more than that of a previous spontaneous live birth (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.99-1.24; p-value for difference in estimate <0.001. Use of ICSI increased the odds of live birth, and male causes of infertility were associated with reduced odds of live birth only in couples who had not received ICSI. Prediction of live birth was feasible with moderate discrimination and excellent calibration; calibration was markedly improved in the novel compared to the established model. Preterm birth and low birth weight were increased if oocyte donation was required and ICSI was not used. Risk of macrosomia increased with advancing

  17. Predicting live birth, preterm delivery, and low birth weight in infants born from in vitro fertilisation: a prospective study of 144,018 treatment cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2011-01-04

    The extent to which baseline couple characteristics affect the probability of live birth and adverse perinatal outcomes after assisted conception is unknown. We utilised the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority database to examine the predictors of live birth in all in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycles undertaken in the UK between 2003 and 2007 (n = 144,018). We examined the potential clinical utility of a validated model that pre-dated the introduction of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) as compared to a novel model. For those treatment cycles that resulted in a live singleton birth (n = 24,226), we determined the associates of potential risk factors with preterm birth, low birth weight, and macrosomia. The overall rate of at least one live birth was 23.4 per 100 cycles (95% confidence interval [CI] 23.2-23.7). In multivariable models the odds of at least one live birth decreased with increasing maternal age, increasing duration of infertility, a greater number of previously unsuccessful IVF treatments, use of own oocytes, necessity for a second or third treatment cycle, or if it was not unexplained infertility. The association of own versus donor oocyte with reduced odds of live birth strengthened with increasing age of the mother. A previous IVF live birth increased the odds of future success (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.46-1.71) more than that of a previous spontaneous live birth (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.99-1.24); p-value for difference in estimate live birth, and male causes of infertility were associated with reduced odds of live birth only in couples who had not received ICSI. Prediction of live birth was feasible with moderate discrimination and excellent calibration; calibration was markedly improved in the novel compared to the established model. Preterm birth and low birth weight were increased if oocyte donation was required and ICSI was not used. Risk of macrosomia increased with advancing maternal age and a history of previous live births

  18. Experience of early breast milk feeding in preterm very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Z; Islam, Q R; Roy, S; Akhter, N; Hoque, M M

    2012-04-01

    Although human milk is generally accepted as the gold standard for the feeding of term infants, its use in the preterm and very low birth weight (VLBW) infants particularly in the initial period of birth has been more controversial. Little is known about the risks and benefits of early introduction of breast feeding on preterm VLBW infants. The primary object of this study was to evaluate the safety and benefit of early breast milk feeding in preterm VLBW newborns during their initial hospitalization periods. Therefore a prospective observational study was conducted among 37 preterm VLBW infants who were admitted to the Neonatal ward of Sir Salimullah Medical College and Mitford Hospital during the period of February 15th to July 25th, 2003. Oral feeding with breast milk was started within one hour of birth, and weight gain, feeding tolerance, nosocomial infection rate as well as other associated problems of pre-maturity, and postnatal growth curve were recorded upto 16th postnatal day. Seventy three percent of the newborns tolerate breast milk well from the very beginning, and the rest did not tolerate initially but all of them tolerate within 24 hours of birth. Infants had less initial weight loss (20 ± 10 gm) and faster recovery of birth weight. They regained their birth weight at 12th postnatal day. Hyper-bilirubinaemia was found in only 22% cases, and was observed in the group who initially didn't tolerate breast milk and was on intravenous fluid. Nobody developed symptomatic hypoglycemia or necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Two cases of sepsis and another two cases of minor infection like conjunctivitis and oral thrush have occurred. In conclusion it can be said that early breast milk feeding is safe in preterm VLBW infants and it helps to promote growth and reduce the need for intravenous line.

  19. Polymorphisms in FTO and MAF Genes and Birth Weight, BMI, Ponderal Index, Weight Gain in a Large Cohort of Infants with a Birth Weight below 1500 Grams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Haller

    Full Text Available The FTO gene, located on chromosome 16q12.2, and the MAF gene, located on chromosome 16q22-23, were identified as genes harboring common variants with an impact on obesity predisposition. We studied the association of common variants with birth weight, gain of body weight, body mass index (BMI, Ponderal index and relevant neonatal outcomes in a large German cohort of infants with a birth weight below 1500 grams.The single nucleotide polymorphisms rs9939609 (FTO gene and rs1424233 (MAF gene were genotyped using allelic discrimination assays in a prospective multicenter cohort study conducted in 15 neonatal intensive care units in Germany from September 2003 until January 2008. DNA samples were extracted from buccal swabs according to standard protocols.1946 infants were successfully genotyped at FTO and 2149 infants at MAF. Allele frequencies were not significantly different from other European cohorts. The polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The polymorphisms did not show associations with birth weight, BMI and Ponderal Index at discharge, and weight gain, neither testing for a dominant, additive nor for a recessive model.Since an association of the polymorphisms with weight gain has been demonstrated in multiple populations, the lack of association in a population of preterm infants with regular tube feeding after birth and highly controlled feeding volumes provides evidence for the hypothesis that these polymorphisms affect food intake behavior and hunger rather than metabolism and energy consumption.

  20. Body composition of preschool children and relation to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Costa Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.

  1. Cord Blood Metabolome Is Highly Associated with Birth Weight, but Less Predictive for Later Weight Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hellmuth

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Fetal metabolism may be changed by the exposure to maternal factors, and the route to obesity may already set in utero. Cord blood metabolites might predict growth patterns and later obesity. We aimed to characterize associations of cord blood with birth weight, postnatal weight gain, and BMI in adolescence. Methods: Over 700 cord blood samples were collected from infants participating in the German birth cohort study LISAplus. Glycerophospholipid fatty acids (GPL-FA, polar lipids, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, and amino acids were analyzed with a targeted, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based metabolomics platform. Cord blood metabolites were related to growth factors by linear regression models adjusted for confounding variables. Results: Cord blood metabolites were highly associated with birth weight. Lysophosphatidylcholines C16:1, C18:1, C20:3, C18:2, C20:4, C14:0, C16:0, C18:3, GPL-FA C20:3n-9, and GPL-FA C22:5n-6 were positively related to birth weight, while higher cord blood concentrations of NEFA C22:6, NEFA C20:5, GPL-FA C18:3n-3, and PCe C38:0 were associated with lower birth weight. Postnatal weight gain and BMI z-scores in adolescents were not significantly associated with cord blood metabolites after adjustment for multiple testing. Conclusion: Potential long-term programming effects of the intrauterine environment and metabolism on later health cannot be predicted with profiling of the cord blood metabolome.

  2. Birth weight and adult bone metabolism are unrelated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Morten; Petersen, Inge Lund; Andersen, Thomas Levin

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Low birth weight (BW) has been associated with poor bone health in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between BW and bone mass and metabolism in adult BW discordant monozygotic twins (MZ). METHODS: 153 BW extremely discordant MZ twin-pairs were...... recruited from the Danish Twin Registry. Serum vitamin D (25OHD) and bone turnover markers (BTM) P1NP, 1CTP, and CTX were quantified. Femoral neck, total hip, lumbar spine, and whole body bone mineral density (FN-BMD, TH-BMD, LS-BMD, and WB-BMD) were measured using DXA. Twins were studied as single...

  3. The effects of maternal weight gain patterns on term birth weight in African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vinod K; Hobel, Calvin J; Sing, Charles F

    2010-08-01

    The goals of our study were (1) to estimate the trends in maternal weight gain patterns and (2) to estimate the influence of variation in maternal weight and rate of weight gain over different time periods in gestation on variation in birth weight in African-American and non-African-American gravidas. Data from a prospective cohort study in which pregnant women were monitored at multiple time points during pregnancy were analysed. Maternal weight was measured at three times during pregnancy: preconception (W(0)); 16-20 weeks gestation (W(1)); 30-36 weeks gestation (W(2)), in a cohort of 435 women with full-term singleton pregnancies. The relationship between gestational age-adjusted birth weight (aBW) and measures of maternal weight and rate of weight gain across pregnancy was estimated using a multivariable longitudinal regression analysis stratified on African-American race. The aBW was significantly associated with maternal weight measured at any visit in both strata. For African-American women, variation in aBW was significantly associated with variation in the rate of maternal weight gain in the first half of pregnancy (W(01)) but not the rate of maternal weight gain in the second half of pregnancy (W(12)); while for non-African-American women, variation in aBW was significantly associated with W(12) but not W(01). Factors influencing the relationship between aBW and maternal weight gain patterns depend on the context of the pregnancy defined by race. Clinical decisions and recommendations about maternal weight and weight gain during pregnancy may need to account for such heterogeneity.

  4. Maternal anti-HLA class I antibodies are associated with reduced birth weight in thrombocytopenic neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, J; Husebekk, A; Acharya, G; Flo, K; Stuge, T B; Skogen, B; Straume, B; Tiller, H

    2016-02-01

    In this comparative cross-sectional study, possible associations between maternal anti-HLA class I antibodies and birth weight in neonatal thrombocytopenia are explored. Although commonly detected in pregnancies and generally regarded as harmless, it has been suggested that such antibodies might be associated with fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT). As a link between FNAIT due to human platelet antigen 1a-specific antibodies and reduced birth weight in boys has previously been demonstrated, we wanted to explore whether maternal anti-HLA class I antibodies might also affect birth weight. To examine this, suspected cases of FNAIT referred to the Norwegian National Unit for Platelet Immunology during the period 1998-2009 were identified. Pregnancies where the only finding was maternal anti-HLA class I antibodies were included. An unselected group of pregnant women participating in a prospective study investigating maternal-fetal hemodynamics at the University Hospital North Norway during the years 2006-2010 served as controls. Twenty-nine percent of controls had anti-HLA class I antibodies. The thrombocytopenic neonates had a significantly lower adjusted birth weight (linear regression, P=0.036) and significantly higher odds of being small for gestational age (OR=6.72, P<0.001) compared with controls. Increasing anti-HLA class I antibody levels in the mother were significantly associated with lower birth weight and placental weight among thrombocytopenic neonates, but not among controls. These results indicate that maternal anti-HLA class I antibodies in thrombocytopenic neonates are associated with reduced fetal growth. Further studies are needed to test if placental function is affected.

  5. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants

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    Firas S. Azzeh

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infants with low birth weights are provided with hospital nutrition support to enhance their survivability and body weights. However, different hospitals have different nutrition support formulas. Therefore, the effectiveness of these nutrition support formulas should be investigated. Objective: To assess the effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants at Al-Noor hospital, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October, 2010 and December, 2012. Three hundred newborns were recruited from Al-Noor Hospital in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Infants were selected according to their birth weights and were divided equally into three groups; (i Low Birth Weight (LBW infants (15012500 g birth weight, (ii Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW infants (1001-1500 g birth weight and (iii Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW infants ( 0.05 were observed among groups. Serum calcium, phosphorus and potassium levels at discharge were higher (p < 0.05 than that at birth for ELBW and VLBW groups; while sodium level decreased in ELBW group to be within normal ranges. Albumin level was improved (p < 0.05 in ELBW group. Conclusion: Health care management for low birth weight infants in Al-Noor Hospital was not sufficient to achieve normal growth rate for low birth weight infants, while biochemical indicators were remarkably improved in all groups.

  6. Probiotics Prevent Late-Onset Sepsis in Human Milk-Fed, Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arianna Aceti; Luca Maggio; Isadora Beghetti; Davide Gori; Giovanni Barone; Maria Luisa Callegari; Maria Pia Fantini; Flavia Indrio; Fabio Meneghin; Lorenzo Morelli; Gianvincenzo Zuccotti; Luigi Corvaglia; on behalf of the Italian Society of Neonatology

    2017-01-01

    ... (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. exclusive formula or mixed feeding). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics and reporting on LOS were included in the systematic...

  7. Screening of congenital hypothyroidism in preterm, low birth weight and very low birth weight neonates: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Mahin; Hovsepian, Silva; Ansari, Arman; Keikha, Mojtaba; Khalighinejad, Pooyan; Niknam, Negar

    2017-07-22

    Evidence from different screening programs indicated that the rate of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) was higher in pre-term and low-birth-weight (LBW) newborns than normal ones. Incomplete development of hypothalamic-pituitary axis in this group of neonates results in the delayed rise of TSH and missing cases with CH. Hence, there is a great need for a practicable systematic screening method for proper diagnosis of CH in this group of neonates. In this review, we systematically reviewed papers with the following key words ([Congenital Hypothyroidism AND Screening AND Thyroxine AND Thyroid Stimulating Hormone AND Low Birth Weight AND Premature]) in international electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. After quality assessment of selected documents, data of finally included papers were extracted. In this review, 1452 papers (PubMed: 617; Scopus: 714; Google scholar: 121) were identified through electronic database search. One hundred and ninety four articles were assessed for eligibility, from which 36 qualified articles were selected for final evaluation. From the reviewed articles, 38.9%, 11.11% and 8.3% recommended rescreening in this group of neonates, lowering the screening cutoff of TSH and using cutoffs according to the gestational age, respectively. Some of them (13.9%) recommended using both TSH and T4 for screening of preterm infants. After reviewing available data, we recommend repeating the screening test in pre-term, LBW and very-low- birth-weight (VLBW) infants at age of two, six and ten weeks by measuring TSH and FT4 levels simultaneously and considering TSH = 10 mU/L as the cutoff level for positive and suspicious cases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum Infections Are Associated With Maternal Anemia, Premature Births, and Low Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Gilles; Moussiliou, Azizath; Luty, Adrian J F; Cot, Michel; Fievet, Nadine; Massougbodji, Achille; Deloron, Philippe; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise

    2015-05-15

    Molecular, as opposed to microscopic, detection measures the real prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infections. Such occult infections are common during pregnancy but their impact on pregnancy outcomes is unclear. We performed a longitudinal study to describe that impact. In a cohort of 1037 Beninese pregnant women, we used ultrasound to accurately estimate gestational ages. Infection with P. falciparum, hemoglobin concentration, use of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) for malaria, and other parameters were recorded during pregnancy. Using multivariate analyses, we evaluated the impact of submicroscopic infections on maternal anemia, premature birth, and low birth weight. At inclusion, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microscopy detected infection in 40% and 16% of women, respectively. The proportion infected declined markedly after 2 doses of IPTp but rebounded to 34% (by PCR) at delivery. Submicroscopic infections during pregnancy were associated with lower mean hemoglobin irrespective of gravidity, and with increased anemia risk in primigravidae (odds ratio [OR], 2.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], .98-5.07). Prospectively, submicroscopic infections at inclusion were associated with significantly increased risks of low birth weight in primigravidae (OR, 6.09; 95% CI, 1.16-31.95) and premature births in multigravidae (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.13-4.46). In this detailed longitudinal study, we document the deleterious impact of submicroscopic P. falciparum parasitemia during pregnancy on multiple pregnancy outcomes. Parasitemia occurs frequently during pregnancy, but routine microscopic and rapid diagnostic tests fail to detect the vast majority of episodes. Our findings imply caution in any revision of the current strategies for prevention of pregnancy-associated malaria. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  9. Children born with very low birth weight show difficulties with sustained attention but not response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine A; Healy, Elaine; Dooley, Barbara; Kelly, Simon P; McNicholas, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Children born with very low birth weight perform poorly on executive function and attention measures. Any difficulties with sustained attention may underpin impairments in performance on tasks measuring higher order cognitive control. Previous sustained attention research in very low birth weight cohorts has used tasks that involve arousing stimuli, potentially spoiling the measure of sustained attention. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of very low birth weight and normal birth weight children on a well-controlled task of sustained attention. The Fixed and Random versions of the Sustained Attention to Response Task were given to 17 very low birth weight and 18 normal birth weight children. The very low birth weight group performed the Fixed and Random Sustained Attention to Response Tasks in a similar manner as the normal birth weight group on all measures except for the omission error and Slow Frequency Area under the Spectra variables on the Fixed Sustained Attention to Response Task. These measures index lapses in sustained attention that may be underpinned by declining arousal. The very low birth weight group showed no response inhibition deficits. Omission errors and slow-timescale response-time variability on predictable tasks may thus present sensitive indices of difficulties with sustained attention and arousal associated with premature birth and low birth weight.

  10. Maternal dietary glycaemic load during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, birth weight and postpartum weight retention: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Heitmann, Berit L.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2013-01-01

    -for-gestational age (LGA) or small-for-gestational age and postpartum weight retention (PPWR). Data were derived from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996–2002), including data on gestational and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and 18 months postpartum. Dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Information...

  11. Pathways of job style and preterm low birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Katayoun; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Kabir, Kourosh; Dolatian, Mahrokh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preterm and low birth weight tend to occur as a direct result of prenatal risky behaviors, diseases, as well as fetal exposure to harmful social and environmental factors. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between job style and preterm low birth weight. Methods The present case-control study was conducted in the Kamali hospital, Teheran, Iran in 2014. Participants included 156 mothers having a gestational age of less than 37 weeks and infants weighing less than 2500 gm. Additionally, the control group consisted of 433 mothers with a gestational age of over 37 weeks and having infants weighing between 2500–4000 gm. The data were collected using the Mother’s Lifestyle Scale (MLS) during pregnancy based on recognized social determinants of health and those developed by the researchers. The domain of the mother’s job style was assessed using a questionnaire consisting of 18 items on topics such as working conditions, job satisfaction, and perceived employer empathy. Higher overall scores in this instrument indicate the mother’s poorer job style. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Lisrel version 8.8 through a statistical path analysis. Results The model fit indices indicated that there was found to be high favorability, demonstrated that the model fit and that there were rational relationships (CFI=1, RMSEA=0.00), and showed that on the direct path that the mother’s job style had the most adverse effect (B=−0.3) with weight gain during pregnancy showing the most positive effect (B=0.16) on PLBW. The mother’s level of education was found to be the only variable that affected PLBW negatively in both the direct and indirect paths through the mother’s job style and household income (B=−0.17). Conclusion According the path analysis model, job style has a direct influence on preterm low birth weight. Thus, special consideration should be placed on aspects surrounding a mother’s job situation in order to

  12. The influence of high birth weight on the blood pressure during childhood-a cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of high birth weight(HBW) on blood pressure(BP) during childhood. Meth-ods A total of 1 435 couples with high or normal birth weight were selected from a birth cohort who were born between 1993 and 1995 in Wuxi,China and,followed between 2005 and 2007. A questionnaire survey was

  13. Evaluation of growth in very low birth weight preterm babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşinel, Serdar; Aldemir, Esin Yıldız; Kavuncuoğlu, Sultan; Yeşinel, Seda; Yıldız, Hayrettin

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate physical growth of very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm babies at a mean age of three years and to investigate the factors which affected growth. The factors including maternal problems, prenatal problems, early neonatal problems, nutrition, familial socioeconomical status and presence of chronic disease which affected catch-up growth in terms of height and weight in VLBW infants followed up in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of our hospital were examined. The target height formula was used in assessment of growht in height and the contribution of genetic properties was investigated. The points of the subjects on the growth curve were plotted according to the Percentile Curve of the Turkish Children prepared by Neyzi et al. The states of the subjects with and without intrauterine growth retardation (were compared. The study was intitiated after obtaining approval from the ethics committeee of our hospital (100/25.10.2005). One hundred and seventeen preterm babies (57 females and 60 males) with a mean adjusted age of 35.8±2.39 80 of whom were appropriate for gestational age (AGA), 28 of whom were symmetrical (small gestational age) SGA and 9 of whom were asymmetrical SGA were included in the study. The mean gestational age (GA) was found to be 31±2.16 weeks and the mean birth weight (BW) was found to be 1271±226 g. The mean current height was found to be 92.06±4.90 cm. The mean weight was found to be 12.98±1.94 kg. The mean target height was calculated to be 163.66±8.1 cm (157.20 cm for the girls and 170.20 cm for the boys). It was found that 15 preterm babies (12.8%) could not achieve the target height (girls: 6%, boys: 6.8%). The risk factors related with failure to achieve target height were found to include ventilator treatment, presence of chronic disease, advanced stage intracranial bleeding (ICB), posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, absence of breastfeeding, failure to sit at the table with the family and

  14. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some legacy and emerging environmental contaminants are suspected risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction. However, the evidence is equivocal, in part due to difficulties in disentangling the effects of mixtures. OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations between multiple correlated.......82 ng/g lipid), respectively; and MOiNP was associated with higher birth weight (46 g; 95% CI: -5, 97 per 2.22 ng/mL). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that several of the environmental contaminants, belonging to three chemical classes, may be independently associated with impaired fetal growth...

  15. Trends in gestational age and birth weight in Chile, 1991–2008. A descriptive epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Paulina O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gestational age and birth weight are the principal determinants of newborn’s health status. Chile, a middle income country traditionally has public policies that promote maternal and child health. The availability of an exhaustive database of live births has allows us to monitor over time indicators of newborns health. Methods This descriptive epidemiological study included all live births in Chile, both singleton and multiple, from 1991 through 2008. Trends in gestational age affected the rate of prevalence (% of preterm births ( Results Data from an exhaustive register of live births showed that the number of term and postterm births decreased and the number of multiple births increased significantly. Birth weights exceeding 4000 g did not vary. Total preterm births rose from 5.0% to 6.6%, with increases of 28% for the singletons and 31% for multiple births (p for trend  The overall rate of low birth weight infants ( Conclusions The gestational age and birth weight of live born child have significantly changed over the past two decades in Chile. Monitoring only overall rates of preterm births and low-birth-weight could provide restricted information of this important problem to public health. Monitoring them by specific categories provides a solid basis for planning interventions to reduce adverse perinatal outcomes. This epidemiological information also showed the need to assess several factors that could contribute to explain these trends, as the demographics changes, medical interventions and the increasing probability of survival of extremely and very preterm child.

  16. Maternal education, birth weight, and infant mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Timothy B; Fang, Fu; O'Neill, Erin; Dirienzo, Greg

    2013-04-01

    This research determines whether the observed decline in infant mortality with socioeconomic level, operationalized as maternal education (dichotomized as college or more, versus high school or less), is due to its "indirect" effect (operating through birth weight) and/or to its "direct" effect (independent of birth weight). The data used are the 2001 U.S. national African American, Mexican American, and European American birth cohorts by sex. The analysis explores the birth outcomes of infants undergoing normal and compromised fetal development separately by using covariate density defined mixture of logistic regressions (CDDmlr). Among normal births, mean birth weight increases significantly (by 27-108 g) with higher maternal education. Mortality declines significantly (by a factor of 0.40-0.96) through the direct effect of education. The indirect effect of education among normal births is small but significant in three cohorts. Furthermore, the indirect effect of maternal education tends to increase mortality despite improved birth weight. Among compromised births, education has small and inconsistent effects on birth weight and infant mortality. Overall, our results are consistent with the view that the decrease in infant death by socioeconomic level is not mediated by improved birth weight. Interventions targeting birth weight may not result in lower infant mortality.

  17. Birth weight pattern in the only referral teaching hospital in Manipur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoijam, B S; Thangjam, N D; Singh, K T; Devi, S R; Devi, R K P

    2006-01-01

    Birth weight is an important determinant for child development and survival. Birth weight has been reported to be increasing with the passing years. There is no such accurate documentation from the state of Manipur. This cross sectional study has been attempted to see the birth weight pattern in the largest referral hospital in Manipur. Birth weights of four reference years in the last 15 years have been extracted from the records and analysed. There were 19478 singleton deliveries in the four reference years. The mean birth weight showed a gradual increase in these years. There was a gain of 88.9 g in 2000 since 1986 in term deliveries. There were significant differences in the mean birth weights among the four years, even after stratifying for gestation. However, there was no significant decrease in the percentage of low birth weight babies in these years. Low birth weight showed significant association with parity, age of the mother, booking status, haemoglobin level, and literacy of the mother. Since there was no significant decrease in low birth weight babies in spite of increasing birth weight, there is a need for continued and committed effort to realize the goals of RCH.

  18. Elevated progesterone and its impact on birth weight after fresh embryo transfers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yetunde Ibrahim; Miriam J Haviland; Michele R Hacker; Alan S Penzias; Kim L Thornton; Denny Sakkas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to examine the association between serum progesterone levels on the day of hCG administration and birth weight among singleton live births after fresh embryo transfer...

  19. Validity of recalled v. recorded birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkin, S D; Zhang, M G; Der, G; Mathur, S; Mina, T H; Reynolds, R M

    2017-04-01

    Low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes. If birth weight records are not available, studies may use recalled birth weight. It is unclear whether this is reliable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing recalled with recorded birth weights. We followed the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) to May 2015. We included studies that reported recalled birth weight and recorded birth weight. We excluded studies investigating a clinical population. Two reviewers independently reviewed citations, extracted data, assessed risk of bias. Data were pooled in a random effects meta-analysis for correlation and mean difference. In total, 40 studies were eligible for qualitative synthesis (n=78,997 births from 78,196 parents). Agreement between recalled and recorded birth weight was high: pooled estimate of correlation in 23 samples from 19 studies (n=7406) was 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-0.93]. The difference between recalled and recorded birth weight in 29 samples from 26 studies (n=29,293) was small [range -86-129 g; random effects estimate 1.4 g (95% CI -4.0-6.9 g)]. Studies were heterogeneous, with no evidence for an effect of time since birth, person reporting, recall bias, or birth order. In post-hoc subgroup analysis, recall was higher than recorded birth weight by 80 g (95% CI 57-103 g) in low and middle income countries. In conclusion, there is high agreement between recalled and recorded birth weight. If birth weight is recalled, it is suitable for use in epidemiological studies, at least in high income countries.

  20. Altered Methylation of IGF2 Locus 20 Years after Preterm Birth at Very Low Birth Weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoliina Wehkalampi

    Full Text Available People born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW, ≤1500g have higher rates of risk factors for adult-onset diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. These risks may be mediated through epigenetic modification of genes that are critical to normal growth and development.We measured the methylation level of an imprinted insulin-like-growth-factor 2 (IGF2 locus (IGF2/H19 in young adults born preterm at VLBW and in their peers born at term. We studied 158 VLBW and 161 control subjects aged 18 to 27 years from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults. Methylation fraction at two IGF2 differentially methylated regions (DMRs - IGF2 antisense transcript (IGF2AS, also known as IGF2 DMR0 and last exon of IGF2 (IGF2_05, also known as IGF2 DMR2 - were measured with Sequenom Epityper. We used linear regression and adjustment for covariates to compare methylation fractions at these DMRs between VLBW and control subjects.At one IGF2AS CpG site, methylation was significantly lower in VLBW than in control subjects, mean difference -0.017 (95% CI; -0.028, -0.005, P = 0.004. Methylation at IGF2_05 was not different between the groups.Methylation of IGF2AS is altered 20 years after preterm birth at VLBW. Altered methylation may be a mechanism of later increased disease risk but more data are needed to indicate causality.

  1. The relationship between the weight of the placenta and birth weight of the neonate in a Nigerian Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar A Panti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been several publications from different countries on the relationship between the placental weight and birth weight of the neonate. However, such reports from Nigeria are lacking in literature. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the placental weight and birth weight of the neonate at term pregnancy in a Nigerian hospital. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital Sokoto between 1 st October 2008 and 31 st March 2009. Data gestational age at delivery (in weeks, parity, mode of delivery, fetal birth weight, placental weight, fetal gender, presence or absence of maternal medical diseases were obtained from 1009 singleton term deliveries who met the inclusion criteria for the study. The data was processed using EPI-INFO version 2005 and statistical analysis performed using one-way analysis of variance. A probability of 0.05 was set for statistical significance. Results: The placental birth weight ranged from 300 to 890 g with a mean of 590±82 g while the birth weight of the neonate ranged from 2030 to 5020 g with an average of 3275±469 g. The mean gestational age at delivery was 38.8±1.1 weeks while the mean placental birth weight ratio was 18.2±2.4 Increase in birth weight of the neonate was associated with corresponding increase in placental weight. However, as the gestational age at term advances the proportion of increase in the former was greater than that of the latter. Conclusions: There is a positive correlation between placental weight and birth weight of the neonate. However, the ratio of the placental and neonatal birth weights at term decreases with advancing gestational age. Thus, prolongation of pregnancy at term may adversely affect the fetus.

  2. Seasonal effects on gestation length and birth weight in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G H; Dodds, K G; Moore, G H; Bruce, G D

    1997-04-01

    Gestation lengths and birth weights were measured in 162 pregnancies in alpacas (Lama pacos) farmed in the high country of the South Island of New Zealand. A comparison of pregnancies from spring (mid-October to mid-December) and autumn (mid-February to late April) matings showed that gestation lengths were 12.5 days longer in spring (348.9 +/- 1.4 days vs. 336.4 +/- 1.2 days; P gestation length of 0.11 days (P gestation length. After adjustment for gestation length, crias born in autumn weighed 1.0 kg more than those born in spring (8.8 +/- 0.15 kg vs. 7.8 +/- 0.18 kg: P < 0.001). Female crias weighed 0.4 kg less than males at birth (P < 0.05). The results suggest that in this environment it will be difficult to maintain spring-mated females in a 12 month breeding cycle.

  3. Resolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection-related severe pulmonary hypertension in a very low-birth-weight infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiterna-Sperling, Cornelia; Hüseman, Dieter; Timme, Jens; Bührer, Christoph; Obladen, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) affects approximately 0.5% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults with poor prognosis. The effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy for treatment of HIV-related PAH (HIV-PAH) remains controversial. Little is known about the incidence, clinical course, and therapy options for PAH in HIV-1-infected pediatric patients. Here, we report the case of a preterm infant with HIV-related life-threatening PAH, which resolved after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

  4. Guidelines for Feeding Very Low Birth Weight Infants

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    Sourabh Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that feeding a very low birth weight (VLBW neonate is a fundamental and inevitable part of its management, this is a field which is beset with controversies. Optimal nutrition improves growth and neurological outcomes, and reduces the incidence of sepsis and possibly even retinopathy of prematurity. There is a great deal of heterogeneity of practice among neonatologists and pediatricians regarding feeding VLBW infants. A working group on feeding guidelines for VLBW infants was constituted in McMaster University, Canada. The group listed a number of important questions that had to be answered with respect to feeding VLBW infants, systematically reviewed the literature, critically appraised the level of evidence, and generated a comprehensive set of guidelines. These guidelines form the basis of this state-of-art review. The review touches upon trophic feeding, nutritional feeding, fortification, feeding in special circumstances, assessment of feed tolerance, and management of gastric residuals, gastro-esophageal reflux, and glycerin enemas.

  5. Clinical Outcome of Cytomegalovirus Infection on Low Birth Weight Infants

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    Ali Usman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a DNA virus and a marker of the herpes virus groups. This virus was found only in human and the infection occurs for a long time. The transmission of CMV infection to fetus/neonates is via congenital infections or perinatal infections. Clinical manifestation of symptomatic CMV infection of the fetus has two presentations, early and second early manifestations. Diagnosis of neonatal CMV infection may be done by serologic test based on detection of IgM of CMV infection. The objective of this study is to asses clinical outcome of CMV infection of low birth weight infants delivery with long term sequelae. An observational study was conducted since March 2010 until December 2011 in Advent and Hermina Pasteur Hospital, all subjects were low birth weight infants (LBWI. The inclusion criterias are all LBWI who were delivered in those hospital or were a referred neonates. The exclusion criterias are major congenital defect, which is not related to congenital CMV infection and neonates’ death before one week of life. Every neonate was examine both their physical and peripher blood count, glucose, Ca. Liver function test done for neonates with acute hepatitis and titre IgG and IgM CMV serial, head ultrasound serial and head CT scan/MRI used for babies with intracranial bleeding and hydrocephaly.  During the period of this study there were 50 cases of LBWI, consisted of 41 preterm babies, and 30 small for gestational age babies. Clinical manifestation of acute hepatitis were found in 20% subjects, all of them with the  elevation of liver function test. Microcephaly which occured in the first untill three weeks of life were 8%. Ventricular dilatation were 10% in the first week of life and increased up to 48% after three weeks. Cases with intracranial haemorrhage were found in 6% and 10% with cerebral calcification on head while sensorineural hearing loss were 8%. All of LBWI have 100% serorespon immune IgG. IgM CMV

  6. [Low birth weight and obesity: causal or casual association?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Adolfo Monteiro; Lima, Marília de Carvalho; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2015-01-01

    To present the conceptual foundations that explain how events occurring during intrauterine life may influence body development, emphasizing the interrelation between low birth weight and risk of obesity throughout life. Google Scholar, Library Scientific Electronic Online (SciELO), EBSCO, Scopus, and PubMed were the databases. "Catch-up growth", "life course health", "disease", "child", "development", "early life", "perinatal programming", "epigenetics", "breastfeeding", "small baby syndrome", "phenotype", "micronutrients", "maternal nutrition", "obesity", and "adolescence" were isolated or associated keywords for locating reviews and epidemiological, intervention and experimental studies published between 1934 and 2014, with complete texts in Portuguese and English. Duplicate articles, editorials and reviews were excluded, as well as approaches of diseases different from obesity. Within 47 selected articles among 538 eligible ones, the thrifty phenotype hypothesis, the epigenetic mechanisms and the development plasticity were identified as fundamental factors to explain the mechanisms involved in health and disease throughout life. They admit the possibility that both cardiometabolic events and obesity originate from intrauterine nutritional deficiency, which, associated with a food supply that is excessive to the metabolic needs of the organism in early life stages, causes endocrine changes. However, there may be phenotypic reprogramming for low birth weight newborns from adequate nutritional supply, thus overcoming a restrictive intrauterine environment. Therefore, catch-up growth may indicate recovery from intrauterine constraint, which is associated with short-term benefits or harms in adulthood. Depending on the nutritional adequacy in the first years of life, developmental plasticity may lead to phenotype reprogramming and reduce the risk of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights

  7. Metabolic and transcriptional changes in cultured muscle stem cells from low birth weight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ninna S; Hjort, Line; Broholm, Christa

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT/OBJECTIVE: Developmental programming of human muscle stem cells could in part explain why individuals born with low birth weight (LBW) have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) later in life. We hypothesized that immature muscle stem cell functions including abnormal...... differentiation potential and metabolic function could link LBW with risk of developing T2D. Design/settings/participants: We recruited 23 young men with LBW and 16 age-matched control subjects with normal birth weight (NBW). Biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis and muscle stem cells were isolated...... as well as decreased levels of glucose transporter-1 and -4 mRNA and of the Akt substrate of 160 kDa mRNA and protein in myotubes from LBW individuals compared with NBW individuals. The myogenic differentiation markers, myogenin and myosin heavy chain 1 and 2, were decreased during late differentiation...

  8. Evaluation of postnatal weight growth in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, Enrico; Milani, Silvano; Boni, Luisa; Coscia, Alessandra; Rossetti, Gessica; Testa, Tiziana; Giuliani, Francesca; Appino, Irene; Spada, Elena; Fabris, Claudio

    2007-12-01

    There is general agreement about the need for longitudinal studies of very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) to evaluate their postnatal growth and to generate distance and velocity charts that allow neonatologists and pediatricians to detect earlier whether a child is not growing adequately. There are no satisfactory growth charts for VLBWI. We analyzed the weight growth of 262 VLBWIs from birth to 2 years of corrected age. Individual growth profiles were fitted with a 7-constant exponential-logistic function suitable for modelling weight growth pattern. After a postnatal weight loss, all VLBWIs showed a late neonatal peak of velocity between the seventh and 21st weeks; the large majority of them also experienced an early neonatal peak between the second and the sixth weeks. Small-for-gestational-age VLBWIs with major morbidities grew less than reference appropriate-for-gestational-age VLBWIs without major morbidities: at 2 years, the difference in weight was about 860 g. The more severe growth impairment in VLBWIs with major morbidities was almost entirely due to the reduced height of the late neonatal peak of velocity. The mathematical function used in this study is expected to be a useful tool to trace model-based longitudinal distance and velocity charts specific for VLBWIs. Moreover, this function also could be used to evaluate to what extent different pathological conditions or nutritional and medical care protocols affect growth kinetics.

  9. Probiotics Prevent Late-Onset Sepsis in Human Milk-Fed, Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceti, Arianna; Maggio, Luca; Beghetti, Isadora; Gori, Davide; Barone, Giovanni; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Fantini, Maria Pia; Indrio, Flavia; Meneghin, Fabio; Morelli, Lorenzo; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo; Corvaglia, Luigi

    2017-08-22

    Growing evidence supports the role of probiotics in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants. As reported for several neonatal clinical outcomes, recent data have suggested that nutrition might affect probiotics' efficacy. Nevertheless, the currently available literature does not explore the relationship between LOS prevention and type of feeding in preterm infants receiving probiotics. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics for LOS prevention in preterm infants according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. exclusive formula or mixed feeding). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics and reporting on LOS were included in the systematic review. Only trials reporting on outcome according to feeding type were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effects models were used and random-effects models were used when significant heterogeneity was found. The results were expressed as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, probiotic supplementation resulted in a significantly lower incidence of LOS (RR 0.79 (95% CI 0.71-0.88), p preterm infants (RR 0.75 (95% CI 0.65-0.86), p preterm infants. Further efforts are required to clarify the relationship between probiotics supplementation, HM, and feeding practices in preterm infants.

