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Sample records for human biomonitoring hbm

  1. HUMAN-BIOMONITORING (HBM – LEARNING BY PLAYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Ernst von Muehlendahl

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Kinderumwelt – an agency of the German pediatricians concerned with environmental medicine – has developed an e-learning module about human-biomonitoring. It allows active learning because the user can study interactively with the help of a model. The HBM module is part of www.allum.de (the internet portal „Allergy, Environment, Health” and is available in German and English. Since the module works mainly with images, it is also accessible to users with incomplete command of the English or German languages.

  2. Highlights of recent studies and future plans for the French human biomonitoring (HBM) programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréry, Nadine; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Etchevers, Anne; Fillol, Clémence

    2012-02-01

    This manuscript presents highlights of recent studies and perspectives from the French human biomonitoring (HBM) programme. Until recently, HBM studies focused on specific populations or pollutants to gain a better understanding of exposure to environmental chemicals, to help regulators reduce environmental exposure and to monitor existing policies on specific concerns. Highlights of recent multicentre biomonitoring studies with specific population or pollutant focus are given. These French HBM studies have been implemented to know: (1) the influence of living near an incinerator on serum dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels, (2) the influence of consuming river fish contaminated by PCBs on serum PCBs of fishermen, and (3) the evolution of blood lead levels in children from 1 to 6 years old since 1995. Special emphasis is placed on the use of an integrated (HBM coupled with nutrition and health studies), multipollutant approach. This approach has been initiated in France with a recent national population-based biomonitoring survey, the Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé (ENNS; French Nutrition and Health Survey). This survey will provide the first reference distribution for 42 biomarkers in the French population. The current national HBM strategy will build upon the ENNS and include a national survey of people aged between 6 and 74 years complemented for the neonatal period and childhood by the Etude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance (ELFE; French longitudinal study of children). France also contributes to the harmonization of HBM activities in Europe through participation in European HBM projects.

  3. [Substance monograph on bisphenol A (BPA) - reference and human biomonitoring (HBM) values for BPA in urine. Opinion of the Human Biomonitoring Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency (UBA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is used for the production of polycarbonates and synthetic resins. Many of the items that contain BPA, for example polycarbonate bottles and coated cans, are commodities from which BPA can migrate into food and drinks, resulting in ubiquitous exposure of the population. Numerous animal studies and in vitro tests have shown that BPA acts as an "endocrine disruptor". Because of the still incomplete understanding of the complex and contradictory effects of BPA at doses below the NOAEL, the toxicological significance of recent findings is uncertain. The German HBM Commission takes notice that the risk assessment is currently in flux and that in the EU and other countries precautionary bans on BPA have been introduced. In the light of the extensive and growing body of literature, the Commission does not see itself in a position to resolve this controversy, nor to answer the question of the relevance of observed effects of low BPA doses on human health. The Commission has derived reference values (RV95) and TDI-based HBM I values for total BPA in urine. The RV95 values are 30 μg/l for 3-5 year olds, 15 μg/l for 6-14 year olds, and 7 μg/l for 20-29 year olds. The HBM I value for children is 1.5 mg/l and 2.5 mg/l for adults, respectively. The Commission emphasizes that the HBM values will require immediate adjustment should the current TDI of 0.05 mg/kg bw/day be changed. For the practical application of HBM, the Commission recommends an assessment based on the RV95. Confirmed exceedance of the RV95 by repeat measurements should prompt a search for the possible source(s), following the ALARA principle.

  4. Human biomonitoring in civil defense; Humanbiomonitoring im Bevoelkerungsschutz

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    Mueller, Michael; Schmiechen, Katharina [Universitaetsmedizin Goettingen (Germany). Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin

    2012-07-01

    The booklet on human biomonitoring (HBM) in civil defense covers the following issues within two sections: (1) general part: definition and importance of human biomonitoring; application in civil defense; practice in a CBRN (chemical, biological, radiation, nuclear) scenario; sampling following a CBRN assignment; HBM for antidote administration; peculiarities of sampling in case of biological agents; microbiological detection procedure; human biomonitoring of radioactive metal isotopes. (2) Special part: substance profiles; list of HBM laboratories; list of poison information centers; questionnaire for exposure assessment in case of dangerous substance accidents; agreement for human biomonitoring examination.

  5. Human biomonitoring pilot study DEMOCOPHES in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwedler, Gerda; Seiwert, Margarete; Fiddicke, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    on a European Scale) and DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale) were formed, comprising 35 partners from 27 European countries. In COPHES a research scheme and guidelines were developed to exemplarily measure in a pilot study mercury in hair......Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool to assess human exposure to environmental pollutants, but comparable HBM data in Europe are lacking. In order to expedite harmonization of HBM studies on a European scale, the twin projects COPHES (Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring......, cadmium, cotinine and several phthalate metabolites in urine of 6–11 year old children and their mothers in an urban and a rural region. Seventeen European countries simultaneously conducted this cross-sectional DEMOCOPHES feasibility study. The German study population was taken in the city of Bochum...

  6. Conceptual framework for a Danish human biomonitoring program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne; Knudsen, Lisbeth; Vorkamp, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the conceptual framework for a Danish human biomonitoring (HBM) program. The EU and national science-policy interface, that is fundamental for a realization of the national and European environment and human health strategies, is discussed, including the need...

  7. [Monograph on di-2-propylheptyl phthalate (DPHP) - human biomonitoring (HBM) values for the sum of metabolites oxo-mono-propylheptyl phthalate (oxo-MPHP) and hydroxy-mono-propylheptyl phthalate (OH MPHP) in adult and child urine. Opinion of the Commission "Human Biomonitoring" of the Federal Environment Agency, Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-propylheptyl)ester (bis(2-propylheptyl)phthalate, DPHP) is used as plasticizer for the manufacture of plastics, i.e. mainly polyvinylchloride (PVC). A subchronic feeding study with rats revealed a NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) of 40 mg/(kg bw · d), which can be used as a point of departure (POD) for the derivation of an HBM-I value. Application of a total assessment factor of 200 leads to an estimation of 200 µg/kg bw as a tolerable daily intake of DPHP. On the basis of the results of metabolism studies with humans it is possible to calculate from the tolerable daily intake of DPHP to the tolerable concentration of specific metabolites in urine. Thus an HBM-I value of 1 mg/L morning urine for children and 1.5 mg/L morning urine for adults was derived for the sum of the oxidized monoesters oxo-MPHP and OH-MPHP, which were identified as robust and conclusive biomarkers for DPHP.

  8. A review of human biomonitoring data used in regulatory risk assessment under Canada's Chemicals Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidek, Angelika; Macey, Kristin; MacKinnon, Leona; Patel, Mikin; Poddalgoda, Devika; Zhang, Yi

    2016-10-21

    As a part of the Chemicals Management Plan launched in 2006, the Government of Canada is assessing and managing, where appropriate, the potential health and ecological risks associated with approximately 4300 substances under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (1999). Since that time, nearly 3000 substances have been assessed, with human biomonitoring (HBM) data playing an increasingly important role for some substances. Case studies are presented, including both inorganic and organic substances (i.e., selenium, triclosan, phthalates), which highlight the impact and overall role HBM has had in regulatory decision making in Canada for these three substances as well as criteria used in the application of HBM data in human health risk assessment. An overview of its limitations in terms of how and when HBM data can be applied, when assessing human health in a regulatory setting, is discussed as well as the role HBM data can play in priority setting.

  9. Policy recommendations and cost implications for a more sustainable framework for European human biomonitoring surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joas, Anke; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2015-01-01

    The potential of Human Biomonitoring (HBM) in exposure characterisation and risk assessment is well established in the scientific HBM community and regulatory arena by many publications. The European Environment and Health Strategy as well as the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004-2010 of th......, and EFSA. An economic frame with shared cost implications for national and European institutions is suggested benefitting from the capacity building set up by COPHES/DEMOCOPHES....

  10. Human biomonitoring system in the Czech Republic.

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    Cerná, Milena; Spĕvácková, Vĕra; Batáriová, Andrea; Smíd, Jirí; Cejchanová, Mája; Ocadlíková, Dana; Bavorová, Hana; Benes, Bohuslav; Kubínová, Růzena

    2007-05-01

    The human biomonitoring (HBM) is an integral part of Environmental Health Monitoring System in the Czech Republic since 1994. Selected biomarkers of the internal dose (heavy metals, PCBs) and cytogenetic analysis of peripheral lymphocytes as a biomarker of the exposure/effect to/of environmental genotoxic factors are systematically followed up in the blood and urine of adults (blood donors), in children aged 8 to 10 years, and in the breast milk of nursing mothers. Selected outputs documented the declining trend of blood lead levels, with the recent reference value of 80 mg/l for men, and the rising trend of blood selenium levels in adults, but not in children. PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in human milk show a long-term downward trend, but still higher than in neighbouring countries. The frequency of aberrant cells revealed a downward trend, but the increase obtained in the last monitored period needs to be explained. Further HBM activities are required to demonstrate the corresponding trends and to reduce human exposure and health risks.

  11. Societal and ethical issues in human biomonitoring – a view from science studies

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    Bauer Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human biomonitoring (HBM has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing into focus the conditions of how and what is known in environmental health science. Methods In order to analyse the effects of HBM and the shift towards biomarker research in the assessment of environmental pollution in a broader societal context, selected analytical frameworks of science studies are introduced. To develop the epistemological perspective, concepts from "biomedical platform sociology" and the notion of "epistemic cultures" and "thought styles" are applied to the research infrastructures of HBM. Further, concepts of "biocitizenship" and "civic epistemologies" are drawn upon as analytical tools to discuss the visions and promises of HBM as well as related ethical problematisations. Results In human biomonitoring, two different epistemological cultures meet; these are environmental science with for instance pollution surveys and toxicological assessments on the one hand, and analytical epidemiology investigating the association between exposure and disease in probabilistic risk estimation on the other hand. The surveillance of exposure and dose via biomarkers as envisioned in HBM is shifting the site of exposure monitoring to the human body. Establishing an HBM platform faces not only the need to consider individual decision autonomy as an ethics issue, but also larger epistemological and societal questions, such as the mode of evidence demanded in science, policy and regulation. Conclusion The shift of exposure monitoring towards the biosurveillance of human populations involves fundamental

  12. Review of the state of the art of human biomonitoring for chemical substances and its application to human exposure assessment for food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Judy; Mørck, Thit Aarøe; Polcher, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) measures the levels of substances in body fluids and tissues. Many countries have conducted HBM studies, yet little is known about its application towards chemical risk assessment, particularly in relation to food safety. Therefore a literature search was performed in se......, expanded monitoring of highly exposed and vulnerable subgroups, uptake of EFSA guidance concerning dietary intake assessment, as well as biobanking, surveillance synergies and targeted research, and an EU wide collaborative approach to support the future use of HBM in PMM....

  13. Lessons learnt on recruitment and fieldwork from a pilot European human biomonitoring survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiddicke, Ulrike; Becker, Kerstin; Schwedler, Gerda;

    2015-01-01

    Within the European Environment and Health Action Plan an initiative to establish a coherent human biomonitoring approach in Europe was started. The project COPHES (COnsortium to Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale ) developed recommendations for a harmonized conduct of a human......, in autumn/winter 2011/2012. Based on the countries' experiences of conducting the pilot study, following lessons learnt were compiled: the harmonized fieldwork instruments (basic questionnaire, urine and hair sampling) turned out to be very valuable for future HBM surveys on the European scale. A school...

  14. Translating biomonitoring data into risk management and policy implementation options for a European Network on Human Biomonitoring

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    Schoeters G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "European Environment & Health Action Plan 2004–2010" originates from the concern of the European Commission on the well-being of individuals and the general population. Through this plan, the Commission has set the objectives to improve the information chain for a better understanding of the link between sources of pollution and health effects, to better identify existing knowledge gaps, and improve policy making and communication strategies. Human biomonitoring (HBM has been included as one of the tools to achieve these objectives. As HBM directly measures the amount of a chemical substance in a person's body, taking into account often poorly understood processes such as bioaccumulation, excretion, metabolism and the integrative uptake variability through different exposure pathways, HBM data are much more relevant for risk assessment than extrapolations from chemical concentrations in soil, air, and water alone. However, HBM primarily is a stepping stone between environmental and health data, and the final aim should be an integrated and holistic systematic risk assessment paradigm where HBM serves as a pivotal point between environment and health, on the one hand leaning on environmental data to provide detailed information on the sources and pathways of pollutants that enter the human body, and on the other hand clarifying new and existing hypotheses on the relationship between environmental pollutants and the prevalence of diseases. With the large amount of data that is being gathered in the different national survey projects, and which is expected to become available in Europe in the near future through the expected European Pilot Project on HBM, a framework to optimize data interpretation from such survey projects may greatly enhance the usefulness of HBM data for risk managers and policy makers. Results This paper outlines an hierarchic approach, based on the stepwise formulation of 4 subsequent steps, that

  15. The added value of a surveillance human biomonitoring program: The case of FLEHS in Flanders (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, Hans; Colles, Ann; Morrens, Bert; Mampaey, Maja; Coertjens, Dries; Koppen, Gudrun; Schoeters, Greet; Loots, Ilse; Chovanova, Hana; Winderickx, Wim; Van Campenhout, Karen

    2016-09-20

    Since 2002, the Flemish Government decided to carry out the Flemish Environment and Health Survey (FLEHS), an extended human biomonitoring (HBM) program, which is integrated in the environmental health policy. Through the FLEHS studies, a vast amount of data such as biomarkers of exposure and effect, exposure-effect associations, time trends and geographical differences, became available to the Flemish policy makers. In order to facilitate the policy interpretation, a phased action-plan was developed collaboratively by FLEHS researchers and policy makers. In this article we look back on more than 15 years of investments of the Flemish government in HBM and reflect on how this large scaled and challenging HBM-initiative contributed to shaping the environmental health policy in Flanders. We used the FLEHS I (2002-2006) and II (2007-2011) results on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the resulting policy actions as an example to illustrate the added value of HBM for policy making. Policy measures for POPs, including source-related regulation (e.g. further optimization and tightening of existing Flemish legislation on open fires), investment in monitoring networks and communication and awareness campaigns, are presented and the added value for environmental health policy is discussed. We also reflect on how HBM can support science and innovation in the environmental monitoring context. Finally, we describe what society can gain from HBM in terms of opportunities for (1) feeding the political and societal debate, (2) stimulating community involvement and (3) empowering participants and citizens. All together, the gained insights and phased action plan showed that next to compliance with high scientific standards, results of the Flemish human biomonitoring campaign could be translated in targeted policy actions even for chemicals that have since long been regulated.