  10. Does prenatal exposure to vitamin D-fortified margarine and milk alter birth weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla B; Berentzen, Tina L; Gamborg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention...... with mandatory fortification of margarine during 1961-1985 and voluntary fortification of low-fat milk between 1972 and 1976. The influence of prenatal vitamin D exposure on birth weight was investigated among 51 883 Danish children, by comparing birth weight among individuals born during 2 years before or after...... the initiation and termination of vitamin D fortification programmes. In total, four sets of analyses were performed. Information on birth weight was available in the Copenhagen School Health Record Register for all school children in Copenhagen. The mean birth weight was lower among the exposed than non...

  11. Setting research priorities to reduce global mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight by 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Rajiv; Martines, Jose; Bhandari, Nita; Biloglav, Zrinka; Edmond, Karen; Iyengar, Sharad; Kramer, Michael; Lawn, Joy E; Manandhar, D S; Mori, Rintaro; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Sachdev, H P S; Singhal, Nalini; Tomlinson, Mark; Victora, Cesar; Williams, Anthony F; Chan, Kit Yee; Rudan, Igor

    2012-06-01

    This paper aims to identify health research priorities that could improve the rate of progress in reducing global neonatal mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight (PB/LBW), as set out in the UN's Millennium Development Goal 4. We applied the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. In the process coordinated by the World Health Organization in 2007-2008, 21 researchers with interest in child, maternal and newborn health suggested 82 research ideas that spanned across the broad spectrum of epidemiological research, health policy and systems research, improvement of existing interventions and development of new interventions. The 82 research questions were then assessed for answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, maximum potential for mortality reduction and the effect on equity using the CHNRI method. The top 10 identified research priorities were dominated by health systems and policy research questions (eg, identification of LBW infants born at home within 24-48 hours of birth for additional care; approaches to improve quality of care of LBW infants in health facilities; identification of barriers to optimal home care practices including care seeking; and approaches to increase the use of antenatal corticosteriods in preterm labor and to improve access to hospital care for LBW infants). These were followed by priorities for improvement of the existing interventions (eg, early initiation of breastfeeding, including feeding mode and techniques for those unable to suckle directly from the breast; improved cord care, such as chlorhexidine application; and alternative methods to Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) to keep LBW infants warm in community settings). The highest-ranked epidemiological question suggested improving criteria for identifying LBW infants who need to be cared for in a hospital. Among the new interventions, the greatest support was shown for the development of

  12. Probiotics Prevent Late-Onset Sepsis in Human Milk-Fed, Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Aceti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence supports the role of probiotics in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and late-onset sepsis (LOS in preterm infants. As reported for several neonatal clinical outcomes, recent data have suggested that nutrition might affect probiotics’ efficacy. Nevertheless, the currently available literature does not explore the relationship between LOS prevention and type of feeding in preterm infants receiving probiotics. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics for LOS prevention in preterm infants according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM vs. exclusive formula or mixed feeding. Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics and reporting on LOS were included in the systematic review. Only trials reporting on outcome according to feeding type were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effects models were used and random-effects models were used when significant heterogeneity was found. The results were expressed as risk ratio (RR with 95% confidence interval (CI. Twenty-five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, probiotic supplementation resulted in a significantly lower incidence of LOS (RR 0.79 (95% CI 0.71–0.88, p < 0.0001. According to feeding type, the beneficial effect of probiotics was confirmed only in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants (RR 0.75 (95% CI 0.65–0.86, p < 0.0001. Among HM-fed infants, only probiotic mixtures, and not single-strain products, were effective in reducing LOS incidence (RR 0.68 (95% CI 0.57–0.80 p < 0.00001. The results of the present meta-analysis show that probiotics reduce LOS incidence in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants. Further efforts are required to clarify the relationship between probiotics supplementation, HM, and feeding practices in preterm infants.

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Prenatal Care Utilization Between First and Second Births and Low Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Christine T; Stewart, Orion T; Hensley, Mark D; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Hawes, Stephen E

    2015-12-01

    Because previous analyses of prenatal care (PNC) utilization and risk of low birth weight (LBW) may have been influenced by selection bias, we conducted a study using longitudinal data of women with repeat pregnancies. We analyzed Washington State birth certificates of first and second live births (2003-2012). We estimated relative risk (RR) of LBW at second birth associated with Kotelchuck Index PNC level among women stratified by level of PNC in their first birth (n = 67,571). Among women with inadequate PNC prior to their first birth (n = 10,355), women with intermediate or adequate PNC before their second birth (n = 7464) had a reduced risk of LBW (adjusted RR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.78) compared to those whose PNC level remained inadequate. Likewise, among women with intermediate or adequate PNC prior to their first birth (n = 57,216), those with inadequate PNC before the second birth (n = 7095) had higher risk of LBW (adjusted RR 1.59, 95% CI: 1.36, 1.85) compared to those who remained at intermediate or adequate PNC. Our findings support the hypothesis that PNC decreases LBW risk at second birth, independent of factors related to the utilization of PNC at first birth.

  14. Autonomic Functioning in Young Adults Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Karen J. Mathewson PhD; Ryan J. Van Lieshout MD, PhD; Saroj Saigal MD; Katherine M. Morrison MD; Michael H. Boyle PhD; Louis A. Schmidt PhD

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic functioning is altered in infants born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; 2500 g). HF in the smallest-born ELBW participants was significantly lower than in NBW controls. In both groups, greater birth weight was associated with higher HF. Among ELBW survivors, lower birth weight predicted faster heart rate and higher DBP, but neither heart rate nor DBP appeared to be well-coordinated with baroreflex activity (LF), the principal mechanism for short-term blood pressure regulation. A...

  15. Effects of Maternal Factors on Birth Weight in Japan

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    Misato Terada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigated the possible factors related to the birth weight (BW using the Japanese perinatal database. Methods. The live infants born at 37 to 41 weeks of gestation were enrolled in this study. Cases with diabetic pregnancy, preeclampsia, an anomalous fetus, and a fetus with chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. A multiple regression analysis for confounding factors and an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA for comparing the BW in 2006 and 2010 were used for the statistical analysis. Results. The BW significantly decreased from 2950.8 g in 2006 (n=27,723 to 2937.5 g in 2010 (n=38,008 in the overall population, and this decrease was similar for male and female neonates. All confounding factors, except for the mode of delivery, affected the BW. Primiparity, smoking, and a female gender were related to the decrease in BW, whereas maternal age, maternal height, weight gain during pregnancy, BMI, the use of in vitro fertilization, induction of labor, and gestational duration were related to an increased BW. The ANCOVA showed that no significant change of the BW was seen between 2006 and 2010 (the difference was 2.164 g, P=0.414. Conclusion. The gestational duration is the most important factor affecting the BW in singleton term infants.

  16. Magnitude and Correlates of Low Birth Weight at Term in Rural Wardha, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important determinant of the neonatal and infant survival. The goal of reducing low birth weight incidence by at least one third between 2000 and 2010 was one of the major goals in ‘A World Fit for Children’. The prevention of low birth weight is a public health priority, particularly in developing countries with high magnitude. Knowledge regarding magnitude and correlates help prevent the condition. Hence, the present study was carried out to study the magnitude and the correlates of low birth weight. Methodology: Two hundred and six newborn babies were recruited on a birth cohort from two Primary Health Centres (PHC of Wardha district to study growth in first year of life. Here, we present the baseline analysis of 172 children who were born full term to study the correlates of low birth weight babies born full term. The children were recruited within first week of their birth. Data was collected on socio-demographic profile, birth history, and maternal characteristics. Proportion of low birth weight was expressed in percentage along with 95% confidence interval. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to study the correlates. Findings are expressed in odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Results: The magnitude of low birth weight at term was found to be 33.1% (95% CI: 26.4%-40.4%. On univariate analysis, significant correlates of low birth weight were consumption of less than 50 iron-folic acid tables and being born to than mother. On multivariate analysis, the significant correlates were female sex of child (OR=2.856, being born to thin mother (OR=5.320, consumption of less than 50 tablets (OR=4.648, and complications of pregnancy (OR=2.917. Conclusions: The magnitude of low birth weight is very high and modifiable correlates of low birth weight are nutritional status of mother, lower consumption of IFA tablets and complications of pregnancy.

  17. Anthropometric surrogates for screening of low birth weight newborns: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Neeti; Prasuna, J G; Taneja, D K

    2012-03-01

    In developing countries, where about 75% of births occur at home or in the community, logistic problems prevent the weighing of every newborn child. This study compares various anthropometric surrogates for identification of low birth weight neonates. A longitudinal community based study was done in an urban resettlement colony and 283 singleton neonates within 7 days of birth were examined for the anthropometric measurements such as head, chest, mid upper arm circumference and foot length as a screening tool for low birth weight. Chest circumference measured within 7 days of birth appeared to be the most appropriate surrogate of low birth weight with highest sensitivity (75.4%), specificity (78.4%), and positive predictive value (48.9%) as compared with other anthropometric parameters. Low birth weight neonates in absence of weighing scales can be early identified by using simple anthropometric measurements for enhanced home-based care and timely referral.

  18. Regulation of the pituitary-thyroid axis in adulthood is not related to birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Petersen, Inge; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    Low birth weight has been linked with changes in thyroid function in adulthood, but it is unknown whether fetal programming or underlying genetic and environmental factors explains the association. We hypothesized that birth weight influences the pituitary-thyroid set point in adults.......Low birth weight has been linked with changes in thyroid function in adulthood, but it is unknown whether fetal programming or underlying genetic and environmental factors explains the association. We hypothesized that birth weight influences the pituitary-thyroid set point in adults....

  19. Birth Weight and Risk of Adiposity among Adult Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Pernille Falberg; Smith, Lærke Steenberg; Andersen, Gregers Stig

    2014-01-01

    weight was collected from birth records. Adiposity was assessed by anthropometry, fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), and visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) estimated by ultrasound. The associations to birth weight were analyzed using linear regression models and quadratic...... splines. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, birthplace, ancestry and family history of obesity. RESULTS: Spline analyses showed linear relations between birth weight and adult adiposity. In multiple regression analyses, birth weight was positively associated with BMI, waist...

  20. Deoxyribonucleic acid methylation and gene expression of PPARGC1A in human muscle is influenced by high-fat overfeeding in a birth-weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Jacobsen, Stine; Nilsson, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Context: Low birth weight (LBW) and unhealthy diets are risk factors of metabolic disease including type 2 diabetes (T2D). Genetic, nongenetic, and epigenetic data propose a role of the key metabolic regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1alpha (PPARGC1A......) in the development of T2D. Objective: Our objective was to investigate gene expression and DNA methylation of PPARGC1A and coregulated oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes in LBW and normal birth weight (NBW) subjects during control and high-fat diets. Design, Subjects, and Main Outcome Measures: Twenty young.......0002) during the control diet. However, PPARGC1A methylation increased in only NBW subjects after overfeeding in a reversible manner. DNA methylation of PPARGC1A did not correlate with mRNA expression. Conclusions: LBW subjects developed peripheral insulin resistance and decreased gene expression of PPARGC1A...

  1. Impact of birth weight and postnatal diet on the gut microbiota of young adult guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kait Al

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The gastrointestinal tract (GIT microbiota is essential to metabolic health, and the prevalence of the Western diet (WD high in fat and sugar is increasing, with evidence highlighting a negative interaction between the GIT and WD, resulting in liver dysfunction. Additionally, an adverse in utero environment such as placental insufficiency resulting in low birth weight (LBW offspring, contributes to an increased risk of metabolic diseases such as fatty liver infiltration and liver dysfunction in later life. We sought to understand the potential interactive effects of exposure to a WD upon growing LBW offspring. We postulated that LBW offspring when challenged with a poor postnatal diet, would display an altered microbiota and more severe liver metabolic dysfunction. Methods The fecal microbiota of normal birth weight (NBW and LBW young guinea pig offspring, weaned onto either a control diet (CD or WD was determined with 16S rRNA gene next generation sequencing at young adulthood following the early rapid growth phase after weaning. A liver blood chemistry profile was also performed. Results The life-long consumption of WD following weaning into young adulthood resulted in increased total cholesterol, triglycerides and alanine aminotransferase levels in association with an altered GIT microbiota when compared to offspring consuming CD. Neither birth weight nor sex were associated with any significant changes in microbiota alpha diversity, by measuring the Shannon’s diversity index. One hundred forty-eight operational taxonomic units were statistically distinct between the diet groups, independent of birth weight. In the WD group, significant decreases were detected in Barnesiella, Methanobrevibacter smithii and relatives of Oscillospira guillermondii, while Butyricimonas and Bacteroides spp. were increased. Discussion These results describe the GIT microbiota in a guinea pig model of LBW and WD associated metabolic syndrome and

  2. Impact of birth weight and postnatal diet on the gut microbiota of young adult guinea pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al, Kait; Sarr, Ousseynou; Dunlop, Kristyn; Gloor, Gregory B.; Reid, Gregor; Regnault, Timothy R.H.

    2017-01-01

    Background The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota is essential to metabolic health, and the prevalence of the Western diet (WD) high in fat and sugar is increasing, with evidence highlighting a negative interaction between the GIT and WD, resulting in liver dysfunction. Additionally, an adverse in utero environment such as placental insufficiency resulting in low birth weight (LBW) offspring, contributes to an increased risk of metabolic diseases such as fatty liver infiltration and liver dysfunction in later life. We sought to understand the potential interactive effects of exposure to a WD upon growing LBW offspring. We postulated that LBW offspring when challenged with a poor postnatal diet, would display an altered microbiota and more severe liver metabolic dysfunction. Methods The fecal microbiota of normal birth weight (NBW) and LBW young guinea pig offspring, weaned onto either a control diet (CD) or WD was determined with 16S rRNA gene next generation sequencing at young adulthood following the early rapid growth phase after weaning. A liver blood chemistry profile was also performed. Results The life-long consumption of WD following weaning into young adulthood resulted in increased total cholesterol, triglycerides and alanine aminotransferase levels in association with an altered GIT microbiota when compared to offspring consuming CD. Neither birth weight nor sex were associated with any significant changes in microbiota alpha diversity, by measuring the Shannon’s diversity index. One hundred forty-eight operational taxonomic units were statistically distinct between the diet groups, independent of birth weight. In the WD group, significant decreases were detected in Barnesiella, Methanobrevibacter smithii and relatives of Oscillospira guillermondii, while Butyricimonas and Bacteroides spp. were increased. Discussion These results describe the GIT microbiota in a guinea pig model of LBW and WD associated metabolic syndrome and highlight several WD

  3. Perinatal outcomes in a South Asian setting with high rates of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia are due to poor fetal growth or short pregnancy duration. Also, it is not known whether the traditional focus on preventing low birth weight has been successful. We addressed these and related issues by studying births in Kaniyambadi, South India, with births from Nova Scotia, Canada serving as a reference. Methods Population-based data for 1986 to 2005 were obtained from the birth database of the Community Health and Development program in Kaniyambadi and from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database. Menstrual dates were used to obtain comparable information on gestational age. Small-for-gestational age (SGA live births were identified using both a recent Canadian and an older Indian fetal growth standard. Results The low birth weight and preterm birth rates were 17.0% versus 5.5% and 12.3% versus 6.9% in Kaniyambadi and Nova Scotia, respectively. SGA rates were 46.9% in Kaniyambadi and 7.5% in Nova Scotia when the Canadian fetal growth standard was used to define SGA and 6.7% in Kaniyambadi and Conclusion High rates of fetal growth restriction and relatively high rates of preterm birth are responsible for the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia. Increased emphasis is required on health services that address the morbidity and mortality in all birth weight categories.

  4. Social competence of 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Komariah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW has long been used as an indicator of public health. Low birth weight is not a proxy for any dimension of other maternal or perinatal health outcomes. Low birth weight infants require special care, and have more chronic conditions, learning delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders compared to infants of normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence is viewed as a primary component of healthy function and development and is an important predictor of academic and financial success.Objective To examine social competence of children aged 3-5 years born with low birth weight.Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken in Palembang in 2012. Subjects consisted of children aged 3-5 years attended a preschool in the Seberang Ulu I District, Palembang, and were divided into two groups: low birth weight (LBW and normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence was assessed by observation and Interaction Rating Scale (IRS and Parenting Style questionnaire (PSQ. Chi-square analysis was used to compare social competence between the two groups. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was used to assess for the dominant factors that may affect a child’s social competence.Results Low birth weight children aged 3 to 5 years had a 1.435 times higher risk of low social competence compared to normal birth weight children of similar age. (RP 1.435; 95%CI 1.372 to 13.507; P=0.019. Multivariate regression logistic analysis revealed that parenting style was a dominant factor affecting social competence.Conclusion Social competence in 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight is lower compared to those with normal birth weight.

  5. The Placental Microbiome Varies in Association with Low Birth Weight in Full-Term Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zheng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence indicated that low birth weight was an independent risk factor for obesity, impaired glucose regulation, and diabetes later in life. However, investigations into the association between low birth weight and placental microbiome in full-term neonates are limited. Placentas were collected from low birth weight (LBW and normal birth weight (NBW full-term neonates (gestational age 37 w0d–41 w6d consecutively born at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. The anthropometric measurements were measured and 16S ribosomal DNAamplicon high-throughput sequencing were utilized to define bacteria within placenta tissues. It showed that birth weight, ponderal index, head circumference, and placenta weight were significantly lower in LBW than NBW neonates (p < 0.05. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs (p < 0.05 and the estimators of community richness (Chao indexes (p < 0.05 showed a significantly lower diversity in LBW than NBW neonates. There were significant variations in the composition of placenta microbiota between the LBW and NBW neonates at the phylum and genus level. Furthermore, it indicated that Lactobacillus percentage was positively associated with birth weight (r = 0.541, p = 0.025. In conclusion, our present study for the first time detected the relationship between birth weight and placental microbiome profile in full-term neonates. It is novel in showing that the placental microbiome varies in association with low birth weight in full-term neonates.

  6. Neonatal birth weight and related factors in south of Iran, Jahrom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Emamghorashi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determinate the relationship between neonatal birth weight and related factors in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and methods: All women delivering in two hospitals, in which obstetric services were presented, entered the study. In this cross sectional study, 2311 women were enrolled prospectively in a 12- month period during 2006-7. Data were collected during first three post partum days from the following sources: maternal hospital files and charts, interview with the mothers, measurement of anthropometric indices of fathers and the infants. Percentile distribution of birth weight for classified gestational age was calculated.Results: Results showed significant correlation between neonatal birth weight with neonatal gender, maternal age, weight, education and working status. There was no relation between neonatal weight with paternal weight, maternal education and living in urban or rural areas.Conclusion: Neonatal birth weight is affected by neonatal gender, maternal age and weight; education and job.

  7. Developmental Outcomes of Premature and Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saeidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prematurity is the most common cause of death and disability And Preterm infants, are prone to developmental complications. For this reason this study was designed for follow up of these babies until 2 years by modified DDST-2. Methods: This study was a prospective longitudinal descriptive study from March 2009 to March 2011 in clinic of sheikh and Imam Reza Hospitals, mashhad, Iran. Sample size with Confidence coefficient of 95% and power 80%, was determined 100 hundred babies. Infants were seen by a pediatrician at a follow up clinic at 1, 3, 6, 9,12,15,18, 24, months.The developmental assessment was done using Denver-2 Developmental Screening Test. Results: mean age for smiling was 4/6 ± 2/1  months which significantly differed with appropriate age (p = 0.000, mean age for telling two syllables words 11/7±  1/9 months, without significant difference of appropriate age.(p = 0.139. Average age for understanding NO was 10/4±  2/0 months that significantly differed with appropriate age(p = 0.000. The average age for telling 6 word was 17/8±  3/0, without significant difference with appropriate age (p = 0.510. Conclusion: Children with history of prematurity and low birth weight have more disability and developmental delay so they need to developmental screening tests.

  8. Socioeconomic factors and low birth weight in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa-Barragán Juan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low birth weight (LBW is a public health problem linked to lack of equity in populations. Despite efforts to decrease the proportion of newborns with LBW, success has been quite limited. In recent years, studies focused on explaining how social factors influence this problem have shown that populations with greater inequities have a greater proportion of newborns with LBW. Methods The objective was to describe socioeconomic factors related to LBW adjusted by demographic, reproductive and health services variables in Mexico City. A case-control study was carried out in three hospitals with gynaecological and obstetrics services in Mexico City during the first half of 1996. During the recruiting period all children with LBW (cases, defined as newborns weighing Results We found that low socioeconomic level was the most important risk factor for LBW and was independent of other factors, including those related to reproduction and nutrition, smoking, morbidity during pregnancy, accessibility to health services and prenatal care (OR 2.68; 95% CI 1.19, 6.03. Conclusion We found that socioeconomic factors are relevant to LBW. However further research should be done in different population groups as well as developing precise ways of measuring socioeconomic factors and their role in reproductive health.

  9. Maternal BMI, IGF-I Levels, and Birth Weight in African American and White Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Vidal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (≤3rd tertile, those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile were 130 g heavier at birth, (β-coefficient=230, se=58.0, P=0.0001, after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ≥30 kg/m2; the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P≤0.0004. Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity.

  10. Parental attitudes about a pregnancy predict birth weight in a low-income population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Robert D; Birchard, Alison; Dickinson, Perry; Steiner, John; Dickinson, L Miriam; Rymer, Susan; Palmer, Blake; Derback, Torri; Kempe, Allison

    2004-01-01

    Low birth weight remains the primary cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in the United States. We examined whether maternal happiness about a pregnancy, in addition to her report of the father's happiness, predicts birth weight and risk for low birth weight (happiness about the pregnancy was measured before 21 weeks' gestation on a scale from 1 to 10 (1 to 3 unhappy, 4 to 7 ambivalent, or 8 to 10 happy). "Mother reports partner happier" occurred when the mother perceived the father's happiness score at least 5 points greater than her own. Information on birth weights and maternal sociodemographic, medical, and psychosocial factors were obtained from surveys and medical records. Of 162 live births, 9 were low birth weight (5.6%). Compared with women who reported happiness with the pregnancy, risk for low birth weight was greater when the mother reported partner happier about the pregnancy (relative risk 10.0, 95% confidence interval, 3.1-32.4). This predictor of birth weight remained significant in multivariate linear regression analyses (coefficient = -472 g, SE = 171 g, P = .007) after adjustment for other known predictors of birth weight. Maternal report of greater partner happiness about a pregnancy is associated with birth weight and appears to define low- and high-risk subgroups for low birth weight in a low-income population. Further study in larger samples is needed to confirm our findings and to assess whether maternal report of greater partner happiness is itself a modifiable factor or is a marker for other factors that might be modified with targeted interventions.

  11. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

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    Eveline Campos Monteiro de Castro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29% died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33% up to 24 hours and 97 (54% up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53, 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88, male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47. A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71. Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred.

  12. Large effects on birth weight follow inheritance pattern consistent with gametic imprinting and X chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth weight (BW) records of 28,638 Brangus and Simbrah calves (12,295 of which were produced by embryo transfer) were provided by a private seedstock breeder. The objectives were to determine the genetic mechanism(s) responsible for previously observed 12.3 and 6.9 kg differences in birth weight b...

  13. Birth weight--a risk factor for progression in diabetic nephropathy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P; Rossing, P; Tarnow, L

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Intrauterine growth retardation, as seen in individuals with low weight at birth, may give rise to a reduction in nephron number. Oligonephropathy has been linked to hypertension and renal disease in adult life. We tested the concept that low weight at birth acts as a risk factor for ...

  14. Birth weight relates to blood pressure and microvascular function in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serne, EH; Stehouwer, CDA; ter Maaten, JC; ter Wee, PM; Gans, ROB

    2000-01-01

    Objective The relationship between low birth weight and elevated blood pressure in adult life is well established but presently unexplained. Both microvascular dysfunction and insulin resistance have been proposed as a possible explanation. We have examined the relation between birth weight and bloo

  15. Actual and Prescribed Energy and Protein Intakes for Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Deborah Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as…

  16. Linguistic Production Abilities of 3-Year-Old Children Born Premature with Low Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Holly K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Of 30 children with low birth weight, only 4 demonstrated clinically significant language problems at age 3. Language problems were characterized by circumscribed expressive syntax difficulties but were not related systematically to birth weight, gestational age, length of neonatal hospitalization, severity of respiratory illness, socioeconomic…

  17. Actual and Prescribed Energy and Protein Intakes for Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Deborah Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as…

  18. Neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth in East Africa, adjusted by weight for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchant, Tanya; Willey, Barbara; Katz, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Low birth weight and prematurity are amongst the strongest predictors of neonatal death. However, the extent to which they act independently is poorly understood. Our objective was to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth when stratified by weight for gestational age ...

  19. Breed x sex effects on birth weight in Brahman-Simmental embryo transfer calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahman cross calves exhibit unusual inheritance of birth weight: Brahman-sired crossbreds out of Bos taurus females are heavier with greater difference between sexes than calves of the reciprocal cross. The objective of this work was to compare birth weight in various crosses of Brahman, Simmenta...

  20. Birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome in adult life: is there a causal link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula A Paschou

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated associations of birth weight with metabolic and reproductive abnormalities in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the birth weight in women with PCOS and its correlation with clinical and biochemical characteristics of the syndrome.We studied 288 women with PCOS according to the NIH criteria and 166 women with normal cycle and without clinical hyperandrogenism. Birth weight and anthropometric characteristics were recorded, and levels of serum androgens, SHBG, insulin and fasting glucose were measured.Birth weight data were available for 243/288 women with PCOS and age- and BMI-matched 101/166 controls. No differences were found (p> 0.05 in birth weight among women with PCOS and normal controls. Birth weight of PCOS women was negatively correlated with DHEAS levels (p = 0.031, r = -0.143 and positively correlated with waist circumference (p 4.500 gr. No statistically significant differences were observed in the distribution percentages between PCOS women and controls. (A. 7% vs 7.9%, B. 26.8% vs 20.8%, C. 39.1% vs 48.5%, D. 21.4% vs 20.8%, E. 4.9% vs 2%, F. 0.8% vs 0%, (in all comparisons, p> 0.05.Women with PCOS do not differ from controls in birth weight distribution. However, birth weight may contribute to subtypes of the syndrome that are characterized by adrenal hyperandrogenism and central obesity.

  1. Associations between birth weight and colon and rectal cancer risk in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Natalie R; Jensen, Britt W; Zimmermann, Esther

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birth weight has inconsistent associations with colorectal cancer, possibly due to different anatomic features of the colon versus the rectum. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between birth weight and colon and rectal cancers separately. METHODS: 193,306 childr...

  2. Association between maternal work activity on birth weight and gestational age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OmidAminian; SeyedAliAkbarSharifian; NazaninIzadi; KhosroSadeghniiat; AnahitaRashedi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of maternal employment on birth weight and gestational age. Methods:In this project,1272 pregnant women were recruited from whom referred toTehran hospitals during1 year via randomized sampling.Data were gathered through history taking and medical records.In this study,564 employed women were classified as exposure group and708 housekeepers were as the control group.Chisquare test,t-test,One-wayANOVA and logistic regression were used to analyze data. Results:In this study, mean mother age was25.01 years and mean birth weight was(2884±684) g.The mean birth weight in housekeepers was significantly higher (2991±457 g) than employees(2726±476 g)(P=0.002).The infants’ mean birth weights in farmer were the lowest and in office workers(2831±526 g) was the highest(P<0.01).Gestational age less than37 weeks was more common among employees.The mean birth weight decreased when the working hours increased(P<0.01).In those mothers who were working less than3 months there were a higher mean birth weight(P<0.01).Also the mean birth weight decreased due to the hours of standing during a day.Conclusion:Women employment during pregnancy has an important role in low birth weight and preterm labor compared to those who do not work.

  3. Smoking and low birth weight: absence of influence by carbon monoxide?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, EJ; Jong, PA de; Cornelissen, PJ; Kurver, PH; Oel, WC; Woensel, van

    1987-01-01

    Fetal outcome in 77 uneventful pregnancies was examined and related to venous cord carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO) levels. 30 women were smokers, 47 were non-smokers. Birth weight and birth weight centiles were found to be substantially reduced in children of mothers who smoked. HbCO levels were significa

  4. Delivery of the extremely low-birth- weight vertex-presenting baby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-02

    Dec 2, 2010 ... both mother and baby when delivery of an extremely low- birth-weight infant is inevitable. Over the past few decades there has been a sharp rise in the .... there was any advantage for very-low-birth-weight babies delivered by ...

  5. Decline in the negative association between low birth weight and cognitive ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Berkay; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    Low birth weight predicts compromised cognitive ability. We used data from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS), the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS), and the 2000–2002 Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) to analyze how this association has changed over time. Birth weight was divided into two categories, <2,500 g (low) and 2,500–4,500 g (normal) and verbal cognitive ability was measured at the age of 10 or 11 y. A range of maternal and family characteristics collected at or soon after the time of birth were considered. Linear regression was used to analyze the association between birth weight and cognitive ability in a baseline model and in a model that adjusted for family characteristics. The standardized difference (SD) in cognitive scores between low-birth-weight and normal-birth-weight children was large in the NCDS [−0.37 SD, 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.46, −0.27] and in the BCS (−0.34, 95% CI: −0.43, −0.25) cohorts, and it was more than halved for children born in the MCS cohort (−0.14, 95% CI: −0.22, −0.06). The adjustment for family characteristics did not explain the cross-cohort differences. The results show that the association between low birth weight and decreased cognitive ability has declined between the 1950s and 1970s birth cohorts and the 2000--2002 birth cohort, despite a higher proportion of the low-birth-weight babies having a very low birth weight (<1,500 g) in the more recent birth cohort. Advancements in obstetric and neonatal care may have attenuated the negative consequences associated with being born small. PMID:27994141

  6. Very low birth weight piglets show improved cognitive performance in the spatial cognitive holeboard task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eAntonides

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW is common in humans and has been found to cause lasting cognitive and developmental deficits later in life. It is thought that the primary cause is intra-uterine growth restriction due to a shortage of oxygen and nutrients supply to the fetus. Pigs appear to be a good model animal to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW, as LBW is common in commercially farmed breeds of pigs. Moreover, pigs are developmentally similar to humans and can be trained to perform complex tasks. In this study, we trained ten very low birth weight (vLBW piglets and their ten normal birth weight (NBW siblings in a spatial cognitive holeboard task in order to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW. In this task, four out of sixteen holes contain a hidden food reward, which allows measuring working memory (short-term and reference memory (long-term in parallel. Piglets were trained for 46-54 trials during the acquisition phase, followed by a 20-trial reversal phase in which a different set of four holes was baited. Both groups acquired the task and improved their performance over time. A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA revealed that vLBW piglets showed a better reference memory performance than NBW piglets in both the acquisition and reversal phase. Additionally, the vLBW piglets fell back less in working memory scores than the NBW animals when switched to the reversal phase. These findings are contrary to findings in humans. Moreover, vLBW pigs had lower hair cortisol concentrations than NBW pigs in flank hair at 12 weeks of age. These results could indicate that restricted intra-uterine growth causes compensatory mechanisms to arise in early development that result in beneficial effects for vLBW piglets, increasing their low survival chances in early-life competition.

  7. Influence of pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activity on gestational and postpartum weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Rode, Line; Katballe, Malene Kjær

    2017-01-01

    In order to examine the association between pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activities and gestational weight gain, postpartum weight gain and birth weight, we analysed prospectively collected data from 1827 women with singleton term pregnancies. Women were categorised in groups of sedentary...

  8. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius-Bjerre, Signe; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Færch, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors...

  9. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India

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    Kumar Velusamy Saravana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Methods Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20–39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS method for Box – Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. Results There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively. In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The

  10. Changes in birth weight between 2002 and 2012 in Guangzhou, China.

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    Yong Guo

    Full Text Available Recent surveillance data suggest that mean birth weight has begun to decline in several developed countries. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in birth weight among singleton live births from 2002 to 2012 in Guangzhou, one of the most rapidly developed cities in China.We used data from the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System for 34108 and 54575 singleton live births with 28-41 weeks of gestation, who were born to local mothers, in 2002 and 2012, respectively. The trends in birth weight, small (SGA and large (LGA for gestational age and gestational length were explored in the overall population and gestational age subgroups.The mean birth weight decreased from 3162 g in 2002 to 3137 g in 2012 (crude mean difference, -25 g; 95% CI, -30 to -19. The adjusted change in mean birth weight appeared to be slight (-6 g from 2002 to 2012 after controlling for maternal age, gestational age, educational level, parity, newborn's gender and delivery mode. The percentages of SGA and LGA in 2012 were 0.6% and 1.5% lower than those in 2002, respectively. The mean gestational age dropped from 39.2 weeks in 2002 to 38.9 weeks in 2012. In the stratified analysis, we observed the changes in birth weight differed among gestational age groups. The mean birth weight decreased among very preterm births (28-31 weeks, while remained relatively stable among other gestational age subcategories.Among local population in Guangzhou from 2002 to 2012, birth weight appeared to slightly decrease. The percentage of SGA and LGA also simultaneously dropped, indicating that newborns might gain a healthier weight for gestational age.

  11. Associations between birth weight and colon and rectal cancer risk in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Natalie R; Jensen, Britt W; Zimmermann, Esther;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birth weight has inconsistent associations with colorectal cancer, possibly due to different anatomic features of the colon versus the rectum. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between birth weight and colon and rectal cancers separately. METHODS: 193,306 children......, born from 1936 to 1972, from the Copenhagen School Health Record Register were followed prospectively in Danish health registers. Colon and rectal cancer cases were defined using the International Classification of Disease version 10 (colon: C18.0-18.9, rectal: 19.9 and 20.9). Only cancers classified....... No significant sex differences were observed; therefore combined results are presented. Birth weight was positively associated with colon cancers with a HR of 1.14 (95% CI, 1.04-1.26) per kilogram of birth weight. For rectal cancer a significant association was not observed for birth weights below 3.5kg. Above 3...

  12. Effect of smoking and ABO blood groups on maternal age at child bearing and on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria-Bottini, F; Cozzoli, E; Neri, A; Bottini, E; Magrini, A

    2011-11-01

    The negative effects of cigarette smoking on human reproduction and on birth weight are well documented. On the other hand ABO system, encoding for glycosyltransferases, contributes to biosynthesis of antigens and oligosaccharide structures involved in blastocyst adhesion and intrauterine selection. In this paper we have searched for possible interaction between ABO system and smoking concerning their effects on maternal age at child bearing and on birth weight. We have studied 395 consecutive healthy puerperae from the White Caucasian population of Rome. ABO blood group was determined by standard laboratory methods. Three-way contingency table analysis was performed according to Sokal and Rohlf and Chi square test of independence by SPSS programs. The proportion of smokers is higher in A phenotype than in other ABO types among young puerperae (≤ 24 years) while it is lower in A phenotype than in other types among older women. The negative effects of smoke on birth weight is much more evident in women with A blood group than in women carrying other ABO phenotypes. The interaction between smoking and ABO blood groups concerning their effects on birth weight is influenced by gender of newborn and by maternal age. ABO blood groups and smoking could have a joint influence on maternal age at child bearing and on birth weight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Low birth weight and macrosomia in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: who are the mothers at risk?

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    Mengesha, Hayelom Gebrekirstos; Wuneh, Alem Desta; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Selvakumar, Divya L

    2017-06-12

    Infant birth weight, which is classified into low birth weight, normal birth weight and macrosomia, is associated with short and long-term health consequences, such as neonatal mortality and chronic disease in life. Macrosomia and low birth weight are double burden problems in developing counties, such as Ethiopia, but the paucity of evidence has made it difficult to assess the extent of this situation. As a result there has been inconsistency in the reported prevalence of low birth weight and macrosomia in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the incidence and predictors of low birth weight and macrosomia in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a cohort of 1152 neonates delivered in Tigray Region at randomly selected hospitals between April and July 2014. We used the birth weight category described previously as an outcome variable. Data were collected using structured questionnaire by midwives. We entered and analyzed data using STATA™ Version 11.0. Data were described using a frequency, percentage, relative risk ratio, and 95% confidence interval. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify independent predictors of low birth weight and macrosomia. In this study, we found a 10.5% and 6.68% incidence of low birth weight and macrosomia, respectively. Seventy (57.8%) of all low birth weight neonates were term births. The predictors for low birth weight were: early marriage (macrosomia were: female gender (RRR: 0.58, CI: 0.35-0.9); high body mass index (RRR: 5.0, CI: 1.56-16); post-maturity (RRR: 2.23, CI: 1.06-4.6); and no maternal complication (RRR: 0.46, CI: 0.27-0.8). In this study, we found gestational age and gender of the neonate to be common risk factors for both low birth weight and macrosomia. Strengthening antenatal follow up, prevention of pre and post maturity, controlling body mass index, and improving socioeconomic status of mothers are recommendations to prevent the double burden (low birth weight

  14. Angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory system SNPs moderate the association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity.

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    Smith, Taylor F; Anastopoulos, Arthur D; Garrett, Melanie E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Oades, Robert D; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Philip; Gill, Michael; Buitelaar, Jan K; Sergeant, Joseph A; Kollins, Scott H; Faraone, Stephen V; Ashley-Koch, Allison

    2014-12-01

    Low birth weight is associated with increased risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); however, the etiological underpinnings of this relationship remain unclear. This study investigated if genetic variants in angiogenic, dopaminergic, neurotrophic, kynurenine, and cytokine-related biological pathways moderate the relationship between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity. A total of 398 youth from two multi-site, family-based studies of ADHD were included in the analysis. The sample consisted of 360 ADHD probands, 21 affected siblings, and 17 unaffected siblings. A set of 164 SNPs from 31 candidate genes, representing five biological pathways, were included in our analyses. Birth weight and gestational age data were collected from a state birth registry, medical records, and parent report. Generalized Estimating Equations tested for main effects and interactions between individual SNPs and birth weight centile in predicting ADHD symptom severity. SNPs within neurotrophic (NTRK3) and cytokine genes (CNTFR) were associated with ADHD inattentive symptom severity. There was no main effect of birth weight centile on ADHD symptom severity. SNPs within angiogenic (NRP1 & NRP2), neurotrophic (NTRK1 & NTRK3), cytokine (IL16 & S100B), and kynurenine (CCBL1 & CCBL2) genes moderate the association between birth weight centile and ADHD symptom severity. The SNP main effects and SNP × birth weight centile interactions remained significant after adjusting for multiple testing. Genetic variability in angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory systems may moderate the association between restricted prenatal growth, a proxy for an adverse prenatal environment, and risk to develop ADHD.

  15. Effect of litter size on the variation in birth and weaning weights of Landrace piglets

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    Camila Duarte Prazeres

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the size class of the litter at birth on the variation in birth and weaning weights and on the survival rate of piglets from birth to weaning. For this purpose, records of individual weight at birth and weaning of piglets obtained from a database of 295 Landrace litters born between 2000 and 2010 on a pig farm in the western region of the State of Paraná were used. The litters were classified as small (up to 7 piglets, medium (8 to 13 piglets, and large (> 14 piglets according to the total number of piglets born. The data were analyzed considering the effects of the year of sow mating and size class of the litter at birth. The correlations between mean weight and variance in litter weight and size were higher for medium and large litters. The size class of the litter significantly influenced the mean weight of piglets at birth and weaning and the variance in birth weight. Piglets born in medium and large litters weighed less and exhibited greater birth weight variation and a lower survival rate until weaning than piglets born in small litters.

  16. Examining the relationship between temperature, rainfall and low birth weight in Africa

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    Grace, Kathryn; Davenport, Frank; Hanson, Heidi; Funk, Christopher C.; Shukla, Shradhanand

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined the relationship between birth weight, precipitation, and temperature in 19 African countries. We matched recorded birth weights from Demographic and Health Surveys covering 1986 through 2010 with gridded monthly precipitation and temperature data derived from satellite and ground-based weather stations. Observed weather patterns during various stages of pregnancy were also used to examine the effect of temperature and precipitation on birth weight outcomes. In our empirical model we allowed the effect of weather factors to vary by the dominant food production strategy (livelihood zone) in a given region as well as by household wealth, mother's education and birth season. This allowed us to determine if certain populations are more or less vulnerable to unexpected weather changes after adjusting for known covariates. Finally we measured effect size by observing differences in birth weight outcomes in women who have one low birth weight experience and at least one healthy birth weight baby. The results indicated that climate does indeed impact birth weight and at a level comparable, in some cases, to the impact of increasing women's education or household electricity status.

  17. The Status at Two Years of Low-Birth-Weight Infants Born in 1974 with Birth Weights of Less Than 1,001 gm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, K. E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    For availibility see EC 103 548 Among findings of a 2-year followup study of 43 infants of birth weight less than 1000 grams were the following: average height at age 2 years was between the tenth and twenty-fifth percentiles; average weight was between the third and tenth percentiles; 15 Ss developed lower respiratory tract infections during the…

  18. Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents

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    Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves de, E-mail: amenaidecarvalho@gmail.com [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Armênio Costa [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW.

  19. The Effect of Birth Weight on Academic Performance: Instrumental Variable Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C Mary

    2017-05-01

    Observationally, lower birth weight is usually associated with poorer academic performance; whether this association is causal or the result of confounding is unknown. To investigate this question, we obtained an effect estimate, which can have a causal interpretation under specific assumptions, of birth weight on educational attainment using instrumental variable analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms determining birth weight combined with results from the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium study of 126,559 Caucasians. We similarly obtained an estimate of the effect of birth weight on academic performance in 4,067 adolescents from Hong Kong's (Chinese) Children of 1997 birth cohort (1997-2016), using twin status as an instrumental variable. Birth weight was not associated with years of schooling (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.006 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.02, 0.01) or college completion (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.03). Birth weight was also unrelated to academic performance in adolescents (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.004 grade, 95% CI: -0.04, 0.04) using instrumental variable analysis, although conventional regression gave a small positive association (0.02 higher grade, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03). Observed associations of birth weight with academic performance may not be causal, suggesting that interventions should focus on the contextual factors generating this correlation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effect of Birth Weight and Socioeconomic Status on Children's Growth in Mashhad, Iran

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    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Socioeconomic status and birth weight are prominent factors for future growing of children. Also Studies show that this criterion is associated with reduced cognitive outcomes, school achievement, and adult work capacity. So in this paper we determined the effects of some socio-economic statuses and birth weight on physical growth of children in Mashhad, Iran. Method and materials. This is a cross sectional study that determined effect of socio-economic status and birth weight on weight, heighting and BMI of school age children. Healthy six years old children who were screened before enter, to school were eligible for participating in our study between 6 June 2006 and 31 July. Weight and standing height were documented at birth and measured at 6 years old. Then, their BMI were calculated in childhood period. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software. Result. Results show that some socio-economic variables and birth weight is associated with and, perhaps, influence the variation of growth in the children. The variables which show the most consistent and significant association were birth weight, sex, economic status and education of parents. Conclusion. In this paper, we found that birth weight, economic status and education parents of neonates have directly significant effect on growth childhood period. We recommended that paying attention to these criteria for improving growth of children in our society should be considered by authorities.

  1. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Eveline Campos Monteiro; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29%) died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33%) up to 24 hours and 97 (54%) up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88), male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47). A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71). Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred. PMID:26726002

  2. Survival Rate of Low and Very Low Birth Weight Neonates in an Iranian Community

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    A Puyanfar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to assess the incidence and survival rates of neonates weighing less than 2500g for duration of the first 28 days in an Iranian community.Methods: In this prospective longitudinal study, all neonates with birth weight less than 2500g were selected from the list of all neonates born in the only public-sector referral hospital, for a six months period. The weight of neonates at birth along with some demographic variables was recorded on a checklist. A cohort of neonates with birth weight less than 2500g were followed for 28 days. Mortality within 28 days of birth was used as end point. Continuous variables were summarized using mean and 95% confidence intervals, while categorical variables were presented as ratios and percentages.Results: About 1750 neonates were born of which 168 neonates with birth weights less than 2500g were recorded giving a proportion of 9.6%. Of 168 neonates, 21 (12.5% had very low birth weights (VLBW (birth weights<1500g. Survival rates for the groups of LBW (1500<birth weights<2500g and VLBW neonates were 98.4% and 66.6%, respectively. Regression analysis showed birth weight has, unsurprisingly, the most effect (beta= 0.501 on the survival rate among variables studied in this research.Conclusion: The survival rate among VLBW births in our study is dramatically low (66.6%. Not only attempts must be made to reduce the incidence and prevalence of this problem but also we need to work on the related factors of neonates' survival rate in this community.

  3. DETECTION OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES BY AN ANTHROPOMETRIC SURROGATE MEASURE: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

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    Anjali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Birth weight is an indicator of both neonatal morbidity and mortality, maternal health, nutrition and quality of antenatal services. OBJECTIVE: To find out important anthropometric parameter(s in the newborn as related to birth weight so that newborns with low birth weight can be identified. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective cross sectional, analytical, hospital based study was conducted at Amritsar on 200 term low birth weight newborn babies(<2.5 kg born during a period of 10 months and their various anthropometric measurements (HC, CC, MAC, TC, CFC were taken according to standard techniques. RESULTS: The study showed a strong correlation (p <0.001 between mid-arm circumference (r=0.834 and birth weight, followed by head circumference (r=0.816 and birth weight. Other parameters were also strongly correlated (p < 0.001. A value of <9.2 cm and <7.6 cm for mid-arm circumference showed highest validity for picking up newborns weighing <2500 gm and <2000 gm respectively. CONCLUSION: Measurement of arm circumference is easier, convenient and statistically superior to other anthropometrical parameters in detection of low birth weight newborn babies. The researchers recommend designing of a simple 'Tri-colored tape' for early detection of 'At Risk' LBW newborns in rural communities for their timely management.

  4. Low birth weight of Vietnamese infants is related to their mother's dioxin and glucocorticoid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tung, Dao; Kido, Teruhiko; Honma, Seijiro; Manh, Ho Dung; Nhu, Dang Duc; Okamoto, Rie; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Ngoc, Pham Thien; Van Toan, Ngo; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Son, Le Ke

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to determine the relationship between dioxin congeners in maternal breast milk and maternal glucocorticoid levels with newborn birth weight after nearly 45 years of use of herbicides in the Vietnam War. The study subjects comprised 58 mother-infant pairs in a region with high dioxin levels in the soil (hotspot) and 62 pairs from a control region. Dioxin levels in maternal breast milk were measured by HRGC-HRMS. Salivary glucocorticoid levels were determined by LC-MS/MS. Dioxin congener levels in mothers from the hotspot were found to be two to fivefold higher than those in mothers from the control region. Birth weight was inversely correlated with 2,3,7,8-TeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF congener levels. The rate of newborns whose birth weight was less than 2500 g was threefold higher in the hotspot (12 %) than in the control region (4 %). Salivary glucocorticoid levels in mothers with low birth weight infants were significantly higher than those in the normal birth weight group. Low birth weight of Vietnamese newborns in a hotspot for dioxin levels is related to some dioxin congener levels and high glucocorticoid levels in mothers. This finding in mother-infant pairs suggests that excess maternal glucocorticoid levels are related to dioxin burden and they result in low birth weight.

  5. Birth Weight, Physical Morbidity, and Mortality: A Population-based Sibling-Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Rickert, Martin E.; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Associations between low birth weight (≤2,500 g) and increased risk of mortality and morbidity provided the foundation for the “developmental origins of health and disease” hypothesis. Previous between-family studies could not control for unmeasured confounders. Therefore, we compared differentially exposed siblings to estimate the extent to which the associations were due to uncontrolled factors. Our population cohort included 3,291,773 persons born in Sweden from 1973 to 2008. Analyses controlled for gestational age, among other covariates, and considered birth weight as both an ordinal and a continuous variable. Outcomes included mortality after 1 year, cardiac-related death, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, pulmonary circulation problems, stroke, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We fitted fixed-effects models to compare siblings and conducted sensitivity analyses to test alternative explanations. Across the population, the lower the birth weight, the greater the risk of mortality (e.g., cardiac-related death (low birth weight hazard ratio = 2.69, 95% confidence interval: 2.05, 3.53)) and morbidity (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus (low birth weight hazard ratio = 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 1.50, 2.14)) outcomes in comparison with normal birth weight. All associations were independent of shared familial confounders and measured covariates. Results emphasize the importance of birth weight as a risk factor for subsequent mortality and morbidity. PMID:24355331

  6. School-age outcomes in children with birth weights under 750 g.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, M; Taylor, H G; Klein, N; Eiben, R; Schatschneider, C; Mercuri-Minich, N

    1994-09-22

    Since the mid-1980s, increasing numbers of children with birth weights under 750 g have survived to school age. We matched a regional cohort of 68 surviving children born from 1982 through 1986 with birth weights under 750 g (mean, 670 g; gestational age, 25.7 weeks) with 65 children weighting 750 to 1499 g at birth and 61 children born at term. Growth, neurosensory status, and functioning at school age in the three groups were compared. Associations of biologic and social risk factors with major developmental outcomes were examined by means of logistic-regression analyses. Children with birth weights under 750 g were inferior to both comparison groups in cognitive ability, psychomotor skills, and academic achievement. They had poorer social skills and adaptive behavior and more behavioral and attention problems. The mean (+/- SD) Mental Processing Composite score for the cohort was 87 +/- 15, as compared with 93 +/- 14 for children with birth weights of 750 to 1499 g and 100 +/- 13 for children born at term (P Children with birth weights under 750 g who survive represent a subgroup of very-low-birth-weight children who are at high risk for neurobehavioral dysfunction and poor school performance.

  7. How Can Genetic Studies Help Us to Understand Links Between Birth Weight and Type 2 Diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Robin N; Horikoshi, Momoko; McCarthy, Mark I; Freathy, Rachel M

    2017-04-01

    In observational epidemiology, both low and high birth weights are associated with later type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying the associations are poorly understood. We review evidence for the roles of genetic and non-genetic factors linking both sides of the birth weight distribution to risk of type 2 diabetes, focusing on contributions made by the most recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of birth weight. There are now nine genetic loci robustly implicated in both fetal growth and type 2 diabetes. At many of these, the same alleles are associated both with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and a lower birth weight. This supports the Fetal Insulin Hypothesis and reflects a general pattern for type 2 diabetes susceptibility alleles: genome-wide, there is an inverse genetic correlation with birth weight, and initial estimates suggest genetic factors explain a large part of the covariance between the two traits. However, the associations at individual loci show heterogeneity; some fetal risk alleles are associated with higher birth weight. For most of these, the association reflects their correlation with the maternal risk allele which raises maternal glucose, thus increasing fetal insulin-mediated growth. GWAS have improved our understanding of the mechanisms underlying associations between type 2 diabetes and birth weight but questions remain about the relative importance of genetic versus non-genetic factors and of maternal versus fetal genotypes. To answer these questions, future work will require well-powered analyses of parents and offspring.

  8. Sex, birth weight, and the risk of stillbirth in Scotland, 1980-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G C

    2000-03-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the risk of stillbirth associated with male fetal sex was modified by fetal growth. The study group consisted of all singleton first births weighing greater than 500 g delivered between 28 and 43 weeks gestation in Scotland in 1980-1996 (n = 469,152). Overall, male fetuses were at an increased risk of stillbirth (relative risk = 1.19, 95 percent confidence interval: 1.10, 1.29). There was a significant negative interaction between male sex and increasing birth weight quintile in term, but not preterm, births. The interaction was virtually identical when calculated independently for births in the periods 1980-1987 and 1988-1996. There were linear decreases in the proportion of stillbirths and the proportion of birth weights in the lowest quintile over the period 1980-1996. Adjustment for year of birth did not affect the relation between male sex and stillbirth. However, adjustment for birth weight resulted in a loss of the association between year of birth and risk of stillbirth. The authors concluded that 1) the association between male sex and stillbirth diminishes with increasing birth weight quintile, and 2) there was a fall in the proportion of stillbirths in Scotland between 1980 and 1996, which may have been due to a fall in the proportion of small babies over the same period.

  9. Heart size and mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area related to birth weight in pigs

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    M. RUUSUNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims in domestic pig breeding has been to increase the size of litters resulting in variation in birth weight of piglets. Pig breeding has also resulted in increased body muscle mass. Muscles with the same size can consist either of large number of thin muscle fibres or small number of thick muscle fibres. Larger body muscle content means that in living animal the heart must pump blood to larger muscle mass than earlier. Our interest in this study was to investigate the relationship between the pig’s birth weight and (i growth performance and carcass composition, (ii the size of organs, and (iii the mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area at slaughter. The study consisted of twenty pigs slaughtered at the age of 165±2 days. The day after the slaughter, the carcass composition was determined by dissecting the chilled carcass into lean, fat, bones, and skin and organs were weighed. The average cross sectional area of muscle fibres was determined from three fast-twitch muscles longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, gluteus superficialis, and two slow-twitch muscles infraspinatus and masseter. The birth weight of pigs ranged from 0.9 to 2.2 kg. We found no clear relationships between the birth weight and the pig’s growth performance from birth to slaughter. When the birth weight increased the heart weight at slaughter increased as well (P < 0.01. The heart weight was higher in those pigs with high carcass weight (P < 0.05 and with the high weight of total muscle mass in the carcass (P < 0.001. The cross sectional area of muscle fibres in M. longissimus dorsi (P < 0.05, M. semimembranosus (P < 0.10, and M. gluteus superficialis (P < 0.05 was larger in those pigs with low birth weight compared to those found in pigs with high birth weight.;

  10. From infancy to pregnancy: birth weight, body mass index, and the risk of gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerros, Ylva Trolle; Cnattingius, Sven; Granath, Fredrik; Hanson, Ulf; Wikström, Anna-Karin

    2012-10-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for gestational diabetes, whereas the role of the mother's birth weight is more uncertain. We aimed to investigate the combined effect of mothers' birth-weight-for-gestational-age and early pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) in relation to risk of gestational diabetes. Between 1973 and 2006, we identified a cohort of 323,083 women included in the Swedish Medical Birth Register both as infants and as mothers. Main exposures were mothers' birth-weight-for-gestational-age (categorized into five groups according to deviation from national mean birth weight) and early pregnancy BMI (classified according to WHO). Rates of gestational diabetes increased with adult BMI, independently of birth-weight-for-gestational-age. However, compared to women with appropriate birth-weight-for-gestational-age [appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA); -1 to +1 SD] and BMI (born small-for-gestational-age [small for gestational age (SGA); born large-for-gestational-age [large-for-gestational-age (LGA); >2SD], and OR = 10.4 (95 % CI 8.4-13.0) if born AGA. Risk of gestational diabetes is not only increased among obese women, but also among women born SGA and LGA. Severely obese women born with a low or a high birth-weight-for-gestational-age seem more vulnerable to the development of gestational diabetes compared to normal weight women. Normal pre-pregnancy BMI diminishes the increased risk birth size may confer in terms of gestational diabetes. Therefore, the importance of keeping a healthy weight cannot be overemphasized.

  11. Does prenatal exposure to vitamin D-fortified margarine and milk alter birth weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla B; Berentzen, Tina L; Gamborg, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    with mandatory fortification of margarine during 1961-1985 and voluntary fortification of low-fat milk between 1972 and 1976. The influence of prenatal vitamin D exposure on birth weight was investigated among 51 883 Danish children, by comparing birth weight among individuals born during 2 years before or after......The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention...... than non-exposed children (margarine initiation 27·4 (95 % CI 10·8, 44·0) g). No differences in the odds of high (>4000 g) or low ( weight were observed between the children exposed and non-exposed to vitamin D fortification prenatally. Prenatal exposure to vitamin D from fortified...

  12. Low Birth Weight and Risk of Later-Life Physical Disability in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, Cassandra N; Ryckman, Kelli K; Robinson, Jennifer G; Stefanick, Marcia L; Sarto, Gloria E; Anton, Stephen D; Wallace, Robert B

    2017-04-01

    There is strong evidence that low and high birth weight due to in-utero programming results in elevated risk for adult diseases, though less research has been performed examining the influence of birth weight and physical disability later in life. Baseline data from 76,055 postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative, a large multi-ethnic cohort, were used to examine the association between self-reported birth weight category (education, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and a comorbidity score. Unadjusted models indicate that women born in the lowest and highest birth weight categories have significantly lower physical functioning scores as compared to women born in the normal weight category (β = -2.22, p disability.

  13. What has high fertility got to do with the low birth weight problem in Africa?

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    Ivy Kodzi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND There has been much concern about adverse individual and societal consequences of high fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. One concern is that children of high birth orders may have low birth weight. However, the evidence for such an effect is not strong. OBJECTIVE Our objective is to investigate whether a woman's high parity status might increase her risks of having a baby with low birth weight. METHODS Pooling 60 Demographic and Health Surveys data-sets from 32 sub-Saharan countries, we selected children of mothers who had at least two births of order two or higher within the five years preceding the surveys. We modeled the probability of having a child with low birth weight and controlled for all mother-specific, household, or community characteristics that are constant over the period of analysis, by including fixed-effects for the mother. We also controlled for salient factors including sex, maternal age, preceding birth interval, and whether prenatal care was received. RESULTS We found no adverse effect of increasing parity on the odds of having a child with low birth weight at normative ranges; such effects only manifest at extremely high parities - nine or more children. At moderately high parities, the chance of low birth weight is actually lower than at very low parities. CONCLUSIONS While high fertility may lead to various adverse outcomes for African families, low birth weight appears not to be among these outcomes. Other factors, such as adolescent childbearing, poverty, and inadequate prenatal care may be more important determinants of low birth weight in Africa.

  14. Does Extremely Low Birth Weight Predispose to Low-Renin Hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Anke; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Claessens, Jolien; Cauwenberghs, Nicholas; van Tienoven, Theun Pieter; Wei, Fang-Fei; Jacobs, Lotte; Levtchenko, Elena; Pauwels, Steven; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Allegaert, Karel; Staessen, Jan A

    2017-03-01

    Low birth weight and prematurity are risk factors for hypertension in adulthood. Few studies in preterm or full-term born children reported on plasma renin activity (PRA). We tested the hypothesis that renin might modulate the incidence of hypertension associated with prematurity. We enrolled 93 prematurely born children with birth weight hypertension associated with extreme low birth weight were 6.43 (2.52-16.4; Phypertension, but does not affect the inverse association between PRA and BP. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02147457. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Ophthalmic, Hearing, Speaking and School Readiness Outcomes in Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight Primary School Children in Mashhad-Iran

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    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Birth weight infants are at risk of many problems. Therefore their outcome must evaluate in different ages especially in school age. In this study we determined prevalence of ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems in children who were born low birth weight and compared them with normal birth weight children. In a cross-sectional and retrospective study, all Primary School children referred to special educational organization center for screening before entrance to school were elected in Mashhad, Iran. In this study 2400 children enrolled to study and were checked for ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems by valid instrument. Data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. This study showed that 8.3% of our population had birth weight less than 2500 gram. Visual impairment in LBW (Low Birth Weight and NBW (Normal Birth Weight was 8.29% vs. 5.74% and there was statistically significant difference between them (P=0.015. Hearing problem in LBW and NBW was 2.1% vs. 1.3 and it was not statistically significant. Speaking problem in LBW and NBW was 2.6% vs. 2.2% and it was not statistically significant. School readiness problem in LBW and NBW was 12.4% vs. 5.8% and it was statistically significant (P<0.001. According to the results, neurological problems in our society is more than other society and pay attention to this problem is critical. We believe that in our country, it is necessary to provide a program to routinely evaluate LBW children.

  16. Intimate partner violence during pregnancy and its association with preterm birth and low birth weight in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigalla, Geofrey Nimrod; Mushi, Declare; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem that affects millions of women worldwide. The role of violence as an underlying factor in poor birth outcomes remains an area where strong evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the association between...... intimate partner violence (IPV) and preterm delivery (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW). Materials and methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted among 1112 pregnant women attending antenatal care in Moshi–Tanzania. The women were enrolled before 24 weeks gestation, followed-up at week 34 to determine...... exposure to violence during pregnancy, and after delivery to estimate gestation age at delivery and birth weight. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between exposure to IPV during pregnancy and PTB and LBW while adjusting for possible confounders. In addition, stratified...

  17. Birth weight differences between preterm stillbirths and live births: analysis of population-based studies from the U.S. and Sweden

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    Zhang Xun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many stillbirths show evidence of fetal growth restriction, and most occur at preterm gestational age. The objective of this study is to compare birth weights at preterm gestational ages between live births and stillbirths, and between those occurring before or during labour. Methods Based on singleton births from the United States (U.S. 2003–2005 (n=902,491 and Sweden 1992–2001 (n=946,343, we compared birth weights between singleton live births and stillbirths at 24–36 completed weeks of gestation from the U.S. and at 28–42 completed weeks from Sweden. Results In both the U.S. and Sweden, stillbirth weight-for-gestational-age z-scores were at least one standard deviation lower than live birth z-scores at all preterm gestational ages (GA. In Sweden, no birth weight difference was observed between antepartum and intrapartum stillbirths at preterm GAs, whereas birth weights among intrapartum stillbirths were similar to those among live births at 37–42 weeks. Conclusions Birth weights observed at preterm gestation are abnormal, but preterm stillbirths appear to be more growth-restricted than preterm live birth. Similar birth weights among ante- and intrapartum preterm stillbirths suggest serious fetal compromise before the onset of labor.

  18. Relationship between Matern al Nutritional Status and Infant Birth Weight of Vegetarians in DKI Jakarta

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    Sandra Fikawati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Infant’s birth weight, especially low birth weight (LBW, areintergenerational issues that will affect the cycle of life.Vegetarian diets are at risk because limited food consumption could cause nutrient deficiencies. This retrospective studyaims to determine the relationship between maternal nutritional status (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and weight gain during pregnancy and infant’s birth weight among vegetarians in Jakarta. The total sample of 85 children aged 1 month to 5 years was selected purposively. Results showed that the mean of pre-pregnancy BMI of vegetarian mothers is 20.2 kg/m2 (±2.2 kg/m2, pregnancy weight gain is 15.5 kg (±6.4 kg and infant’s birth weight is 3212 gs (±417.7 gs. Pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain were significantly associated with infant’s birth weight of vegetarians. There is no relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain. Multivariate analysis found that pre-pregnancy BMI, protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn intakes and sex has relationship with infant’s birthweight. It is recommended that vegetarian mothers should get information about the importance of pre-pregnancy nutrition, optimal pregnancy weight gain, and maintaining adequate intake of protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn during pregnancy

  19. Birth Weight Variability and Language Development: Risk, Resilience, and Responsive Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Sheri; Wade, Mark; Plamondon, Andre; Browne, Dillon; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2015-10-01

    This study examined whether birth weight variation within the normal range was associated with language ability at 36 months, and whether responsive parenting-the putative protective factor-buffered children from the risk of relatively low birth weight. In all, 467 community mother-child dyads were followed longitudinally from birth. Receptive language was measured at 36 months. Responsive parenting was assessed through observed interactions at 18 months and examined as the hypothesized moderator. Controlling for confounds, both birth weight and responsive parenting positively predicted children's language skills. There was also a significant interaction between birth weight and responsive parenting-higher responsivity was associated with better language ability, and this link was especially pronounced for children at risk owing to relatively low birth weight. Normative differences in birth weight are a source of variability in children's language, but postnatal socialization factors such as parenting may buffer this risk. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Risk Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight. Cienfuegos Municipality. 2010-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet Villafuerte Reinante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: reducing low birth weight is a priority in Cuba’s health policy since it is critical to reduce infant mortality. Objective: to identify the major risk factors associated with low birth weight in Cienfuegos municipality. Methods: a cross-sectional study involving all women who gave birth to low-birth-weight infants was conducted in Cienfuegos municipality from January 2010 through December 2014. Maternal age, maternal medical history, weight gain during pregnancy, nutritional assessment in early pregnancy, interpregnancy interval, gestational age at birth and pregnancy-related conditions were analyzed. Results: Four hundred fifty low-birth-weight infants were born. Hypertension as major illness in the maternal medical history was the main cause of maternal morbidity. In the obstetric history, an interpregnancy interval less than 2 years was frequently observed. It was demonstrated that the conditions mostly associated with pregnancy were vaginal infection, anemia and hypertension. Preterm infants predominated. Conclusions: the modification of these risk factors would have a favorable impact on the reduction of low birth weight.

  1. High Birth Weight Is a Risk Factor of Dental Caries Increment during Adolescence in Sweden

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    Annika Julihn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess whether birth weight is associated with dental caries during the teenage period. In this register-based cohort study, all children of 13 years of age (n = 18,142 who resided in the county of Stockholm, Sweden, in 2000, were included. The cohort was followed until individuals were 19 years of age. Information regarding dental caries was collected from the Public Health Care Administration in Stockholm. Data concerning prenatal and perinatal factors and parental socio-demographic determinants were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register and National Registers at Statistics Sweden. The final logistic regression model showed that birth weight ≥4000 g, adjusted for potential confounders, was significantly associated with caries increment (DMFT ≥ 1 (D = decayed, M = missing, F = filled, T = teeth between 13 and 19 age (OR, 1.22; 95% CI = 1.09–1.36. The relatively enhanced risk OR was further increased from 1.22 to 1.43 in subjects with birth weight ≥4600 g. On the contrary, subjects with birth weight <2500 g exhibited a significantly lower risk (OR, 0.67; 95% CI = 0.50–0.89 for exhibiting caries experience (DMFT ≥ 4 at 19 years of age. In conclusion, high birth weight can be regarded as a predictor for dental caries, and especially, birth weight ≥4500 g is a risk factor for caries increment during adolescence.

  2. Exercise in pregnant women and birth weight: a randomized controlled trial

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    Bø Kari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth weight plays an important role in infant mortality and morbidity, childhood development, and adult health. To date there are contradictory results regarding the role of physical activity on birth weight. In addition, it is questioned whether exercise during second and third trimesters of pregnancy might affect gestational age and increase the risk of preterm delivery. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a supervised exercise-program on birth weight, gestational age at delivery and Apgar-score. Methods Sedentary, nulliparous pregnant women (N = 105, mean age 30.7 ± 4.0 years, pre-pregnancy BMI 23.8 ± 4.3 were randomized to either an exercise group (EG, n = 52 or a control group (CG, n = 53. The exercise program consisted of supervised aerobic dance and strength training for 60 minutes, twice per week for a minimum of 12 weeks, with an additional 30 minutes of self-imposed physical activity on the non-supervised week-days. Results There was no statistically significant difference between groups in mean birth weight, low birth weight ( Conclusion Aerobic-dance exercise was not associated with reduction in birth weight, preterm birth rate or neonatal well-being. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00617149

  3. Sex Differences in the Association Between Birth Weight and Adult Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.;

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but the risk at high birth weight levels remains uncertain. Potential sex differences in the associations are unexplored. We investigated whether sex influences the association of birth weight and adult type 2 diabetes, using....... Future search for sex-specific causal mechanisms may provide new insights into the early origins of type 2 diabetes.......Low birth weight is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but the risk at high birth weight levels remains uncertain. Potential sex differences in the associations are unexplored. We investigated whether sex influences the association of birth weight and adult type 2 diabetes, using...... a cohort of 113,801 men and 109,298 women, born 1936-1983, from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, Denmark. During 5.6 million person-years of follow-up, 7,750 men and 4,736 women had a diagnosis of adult type 2 diabetes (30 years of age or older) obtained from national registers. When birth...

  4. Are there differences in birth weight between neighbourhoods in a Nordic welfare state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellström, Eva; Arnoldsson, Göran; Bremberg, Sven; Hjern, Anders

    2007-09-26

    The objective of this cohort study was to examine the effect on birth weight of living in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in a Nordic welfare state. Birth weight is a health indicator known to be sensitive to political and welfare state conditions. No former studies on urban neighbourhood differences regarding mean birth weight have been carried out in a Nordic country. A register based on individual data on children's birth weight and maternal risk factors was used. A neighbourhood characteristic, i.e. an aggregated measure on income was also included. Connections between individual- and neighbourhood-level determinants and the outcome were analysed using multi-level regression technique. The study covered six hundred and ninety-six neighbourhoods in the three major cities of Sweden, Stockholm, Göteborg and Malmö, during 1992-2001. The majority of neighbourhoods had a population of 4 000-10 000 inhabitants. An average of 500 births per neighbourhood were analysed in this study. Differences in mean birth weight in Swedish urban neighbourhoods were minor. However, gestational length, parity and maternal smoking acted as modifiers of the neighbourhood effects. Most of the observed variation in mean birth weight was explained by individual risk factors. Welfare institutions and benefits in Sweden might buffer against negative infant outcomes due to adverse structural organisation of urban neighbourhoods.

  5. Are there differences in birth weight between neighbourhoods in a Nordic welfare state?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bremberg Sven

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this cohort study was to examine the effect on birth weight of living in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in a Nordic welfare state. Birth weight is a health indicator known to be sensitive to political and welfare state conditions. No former studies on urban neighbourhood differences regarding mean birth weight have been carried out in a Nordic country. Methods A register based on individual data on children's birth weight and maternal risk factors was used. A neighbourhood characteristic, i.e. an aggregated measure on income was also included. Connections between individual- and neighbourhood-level determinants and the outcome were analysed using multi-level regression technique. The study covered six hundred and ninety-six neighbourhoods in the three major cities of Sweden, Stockholm, Göteborg and Malmö, during 1992–2001. The majority of neighbourhoods had a population of 4 000–10 000 inhabitants. An average of 500 births per neighbourhood were analysed in this study. Results Differences in mean birth weight in Swedish urban neighbourhoods were minor. However, gestational length, parity and maternal smoking acted as modifiers of the neighbourhood effects. Most of the observed variation in mean birth weight was explained by individual risk factors. Conclusion Welfare institutions and benefits in Sweden might buffer against negative infant outcomes due to adverse structural organisation of urban neighbourhoods.

  6. A STUDY OF MATERNAL FACTORS AND BIRTH WEIGHT IN A BORDER DISTRICT OF UTTAR PRADESH

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    Suneel Kumar Kaushal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight is defined as the live births with less than 2.5 kg weight. LBW is one of the serious challenges in maternal and child health in both developed and developing countries. Objective: (1 To study the proportion of low birth weight neonates among hospital based deliveries. (2 To evaluate selected maternal factors associated with low birth weight in institutionally delivered newborn. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out in S.N. Hospital, Agra from 1st September, 2007 to 31st August, 2009 from medical record section of Obstetrics & Gynaecology department. Mode of delivery, birth weight and sex of baby, age of mother, parity, gestational period were taken as variables. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test was applied to observe the significance of association. Results: Proportion of LBW was found to be 38% and was higher in teenage pregnancy, in Muslim females, in high parity and among newborn females. Conclusion: Relationship of birth weight with sex of new born, birth order of new born, mode of delivery, gestational period and with parity of mother was found to be significant..

  7. Early Vocalization of Preterm Infants with Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW), Part I: From Birth to Expansion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torola, Helena; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Heikkinen, Hanna; Olsen, Paivi; Yliherva, Anneli

    2012-01-01

    The vocalization of preterm infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) up to the expansion stage was systematically described and compared with those of healthy full-term infants. The sample consisted of 18 preterm ELBW infants and the control group of 11 full-term infants. The follow-up was performed intensively using video-recordings. The…

  8. Birth weight and childhood wheezing disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebrahtu, Teumzghi F; Feltbower, Richard G; Greenwood, Darren C; Parslow, Roger C

    2015-05-01

    Previous observational studies have claimed that birth weight and childhood wheezing disorders are associated although the results remained inconsistent. One systematic review and two systematic reviews that included meta-analyses reported inconsistent results. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate this. An online search of published papers linking childhood asthma and wheezing disorders with birth weight up to February 2014 was carried out using EMBASE and Medline medical research databases. Summary ORs were estimated using random-effects models. Subgroup meta-analyses were performed to assess the robustness of risk associations and between-study heterogeneity. A total of 37 studies comprising 1,71, 737 participants were included in our meta-analysis. The unadjusted summary ORs for risk of childhood wheezing disorders associated with low birth weight (birthweight groups, respectively. The overall summary OR for high birth weight (>4 kg) as compared to the 2.5-4.0 kg birthweight group was 1.02 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.04, p=0.13). There was substantial heterogeneity in the unadjusted low birth weight risk estimates which was not accounted for by predefined study characteristics. There was no significant heterogeneity in the high birth weight risk estimates. There was some evidence of funnel plot asymmetry and small study effects in the low birth weight (2.5 vs ≥2.5 kg and low birth (risk factor for wheezing disorders during childhood and adolescence although there was substantial heterogeneity among the risk estimates. However, we found no significant association of high birth weight with wheezing disorders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. A study of birth weight of full term neonates and its′ determinants

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    Yugantara R Kadam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW is highly prevalent in India and has a multifactorial causation. There is a need to study and identify the modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors determining birth weight. This will help in planning ante natal care more effectively. Materials and Methods : Study-type-cross-sectional study-setting: Hospital based. Study-subject: Mothers and their new borns. Sample size: All the births taken place during the study period. Study period: July 2010-June 2011. Study tools : (0 i Questionnaire. (ii pediatric weighing machine. Inclusion criteria : m0 others attending ante natal care (ANC clinic from 1 st trimester with minimum three antenatal visits, non-anemic at the end of 2 nd trimester, had full-term and singleton delivery. Exclusion criteria : H/O pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH, diabetes mellieutus (DM, tuberculosis (TB, urinary tract infection (UTI, delivered preterm and tobacco chewers or mishri users. Statistical Analysis : Percentages, mean and SD of birth weight, χ2 test, ANOVA, Z-test, and Binary logistic. Results: By using birth weight as a continuous data it was observed that birth-weight was significantly associated with maternal age (F = 3.360, df = 2, P = 0.035, education (F = 4.401, df = 4, P = 0.002 and breakfast (z = 3.970, P = 0.00. Proportion of LBW was 42.4%. For analysis, groups of newborns on the basis of birth weight showed significant association between LBW and maternal education (χ2 = 12.734, df = 4, P = 0.013, breakfast (χ2 = 13.241, df = 1, P = 0.00 and evening snacks (χ2 = 4.275, df = 1, P = 0.013. According to the binary logistic regression, breakfast and education were significant and best predictors for birth weight. Conclusion: Education and breakfast are strong determinants of birth-weight. Less educated women need more intense health education.