  16. Identification of exposure to environmental chemicals in children and older adults using human biomonitoring data sorted by age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Judy; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Mizrak, Seher

    2017-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) provides the tools for exposure assessment by direct measurements of biological specimens such as blood and urine. HBM can identify new chemical exposures, trends and changes in exposure, establish distribution of exposure among the general population, and identify...... burden of heavy metals and organochlorine pesticides. For perfluoroalkyl substances, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, parabens, and phthalates, both children and older adults have higher body burden depending on the specific biomarkers analyzed, and this might be due to the exposure period and/or sources...

  17. Italian network for human biomonitoring of metals: preliminary results from two regions

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    Beatrice Bocca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Italian program for human biomonitoring (HBM of chemical elements, PROgram for Biomonitoring of the Exposure (PROBE, started in 2008 with the aim to provide the knowledge about risk assessment of the Italian population following the environmental exposure to metals. The project is implemented through a HBM campaign for the production of data on 19 metals in the blood and serum of subjects living in different Italian Regions. The metals studied are: antimony, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, iridium, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, palladium, platinum, rhodium, thallium, tin, tungsten, uranium and vanadium. The first phase of the project has included the development and validation of laboratory protocols for the collection of fluids and quantification of metals. The second phase provides the HBM data expressed as the reference values (RVs for the Italian population, i.e., as the level of metals in the general population not occupationally exposed. In this paper, the experimental protocols used for the maintenance of high standards of analysis and the RVs for metals in serum of inhabitants of two Italian Regions (Calabria and Umbria are described.

  18. Concept of the Flemish human biomonitoring programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Colles, Ann; Loots, Ilse; Morrens, Bert; Keune, Hans; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Nawrot, Tim; Sioen, Isabelle; De Coster, Sam; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Nelen, Vera; Van de Mieroop, Els; Vrijens, Jan; Croes, Kim; Goeyens, Karen; Baeyens, Willy

    2012-02-01

    Since 2002 a human biomonitoring network has been established in Flanders (Belgium) as part of a programme on environmental health surveillance. The human biomonitoring network should support environmental health policy by identifying priorities for further action. The first cycle of the programme (2002-2006) confirmed the hypotheses that living in areas with different environmental pressure is reflected in different loads of environmental chemicals in the residents. In the second cycle of the programme (2007-2011) the number of environmental chemicals for which human biomonitoring data were obtained was expanded substantially. The goal of the Flemish programme is to use and translate the scientific results into policy actions. Its further orientation in the second cycle to human biomonitoring in hot spots and sensitive age groups or susceptible persons with underlying complications (e.g. persons with diabetes) are linked to these goals. Interaction with stakeholders is embedded in the programme emphasizing transparency of the choices that are made and direct communication. The Flemish human biomonitoring programme is organized centrally with major involvement of research partners from different disciplines which allows engrafting environmental health research on the programme. One of the major focuses is the question whether combinations of pollutants in the general population are associated with biological effects. The objective of this paper is to review and discuss the options that were taken in the human biomonitoring programme in order to achieve its goals.

  19. Biomonitoring of the mycotoxin Zearalenone: current state-of-the art and application to human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mally, Angela; Solfrizzo, Michele; Degen, Gisela H

    2016-06-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin with high estrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo, is a widespread food contaminant that is commonly detected in maize, wheat, barley, sorghum, rye and other grains. Human exposure estimates based on analytical data on ZEN occurrence in various food categories and food consumption data suggest that human exposure to ZEN and modified forms of ZEN may be close to or even exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) derived by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for some consumer groups. Considering the inherent uncertainties in estimating dietary intake of ZEN that may lead to an under- or overestimation of ZEN exposure and consequently human risk and current lack of data on vulnerable consumer groups, there is a clear need for more comprehensive and reliable exposure data to refine ZEN risk assessment. Human biomonitoring (HBM) is increasingly being recognized as an efficient and cost-effective way of assessing human exposure to food contaminants, including mycotoxins. Based on animal and (limited) human data on the toxicokinetics of ZEN, it appears that excretion of ZEN and its major metabolites may present suitable biomarkers of ZEN exposure. In view of the limitations of available dietary exposure data on ZEN and its modified forms, the purpose of this review is to provide an overview of recent studies utilizing HBM to monitor and assess human exposure to ZEN. Considerations are given to animal and human toxicokinetic data relevant to HBM, analytical methods, and available HBM data on urinary biomarkers of ZEN exposure in different cohorts.

  20. A review of Human Biomonitoring studies of trace elements in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Amir; Arshad, Jahanzaib

    2016-11-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) measures the concentration levels of substances or their metabolites in human body fluids and tissues. HBM of dose and biochemical effect monitoring is an effective way of measuring human exposure to chemical substances. Many countries have conducted HBM studies to develop a data base for many chemicals including trace metals of health concern for their risk assessment and risk management. However, in Pakistan, HBM program on large scale for general population does not exist at present or in the past has been reported. Various individual HBM studies have been reported on the assessment of trace elements (usually heavy metals) from Pakistan; most of them are epidemiological cross sectional surveys. In this current review we tried to develop a data base of HBM studies of trace elements namely arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc in biological fluids (blood, urine) and tissues (hair, nails) in general population of Pakistan. Studies from all available sources have been explored, discussed and presented in the form of tables and figures. The results of these studies were critically compared with large scale HBM programs of other countries, (US & European communities etc). It was observed from the present study that the most of the toxic metals in biological fluids/tissues in general population of Pakistan, have higher background values comparatively. For example the mean values of toxic metals like As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb in blood of general population were found as 2.08 μg/L, 4.24 μg/L, 60.5 μg/L, 1.95 μg/L, 198 μg/L respectively. Similarly, the urine mean values of 67.6 μg/L, 3.2 μg/L, 16.4 μg/L, 6.2 μg/L and 86.5 μg/L were observed for As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Human Biomonitoring of food contaminants in Spanish children: Design, sampling and lessons learned.

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    Pérez, Rosa; Domenech, Eva; Coscollà, Clara; Yusà, Vicent

    2017-08-12

    Human Biomonitoring (HBM) studies are highly useful for evaluating population exposure to environmental contaminants and are being carried out in increasing numbers all over the world. The use of HBM in the field of food safety, in a risk assessment context, presents a growing interest as more health-based guidance values (HBGV) in biological matrices are derived, and can be used in a complementary way to the external exposure approaches such as total diet studies or surveillance programmes. The aims of the present work are: i) to describe the methodological framework of the BIOVAL study, a cross-sectional HBM program carried out by the Health Department of the Regional Government of Valencia (Spain), that is linked to the food safety official control, and is focused on children from 6 to 11 years of age ii) to explain and discuss the pre-analytical results iii) to report and discuss on lessons learned from its design and implementation. The study population included 666 children from whom urine and hair were taken in order to analyse different biomarkers of exposure to food pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. The French human biomonitoring program: First lessons from the perinatal component and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereumeaux, Clémentine; Fillol, Clémence; Charles, Marie-Aline; Denys, Sébastien

    2016-11-17

    This paper presents a progress report of the French human biomonitoring (HBM) program established in 2010. This program has been designed to provide a national representative estimation of the French population's exposure to various environmental chemicals and to study the determinants of exposure. This program currently consists in two surveys: a perinatal component related to a selection of 4145 pregnant women who have been enrolled in the Elfe cohort (the French Longitudinal Study since Childhood) in 2011, and a general population survey related to adults aged 18-74 years and children as from 6 years (Esteban). The aim of this manuscript is to present highlights of the French human biomonitoring program with particular focus on the prioritization of biomarkers to be analyzed in the program and the selection of biomarkers applied to both program components. The Delphi method was used to establish a consensual list of prioritized biomarkers in 2011. First results of the perinatal component of the French HBM program have shown that the biomarkers prioritized were relevant, as almost all pregnant women were exposed to them. However, for some biomarkers, levels' decreases have been observed which may partly be explained by measures taken to prohibit some of these chemicals (e.g. atrazine) and by industrial processes evolutions leading to the substitution of others (e.g. bisphenol A, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate/DEHP, dialkyl phosphates). Therefore, the list of biomarkers to be monitored in the French HBM program has been implemented to include some substitutes of biomarkers prioritized in the first instance (e.g. bisphenol S, F). Finally, this method combines rigor and flexibility and helped us to build a prioritized list that will be shared and supported by many if not all actors.

  3. Applying bioethical principles to human biomonitoring

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    Harrison Myron

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bioethical principles are widely used as a normative framework in areas of human research and medical care. In recent years there has been increasing formalization of their use in public health decisions. The "traditional bioethical principles" are applied in this discussion to the important issue human biomonitoring for environmental exposures. They are: (1 Autonomy – Also known as the "respect for humans" principle, people understand their own best interests; (2 Beneficence – "do good" for people; (3 Nonmaleficence – "do no harm"; (4 Justice – fair distribution of benefits and costs (including risks to health across stakeholders. Some of the points made are: (1 There is not a single generic bioethical analysis applicable to the use of human biomonitoring data, each specific use requires a separate deliberation; (2 Using unidentified, population-based biomonitoring information for risk assessment or population surveillance raises fewer bioethical concerns than personally identified biomonitoring information such as employed in health screening; (3 Companies should proactively apply normative bioethical principles when considering the disposition of products and by-products in the environment and humans; (4 There is a need for more engagement by scholars on the bioethical issues raised by the use of biomarkers of exposure; (5 Though our scientific knowledge of biology will continue to increase, there will always be a role for methods or frameworks to resolve substantive disagreements in the meaning of this data that are matters of belief rather than knowledge.

  4. Applying bioethical principles to human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Myron

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bioethical principles are widely used as a normative framework in areas of human research and medical care. In recent years there has been increasing formalization of their use in public health decisions. The "traditional bioethical principles" are applied in this discussion to the important issue human biomonitoring for environmental exposures. They are: (1 Autonomy – Also known as the "respect for humans" principle, people understand their own best interests; (2 Beneficence – "do good" for people; (3 Nonmaleficence – "do no harm"; (4 Justice – fair distribution of benefits and costs (including risks to health across stakeholders. Some of the points made are: (1 There is not a single generic bioethical analysis applicable to the use of human biomonitoring data, each specific use requires a separate deliberation; (2 Using unidentified, population-based biomonitoring information for risk assessment or population surveillance raises fewer bioethical concerns than personally identified biomonitoring information such as employed in health screening; (3 Companies should proactively apply normative bioethical principles when considering the disposition of products and by-products in the environment and humans; (4 There is a need for more engagement by scholars on the bioethical issues raised by the use of biomarkers of exposure; (5 Though our scientific knowledge of biology will continue to increase, there will always be a role for methods or frameworks to resolve substantive disagreements in the meaning of this data that are matters of belief rather than knowledge.

  5. Human biomonitoring activities--programmes by industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Peter J

    2007-05-01

    Biomonitoring of exposure to chemicals has been practiced for over half a century on a regular basis. During the last decade, however, the focus changed from occupational to environmental settings, requiring a different interpretative framework. Under the auspices of the European Centre for Ecology and Ecotoxicology (ECETOC) a framework was developed that allows to assess the relevance of any biomonitoring result to be interpreted reliably. If biomonitoring data is to be used for the evaluation of health risks of a substance, information is required on the analytical integrity of the data, the toxicokinetics of this substance, and its health effects in relation to (low) exposures. In addition, a weight-of-evidence needs to be used. The framework also identifies a number of data-gaps, several of which are addressed through the Long-range Research Initiative (LRI), an initiative of the global chemical industries (EU, USA, and Japan), which aims to help answering important questions in the application of biomonitoring data in human health risk assessment.

  6. A pilot study on the feasibility of European harmonized human biomonitoring: Strategies towards a common approach, challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casteleyn, L., E-mail: Ludwine.Casteleyn@med.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven (Belgium); Dumez, B. [KU Leuven (Belgium); Becker, K.; Kolossa-Gehring, M. [Federal Environment Agency (UBA) (Germany); Den Hond, E.; Schoeters, G. [VITO (Belgium); Castaño, A. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Koch, H.M.; Angerer, J. [Ruhr Universität Bochum (Germany); Esteban, M. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Exley, K.; Sepai, O. [Public Health England (United Kingdom); Bloemen, L. [Environmental Health Sciences International (Netherlands); Horvat, M. [Jožef Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Knudsen, L.E. [Kobenhavns Universitet (Denmark); Joas, A.; Joas, R. [BiPRO (Germany); Biot, P. [Federal Public Service Health, Food chain safety and Environment (Belgium); Koppen, G. [VITO (Belgium); Dewolf, M-C. [Hainaut Vigilance Sanitaire (HVS) and Hygiene Publique in Hainaut (HPH) (Belgium); and others

    2015-08-15

    , linking biomonitoring surveys with health examination surveys and with research, and coping with the diverse implementations of EU regulations and international guidelines with respect to ethics and privacy. - Highlights: • A common European Human Biomonitoring (HBM) survey protocol was developed through a bottom-up approach. • A joint process for prioritization was established to select a limited set of biomarkers, some covered by experience and others for emerging substances. • The protocol was tested in a pilot study, resulting in HBM results comparable on a European scale which sustained environmental health policy. • Ethics and privacy regulations were not an obstacle for transnational harmonization.

  7. The European COPHES/DEMOCOPHES project: towards transnational comparability and reliability of human biomonitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Birgit Karin; Esteban, Marta; Koch, Holger Martin; Castano, Argelia; Koslitz, Stephan; Cañas, Ana; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Schoeters, Greet; Hond, Elly Den; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Bloemen, Louis; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Anke; Joas, Reinhard; Biot, Pierre; Aerts, Dominique; Lopez, Ana; Huetos, Olga; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Maurer-Chronakis, Katja; Kasparova, Lucie; Vrbík, Karel; Rudnai, Peter; Naray, Miklos; Guignard, Cedric; Fischer, Marc E; Ligocka, Danuta; Janasik, Beata; Reis, M Fátima; Namorado, Sónia; Pop, Cristian; Dumitrascu, Irina; Halzlova, Katarina; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Berglund, Marika; Jönsson, Bo; Lehmann, Andrea; Crettaz, Pierre; Frederiksen, Hanne; Nielsen, Flemming; McGrath, Helena; Nesbitt, Ian; De Cremer, Koen; Vanermen, Guido; Koppen, Gudrun; Wilhelm, Michael; Becker, Kerstin; Angerer, Jürgen

    2014-07-01

    COPHES/DEMOCOPHES has its origins in the European Environment and Health Action Plan of 2004 to "develop a coherent approach on human biomonitoring (HBM) in Europe". Within this twin-project it was targeted to collect specimens from 120 mother-child-pairs in each of the 17 participating European countries. These specimens were investigated for six biomarkers (mercury in hair; creatinine, cotinine, cadmium, phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A in urine). The results for mercury in hair are described in a separate paper. Each participating member state was requested to contract laboratories, for capacity building reasons ideally within its borders, carrying out the chemical analyses. To ensure comparability of analytical data a Quality Assurance Unit (QAU) was established which provided the participating laboratories with standard operating procedures (SOP) and with control material. This material was specially prepared from native, non-spiked, pooled urine samples and was tested for homogeneity and stability. Four external quality assessment exercises were carried out. Highly esteemed laboratories from all over the world served as reference laboratories. Web conferences after each external quality assessment exercise functioned as a new and effective tool to improve analytical performance, to build capacity and to educate less experienced laboratories. Of the 38 laboratories participating in the quality assurance exercises 14 laboratories qualified for cadmium, 14 for creatinine, 9 for cotinine, 7 for phthalate metabolites and 5 for bisphenol A in urine. In the last of the four external quality assessment exercises the laboratories that qualified for DEMOCOPHES performed the determinations in urine with relative standard deviations (low/high concentration) of 18.0/2.1% for cotinine, 14.8/5.1% for cadmium, 4.7/3.4% for creatinine. Relative standard deviations for the newly emerging biomarkers were higher, with values between 13.5 and 20.5% for bisphenol A and

  8. Biomonitoring human exposure to environmental carcinogenic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, P.B.; Sepai, O.; Lawrence, R.;

    1996-01-01

    A coordinated study was carried out on the development, evaluation and application of biomonitoring procedures for populations exposed to environmental genotoxic pollutants. The procedures used involved both direct measurement of DNA or protein damage (adducts) and assessment of second biological...

  9. Biomonitoring human exposure to environmental carcinogenic chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farmer, P.B.; Sepai, O.; Lawrence, R.; Autrup, H.; Nielsen, P.S.; Baan, R.A.; Delft, J.H.M. van; Steenwinkel, M.J.S.T.; et al.

    1996-01-01

    A coordinated study was carried out on the development, evaluation and application of biomonitoring procedures for populations exposed to environmental genotoxic pollutants. The procedures used involved both direct measurement of DNA or protein damage (adducts) and assessment of secondary biological

  10. Biomonitoring human exposure to environmental carcinogenic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, P.B.; Sepai, O.; Lawrence, R.

    1996-01-01

    aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges) and mutation frequency was estimated at a number of loci including the hprt gene and genes involving in cancer development. Blood and urine samples from individuals exposed to urban pollution were collected. Populations exposed through occupational or medical......A coordinated study was carried out on the development, evaluation and application of biomonitoring procedures for populations exposed to environmental genotoxic pollutants. The procedures used involved both direct measurement of DNA or protein damage (adducts) and assessment of second biological...... for detecting carcinogen-induced damage to DNA and proteins, and subsequent biological effects. These methods were validated with the occupational exposures, which showed evidence of DNA and/or protein and/or chromosome damage in workers in a coke oven plant, garage workers exposed to diesel exhaust and workers...

  11. Applicability of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickmilder Marc

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With its inclusion under Action 3 in the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004–2010 of the European Commission, human biomonitoring is currently receiving an increasing amount of attention from the scientific community as a tool to better quantify human exposure to, and health effects of, environmental stressors. Despite the policy support, however, there are still several issues that restrict the routine application of human biomonitoring data in environmental health impact assessment. One of the main issues is the obvious need to routinely collect human samples for large-scale surveys. Particularly the collection of invasive samples from susceptible populations may suffer from ethical and practical limitations. Children, pregnant women, elderly, or chronically-ill people are among those that would benefit the most from non-invasive, repeated or routine sampling. Therefore, the use of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring should be promoted as an ethically appropriate, cost-efficient and toxicologically relevant alternative for many biomarkers that are currently determined in invasively collected matrices. This review illustrates that several non-invasively collected matrices are widely used that can be an valuable addition to, or alternative for, invasively collected matrices such as peripheral blood sampling. Moreover, a well-informed choice of matrix can provide an added value for human biomonitoring, as different non-invasively collected matrices can offer opportunities to study additional aspects of exposure to and effects from environmental contaminants, such as repeated sampling, historical overview of exposure, mother-child transfer of substances, or monitoring of substances with short biological half-lives.

  12. Contact allergy and human biomonitoring--an overview with a focus on metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Roeske-Nielsen, Allan; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    towards the use of human biomonitoring. A few studies have used human biomonitoring methodology to track contact allergens together with information on patch test reactivity. Hypothetically, the internal load of reactive chemicals might modify the immune response to haptens and the propensity to sensitize...

  13. Non-invasive matrices in human biomonitoring: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Marta; Castaño, Argelia

    2009-02-01

    Humans and other living organisms are exposed to a variety of chemical pollutants that are released into the environment as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. Environmental pollutants are incorporated into the organism by different routes and can then be stored and distributed in different tissues, which leads to an internal concentration that can induce different alterations, adverse effects and/or diseases. Control measures should be taken to avoid these effects and human biomonitoring is a very useful tool that can contribute to this aim. Human biomonitoring uses different matrices to measure the target chemicals depending on the chemical, the amount of matrix necessary for the analysis and the detection limit (LOD) of the analytical technique. Blood is the ideal matrix for most chemicals due to its contact with the whole organism and its equilibrium with organs and tissues where chemicals are stored. However, it has an important disadvantage of being an invasive matrix. The development of new methodology and modern analytical techniques has allowed the use of other matrices that are less or non-invasive, such as saliva, urine, meconium, nails, hair, and semen or breast milk. The presence of a chemical in these matrices reflects an exposure, but correlations between levels in non-invasive matrices and blood must be established to ensure that these levels are related to the total body burden. The development of new biomarkers that are measurable in these matrices will improve non-invasive biomonitoring. This paper reviews studies that measure Cd, Pb, Hg, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides and phthalates in non-invasive matrices, the most used techniques for measurements and what alternative techniques are available.

  14. Analytical methods for human biomonitoring of pesticides. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Vicent; Millet, Maurice; Coscolla, Clara; Roca, Marta

    2015-09-03

    Biomonitoring of both currently-used and banned-persistent pesticides is a very useful tool for assessing human exposure to these chemicals. In this review, we present current approaches and recent advances in the analytical methods for determining the biomarkers of exposure to pesticides in the most commonly used specimens, such as blood, urine, and breast milk, and in emerging non-invasive matrices such as hair and meconium. We critically discuss the main applications for sample treatment, and the instrumental techniques currently used to determine the most relevant pesticide biomarkers. We finally look at the future trends in this field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing exposure to phthalates - the human biomonitoring approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittassek, Matthias; Koch, Holger Martin; Angerer, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Some phthalates are developmental and reproductive toxicants in animals. Exposure to phthalates is considered to be potentially harmful to human health as well. Based on a comprehensive literature research, we present an overview of the sources of human phthalate exposure and results of exposure assessments with special focus on human biomonitoring data. Among the general population, there is widespread exposure to a number of phthalates. Foodstuff is the major source of phthalate exposure, particularly for the long-chain phthalates such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. For short-chain phthalates such as di-n-butyl-phthalate, additional pathways are of relevance. In general, children are exposed to higher phthalate doses than adults. Especially, high exposures can occur through some medications or medical devices. By comparing exposure data with existing limit values, one can also assess the risks associated with exposure to phthalates. Within the general population, some individuals exceed tolerable daily intake values for one or more phthalates. In high exposure groups, (intensive medical care, medications) tolerable daily intake transgressions can be substantial. Recent findings from animal studies suggest that a cumulative risk assessment for phthalates is warranted, and a cumulative exposure assessment to phthalates via human biomonitoring is a major step into this direction.

  16. Phtalates in Lithuanian environment and needs for human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Balčius

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Controlling chemical substances and correct evaluation of danger and risk caused by them, based on scientific research are necessary in order to keep environment and public health safe. Regulation signed by European Parliament and Council to control registration, evaluation, authorization and limitation of chemical substances (REACH is the main juridical act from the new European Union‘s policy regarding regulation of chemical substances. Objective of this research was to gather and analyze data regarding phthalates used in Lithuania‘s industry, to present data on its environmental levels in surface water, sediments, sewage treatment plant effluents, and to discuss the needs for the human biomonitoring in Lithuania. The amount of diethylhexyl phthalate yielded to Lithuania‘s industry and market, incresed 65 times from 3,7t in 2003 to 240,81t in 2007. DEHP concentrations in Lithuania in wastewater exceeded regulated annual average maximum allowable concentrations up to 27 times and maximum allowable concentrations up to 13 times. High environmental concentrations of phthalates pointed out to the needs of establishment of permanent human biomonitoring in Lithuania.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.60.2.863

  17. Contact allergy and human biomonitoring--an overview with a focus on metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Roeske-Nielsen, Allan; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    towards the use of human biomonitoring. A few studies have used human biomonitoring methodology to track contact allergens together with information on patch test reactivity. Hypothetically, the internal load of reactive chemicals might modify the immune response to haptens and the propensity to sensitize....... It is concluded that all studies conducted until the present have focused on one or two routes of exposure (typically skin and oral exposure, but also skin and airway exposure), whereas no studies have investigated all routes at the same time. Also, there is a need for prospective studies, as all epidemiological...

  18. Contact allergy and human biomonitoring--an overview with a focus on metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Roeske-Nielsen, Allan; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-09-01

    Humans are widely exposed to chemicals. Today, there is an increased acknowledgement of the importance of measuring human and environmental exposures to man-made or refined chemicals. Different approaches have been applied over time, but during the past 25 years, there has been a general trend towards the use of human biomonitoring. A few studies have used human biomonitoring methodology to track contact allergens together with information on patch test reactivity. Hypothetically, the internal load of reactive chemicals might modify the immune response to haptens and the propensity to sensitize and elicit allergic contact dermatitis or develop tolerance. This review offers a general overview of human biomonitoring, including information about its typical application and methodology. Furthermore, studies that have attempted to perform simultaneous biomonitoring and patch testing are reviewed. It is concluded that all studies conducted until the present have focused on one or two routes of exposure (typically skin and oral exposure, but also skin and airway exposure), whereas no studies have investigated all routes at the same time. Also, there is a need for prospective studies, as all epidemiological studies so far have been cross-sectional.

  19. A pilot study on the feasibility of European harmonized Human Biomonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casteleyn, L; Dumez, B; Becker, K

    2015-01-01

    study showed that common approaches can be found in a context of considerable differences with respect to experience and expertize, socio-cultural background, economic situation and national priorities. It also evidenced that comparable Human Biomonitoring results can be obtained in such context...

  20. 15. APPLICATION OF THE ALKALINE COMET ASSAY IN HUMAN BIOMONITORING: INTERNAL STANDARD AND GLOBAL REPAIR PHENOTYPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@An internal standard, composed of untreated an ethy1 methane sulfonate treated K562 cells was validated for its application in comet analysis of human biomonitoring samples. Firstly, the different levels of variability which may influence the damage levels of the internal standards were assessed. Three experimenters performed the comet assay with cells coming from the same set of untreated

  1. Human biomonitoring for metals in Italian urban adolescents: data from Latium Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Anna; Amato, Antonio; Alimonti, Alessandro; Mattei, Daniela; Bocca, Beatrice

    2012-02-01

    As a part of the activities of the first Italian human biomonitoring survey (PROBE - PROgramme for Biomonitoring general population Exposure), a reference population of adolescents, aged 13-15 years, was examined for their exposure to metals. The study included 252 adolescents living in urban areas, representative of Latium Region (Italy) and blood specimens were analyzed for metals (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ir, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rh, Sb, Sn, Tl, U, V and W) by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results obtained will improve the knowledge about the body burden in adolescents and are tentative reference values for Italian young people as a basis for risk evaluation deriving from urban/environmental exposure to metals.

  2. The comet assay as a tool for human biomonitoring studies: the ComNet project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Andrew; Koppen, Gudrun; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Dusinska, Maria; Kruszewski, Marcin; Møller, Peter; Rojas, Emilio; Dhawan, Alok; Benzie, Iris; Coskun, Erdem; Moretti, Massimo; Speit, Günter; Bonassi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is widely used in human biomonitoring to measure DNA damage as a marker of exposure to genotoxic agents or to investigate genoprotective effects. Studies often involve small numbers of subjects, and design may be sub-optimal in other respects. In addition, comet assay protocols in use in different laboratories vary significantly. In spite of these difficulties, it is appropriate to carry out a pooled analysis of all available comet assay biomonitoring data, in order to establish baseline parameters of DNA damage, and to investigate associations between comet assay measurements and factors such as sex, age, smoking status, nutrition, lifestyle, etc. With this as its major objective, the ComNet project has recruited almost 100 research groups willing to share datasets. Here we provide a background to this project, discussing the history of the comet assay and practical issues that can critically affect its performance. We survey its diverse applications in biomonitoring studies, including environmental and occupational exposure to genotoxic agents, genoprotection by dietary and other factors, DNA damage associated with various diseases, and intrinsic factors that affect DNA damage levels in humans. We examine in depth the quality of data from a random selection of studies, from an epidemiological and statistical point of view.

  3. Perfluorinated compounds in the vicinity of a fire training area--human biomonitoring among 10 persons drinking water from contaminated private wells in Cologne, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Odulf; Wiesmüller, Gerhard A; Bunte, Anne; Göen, Thomas; Schmidt, Carsten K; Wilhelm, Michael; Hölzer, Jürgen

    2012-02-01

    In Cologne, Germany, increased concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) have been observed in two private wells used for drinking water purposes. Both wells are located in the vicinity of a fire training area. Use of well water as a source of drinking water was prohibited by the Public Health Department of the City of Cologne. A human biomonitoring (HBM) survey was performed among all persons, who consumed water from these private wells (N=10). PFC concentrations in water of the private wells and in blood samples were analysed by tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Repeated water analyses (seven measurements between December 2009 and November 2010) indicated a decrease of PFOS from 8.35 to 1.60 μg/l, (PFHxS: 2.36-0.15 μg/l; PFOA: 0.16-0.03 μg/l) in one private well. Although situated close together, PFC-concentrations in the other private well were significantly lower. PFOS-concentrations in blood samples of private well water consumers ranged from 4.8 to 295 μg/l (PFHxS: 12.1-205 μg/l; PFOA: 4.0-18 μg/l). Although no data on the formulation of the firefighting foams applied on the fire training area is available, firefighting foams are supposed to be the most likely source of contamination. These findings give reason to track systematically the application of PFC-containing firefighting foams in order to identify contaminations of surface, ground and drinking waters.

  4. A systematic approach for designing a HBM Pilot Study for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Kerstin; Seiwert, Margarete; Casteleyn, Ludwine

    2014-01-01

    The objective of COPHES (Consortium to Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was to develop a harmonised approach to conduct human biomonitoring on a European scale. COPHES developed a systematic approach for designing and conducting a pilot study for an EU-wide cross-sectional human b...