  10. Association between birth weight and blood pressure is robust, amplifies with age, and may be underestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Anna A; Smith, George Davey; May, Margaret T; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2006-09-01

    Data on the early life origins of adult hypertension have been widely reported: however, recent research shows that the strength of association between small size at birth and higher blood pressure weakens as study size increases. In this article, we retest the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in a large cohort, examine whether age interacts with birth weight to predict blood pressure, and explore reasons why birth weight-blood pressure associations tend to weaken with increasing study size. Measurements from 25874 employees of a large United Kingdom company (mean [SD] age: 38.0 [7.9] years), undertaking voluntary occupational health screening, were available. Using linear regression analysis, we observed that systolic blood pressure changed -0.8 (95% CI: -1.1 to -0.5) mmHg per 1-kg increase in birth weight (P<0.001) adjusted for age and sex and -1.1 (95% CI: -1.3 to -0.8) mmHg/kg (P<0.001) after further adjustment for body size. This inverse association amplified with age (age/birth weight interaction term P<0.001). In participants reporting birth weight from hospital records (n=744), systolic blood pressure changed -1.4 (95% CI: -3.1 to 0.2) mmHg/kg compared with -0.8 (95% CI: -1.0 to -0.5) mmHg/kg in all of the other participants. Finally, the data show evidence of "fixed-category blood pressure allocation," where participants are allocated certain blood pressure values, such as 120/80 mmHg, independent of actual blood pressure. Although the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure was weaker than observed in smaller studies, recalled birth weight and fixed blood pressure measurement error may generate a trend toward weaker associations in larger studies.

  11. Family factors and social support in the developmental outcomes of very low-birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, D P; Park, J M

    2000-06-01

    This study used data that were representative of the normative population of all infants born in 1988 and were followed during the first 3 years of life. Large developmental delays and limitations in function were common among children weighing less than 1500 g at birth. Among very low-birth weight infants, minority status and living in a household headed by a single mother further worsen the disadvantages associated with a very low birth weight. Nor could the disadvantages associated with very low birth weight be accounted for by controls for other risk factors or buffering statuses and behaviors. Among all children (including those of very low birth weight) poverty, reliance on Medicaid and other government sources for health insurance, a history of risky behaviors, and inadequate prenatal care are the major risk factors for developmental delays, limitations in function, and impairment at birth. State program benefit levels have no obvious effects on child outcomes, taking into account participation in individual programs. An important finding in light of TANF is that maternal work, the use of child care, and the form and cost of child care did not influence developmental delay, limitation in function, or impairment, the outcomes that we were able to measure during the first 3 years of life. TANF eligibility requirements, however, may increase difficulty in obtaining prenatal and other medical services for mothers and children in need--factors shown here to be related strongly to increased risk of low birth weight and developmental delays, limitations, and impairments. Race and ethnicity, poverty status, and family structure are fundamental factors in early child development and function. Minority status, poverty, and single-parent households greatly increase the likelihood that a mother will engage in risky behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, illegal drug use) during pregnancy and receive inadequate prenatal care. Risky behaviors and inadequate prenatal care are

  12. Vitamin D supplementation, cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkedegn, Sine; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Sorensen, Grith Lykke

    2017-01-01

    prospective population-based cohort, who gave birth to singletons and donated a blood sample for s-25(OH)D measurements were included (n = 2082). RESULTS: The prevalence of cord vitamin D deficiency was 16.7% and 41.0% for insufficiency. White skin, winter season at birth, maternal supplementation dose of ... μg/day, non-western ethnicity and high body mass index (BMI) were identified as independent risk factors of both vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Adherence to the recommended vitamin D supplementation dose (10 μg/day) was reported by 87% (primipara 91% vs. multipara 81%, p

  13. Normal birth weight piglets with impaired preweaning growth utilize alternative metabolic pathways in the liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was designed to determine if normal weight pigs that grow poorly during the pre-weaning period have altered hepatic metabolism, as reported for intrauterine growth retarded pigs. Eight pairs of average birth weight pigs (1.57 +/- 0.05 kg) were identified that diverged in weight by...

  14. Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

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    Sadd James L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. Methods We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the neighborhoods of women who delivered term singleton live births between 1996 and 2006 in California. We adjusted effect estimates of air pollutants on birth weight for infant characteristics, maternal characteristics, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and year and season of birth. Results 3,545,177 singleton births had monitoring for at least one air pollutant within a 10 km radius of the tract or ZIP Code of the mother's residence. In multivariate models, pollutants were associated with decreased birth weight; -5.4 grams (95% confidence interval -6.8 g, -4.1 g per ppm carbon monoxide, -9.0 g (-9.6 g, -8.4 g per pphm nitrogen dioxide, -5.7 g (-6.6 g, -4.9 g per pphm ozone, -7.7 g (-7.9 g, -6.6 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 10 μm, -12.8 g (-14.3 g, -11.3 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 2.5 μm, and -9.3 g (-10.7 g, -7.9 g per 10 μg/m3 of coarse particulate matter. With the exception of carbon monoxide, estimates were largely unchanged after controlling for co-pollutants. Effect estimates for the third trimester largely reflect the results seen from full pregnancy exposure estimates; greater variation in results is seen in effect estimates specific to the first and second trimesters. Conclusions This study indicates that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution results in modestly lower infant birth weight. A small decline in birth weight is unlikely to have clinical relevance for individual infants, and there is debate about whether

  15. New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O

    2013-01-01

    Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood. Previous genome-wide association studies of birth weight identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type...

  16. New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Sovio, Ulla; Taal, H. Rob; Hennig, Branwen J.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M.; Charoen, Pimphen; Kaakinen, Marika; Cousminer, Diana L.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Kreiner-Moller, Eskil; Warrington, Nicole M.; Bustamante, Mariona; Feenstra, Bjarke; Berry, Diane J.; Thiering, Elisabeth; Pfab, Thiemo; Barton, Sheila J.; Shields, Beverley M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; van Leeuwen, Elisa; Fulford, Anthony J.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Zhao, Jing Hua; den Hoed, Marcel; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindi, Virpi; Goh, Liang-Kee; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Wu, Ying; Raitakari, Olli T.; Harder, Marie N.; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Ntalla, Ioanna; Salem, Rany M.; Jameson, Karen A.; Zhou, Kaixin; Monies, Dorota M.; Lagou, Vasiliki; Kirin, Mirna; Heikkinen, Jani; Adair, Linda S.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Al-Odaib, Ali; Amouyel, Philippe; Andersson, Ehm Astrid; Bennett, Amanda J.; Blakemore, Alexandra I. F.; Buxton, Jessica L.; Dallongeville, Jean; Das, Shikta; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Estivill, Xavier; Flexeder, Claudia; Froguel, Philippe; Geller, Frank; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gottrand, Frederic; Groves, Christopher J.; Hansen, Torben; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Hyppoenen, Elina; Inskip, Hazel M.; Isaacs, Aaron; Jorgensen, Torben; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kemp, John P.; Kiess, Wieland; Kilpelainen, Tuomas O.; Klopp, Norman; Knight, Bridget A.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; McMahon, George; Newnham, John P.; Niinikoski, Harri; Oostra, Ben A.; Pedersen, Louise; Postma, Dirkje S.; Ring, Susan M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R.; Sebert, Sylvain; Simell, Olli; Slowinski, Torsten; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Toenjes, Anke; Vaag, Allan; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R.; Zhang, Haitao; Zhao, Jianhua; Wilson, James F.; Stumvoll, Michael; Prentice, Andrew M.; Meyer, Brian F.; Pearson, Ewan R.; Boreham, Colin A. G.; Cooper, Cyrus; Gillman, Matthew W.; Dedoussis, George V.; Moreno, Luis A.; Pedersen, Oluf; Saarinen, Maiju; Mohlke, Karen L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Lakka, Timo A.; Koerner, Antje; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Ong, Ken K.; Vollenweider, Peter; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Holloway, John W.; Hocher, Berthold; Heinrich, Joachim; Power, Chris; Melbye, Mads; Guxens, Monica; Pennell, Craig E.; Bonnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans; Eriksson, Johan G.; Widen, Elisabeth; Hakonarson, Hakon; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Pouta, Anneli; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Smith, George Davey; Frayling, Timothy M.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Freathy, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood(1). Previous genome-wide association studies of birth weight identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type

  17. Predictors of Gestational Weight Gain among White and Latina Women and Associations with Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Monica L.; Bodenlos, Jamie S.; Sankey, Heather Z.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined racial/ethnic differences in gestational weight gain (GWG) predictors and association of first-trimester GWG to overall GWG among 271 White women and 300 Latina women. Rates of within-guideline GWG were higher among Latinas than among Whites (28.7% versus 24.4%, p < 0.016). Adjusted odds of above-guideline GWG were higher among prepregnancy overweight (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.8–6.5) and obese (OR = 4.5, CI = 2.3–9.0) women than among healthy weight women and among women with above-guideline first-trimester GWG than among those with within-guideline first-trimester GWG (OR = 4.9, CI = 2.8–8.8). GWG was positively associated with neonate birth size (p < 0.001). Interventions targeting prepregnancy overweight or obese women and those with excessive first-trimester GWG are needed. PMID:27688913

  18. Is low back pain in youth associated with weight at birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbæk, Lise; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2003-01-01

    they are still largely unaffected by the influence of working life. Possible associations between low back pain, birth weight, birth length, ponderal index, gestational age and Apgar scores are investigated by the use of logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The odds ratio for the lifetime prevalence of low...

  19. Lower Birth Weight and Diet in Taiwanese Girls More than Boys Predicts Learning Impediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Huang, Lin-Yuan; Chang, Yu-Hung; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying; Yu, Hsiao-Li; Wahlqvist, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Possible links between lower birth weight, childhood diet, and learning in Taiwan are evaluated. The population representative Elementary School Children's Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2001-2002 and the national birth registry were used to examine school and social performance using the modified Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance…

  20. Relation between birth weight and blood pressure: longitudinal study of infants and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Launer (Lenore); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE--To study the relation between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in infancy and early childhood. DESIGN--Longitudinal study of infants from birth to 4 years of age. SETTING--A middle class community in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS--476

  1. Lower Birth Weight and Diet in Taiwanese Girls More than Boys Predicts Learning Impediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Huang, Lin-Yuan; Chang, Yu-Hung; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying; Yu, Hsiao-Li; Wahlqvist, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Possible links between lower birth weight, childhood diet, and learning in Taiwan are evaluated. The population representative Elementary School Children's Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2001-2002 and the national birth registry were used to examine school and social performance using the modified Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance…

  2. Massage Interventions and Developmental Skills in Infants Born with Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, I. A.; Adulas, E. I.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating possible effects of massage interventions on developmental progress in the infants born with low birth weight (LBW). Forty infants (17 boys, 23 girls) who were born in St. Petersburg in 2000 through 2002 and met a conventional definition of LBW (less than 2500 g at birth) entered the study. Of these, 36 (17 boys, 19…

  3. Variants in ADCY5 and near CCNL1 are associated with fetal growth and birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Freathy (Rachel); D.O. Mook-Kanamori (Dennis); U. Sovio (Ulla); I. Prokopenko (Inga); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); D. Berry (Diane); N.M. Warrington (Nicole); E. Widen (Elisabeth); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M. Kaakinen (Marika); L.A. Lange (Leslie); J.P. Bradfield (Jonathan); M. Kerkhof (Marjan); J.A. Marsh (Julie); R. Mägi (Reedik); C. Chen (Chao); H.N. Lyon (Helen); M. Kirin (Mirna); L.S. Adair (Linda); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); J.B. Borja (Judith); N. Bouatia-Naji (Nabila); P. Charoen (Pimphen); L. Coin (Lachlan); D.L. Cousminer (Diana); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); P. Elliott (Paul); D.M. Evans (David); P. Froguel (Philippe); B. Glaser (Beate); C.J. Groves (Christopher); A.L. Hartikainen; N. Hassanali (Neelam); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); A. Hofman (Albert); J.M.P. Holly (Jeff); E. Hyppönen (Elina); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); B.A. Knight (Bridget); J. Laitinen (Jaana); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); P.F. O'Reilly (Paul); C.E. Pennell (Craig); D.S. Postma (Dirkje); A. Pouta (Anneli); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); S.M. Ring (Susan); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); B.M. Shields (Beverley); D.P. Strachan (David); I. Surakka (Ida); A. Taanila (Anja); C. Tiesler (Carla); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); A.H. Wijga (Alet); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); H. Zhang (Haitao); J.H. Zhao; J.F. Wilson (James); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); K. Hagen (Knut); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); S.F.A. Grant (Struan); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); G.H. Koppelman (Gerard); G.V. Dedoussis (George); J. Heinrich (Joachim); M.W. Gillman (Matthew W.); C. Palmer (Cameron); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); G.D. Smith; C. Power (Christopher); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); M.I. McCarthy (Mark)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTo identify genetic variants associated with birth weight, we meta-analyzed six genome-wide association (GWA) studies (n = 10,623 Europeans from pregnancy/birth cohorts) and followed up two lead signals in 13 replication studies (n = 27,591). rs900400 near LEKR1 and CCNL1 (P = 2 × 10 35)

  4. Variants in ADCY5 and near CCNL1 are associated with fetal growth and birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freathy, Rachel M.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Sovio, Ulla; Prokopenko, Inga; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Berry, Diane J.; Warrington, Nicole M.; Widen, Elisabeth; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Kaakinen, Marika; Lange, Leslie A.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Marsh, Julie A.; Maegi, Reedik; Chen, Chih-Mei; Lyon, Helen N.; Kirin, Mirna; Adair, Linda S.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Bennett, Amanda J.; Borja, Judith B.; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Charoen, Pimphen; Coin, Lachlan J. M.; Cousminer, Diana L.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deloukas, Panos; Elliott, Paul; Evans, David M.; Froguel, Philippe; Glaser, Beate; Groves, Christopher J.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassanali, Neelam; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Holly, Jeff M. P.; Hyppoenen, Elina; Kanoni, Stavroula; Knight, Bridget A.; Laitinen, Jaana; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; McArdle, Wendy L.; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Pennell, Craig E.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Pouta, Anneli; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Rayner, Nigel W.; Ring, Susan M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Shields, Beverley M.; Strachan, David P.; Surakka, Ida; Taanila, Anja; Tiesler, Carla; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Wijga, Alet H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Zhang, Haitao; Zhao, Jianhua; Wilson, James F.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Peltonen, Leena; Mohlke, Karen L.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Dedoussis, George V.; Heinrich, Joachim; Gillman, Matthew W.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Smith, George Davey; Power, Chris; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; McCarthy, Mark I.

    To identify genetic variants associated with birth weight, we meta-analyzed six genome-wide association (GWA) studies (n = 10,623 Europeans from pregnancy/birth cohorts) and followed up two lead signals in 13 replication studies (n = 27,591). rs900400 near LEKR1 and CCNL1 (P = 2 x 10(-35)) and

  5. Massage Interventions and Developmental Skills in Infants Born with Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, I. A.; Adulas, E. I.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating possible effects of massage interventions on developmental progress in the infants born with low birth weight (LBW). Forty infants (17 boys, 23 girls) who were born in St. Petersburg in 2000 through 2002 and met a conventional definition of LBW (less than 2500 g at birth) entered the study. Of these, 36 (17 boys, 19…

  6. Blood Pressure in Young Adults Born at Very Low Birth Weight: Adults Born Preterm International Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovi, P.; Vohr, B.; Ment, L.R.; Doyle, L.W.; McGarvey, L.; Morrison, K.M.; Evensen, K.A.I.; Pal, S. van der; Grunau, R.E.; Brubakk, A.M.; Andersson, S.; Saigal, S.; Kajantie, E.

    2016-01-01

    Adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) have higher blood pressure than those born at term. It is not known whether all VLBW adults are at risk or whether higher blood pressure could be attributed to some of the specific conditions underlying or accompanying preterm birth. To

  7. Genetic evidence for causal relationships between maternal obesity-related traits and birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W.R. Tyrrell; R.C. Richmond (Rebecca C.); T.M. Palmer (Tom); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); J. Rangarajan (Janani); S. Metrustry (Sarah); A. Cavadino (Alana); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); L.L. Armstrong (Loren L.); N.M.G. De Silva (N. Maneka G.); A.R. Wood (Andrew); M. Horikoshi (Momoko); F. Geller (Frank); R. Myhre (Ronny); J.P. Bradfield (Jonathan); E. Kreiner-Møller (Eskil); I. Huikari (Ille); J.N. Painter (Jodie N.); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); C. Allard (Catherine); D. Berry (Diane); L. Bouchard (Luigi); S. Das; D.M. Evans (David); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); M.G. Hayes (M. Geoffrey); J. Heikkinen (Jani); A. Hofman (Albert); B.A. Knight (Bridget); P.A. Lind (Penelope); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); G. Mcmahon (George); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); M. Melbye (Mads); A.P. Morris (Andrew); M. Nodzenski (Michael); C. Reichetzeder (Christoph); S.M. Ring (Susan); S. Sebert (Sylvain); V. Sengpiel (Verena); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); T.D. Spector (Timothy); C. Power (Christine); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); H. Bisgaard (Hans); S.F. Grant; C. Nohr (Christian); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); B. Jacobsson (Bo); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey C.); B. Hocher (Berthold); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); D.M. Scholtens (Denise M.); G.D. Smith; M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); J.F. Felix (Janine); E. Hypponen (Elina); W.L. Lowe Jr. (William); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); R.M. Freathy (Rachel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIMPORTANCE Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To test for genetic evide

  8. Blood Pressure in Young Adults Born at Very Low Birth Weight: Adults Born Preterm International Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovi, P.; Vohr, B.; Ment, L.R.; Doyle, L.W.; McGarvey, L.; Morrison, K.M.; Evensen, K.A.I.; Pal, S. van der; Grunau, R.E.; Brubakk, A.M.; Andersson, S.; Saigal, S.; Kajantie, E.

    2016-01-01

    Adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) have higher blood pressure than those born at term. It is not known whether all VLBW adults are at risk or whether higher blood pressure could be attributed to some of the specific conditions underlying or accompanying preterm birth. To id

  9. Relation between birth weight and blood pressure: longitudinal study of infants and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Launer (Lenore); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE--To study the relation between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in infancy and early childhood. DESIGN--Longitudinal study of infants from birth to 4 years of age. SETTING--A middle class community in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS--476 Dutc

  10. A Study of Effect Of Maternal Nutrition On Incidence Of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R.K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What is the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight ? Objective: To study the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight. Setting: Hospital based, Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Neonatology wing of department of paediatrics of Rajendra Hospital attached to Govt. Medical College, Patiala. Study design: Cross- sectional. Sample size : 200 low birth weight babies from 1048 live births. Study variables: Weight of newborn babies, nutritional status of mother, maternal weight, maternal height, dietary habits, mothers haemoglobin. Statistical analysis : Proportions, Chi square test. Results : Out of 1048 babies born. 200 were found to be low birth weight babies giving an overall incidence of 19.1%. incidence of LBW was higher among female babies (19.6% as compared to male babies (18.7%. The difference was statistically not significant. Incidence was 17.2% among non vegetarians while it was 20.7% in vegetarians. The difference was again statistically not significant. The lowest incidence (17% of LBW was observed in mothers having haemoglobin levels 10gm/dl or more and there was improvement in birth weight as haemoglobin levels increased. Incidence of LBW was maximum (26.6% in mothers having height less than 150 cms.

  11. Optimizing Nutrition in Preterm Low Birth Weight Infants-Consensus Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R Kishore; Singhal, Atul; Vaidya, Umesh; Banerjee, Saswata; Anwar, Fahmina; Rao, Shashidhar

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth survivors are at a higher risk of growth and developmental disabilities compared to their term counterparts. Development of strategies to lower the complications of preterm birth forms the rising need of the hour. Appropriate nutrition is essential for the growth and development of preterm infants. Early administration of optimal nutrition to preterm birth survivors lowers the risk of adverse health outcomes and improves cognition in adulthood. A group of neonatologists, pediatricians, and nutrition experts convened to discuss and frame evidence-based recommendations for optimizing nutrition in preterm low birth weight (LBW) infants. The following were the primary recommendations of the panel: (1) enteral feeding is safe and may be preferred to parenteral nutrition due to the complications associated with the latter; however, parenteral nutrition may be a useful adjunct to enteral feeding in some critical cases; (2) early, fast, or continuous enteral feeding yields better outcomes compared to late, slow, or intermittent feeding, respectively; (3) routine use of nasogastric tubes is not advisable; (4) preterm infants can be fed while on ventilator or continuous positive airway pressure; (5) routine evaluation of gastric residuals and abdominal girth should be avoided; (6) expressed breast milk (EBM) is the first choice for feeding preterm infants due to its beneficial effects on cardiovascular, neurological, bone health, and growth outcomes; the second choice is donor pasteurized human milk; (7) EBM or donor milk may be fortified with human milk fortifiers, without increasing the osmolality of the milk, to meet the high protein requirements of preterm infants; (8) standard fortification is effective and safe but does not fulfill the high protein needs; (9) use of targeted and adjustable fortification, where possible, helps provide optimal nutrition; (10) optimizing weight gain in preterm infants prevents long-term cardiovascular complications; (11

  12. Optimizing Nutrition in Preterm Low Birth Weight Infants—Consensus Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R. Kishore; Singhal, Atul; Vaidya, Umesh; Banerjee, Saswata; Anwar, Fahmina; Rao, Shashidhar

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth survivors are at a higher risk of growth and developmental disabilities compared to their term counterparts. Development of strategies to lower the complications of preterm birth forms the rising need of the hour. Appropriate nutrition is essential for the growth and development of preterm infants. Early administration of optimal nutrition to preterm birth survivors lowers the risk of adverse health outcomes and improves cognition in adulthood. A group of neonatologists, pediatricians, and nutrition experts convened to discuss and frame evidence-based recommendations for optimizing nutrition in preterm low birth weight (LBW) infants. The following were the primary recommendations of the panel: (1) enteral feeding is safe and may be preferred to parenteral nutrition due to the complications associated with the latter; however, parenteral nutrition may be a useful adjunct to enteral feeding in some critical cases; (2) early, fast, or continuous enteral feeding yields better outcomes compared to late, slow, or intermittent feeding, respectively; (3) routine use of nasogastric tubes is not advisable; (4) preterm infants can be fed while on ventilator or continuous positive airway pressure; (5) routine evaluation of gastric residuals and abdominal girth should be avoided; (6) expressed breast milk (EBM) is the first choice for feeding preterm infants due to its beneficial effects on cardiovascular, neurological, bone health, and growth outcomes; the second choice is donor pasteurized human milk; (7) EBM or donor milk may be fortified with human milk fortifiers, without increasing the osmolality of the milk, to meet the high protein requirements of preterm infants; (8) standard fortification is effective and safe but does not fulfill the high protein needs; (9) use of targeted and adjustable fortification, where possible, helps provide optimal nutrition; (10) optimizing weight gain in preterm infants prevents long-term cardiovascular complications; (11

  13. Optimizing Nutrition in Preterm Low Birth Weight Infants—Consensus Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kishore Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth survivors are at a higher risk of growth and developmental disabilities compared to their term counterparts. Development of strategies to lower the complications of preterm birth forms the rising need of the hour. Appropriate nutrition is essential for the growth and development of preterm infants. Early administration of optimal nutrition to preterm birth survivors lowers the risk of adverse health outcomes and improves cognition in adulthood. A group of neonatologists, pediatricians, and nutrition experts convened to discuss and frame evidence-based recommendations for optimizing nutrition in preterm low birth weight (LBW infants. The following were the primary recommendations of the panel: (1 enteral feeding is safe and may be preferred to parenteral nutrition due to the complications associated with the latter; however, parenteral nutrition may be a useful adjunct to enteral feeding in some critical cases; (2 early, fast, or continuous enteral feeding yields better outcomes compared to late, slow, or intermittent feeding, respectively; (3 routine use of nasogastric tubes is not advisable; (4 preterm infants can be fed while on ventilator or continuous positive airway pressure; (5 routine evaluation of gastric residuals and abdominal girth should be avoided; (6 expressed breast milk (EBM is the first choice for feeding preterm infants due to its beneficial effects on cardiovascular, neurological, bone health, and growth outcomes; the second choice is donor pasteurized human milk; (7 EBM or donor milk may be fortified with human milk fortifiers, without increasing the osmolality of the milk, to meet the high protein requirements of preterm infants; (8 standard fortification is effective and safe but does not fulfill the high protein needs; (9 use of targeted and adjustable fortification, where possible, helps provide optimal nutrition; (10 optimizing weight gain in preterm infants prevents long-term cardiovascular complications

  14. Relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Amare; Yitayeh, Asmare

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a neglected bacterial infection that causes destruction of the periodontium in pregnant women. Yet its impact on the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has not systematically evaluated and there is no clear statement on the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight. The objective of this study was to summarize the evidence on the impact of periodontal disease on preterm low birth weight. We searched the following data bases from January 2005 to December 2015: CINAHL (cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature), MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE (excerpta medica database), Cochrane library and Google scholar. Only case-control studies with full text in English were eligible. Critical appraisal of the identified articles was done by two authors independently to provide the possible relevance of the papers for inclusion in the review process. The selected Case control studies were critically appraised with 12 items structured checklist adapted from national institute of health (NIH). Odds ratio (OR) or risk ratios (RR) were extracted from the selected studies. The two reviewers who selected the appropriate studies also extracted the data and evaluated the risk of bias. Of 229 articles, ten studies with a total of 2423 participants with a mean age ranged from 13 to 49 years were met the inclusion criteria. The studies focused on preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight and periodontitis. Of the selected studies, 9 implied an association between periodontal disease and increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight outcome (ORs ranging from 2.04 to 4.19) and only one study found no evidence of association. Periodontal disease may be one of the possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight infant. However, more precise studies with randomized clinical trial with sufficient follow-up period must be done to confirm the association.

  15. Relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Amare; Yitayeh, Asmare

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal disease is a neglected bacterial infection that causes destruction of the periodontium in pregnant women. Yet its impact on the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has not systematically evaluated and there is no clear statement on the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight. The objective of this study was to summarize the evidence on the impact of periodontal disease on preterm low birth weight. Methods We searched the following data bases from January 2005 to December 2015: CINAHL (cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature), MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE (excerpta medica database), Cochrane library and Google scholar. Only case-control studies with full text in English were eligible. Critical appraisal of the identified articles was done by two authors independently to provide the possible relevance of the papers for inclusion in the review process. The selected Case control studies were critically appraised with 12 items structured checklist adapted from national institute of health (NIH). Odds ratio (OR) or risk ratios (RR) were extracted from the selected studies. The two reviewers who selected the appropriate studies also extracted the data and evaluated the risk of bias. Results Of 229 articles, ten studies with a total of 2423 participants with a mean age ranged from 13 to 49 years were met the inclusion criteria. The studies focused on preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight and periodontitis. Of the selected studies, 9 implied an association between periodontal disease and increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight outcome (ORs ranging from 2.04 to 4.19) and only one study found no evidence of association. Conclusion Periodontal disease may be one of the possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight infant. However, more precise studies with randomized clinical trial with sufficient follow-up period must be done to

  16. Fat-free mass mediates the association between birth weight and aerobic fitness in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridgway, C L; Andresen, Brage Storstein; Anderssen, S

    2011-01-01

    test. Physical activity was collected in a subset (n = 1 505) using a hip-worn accelerometer and defined as total activity counts/wear time, all children with >600 minutes/day for ≥3 days of wear were included. Results. Lower birth weight was associated with lower aerobic fitness, after adjusting.......7). Birth weight was also significantly associated with fat-free mass (ß = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.8, p physical activity did not alter the findings. Conclusion. Birth weight...... for sex, age group, country, sexual maturity and socio-economic status (ß = 5.4; 95% CI: 3.5, 7.3 W per 1 kg increase in birth weight, p

  17. Invited commentary: Interpreting associations between high birth weight and later health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Willy

    2014-11-01

    High birth weight (>4.0 kg) has been associated with a wide range of health problems later in life. The interpretation of these statistical associations may be difficult, however. These difficulties are closely linked to methodological challenges in this research, such as filtering out confounding from family factors, disentangling associations with prenatal processes from associations with postnatal processes, and uncovering what birth weight actually represents. The well-conducted study by Kristensen et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180(9):876-884), presented in this issue of the Journal, offers an interesting example of how one can filter out confounding from family factors. In an elegant series of analyses, the authors show how an apparent inverse association between birth weight and later intelligence among those in the highest range of the birth weight scale became a positive association when proper adjustment for family factors was made. Sibling comparisons were important here.

  18. Serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements in predicting normal birth weight in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neff, Karl J

    2013-06-24

    To construct a clinical management matrix using serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements (ACMs) that will predict normal birth weight in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) and reduce unnecessary ultrasound examination in women with GDM.

  19. Birth Weight Variability and Language Development: Risk, Resilience, and Responsive Parenting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Madigan, Sheri; Wade, Mark; Plamondon, Andre; Browne, Dillon; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether birth weight variation within the normal range was associated with language ability at 36 months, and whether responsive parenting-the putative protective factor-buffered...

  20. Combined effects of prenatal exposures to environmental chemicals on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs...... over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis...... with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures....

  1. The effect of birth weight of boars and litter size in which were 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eugenia

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... The skinfold thickness (two layers of scrotal skin) were subtracted from initial measurements of length and width of each testis. Testis volume was ... Table 2 Effects of birth weight and litter size on growth performance of boars.

  2. Gestation length and birth weight in relation to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, S F; Hansen, H S; Secher, N J; Jensen, B; Sandström, B

    1995-03-01

    It has been hypothesized that marine n-3 fatty acids ingested during pregnancy prolong duration of pregnancy and increase fetal growth rate in humans. By a combined self-administered questionnaire and interview applied in the 30th week of gestation we assessed dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids and energy in a population-based sample of 965 pregnant Danish women; in a random 14% subsample we also measured marine n-3 fatty acids relative to arachidonic acid (FA-ratio) in erythrocytes. Mean intake of marine n-3 fatty acids was 0.25 (95% range 0-0.75) g/d. We could detect no association between n-3 fatty acid intake and FA-ratio on the one hand, and gestation length, birth weight and birth length on the other. The analyses were adjusted for maternal height, prepregnant weight, parity and smoking. The conclusion from the study was that within the intake range of this population, marine n-3 fatty acids ingested in the weeks prior to the 30th week of pregnancy seem not to be a predictor of gestation length or fetal growth rate.

  3. Gestation length and birth weight in relation to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, H.S.; Secher, N.J.;

    1995-01-01

    between n- 3 fatty acid intake and FA-ratio on the one hand, and gestation length, birth weight and birth length on the other. The analyses were adjusted for maternal height, prepregnant weight, parity and smoking. The conclusion from the study was that within the intake range of this population, marine n......-3 fatty acids ingested in the weeks prior to the 30th week of pregnancy seem not to be a predictor of gestation length or fetal growth rate....

  4. Gestation length and birth weight in relation to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Secher, N.J.;

    1995-01-01

    between n-3 fatty acid intake and FA-ratio on the one hand, and gestation length, birth weight and birth length on the other. The analyses were adjusted for maternal height, prepregnant weight, parity and smoking. The conclusion from the study was that within the intake range of this population, marine n......-3 fatty acids ingested in the weeks prior to the 30th week of pregnancy seem not to be a predictor of gestation length or fetal growth rate....

  5. Sepsis-Related Mortality of Very Low Birth Weight Brazilian Infants: The Role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sylvia Maria Porto; de Almeida Cardoso, Maria Helena Cabral; Figuexeds, Ana Lucia; Mattos, Haroldo; Rozembaum, Ronaldo; Ferreira, Vanessa Isidoro; Portinho, Maria Antonieta; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; da Costa, Elaine Sobral

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for sepsis-related mortality in low birth weight (1000 g), five-minute Apgar ≤7, gram-negative sepsis, mechanical ventilation (6.7 times higher than no use), and intravascular catheter. Sepsis-related mortality was due, mainly, to Pseudomonas aeruginosa; birth weight ≤1000 g and mechanical ventilation were strong sepsis-related mortality predictors. PMID:20182631

  6. Prenatal Stress and Low Birth Weight: Evidence from the Super Bowl

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Brian; Mansour, Hani; Rees, Daniel I.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have estimated the relationship between psychological stress and birth weight by exploiting natural disasters and terrorist attacks, both of which could affect fetal health through other channels. Using data from the National Vital Statistics System for the period 1969-2004, we estimate the effect of prenatal exposure to the Super Bowl on low birth weight. Although major sporting events elicit intense emotions, they do not threaten viewers with direct physical harm or limit access to ...

  7. Indicators of problems evaluated by parents and children stratified by birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUES-PALUCCI,Claudia Mazzer; Loureiro,Sonia Regina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Studies on the impact of birth weight on child development require the participation of children as informants. The objective of this study was to compare the indicators of behavioral problems and depression in a cohort of school-age children stratified by birth weight and to investigate possible associations between the indicators of behavioral problems, evaluated by the parents, and depression, evaluated by the children. A total of 665 children, aged 10-11 years, distributed into f...

  8. Associations of Meteorology with Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Preeclampsia, Preterm Birth and Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Alyssa J.; Wu, Jun; Laurent, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between meteorology and pregnancy outcomes are not well known. This article reviews available evidence on the relationships between seasonality or meteorology and three major pregnancy outcomes: the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (including preeclampsia, eclampsia and gestational hypertension), gestational length and birth weight. In total 35, 28 and 27 studies were identified for each of these outcomes. The risks of preeclampsia appear higher for women with conception during the warmest months, and delivery in the coldest months of the year. Delivery in the coldest months is also associated with a higher eclampsia risk. Patterns of decreased gestational lengths have been observed for births in winter, as well as summer months. Most analytical studies also report decreases in gestational lengths associated with heat. Birth weights are lower for deliveries occurring in winter and in summer months. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the effects of barometric pressure on gestational length or the effects of temperature and sunshine exposure on birth weight, but these questions appear worth investigating further. Available results should encourage further etiological research aiming at enhancing our understanding of the relationships between meteorology and adverse pregnancy outcomes, ideally via harmonized multicentric studies. PMID:24362545

  9. Associations of meteorology with adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review of preeclampsia, preterm birth and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Alyssa J; Wu, Jun; Laurent, Olivier

    2013-12-20

    The relationships between meteorology and pregnancy outcomes are not well known. This article reviews available evidence on the relationships between seasonality or meteorology and three major pregnancy outcomes: the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (including preeclampsia, eclampsia and gestational hypertension), gestational length and birth weight. In total 35, 28 and 27 studies were identified for each of these outcomes. The risks of preeclampsia appear higher for women with conception during the warmest months, and delivery in the coldest months of the year. Delivery in the coldest months is also associated with a higher eclampsia risk. Patterns of decreased gestational lengths have been observed for births in winter, as well as summer months. Most analytical studies also report decreases in gestational lengths associated with heat. Birth weights are lower for deliveries occurring in winter and in summer months. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the effects of barometric pressure on gestational length or the effects of temperature and sunshine exposure on birth weight, but these questions appear worth investigating further. Available results should encourage further etiological research aiming at enhancing our understanding of the relationships between meteorology and adverse pregnancy outcomes, ideally via harmonized multicentric studies.

  10. Season of birth is associated with birth weight, pubertal timing, adult body size and educational attainment: a UK Biobank study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix R. Day

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Season of birth, a marker of in utero vitamin D exposure, has been associated with a wide range of health outcomes. Using a dataset of ∼450,000 participants from the UK Biobank study, we aimed to assess the impact of this seasonality on birth weight, age at menarche, adult height and body mass index (BMI. Birth weight, age at menarche and height, but not BMI, were highly significantly associated with season of birth. Individuals born in summer (June–July–August had higher mean birth weight (P = 8 × 10−10, later pubertal development (P = 1.1 × 10−45 and taller adult height (P = 6.5 × 10−9 compared to those born in all other seasons. Concordantly, those born in winter (December–January–February showed directionally opposite differences in these outcomes. A secondary comparison of the extreme differences between months revealed higher odds ratios [95% confidence intervals (CI] for low birth weight in February vs. September (1.23 [1.15–1.32], P = 4.4 × 10−10, for early puberty in September vs. July (1.22 [1.16–1.28], P = 7.3 × 10−15 and for short stature in December vs. June (1.09 [1.03–1.17], P = 0.006. The above associations were also seen with total hours of sunshine during the second trimester, but not during the first three months after birth. Additional associations were observed with educational attainment; individuals born in autumn vs. summer were more likely to continue in education post age 16 years (P = 1.1 × 10−91 or attain a degree-level qualification (P = 4 × 10−7. However, unlike other outcomes, an abrupt difference was seen between those born in August vs. September, which flank the start of the school year. Our findings provide support for the ‘fetal programming’ hypothesis, refining and extending the impact that season of birth has on childhood growth and development. Whilst other mechanisms may contribute to these associations, these findings are consistent with a possible role of in utero

  11. Stability of the association between birth weight and childhood overweight during the development of the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugholm, Susi; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina W;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether changes in the birth weight distribution or changes in the association of birth weight with the later risk of childhood overweight have contributed to the development of the obesity epidemic. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A Danish population-based cohort study of 124......,615 girls and 128,346 boys (ages 6 to 13 years), born between 1936 and 1983, were studied. Birth weight and annual measurements of height and weight were obtained from school health records. Overweight was defined by BMI in relation to internationally accepted criteria. The relative risk of being overweight...... by birth weight was calculated separately for each age, sex, and time period. RESULTS: The birth weight distribution remained relatively stable over time. Compared with children with a birth weight of 3.0 to 3.5 kg, the risk of overweight increased consistently with each increase in birth weight category...