  5. Advancing environmental health surveillance in the US through a national human biomonitoring network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latshaw, Megan Weil; Degeberg, Ruhiyyih; Patel, Surili Sutaria; Rhodes, Blaine; King, Ewa; Chaudhuri, Sanwat; Nassif, Julianne

    2016-09-17

    The United States lacks a comprehensive, nationally-coordinated, state-based environmental health surveillance system. This lack of infrastructure leads to: • varying levels of understanding of chemical exposures at the state & local levels • often inefficient public health responses to chemical exposure emergencies (such as those that occurred in the Flint drinking water crisis, the Gold King mine spill, the Elk river spill and the Gulf Coast oil spill) • reduced ability to measure the impact of public health interventions or environmental policies • less efficient use of resources for cleaning up environmental contamination Establishing the National Biomonitoring Network serves as a step toward building a national, state-based environmental health surveillance system. The Network builds upon CDC investments in emergency preparedness and environmental public health tracking, which have created advanced chemical analysis and information sharing capabilities in the state public health systems. The short-term goal of the network is to harmonize approaches to human biomonitoring in the US, thus increasing the comparability of human biomonitoring data across states and communities. The long-term goal is to compile baseline data on exposures at the state level, similar to data found in CDC's National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. Barriers to success for this network include: available resources, effective risk communication strategies, data comparability & sharing, and political will. Anticipated benefits include high quality data on which to base public health and environmental decisions, data with which to assess the success of public health interventions, improved risk assessments for chemicals, and new ways to prioritize environmental health research.

  6. A TASER conducted electrical weapon with cardiac biomonitoring capability: Proof of concept and initial human trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopyra, Jason P; Ritter, Samuel I; Beatty, Jennifer; Johnson, James C; Kleiner, Douglas M; Winslow, James E; Gardner, Alison R; Bozeman, William P

    2016-10-01

    Despite research demonstrating the overall safety of Conducted Electrical Weapons (CEWs), commonly known by the brand name TASER(®), concerns remain regarding cardiac safety. The addition of cardiac biomonitoring capability to a CEW could prove useful and even lifesaving in the rare event of a medical crisis by detecting and analyzing cardiac rhythms during the period immediately after CEW discharge. To combine an electrocardiogram (ECG) device with a CEW to detect and store ECG signals while still allowing the CEW to perform its primary function of delivering an incapacitating electrical discharge. This work was performed in three phases. In Phase 1 standard law enforcement issue CEW cartridges were modified to demonstrate transmission of ECG signals. In Phase 2, a miniaturized ECG recorder was combined with a standard issue CEW and tested. In Phase 3, a prototype CEW with on-board cardiac biomonitoring was tested on human volunteers to assess its ability to perform its primary function of electrical incapacitation. Bench testing demonstrated that slightly modified CEW cartridge wires transmitted simulated ECG signals produced by an ECG rhythm generator and from a human volunteer. Ultimately, a modified CEW incorporating ECG monitoring successfully delivered incapacitating current to human volunteers and successfully recorded ECG signals from subcutaneous CEW probes after firing. An ECG recording device was successfully incorporated into a standard issue CEW without impeding the functioning of the device. This serves as proof-of-concept that safety measures such as cardiac biomonitoring can be incorporated into CEWs and possibly other law enforcement devices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Online integrated solution to collect data, generate information and manage events in the human biomonitoring field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, M Fátima; Tedim, João; Aguiar, Pedro; Miguel, J Pereira; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Joas, Reinhard; Van Tongelen, Birgit

    2007-05-01

    In the ambit of Work Package 1 of the ESBIO Project, an online integrated solution to collect data, to generate information, and to manage mainly information-sharing events related with human biomonitoring within Europe has been designed and is being implemented. The present paper summarises the methodological approaches used by the authors as proposers, general promoters and disseminators of this strategic concept, as well as the first outcomes and future actions to be taken, in the short and longer term, to face present and future challenges to make this innovative solution happen.

  8. Human breast biomonitoring and environmental chemicals: use of breast tissues and fluids in breast cancer etiologic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaKind, Judy S; Wilkins, Amy A; Bates, Michael N

    2007-09-01

    Extensive research indicates that the etiology of breast cancer is complex and multifactorial and may include environmental risk factors. Breast cancer etiology and exposure to xenobiotic compounds, diet, electromagnetic fields, and lifestyle have been the subject of numerous scientific inquiries, but research has yielded inconsistent results. Biomonitoring has been used to explore associations between breast cancer and levels of environmental chemicals in the breast. Research using breast tissues and fluids to cast light on the etiology of breast cancer is, for the most part, predicated on the assumption that the tissue or fluid samples either contain measurable traces of the environmental agent(s) associated with the cancer or that they retain biological changes that are biomarkers of such exposure or precursors of carcinogenic effect. In this paper, we review breast cancer etiology research utilizing breast biomonitoring. We first provide a brief synopsis of the current state of understanding of associations between exposure to environmental chemicals and breast cancer etiology. We then describe the published breast cancer research on tissues and fluids, which have been used for biomonitoring, specifically human milk and its components, malignant and benign breast tissue, nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) and breast cyst fluid. We conclude with a discussion on recommendations for biomonitoring of breast tissues and fluids in future breast cancer etiology research. Both human milk and NAF fluids, and the cells contained therein, hold promise for future biomonitoring research into breast cancer etiology, but must be conducted with carefully delineated hypotheses and a scientifically supportable epidemiological approach.

  9. Human Biomonitoring of Engineered Nanoparticles: An Appraisal of Critical Issues and Potential Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bergamaschi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the applicability of biological monitoring to the assessment of exposure and possible effects deriving from exposure to engineered nanomaterials (NM. After establishing a conceptual framework in which human biomonitoring should be placed, the paper reviews the critical issues related to the unusual properties of NM affecting the implementation of biomonitoring activities for this new class of chemicals. Relying on the recent advances in the toxicogenomic, it is possible to assess whether specific biological pathways are activated or perturbed by specific NM. However, to evaluate if quantitative changes in these biomarkers can be used as indicators or predictors for toxicity in humans, validation on well characterised groups of exposed people is needed. At present, it appears more pragmatic to evolve NM-associated biomarker identification considering relevant biological responses found in environmental and occupational studies and assessing the early events associated with exposure to these NM. The battery of biochemical markers includes soluble molecules, antioxidant capacity, peroxidated lipids and carbonyl groups in serum proteins as a biomarkers of systemic inflammation and vascular adhesion molecules to assess endothelial activation/damage. Abnormalities in exhaled breath condensate chemistry reflecting intrinsic changes in the airway lining fluid and lung inflammation seem promising tools suitable for BM studies and are broadly discussed.

  10. First Steps toward Harmonized Human Biomonitoring in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Hond, Elly; Govarts, Eva; Willems, Hanny;

    2015-01-01

    concentrations showed a wide variability in the European population. However, levels in children and mothers were highly correlated. Most biomarker concentrations were below the health-based guidance values. CONCLUSIONS: We have taken the first steps to assess personal chemical exposures in Europe as a whole....... Key success factors were the harmonized protocol development, intensive training and capacity building for field work, chemical analysis and communication, as well as stringent quality control programs for chemical and data analysis. Our project demonstrates the feasibility of a Europe-wide human...

  11. Pilot study testing a European human biomonitoring framework for biomarkers of chemical exposure in children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exley, Karen; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre;

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to a number of environmental chemicals in UK mothers and children has been assessed as part of the European biomonitoring pilot study, Demonstration of a Study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES). For the European-funded project, 17 countries...... tested the biomonitoring guidelines and protocols developed by COPHES. The results from the pilot study in the UK are presented; 21 school children aged 6-11 years old and their mothers provided hair samples to measure mercury and urine samples, to measure cadmium, cotinine and several phthalate...... on environment, health and lifestyle. Mercury in hair was higher in children who reported frequent consumption of fish (geometric mean 0.35 μg/g) compared to those that ate fish less frequently (0.13 μg/g, p = 0.002). Cadmium accumulates with age as demonstrated by higher levels of urinary cadmium in the mothers...

  12. Research on ethics in two large Human Biomonitoring projects ECNIS and NewGeneris: a bottom up approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casteleyn Ludwine

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Assessment of ethical aspects and authorization by ethics committees have become a major constraint for health research including human subjects. Ethical reference values often are extrapolated from clinical settings, where emphasis lies on decisional autonomy and protection of individual's privacy. The question rises if this set of values used in clinical research can be considered as relevant references for HBM research, which is at the basis of public health surveillance. Current and future research activities using human biomarkers are facing new challenges and expectancies on sensitive socio-ethical issues. Reflection is needed on the necessity to balance individual rights against public interest. In addition, many HBM research programs require international collaboration. Domestic legislation is not always easily applicable in international projects. Also, there seem to be considerable inconsistencies in ethical assessments of similar research activities between different countries and even within one country. All this is causing delay and putting the researcher in situations in which it is unclear how to act in accordance with necessary legal requirements. Therefore, analysis of ethical practices and their consequences for HBM research is needed. This analysis will be performed by a bottom-up approach, based on a methodology for comparative analysis of determinants in ethical reasoning, allowing taking into account different social, cultural, political and historical traditions, in view of safeguarding common EU values. Based on information collected in real life complexity, paradigm cases and virtual case scenarios will be developed and discussed with relevant stakeholders to openly discuss possible obstacles and to identify options for improvement in regulation. The material collected will allow developing an ethical framework which may constitute the basis for a more harmonized and consistent socio-ethical and legal approach

  13. Communication in a Human biomonitoring study: Focus group work, public engagement and lessons learnt in 17 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Karen; Cano, Noemi; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Horvat, Milena; Bloemen, Louis; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Dewolf, Marie-Christine; Van de Mieroop, Els; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Cerna, Milena; Krskova, Andrea; Becker, Kerstin; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Seiwert, Margarete; Mørck, Thit A; Rudnai, Peter; Kozepesy, Szilvia; Cullen, Elizabeth; Kellegher, Anne; Gutleb, Arno C; Fischer, Marc E; Ligocka, Danuta; Kamińska, Joanna; Namorado, Sónia; Reis, M Fátima; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Gurzau, Anca E; Halzlova, Katarina; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Huetos, Olga; López, Ana; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Sepai, Ovnair

    2015-08-01

    A communication strategy was developed by The Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (COPHES), as part of its objectives to develop a framework and protocols to enable the collection of comparable human biomonitoring data throughout Europe. The framework and protocols were tested in the pilot study DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale). The aims of the communication strategy were to raise awareness of human biomonitoring, encourage participation in the study and to communicate the study results and their public health significance. It identified the audiences and key messages, documented the procedure for dissemination of results and was updated as the project progressed. A communication plan listed the tools and materials such as press releases, flyers, recruitment letters and information leaflets required for each audience with a time frame for releasing them. Public insight research was used to evaluate the recruitment material, and the feedback was used to improve the documents. Dissemination of results was coordinated in a step by step approach by the participating countries within DEMOCOPHES, taking into account specific national messages according to the needs of each country. Participants received individual results, unless they refused to be informed, along with guidance on what the results meant. The aggregate results and policy recommendations were then communicated to the general public and stakeholders, followed by dissemination at European level. Several lessons were learnt that may assist other future human biomonitoring studies. Recruitment took longer than anticipated and so social scientists, to help with community engagement, should be part of the research team from the start. As a European study, involving multiple countries, additional considerations were needed for the numerous organisations, different languages, cultures, policies and priorities

  14. Risk communication and human biomonitoring: which practical lessons from the Belgian experience are of use for the EU perspective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loots Ilse

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to investigate and monitor environmental health in Flanders (the Dutch speaking part of Belgium, the Flemish government funded the Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health, which started a human biomonitoring campaign in 2001. In addition to environmental health experts measuring environmental pollutants and health effects in human beings, social scientific experts at the Centre focus on risk communication associated with the human biomonitoring campaign. Methods In the literature about risk communication an evolution can be traced from traditional, one-way communication, restricted to the dissemination of information from experts to the public, to more modern, two-way risk communication, with a focus on participation and cooperation between scientists, policy-makers and the public. Within the Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health this discourse was first translated into some general principles and guidelines for external communication, at a 'Ten Commandments level'. These principles needed to be incorporated in the day-to-day practice of human biomonitoring research. Results The social scientific experts at the Centre developed a combined risk communication strategy. On the one hand the strategy consists of traditional risk communication for external communication purposes, for example information meetings and digital newsletters. On the other hand it consists of a step by step approach of incorporating more modern risk communication, for example a risk perception questionnaire, dialogical experiments for involving local stakeholders, and an action-plan for interpreting results for policy making. Conclusion With a parallel strategy of traditional and modern communication, of external and internal reflection, and through different social scientific projects, the Flemish Centre of Expertise of Environment and Health incorporates risk communication in the day-to-day practice of human biomonitoring

  15. Human hair as a potential biomonitor for assessing persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Chai, Zhifang; Sun, Huibin

    2007-07-01

    To explore human biomonitor of persistent organic pollutants (POP) for public health risk assessment, extractable organohalogens (EOX), extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX) and some selected organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in children hair from urban and rural regions of Beijing, China, were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The results indicated that about 96% of the total halogens existed as water-soluble polar compounds; about 25 to 50% of EOX were sulfuric acid-resistant EPOX; organochlorines were the major fraction of the organohalogens; and 88 to 99.6% of extractable persistent organochlorines (EPOCl) cannot be attributed to the selected OCP and PCB. HCH, DDT and 2-5CB were the major contributors to hair OCP and PCB. Further, gamma-HCH, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and PCB-52 were the predominant individuals of HCH, DDT and 2-5CB, respectively. The concentration distributions of EPOCl, HCH, DDT and PCB in children hair were generally in the order of urban>rural and girls>boys, except for PCB congeners with random distributions between genders. Pearson positive correlations between hair lipid and the detected parameters of hair gamma-HCH (phair alpha/gamma and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT suggested that fresh input of HCH and DDT might exist in Beijing area. Hair can reflect body's integral exposure to POP from endogenous and exogenous sources, which, thus, can be used as a potential biomonitor in assessing POP exposure for public health purposes.

  16. Biomonitoring studies should be used by regulatory agencies to assess human exposure levels and safety of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Laura N; Chahoud, Ibrahim; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Paumgartten, Francisco J R; Schoenfelder, Gilbert

    2010-08-01

    Within the past 3 years, four major evaluations of bisphenol A (BPA) safety have been undertaken. However, these assessments have arrived at quite different conclusions regarding the safety of BPA at current human exposure levels. We compared the reasons provided by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) BPA risk assessment panel for their conclusion that human exposures are negligible with the conclusions reached by the other panels, with all panels having the same body of literature at their disposal. The EFSA panel dismissed > or = 80 biomonitoring studies that documented significant levels of BPA exposure in humans, including internal exposures to unconjugated BPA, on the basis that they did not match a model of BPA metabolism. Instead, the EFSA panel relied on two toxicokinetic studies-conducted in 15 adults administered BPA-to draw conclusions about exposure levels in the population, including exposures of neonates. As with all exposure assessments, models should be developed to explain actual data that are collected. In the case of BPA, samples from a large number of human subjects clearly indicate that humans are internally exposed to unconjugated BPA. The dismissal of these biomonitoring studies simply because their results do not conform to a model violates scientific principles. Expert panels should evaluate all data-including human biomonitoring studies-to make informed risk assessments.