  12. High Birth Weight Increases the Risk for Bone Tumor: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songfeng Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There have been several epidemiologic studies on the relationship between high birth weight and the risk for bone tumor in the past decades. However, due to the rarity of bone tumors, the sample size of individual studies was generally too small for reliable conclusions. Therefore, we have performed a meta-analysis to pool all published data on electronic databases with the purpose to clarify the potential relationship. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 independent studies with more than 2796 cases were included. As a result, high birth weight was found to increase the risk for bone tumor with an Odds Ratio (OR of 1.13, with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI ranging from 1.01 to 1.27. The OR of bone tumor for an increase of 500 gram of birth weight was 1.01 (95% CI 1.00–1.02; p = 0.048 for linear trend. Interestingly, individuals with high birth weight had a greater risk for osteosarcoma (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.06–1.40, p = 0.006 than those with normal birth weight. In addition, in the subgroup analysis by geographical region, elevated risk was detected among Europeans (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.00–1.29, p = 0.049. The present meta-analysis supported a positive association between high birth weight and bone tumor risk.

  13. Down syndrome birth weight in England and Wales: Implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joan K; Cole, Tim J; Springett, Anna L; Dennis, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if syndrome-specific birth weight charts were beneficial for babies with Down syndrome in England and Wales. Birth weights of 8,825 babies with Down syndrome born in England and Wales in 1989-2010 were obtained from the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register. Birth weight centiles for 30-42 weeks gestation by sex were fitted using the LMS method and were compared to those for unaffected babies from the UK-WHO growth charts. For babies born with Down syndrome the median birth weight from 37 to 42 weeks was 2,970 g (10th-90th centile: 2,115-3,680) for boys and 2930 g (2,100-3,629) for girls, and the modal age of gestation was 38 weeks, 2 weeks earlier than for unaffected babies. At 38 weeks gestation they were only slightly lighter than unaffected babies (159 g for boys and 86 g for girls). However at 40 weeks gestation the shortfall was much greater (304 g and 239 g, respectively). In neonates with Down syndrome there is little evidence of growth restriction before 38 weeks gestation, so up to this age it is appropriate to use the UK-WHO birth weight charts. Thereafter birth weight is below that of unaffected babies and it should be plotted on the UK Down syndrome growth charts.

  14. Neonatal doses from X ray examinations by birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, K.; Akahane, K.; Aota, T.; Hada, M.; Takano, Y.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of X ray examinations performed on neonates classified according to their birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In this study, the radiology records of 2408 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of Oita Prefectural Hospital between January 1994 and September 1999 were investigated. This study revealed that the neonates with earlier gestational ages and lower birth weights required longer NICU stays and more frequent X ray examinations made using a mobile X ray unit. The average number of X ray examinations performed on neonates of less than 750 g birth weight was 26 films per neonate. In regard to computed tomography and fluoroscopy, no significant relationship was found between the birth weight and number of X rays. This study revealed that the entrance-surface dose per neonate was dependent upon the birth weight, while the maximum dose was not dependent upon the birth weight. The average neonatal dose in the NICU was predominantly from computed tomography and fluoroscopy. The individual dose varied widely among neonates. (author)

  15. [Study on relationship between mother's animal sourced food intake during pregnancy and neonate birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, H; Dang, S N; Mi, B B; Qu, P F; Zhang, L; Wang, H L; Bi, Y X; Zeng, L X; Li, Q; Yan, H

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To explore the effect of maternal animal sourced food intake during pregnancy on neonate birth weight and provide scientific basis for guiding the reasonable diet intake in pregnant women and increasing neonate birth weight. Methods: Data were derived from a cross-sectional project of"the prevalence and risk factors of birth defects in Shaanxi province" , which were conducted in 30 counties in Shaanxi province from July to November in 2013. A stratified multistage random sampling method was used to select women who were pregnant between January 2010 and December 2013 for a random semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire survey to collect the data on the frequency and amount of food consumption on animal protein sources and the data of newborns. Children aged 0-1 years and their mothers were selected as the study subjects. The generalized linear model was used to analyze the relationship between the neonate birth weight and maternal animal sourced food intake during pregnancy, and by using neonate birth weight as dependent variable, food intake frequency as independent variable, three adjustment models were established for stratified analysis. Results: Totally 11 459 participants were involved in this study. The average birth weight of newborn was (3 279.9±454.6) g, the average weekly intake of animal sourced foods was4.00 times for egg, 1.50 times for meat, 3.00 times for dairy foods, 0.50 times for fish and 5.00 times for overall animal sourced foods in pregnant women. Without stratification, three models shown that meat and overall animal sourced food intake had effects on neonate birth weight. After adjustment for gestational weeks, maternal age, social and demographic factors and others, meat intake increased by 1 time a week, the increase of neonate birth weight was about 5.26 (95%CI: 1.32-9.20) g, and the overall animal food increased by 1 times a week, the average neonate birth weight increased by 3.24 (95%CI: 1.09-5.39) g. Stratified

  16. Bayesian analysis of selection for greater weaning weight while maintaining birth weight in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melucci, L M; Birchmeier, A N; Cappa, E P; Cantet, R J C

    2009-10-01

    An experimental Hereford herd established in 1960 was used from 1986 to 2006 to select for increased weaning weight (W) without increasing birth weight (B). Data were B and W collected over the 47 yr from 2,124 calves. Including ancestors, the pedigree file had 2,369 animals. Selection was practiced only in males. In the first stage (1986 to 1993), mass-selected bulls were chosen with the index I = B + 9374.76 RDG (relative daily gain). From 1994 to 2006, the selection criterion for bull i was I(i) = BLUP(i)(WD) - 2.33 BLUP(i)(BD), where the BLUP were for the direct BV of B (BD) and W (WD), respectively. Predictions were obtained from a 2-trait animal model with B having only BD, and W with WD and WM (maternal additive effects). Selection response was estimated using a Bayesian approach by means of the Gibbs sampler for a 2-trait animal model including BD, BM (maternal BV for B), WD, and WM. Estimated heritabilities for BD, BM, WD, and WM were 0.40, 0.23, 0.05, and 0.23, respectively. The correlation between BD and BM was close to zero (0.01), and between WD and WM was positive (0.37). The correlation between BD and WD was 0.07, and between BM and WM was 0.58. The 2 methods used to estimate selection response gave similar results. In both periods BD decreased, whereas BM increased. The reduction of BD due to selection was slightly larger in the second period than in the first one. The regression of BV for W increased due to selection in both stages, but selection response was 21.6% larger from 1986 to 1992 than from 1993 to 2006. The maternal effect, WM increased more than 3 times compared with WD in the first period, but ended up being almost the same value as WD in period 2. The Bulmer effect was manifested by the decrease in magnitude of all (co)variance components during selection. It is concluded that selection to increase BW at weaning in beef cattle, although not increasing BW at birth, was moderately effective.

  17. The effect of low birth weight on height, weight and behavioral outcomes in the medium-run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have documented negative long term effects of low birth weight. Yet, not much is known about the dynamics of the process leading to adverse health and educational outcomes in the long run. While previous studies focusing mainly on LBW effects on physical growth and cognitive outcomes have found effects of the same size at both school age and young adulthood, others have found a diminishing negative effect over time. The purpose of this paper was to bring new evidence to this issue by analyzing the medium run effects of low birth weight on child behavioral outcomes as well as physical growth at ages 6 months, 3, 7 and 11 years using data from the Danish Longitudinal Survey of Children. Observing the same children at different points in time enabled us to chart the evolution of anthropometric and behavioral deficits among children born with low birth weight and helped understanding the nature and timing of interventions.

  18. Association between maternal nutritional status of pre pregnancy, gestational weight gain and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinxo, Sonela; Bimbashi, Astrit; Z Kakarriqi, Eduard; Zaimi, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status of pre pregnancy and gestational weight gain affects the preterm birth. The association between maternal nutritional status of pre pregnancy and preterm birth appears to be complex and varied by studies from different countries, thus this association between the gestational weight gain and preterm birth is more consolidated. The study aims to determine any association between the pre pregnancy maternal nutritional status, gestational weight gain and the preterm birth rate in the Albanian context. In case control study, we analyzed women who have delivered in obstetric institutions in Tirana during the year 2012. Body mass index and gestational weight gain of 150 women who had a preterm delivery were compared with those of 150 matched control women who had a normal delivery regarding the gestation age. The self-reported pre pregnancy weight, height, gestational weight gain, age, education and parity are collected through a structured questioner. The body mass index and gestational weight gain are categorized based on the Institute of Medicine recommendation. The multiple logistic regression is used to measure the association between the nutritional status of pre pregnancy and gestational weight gain and the preterm birth rate. The women which have a underweight status or obese of pre pregnancy are more likely to have a preterm birth compared to the women of a normal pre-pregnancy nutritional status (respectively OR =2.7 and 4.3 pnutritional status and gestational weight gain affects the risk for preterm birth. Pre-pregnancy and gestation nutritional assessments should be part of routine prenatal visits.

  19. Birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation and fetal susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ladinig

    Full Text Available The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1 were necropsied along with their fetuses 21 days later. Ovulation rates and litter size did not differ between groups, but fetuses from low birth weight gilts were shorter, lighter and demonstrated evidence of asymmetric growth with large brain:organ weight ratios (i.e. brain sparing. The number of intrauterine growth retarded fetuses, defined by brain:organ weight ratios greater than 1 standard deviation from the mean, was significantly greater in low, compared to high, birth weight gilts. Although γδ T cells significantly decreased over time in high compared to low birth weight gilts, viral load in serum and tissues, gilt serum cytokine levels, and litter outcome, including the percent dead fetuses per litter, did not differ by birth weight group. Thus, this study provided no substantive evidence that the severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is affected by dam birth weight. However, intrauterine growth retarded fetuses had lower viral loads in both fetal thymus and in endometrium adjacent to the umbilical stump. Crown rump length did not significantly differ between fetuses that survived and those that died at least one week prior to termination. Taken together, this study clearly demonstrates that birth weight is a transgenerational trait in pigs, and provides evidence that larger fetuses are more susceptible to transplacental PRRSv infection.

  20. Effect of environmental factors and fetal and maternal genotype on gestation length and birth weight of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, L J; Williams, C J

    1978-10-01

    Records of gestation length and birth weight on 1522 live single births (from 1958 to 1976) of Holstein calves were from 81 sires and 552 dams. Average gestation length was 282.3 days, and average birth weight was 42.9 kg. Male calves were carried 1.7 days longer than female calves and weighed 2.9 kg more at birth. Both gestation length and birth weight increased with parity. Calves born in spring and summer were carried shorter times and weighed less than those born in fall and winter. Heritabilities of gestation length and birth weight as progeny traits were .73 and .51 and as maternal traits were .19 and .26. Genetic correlations between gestation length and birth weight were .46 as a progeny trait and .35 as a maternal trait. Genetic correlations between progeny traits and maternal traits were negative. The phenotypic correlation between gestation length and birth weight was .37, and environmental correlation was .30.

  1. Green teeth are a late complication of prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battineni, Sireesha; Clarke, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Eruption of green, discolored teeth affecting the primary dentition has been described in association with congenital viral infection, sepsis, hemolytic jaundice, and cholestasis. The purpose of this paper was to present the cases of 3 extremely low birth weight preterm infants who were noted to have green teeth at the corrected ages of 10 to 12 months. All had a history of prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinemia during their time in neonatal intensive care. For infants with prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, extreme preterm birth and/or extremely low birth weight may be additional risk factors predisposing to the eruption of green teeth in later infancy.

  2. Effect of Maternal Factors and Fetomaternal Glucose Homeostasis on Birth Weight and Postnatal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbörü Aşkan, Öykü; Bozaykut, Abdülkadir; Sezer, Rabia Gönül; Güran, Tülay; Bereket, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It is important to identify the possible risk factors for the occurrence of large for gestational age (LGA) in newborns and to determine the effect of birth weight and metabolic parameters on subsequent growth. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal weight, weight gain during pregnancy, maternal hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-peptide and insulin as well as cord C-peptide and insulin levels on birth weight and postnatal growth during the first two years of life. Methods: Healthy, non-diabetic mothers and term singleton newborns were included in this prospective case-control cohort study. Fasting maternal glucose, HbA1c, C-peptide and insulin levels were studied. Cord blood was analyzed for C-peptide and insulin. At birth, newborns were divided into two groups according to birth size: LGA and appropriate for GA (AGA). Infants were followed at six-month intervals for two years and their length and weight were recorded. Results: Forty LGA and 43 AGA infants were included in the study. Birth weight standard deviation score (SDS) was positively correlated with maternal body mass index (BMI) before delivery (r=0.2, p=0.04) and with weight gain during pregnancy (r=0.2, p=0.04). In multivariate analyses, the strongest association with macrosomia was a maternal C-peptide level >3.85 ng/mL (OR=20). Although the LGA group showed decreased growth by the 6-month of follow-up, the differences between the LGA and AGA groups in weight and length SDS persisted over the 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion: The control of maternal BMI and prevention of overt weight gain during pregnancy may prevent excessive birth weight. The effect of the in utero metabolic environment on the weight and length SDS of infants born LGA persists until at least two years of age. PMID:26831549

  3. Birth weight and special educational needs: results of a population-based study in Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettge, Susanne; Oberwöhrmann, Sylke; Brockstedt, Matthias; Bührer, Christoph

    2014-05-09

    Preterm infants are at higher risk for developmental problems. The aim of this study is to quantify the relation between birth weight and special educational needs. We analyzed data from the pre-school examinations of 134 313 children in Berlin aged 5 to 6 who were examined between 2007 and 2011. Special educational needs were diagnosed in 8058 children (6.0%), 4943 (61%) of whom had weighed 3000 g or more at birth. The percentage of children with special educational needs rose steadily with decreasing birth weight (2250-2499 g, 9.2%; 1250-1499 g, 21.1%; less than 750 g, 35.6%). Logistic regression analysis yielded odds ratios and 99% confidence intervals for special educational needs that ranged from 1.32 [1.17-1.47] for birth weight 2750-2999 g to 12.83 [7.48-22.03] for birth weight less than 750 g. Further risk factors were male sex (1.88 [1.75-2.03]), low social status (5.96 [5.21-6.82]), an immigrant background associated with poor German language skills in the family (1.63 [1.43-1.86]), and being raised by a single parent (1.21 [1.12-1.31]). On the other hand, nursery school and/or kindergarten enrollment for at least two years before entering school (0.82 [0.73-0.91]) and an immigrant background with good German skills in the family (0.39 [0.34-0.45]) were associated with lower rates of special educational needs. The risk of special educational needs increases already with moderately decreased birth weight. The most important factor other than birth weight is the family's social status. Although children of very low birth weight have a much higher rate of special educational needs than other children, they still make up only a small percentage of all children with special educational needs.

  4. Birth order and human capital development: evidence from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador. Using family fixed effects models we find positive and persistent birth order effects; earlier-born children stay behind in their human capital development from infancy to adolescence. Turning to potential me

  5. Early versus Late Trophic Feeding in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Satarzadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Improved survival of preterm infants, beneficial effects of trophic feeding and limited data on timing management of enteral feeding for very low birth weight preterm infants requires more researches to determine the exact starting time and increased volumes. This study aims to compare early (72h trophic feeding with respect to important neonatal outcomes.Methods: In a cohort study from September 2007 to October 2008, a total of 170 preterm infants (1000-1500gram, 26-31 weeks consisting of 125 who received trophic feeding enterally within the first 48 hours of birth(early group and 45 fed enterally after 72 h0urs (late group, without major congenital birth defects and severe asphyxia entered the study. Bolus feeding was started in both groups at 1-2 cc/kg every 4-6 hours of human milk or preterm infant formula and was advanced 1-2 cc/kg/day if tolerated along with parenteralnutrition. Feeding intolerance, possibility of necrotizing entrocolitis (NEC, episodes of sepsis, body weight,length of NICU stay, and duration of parenteral nutrition were assessed serially.Findings: There were no statistically significant differences in the clinical and maternal characteristics ofinfants in the two groups. The time to gain birth weight (13.75±5.21 vs 20.53±6.31 (P<0.001, duration of parenteral nutrition (9.26±4.572 days vs 14.11±6.415 days (P<0.001, hospital stay (12.14±8.612 vs 21.11±1.156 (P<0.001 were significantly shorter in early compared to late feeding group; none of the twogroups experienced a high incidence of late onset sepsis (P=0.73. There was 1 case of confirmed NEC in every group.Conclusion: The benefits of early trophic feeding shown by this study strongly support its use for the preterm infants without adding to complications.

  6. Genetic evidence for causal relationships between maternal obesity-related traits and birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C.; Palmer, Tom M.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Rangarajan, Janani; Metrustry, Sarah; Cavadino, Alana; Paternoster, Lavinia; Armstrong, Loren L.; De Silva, N. Maneka G.; Wood, Andrew R.; Horikoshi, Momoko; Geller, Frank; Myhre, Ronny; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Huikari, Ville; Painter, Jodie N.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Allard, Catherine; Berry, Diane J.; Bouchard, Luigi; Das, Shikta; Evans, David M.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Heikkinen, Jani; Hofman, Albert; Knight, Bridget; Lind, Penelope A.; McCarthy, Mark I.; McMahon, George; Medland, Sarah E.; Melbye, Mads; Morris, Andrew P.; Nodzenski, Michael; Reichetzeder, Christoph; Ring, Susan M.; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengpiel, Verena; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Spector, Tim D.; Power, Christine; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Bisgaard, Hans; Grant, Struan F.A.; Nohr, Ellen A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.; Jacobsson, Bo; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Hocher, Berthold; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Scholtens, Denise M.; Smith, George Davey; Hivert, Marie-France; Felix, Janine F.; Hyppönen, Elina; Lowe, William L.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Freathy, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Structured abstract Importance Neonates born to overweight/obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. Objective To test for genetic evidence of causal associations of maternal body mass index (BMI) and related traits with birth weight. Design, Setting and Participants We used Mendelian randomization to test whether maternal BMI and obesity-related traits are causally related to offspring birth weight. Mendelian randomization makes use of the fact that genotypes are randomly determined at conception and are thus not confounded by non-genetic factors. Data were analysed on 30,487 women from 18 studies. Participants were of European ancestry from population- or community-based studies located in Europe, North America or Australia and participating in the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) Consortium. Live, term, singleton offspring born between 1929 and 2013 were included. We tested associations between a genetic score of 30 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and (i) maternal BMI and (ii) birth weight, to estimate the causal relationship between BMI and birth weight. Analyses were repeated for other obesity-related traits. Exposures Genetic scores for BMI, fasting glucose level, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglyceride level, HDL-cholesterol level, vitamin D status and adiponectin level. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) Offspring birth weight measured by trained study personnel (n=2 studies), from medical records (n= 10 studies) or from maternal report (n=6 studies). Results Among the 30,487 newborns the mean birth weight in the various cohorts ranged from 3325 g to 3679 g. The genetic score for BMI was associated with a 2g (95%CI: 0, 3g) higher offspring birth weight per maternal BMI-raising allele (P=0.008). The maternal genetic scores for fasting glucose and SBP were

  7. The Study of Mothers’ Periodontal Status and Newborn’s Low Birth Weight

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    M. Shirinzad

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Recent studies have presented evidence that periodontal disease in pregnant women may be a determining factor for newborn’s low birth weight. The present investigation was carried out to verify whether there is an association between maternal periodontal disease and low birth weight of newborns.Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study on 330 women, containing 110 mothers having live newborns with weight 2500 g (control group. The existence of an association between periodontal disease and newborn’s low birth weight was evaluated by means of analytic statistics that considered other risk factors for low weight. The two groups were compared with regard to urinary infection, preeclampsia, premature rupture of membrane, placenta previa, primiparous, smoking, age, height, socioeconomic status and periodontal disease.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the case and control groups for any of the covariables (P>0.05, but there was significant differences for principal independent variable (periodontal disease P<0.05.Conclusion: Results indicated a positive association between periodontal disease and newborn’s low birth weight. Thus periodontal disease is a possible risk factor for low birth weight.

  8. Birth weight and risk of asthma in 3-9-year-old twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindlund, Karin; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2010-01-01

    length and Apgar score, OR 1.31 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.65), p=0.027. The risk tended to be higher in monozygotic co-twins compared with dizygotic co-twins, especially for high birth weight differences. CONCLUSIONS: Low birth weight is a risk factor for asthma independently of gestational age, sex, birth...... weight, OR (per 100 g) 1.04 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.05), pbirthweight twin had a significantly increased risk of asthma compared with the heavier co-twin (11.3% vs 9.9%), OR 1.30 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.54), p=0.002. The result remained significant after adjusting for sex, birth...... length and Apgar score, but this may be due, in part, to residual non-genetic confounding factors. This finding lends support to the "fetal origins hypothesis" suggesting undisclosed prenatal determinants for the risk of asthma....

  9. Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C; Palmer, Tom M

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To test for genetic evidence...... of causal associations of maternal body mass index (BMI) and related traits with birth weight. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Mendelian randomization to test whether maternal BMI and obesity-related traits are potentially causally related to offspring birth weight. Data from 30,487 women in 18 studies...... were analyzed. Participants were of European ancestry from population- or community-based studies in Europe, North America, or Australia and were part of the Early Growth Genetics Consortium. Live, term, singleton offspring born between 1929 and 2013 were included. EXPOSURES: Genetic scores for BMI...

  10. Birth weight as a predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the U-shaped curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, D J; Jovanovic, L

    2001-08-01

    Recent findings have sparked intense interest in birth weight as a predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In some populations, there is an inverse association between birth size and disease; however, in the Pima Indians, a population with very high rates of gestational diabetes, high birth weight and low birth weight are associated with diabetes. This results in a U-shaped curve with higher diabetes rates in both tails of the distribution. Similarly, there are reports of an inverse association between stature and prevalence of gestational diabetes, but, in California Latina women with gestational diabetes, there is a positive association between stature and glucose concentration. Could these disparate findings also represent the two ends of a U-shaped curve? The disparities are likely due to differences in the environment, both in utero and postnatally, that different groups experience.

  11. Long-term effects of birth weight and breastfeeding duration on inflammation in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, Thomas W; Metzger, Molly W; Chyu, Laura; Duncan, Greg J; Garfield, Craig; Adam, Emma K

    2014-06-07

    Chronic inflammation is a potentially important physiological mechanism linking early life environments and health in adulthood. Elevated concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP)--a key biomarker of inflammation--predict increased cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk in adulthood, but the developmental factors that shape the regulation of inflammation are not known. We investigated birth weight and breastfeeding duration in infancy as predictors of CRP in young adulthood in a large representative cohort study (n = 6951). Birth weight was significantly associated with CRP in young adulthood, with a negative association for birth weights 2.8 kg and higher. Compared with individuals not breastfed, CRP concentrations were 20.1%, 26.7%, 29.6% and 29.8% lower among individuals breastfed for less than three months, three to six months, 6-12 months and greater than 12 months, respectively. In sibling comparison models, higher birth weight was associated with lower CRP for birth weights above 2.5 kg, and breastfeeding greater than or equal to three months was significantly associated with lower CRP. Efforts to promote breastfeeding and improve birth outcomes may have clinically relevant effects on reducing chronic inflammation and lowering risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in adulthood.

  12. Body mass index may modify asthma prevalence among low-birth-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Frank Leigh; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Caffrey, James L; Lin, Meng-Hung; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Chun; Tsai, Meng-Shan; Ho, Wen-Chao; Chen, Pau-Chung; Sung, Fung-Chang; Lin, Ruey-Shiung

    2012-07-01

    Childhood asthma, a growing health concern, has been associated with low birth weight and elevated body mass index. This study tested the hypothesis that overweight and obese adolescents with a history of low birth weight are at even greater risk of developing asthma. A cohort of 75,871 junior high school students was screened for asthma during 1995-1996 in Taiwan. Birth weight and estimated gestational age were obtained from the birth registry. Logistic regression and simple regression analyses were adjusted for confounding variables. Asthma was more prevalent in those with birth weights below 3,000 g and higher adolescent body mass indexes. Furthermore, those with both characteristics were consistently most likely to have asthma. Whether the asthma diagnosis among low-birth-weight subjects was assigned by physicians or medical questionnaire, the risks were elevated for both overweight (physician diagnosis: odds ratio = 1.41; medical questionnaire: odds ratio = 1.25) and obese (physician diagnosis: odds ratio = 1.38; medical questionnaire: odds ratio = 1.47) boys as well as overweight (physician diagnosis: odds ratio = 1.63; medical questionnaire: odds ratio = 1.30) and obese (physician diagnosis: odds ratio = 1.44; medical questionnaire: odds ratio = 1.32) girls (P nutritional counseling could reduce asthma prevalence.

  13. Low birth weight and risk of albuminuria in living kidney donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, D; MacDonald, D; Jackson, S; Spong, R; Issa, N; Kukla, A; Reule, S; Weber, M; Matas, AJ; Ibrahim, HN

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight is linked to hypertension, chronic kidney disease and even end stage renal disease. We hypothesized that living kidney donors born with lower birth weight may be at increased risk of hypertension, albuminuria or reduced GFR beyond what is typical following uninephrectomy. 257 living kidney donors who donated at the University of Minnesota between 1967 and 2005 underwent iohexol GFR and urinary albumin excretion measurements. Predictors of iohexol GFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2, albuminuria and hypertension were examined using logistic regression. Predictors examined include age at GFR measurement, time since donation, BMI, gender, serum creatinine level (at donation and GFR measurement), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, race, and birth weight. The latter was obtained through self-report and verified through birth certificates and family members. Older age, higher BMI, and time from donation were associated with reduced GFR. Older age and higher BMI were also associated with hypertension. Birth weight was not associated with GFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2: OR=0.70, 95% CI (0.28, 1.74, p=0.45) or hypertension: OR=0.92, 95% CI (0.46, 1.84), p=0.82 but was associated with albuminuria: OR=0.37, 95% CI (0.15, 0.92), p=0.03. This data further strengthens the link between low birth weight and potential adverse renal outcomes. PMID:24547690

  14. The factors affecting morbidity and mortality in low birth-weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervan Bekdaş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available jective: To investigate the frequency of short term morbidity and mortality and the factors affecting them for the infants born with low birth-weight at our hospitalMethods: At our hospital, 195 infants born with low birthweight within a period of 18 months were identified and 150 infants born with normal birth-weights were selected as the control group. Results: Within the mentioned period of time, 4.4% (n=168 of the infants born in our hospital had low birthweight, 0.7% (n=27 had very low birth-weight (VLBW. Multiple pregnancies and asphyxiating birth rates were significantly high in these infants as compared to the control group. (p=0.029, p=0.011, respectively. For VLBW infants, the rates of asphyxiating birth (OR=14.2, 95% CI (6.6-30.7, p<0.001, hospitalization at the neonatal intensive care unit (OR=34.8, 95% CI (4.7-256.3, p<0,001 and diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome (OR=11.5, 95% CI (4-33.5, p<0.001 were significantly high. In all infants, the transient metabolic disorders were identified at a significantly high rate (p=0.045. The birth-weight and gestational age of infants were inversely correlated with their fetal and neonatal mortalities (for all p<0.001. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the most important factor affecting infants was multiple pregnancies. The birth-weight and gestational age of infants were inversely correlated with their morbidity and mortality rates.Key words: Low birth weight, perinatal risk factors, morbidity, mortality

  15. Could elective cesarean sections influence the birth weight of full-term infants?

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    Eddie Fernando Candido Murta

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: There are no studies on birth weights among full-term infants born by means of elective cesarean section. We aimed to study this in private and public hospitals. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study at Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, Brazil. METHODS: Data were collected from the municipal medical birth register of Uberaba from January to December 2000. The data obtained (maternal age, type of delivery, number of prenatal care visits and birth weight, from full-term pregnancy from the university hospital (UH, which is a tertiary hospital that only attends patients within the National Health System (SUS, were compared with data from four private hospitals (PHs that attend health insurance plans and private patients. Student's t test, chi2 test and multiple logistic regression were used for statistical analysis, with the significance level set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: In the PHs, 1,100 out of 1,354 births (81.2% were by cesarean section and in the UH, 373 out of 1,332 (28%. Birth weight increased significantly in association with increasing numbers of prenatal care visits, except for cesarean section cases in PHs. Birth weights among vaginal delivery cases in PHs were greater than in the UH (p < 0.05, but this was not observed among cesarean section cases. Multiple logistic regression showed that there was greater risk of low birth weight in PHs (odds ratio: 2.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.19 to 4.55. CONCLUSION: Elective cesarean section performed in PHs may be associated with low birth weight among full-term infants.

  16. Association of number of retrieved oocytes with live birth rate and birth weight: an analysis of 231,815 cycles of in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Valerie L; Brown, Morton B; Luke, Barbara; Conrad, Kirk P

    2015-04-01

    To determine if number of retrieved oocytes correlates with live birth rate and incidence of low birth weight (LBW). Retrospective cohort. Not applicable. Women undergoing fresh embryo transfer with the use of either autologous (n = 194,627) or donor (n = 37,188) oocytes whose cycles were reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology in the years 2004-2010. None. Live birth rate, birth weight, birth weight z-score, LBW. For both autologous and donor oocyte cycles, increasing number of retrieved oocytes paralleled live birth rate and embryos available for cryopreservation in most analyses, with all models adjusted for age and previous births. For cycles achieving singleton pregnancy with the use of autologous oocytes via transfer of two embryos, a higher number of retrieved oocytes was associated with lower mean birth weight, lower birth weight z-score, and greater incidence of LBW. In contrast, for cycles using donor oocytes, there was no association of number of retrieved oocytes with measures of birth weight. A higher number of retrieved oocytes was associated with an increased incidence of LBW in autologous singleton pregnancies resulting from transfer of two embryos, but not in donor oocyte cycles. Although the effect of high oocyte number on the incidence of LBW in autologous cycles was of modest magnitude, further study is warranted to determine if a subgroup of women may be particularly vulnerable. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Linking Early Adversity, Emotion Dysregulation, and Psychopathology: The Case of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

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    Lauren A. Drvaric

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to regulate emotion is a crucial process that humans utilize in order to adapt to the demands of environmental constraints. Individuals exposed to early adverse life events such as being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW, 501–1000 g are known to have problems regulating emotion which have been linked to the development of psychopathology in this population. Recent studies have used psychophysiological measures, such as electroencephalogram (EEG and cardiac vagal tone, to index emotion regulatory processes. The purpose of this paper was three-fold: (1 to investigate the relation between ELBW and emotion regulation issues (pathway 1, (2 to review studies investigating the relation between early emotion regulation and later internalizing problems (pathway 2; and (3 to provide a model in which two psychophysiological measures (i.e., frontal EEG asymmetry and cardiac vagal tone are suggested to understand the proposed conceptual pathways in the relation between ELBW and psychopathology.

  18. Low Birth Weight, Renal Morphometry and Blood Pressure in Adolescent Females

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    Ninive Núñez López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: nowadays, hypertension is a health problem directly causing disability and death. Epidemiological data suggest that pre- and postnatal nutrition can be an important factor in the etiopathogenesis of this disease. Objective: to evaluate the effects of low birth weight on blood pressure and kidney size in adolescent females. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in 50 adolescent females from Marianao, Havana. The following variables were measured: weight, height, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, birth weight and length and body mass index. Kidney length, width, parenchyma and volume were measured by ultrasound. Results: differences in blood pressure related to weight and length at birth were nonsignificant. Renal variables did not show significant changes in the classification by birth weight. An important relationship between systolic blood pressure and two indicators of the relative kidney size was found. Conclusion: results did not show an association between low birth weight and high blood pressure. It is demonstrated that blood pressure values are positively related to body adiposity and small kidney size.

  19. Replication of a Genome-Wide Association Study of Birth Weight in Preterm Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckman, Kelli K; Feenstra, Bjarke; Shaffer, John R.; Bream, Elise NA; Geller, Frank; Feingold, Eleanor; Weeks, Daniel E; Gadow, Enrique; Cosentino, Viviana; Saleme, Cesar; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Merrill, David; Fong, Chin-To; Busch, Tamara; Berends, Susan K; Comas, Belen; Camelo, Jorge L; Boyd, Heather; Laurie, Cathy; Crosslin, David; Zhang, Qi; Doheny, Kim F; Pugh, Elizabeth; Melbye, Mads; Marazita, Mary L; Dagle, John M; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine associations in a preterm population between rs9883204 in ADCY5 and rs900400 near LEKR1 and CCNL1 with birth weight. Both markers were associated with birth weight in a term population in a recent genome-wide association (GWA) study by Freathy et al. Study design A meta-analysis of mother and infant samples was performed for associations of rs900400 and rs9883204 with birth weight in 393 families from the U.S., 265 families from Argentina and 735 mother-infant pairs from Denmark. Z scores adjusted for infant sex and gestational age were generated for each population separately and regressed on allele counts. Association evidence was combined across sites by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. Results Each additional C allele of rs900400 (LEKR1/CCNL1) in infants was marginally associated with a 0.069 standard deviation (SD) lower birth weight (95% CI = −0.159 – 0.022, P = 0.068). This result was slightly more pronounced after adjusting for smoking (P = 0.036). There were no significant associations identified with rs9883204 or in maternal samples. Conclusions These results indicate the potential importance of this marker on birth weight irrespective of gestational age. PMID:21885063

  20. Paternally expressed, imprinted insulin-like growth factor-2 in chorionic villi correlates significantly with birth weight.

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    Charalambos Demetriou

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Fetal growth involves highly complex molecular pathways. IGF2 is a key paternally expressed growth hormone that is critical for in utero growth in mice. Its role in human fetal growth has remained ambiguous, as it has only been studied in term tissues. Conversely the maternally expressed growth suppressor, PHLDA2, has a significant negative correlation between its term placental expression and birth weight. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to address the role in early gestation of expression of IGF1, IGF2, their receptors IGF1R and IGF2R, and PHLDA2 on term birth weight. DESIGN: Real-time quantitative PCR was used to investigate mRNA expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R and PHLDA2 in chorionic villus samples (CVS (n = 260 collected at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Expression was correlated with term birth weight using statistical package R including correction for several confounding factors. RESULTS: Transcript levels of IGF2 and IGF2R revealed a significant positive correlation with birth weight (0.009 and 0.04, respectively. No effect was observed for IGF1, IGF1R or PHLDA2 and birth weight. Critically, small for gestational age (SGA neonates had significantly lower IGF2 levels than appropriate for gestational age neonates (p = 3.6 × 10(-7. INTERPRETATION: Our findings show that IGF2 mRNA levels at 12 weeks gestation could provide a useful predictor of future fetal growth to term, potentially predicting SGA babies. SGA babies are known to be at a higher risk for type 2 diabetes. This research reveals an imprinted, parentally driven rheostat for in utero growth.

  1. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  2. Weight-for-length relationship at birth to predict neonatal diseases

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    José Ricardo Dias Bertagnon

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Intrauterine growth curves are extremely useful for classifying newborn children and predicting neonatal diseases. However, such curves rely on knowledge of the gestational age, which is not always easily obtained. Therefore, the study of other anthropometric measurements and their interrelationship is always desirable, in order to attain such objectives. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether newborns' birth weight and length can identify neonatal diseases, independent of knowledge of the gestational age. TYPE OF STUDY: Retrospective study. SETTING: Institute of Teaching and Research of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: During the period from February 1995 to January 1998, 8,397 live newborns were studied in the hospital's maternity ward. PROCEDURES: The weight and length of live newborns were obtained at birth, thus allowing the analysis of weight-for-length adequacy, i.e. the distribution of birth weight for each class of birth lenght. These measurements were determined for the first 4,634 live newborns and the 10th and 90th percentiles were established. These parameters were applied to the next 3,763 consecutive newborns of the same population. The relationships between these variables and some neonatal diseases were investigated. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Birth weight and length, weight-for-length adequacy (10th and 90th percentiles for weight distribution in each 1-cm length class, weight/length index (10th and 90th percentiles of newborn's weight divided by the length and frequent neonatal diseases in this population. RESULTS: There was a significant association of adequacy and index with the following affections: asphyxia, jaundice, hypoglycemia, hypomagnesemia, congenital pneumonia, pulmonary hypertension and sepsis. Additionally, there was a relationship between the index and respiratory distress syndrome, transient tachypnea and persistent ductus arteriosus

  3. School children with low birth weight inserted in system of Embu's education: construction of sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Rebeca Rodrigues; Isotani, Selma Mie; Perissinoto, Jacy; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the construction of sentences in schoolchildren born with low weight. We selected 413 students from Embu das Artes (SP), Brazil. Application of Recreating Speech Acts of Test of Language Competence sub-test. We analyzed the number of words and the holistic score. Age group of 6-10 years old, female/male, with low birth weight (temporality and place, with adverb functions. There was no difference between groups regarding the holistic score. It was found positive impact of the variables birth weight (p=0.002), age of child, age of mother and maternal education on standard test scores in both groups. The SG had fewer words compared to CG. The higher the birth weight, the higher the score test pattern. It was evident the age-related changes in morpho-syntactic skills addressed in the study, and protection factors mother's schooling and age had a positive impact on language performance.