  17. A buccal cell model comet assay: Development and evaluation for human biomonitoring and nutritional studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeto, Y.T. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); School of Health Sciences, Macao Polytechnic Institute, Macao (China); Benzie, I.F.F. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: iris.benzie@inet.polyu.edu.hk; Collins, A.R. [Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Choi, S.W. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Cheng, C.Y. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yow, C.M.N. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tse, M.M.Y. [School of Nursing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-10-15

    The comet assay is a widely used biomonitoring tool for DNA damage. The most commonly used cells in human studies are lymphocytes. There is an urgent need to find an alternative target human cell that can be collected from normal subjects with minimal invasion. There are some reports of buccal cells, collected easily from the inside of the mouth, being used in studies of DNA damage and repair, and these were of interest. However, our preliminary studies following the published protocol showed that buccal cells sustained massive damage and disintegrated at the high pH [O. Ostling, K.J. Johanson. Microelectrophoretic study of radiation-induced DNA damages in individual mammalian cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 123 (1984) 291-298] used, but that at lower pH were extremely resistant to lysis, an essential step in the comet assay. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop a protocol than enabled buccal cell lysis and DNA damage testing in the comet assay, and to use the model to evaluate the potential use of the buccal cell model in human biomonitoring and nutritional study. Specifically, we aimed to investigate intra- and inter-individual differences in buccal cell DNA damage (as strand breaks), the effect of in vitro exposure to both a standard oxidant challenge and antioxidant treatment, as well as in situ exposure to an antioxidant-rich beverage and supplementation-related effects using a carotenoid-rich food. Successful lysis was achieved using 0.25% trypsin for 30 min followed by proteinase K (1 mg/ml) treatment for 60 min. When this procedure was performed on cells pre-embedded in agarose on a microscope slide, followed by electrophoresis (in 0.01 M NaOH, 1 mM EDTA, pH 9.1, 18 min at 12 V), a satisfactory comet image was obtained, though inter-individual variation was quite wide. Pre-lysis exposure of cells to a standard oxidant challenge (induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) increased DNA strand breaks in a dose related manner, and incubation of cells in

  18. [Human biomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls in 130 exposed elementary school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neisel, F; von Manikowsky, S; Schümann, M; Feindt, W; Hoppe, H W; Melchiors, U

    1999-03-01

    In the classroom air on a primary school polychlorinated biphenyls were present in a wide range extending to 10.220 ng/cbm; in a side room even 19.550 ng/cbm were measured. The school was closed down, a flame retardant paint was detected to be the main source of this contamination. 130 differently exposed persons gave blood specimens for measurement of PCB concentrations. Compared with a comparative reference collective of equal age reported by the analysing laboratory, the PCB blood concentrations of 92 actual pupils were even lower. A comparison with five near-representative child collectives of South Germany did not show any obvious difference. The reference values of the German Human Biomonitoring Commission were exceeded by 4 of 92 pupils for PCB 138, by 6 pupils for PCB 153 and by 6 pupils for PCB 180. In a group of 9 teachers and 1 cleaning person the median values of reference collectives of equal age reported by the analysing laboratory were exceeded by 8 persons for PCB 138, 7 persons for PCB 153 and 8 persons for PCB 180. The 95. Percentiles of these reference collectives and the reference values of the German Human Biomonitoring Commission were not exceeded. In bivariate and multiple regression analyses the data of 92 actual pupils showed positive associations between blood levels of PCB and age as well as nursing period, a negative association between PCB blood concentrations and body-mass index and a weak influence by gender (boys had lower blood concentrations). In addition, the results of multiple regression analyses showed (with the exception of the analyses of PCB 180 without controlling for gender) a significant influence of PCB concentrations in indoor air on PCB blood concentrations. This association could not be detected in bivariate analyses, and in comparison to the mentioned main influence variables it was obviously weaker. But basing on the results of the multiple regression analyses one can calculate an increase of PCB blood concentration

  19. Biomonitoring of human exposures to chlorinated derivatives and structural analogs of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Arora, Manish; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2015-12-01

    The high reactivity of bisphenol A (BPA) with disinfectant chlorine is evident in the instantaneous formation of chlorinated BPA derivatives (ClxBPA) in various environmental media that show increased estrogen-activity when compared with that of BPA. The documented health risks associated with BPA exposures have led to the gradual market entry of BPA structural analogs, such as bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol B (BPB), etc. A suite of exposure sources to ClxBPA and BPA analogs in the domestic environment is anticipated to drive the nature and range of halogenated BPA derivatives that can form when residual BPA comes in contact with disinfectant in tap water and/or consumer products. The primary objective of this review was to survey all available studies reporting biomonitoring protocols of ClxBPA and structural BPA analogs (BPS, BPF, BPB, etc.) in human matrices. Focus was paid on describing the analytical methodologies practiced for the analysis of ClxBPA and BPA analogs using hyphenated chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques, because current methodologies for human matrices are complex. During the last decade, an increasing number of ecotoxicological, cell-culture and animal-based and human studies dealing with ClxBPA exposure sources and routes of exposure, metabolism and toxicity have been published. Up to date findings indicated the association of ClxBPA with metabolic conditions, such as obesity, lipid accumulation, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, particularly in in-vitro and in-vivo studies. We critically discuss the limitations, research needs and future opportunities linked with the inclusion of ClxBPA and BPA analogs into exposure assessment protocols of relevant epidemiological studies.

  20. The use of the alkaline comet assay with lymphocytes in human biomonitoring studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Floriane; Kassie, Fekadu; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Boedecker, Rolf Hasso; Mann, Marion; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2004-05-01

    We reviewed the data of 45 alkaline comet assay studies with lymphocytes published during the last three years with the objective of monitoring human exposure to genotoxic agents as a result of occupation, drug treatment, diseases or environmental pollution. The strengths of the studies were that: (i) a lot of data could be obtained within a relatively short period of time in a cost-effective manner, (ii) lymphocytes could be easily collected in a non-invasive way and proved to be good surrogate cells in that they picked up effects caused by agents with different cancer target organs and (iii) a remarkable concordance between comet assay and cytogenetic assay data was proved. However, our analysis revealed some shortcomings of the studies such as: (i) the inclusion of low number of study participants and bias in the number and gender of subjects between control and exposed groups, (ii) lack of qualitative and quantitative exposure data, (iii) lack of consideration of differences in physical activity and diet between control and exposed groups, (iv) difficulty in comparison of the studies due to lack of uniformity in the comet assay procedures such as duration of alkali unwinding and electrophoresis, slide scoring method and the metrics used to assess the extent of DNA damage and (v) controversy in the sensitivity of comet assay since it picked up DNA damage caused by agents such as wood dust, pesticides and hormone preparations which were found to be weak genotoxins or non-genotoxins in other tests, but gave inconsistent results with known mutagens/carcinogens such as tobacco smoke. We feel that for the alkaline comet assay to be an important tool in human biomonitoring studies, serious consideration should be given to the flaws in the design and performance of the assay.

  1. Animal-free toxicology: the use of human tissue to replace the use of animals - examples from human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-12-01

    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data.

  2. Biomonitoring of urinary metabolites of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) following human consumption of cooked chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2008-01-01

    Human risk assessment of exposure to 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) through the diet may be improved by conducting biomonitoring studies comparing metabolism in humans and rodents. Eleven volunteers ingested a meal of cooked chicken containing 4-OH-PhIP and PhIP in amounts...

  3. Mercury, lead and cadmium levels in the urine of 170 Spanish adults: a pilot human biomonitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, Argelia; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jinny E; Cañas, Ana; Esteban, Marta; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez-García, Ana C; Arribas, Misericordia; Díaz, Gema; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2012-02-01

    Human biomonitoring is a well-recognized tool for estimating the exposure of human populations to environmental pollutants. However, information regarding biomarker concentrations of many environmental chemicals in the general population is limited for many countries. The Spanish Environment Ministry has recently funded a human biomonitoring study on the Spanish general population. This study aims to determine reference levels for several biomarkers, especially heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and cotinine, in urine, whole blood, serum and hair, and will involve 2000 volunteers throughout Spain. Samples were taken during 2009-2010 and analyses are currently underway. The results presented herein were obtained in a pilot study carried out in the Madrid region. The study group comprised 170 volunteers, of which 79% were female and 21% male (age: 23-66 years). All participants were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding diet and living habits and provides a morning urine sample. The geometric means for total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were 1.23, 1.11 and 0.25 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Levels of Pb and Hg were higher than those reported for the general population in the USA and Germany, whereas Cd was in the same range (CDC, 2009; Becker et al., 2003). The values reported here are similar to those reported in other Spanish studies.

  4. Assessment of human health risk related to metals by the use of biomonitors in the province of Cordoba, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, Hebe A. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal, IMBIV/CONICET-UNC, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria, X5016GCA Cordoba (Argentina)], E-mail: hcarreras@com.uncor.edu; Wannaz, Eduardo D.; Pignata, Maria L. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal, IMBIV/CONICET-UNC, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria, X5016GCA Cordoba (Argentina)

    2009-01-15

    The evaluation of metal contents in the environment is of vital importance for the assessment of human exposure. Thus the species Usnea amblyoclada, Ramalina celastri and Tillandsia capillaris were tested as bioaccumulators of transition metals in the urban area of Cordoba city, Argentina. The level of metals on biomonitors was compared to that of total deposition samples. All three species discriminated zones within the urban area of Cordoba city with different pollution levels; they revealed high levels of Zn in the downtown area and confirmed high levels of some transition metals in an industrial area. The correlation analysis revealed that the lichen R. celastri had the highest correlation rates with total deposition samples, suggesting it is a valuable biomonitor of atmospheric pollution. A significant relationship was also observed between respiratory diseases in children and the contents of metal accumulated in R. celastri and T. capillaris, indicating their usefulness when assessing human exposure to metals. - Metal accumulation in epiphytes is correlated with human respiratory diseases.

  5. Reconstruction of Exposure to m-Xylene from Human Biomonitoring Data Using PBPK Modelling, Bayesian Inference, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin McNally

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous biomonitoring programs, both recent and ongoing, to evaluate environmental exposure of humans to chemicals. Due to the lack of exposure and kinetic data, the correlation of biomarker levels with exposure concentrations leads to difficulty in utilizing biomonitoring data for biological guidance values. Exposure reconstruction or reverse dosimetry is the retrospective interpretation of external exposure consistent with biomonitoring data. We investigated the integration of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling, global sensitivity analysis, Bayesian inference, and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation to obtain a population estimate of inhalation exposure to m-xylene. We used exhaled breath and venous blood m-xylene and urinary 3-methylhippuric acid measurements from a controlled human volunteer study in order to evaluate the ability of our computational framework to predict known inhalation exposures. We also investigated the importance of model structure and dimensionality with respect to its ability to reconstruct exposure.

  6. Reconstruction of Exposure to m-Xylene from Human Biomonitoring Data Using PBPK Modelling, Bayesian Inference, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Kevin; Cotton, Richard; Cocker, John; Jones, Kate; Bartels, Mike; Rick, David; Price, Paul; Loizou, George

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous biomonitoring programs, both recent and ongoing, to evaluate environmental exposure of humans to chemicals. Due to the lack of exposure and kinetic data, the correlation of biomarker levels with exposure concentrations leads to difficulty in utilizing biomonitoring data for biological guidance values. Exposure reconstruction or reverse dosimetry is the retrospective interpretation of external exposure consistent with biomonitoring data. We investigated the integration of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling, global sensitivity analysis, Bayesian inference, and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation to obtain a population estimate of inhalation exposure to m-xylene. We used exhaled breath and venous blood m-xylene and urinary 3-methylhippuric acid measurements from a controlled human volunteer study in order to evaluate the ability of our computational framework to predict known inhalation exposures. We also investigated the importance of model structure and dimensionality with respect to its ability to reconstruct exposure.

  7. Human biological monitoring as demonstrated by means of a heavy-metal polluted abandoned site; Human-Biomonitoring am Beispiel einer Schwermetallaltlast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elison, M.; Schulte-Hostede, S. [GSF-Forschungzentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    Models for estimating exposure permit to make a rough assessment of the risk emanating from a contaminated area. But it must not be overlooked that such models are fraught with considerable weaknesses.- In studies such as the one described, concerned citizens should additionally be examined in order to obtain supplementary information and to aid interpretation. Such human biological monitoring makes sense only if the persons in question actually live in the contaminated areas, so that a higher exposure may reasonably be expected. Human biological monitoring is to help assess the inner exposure of human beings to pollutants emanating from the contaminated area. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe von Modellen zur Expositionsabschaetzung ist man nach den oben dargestellten Vorgehensweisen in der Lage, eine orientierende Bewertung des von einer kontaminierten Flaeche ausgehenden Risikos vorzunehmen. Dabei ist jedoch zu beruecksichtigen, dass solche Modelle mit erheblichen Schwachstellen belastet sind. Zur Ergaenzung und Interpretationshilfe sind bei Untersuchungen wie der hier vorgestellten auch Untersuchungen an den betroffenen Buergen vorzunehmen. Dieses Human-Biomonitoring hat nur dort einen Sinn, wo sichergestellt ist, dass die Menschen dort tatsaechlich auf belasteten Flaechen leben und damit eine erhoehte Belastung der Menschen anzunehmen ist. Das Human-Biomonitoring soll eine Abschaetzung der inneren Belastung des Menschen mit Schadstoffen, die von der kontaminierten Flaeche herruehren, ermoeglichen. (orig./SR)

  8. [DEMOCOPHES SPAIN AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO THE HARMONIZATION OF EUROPEAN HUMAN BIOMONITORING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban López, Marta; López Martín, Estrella; Rodríguez García, Carolina; Posada De la Paz, Manuel; Castaño Calvo, Argelia

    2015-07-01

    Objetivo: contribuir a la armonización europea de la biovigilancia en humanos (proyecto DEMOCOPHES) demostrando la utilidad de los estudios de biovigilancia para valorar la influencia de la dieta y los estilos de vida como vía de exposición a contaminantes ambientales. Métodos: se adaptó el protocolo europeo a las necesidades nacionales, siguiendo los controles de calidad definidos en él y sin comprometer la obtención de datos comparables entre los países participantes. Resultados: la adaptación nacional del protocolo europeo no presentó grandes dificultades y, salvo mínimas modificaciones, se respetó el diseño original del estudio. Participaron 134 parejas madre-hijo, seleccionados en un colegio de Añover de Tajo (Toledo) y tres colegios de Madrid. Los voluntarios donaron una muestra de pelo y de orina y contestaron a las preguntas del cuestionario epidemiológico. Se observaron diferencias significativas en la participación de los voluntarios en las dos localizaciones de muestreo. Discusión: la estandarización de todas las etapas de un estudio de biovigilancia en humanos es esencial para su desarrollo armonizado a escala internacional. Los resultados obtenidos han contribuido a la obtención de datos sobre exposición ambiental, por primera vez comparables en 17 países europeos, y han permitido observar diferencias relacionadas con la dieta y los hábitos de vida. Las experiencias y el material de trabajo desarrollado para el estudio piloto serán aplicables al diseño e implementación de futuros estudios de HBM.