  4. Awake caudal anesthesia for inguinal hernia operations: successful use in low birth weight neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geze, S; Imamoğlu, M; Cekic, B

    2011-09-01

    Neonates with inguinal hernia face a relatively high risk of incarcerated hernia and bowel obstruction and this therefore requires surgical treatment. Complications following general anesthesia even for minor surgery are more common in low birth weight neonates than in term neonates. Caudal epidural anesthesia without adjunct general anesthesia has been recommended for neonates to reduce the risk of postoperative complications. The successful application of awake caudal anesthesia with levobupivacaine for inguinal hernia repair in 15 low birth weight neonates is reported. Single dose caudal epidural anesthesia was administered for inguinal hernia surgery to avoid complications associated with general anesthesia. Caudal block was performed with 2.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) levobupivacaine. Caudal anesthesia can be recommended as an effective technique for avoiding postoperative anesthetic complications in low birth weight neonates.

  5. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence.

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    Signe Fabricius-Bjerre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence and to study if the effect differed between adolescents born small for gestational age (SGA vs. appropriate for gestational age (AGA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data from 30 SGA and 57 AGA healthy young Danish adolescents were analysed. They had a mean age of 17.6 years and all were born at term. Data on early infant weight gain from birth to three months as well as from birth to one year were available in the majority of subjects. In adolescence, glucose metabolism was assessed by a simplified intravenous glucose tolerance test and body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood pressures as well as plasma concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterol were measured. Early infant weight gain from birth to three months was positively associated with the fasting insulin concentration, HOMA-IR, basal lipid levels and systolic blood pressure at 17 years. There was a differential effect of postnatal weight gain on HOMA-IR in AGA and SGA participants (P for interaction = 0.03. No significant associations were seen between postnatal weight gain and body composition or parameters of glucose metabolism assessed by the simplified intravenous glucose tolerance test. In subgroup analysis, all associations with early infant weight gain were absent in the AGA group, but the associations with basal insulin and HOMA-IR were still present in the SGA group. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that accelerated growth during the first three months of life may confer an increased risk of later metabolic disturbances--particularly of glucose metabolism--in individuals born SGA.

  6. Comparison of Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood Selenium Levels in Low and Normal Birth Weight Neonates

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    Lyly Nazemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare the maternal and umbilical cord serum selenium concentrations in Low and normal birth weight neonates.Materials and methods:A case-control study was carried out in Vali-Asr and Akbarabadi Hospitals (Jan. to Dec. 2013. Two groups; case group; 91 mothers who delivered a low birth weight (LBW neonate and control group; 86 subjects who delivered a normal birth weight neonate were selected. Immediately after birth, 5 ml of maternal blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, and sent to laboratory to assay Se concentrations. To compare both groups' blood Se concentration, data were analyzed in SPSS 16.0.Results:Eighty six (48.6% mothers with normal birth weight neonates and 91 (51.4% mothers with low birth weight infants entered the study. Mean maternal mothers' age and mean maternal blood Se were 28.55+5.90 years and 79.3756+26.46915. A significant association was seen between maternal blood and cord blood Se level in control and case group (P value<0.0001, r = 0.69 and(P value<0.001, r = 0.79. On the other hand no differences were seen between 2 groups' maternal blood Se level (P Value = 0.65. Umbilical Cord blood Se concentration was not also different between case and control group (P value = 0.46.Conclusion:We found that maternal and umbilical cord blood Se concentrations were not different in low and adequate birth weight infants, however; umbilical cord Se concentrations were positively correlated with maternal blood Se concentrations.

  7. Evaluation of within-litter birth weight variation in piglets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VaZindove

    2014-03-23

    Mar 23, 2014 ... have reduced growth rates and weights at slaughter compared with their litter .... range and mean for CVBWT was higher than values reported by Wolf et al. ... Variable. NBA. MinB. MaxB. MBWT. LWT. CVBWT. 0.30**. −0.69**.

  8. Risk Factors for Neonatal Mortality Among Very Low Birth Weight Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nayeri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine risk factors causing increase in very low birth way (VLBW neonatal mortality. The medical files of all neonates weighing ≤1500 g, born in Vali-e-Asr hospital (2001-2004 were studied. Two groups of neonates (living and dead were compared up to the time of hospital discharge or death. A total of 317 neonates were enrolled. A meaningful relationship existed between occurrence of death and low gestational age (P=0.02, low birth weight, lower than 1000 g (P=0.001, Apgar score <6 at 5th minutes (P=0.001, resuscitation at birth (P=0.001, respiratory distress syndrome (P=0.001 need for mechanical ventilation (P=0.001, neurological complications (P=0.001 and intraventricular hemorrhage (P=0.001. Regression analysis indicated that each 250 g weight increase up to 1250 g had protective effect, and reduced mortality rate. The causes of death of those neonates weighting over 1250 g should be sought in factors other than weight. Survival rate was calculated to be 80.4% for neonates weighing more than 1000 g. The most important high risk factors affecting mortality of neonates are: low birth weight, need for resuscitation at birth, need for ventilator use and intraventricular hemorrhage.

  9. Executive functions of six-year-old boys with normal birth weight and gestational age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Yee-Ling Phua

    Full Text Available Impaired fetal development, reflected by low birth weight or prematurity, predicts an increased risk for psychopathology, especially attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Such effects cut across the normal range of birth weight and gestation. Despite the strength of existing epidemiological data, cognitive pathways that link fetal development to mental health are largely unknown. In this study we examined the relation of birth weight (>2500 g and gestational age (37-41 weeks within the normal range with specific executive functions in 195 Singaporean six-year-old boys of Chinese ethnicity. Birth weight adjusted for gestational age was used as indicator of fetal growth while gestational age was indicative of fetal maturity. Linear regression revealed that increased fetal growth within the normal range is associated with an improved ability to learn rules during the intra/extra-dimensional shift task and to retain visual information for short period of time during the delayed matching to sample task. Moreover, faster and consistent reaction times during the stop-signal task were observed among boys born at term, but with higher gestational age. Hence, even among boys born at term with normal birth weight, variations in fetal growth and maturity showed distinct effects on specific executive functions.

  10. Low birth weight of contemporary African Americans: an intergenerational effect of slavery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasienska, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    The average birth weight in the contemporary African-American population is about 250 g lower than the average birth weight of European Americans. Differences in genetic and socioeconomic factors present between these two groups can explain only part of birth weight variation. I propose a hypothesis that the low birth weight of contemporary African Americans not only results from the difference in present exposure to lifestyle factors known to affect fetal development but also from conditions experienced during the period of slavery. Slaves had poor nutritional status during all stages of life because of the inadequate dietary intake accompanied by high energetic costs of physical work and infectious diseases. The concept of "fetal programming" suggests that physiology and metabolism including growth and fat accumulation of the developing fetus, and, thus its birth weight, depend on intergenerational signal of environmental quality passed through generations of matrilinear ancestors. I suggest that several generations that have passed since the abolition of slavery in the United States (1865) has not been enough to obliterate the impact of slavery on the current biological and health condition of the African-American population.

  11. Links between motor control and classroom behaviors: Moderation by low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Rachel A; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear from past research on effortful control whether one of its components, motor control, independently contributes to adaptive classroom behaviors. The goal of this study was to identify associations between early motor control, measured by the walk-a-line task at age 3, and teacher-reported learning-related behaviors (approaches to learning and attention problems) and behavior problems in kindergarten classrooms. Models tested whether children who were vulnerable to poorer learning behaviors and more behavior problems due to having been born low birth weight benefited more, less, or the same as other children from better motor control. Data were drawn from the national Fragile Families and Child-Wellbeing Study (n = 751). Regression models indicated that motor control was significantly associated with better approaches to learning and fewer behavior problems. Children who were low birth weight benefitted more than normal birth weight children from better motor control with respect to their approaches to learning, but equally with respect to behavior problems. Additionally, for low but not normal birth weight children, better motor control predicted fewer attention problems. These findings suggest that motor control follows a compensatory model of development for low birth weight children and classroom behaviors.

  12. Periodontal conditions, low birth weight and preterm birth among postpartum mothers in two tertiary health facilities in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muwazi, Louis; Rwenyonyi, Charles Mugisha; Nkamba, Moses; Kutesa, Annet; Kagawa, Mike; Mugyenyi, Godfrey; Kwizera, Godfrey; Okullo, Isaac

    2014-04-28

    Literature reports have indicated an increase in research evidence suggesting association between periodontal disease and the risk of pre-term birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW). Periodontal diseases in Uganda have been documented as a public health problem, but their association to adverse pregnancy outcomes is unknown. This study was conducted to assess the association between periodontital diseases in postpartum mothers and PTB and LBW of babies in Mulago and Mbarara referral hospitals. This was a cross sectional study using medical records, clinical examination and oral interview of mothers at the two tertiary health facilities. Mothers with singleton babies from Mulago (n = 300) and Mbarara Hospital (n = 100) were recruited for the study. The women were clinically examined for periodontal disease by 2 trained and calibrated dentists. Data on PTB and LBW were retrieved from medical records. The data were analyzed to determine the relationship between the four parameters for periodontal disease (bleeding gingiva, periodontal pockets, gingival recession and calculus with plaque deposits) and the adverse pregnancy outcomes. Frequency distribution was used to describe the data. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to study the association between the periodontal diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Approximately 26% and 29% of the postpartum mothers examined had bleeding gingiva and periodontal pockets of 4 mm or more deep, respectively. Advanced periodontitis i.e. pocket depth ≥ 6 mm was recorded in 13 (3.6%) of the mothers. Calculus with plaque deposits were recorded in 86% (n = 343) of the mothers. Gingival recession was recorded in 9.0% of the mothers and significantly and directly related to birth weight (p < 0.05). Periodontal conditions of postpartum mothers in this study were found to be better than previously reported amongst the Ugandan population. Bivariate analysis showed a significant association only between

  13. Socioeconomic position in early life, birth weight, childhood cognitive function, and adult mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Andersen, A-M N; Due, P

    2003-01-01

    with all cause mortality. The association between father's social class and mortality attenuated (HR(working class)1.30 (1.08 to 1.56); HR(unknown class)1.81 (1.30 to 2.52)) after control for birth weight and cognitive function. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases and violent deaths was also......OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between socioeconomic position in early life and mortality in young adulthood, taking birth weight and childhood cognitive function into account. DESIGN: A longitudinal study with record linkage to the Civil Registration System and Cause of Death Registry....... The data were analysed using Cox regression. SETTING: The metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 7493 male singletons born in 1953, who completed a questionnaire with various cognitive measures, in school at age 12 years, and for whom birth certificates with data on birth and parental...

  14. Relation between Birth Weight and Intraoperative Hemorrhage during Cesarean Section in Pregnancy with Placenta Previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyama, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Morikazu; Ishibashi, Hiroki; Takano, Masashi; Sasa, Hidenori; Furuya, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Placenta previa, one of the most severe obstetric complications, carries an increased risk of intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Several risk factors for intraoperative hemorrhage have been identified to date. However, the correlation between birth weight and intraoperative hemorrhage has not been investigated. Here we estimate the correlation between birth weight and the occurrence of intraoperative massive hemorrhage in placenta previa. We included all 256 singleton pregnancies delivered via cesarean section at our hospital because of placenta previa between 2003 and 2015. We calculated not only measured birth weights but also standard deviation values according to the Japanese standard growth curve to adjust for differences in gestational age. We assessed the correlation between birth weight and the occurrence of intraoperative massive hemorrhage (>1500 mL blood loss). Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine the cutoff value of intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Of 256 pregnant women with placenta previa, 96 (38%) developed intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Receiver-operating characteristic curves revealed that the area under the curve of the combination variables between the standard deviation of birth weight and intraoperative massive hemorrhage was 0.71. The cutoff value with a sensitivity of 81.3% and specificity of 55.6% was -0.33 standard deviation. The multivariate analysis revealed that a standard deviation of >-0.33 (odds ratio, 5.88; 95% confidence interval, 3.04-12.00), need for hemostatic procedures (odds ratio, 3.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.79-6.25), and placental adhesion (odds ratio, 12.68; 95% confidence interval, 2.85-92.13) were independent risk of intraoperative massive hemorrhage. In patients with placenta previa, a birth weight >-0.33 standard deviation was a significant risk indicator of massive hemorrhage during cesarean section. Based on this result, further studies are required to investigate whether

  15. Comparison of primary dentition caries experience in pre-term low birth-weight and full-term normal birth-weight children aged one to six years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Anaberu Rajshekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aims of the study were to determine and compare the primary dentition caries experience and the variables that may influence the occurrence of caries, in preterm low birth weight and full term normal birth weight children aged one to six years. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted among 250 full term normal birth weight (FTNBW and 250 preterm low birth weight (PTLBW children one to six years, born in the two hospitals in Davangere: Bapuji Hospital and Chigatere Hospital. A purposive sampling was used to select the study group. Materials and Methods: Required and relevant information regarding demographic characteristics, feeding practices and oral hygiene practices were obtained. Dentition status and treatment need index (World Health Organization 1997 was used to record dental caries. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test, Student′s t-test and ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Statistically significant difference was observed in caries prevalence between PTLBW and FTNBW groups (P<0.05, however, the difference in mean Decayed, missing and filled teeth index (dmft was not statistically significant (P=0.30. Statistically significant differences were observed in caries experience between the two groups in relation to exclusive breast feeding for longer duration, i.e 7-12 months (P<0.05, bottle feeding habits (P<0.05 and sticky food consumption (P<0.01. Conclusions: A significant relationship was found between caries and PTLBW status though the difference in caries experience between the groups was not statistically significant, thus illustrating the higher caries risk in PTLBW children compared to FTNBW children.

  16. Brothers and reduction of the birth weight of later-born siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Mortensen, Laust; Nygaard, Ulrikka;

    2008-01-01

    of later-born siblings. The population was identified in the Danish Birth Registry and consisted of all Danish women who gave birth to their first-born singleton from 1980 to 1998. The women were followed until 2004, and their subsequent births were recorded. A total of 545,839 second- to fourth......-born children were identified. The authors used linear regression to analyze the association between sex of preceding children and birth weight of subsequent siblings. Brothers compared with sisters reduced the birth weight of later-born siblings. One or two brothers, respectively, reduced the mean birth weight...... of later-born boys by 29 g (p = 0.0001) and 38 g (p = 0.0001) and later-born girls by 17 g (p = 0.0001) and 21 g (p = 0.0001) compared with later-born siblings with no brothers. Part of this association was due to a shorter gestation among later-born siblings with brothers. An explanation for these results...

  17. Elevated vasoinhibins may contribute to endothelial cell dysfunction and low birth weight in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Carmen; Parra, Adalberto; Ramírez-Peredo, Jorge; García, Celina; Rivera, José Carlos; Macotela, Yazmín; Aranda, Jorge; Lemini, Maria; Arias, José; Ibargüengoitia, Francisco; de la Escalera, Gonzalo Martínez; Clapp, Carmen

    2007-10-01

    Vasoconstriction and defective placental angiogenesis are key factors in the etiology of preeclampsia. Prolactin levels are elevated in maternal blood throughout pregnancy and the human decidua produces prolactin that is transported to the amniotic fluid. Prolactin is cleaved to yield vasoinhibins, a family of peptides that inhibit angiogenesis and nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation. Here, we conducted a case-control study to measure vasoinhibins in serum, urine, and amniotic fluid obtained from women with severe preeclampsia. We show that all three biological fluids contained significantly higher levels of vasoinhibins in preeclamptic women than in normal pregnant women. Amniotic fluid from preeclamptic women, but not from normal women, inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial cell proliferation and nitric oxide synthase activity in cultured endothelial cells, and these actions were reversed by antibodies able to neutralize the effects of vasoinhibins. Furthermore, amniotic fluid does not appear to contain neutral prolactin-cleaving proteases, suggesting that vasoinhibins in amniotic fluid are derived from prolactin cleaved within the placenta. Also, cathepsin-D in placental trophoblasts cleaved prolactin to vasoinhibins, and its activity was higher in placental trophoblasts from preeclamptic women than from normal women. Importantly, birth weight of infants in preeclampsia inversely correlated with the extent to which the corresponding AF inhibited endothelial cell proliferation and with its concentration of prolactin+vasoinhibins. These data demonstrate that vasoinhibins are increased in the circulation, urine, and amniotic fluid of preeclamptic women and suggest that these peptides contribute to the endothelial cell dysfunction and compromised birth weight that characterize this disease.

  18. Decision-making under risk and ambiguity in low-birth-weight pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Eimear; Kraak, Lynn; van den Broek, Jan; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-03-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) in humans is a risk factor for later cognitive, behavioural and emotional problems. In pigs, LBW is associated with higher mortality, but little is known about consequences for surviving piglets. Alteration in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in LBW pigs suggests altered emotionality, but no behavioural indicators have been studied. Decision-making under uncertain conditions, e.g., risk or ambiguity, is susceptible to emotional influences and may provide a means of assessing long-term effects of LBW in piglets. We tested LBW (N = 8) and normal-birth-weight (NBW; N = 8) male pigs in two decision-making tasks. For decision-making under risk, we developed a simple two-choice probabilistic task, the Pig Gambling Task (PGT), where an 'advantageous' option offered small but frequent rewards and a 'disadvantageous' option offered large but infrequent rewards. The advantageous option offered greater overall gain. For decision-making under ambiguity, we used a Judgement Bias Task (JBT) where pigs were trained to make an active response to 'positive' and 'negative' tone cues (signalling large and small rewards, respectively). Responses to ambiguous tone cues were rated as more or less optimistic. LBW pigs chose the advantageous option more often in later blocks of the PGT, and were scored as less optimistic in the JBT, than NBW pigs. Our findings demonstrate that LBW pigs have developed different behavioural strategies with respect to decision-making. We propose that this is guided by changes in emotionality in LBW piglets, and we provide behavioural evidence of increased negative affect in LBW piglets.

  19. Correlates of antenatal body mass index (bmi as a determinant of birth weight – a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Rambiharilal Shrivastava

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI in antenatal period and birth weight of child, along with the socio-demographic determinants of birth weight. Methods: A longitudinal study of one-year duration, from June 2010 to May 2011, was conducted in an urban slum of Mumbai, India. Universal sampling method was employed, including as subjects all pregnant women with minimum two Antenatal Care (ANC visits - and at least one in the third trimester - registered at an urban health centre from June to August 2010. Subjects with any pre-existing co-morbid illness or with past history of giving birth to twins or to any congenitally malformed child, or else, with outcome of still births or home delivery, were excluded. These women were followed up for the next months until delivery. Maternal weight was recorded at each visit and BMI was calculated, or the average BMI, in case of more than one visit in any trimester. Birth weight was recorded using hospital or maternity home records. Results: Prevalence of low birth weight was 26.7%. Correlation between maternal BMI of third trimester and neonatal birth weight was moderately positive. 60.8% of variability in birth weight can be predicted by maternal BMI in third trimester. Conclusions: Third trimester BMI can be used as a predictor of neonatal birth weight. Information, Education and Counseling (IEC activities regarding utilization of Antenatal Care (ANC services can help reducing the incidence of Low Birth Weight (LBW.

  20. Stress, Pregnancy, and Motherhood: Implications for Birth Weights in the Borderlands of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2017-03-01

    We argue that changes over time in how ideas of stress are incorporated into understandings of pregnancy and motherhood among Mexican immigrant women living in the United States may affect the documented increase of low birth weight infants born to those women. Stress has consistently been linked to low birth weight, and pregnant Mexican American and Mexican immigrant women differ in levels of perceived social stress. What is lacking is an explanation for these differences. We utilize a subset of 36 ethnographic interviews with pregnant immigrant women from northern Mexico and Mexican Americans living in south Texas to demonstrate how meanings of pregnancy and motherhood increasingly integrate notions of stress the longer immigrant Mexican women live in the United States. We situate our results within anthropological and sociological research on motherhood in the United States and Mexico, anthropological research in the U.S.-Mexico borderlands, and interdisciplinary research on Hispanic rates of low birth weight. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  1. PPARGC1A DNA methylation in subcutaneous adipose tissue in low birth weight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillberg, Linn; Jacobsen, Stine; Rönn, Tina

    2014-01-01

    and insulin-stimulated SAT from LBW and matched normal birth weight (NBW) subjects during control and high-fat overfeeding. MATERIALS/METHODS: Nineteen young healthy men with LBW and 26 NBW controls were studied after both a 5-day high-fat overfeeding and a control diet in a randomized crossover setting. DNA......OBJECTIVE: Increased DNA methylation of the metabolic regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PPARGC1A) has been reported in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects and from low birth weight (LBW) subjects with an increased risk of T2D. High......-fat overfeeding increases PPARGC1A DNA methylation in muscle in a birth weight dependent manner. However, PPARGC1A DNA methylation in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in LBW subjects has not previously been investigated. Our objective was to determine PPARGC1A DNA methylation and mRNA expression in basal...

  2. Retinol-Binding Protein 4 in Young Men With Low Versus Normal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Brøns, Charlotte; Friedrichsen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a plasma protein which is elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate whether RBP4 represents a mechanism underlying the associations between low birth weight (LBW), high-fat diet, and insulin resistance. Forty-six young, lean men with low (n...... = 20) or normal (n = 26) birth weight underwent a 5-day high-fat high-calorie (HFHC) dietary intervention. In vivo glucose metabolism was assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, glucose tracer and intravenous glucose tolerance test techniques. Body composition was measured by a dual-energy x......, but is not determined by birth weight and seems not to be involved in short-term high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance....

  3. Low birth weight is associated with NIDDM in discordant monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, P; Vaag, Allan; Kyvik, K O;

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an association between low weight at birth and risk of later development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It is not known whether this association is due to an impact of intrauterine malnutrition per se, or whether it is due to a coincidence....... Furthermore, monozygotic (MZ) twins have identical genotypes. Original midwife birth weight record determinations were traced in MZ and dizygotic (DZ) twins discordant for NIDDM. Birth weights were lower in the NIDDM twins (n = 2 x 14) compared with both their identical (MZ; n = 14) and non-identical (DZ; n...... = 14) non-diabetic co-twins, respectively (MZ: mean +/- SEM 2634 +/- 135 vs 2829 +/- 131 g, p

  4. Combined exposure to low doses of pesticides causes decreased birth weights in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Christiansen, Sofie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad

    2017-01-01

    Decreased birth weight is a common effect of many pesticides in reproductive toxicity studies, but there are no empirical data on how pesticides act in combination on this endpoint. We hypothesized that a mixture of six pesticides (cyromazine, MCPB, pirimicarb, quinoclamine, thiram, and ziram......) would decrease birth weight, and that these mixture effects could be predicted by the Dose Addition model. Data for the predictions were obtained from the Draft Assessment Reports of the individual pesticides. A mixture of equi-effective doses of these pesticides was tested in two studies in Wistar rats......, showing mixture effects in good agreement with the additivity predictions. Significantly lower birth weights were observed when compounds were present at individual doses below their no-observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs). These results emphasize the need for cumulative risk assessment of pesticides...

  5. Placental Malaria is associated with reduced early life weight development of affected children independent of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmero Melba S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy contributes substantially to the disease burden in both mothers and offspring. Placental malaria may lead to intrauterine growth restriction or preterm delivery resulting in low birth weight (LBW, which, in general, is associated with increased infant morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the possible direct impact of the specific disease processes occurring in PM on longer term outcomes such as subsequent retarded growth development independent of LBW. Methods In an existing West-African cohort, 783 healthy infants with a birth weight of at least 2,000 g were followed up during their first year of life. The aim of the study was to investigate if Plasmodium falciparum infection of the placenta, assessed by placental histology, has an impact on several anthropometric parameters, measured at birth and after three, six and 12 months using generalized estimating equations models adjusting for moderate low birth weight. Results Independent of LBW, first to third born infants who were exposed to either past, chronic or acute placental malaria during pregnancy had significantly lower weight-for-age (-0.43, 95% CI: -0.80;-0.07, weight-for-length (-0.47, 95% CI: -0.84; -0.10 and BMI-for-age z-scores (-0.57, 95% CI: -0.84; -0.10 compared to infants born to mothers who were not diagnosed with placental malaria (p = 0.019, 0.013, and 0.012, respectively. Interestingly, the longitudinal data on histology-based diagnosis of PM also document a sharp decline of PM prevalence in the Sukuta cohort from 16.5% in 2002 to 5.4% in 2004. Conclusions It was demonstrated that PM has a negative impact on the infant's subsequent weight development that is independent of LBW, suggesting that the longer term effects of PM have been underestimated, even in areas where malaria transmission is declining.

  6. Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index, Gestational Weight Gain, and Birth Weight: A Cohort Study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoping Yang

    Full Text Available To assess whether pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI modify the relationship between gestational weight gain (GWG and child birth weight (specifically, presence or absence of low birth weight (LBW or presence of absence of macrosomia, and estimates of the relative risk of macrosomia and LBW based on pre-pregnancy BMI were controlled in Wuhan, China.From June 30, 2011 to June 30, 2013. All data was collected and available from the perinatal health care system. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the independent association among pregnancy weight gain, LBW, normal birth weight, and macrosomia within different pre-pregnancy BMI groups. We built different logistic models for the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM Guidelines and Chinese-recommended GWG which was made from this sample. The Chinese-recommended GWG was derived from the quartile values (25th-75th percentiles of weight gain at the time of delivery in the subjects which comprised our sample.For LBW children, using the recommended weight gain of the IOM and Chinese women as a reference, the OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a positive relationship for lean and normal weight women, but not for overweight and obese women. For macrosomia, considering the IOM's recommended weight gain as a reference, the OR magnitude for pregnancy weight gain above recommendations resulted in a positive correlation for all women. The OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a negative relationship for normal BMI and lean women, but not for overweight and obese women based on the IOM recommendations, significant based on the recommended pregnancy weight gain for Chinese women. Of normal weight children, 56.6% were above the GWG based on IOM recommendations, but 26.97% of normal weight children were above the GWG based on Chinese recommendations.A GWG above IOM recommendations might not be helpful for Chinese women. We need unified criteria to

  7. Influence of calving season and stocking rate on birth weight and weaning weight of Simmental-sired calves from Brahman-Hereford F1 dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, S J; Rouquette, F M; Long, C R; Turner, J W

    1992-08-01

    Braham-Hereford F1 dams have been used to evaluate the influence of grazing pressure on forage attributes and animal performance at the Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Center at Overton. Data for this study were compiled from 1,909 records of Simmental-sired calves born to Braham-Hereford F1 cows from 1975 to 1990. Birth weight and weaning weight were analyzed independently to estimate the influence of year, season of birth, dam age, weaning age, and sex of calf. The effect of stocking rate as represented by levels of forage availability on weaning weights and subsequent birth weights was measured. Within the fall and winter calving seasons, lactating dams grazing at a high stocking rate produced calves with the lowest subsequent birth weights. Lactating dams assigned to creep-fed treatments had calves with the heaviest subsequent birth weights. Although dams that were less than 3.5 yr of age had calves with the lightest birth weights, there was no apparent decline in birth weight of calves from dams 12 to 17 yr old. Year, sex of calf, age of dam, stocking rate, season of birth, age at weaning, and birth weight were significant factors affecting weaning weight (P less than .01). Fall-born calves grazing cool-season annual pastures were heavier at weaning (267.6 kg) than either winter- (252.0 kg) or spring-born calves (240.9 kg). A stocking rate x season-of-birth interaction was observed for birth weight and weaning weight (P less than .05). Differences in weaning weight from low- vs high-stocked pastures were greater for fall-born calves (61.6 kg) than for winter-born calves (48.7).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Frequency of Thyroid Function Disorders among a Population of Very-Low-Birth-Weight Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammad Armanian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid function disorders, particularly congenital hypothyroidism (CHT, are important endocrine dysfunctions associated with permanent morbidities. CHT is more prevalent among preterm low-birth-weight neonates compared to term infants with normal weight. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 126 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW neonates referred to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs of two tertiary referral hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran during 2012-2014. On day five of birth and two, four, and six weeks after birth, blood samples were collected from the infants to determine thyroid function disorders, including transient hypothyroxinemia, neonatal hypothyroidism, transient primary neonatal hypothyroidism, and transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Results: In total, 126 infants with mean gestational age of 30.5±2.29 weeks and mean birth weight of 1246.90±193.58 g were enrolled in this study. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level of Conclusion: According to the results of this study, thyroid function disorders are relatively common in preterm VLBW neonates, and serum T4 level is correlated with gestational age in these infants. Therefore, thyroid function tests with a consistent protocol are required for premature infants. It is recommended that further research be performed on larger sample sizes to investigate the prevalence of thyroid function disorders in preterm infants.

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERIODONTAL DISEASE INDEX AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Komara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and low birth weight babies. Methods: A case-control study was conducted to determine the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and the low birth weight babies (LBW. The participants were mothers with periodontitis and non-periodontitis mothers aged 20–35 years who gave birth in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology-Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung in the period of December to January 2005. Results: Based on the chisquare test results a highly significant relationship between periodontitis and low birth weight (p=0.002 was found. The Odd’s ratio showed that the risk of low birth weight in pregnant women with periodontitis was 15.58 times higher compared to those who did not suffer from periodontitis. The periodontal disease index has an accuracy of 88.6% in predicting the incidence of LBW. It strongly influenced the incidence of LBW with a high Odd’s ratio of 28.0. Pregnant women who suffer from periodontitis with a PDI > 3.25, have 19.2 times higher risk for delivering babies with LBW compared to the non-periodontitis mothers. Conclusions: The loss of attachment affects the possibility of delivering LBW babies.

  10. Advantages of kangaroo Mother care in Less Than 2000 Grams Low Birth Weight Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Jafarzadeh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:The aim of study was to compare the effect of Kangaroo mother care (KMC and conventional methods of care (CMC in low birth weight babies less than 2000 grams.Method: One hundred babies with birth weight less than 2000 grams and without clinical problem were randomized in two groups; the tervention group (N=50 who received Kangaroo mother care and the control group (N=50 with conventional care. Two groups were compared in daily weight gaining, self confidence of mother, duration of hospitalization, clinical cyanosis and nosocomial infection. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS 11.5 software . Irct ID: IRCT201101091162N16.Results: The KMC babies had better daily weight gaining average [18.31±7.57gm vs. 4.8±16.57gm (P0.05.Conclusions: In this study Kangaroo mother care had better effect on daily weight gaining, mother confidence and shorter duration of hospitalization.

  11. Preterm birth during influenza season is associated with adverse outcome in very-low-birth-weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Härtel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We investigated the relationship between influenza seasonality and outcome of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI in a large observational cohort study of the German Neonatal Network (GNN.Materials and Methods: Within the observational period (July 2009 until Dec 2014 5 influenza seasons occurred (mean duration: 97 days, range: 48-131 days. We stratified VLBWI (n=10187 according to date of birth into three categories; (1 before influenza season, (2 during influenza season and (3 three months after the end of the respective season. Outcomes were assessed in univariate and logistic regression analyses. In a subgroup of infants (n=1497 the number of respiratory infections during the first 24 months of life was assessed.Results: VLBWI born during influenza season carried a higher risk for clinical sepsis (31.0% vs. 28.2%; p=0.014 and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL, 3.7 vs. 2.5%, p=0.004. In a multivariate logistic regression model birth during influenza season was associated with PVL [OR 1.47 (1.11-1.95, p=0.007] and clinical sepsis [OR 1.13 (1.01-1.27, p=0.036], independent of known risk factors, i.e. gestational age, multiple birth, gender and small-for-gestational age. The risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia was not influenced by influenza seasonality. In the small subgroup with information on 24 months follow-up (n=1497, an increased incidence of common cold and bronchitis episodes was noted in infants born during influenza season.Conclusions: Our observational data indicate that preterm birth during influenza season is associated with PVL and sepsis. These are novel aspects which deserve further investigations to address underlying causes and to include virus surveillance.

  12. Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Rupa, E-mail: Rupa.Basu@oehha.ca.gov [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States); Harris, Maria [School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States); Sie, Lillian [School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Malig, Brian; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Rochelle [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Relationships between prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) and birth weight have been observed previously. Few studies have investigated specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, which may identify sources and major contributors of risk. We examined the effects of trimester and full gestational prenatal exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and 23 PM{sub 2.5} constituents on birth weight among 646,296 term births in California between 2000 and 2006. We used linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between exposures and birth weight and risk of low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), respectively. Models were adjusted for individual demographic characteristics, apparent temperature, month and year of birth, region, and socioeconomic indicators. Higher full gestational exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and several PM{sub 2.5} constituents were significantly associated with reductions in term birth weight. The largest reductions in birth weight were associated with exposure to vanadium, sulfur, sulfate, iron, elemental carbon, titanium, manganese, bromine, ammonium, zinc, and copper. Several of these PM{sub 2.5} constituents were associated with increased risk of term LBW. Reductions in birth weight were generally larger among younger mothers and varied by race/ethnicity. Exposure to specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, especially traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals, were associated with decreased birth weight in California. -- Highlights: • Examine full gestational and trimester fine particle and its constituents on term birth weight. • Fine particles and several of its constituents associated with birth weight reductions. • Largest reductions for traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals. • Greater birth weight reductions for younger mothers, and varied by race/ethnicity.

  13. Assessment of clinical methods and ultrasound in predicting fetal birth weight in term pregnant women

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    Ruby Yadav

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Clinical estimation of birth weight clearly has a role in management of labour and delivery in a term pregnancy. Clinical estimation especially by SFH and times;AG method is as accurate as routine USG estimated in average birth weight. SFH and times; AG clinical formula can be of great value in developing countries like ours, where ultrasound is not available at many health care centers especially in a rural area. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2775-2779

  14. Differentially Methylated Genomic Regions in Birth-Weight Discordant Twin Pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Mubo; Baumbach, Jan; Vandin, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    twin pairs to find evidence for such “programming” effects, but no significant results emerged. We further investigated this issue using a new computational approach: Instead of probing single genomic sites for significant alterations in epigenetic marks, we scan for differentially methylated genomic...... regions. Whole genome DNA methylation levels were measured in whole blood from 150 pairs of adult identical twins discordant for birth-weight. Intrapair differential DNA methylation was associated with qualitative (large or small) and quantitative (percentage) birth-weight discordance at each genomic site...

  15. The impact of birth weight and gestational age on the management of juvenile essential hypertension

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    Hogas Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension in children is a very important biological aspect in child pathology, caused by the synergic action of multiple risk factors, with an increasing prevalence. Since there is not much knowledge about juvenile essential hypertension in childhood, in this paper we will clarify the existing data about this pathology and its management, mainly by referring to the correlations during different stages. We found significant correlations between hypertension and the individual values of birth weight and gestational age, which suggest that there is an important relationship between birth weight and gestational age, as important biological markers vs. the different stages of essential hypertension.

  16. Prevention of preterm delivery and low birth weight associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorf, R; Williams, M A; Kass, E H

    1992-04-01

    Since the first report of an association between asymptomatic bacteriuria and low birth weight (less than 2,500 g) in 1962, greater than 30 other studies on the same subject have been published. Some of these confirmed this association while others disputed it. Now, however, by using meta-analysis (a technique considered valid by many but not all statisticians) one may conclude with increased certainty that true associations between asymptomatic bacteriuria and preterm delivery (less than 37 weeks of gestation) and asymptomatic bacteriuria and low birth weight do exist. Because asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy remains prevalent and preventable, a review of this important subject is relevant at this time.

  17. Effect of maternal nutritional status on the birth weight among women of tea tribe in Dibrugarh district

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    Gogoi Gourangie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999. Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garden women of reproductive age group (15-44 years from similar socio-economic background. Materials and Methods: Oral questionnaire for age, family structure, obstetric history, annual income, and period of gestation. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded using bathroom scales and the anthropometric rod. Measurements of weight were repeated during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Birth weight of the baby was recorded at delivery, irrespective of the period of gestation and mode of delivery. Statistical Analysis: Correlation co-efficient, standard deviation, and regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: Of all, 88% mothers had pre-pregnant weight of < 45 kg, and 61% babies had birth weight < 2500 gm. Subjects with better pre-pregnant weight had corresponding favorable total weight gain, resulting in better birth weight of the babies. Pre-pregnant weight had direct positive linear relationship with the birth weight. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of the adolescent girl in order to build up her pre-pregnant weight for a favorable birth weight.

  18. Mental health, quality of life and social relations in young adults born with low birth weight

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    Lund Line K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being born with low birth weight may have an impact on different aspects of mental health, psychosocial functioning and well-being; however results from studies in young adulthood have so far yielded mixed findings. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term impact in young adulthood on self-reported mental health, health-related quality of life, self-esteem and social relations by investigating differences between two low birth weight groups and a control group. Methods In a follow-up at 20 years of age, 43 preterm VLBW (birth weight ≤ 1500 g, 55 term SGA (birth weight  Results The VLBW and SGA groups reported significantly more mental health problems than controls. The VLBW group predominantly had internalizing problems, and the non-significant association with ASR Total score was reduced by the Intelligence Quotient (IQ. The SGA group had increased scores on both internalizing and externalizing problems, and the association with ASR Total score remained significant after adjusting for IQ in this group. Both low birth weight groups reported less interaction with friends and lower quality of life related to mental health domains than controls. Self-esteem scores were lower than in the control group for athletic competence (VLBW and social acceptance (SGA. Conclusion Our findings suggest that self-reported mental health and well-being in young adulthood may be adversely affected by low birth weight, irrespective of whether this is the result of premature birth or being born SGA at term.

  19. Atenção humanizada ao recém-nascido de baixo-peso. Método Canguru e cuidado centrado na família: correspondências e especificidades Humanized care for low birth weight newborns. The Kangaroo care Method and family-centered care: correspondence and specificities

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    Marcia de Abreu e Silva Hennig

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a Atenção Humanizada ao Recém-Nascido de Baixo-Peso - Método Canguru - como uma diretriz clínica na assistência neonatal, e busca traçar um paralelo com outro importante componente do cuidado infantil descrito na literatura internacional: o cuidado centrado na família. O artigo propõe que a Atenção Humanizada ao Recém-Nascido de Baixo-Peso - Método Canguru seja vista como uma boa prática e seja considerada também no campo das tecnologias em saúde.The main purpose of this paper is to introduce the Human Attention of Low Birth Weight-Kangaroo Care as clinical guidelines in neonatal intensive care. It will also try to link this clinical guideline and another component of neonatal infant care: the Family-Centered Care. Based on this relationship, this paper proposes that Human Attention of Low Birth Weight-Kangaroo Care should be catalogued as a Potentially Better Practices and also, considered as a Health Care Technology.

  20. Enhanced nutrition improves growth and increases blood adiponectin concentrations in very low birth weight infants

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    Elin W. Blakstad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate nutrient supply is essential for optimal postnatal growth in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight<1,500 g infants. Early growth may influence the risk of metabolic syndrome later in life. Objective: To evaluate growth and blood metabolic markers (adiponectin, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 in VLBW infants participating in a randomized nutritional intervention study. Design: Fifty VLBW infants were randomized to an enhanced nutrient supply or a standard nutrient supply. Thirty-seven infants were evaluated with growth measurements until 2 years corrected age (CA. Metabolic markers were measured at birth and 5 months CA. Results: Weight gain and head growth were different in the two groups from birth to 2 years CA (weight gain: pinteraction=0.006; head growth: pinteraction=0.002. The intervention group improved their growth z-scores after birth, whereas the control group had a pronounced decline, followed by an increase and caught up with the intervention group after discharge. At 5 months CA, adiponectin concentrations were higher in the intervention group and correlated with weight gain before term (r=0.35 and nutrient supply (0.35≤r≤0.45. Leptin concentrations correlated with weight gain after term and IGF-1 concentrations with length growth before and after term and head growth after term (0.36≤r≤0.53. Conclusion: Enhanced nutrient supply improved early postnatal growth and may have prevented rapid catch-up growth later in infancy. Adiponectin concentration at 5 months CA was higher in the intervention group and correlated positively with early weight gain and nutrient supply. Early nutrition and growth may affect metabolic markers in infancy.Clinical Trial Registration (ClinicalTrials.gov no.: NCT01103219

  1. Heritable environmental variance causes nonlinear relationships between traits: application to birth weight and stillbirth of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Herman A; Hill, William G; Knol, Egbert F

    2015-04-01

    There is recent evidence from laboratory experiments and analysis of livestock populations that not only the phenotype itself, but also its environmental variance, is under genetic control. Little is known about the relationships between the environmental variance of one trait and mean levels of other traits, however. A genetic covariance between these is expected to lead to nonlinearity between them, for example between birth weight and survival of piglets, where animals of extreme weights have lower survival. The objectives were to derive this nonlinear relationship analytically using multiple regression and apply it to data on piglet birth weight and survival. This study provides a framework to study such nonlinear relationships caused by genetic covariance of environmental variance of one trait and the mean of the other. It is shown that positions of phenotypic and genetic optima may differ and that genetic relationships are likely to be more curvilinear than phenotypic relationships, dependent mainly on the environmental correlation between these traits. Genetic correlations may change if the population means change relative to the optimal phenotypes. Data of piglet birth weight and survival show that the presence of nonlinearity can be partly explained by the genetic covariance between environmental variance of birth weight and survival. The framework developed can be used to assess effects of artificial and natural selection on means and variances of traits and the statistical method presented can be used to estimate trade-offs between environmental variance of one trait and mean levels of others. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  2. Medical, nutritional, and dental considerations in children with low birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Susan

    2009-11-01

    It is estimated that 8 to 26 percent of infants are born with low birth weight (LBW) worldwide. These children are at risk for medical problems in childhood and adulthood and often have poor oral health. The influence of fetal growth on birth weight and its relevance to childhood growth and future adult health is controversial. Evidence now indicates that the postnatal period is a critical time when nutrition may predispose the child to lifelong metabolic disturbance and obesity. Given the lack of consensus on optimum infant nutrition for LBW, premature, and small-for-gestational-age infants, many such infants may be suboptimally managed. This may result in rapid postnatal weight gain and ongoing health problems. The purpose of this review was to summarize medical terminology and issues related to fetal growth, morbidity associated with being born low birth weight, premature, or small for gestational age, and the importance of appropriate nutrition in such infants. Pediatric dentists can play an important role in supporting healthy feeding practices and improving long-term health in these children. Early integrated medical and dental care should be encouraged for all children with low birth weight.

  3. Relationships between birth weight and serum cholesterol levels in healthy Japanese late adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Sanae; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Hiromi; Uemura, Yukari; Kodama, Momoko; Fukuoka, Hideoki

    2014-01-01

    Poor growth in utero has been suggested to be associated with adverse levels of serum cholesterol concentrations in later life. In Asia, there have only been a limited number of studies examining the relationship between fetal status and serum lipids, especially in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between birth weight and serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels; adjusting for current physical status including percent body fat, physical activity and nutrient intake in healthy Japanese late adolescents. The data of 573 late adolescents with an average age of 17.6 (287 boys and 286 girls) who underwent physical examinations which included blood sampling and who had all the required data, were analyzed. Birth weight was obtained from their maternal and child health handbook. Multiple regression analysis showed that birth weight was positively associated with serum HDL in girls, independently of percent body fat or fat intake, when adjusted for current body height and weight. There were no associations between birth weight and serum HDL in boys, or serum LDL in either sex.

  4. CHARACTERISTICS AND THE OUTCOME OF VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT BORN IN SANGLAH HOSPITAL DENPASAR

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    Yoga Putra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Very low birth weight (VLBW infants is one of the most important medical problem especially in developing countries. This issue is due to its high morbidity and mortality rate. On the other hand, the long term impact of VLBW infants are poor growth and development including physical, emotional, intelectual (IQ, and disabilities, therefore it could decrease the quality of human resources and become a burden to their family. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics and outcome among VLBW infants born in the Sanglah Hospital. This was a retrospective study. Data were collected from medical record of all infants with VLBW delivered in Sanglah Hospital from January to Desember 2009. Uncompleted infants and mother medical records were excluded from this study. Of 64 VLBW infants enrolled into the study of which 54.7%  of this subjects was male, median of weight was 1300 g, mean gestational of age was 30.9 (SD 2.28 weeks, and mean lenght of stay was 30.9 (SD 19.7 days. The survival of VLBW infants in this study was 62.5%,  mortality in the early neonatal period was 70,8%. The percentage of VLBW infants who survive was still low and the major causes mortality were HMD (50% and sepsis (41.6%. The mortality of VLBW happened mostly in early neonatal periode.

  5. The Relationship between Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency and Low Birth Weight Neonates

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    Nasrin Khalessi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Maternal hypovitaminosis D may impair fetal growth and cause adverse pregnancy outcomes including intrauterine growth restriction and neonatal low birth weight. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between maternal vitamin D status and neonate’s birth weight.Materials and methods:A cross-sectional, descriptive analytical study was carried out in the nursery ward of 2 hospitals (Tehran-Iran during one year (January 2011- January 2012. One hundred and two neonates were categorized into two groups, neonates with birth weight< 2500 gr (n=52 and neonates with birth weight>2500 gr (n=50. Data regarding medical history, physical examination and anthropometric measurements of neonates were noted in a questionnaire. Birth time blood samples of their mothers were analyzed for serum 25-(OH-vitamin D by ELISA method. Maternal vitamin D status was compared in two groups.Results:Mean maternal vitamin D (vit D level was 31.46 nmol/L. Forty eight percent of mothers had vitamin D deficiency, 27.5% had vit D insufficiency and 24.5% were normal. Mean maternal vitamin D level of LBW neonates was lower than other group; 25.05 vs. 38.13 (p= 0.001. All mothers of neonates with head circumference ≤ 33 cm also had vitamin D deficiency (p= 0.007.Conclusion:Maternal Vitamin Ddeficiency may increase the risk of low birth weight neonate and modifying maternal nutrition behavior and their vit D level could be beneficial on pregnancy outcome.

  6. Associations between multiple green space measures and birth weight across two US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Leanne; Larkin, Andrew; Carozza, Susan E; Hystad, Perry

    2017-09-01

    Several measures of green space exposure have been used in epidemiological research, but their relevance to health, and representation of exposure pathways, remains unclear. Here we examine the relationships between multiple urban green space metrics and associations with term birth weight across two diverse US cities. We used Vital Statistics data to create a birth cohort from 2005 to 2009 in the cities of Portland, Oregon (n = 90,265) and Austin, Texas (n = 88,807). These cities have similar green space levels but very different population and contextual characteristics. Green space metrics derived from mother's full residential address using multiple buffer distances (50-1000m) included: Landsat Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), % tree cover, % green space, % street tree buffering, and access to parks (using US EPA EnviroAtlas Data). Correlation between green space metrics were assessed and mixed models were used to determine associations with term birth weight, controlling for a comprehensive set of individual and neighborhood factors. City-specific models were run to determine how contextual and population differences affected green space associations with birth weight. We observed moderate to high degrees of correlation between different green space metrics (except park access), with similar patterns between cities. Unadjusted associations demonstrated consistent protective effects of NDVI, % green space, % tree cover, and % street tree buffering for most buffer sizes on birth weight; however, in fully adjusted models most metrics were no longer statistically significant and no clear patterns remained. For example, in Austin the difference in birth weight for the highest versus lowest quartile of % green space within 50m was 38.3g (95% CI: 30.4, 46.1) in unadjusted and -1.5g (98% CI: -8.8, 6.3) in adjusted models compared to 55.7g (95%CI: 47.9, -63.6) and 12.9g (95% CI: 4.4, 21.4) in Portland. Maternal race, ethnicity and education had the

  7. Weight growth of triplet infants from birth to twelve years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2012-10-01

    We analyzed the characteristics associated with the growth in weight of Japanese triplets from birth to 12 years of age. The study included 376 mothers and their 1,128 triplet children, who were born between 1978 and 2006. Data were collected through a mailed questionnaire sent to the mothers asking for information recorded in medical records. For these births, data on triplets' weight growth, gestational age, sex, parity, maternal age at delivery, maternal height, and maternal body mass index were obtained from records in the Maternal and Child Health Handbooks and records in the school where children receive health check-ups. The weight deficit of the triplets compared to the general population of Japan remained between 10% and 17% until 12 years of age. Moreover, at 12 years of age, the differences of weight between the general population and triplets were approximately -4.75 kg for boys and -6.00 kg for girls. Very low birth weight had the strongest contribution to body weight until 8 years of age. After 8 years of age, maternal body mass index was a significant factor affecting the weight of triplets until 12 years of age.

  8. The relation of polychlorinated biphenyls to birth weight and gestational age in the offspring of occupationally exposed mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.R.; Stelma, J.M.; Lawrence, C.E. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-02-01

    The authors studied the relation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to birth weight and gestational age among the live offspring of women occupationally exposed to PCBs during the manufacture of capacitors in Upstate New York. Interviews were conducted in 1982 with 200 women who had held jobs with direct exposure and 205 women who had never held a direct-exposure job in order to ascertain information on reproductive history and other factors influencing reproductive outcome. Exposure was assessed as high-homolog PCB (Aroclor 1254), a continuous exposure variable estimated from an independently derived prediction model. After adjustment for variables other than gestational age known to influence birth weight, a significant effect of high-homolog exposure is seen for birth weight. For gestational age, a small but significant decrease is also observed with an increase in estimated exposure. When gestational age is accounted for in addition to other variables related to birth weight, estimated serum PCB is no longer a significant predictor of birth weight. The authors conclude that these data indicate that there is a significant relation between increased estimated serum PCB level and decreased birth weight and gestational age, and that the decrease in birth weight is at least partially related to shortened gestational age. The magnitude of these effects was quite small compared with those of other known determinants of gestational age and birth weight, and the biologic importance of these effects is likely to be negligible except among already low birth weight or short gestation infants.

  9. Contribution of parental blood pressures to association between low birth weight and adult high blood pressure: cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brian R; McConnachie, Alex; Noon, Joseph P; Webb, David J; Watt, Graham C M

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To examine the possibility that low birth weight is a feature of the inherited predisposition to high blood pressure. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Primary care medical centre in Edinburgh. Subjects: One offspring of 452 families (231 men and 221 women aged 16-26 years) in whom blood pressure, weight, and height were measured in 1986 and whose parents had blood pressure measured in 1979. Birth weights were obtained from case records (270 offspring) or by questionnaires sent to the mothers (182 offspring). Main outcome measures: Birth weight and adult systolic blood pressure in offspring in relation to parental blood pressure. Results: If parental blood pressures were not considered, a 1 kg decrease in birth weight was associated with a 2.24 mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure of offspring (P=0.06) after correction for current weight and sex. However, parental blood pressures correlated positively with blood pressure of offspring, and higher maternal blood pressure was associated with lower birth weight (−3.03 g/mm Hg, Ppressures, a 1 kg decrease in birth weight was associated with only a 1.71 mm Hg increase in the systolic blood pressure of the offspring (P=0.15). Conclusions: Low birth weight is a feature of the inherited predisposition to hypertension, perhaps because it is associated with higher maternal blood pressure during pregnancy. Parental blood pressure may be an important confounding factor in the relation between low birth weight and subsequent hypertension. Key messages Hypertension has both inherited and environmental causes The relation between low birth weight and hypertension in later life may result from the mother’s nutritional environment during pregnancy This study found that mothers who have higher blood pressure in later life deliver babies with lower birth weight, who also develop higher blood pressure Hereditary factors therefore explain part of the relation between low birth weight and adult

  10. High birth weight and perinatal mortality among siblings: A register based study in Norway, 1967-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Susser, Ezra; Corbett, Karina; Irgens, Lorentz M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Perinatal mortality according to birth weight has an inverse J-pattern. Our aim was to estimate the influence of familial factors on this pattern, applying a cohort sibling design. We focused on excess mortality among macrosomic infants (>2 SD above the mean) and hypothesized that the birth weight-mortality association could be explained by confounding shared family factors. We also estimated how the participant’s deviation from mean sibling birth weight influenced the association. Methods and findings We included 1 925 929 singletons, born term or post-term to mothers with more than one delivery 1967–2011 registered in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We examined z-score birth weight and perinatal mortality in random-effects and sibling fixed-effects logistic regression models including measured confounders (e.g. maternal diabetes) as well as unmeasured shared family confounders (through fixed effects models). Birth weight-specific mortality showed an inverse J-pattern, being lowest (2.0 per 1000) at reference weight (z-score +1 to +2) and increasing for higher weights. Mortality in the highest weight category was 15-fold higher than reference. This pattern changed little in multivariable models. Deviance from mean sibling birth weight modified the mortality pattern across the birth weight spectrum: small and medium-sized infants had increased mortality when being smaller than their siblings, and large-sized infants had an increased risk when outweighing their siblings. Maternal diabetes and birth weight acted in a synergistic fashion with mortality among macrosomic infants in diabetic pregnancies in excess of what would be expected for additive effects. Conclusions The inverse J-pattern between birth weight and mortality is not explained by measured confounders or unmeasured shared family factors. Infants are at particularly high mortality risk when their birth weight deviates substantially from their siblings. Sensitivity analysis suggests

  11. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  12. Growth of preterm low birth weight infants until 24 months corrected age: effect of maternal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiy, Alice M; Rugolo, Ligia M S S; Luca, Ana K C De; Corrente, José E

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the growth pattern of low birth weight preterm infants born to hypertensive mothers, the occurrence of growth disorders, and risk factors for inadequate growth at 24 months of corrected age (CA). Cohort study of preterm low birth weight infants followed until 24 months CA, in a university hospital between January 2009 and December 2010. gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight of 1,500-2,499 g. multiple pregnancies, major congenital anomalies, and loss to follow up in the 2nd year of life. The following were evaluated: weight, length, and BMI. growth failure and risk of overweight at 0, 12, and 24 months CA. Student's t-test, Repeated measures ANOVA (RM-ANOVA), and multiple logistic regression were used. A total of 80 preterm low birth weight infants born to hypertensive mothers and 101 born to normotensive mothers were studied. There was a higher risk of overweight in children of hypertensive mothers at 24 months; however, maternal hypertension was not a risk factor for inadequate growth. Logistic regression showed that being born small for gestational age and inadequate growth in the first 12 months of life were associated with poorer growth at 24 months. Preterm low birth weight born infants to hypertensive mothers have an increased risk of overweight at 24 months CA. Being born small for gestational age and inadequate growth in the 1st year of life are risk factors for growth disorders at 24 months CA. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors affecting birth weight of a newborn--a community based study in rural Karnataka, India.

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    Chandra S Metgud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW is a major public health problem in many developing countries, especially so in India. Although we do not know all the causes of LBW, maternal and environmental factors appear to be significant risk factors in its occurrence. OBJECTIVES: To know the factors affecting the birth weight of a newborn and to estimate the prevalence of LBW. METHODS: The present study was carried out amongst 1138 pregnant women and their newborns residing in area covered by Kinaye Primary Health Centre in rural Karnataka, India. The study was conducted from 1(st June 2008 to 31(st December 2009. RESULTS: The mean birth weight of newborns was 2.6 kg with a range of 1.2 to 3.8 kg. The prevalence of LBW was 22.9%. Among the studied risk factors, 25 of them were significantly associated with the birth weight of a newborn on univariate logistic regression analysis. Maternal education [Odds Ratio (OR 3.2], exposure to passive smoking [OR 2.3], age at first pregnancy ≥25 years [OR 3.6], birth interval <2 years [OR 2.4], previous history of LBW baby [OR 3.3], weight gain ≤4 kg during pregnancy [OR 7.0], maternal weight at last week of gestation ≤45 kg [OR 2.3], pregnancy induced hypertension [OR 3.3], high risk pregnancy [OR 3.6] and late antenatal registration [OR 3.6] emerged as significant risk factors on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The problem of LBW is multidimensional, and hence, we need an integrated approach incorporating medical, social, economical and educational measures to address this issue.

  14. Infant mortality and low birth weight in cities of Northeastern and Southeastern Brazil

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    Silva Antônio Augusto Moura da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare estimates of low birth weight (LBW, preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA, and infant mortality in two birth cohorts in Brazil. METHODS: The two cohorts were performed during the 1990s, in São Luís, located in a less developed area in Northeastern Brazil, and Ribeirão Preto, situated in a more developed region in Southeastern Brazil. Data from one-third of all live births in Ribeirão Preto in 1994 were collected (2,839 single deliveries. In São Luís, systematic sampling of deliveries stratified by maternity hospital was performed from 1997 to 1998 (2,439 single deliveries. The chi-squared (for categories and trends and Student t tests were used in the statistical analyses. RESULTS: The LBW rate was lower in São Luís, thus presenting an epidemiological paradox. The preterm birth rates were similar, although expected to be higher in Ribeirão Preto because of the direct relationship between preterm birth and LBW. Dissociation between LBW and infant mortality was observed, since São Luís showed a lower LBW rate and higher infant mortality, while the opposite occurred in Ribeirão Preto. CONCLUSIONS: Higher prevalence of maternal smoking and better access to and quality of perinatal care, thereby leading to earlier medical interventions (cesarean section and induced preterm births that resulted in more low weight live births than stillbirths in Ribeirão Preto, may explain these paradoxes. The ecological dissociation observed between LBW and infant mortality indicates that the LBW rate should no longer be systematically considered as an indicator of social development.

  15. Milk consumption during pregnancy increases birth weight, a risk factor for the development of diseases of civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C; John, Swen Malte; Schmitz, Gerd

    2015-01-16

    Antenatal dietary lifestyle intervention and nutrition during pregnancy and early postnatal life are important for appropriate lifelong metabolic programming. Epidemiological evidence underlines the crucial role of increased birth weight as a risk factor for the development of chronic diseases of civilization such as obesity, diabetes and cancer. Obstetricians and general practitioners usually recommend milk consumption during pregnancy as a nutrient enriched in valuable proteins and calcium for bone growth. However, milk is not just a simple nutrient, but has been recognized to function as an endocrine signaling system promoting anabolism and postnatal growth by activating the nutrient-sensitive kinase mTORC1. Moreover, pasteurized cow's milk transfers biologically active exosomal microRNAs into the systemic circulation of the milk consumer apparently affecting more than 11,000 human genes including the mTORC1-signaling pathway. This review provides literature evidence and evidence derived from translational research that milk consumption during pregnancy increases gestational, placental, fetal and birth weight. Increased birth weight is a risk factor for the development of diseases of civilization thus involving key disciplines of medicine. With regard to the presented evidence we suggest that dietary recommendations promoting milk consumption during pregnancy have to be re-evaluated.

  16. Low birth weight. A risk factor for development of diabetic nephropathy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, P; Tarnow, L; Nielsen, F S

    1995-01-01

    for expression of renal disease after exposure to potentially injurious renal stimuli. The aim of this study was to determine if low birth weight is a risk factor for development of diabetic nephropathy. In a case-control study, we investigated 184 (110 men) insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients......It has been demonstrated that intrauterine growth retardation, defined as birth weight below the 10th percentile, gives rise to a reduction in nephron number. Oligonephropathy has been suggested to increase the risk for systemic and glomerular hypertension in adult life as well as enhance risk...... with diabetic nephropathy (persistent albuminuria > 300 mg/24 h) (age [mean +/- SD] 41.0 +/- 9.3 years, duration of diabetes 26.9 +/- 8.2 years) and 182 (111 men) normoalbuminuric (birth...

  17. Low birth weight and fetal anaemia as risk factors for infant morbidity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low birth weight (LBW) and fetal anaemia (FA) are common in malaria ... been related to malaria in pregnancy7-9, it is important to establish their ... Laboratory investigations. Maternal ... of age, for older infants, a cut-off value of 50 per minute ..... from maternal iron deficiency anaemia and dense placental .... Changes in the.

  18. Contributing death factors in very low-birth-weight infants by path method analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ghojazadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal deaths account for 40% of deaths under the age of 5 years worldwide. Therefore, efforts to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goal 4 of reducing childhood mortality by two-thirds by 2015 are focused on reducing neonatal deaths in high-mortality countries. The aim of present study was to determine death factors among very low-birth-weight infants by path method analysis. Materials and Methods: In this study, medical records of 2,135 infants admitted between years 2008 and 2010 in neonatal intense care unit of Alzahra Educational-Medical centre (Tabriz, Iran were analysed by path method using statistical software SPSS 18. Results: Variables such as duration of hospitalisation, birth weight, gestational age have negative effect on infant mortality, and gestational blood pressure has positive direct effect on infant mortality that at whole represented 66.5% of infant mortality variance (F = 1018, P < 0.001. Gestational age termination in the positive form through birth weight, and also gestational blood pressure in negative form through hospitalisation period had indirect effect on infant mortality. Conclusion: The results of the study indicated that the duration of low-birth-weight infant′s hospitalisation is also associated with infant′s mortality (coefficient -0.7; P < 0.001. This study revealed that among the maternal factors only gestational blood pressure was in relationship with infants′ mortality.

  19. Incidence and correlates of low birth weight at a referral hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-05-04

    May 4, 2012 ... mean birth weight and an increasing trend of LBW from 1970`s to 1990`s and ... Nearly half (46.2%) of women said they were given dietary counseling ... incidence ranging between 9.0% and 11.8% like Iran, Turkey, Pakistan, ...

  20. PHYSICAL FITNESS AND BIRTH WEIGHT IN YOUNG MEN FROM MAPUTO CITY, MOZAMBIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Eugénio Tchamo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Birth weight has been considered an important marker of the nutritional transition in developing countries. Objective: To evaluate the influence of birth weight on body composition and physical fitness of young men born in Maputo, Mozambique. Methods: One hundred and seventy-nine students (aged 19 to 22 years were divided into four groups (low birth weight 3.999 g, HBW, n = 31. Anthropometry and body composition were measured. Physical fitness was assessed by handgrip strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, agility, and running speed. Results: IBW showed lower values of body mass and fat free mass while LBW and HBW had high values of hip circumference, suprailiac, subscapular and abdominal skinfold when compared to NBW. LBW and HBW showed a high percentage of individuals with low performance in flexibility, right handgrip, agility, abdominal resistance, arms strength, and horizontal long jump. Around 70% of HBW showed low performance in the running speed test. Conclusion: Both low and high birth weight can influence adult adiposity and the performance in physical fitness tests.

  1. Anemia Prevalence among Pregnant Women and Birth Weight in Five Areas in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, A.G.; Schouten, E.G.; Wang, Y.; Xu, R.X.; Zheng, M.C.; Li, Y.; Sun, Y.Y.; Wang, Q.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the current prevalence of anemia among pregnant women in different areas of China and the association with birth weight and educational level. Methods: A total of 6,413 women aged 24-37 in the third trimester of pregnancy from five areas were randomly selected from all gra

  2. Neuro-Cognitive Performance of Very Preterm or Very Low Birth Weight Adults at 26 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryigit Madzwamuse, Suna; Baumann, Nicole; Jaekel, Julia; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children born very preterm (VP low birth weight (VBLW <1500 g; subsequently VP/VLBW) have been previously reported to have more cognitive impairment and specific executive functioning problems than term children; however, it remains unclear whether these problems persist into adulthood. This…

  3. Impact of birth weight and genetic liability on psychopathology in children of bipolar parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wals, M; Reichart, CG; Hillegers, MHJ; van Os, J; Verhulst, FC; Nolen, WA; Ormel, J

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To test different models for ways in which birth weight and familial loading influence the risk for psychopathology in bipolar offspring. Method: DSM-IV diagnoses of 140 bipolar offspring (12-21 years of age) were assessed with the K-SADS-PL. Parents were interviewed using the Family Hist

  4. Survival Analysis of Very Low Birth Weight Infant Mortality in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); W. Chen (Wei); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper examines the determinants of very low birth weight infant (or neonatal) mortality using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database from 1997 to 2009. After infants are discharged from hospital, it is not possible to track their mortality, so the

  5. Survival Analysis of very Low Birth Weight Infant Mortality in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); W. Chen (Wei); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper examines the determinants of very low birth weight infant (or neonatal) mortality using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database from 1997 to 2009. After infants are discharged from hospital, it is not possible to track their mortality, so the

  6. Birth weight, childhood body mass index, and height in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Bihrmann, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density (MD) mediates an association of birth weight...

  7. Work activities and risk of prematurity, low birth weight and pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Harris, E Clare

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the evidence relating preterm delivery (PTD), low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension to five occupational exposures (working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and physical workload). We conducted a systematic search...

  8. morbidity and mortality of low birth weight infants in the new born ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-07-01

    Jul 1, 2004 ... weight infants only has 10% of the world's resources for their care. ... Data management: The data was entered in a computer and .... As an example, of the 163 .... resolve the issue so as to determine the significant ..... racial and ethnic specific rates for the health status indicators. ... Malaysia very low birth.

  9. Genome-wide associations for birth weight and correlations with adult disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Beaumont, Robin N; Day, Felix R

    2016-01-01

    Birth weight (BW) has been shown to be influenced by both fetal and maternal factors and in observational studies is reproducibly associated with future risk of adult metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. These life-course associations have often been attr...

  10. Genome-wide associations for birth weight and correlations with adult disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Horikoshi (Momoko); Beaumont, R.N. (Robin N.); F.R. Day (Felix); N.M. Warrington (Nicole); M.N. Kooijman (Marjolein ); J. Fernandez-Tajes (Juan); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); N.R. Van Zuydam (Natalie R.); K. Gaulton (Kyle); N. Grarup (Niels); J.P. Bradfield (Jonathan); D.P. Strachan (David); Li-Gao, R. (Ruifang); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); Kreiner, E. (Eskil); Rueedi, R. (Rico); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); D.L. Cousminer (Diana); Y. Wu (Ying); E. Thiering (Elisabeth); C.A. Wang (Carol A.); C.T. Have (Christian T.); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); N. Vilor-Tejedor (Natàlia); P.K. Joshi (Peter); Boh, E.T.H. (Eileen Tai Hui); I. Ntalla (Ioanna); N. Pitkanen (Niina); A. Mahajan (Anubha); E.M. van Leeuwen (Elisa); R. Joro (Raimo); V. Lagou (Vasiliki); M. Nodzenski (Michael); Diver, L.A. (Louise A.); K.T. Zondervan (Krina); M. Bustamante (Mariona); P. Marques-Vidal (Pedro); J.M. Mercader (Josep); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); N. Rahmioglu (Nilufer); D.R. Nyholt (Dale); Ma, R.C.W. (Ronald C. W.); Tam, C.H.T. (Claudia H. T.); Tam, W.H. (Wing Hung); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); S.E. Jones (Samuel E.); P.-R. Loh (Po-Ru); K.S. Ruth (Katherine S.); Tuke, M.A. (Marcus A.); A.W.R. Tyrrell; A.R. Wood (Andrew); H. Yaghootkar (Hanieh); D.M. Scholtens (Denise M.); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); I. Prokopenko (Inga); P. Kovacs (Peter); M. Atalay (Mustafa); S.M. Willems (Sara); Panoutsopoulou, K. (Kalliope); X. Wang (Xu); L. Carstensen (Lisbeth); F. Geller (Frank); Schraut, K.E. (Katharina E.); M. Murcia (Mario); C.E.M. van Beijsterveldt (Toos); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); Appel, E.V.R. (Emil V. R.); Fonvig, C.E. (Cilius E.); Trier, C. (Caecilie); Tiesler, C.M.T. (Carla M. T.); E. Standl (Eberhard); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); S. Bonàs-Guarch (Silvia); D.M. Hougaard (David); Sánchez, F. (Friman); D. Torrents (David); J. Waage (Johannes); M.V. Hollegaard (Mads V); H.G. De Haan (Hugoline G.); F.R. Rosendaal (Frits); Medina-Gomez, C. (Carolina); S.M. Ring (Susan); G. Hemani; G. Mcmahon (George); N.R. Robertson (Neil); C.J. Groves (Christopher); C. Langenberg (Claudia); J. Luan (Jian'An); R.A. Scott (Robert); J.H. Zhao; F.D. Mentch (Frank); MacKenzie, S.M. (Scott M.); R.M. Reynolds (Rebecca); W.L. Lowe Jr. (William); A. Tönjes (Anke); M. Stumvoll (Michael); V. Lindi (Virpi); T.A. Lakka (Timo); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); W. Kieß (Wieland); A. KöRner (Antje); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); Niinikoski, H. (Harri); K. Pahkala (Katja); Raitakari, O.T. (Olli T.); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); G.V. Dedoussis (George); Y.Y. Teo (Yik Ying); Saw, S.-M. (Seang-Mei); M. Melbye (Mads); H. Campbell (Harry); J.F. Wilson (James F.); M. Vrijheid (Martine); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); H.N. Kadarmideen (Haja N.); J.-C. Holm (Jens-Christian); T. Hansen (T.); S. Sebert (Sylvain); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); L.J. Beilin (Lawrence); J.P. Newnham (John); C.E. Pennell (Craig); J. Heinrich (Joachim); L.S. Adair (Linda); J.B. Borja (Judith); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); K. Hagen (Knut); E. Widen (Elisabeth); M. Kähönen (Mika); J. Viikari (Jorma); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); P. Vollenweider (Peter); K. Bønnelykke (Klaus); H. Bisgaard (Hans); D.O. Mook-Kanamori (Dennis); Hofman, A. (Albert); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); Pisinger, C. (Charlotta); O. Pedersen (Oluf); C. Power (Christopher); E. Hypponen (Elina); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); Davies, E. (Eleanor); Walker, B.R. (Brian R.); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); S.F.A. Grant (Struan); Vaag, A.A. (Allan A.); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); G.D. Smith; A.P. Morris (Andrew); K.K. Ong (Ken); J.F. Felix (Janine); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); J.R.B. Perry (John); D.M. Evans (David); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); R.M. Freathy (Rachel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBirth weight (BW) has been shown to be influenced by both fetal and maternal factors and in observational studies is reproducibly associated with future risk of adult metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease1. These lifecourse associations have often

  11. Linking Assessment and Intervention for Developmental/Functional Outcomes of Premature, Low-Birth-Weight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaoying; Filler, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Prematurity and low birth weight (LBW) are two major biological factors that put infants and young children at high risk for developmental delays or disabilities. While survival rates for premature and LBW children have improved, incidence figures have changed little over the past 20 years; in fact, the incidence of LBW has increased. Although the…

  12. Serum magnesium in the first week of life in extremely low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noone, D

    2012-01-01

    Evidence that antenatal administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) to women in preterm labor may confer fetal neuroprotection is growing. MgSO(4) crosses the placenta and can affect the neonate. Magnesium homeostasis in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants remains to be clarified.

  13. Pigs as animal model for low-birth-weight babies. Developing cognitive tests and examining neuroprotection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieling, E.T.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the cognitive performance of piglets with low birth weight (LBW) caused by intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR), and the effects of a possible therapy to prevent IUGR-related brain damage and associated cognitive impairments were studied. To achieve these goals, several conditions

  14. Childhood Height and Birth Weight in Relation to Future Prostate Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Michael B; Gamborg, Michael; Aarestrup, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Adult height has been positively associated with prostate cancer risk. However, the exposure window of importance is currently unknown and assessments of height during earlier growth periods are scarce. In addition, the association between birth weight and prostate cancer remains undetermined. We...

  15. General movements in the first fourteen days of life in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, N. K. S.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Bos, A. F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the quality of general movements (GMs) in the first fourteen days of life in relation to obstetric and postnatal risk factors and neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Study design: The GMs of nineteen infants were assessed on days 2, 4, 6, 10

  16. Anemia Prevalence among Pregnant Women and Birth Weight in Five Areas in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, A.G.; Schouten, E.G.; Wang, Y.; Xu, R.X.; Zheng, M.C.; Li, Y.; Sun, Y.Y.; Wang, Q.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the current prevalence of anemia among pregnant women in different areas of China and the association with birth weight and educational level. Methods: A total of 6,413 women aged 24-37 in the third trimester of pregnancy from five areas were randomly selected from all

  17. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status and early growth of low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Schaafsma, A; Muskiet, FAJ; Okken, A

    1998-01-01

    We correlated arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status with anthropometric measures and growth rates in a group of low birth weight infants (less than or equal to 2500 g; gestational ages 30-41 weeks; n = 143). AA and DHA status were measured in erythrocytes (RBC) and plasma chole

  18. Ethnic differences in the association of birth weight and blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberg, Sara; Ge, Dongliang; Cnattingius, Sven; Svensson, Anna; Treiber, Frank A.; Snieder, Harold; Iliadou, Anastasia

    2007-01-01

    Background: African Americans (AAs) not only have higher blood-pressure levels, but also an increased risk of low weight at birth, compared with European Americans (EAs). In light of fetal programming theories, it has been suggested that ethnic differences in blood pressure originate in utero.