  9. Biomonitoring of benzene and toluene in human blood by headspace-solid-phase microextraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimming, E.; Levsen, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Aerosolforschung (ITA), Hannover (Germany); Koehme, C.; Schuermann, W. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Abt. fuer Pneumologie

    1999-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for the determination of benzene and toluene in whole blood by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) is described. Using SPME fibres coated with 65 {mu}m carboxene/polydimethylsiloxane, limits of quantification (LOQ) of 5 ng/L for benzene and 25 ng/L for toluene are achieved. As a result of its large linear range (i.e. 5-5000 ng/L for benzene) the method is suitable for biomonitoring of both occupationally and environmentally exposed people. The reproducibility of the determination of benzene is {<=} 8%. An interlaboratory comparison demonstrated that the method proposed here compares favorably with existing methods (dynamic headspace, purge and trap). (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 10 refs.

  10. Possible additional exposure to dioxin and dioxin-like compounds from waste incineration. Biomonitoring using human milk and animal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, C.; M. Fatima Reis; J. Pereira Miguel [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Murk, A. [Wageningen Univ., Dept. of Toxicology (Netherlands)

    2004-09-15

    In the ambit of an Environmental Health Survey Program relative to a MSW facility, which has been operating near to Lisbon since 1999 a biomonitoring study using human breast milk has been performed. Specific aims of this study were: (1) determine whether living in the vicinity of the incinerator increases dioxin maternal body burden and accordingly perinatal (intra-uterus and lactacional) exposure; (2) to investigate the possibility of increased human exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds via locally produced food items from animal origin. Therefore, levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds have been determined in human milk samples collected in the vicinity of the incinerator and in a control area, for comparison. From the same areas, cow and sheep milk and eggs from free-range chickens have also been collected to get an indication of possible local additional exposure to air-borne dioxins via the food chain. Analyses of TCDD-equivalents (TEQs) were mainly performed with a reporter gene assay for dioxin-like activity, the DR-CALUX bioassay (Dioxin Responsive Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression).To determine congeners profile, some human milk samples have also been analysed for PCDD/Fs and relevant dioxin-like PCBs, by using high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Both the Ethics Committees of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, and of the Maternity Dr. Alfredo da Costa have approved the study protocol.

  11. [The waterpipe (shisha) - indoor air quality, human biomonitoring, and health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Hermann; Schober, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Waterpipe (WP) smoking, also known as shisha or hookah smoking, is growing in western countries as an alternative to cigarette smoking, especially in younger age groups. A majority of smokers mistakenly believe that shisha smoking is a social entertainment practice that leads to more social behavior and relaxation and that this type of smoking is safe or less harmful and less addictive than cigarette smoking.In reality, WP smokers are exposed to hundreds of toxic substances that include well-known carcinogens. High exposures to carbon monoxide and nicotine are major health threats. There is growing evidence that WP smoke causes adverse effects on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems and there are indications that WP smoke is associated with cancer. Persons exposed to secondhand WP smoke are also at risk.More research on the health effects of WP is urgently needed and more preventive measures for public health protection. Moreover, public WP facilities should be implemented under specific nonsmoker protection laws and consequently controlled.This review summarizes recent data on exposure to WP smoking in indoor environments, the results of biomonitoring data, and the known health effects based on currently available toxicological or epidemiological studies.

  12. Exposure assessment using human biomonitoring for glyphosate and fluroxypyr users in amenity horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Alison; Jones, Kate; Galea, Karen S; Basinas, Ioannis; Kenny, Laura; McGowan, Padraic; Coggins, Marie

    2017-08-01

    Pesticides and their potential adverse health effects are of great concern and there is a dearth of knowledge regarding occupational exposure to pesticides among amenity horticulturalists. This study aims to measure occupational exposures to amenity horticuturalists using pesticides containing the active ingredients, glyphosate and fluroxypyr by urinary biomonitoring. A total of 40 work tasks involving glyphosate and fluroxypyr were surveyed over the period of June - October 2015. Workers used a variety of pesticide application methods; manual knapsack sprayers, controlled droplet applicators, pressurised lance applicators and boom sprayers. Pesticide concentrations were measured in urine samples collected pre and post work tasks using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Differences in pesticide urinary concentrations pre and post work task, and across applications methods were analysed using paired t-tests and linear regression. Pesticide urinary concentrations were higher than those reported for environmental exposures and comparable to those reported in some agricultural studies. Log-transformed pesticide concentrations were statistically significantly higher in post-work samples compared to those in pre-work samples (paired t-test, p<0.001; for both μgL(-1) and μmol/mol creatinine). Urinary pesticide concentrations in post-work samples had a geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) of 0.66 (1.11) μgL(-1) for glyphosate and 0.29 (1.69) μgL(-1) for fluroxypyr. Linear regression revealed a statistically significant positive association to exist between the time-interval between samples and the log-transformed adjusted (i.e. post- minus pre-task) pesticide urinary concentrations (β=0.0039; p<0.0001). Amenity horticulturists can be exposed to pesticides during tasks involving these products. Further research is required to evaluate routes of exposure among this occupational group. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Gmb

  13. ESD full chip simulation: HBM and CDM requirements and simulation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Franell

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Verification of ESD safety on full chip level is a major challenge for IC design. Especially phenomena with their origin in the overall product setup are posing a hurdle on the way to ESD safe products. For stress according to the Charged Device Model (CDM, a stumbling stone for a simulation based analysis is the complex current distribution among a huge number of internal nodes leading to hardly predictable voltage drops inside the circuits.

    This paper describes an methodology for Human Body Model (HBM simulations with an improved ESD-failure coverage and a novel methodology to replace capacitive nodes within a resistive network by current sources for CDM simulation. This enables a highly efficient DC simulation clearly marking CDM relevant design weaknesses allowing for application of this software both during product development and for product verification.

  14. Human biomonitoring of arsenic and antimony in case of an elevated geogenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebel, T W; Suchenwirth, R H; Bolten, C; Dunkelberg, H H

    1998-01-01

    Part of the northern Palatinate region in Germany is characterized by elevated levels of arsenic and antimony in the soil due to the presence of ore sources and former mining activities. In a biomonitoring study, 218 residents were investigated for a putative increased intake of these elements. Seventy-six nonexposed subjects in a rural region in south lower Saxony were chosen as the reference group. Urine and scalp hair samples were obtained as surrogates to determine the internal exposures to arsenic and antimony. The analyses were performed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry except for arsenic in urine, which was determined by the hydride technique. This method does not detect organoarsenicals from seafood, which are not toxicologically relevant. In the northern Palatinate subjects, slightly elevated arsenic contents in urine and scalp hair (presumably not hazardous) could be correlated with an increased arsenic content in the soil. On the other hand, the results did not show a correlation between the antimony contents in the soil of the housing area and those in urine and hair. Except for antimony in scalp hair, age tended to be associated with internal exposures to arsenic and antimony in both study groups. Consumption of seafood had a slight impact on the level of urinary arsenic, which is indicative of the presence of low quantities of inorganic arsenicals and dimethylarsinic acid in seafood. The arsenic and antimony contents in scalp hair were positively correlated with the 24-hr arsenic excretion in urine. However, antimony in scalp hair was not correlated with seafood consumption as was arsenic in scalp hair and in urine. This indicated the existence of unidentified common pathways of exposure contributing to the alimentary body burden. Short time peaks in the 24-hr excretion of arsenic in urine, which could not be assigned to a high consumption of seafood, were detected for six study participants. This suggests that additional factors

  15. Human Blood Concentrations of Cotinine, a Biomonitoring Marker for Tobacco Smoke, Extrapolated from Nicotine Metabolism in Rats and Humans and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Kitajima

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study defined a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK model for nicotine and its primary metabolite cotinine in humans, based on metabolic parameters determined in vitro using relevant liver microsomes, coefficients derived in silico, physiological parameters derived from the literature, and an established rat PBPK model. The model consists of an absorption compartment, a metabolizing compartment, and a central compartment for nicotine and three equivalent compartments for cotinine. Evaluation of a rat model was performed by making comparisons with predicted concentrations in blood and in vivo experimental pharmacokinetic values obtained from rats after oral treatment with nicotine (1.0 mg/kg, a no-observed-adverse-effect level for 14 days. Elimination rates of nicotine in vitro were established from data from rat liver microsomes and from human pooled liver microsomes. Human biomonitoring data (17 ng nicotine and 150 ng cotinine per mL plasma 1 h after smoking from pooled five male Japanese smokers (daily intake of 43 mg nicotine by smoking revealed that these blood concentrations could be calculated using a human PBPK model. These results indicate that a simplified PBPK model for nicotine/cotinine is useful for a forward dosimetry approach in humans and for estimating blood concentrations of other related compounds resulting from exposure to low chemical doses.

  16. Statement by the Federal Environmental Office on nickel. Position of the ''Human Biomonitoring Commission'' of the Federal Environmental Office; Bekanntmachung des Umweltbundesamtes 'Nickel'. Stellungnahme der Kommission ''Human-Biomonitoring'' des Umweltbundesamtes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    One of the focal areas of interest in environmental medicine are the sensitising and cancerogenic effects of nickel. There is no means within the realm of environmental medicine, nor in particular of biomonitoring, of either quantifying or preventing these two types of effects. However, there is evidence that even average rates of nickel uptake via food and water suffice to cause an aggravation or recurrence of nickel-induced contact eczemas. Nickel uptake rates in western industrial countries appear to be fairly uniform and roughly equal to nickel elimination via the urine. According to the present database 3 {mu}g appears to be a tenable reference value. Urinary nickel excretion levels in patients suffering from generalised nickel-induced contact eczemas who respond positively to epicutaneous tests could serve as an indicator of elevated nickel uptake via food or water. In the same way human biomonitoring could serve to determine the efficacy of nickel reducing dietary measures. [German] Im Bereich der Umweltmedizin steht die sensibilisierende und die krebserzeugende Wirkung von Nickel im Vordergrund des Interesses. Beide Wirkungen koennen im Bereich der Umweltmedizin durch ein Human-Biomonitoring weder quantifiziert noch verhindert werden. Es gibt jedoch Hinweise darauf, dass bereits die ueblicherweise ueber Nahrung und/oder Trinkwasser aufgenommene Nickelmenge zu einer Verschlimmerung oder zu einem Wiederauftreten von nickelbedingten Kontaktekzemen fuehren koennte. In den westlichen Industrielaendern scheint die Nickelaufnahme relative gleichfoermig zu sein und zu einer vergleichbaren Nickelausscheidung im Harn zu fuehren. Nach der aktuellen Datenlage kann 3 {mu}g/l als Referenzwert verwendet werden. Bei Patienten, die an generalisierten nickelbedingten Ekzemen leiden und die im Epikutantest positv auf Nickel reagieren, koennen anhand der Nickelausscheidung im Urin Hinweise auf eine moeglicherweise vermehrte Nickelaufnahme aus der Nahrung oder aus dem

  17. Biomonitoring of humans exposed to arsenic, chromium, nickel, vanadium, and complex mixtures of metals by using the micronucleus test in lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annangi, Balasubramanyam; Bonassi, Stefano; Marcos, Ricard; Hernández, Alba

    Various metals have demonstrated genotoxic and carcinogenic potential via different mechanisms. Until now, biomonitoring and epidemiological studies have been carried out to assess the genotoxic risk to exposed human populations. In this sense, the use of the micronucleus assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes has proven to be a useful tool to determine increased levels of DNA damage, as a surrogate biomarker of cancer risk. Here we review those biomonitoring studies focused on people exposed to arsenic, chromium, nickel, vanadium and complex mixtures of metals. Only those studies that used the frequency of micronuclei in binucleated (BNMN) cells have been taken into consideration, although the inclusion of other biomarkers of exposure and genotoxicity are also reflected and discussed. Regarding arsenic, most of the occupational and environmental biomonitoring studies find an increase in BNMN among the exposed individuals. Thus, it seems conclusive that arsenic exposure increases the risk of exposed human populations. However, a lack of correlation between the level of exposure and the increase in BNMN is also common, and a limited number of studies evaluated the genotype as a risk modulator. As for chromium, a BNMN increase in occupationally exposed subjects and a correlation between level of exposure and effect is found consistently in the available literature. However, the quality score of the studies is only medium-low. On the other hand, the studies evaluating nickel and vanadium are scarce and lacks a correct characterization of the individual exposure, which difficult the building of clear conclusions. Finally, several studies with medium-high quality scores evaluated a more realistic scenario of exposure which takes into account a mixture of metals. Among them, those which correctly characterized and measured the exposure were able to find association with the level of BNMN. Also, several genes associated with DNA damage repair such as OGG1 and XRCC1 were

  18. Research Article. Perfluoroalkylated substances in human urine: results of a biomonitoring pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Christina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs are a class of synthetic chemicals used in a wide range of processes and products due to their unique physicalchemical properties. Through intake of PFASs via food or several consumer products, humans can be exposed. Long-chain PFASs have been associated with adverse effects in laboratory animals, and there is also evidence for adverse health effects in humans. Although investigations of human exposure are mainly conducted in blood samples, some studies have shown that especially short-chain PFASs can be detected in human urine. In the present study, a sensitive analytical method was adapted for the measurement of 12 PFASs in human urine samples by HPLC-MS/MS. For verifying this method, concentrations in 11 male and female participants aged 25-46 years were analysed. In the study population, ranges of urinary PFASs concentrations were n.d.- 8.5 ng/l for perfluoropentanoic acid, human urine.