  19. Treatment Failure of Nosocomial Pertussis Infection in a Very-Low-Birth-Weight Neonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Farnoux, Caroline; Bidet, Philippe; Caro, Valérie; Aizenfisz, Sophie; Benhayoun, Mounir; Aujard, Yannick; Guiso, Nicole; Bingen, Edouard

    2006-01-01

    We describe a case of nosocomial maternal transmission of Bordetella pertussis to a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonate in whom treatment was unsuccessful. This case underscores the need for rapid and sensitive PCR diagnosis in VLBW neonates and in parents with clinical signs of pertussis and suggests that standard treatment may not be appropriate for VLBW neonates. PMID:17021121

  20. Survival Analysis of Very Low Birth Weight Infant Mortality in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); W. Chen (Wei); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper examines the determinants of very low birth weight infant (or neonatal) mortality using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database from 1997 to 2009. After infants are discharged from hospital, it is not possible to track their mortality, so the C

  1. Survival Analysis of very Low Birth Weight Infant Mortality in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); W. Chen (Wei); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper examines the determinants of very low birth weight infant (or neonatal) mortality using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database from 1997 to 2009. After infants are discharged from hospital, it is not possible to track their mortality, so the C

  2. Maternal Characteristics of a Cohort of Preterm Infants with a Birth Weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claas, Marieke J.; de Vries, Linda S.; Bruinse, Hein W.

    2011-01-01

    Our objectives were to describe the obstetric complications of women who delivered an extremely low-birth-weight infant by comparing two consecutive 5-year periods and infants appropriate for gestational age (AGA) versus infants small for gestational age (SGA). This descriptive study included women

  3. Cytokine responses in very low birth weight infants receiving glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van den Berg; R.M. van Elburg; L. Vermeij; A. van Zwol; G.R. van den Brink; J.W.R. Twisk; E.E.S. Nieuwenhuis; W.P.F. Fetter

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants receiving glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition may present with a lower infection rate, which may result from enhanced antimicrobial innate or Th1 cytokine responses. We investigated whether glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in VLBW infants increase

  4. Thiamine supplementation to prevent induction of low birth weight by conventional therapy for gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, SJL; ter Maaten, JC; Gans, ROB

    2000-01-01

    Conventional treatment for gestational diabetes mellitus increases the proportion of infants born with a low birth weight, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus in later life. Thiamine supplementation during pregnancy may be shown to be a safe preventive measure. During preg

  5. Ethnic differences in the association of birth weight and blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberg, Sara; Ge, Dongliang; Cnattingius, Sven; Svensson, Anna; Treiber, Frank A.; Snieder, Harold; Iliadou, Anastasia

    2007-01-01

    Background: African Americans (AAs) not only have higher blood-pressure levels, but also an increased risk of low weight at birth, compared with European Americans (EAs). In light of fetal programming theories, it has been suggested that ethnic differences in blood pressure originate in utero. Howev

  6. Socioeconomic and nutritional determinants of low birth weight babies: A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiti Narain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO definition, infants with birth weights of less than 2,500 grams are classified as low birth weight (LBW. LBW is a sensitive indicator for predicting the chances of both infant survival and healthy childhood growth and development, and it also reflects the present and past health status of the mother. LBW constitutes an important factor affecting neonatal mortality and morbidity.Objective: To find the incidence of low birth weight babies and its determinants Materials and methods: Present study was a cross sectional type. All mothers delivering live born singleton neonate in study place (Postnatal ward of Rohilkhand Medical College and hospital were interviewed with pretested, predesigned schedule. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 21software and chi square test, OR etc.Results: Overall incidence of LBW was 20% and mean birth weight was 2776.85 + 383.6 gm LBW was found to be more common in the rural population and poor educational status. A higher incidence of LBW was seen in mothers with inadequate diet and those who were anaemic. Conclusion: Low birth weight still poses a fair problem in our perspective, and when we cannot control ethnic factors like height, or do a drastic socio-economic upliftment, some basic factors, like good ANC care, correcting anemia, and above all motivating the mother to follow some habits in the ANC period like adequate consumption of food and adequate rest, institutional deliveries shall take a long way forward in addressing the problem.

  7. Risk Factors for Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Very Low Birth Weight Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Larijani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors which predispose to the development of high grade IVH (grade 3 and 4 in very low birth weight infants. Material & Methods: In a retrospective case control clinical study files of all premature infants with birth weights less than 1500 grams admitted between April 2004 and Oct 2005 to the neonatal intensive care unit of Akbar Abadi hospital in Tehran were reviewed. 39 infants with IVH grade 3 and 4 were identified. A control group of 82 VLBW infants matched for gestational age and birth weight were selected. Prenatal data, delivery characteristics, neonatal course data and reports of cranial ultrasonography were carefully collected for both groups. Those variables that achieved significance (p<0.05 in univariate analysis entered to multivariate logistic regression analysis. Findings: A total of 325 VLBW infants were evaluated. Mortality rate was 21.5%. Of the remaining the incidence of high grade IVH was 15.5%. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that following factors are associated with greater risk of high grade IVH occurrence: Low gestational age (OR: 3.72; 95% CI: 1.65-8.38, low birth weight (OR: 3.42; 95% CI: 1.65-8.38, low Apgar score at 5 minute (OR:1.58; 95% CI:1.59-6.32, hyaline membrane disease (HMD, OR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.42-7.45 and maternal tocolytic therapy with magnesium sulfate (OR: 4.40; 95% CI: 1.10-24.5. Conclusion: Our results showed that maternal tocolytic therapy, mechanical ventilation, low gestational age, low birth weight, apnea, and low 5 minute Apgar score increased the risk of major IVH.

  8. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  9. Adult social outcomes of extremely low birth weight survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, J I; Day, K L; Schmidt, L A; Saigal, S; Van Lieshout, R J

    2016-12-01

    Preterm birth and exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are early physiological and psychological adversities that have been linked to reduced social functioning across the lifespan. However, the joint effects of being born preterm and being exposed to CSA on adult social outcomes remains unclear. We sought to determine the impact of exposure to both preterm birth and CSA on adult social functioning in a group of 179 extremely low birth weight (ELBW; 2500 g) participants in the fourth decade of life. Social outcome data from a prospective, longitudinal, population-based Canadian birth cohort initiated between the years of 1977 and 1982 were examined. At age 29-36 years, ELBW survivors who experienced CSA reported poorer relationships with their partner, worse family functioning, greater loneliness, lower self-esteem and had higher rates of avoidant personality problems than those who had not experienced CSA. Birth weight status was also found to moderate associations between CSA and self-esteem (P=0.032), loneliness (P=0.021) and family functioning (P=0.060), such that the adverse effects of CSA were amplified in ELBW survivors. Exposure to CSA appears to augment the adult social risks associated with perinatal adversity. Individuals born preterm and exposed to CSA appear to be a group at particularly high risk for adverse social outcomes in adulthood.

  10. Estado nutricional materno, ganho de peso gestacional e peso ao nascer Maternal nutritional status, gestational weight gain and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Suely de Oliveira Melo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Tanto o estado nutricional materno como o ganho de peso gestacional vem sendo estudado em relação ao papel determinante que desempenham sobre o crescimento fetal e o peso ao nascer. O peso inadequado ao nascer é uma das grandes preocupações da saúde pública devido ao aumento da morbimortalidade no primeiro ano de vida e ao maior risco de desenvolver doenças na vida adulta, tais como a síndrome metabólica, nos casos de baixo peso, e diabetes e obesidade, nos casos de macrossomia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever uma coorte de gestantes, classificando-as de acordo com o estado nutricional inicial, o ganho ponderal gestacional, a resistência nas artérias uterinas e o peso dos recém-nascidos. MÉTODOS: foi acompanhada, a cada quatro semanas gestacionais, uma coorte de 115 gestantes atendidas pelo Programa de Saúde da Família do município de Campina Grande, PB. O estado nutricional inicial foi determinado através do índice de massa corporal (kg/m² para a idade gestacional, e as gestantes classificadas de acordo com os critérios de Atalah. Na 20ª semana, foi estudada a resistência das artérias uterinas, através da dopplervelocimetria. RESULTADOS: o estado nutricional inicial mostrou uma alta prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade (27%, e uma prevalência significante de desnutrição (23%. Um alto percentual de gestantes ganhou peso excessivo tanto no segundo (44% como no terceiro trimestre (45%. A distribuição do peso ao nascer, indicou uma incidência de 10% de baixo peso e de 9% de macrossomia. Observou-se ainda, uma alta prevalência de incisuras nas artérias uterinas.INTRODUCTION: Maternal nutritional status and gestational weight gain have been addressed because of their importance to fetal growth and birth weight. Inadequate birth weight is a major concern to public health given it has been associated with increasing morbidity-mortality during the first year of life and with increased risks of

  11. A Fortified Donor Milk Policy is Associated With Improved In-Hospital Head Growth and Weight Gain in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginovart, Gemma; Gich, Ignasi; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Verd, Sergio

    2017-08-01

    Previous research has reported that infants fed donor milk grow slower than those fed formula. However, most of the trials used unfortified donor milk, which limits the ability to generalize the results to current clinical practice. To evaluate the impact of early human milk feeding (donor milk and/or mother's own milk) with standard fortification on in-hospital growth of very low-birth-weight infants. This pre-/postretrospective study included selected newborn infants less than 1500 g admitted to a level IV neonatal intensive care unit before and after the introduction of a policy providing donor milk when mother's own milk was not available in sufficient quantity to meet her infant's need. When enteral feeds reached 80 mL/kg per day, all human milk was fortified. Seventy-two "before" (any formula-fed) and 114 "after" (human milk-fed) infants were enrolled in this study. Infant characteristics and neonatal morbidity were similar in both groups. Outcomes revealed that an initial human milk diet with standard fortification was associated with significantly higher early extrauterine weight gain and head growth in very low-birth-weight infants than a formula-fed diet. Very early initiation of fortified breast and/or donor milk feeding can help promote in-hospital head growth and weight gain of preterm infants. Formula may not be appropriate for early use among preterm infants. Further large-scale clinical trials are needed to determine the best initiation and composition of enteral feeding for preterm infants.

  12. Evaluation of effective factors on low birth weight neonates' mortality using path analysis

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    Babaee Gh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study have conducted in order to determine of direct or indirect effective factors on mortality of neonates with low birth weight by path analysis.Methods: In this cohort study 445 paired mothers and their neonates were participated in Tehran city. The data were gathered through an answer sheet contain mother age, gestational age, apgar score, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH and birth weight. Sampling was convenience and neonates of women were included in this study who were referred to 15 government and private hospitals in Tehran city. Live being status of neonates was determined until 24 hours after delivery.Results: The most changes in mortality rate is related to birth weight and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. Second score is related to apgar sore and its negative score means that increasing in apgar score leads to decrease chance of neonate death. Third score is gestational age and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. The less changes in mortality rate is due to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.Conclusion: The methodology has been used could be adopted in other investigations to distinguish and measuring effect of predictive factors on the risk of an outcome.

  13. Cognitive function and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Atsuko; Takagishi, Yuka; Takada, Satoru; Uetani, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Toru; Nakamura, Hajime [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Inagaki, Yuko

    1996-07-01

    Twenty-two very low birth weight infants at preschool ages of 5-6 years were studied to clarify the correlation between cognitive function and MRI findings. Cognitive function was evaluated by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Frostig developmental test of visual perception. Ventricular enlargement, assessed by the bioccipital index (B.I.) measured on MRI, was correlated to cognitive disorders. Children with periventricular high intensity areas (T{sub 2}-weighted images) extending from the posterior periventricular region to the parietal lobe tend to highly suffer from cerebral palsy and visuoperceptual impairment. These results indicate that the disorders of cognitive function in very low birth weight infants were caused by a damage of association fibers in periventricular areas which was detectable by MRI. (author)

  14. Standards of Birth Weight According to Gestational Age in the Northwestern Regions of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodych O.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the neonatal registry for 2001-2010 years in Rivne and Volyn regions of Ukraine as well as 2006-2011 years of Khmelnytsky region was carried out. General information was available about body weight of 366 607 newborns, among which 188 687 were boys and 177 920 girls. Based on the analysis we developed local standards of birth body weight in relation to gestational age separately for boys and girls. Procedure for processing local standards met international standards that have been developed by the WHO. Availability of processed local standards depending on gestational age will enable neonatologists, pediatricians and researchers to clearly identify anomalies in the health of newborns in the northwestern regions of Ukraine. Therefore, identification of newborns with low or high birth weight will enable adequate and timely steps to improve their health.

  15. Increased nocturnal fat oxidation in young healthy men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Lilleøre, S K; Jensen, C B

    2013-01-01

    , potentially contributing to the development of adiposity and/or T2D compared to matched control subjects. MATERIALS/METHODS: Forty-six young, healthy men were included in the study; 20 with LBW (= 10th percentile) and 26 control subjects with normal birth weight (NBW) (50th-90th percentile). The subjects were......OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight (LBW), a marker of disturbed fetal growth, is associated with adiposity and increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of the study was to investigate whether LBW is associated with changes in 24-h energy expenditure (EE) and/or substrate utilization rates...... fed a weight maintenance diet and 24-h energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), and substrate oxidation were assessed in a respiratory chamber. RESULTS: No differences in 24-h EE, RQ or substrate oxidation were observed between LBW and controls. Interestingly, the LBW group exhibited lower...

  16. When and why Filipino mothers of term low birth weight infants interrupted breastfeeding exclusively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrasada, Grace V; Kylberg, Elisabeth

    2009-11-01

    This paper makes use of data collected in a randomised controlled trial that was designed to test the efficacy of postpartum breastfeeding counselling to increase exclusive breastfeeding among term low birth weight infants in Manila during the first six months. Mothers were randomised to a control group or one of two home visit interventions: by trained breastfeeding counsellors or child care counsellors without breastfeeding support training. Sixty mothers received peer breastfeeding counselling while a further 119 mothers did not. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers who received counselling was five weeks versus two weeks among those who received no counselling (pbreastfeeding was interrupted to offer infants water, traditional herbal extracts or artificial baby milk. Mothers who interrupted exclusive breastfeeding claimed they had insufficient milk or that their infants had slow weight gain. Early and sustained breastfeeding support will enable mothers to exclusively breastfeed low birth weight infants for the first six months.

  17. Predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes at preschool age for children with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Hsu, Yung-Wen; Wang, Tien-Ni; Wang, Lan-Wan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome in very low birth weight children without major impairment at 5 years of age, as well as to identify the contribution of early neurodevelopmental assessment to preterm children's later developmental outcomes. The participants in this study included 126 children who were prematurely born with very low birth weight. Outcomes of the childrens' later development were measured in tests that factored cognitive function, motor performance, and adaptive behavior. The results indicated that more than 50% of full-scale intelligence and 30% of both motor performance and adaptive behavior at the age of 5 can be explained by four predictors. The four predictors include preterm children's medical complications at birth, maternal education, early motor assessments, and cognitive assessments. Adding each test score obtained in early ages provides additional information to predict children's cognitive, motor, and adaptive behavior at 5 years of age. Manifold assessments conducted in multiple time periods strengthen the predictive values of later developmental outcomes. In addition, the findings of this study indicate that very low birth weight children tend to have lower adaptive behavior at 5 years old. With regard to our findings, we believe that having adaptive function is a reflection of a child's overall integrated abilities. Further study is warranted to increase understanding of this topic, as well as to be able to predict adaptive strengths and weakness and pinpoint limiting factors that may be useful for targeting behaviors in intervention.

  18. Maternal Hemoglobin Levels during Pregnancy and their Association with Birth Weight of Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam Tabrizi, F; Barjasteh, S

    2015-01-01

    Back ground Anemia in pregnancy is associated with increased rates of maternal and perinatal mortality, premature delivery, low birth weight, and other adverse outcomes Materials and Methods A prospective study was conducted on 1405 Iranian pregnant women who delivered during 2015. Blood was collected from all the subjects to measure the hemoglobin (Hb) during 16-19 weeks, 22-24 weeks, and 34-36 weeks of gestation. According to the level of hemoglobin, it is divided into 4 groups. Group 1; Hb > 10.1 gm/100ml (control group), Group 2; Hb= 8.1-10 gm/100ml (mild anemia) Group 3; Hb= 6.5-8 gm/100ml (moderate anemia) Group 4; Hb 10 g/dl), considered as normal gave birth to heavier and normal babies (3.3 kg). The severity of anemia during three trimesters was closely associated with birth weight of newborns. Conclusion The low hemoglobin values during three trimesters of pregnancy were associated with low birth weight in Iran. The anemia can lead to intra uterine growth retardation. PMID:26985354

  19. Gluconeogenesis is Not Regulated by Either Glucose or Insulin in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Total Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chacko, Shaji K.; Ordonez, Jorge; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine potential factors regulating gluconeogenesis (GNG) in extremely low birth weight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition. Study design Seven infants (birth weight, 0.824 +/- 0.068 kg; gestational age, 25.4 +/- 0.5 weeks; postnatal age, 3.3 +/- 0.2 days) were studied for 1

  20. Altered skeletal muscle fiber composition and size precede whole-body insulin resistance in young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Madsbad, Sten

    2007-01-01

    associated with LBW. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Vastus lateralis muscle was obtained by percutaneous biopsy from 20 healthy 19-yr-old men with birth weights at 10th percentile or lower for gestational age (LBW) and 20 normal birth weight controls, matched for body fat, physical fitness, and whole-body glucose...

  1. Testing post-weaning food motivation in low and normal birth weight pigs in a runway and operant conditioning task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van L.M.; Antonides, A.; Nordquist, R.E.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) pigs face more welfare challenges than their normal birth weight (NBW) siblings. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of cognitive and learning abilities in these pigs may help to improve their welfare. Early competition in life over resources, combined with the higher n

  2. Birth Weight and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms in Childhood and Early Adolescence: A Prospective Swedish Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Christina M.; Torrang, Anna; Tuvblad, Catherine; Cnattingius, Sven; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether low birth weight increases the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and early adolescence. Method: In a population-based sample of 1,480 twin pairs born in the period 1985-1986 ascertained from the Swedish Twin Registry, birth weight was collected prospectively through the Medical…

  3. From the Cradle to the Labour Market? The Effect of Birth Weight on Adult Outcomes. CEE DP 61

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul; Salvanes, Kjell

    2006-01-01

    Lower birth weight babies have worse outcomes, both short-run in terms of one year mortality rates and longer run in terms of educational attainment and earnings. However, recent research has called into question whether birth weight itself is important or whether it simply reflects other hard-to-measure characteristics. By applying within twin…

  4. Birth weight, childhood body mass index and risk of coronary heart disease in adults: combined historical cohort studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Eriksson, Johan G

    2010-01-01

    Low birth weight and high childhood body mass index (BMI) is each associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in adult life. We studied individual and combined associations of birth weight and childhood BMI with the risk of CHD in adulthood....

  5. Testing post-weaning food motivation in low and normal birth weight pigs in a runway and operant conditioning task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, L. M.; Antonides, A.; Nordquist, R. E.; van der Staay, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) pigs face more welfare challenges than their normal birth weight (NBW) siblings. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of cognitive and learning abilities in these pigs may help to improve their welfare. Early competition in life over resources, combined with the higher need

  6. Testing post-weaning food motivation in low and normal birth weight pigs in a runway and operant conditioning task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van L.M.; Antonides, A.; Nordquist, R.E.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) pigs face more welfare challenges than their normal birth weight (NBW) siblings. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of cognitive and learning abilities in these pigs may help to improve their welfare. Early competition in life over resources, combined with the higher

  7. Testing post-weaning food motivation in low and normal birth weight pigs in a runway and operant conditioning task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, L. M.; Antonides, A.; Nordquist, R. E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/296303291; van der Staay, F. J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074262653

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) pigs face more welfare challenges than their normal birth weight (NBW) siblings. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of cognitive and learning abilities in these pigs may help to improve their welfare. Early competition in life over resources, combined with the higher need

  8. Impact of piglet birth weight, birth order, and litter size on subsequent growth performance, carcass quality, muscle composition, and eating quality of pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, A D; Aalhus, J L; Williams, N H; Patience, J F

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships among birth weight, birth order, or litter size on growth performance, carcass quality, and eating quality of the ultimate pork product. Data were collected from 98 pig litters and, with the addition of recording birth weight and birth order, farrowing and piglet management were according to normal barn practices. In the nursery and during growout, the pigs received the normal feeding program for the barn and, with the addition of individual tattooing, were marketed as per standard procedure. From 24 litters, selected because they had at least 12 pigs born alive and represented a range of birth weights, 4 piglets were chosen (for a total of 96 piglets) and sent to Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Lacombe Research Centre (Lacombe, Alberta, Canada) when they reached 120 kg for extensive meat quality and sensory analysis. Individual BW was measured at birth, on the day of weaning, 5 wk after weaning, at nursery exit, at first pull, and at the time of marketing. Litter sizes were divided into 3 categories: small (3 to 10 piglets), medium (11 to 13 piglets), and large (14 to 19 piglets). There were 4 birth-weight quartiles: 0.80 to 1.20, 1.25 to 1.45, 1.50 to 1.70, and 1.75 to 2.50 kg. Increased litter size resulted in reduced mean birth weight (P 0.05) when slaughtered at the same endpoint. Lighter birth-weight pigs had reduced BW at weaning, 5 and 7 wk postweaning, and at first pull and had increased days to market (P 0.05). In conclusion, increased litter size resulted in decreased mean birth weight but no change in days to market. Lighter birth-weight pigs took longer to reach market. Despite some differences in histological properties, birth weight had limited effects on carcass composition or final eating quality of the pork when slaughtered at the same BW and large litter size resulted in more pigs weaned and marketed compared with the smaller litters. We concluded that based on the conditions of

  9. Ramadan fasting and newborn's birth weight in pregnant Muslim women in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitri, Ary I; Yadegari, Nasim; Bakker, Julia; van Ewijk, Reyn J G; Grobbee, Diederick E; Painter, Rebecca C; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Roseboom, Tessa J

    2014-11-14

    Many Muslim women worldwide are pregnant during Ramadan and adhere to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy. In the present study, we determined whether maternal adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy has an impact on the birth weight of the newborn, and whether the effects differed according to trimester in which Ramadan fasting took place. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 130 pregnant Muslim women who attended antenatal care in Amsterdam and Zaanstad, The Netherlands. Data on adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy and demographics were self-reported by pregnant women, and the outcome of the newborn was retrieved from medical records after delivery. The results showed that half of all the women adhered to Ramadan fasting. With strict adherence to Ramadan fasting in pregnancy, the birth weight of newborns tended to be lower than that of newborns of non-fasting mothers, although this was not statistically significant ( - 198 g, 95 % CI - 447, 51, P= 0·12). Children of mothers who fasted in the first trimester of pregnancy were lighter at birth than those whose mothers had not fasted ( - 272 g, 95 % CI - 547, 3, P= 0·05). There were no differences in birth weight between children whose mothers had or had not fasted if Ramadan fasting had taken place later in pregnancy. Ramadan fasting during early pregnancy may lead to lower birth weight of newborns. These findings call for further confirmation in larger studies that should also investigate potential implications for perinatal and long-term morbidity and mortality.

  10. Using new satellite based exposure methods to study the association between pregnancy pm2.5 exposure, premature birth and birth weight in Massachusetts

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    Kloog Itai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight and premature birth have been previously linked with exposure to ambient air pollution. Most studies relied on a limited number of monitors in the region of interest, which can introduce exposure error or restrict the analysis to persons living near a monitor, which reduces sample size and generalizability and may create selection bias. Methods We evaluated the relationship between premature birth and birth weight with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5 levels during pregnancy in Massachusetts for a 9-year period (2000–2008. Building on a novel method we developed for predicting daily PM2.5 at the spatial resolution of a 10x10km grid across New-England, we estimated the average exposure during 30 and 90 days prior to birth as well as the full pregnancy period for each mother. We used linear and logistic mixed models to estimate the association between PM2.5 exposure and birth weight (among full term births and PM2.5 exposure and preterm birth adjusting for infant sex, maternal age, maternal race, mean income, maternal education level, prenatal care, gestational age, maternal smoking, percent of open space near mothers residence, average traffic density and mothers health. Results Birth weight was negatively associated with PM2.5 across all tested periods. For example, a 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy was significantly associated with a decrease of 13.80 g [95% confidence interval (CI = −21.10, -6.05] in birth weight after controlling for other factors, including traffic exposure. The odds ratio for a premature birth was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.01–1.13 for each 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy period. Conclusions The presented study suggests that exposure to PM2.5 during the last month of pregnancy contributes to risks for lower birth weight and preterm birth in

  11. Using new satellite based exposure methods to study the association between pregnancy pm2.5 exposure, premature birth and birth weight in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight and premature birth have been previously linked with exposure to ambient air pollution. Most studies relied on a limited number of monitors in the region of interest, which can introduce exposure error or restrict the analysis to persons living near a monitor, which reduces sample size and generalizability and may create selection bias. Methods We evaluated the relationship between premature birth and birth weight with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) levels during pregnancy in Massachusetts for a 9-year period (2000–2008). Building on a novel method we developed for predicting daily PM2.5 at the spatial resolution of a 10x10km grid across New-England, we estimated the average exposure during 30 and 90 days prior to birth as well as the full pregnancy period for each mother. We used linear and logistic mixed models to estimate the association between PM2.5 exposure and birth weight (among full term births) and PM2.5 exposure and preterm birth adjusting for infant sex, maternal age, maternal race, mean income, maternal education level, prenatal care, gestational age, maternal smoking, percent of open space near mothers residence, average traffic density and mothers health. Results Birth weight was negatively associated with PM2.5 across all tested periods. For example, a 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy was significantly associated with a decrease of 13.80 g [95% confidence interval (CI) = −21.10, -6.05] in birth weight after controlling for other factors, including traffic exposure. The odds ratio for a premature birth was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01–1.13) for each 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy period. Conclusions The presented study suggests that exposure to PM2.5 during the last month of pregnancy contributes to risks for lower birth weight and preterm birth in infants. PMID:22709681

  12. Using new satellite based exposure methods to study the association between pregnancy PM₂.₅ exposure, premature birth and birth weight in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloog, Itai; Melly, Steven J; Ridgway, William L; Coull, Brent A; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-06-18

    Adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight and premature birth have been previously linked with exposure to ambient air pollution. Most studies relied on a limited number of monitors in the region of interest, which can introduce exposure error or restrict the analysis to persons living near a monitor, which reduces sample size and generalizability and may create selection bias. We evaluated the relationship between premature birth and birth weight with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM₂.₅) levels during pregnancy in Massachusetts for a 9-year period (2000-2008). Building on a novel method we developed for predicting daily PM₂.₅ at the spatial resolution of a 10x10 km grid across New-England, we estimated the average exposure during 30 and 90 days prior to birth as well as the full pregnancy period for each mother. We used linear and logistic mixed models to estimate the association between PM₂.₅ exposure and birth weight (among full term births) and PM₂.₅ exposure and preterm birth adjusting for infant sex, maternal age, maternal race, mean income, maternal education level, prenatal care, gestational age, maternal smoking, percent of open space near mothers residence, average traffic density and mothers health. Birth weight was negatively associated with PM₂.₅ across all tested periods. For example, a 10 μg/m³ increase of PM₂.₅ exposure during the entire pregnancy was significantly associated with a decrease of 13.80 g [95% confidence interval (CI) = -21.10, -6.05] in birth weight after controlling for other factors, including traffic exposure. The odds ratio for a premature birth was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.13) for each 10 μg/m3 increase of PM₂.₅ exposure during the entire pregnancy period. The presented study suggests that exposure to PM₂.₅ during the last month of pregnancy contributes to risks for lower birth weight and preterm birth in infants.

  13. Preterm birth and low birth weight among in vitro fertilization singletons: a systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sarah D; Han, Zhen; Mulla, Sohail; Murphy, Kellie E; Beyene, Joseph; Ohlsson, Arne

    2009-10-01

    Our objective was to determine the risks of preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) in singletons conceived through in vitro fertilization (IVF)+/-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) compared to spontaneously conceived singletons after matching or controlling for at least maternal age. The MOOSE guidelines for meta-analysis of observational studies were followed. Medline and Embase were searched using comprehensive search strategies. Bibliographies of identified articles were reviewed. English language studies examining LBW or PTB in singletons conceived by IVF or IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection, compared with spontaneously conceived singletons, that matched or controlled for at least maternal age. Two reviewers independently assessed titles, abstracts, full articles and study quality and extracted data. Dichotomous data were meta-analyzed using relative risks (RR) as measures of effect size with a random effects model and for continuous data weighted mean difference was calculated. Seventeen studies were included with 31,032 singletons conceived through IVF (+/-ICSI) and 81,119 spontaneously conceived singletons. After matching or controlling for maternal age and often other factors, compared to spontaneously conceived singletons, IVF singletons had increased risks of our two primary outcomes, PTB (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.54, 2.21) and LBW (<2500 g, RR 1.60, 95% CI 1.29, 1.98). Singletons conceived through IVF or IVF/ICSI were at increased risk for late PTB (32-36 weeks, RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.01, 2.30), moderate PTB <32-33 weeks (RR 2.27, 95% CI 1.73, 2.97), very LBW (<1500 g, RR 2.65, 95% CI 1.83, 3.84), and intrauterine growth restriction (RR 1.45, 95% CI 1.04, 2.00), lower birth weights (-97 g, 95% CI -161 g, -33 g) and shorter mean gestations (-0.6 weeks, 95% CI -0.9 weeks, -0.4 weeks). In conclusion, IVF singletons have significantly increased risks of PTB, LBW and other adverse perinatal outcomes compared to spontaneously conceived singletons after

  14. Increased birth weight associated with regular pre-pregnancy deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation for Vietnamese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Passerini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections are significant public health issues in South-East Asia. In women of reproductive age, chronic hookworm infections cause iron deficiency anaemia, which, upon pregnancy, can lead to intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight. Low birth weight is an important risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the association between neonatal birth weight and a 4-monthly deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation program given to women of reproductive age in north-west Vietnam. The program was made available to all women of reproductive age (estimated 51,623 in two districts in Yen Bai Province for 20 months prior to commencement of birth weight data collection. Data were obtained for births at the district hospitals of the two intervention districts as well as from two control districts where women did not have access to the intervention, but had similar maternal and child health indicators and socio-economic backgrounds. The primary outcome was low birth weight. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The birth weights of 463 infants born in district hospitals in the intervention (168 and control districts (295 were recorded. Twenty-six months after the program was started, the prevalence of low birth weight was 3% in intervention districts compared to 7.4% in control districts (adjusted odds ratio 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.10 to 0.81, p = 0.017. The mean birth weight was 124 g (CI 68 - 255 g, p<0.001 greater in the intervention districts compared to control districts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings of this study suggest that providing women with regular deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplements before pregnancy is associated with a reduced prevalence of low birth weight in rural Vietnam. The impact of this health system-integrated intervention on birth outcomes should be further evaluated through a more extensive randomised-controlled trial.

  15. Neurodevelopment of very low birth weight infants in the first two years of life in a Havana tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, Gianny; Gómez, Yahima; Roca, María del Carmen; Domínguez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Improved survival rates of neonates with very low birth weight (Havana tertiary care hospital. A case-series study was conducted to assess neurodevelopment outcomes of very low birth weight infants over their first two years of life. The study population comprised 116 surviving neonates with very low birth weight (Havana, Cuba, 2006-2010. A longitudinal, multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary follow up of all infants' neurodevelopment was performed, from hospital discharge to age two years, corrected for gestational age at birth. Data on each infant's perinatal variables were collected: birth weight in grams, gestational age at birth, and 1-minute and 5-minute Apgar scores. Patients were classified as having normal neurodevelopment, mild abnormalities and moderate-to-severe abnormalities. Pearson's chi-square test was used to determine possible relationships between perinatal variables studied and neurodevelopment, with exact sampling distribution and 95% confidence level. Normal neurodevelopment was observed in 69% of very low birth weight infants, 25.9% had mild abnormalities, and 5.2% displayed moderate-to-severe abnormalities. The results demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between gestational age and neurodevelopmental outcomes; more neurodevelopmental abnormalities were found in infants born at earlier gestational age (<30 weeks). Surviving very low birth weight neonates with lower gestational age at birth face a higher risk of neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

  16. Plasma and urine riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations in enterally fed very-low-birth-weight neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, P J; Adcock, E W; DelPaggio, D; Swift, L L; Greene, H L

    1996-08-01

    Preterm infant formulas (PIFs) for very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants (birth weight, pyridoxine at levels up to five-fold greater than in term infant formula and 18-fold greater than in human milk. We evaluated plasma riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations in VLBW infants who received PIF during their first postnatal month. Eighty-eight plasma and 124 urine samples were collected for riboflavin- and pyridoxine-concentration measurements from 57 clinically healthy VLBW infants weekly during their first postnatal month. Concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. At the time of the sample, patients were receiving > or = 80% of their total calories via enteral feedings. Plasma riboflavin concentrations rose from 45.3 +/- 7.3 ng/ml at baseline (mean +/- SEM) to 173.5 +/- 20.3 ng/ml by 1 week of age and remained at 177.3-199.7 ng/ml during the following three weekly measurements; values were up to 14-fold above baseline concentration. Urine riboflavin concentration increased from 534 +/- 137 ng/ml at baseline to 3,521 +/- 423 ng/ml by 1 week of age and remained at 4,451-5,216 ng/ml during the next 3 weeks. In a similar pattern, baseline plasma (69.4 +/- 10.4 ng/ml) and urine (145 +/- 30 ng/ml) pyridoxine concentrations were significantly increased by 1 week postnatal age; they remained at 163-248 ng/ml (plasma) and 1,573-2,394 ng/ml (urine) through the first postnatal month. Plasma and urine riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations in enterally fed VLBW infants increased from baseline concentrations by 1 week of postnatal age and remained elevated for the first postnatal month. High daily intake and immature renal development are probable contributing causes of the elevated plasma riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations. We suggest that lower daily enteral administration of riboflavin and pyridoxine should maintain adequate blood concentrations and minimize potential toxicity.

  17. Impact of short-term high-fat feeding and insulin-stimulated FGF21 levels in subjects with low birth weight and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienberg, Sara Gry; Brøns, Charlotte; Nilsson, Emma

    2012-01-01

    of type 2 diabetes and 26 control (normal birth weight (NBW)) young men were subjected to 5 days of high-fat (HF) overfeeding (+50%). Basal and clamp insulin-stimulated serum FGF21 levels were examined before and after the diet, and FGF21 mRNA expression was measured in muscle and fat biopsies......OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic factor involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about the physiological role of FGF21 during a dietary challenge in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty healthy low birth weight (LBW) with known risk...

  18. Association between abdominal fat distribution, adipocytokines and metabolic alterations in obese low-birth-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Hernández, C; Klünder Klünder, M; Huang, F; Flores Armas, E M; Velázquez-López, L; Medina-Bravo, P

    2016-08-01

    In addition to obesity, low birth weight (LBW) has been proposed as another independent risk factor associated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of birth weight on abdominal fat distribution, adipocytokine levels and associated metabolic alterations in obese children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 92 children. Children were divided into three groups according to their body mass index and birth weight. Glucose and insulin (0 and 120 min), lipid profile and adipocytokines were measured. Abdominal fat distribution was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Obese LBW children had higher fasting glucose (P = 0.054) and insulin (P < 0.001), and 120 min glucose (P < 0.001) and insulin levels (P < 0.001), such as increased HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index) (P < 0.001). Obesity and LBW were associated with lower concentrations of high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin (-2.38 [IC 95% -4.27; -0.42, P = 0.018]) and higher subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (28.05 [IC 95% 0.40; 55.7, P = 0.047]) compared with NBW obese children, independent of age or sex. LBW in obese children is associated with lower HMW adiponectin, increased insulin resistance and greater SAT. © 2015 World Obesity.

  19. Periodontal infection as a risk factor for preterm low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhimadhi D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is an overwhelming body of evidence strongly suggesting that periodontal infection may have a significant negative impact on pregnancy outcome in some women. The aim of this study was to determine the association, if any, between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight. Materials and Methods : A total of 211 mothers between the ages of 17 and 35 were grouped into two categories based on the gestational age and weight of the baby as cases (< 37 weeks, < 2500 g and controls (>37 weeks, >2500 g. Relevant obstetric history and information on other primary risk factors for preterm low birth weight were obtained. Investigation reports on blood group, Rh factor and hemoglobin (Hb were also gathered. Oral assessments included: simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S, gingival bleeding index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level (CAL. Results: Cases had significantly more attachment loss and probing pocket depth, poor oral hygiene, more percentage of sites with attachment loss (Extent and more mean attachment loss per site (Severity and less Hb than controls. The number of visits for prenatal care and the percentage of sites with CAL≥2mm (Extent 2 remained significant when compared to other variables. Conclusion: The study indicated that periodontal disease is a contributing factor for preterm low birth weight.

  20. [Prenatal care and birth weight: an analysis in the context of family health basic units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Dixis Figueroa; Rocha, Ana Carolina Dantas; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão

    2013-08-01

    To characterize prenatal care and to evaluate the association of its adequacy with maternal, socioeconomic and environmental sanitation characteristics, as well as the influence of these factors on the birth weight of the children. The eligible population for the study consisted of all women who had children during 2009 and lived in the city of Queimadas at the time of data collection. Information was collected with a questionnaire applied to