  19. HBM Mice Have Altered Bone Matrix Composition and Improved Material Toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ryan D; Mashiatulla, Maleeha; Acerbo, Alvin S; Almer, Jonathan D; Miller, Lisa M; Johnson, Mark L; Sumner, D Rick

    2016-10-01

    The G171V mutation in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) leads to a high bone mass (HBM) phenotype. Studies using HBM transgenic mouse models have consistently found increased bone mass and whole-bone strength, but little attention has been paid to the composition of the bone matrix. The current study sought to determine if the cortical bone matrix composition differs in HBM and wild-type mice and to determine how much of the variance in bone material properties is explained by variance in matrix composition. Consistent with previous studies, HBM mice had greater cortical area, moment of inertia, ultimate force, bending stiffness, and energy to failure than wild-type animals. The increased energy to failure was primarily caused by a large increase in post-yield behavior, with no difference in pre-yield behavior. The HBM mice had increased mineral-to-matrix and collagen cross-link ratios, and decreased crystallinity, carbonate, and acid phosphate substitution as measured by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy, but no differences in crystal length, intra-fibular strains, and mineral spacing compared to wild-type controls, as measured by X-ray scattering. The largest between genotype difference in material properties was a twofold increase in the modulus of toughness in HBM mice. Step-wise regression analyses showed that the specific matrix compositional parameters most closely associated with material properties varied between the wild-type and HBM genotypes. Although the mechanisms controlling the paradoxical combination of more mineralized yet tougher bone in HBM mice remain to be fully explained, the findings suggest that LRP5 represents a target to not only build bone mass but also to improve bone quality.

  20. Biomonitoring Persistent and Non-persistent Chemicals in Human Breast Milk and Endocrine Disruption of Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Weldon, Rosana Alysia Hernandez

    2010-01-01

    Breastfeeding has numerous benefits to mother and child including improved maternal post-partum health, maternal/child bonding, and infant neurodevelopment and immune function. However, concern has been expressed about potential health risks posed to infants from environmental chemicals in human milk. The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires the United States Environmental Protection Agency to set pesticide tolerance levels in food that ensure the safety of sensitive sub-populations, ...

  1. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human milk: a biomonitoring study in rural areas of Flanders (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croes, K; Colles, A; Koppen, G; Govarts, E; Bruckers, L; Van de Mieroop, E; Nelen, V; Covaci, A; Dirtu, A C; Thomsen, C; Haug, L S; Becher, G; Mampaey, M; Schoeters, G; Van Larebeke, N; Baeyens, W

    2012-11-01

    To collect information on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the rural areas in Flanders (Belgium), 84 breastfeeding mothers were recruited in rural communities in East and West Flanders and Flemish Brabant in 2009-2010. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, perfluorinated compounds, polychlorinated dibenzodioxines and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like PCBs were measured in individual milk samples and in a pooled milk sample, while some additional pollutants were only measured in the pooled sample. For most pollutants, the concentrations in this study were lower or comparable to the concentrations measured in the pooled Belgian sample of the WHO human milk study of 2006, except for the pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DDT (+25% for ΣDDT and metabolites) and trans-nonachlor (+94%), and for the brominated flame retardant hexachlorocyclododecane HBCD (+153%). Perfluorinated compounds were for the first time determined in human milk samples from Belgium and the concentrations were comparable to those from other European countries. Also, interesting associations were found between the concentrations of POPs measured in human milk and personal characteristics as well as dietary habits of the study population. PFOS en PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants compared to mothers who gave birth to their second child. Lower brominated PBDE congeners increased with increasing BMI of the mothers (p=0.01 for BDE 47, p=0.02 for BDE 99 and p=0.02 for BDE 100). Participants consuming milk or dairy products daily had significant higher concentrations of ΣDDTs (p=0.03) and oxychlordane (p=0.047) in their human milk samples.

  2. Biomonitoring Human Albumin Adducts: The Past, the Present, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Serum albumin (Alb) is the most abundant protein in blood plasma. Alb reacts with many carcinogens and/or their electrophilic metabolites. Studies conducted over 20 years ago showed that Alb forms adducts with the human carcinogens aflatoxin B1 and benzene, which were successfully used as biomarkers in molecular epidemiology studies designed to address the role of these chemicals in cancer risk. Alb forms adducts with many therapeutic drugs or their reactive metabolites such as β-lactam antibiotics, acetylsalicylic acid, acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, chemotherapeutic agents, and antiretroviral therapy drugs. The identification and characterization of the adduct structures formed with Alb have served to understand the generation of reactive metabolites and to predict idiosyncratic drug reactions and toxicities. The reaction of candidate drugs with Alb is now exploited as part of the battery of screening tools to assess the potential toxicities of drugs. The use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography, or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) enabled the identification and quantification of multiple types of Alb xenobiotic adducts in animals and humans during the past three decades. In this perspective, we highlight the history of Alb as a target protein for adduction to environmental and dietary genotoxicants, pesticides, and herbicides, common classes of medicinal drugs, and endogenous electrophiles, and the emerging analytical mass spectrometry technologies to identify Alb-toxicant adducts in humans. PMID:27989119

  3. Biomonitoring for the photovoltaics industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernholc, N.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1995-07-01

    Biomonitoring often is used as a method for estimating the dose to an individual. Therefore, a parameter of measurement, or biomarkers must be identified. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of biomonitoring protocols for metals used in the photovoltaics industry. Special attention is given to areas that often are skimmed over, to gain insights into some of the problems that may arise when these tasks are carried out. Biological monitoring can be used to determine current human exposures to chemicals, as well as to detect past exposures, and the effects that these exposures may have on human health. It is used in conjunction with environmental monitoring to describe more completely worker`s exposures to, and absorption of, chemicals in the workplace. Biological specimens (e.g., blood, hair or urine) are analyzed for chemical agents, metabolites, or for some specific effect on the person (Lowry 1994). Biomonitoring can assess a workers exposure to industrial chemicals by all routes including skin absorption and ingestion. Although the methodology still is in its infancy, in cases where the procedures have been developed, it can be an invaluable component of an ongoing program of industrial hygiene monitoring. Like any technology, there are limitations to its effectiveness because of a lack of knowledge, contamination of specimens, and the introduction of errors.

  4. Ethics issues experienced in HBM within Portuguese health surveillance and research projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In keeping with the fundamental practice of transparency in the discussion and resolution of ethics conflicts raised by research, a summary of ethics issues raised during Portuguese biomonitoring in health surveillance and research is presented and, where applicable, their resolution is described. Methods Projects underway aim to promote the surveillance of public health related to the presence of solid waste incinerators or to study associations between human exposure to environmental factors and adverse health effects. The methodological approach involves biomonitoring of heavy metals, dioxins and/or other persistent organic pollutants in tissues including blood, human milk and both scalp and pubic hair in groups such as the general population, children, pregnant women or women attempting pregnancy. As such, the projects entail the recruitment of individuals representing different demographic and health conditions, the collection of body tissues and personal data, and the processing of the data and results. Results The issue of autonomy is raised during the recruitment of participants and during the collection of samples and data. This right is protected by the requirement for prior written, informed consent from the participant or, in the case of children, from their guardian. Recruitment has been successful, among eligible participants, in spite of incentives rarely being offered. The exception has been in obtaining guardians' consent for children's participation, particularly for blood sampling. In an attempt to mitigate the harm-benefit ratio, current research efforts include alternative less invasive biomarkers. Surveys are currently being conducted under contract as independent biomonitoring actions and as such, must be explicitly disclosed as a potential conflict of interests. Communication of results to participants is in general only practised when a health issue is present and corrective action possible

  5. Population Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling for the Human Lactational Transfer of PCB 153 with Consideration of Worldwide Human Biomonitoring Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redding, Laurel E.; Sohn, Michael D.; McKone, Thomas E.; Wang, Shu-Li; Hsieh, Dennis P. H.; Yang, Raymond S. H.

    2008-03-01

    We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of PCB 153 in women, and predict its transfer via lactation to infants. The model is the first human, population-scale lactational model for PCB 153. Data in the literature provided estimates for model development and for performance assessment. Physiological parameters were taken from a cohort in Taiwan and from reference values in the literature. We estimated partition coefficients based on chemical structure and the lipid content in various body tissues. Using exposure data in Japan, we predicted acquired body burden of PCB 153 at an average childbearing age of 25 years and compare predictions to measurements from studies in multiple countries. Forward-model predictions agree well with human biomonitoring measurements, as represented by summary statistics and uncertainty estimates. The model successfully describes the range of possible PCB 153 dispositions in maternal milk, suggesting a promising option for back estimating doses for various populations. One example of reverse dosimetry modeling was attempted using our PBPK model for possible exposure scenarios in Canadian Inuits who had the highest level of PCB 153 in their milk in the world.

  6. Modeling Human Exposure to Phthalate Esters: A Comparison of Indirect and Biomonitoring Estimation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kathryn E.; David, Raymond M.; Guinn, Richard; Kramarz, Kurt W.; Lampi, Mark A.; Staples, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Humans are potentially exposed to phthalate esters (PEs) through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Studies quantifying exposure to PEs include “biomarker studies” and “indirect studies.” Biomarker studies use measurements of PE metabolites in urine to back-calculate exposure to the parent diester, while indirect studies use the concentration of the PE in each medium of exposure and the rate of intake of that medium to quantify intake of the PE. In this review, exposure estimates from biomarker and indirect studies are compiled and compared for seven PEs to determine if there are regional differences and if there is a preferred approach. The indirect and biomarker methods generally agree with each other within an order of magnitude and discrepancies are explained by difficulties in accounting for use of consumer products, uncertainty concerning absorption, regional differences, and temporal changes. No single method is preferred for estimating intake of all PEs; it is suggested that biomarker estimates be used for low molecular weight PEs for which it is difficult to quantify all sources of exposure and either indirect or biomarker methods be used for higher molecular weight PEs. The indirect methods are useful in identifying sources of exposure while the biomarker methods quantify exposure. PMID:23087593

  7. Biomonitoring of Human Exposure to Prestige Oil: Effects on DNA and Endocrine Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Pérez-Cadahía

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1960, about 400 tankers spilled more than 377765 tons of oil, with the Prestige accident (Galician coast, NW Spain, November 2002 the most recent. Taking into account the consistent large number of individuals exposed to oil that exists all over the world, it seems surprising the absence in the literature of studies focused on the chronic effects of this exposure on human health. In this work we evaluated the level of DNA damage by means of comet assay, and the potential endocrine alterations (prolactin and cortisol caused by Prestige oil exposure in a population of 180 individuals, classified in 3 groups according to the tasks performed, and 60 controls. Heavy metals in blood were determined as exposure biomarkers, obtaining significant increases of aluminum, nickel and lead in the exposed groups as compared to controls. Higher levels of genetic damage and endocrine alterations were also observed in the exposed population. DNA damage levels were influenced by age, sex, and the use of protective clothes, and prolactin concentrations by the last two factors. Surprisingly, the use of mask did not seem to protect individuals from genetic or endocrine alterations. Moreover, polymorphisms in genes encoding for the main enzymes involved in the metabolism of oil components were analyzed as susceptibility biomarkers. CYP1A1-3’UTR and EPHX1 codons 113 and 139 variant alleles were related to higher damage levels, while lower DNA damage was observed in GSTM1 and GSTT1 null individuals.

  8. Biomonitoring of Human Exposure to Prestige Oil: Effects on DNA and Endocrine Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cadahía, Beatriz; Méndez, Josefina; Pásaro, Eduardo; Lafuente, Anunciación; Cabaleiro, Teresa; Laffon, Blanca

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, about 400 tankers spilled more than 377765 tons of oil, with the Prestige accident (Galician coast, NW Spain, November 2002) the most recent. Taking into account the consistent large number of individuals exposed to oil that exists all over the world, it seems surprising the absence in the literature of studies focused on the chronic effects of this exposure on human health. In this work we evaluated the level of DNA damage by means of comet assay, and the potential endocrine alterations (prolactin and cortisol) caused by Prestige oil exposure in a population of 180 individuals, classified in 3 groups according to the tasks performed, and 60 controls. Heavy metals in blood were determined as exposure biomarkers, obtaining significant increases of aluminum, nickel and lead in the exposed groups as compared to controls. Higher levels of genetic damage and endocrine alterations were also observed in the exposed population. DNA damage levels were influenced by age, sex, and the use of protective clothes, and prolactin concentrations by the last two factors. Surprisingly, the use of mask did not seem to protect individuals from genetic or endocrine alterations. Moreover, polymorphisms in genes encoding for the main enzymes involved in the metabolism of oil components were analyzed as susceptibility biomarkers. CYP1A1-3′UTR and EPHX1 codons 113 and 139 variant alleles were related to higher damage levels, while lower DNA damage was observed in GSTM1 and GSTT1 null individuals. PMID:21572833

  9. Biomonitoring of Heavy metals using the bivalve molluscs in sunderban mangrove wetland, Northeast Coast of Bay of bengal (india): possible risks to Human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Henrique; Cardoso, Ines [Departamento de Biologia Animal/Instituto de Oceanografia, Campo Grande, Lisboa (Portugal); Chatterjee, Mousumi; Kumar Bhattacharya, Asok; Aftab Alam, Mohammad [Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, Calcutta (India); Kanta Satpathy, Kamala [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Environmental and Industrial Safety Section, Safety Group, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Kumar Sarkar, Santosh

    2008-02-15

    The suitability of using four bivalve molluscs (Sanguinolaria acuminata, Anadara granosa, Meretrix meretrix, and Pelecyora trigona) in biomonitoring of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Hg) collected from intertidal regions of the Sunderban mangrove wetland, northeastern part of the Bay of Bengal, were evaluated. Both speciesdependent variability and temporal variations were pronounced. A high degree of organ specificity was evident in the bivalves where gill and mantle exhibited higher metal accumulation due to ion exchange property of the mucous layer covering these organs while shells represent very poor accumulation. Elevated values of Zn and Cu reflect high potential for biomagnification through marine food chain. Metal concentrations in different body size groups of the bivalves do not follow uniform trend. Correlation coefficient between different metal couplings as tested statistically revealed significant coupling for Pb-Zn, Pb-Cu, Zn-Cu, and Hg-Cu. Concentrations of all the metals in specific organs (visceral mass, mantle and gill) of the bivalves exceeded the safe levels according to the international standards for metals compiled by Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations and would be of great risk for human consumption. It is concluded that the mussel and clam are suitable biomonitors to employ in programs designed to assess changes in metal pollution in the Sunderban mangrove wetland. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Communicating human biomonitoring results to ensure policy coherence with public health recommendations: analysing breastmilk whilst protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arendt Maryse

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article addresses the problem of how to ensure consistency in messages communicating public health recommendations on environmental health and on child health. The World Health Organization states that the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding rank among the most effective interventions to improve child survival. International public health policy recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months, followed by continued breastfeeding with the addition of safe and adequate complementary foods for two years and beyond. Biomonitoring of breastmilk is used as an indicator of environmental pollution ending up in mankind. This article will therefore present the biomonitoring results of concentrations of residues in breastmilk in a wider context. These results are the mirror that reflects the chemical substances accumulated in the bodies of both men and women in the course of a lifetime. The accumulated substances in our bodies may have an effect on male or female reproductive cells; they are present in the womb, directly affecting the environment of the fragile developing foetus; they are also present in breastmilk. Evidence of man-made chemical residues in breastmilk can provide a shock tactic to push for stronger laws to protect the environment. However, messages about chemicals detected in breastmilk can become dramatized by the media and cause a backlash against breastfeeding, thus contradicting the public health messages issued by the World Health Organization. Analyses of breastmilk show the presence of important nutritional components and live protective factors active in building up the immune system, in gastro intestinal maturation, in immune defence and in providing antiviral, antiparasitic and antibacterial activity. Through cohort studies researchers in environmental health have concluded that long-term breastfeeding counterbalances the effect of prenatal exposure to chemicals causing delay in mental and

  11. Analysis of Moms Across America report suggesting bioaccumulation of glyphosate in U.S. mother's breast milk: Implausibility based on inconsistency with available body of glyphosate animal toxicokinetic, human biomonitoring, and physico-chemical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, James S

    2015-12-01

    The non-peer-reviewed biomonitoring report published online by Moms Across America (MAA; Honeycutt and Rowlands, 2014) does not support the conclusion that glyphosate concentrations detected in a limited number of urine samples from women, men and children, or breast milk from nursing mothers, pose a health risk to the public, including nursing children. Systemically absorbed doses of glyphosate estimated from the MAA urine biomonitoring data and from other published biomonitoring studies indicate that daily glyphosate doses are substantially below health protective reference standards (ADIs; RfDs) established by regulatory agencies. The MAA report also suggested that detection of relatively high glyphosate concentrations in breast milk in 3 of 10 sampled women raised a concern for bioaccumulation in breast milk. However, the breast milk concentrations reported by MAA are highly implausible when considered in context to low daily systemic doses of glyphosate estimated from human urine biomonitoring data, and also are inconsistent with animal toxicokinetic data demonstrating no evidence of retention in tissues or milk after single- or multiple-dose glyphosate treatment. In addition, toxicokinetic studies in lactating goats have shown that glyphosate does not partition into milk at concentrations greater than blood, and that only a very small percentage of the total administered dose (glyphosate exposures estimated from urine biomonitoring fall thousands-of-fold short of external doses capable of producing blood concentrations sufficient to result in the breast milk concentrations described in the MAA report. Finally, in contrast to highly lipophilic compounds with bioaccumulation potential in breast milk, the physico-chemical properties of glyphosate indicate that it is highly hydrophilic (ionized) at physiological pH and unlikely to preferentially distribute into breast milk.

  12. A proposed framework for the interpretation of biomonitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Peter J; Money, Chris D

    2008-06-05

    Biomonitoring, the determination of chemical substances in human body fluids or tissues, is more and more frequently applied. At the same time detection limits are decreasing steadily. As a consequence, many data with potential relevance for public health are generated although they need not necessarily allow interpretation in term of health relevance. The European Centre of Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) formed a dedicated task force to build a framework for the interpretation of biomonitoring data. The framework that was developed evaluates biomonitoring data based on their analytical integrity, their ability to describe dose (toxicokinetics), their ability to relate to effects, and an overall evaluation and weight of evidence analysis. This framework was subsequently evaluated with a number of case studies and was shown to provide a rational basis to advance discussions on human biomonitoring allowing better use and application of this type of data in human health risk assessment.

  13. A proposed framework for the interpretation of biomonitoring data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boogaard Peter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biomonitoring, the determination of chemical substances in human body fluids or tissues, is more and more frequently applied. At the same time detection limits are decreasing steadily. As a consequence, many data with potential relevance for public health are generated although they need not necessarily allow interpretation in term of health relevance. The European Centre of Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC formed a dedicated task force to build a framework for the interpretation of biomonitoring data. The framework that was developed evaluates biomonitoring data based on their analytical integrity, their ability to describe dose (toxicokinetics, their ability to relate to effects, and an overall evaluation and weight of evidence analysis. This framework was subsequently evaluated with a number of case studies and was shown to provide a rational basis to advance discussions on human biomonitoring allowing better use and application of this type of data in human health risk assessment.

  14. BIOMONITORING USING AQUATIC VEGETATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides an overview of the state-of-the-science as related to the phytoassessment techniques used in environmental biomonitoring and the hazard assessment process for chemicals. The emphasis is on freshwater angiosperms and bryophytes. Algal species, which are prese...

  15. [Monograph for N-Methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP) and human biomonitoring values for the metabolites 5-Hydroxy-NMP and 2-Hydroxy-N-methylsuccinimide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1-Methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP) is used as a solvent in many technical applications. The general population may be exposed to NMP from the use as ingredient in paint and graffiti remover, indoors also from use in paints and carpeting. Because of developmental toxic effects, the use of NMP in consumer products in the EU is regulated. The developmental effects accompanied by weak maternally toxic effects in animal experiments are considered as the critical effects by the German HBM Commission. Based on these effects, HBM-I values of 10 mg/l urine for children and of 15 mg/l for adults, respectively, were derived for the metabolites 5-Hydroxy-NMP and 2-Hydroxy-N-methylsuccinimide. HBM-II-values were set to 30 mg/l urine for children and 50 mg/l for adults, respectively. Because of similar effects of the structural analogue 1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (NEP), the possible mixed exposure to both compounds has to be taken into account when evaluating the total burden.

  16. Merging Models and Biomonitoring Data to Characterize Sources andPathways of Human Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides in the SalinasValley of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Castorina, Rosemary; Kuwabara, Yu; Harnly,Martha E.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Bradman, Asa

    2006-06-01

    By drawing on human biomonitoring data and limited environmental samples together with outputs from the CalTOX multimedia, multipathway source-to-dose model, we characterize cumulative intake of organophosphorous (OP) pesticides in an agricultural region of California. We assemble regional OP pesticide use, environmental sampling, and biological tissue monitoring data for a large and geographically dispersed population cohort of 592 pregnant Latina women in California (the CHAMACOS cohort). We then use CalTOX with regional pesticide usage data to estimate the magnitude and uncertainty of exposure and intake from local sources. We combine model estimates of intake from local sources with food intake based on national residue data to estimate for the CHAMACOS cohort cumulative median OP intake, which corresponds to expected levels of urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolite excretion for this cohort. From these results we develop premises about relative contributions from different sources and pathways of exposure. We evaluate these premises by comparing the magnitude and variation of DAPs in the CHAMACOS cohort with the whole U.S. population using data from the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey (NHANES). This comparison supports the premise that in both populations diet is the common and dominant exposure pathway. Both the model results and biomarker comparison supports the observation that the CHAMACOS population has a statistically significant higher intake of OP pesticides that appears as an almost constant additional dose among all participants. We attribute the magnitude and small variance of this intake to non-dietary exposure in residences from local sources.

  17. Predictive value of human biomonitoring in environmental medicine: experiences at the outpatient unit of environmental medicine (UEM) of the University Hospital Aachen, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straff, Wolfgang; Möller, Manfred; Jakobi, Nikolaus; Weishoff-Houben, Michaela; Dott, Wolfgang; Wiesmüller, Gerhard Andreas

    2002-07-01

    There is little data on the distribution of biomonitoring parameters in patients at outpatient Units of Environmental Medicine (UEM). We evaluated the biomonitoring parameters of 646 UEM outpatients from our University Hospital 1988-1998. Few patients were exposed to specific substances. Data of patients who were not obviously exposed was analysed statistically (geometric mean, standard deviation, median, 95th percentile). Results were compared with reference values in literature. Normal distribution of biomonitoring parameters was rare. 95th percentiles for arsenic, chromium, selenium, zinc, phenol and toluene were below standard, 95th percentiles for copper and mercury above, and 95th percentiles for lead, cadmium, pentachlorophenol, lindane, and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane were within the published range of reference values. Thallium as well as most volatile organic compounds analyzed were below detection levels. Aluminum and fluorine exposure was rarely analysed. In view of these results, it is concluded that the indication for biomonitoring needs to be stringent as levels of biomonitoring parameters are generally not risen in patients of the UEM.

  18. The use of biomonitoring equivalents for interpreting blood concentrations in population studies: a case for polychlorinated biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Singh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of exposure guideline values for environmental contaminants are established by various agencies for risk assessment purposes. Biomonitoring equivalents are conversions of external guideline values to internal doses, against which biomonitoring data can be directly compared. Several biomonitoring equivalents have been developed for the interpretation of blood concentrations of environmental contaminants, but none has yet been developed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. In this paper, we describe information needed to develop biomonitoring equivalents for PCBs and discuss anticipated challenges. We provide a broad overview of PCB absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, PCB guideline values, and PCB pharmacokinetic modeling efforts in animals and humans. We also provide strategies to address anticipated challenges in deriving biomonitoring equivalents for this complex contaminant. Biomonitoring equivalents will be useful for the interpretation of the PCB biomonitoring data that is currently available for populations around the globe through national surveys and research of specific populations.

  19. Leucocytes isolated from simply frozen whole blood can be used in human biomonitoring for DNA damage measurement with the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akor-Dewu, Maryam B; El Yamani, Naouale; Bilyk, Olena; Holtung, Linda; Tjelle, Torunn E; Blomhoff, Rune; Collins, Andrew R

    2014-04-01

    Preservation of human blood cells for DNA damage analysis with the comet assay conventionally involves the isolation of mononuclear cells by centrifugation, suspension in freezing medium and slow freezing to -80 °C-a laborious process. A recent publication (Al-Salmani et al. Free Rad Biol Med 2011; 51: 719-725) describes a simple method in which small volumes of whole blood are frozen to -20 or -80 °C; on subsequent thawing, the comet assay is performed, with no indication of elevated DNA strand breakage resulting from the rapid freezing. However, leucocytes in whole blood (whether fresh or frozen) are abnormally resistant to damage by H2 O2 , and so a common test of antioxidant status (resistance to strand breakage by H2 O2 ) cannot be used. We have refined this method by separating the leucocytes from the thawed blood; we find that, after three washes, the cells respond normally to H2 O2 . In addition, we have measured specific endogenous base damage (oxidized purines) in the isolated leucocytes, using the enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase. In a study of blood samples from 10 subjects, H2 O2 sensitivity and endogenous damage-both reflecting the antioxidant status of the cells-correlated significantly. This modified approach to sample collection and storage is particularly applicable when the available volume of blood is limited and has great potential in biomonitoring and ecogenotoxicology studies where samples are obtained in the field or at sites remote from the testing laboratory.

  20. Human biomonitoring of aluminium after a single, controlled manual metal arc inert gas welding process of an aluminium-containing worksheet in nonwelders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Jens; Brand, Peter; Hartmann, Laura; Schettgen, Thomas; Kossack, Veronika; Lenz, Klaus; Purrio, Ellwyn; Reisgen, Uwe; Kraus, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Several existing field studies evaluate aluminium welding works but no thoroughly controlled exposure scenario for welding fume has been described yet. This study provides information about the uptake and elimination of aluminium from welding fumes under controlled conditions. In the Aachen Workplace Simulation Laboratory, we are able to generate welding fumes of a defined particle mass concentration. We exposed 12, until then occupationally unexposed participants with aluminium-containing welding fumes of a metal inert gas (MIG) welding process of a total dust mass concentration of 2.5 mg/m(3) for 6 h. Room air filter samples were collected, and the aluminium concentration in air derived. Urine and plasma samples were collected directly before and after the 6-h lasting exposure, as well as after 1 and 7 days. Human biomonitoring methods were used to determine the aluminium content of the samples with high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry. Urinary aluminium concentrations showed significant changes after exposure compared to preexposure levels (mean t(1) (0 h) 13.5 µg/L; mean t(2) (6 h) 23.5 µg/L). Plasma results showed the same pattern but pre-post comparison did not reach significance. We were able to detect a significant increase of the internal aluminium burden of a single MIG aluminium welding process in urine, while plasma failed significance. Biphasic elimination kinetic can be observed. The German BAT of 60 µg/g creatinine was not exceeded, and urinary aluminium returned nearly to baseline concentrations after 7 days.

  1. Urinary, Circulating, and Tissue Biomonitoring Studies Indicate Widespread Exposure to Bisphenol A

    OpenAIRE

    Laura N Vandenberg; Ibrahim Chahoud; Heindel, Jerrold J.; Vasantha Padmanabhan; Paumgartten, Francisco J. R.; Gilbert Schoenfelder

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the highest-volume chemicals produced worldwide, and human exposure to BPA is thought to be ubiquitous. Thus, there are concerns that the amount of BPA to which humans are exposed may cause adverse health effects. We examined many possibilities for why biomonitoring and toxicokinetic studies could come to seemingly conflicting conclusions. More than 80 published human biomonitoring studies that measured BPA concentrations in human tissues, urine, blood, and other f...

  2. Evaluation of the use of human hair for biomonitoring the deficiency of essential and exposure to toxic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Jairo L.; Batista, Bruno L.; Nunes, Juliana A.; Passos, Carlos J.S. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Barbosa, Fernando [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)], E-mail: fbarbosa@fcfrp.usp.br

    2008-11-01

    Monitoring the nutritional status of essential elements and assessing exposure of individuals to toxic elements is of great importance for human health. Thus, the appropriate selection and measurement of biomarkers of internal dose is of critical importance. Due to their many advantages, hair samples have been widely used to assess human exposure to different contaminants. However, the validity of this biomarker in evaluating the level of trace elements in the human body is debatable. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between levels of trace elements in hair and whole blood or plasma in a Brazilian population. Hair, blood and plasma were collected from 280 adult volunteers for metal determination. An ICP-MS was used for sample analysis. Manganese, copper, lead and strontium levels in blood varied from 5.1 to 14.7, from 494.8 to 2383.8, from 5.9 to 330.1 and from 11.6 to 87.3 {mu}g/L, respectively. Corresponding levels in hair varied from 0.05 to 6.71, from 0.02 to 37.59, from 0.02 to 30.63 and from 0.9 to 12.6 {mu}g/g. Trace element levels in plasma varied from 0.07 to 8.62, from 118.2 to 1577.7 and from 2.31 to 34.2 {mu}g/L for Mn, Cu and Sr, respectively. There was a weak correlation (r = 0.22, p < 0.001) between lead levels in hair and blood. Moreover, copper and strontium levels in blood correlate with those levels in plasma (r = 0.64 , p < 0.001 for Cu) and (r = 0.22, p < 0.05 for Sr). However, for Cu, Mn and Sr there was no correlation between levels in hair and blood. Our findings suggest that while the idea of measuring trace elements in hair is attractive, hair is not an appropriate biomarker for evaluating Cu, Mn and Sr deficiency or Pb exposure.

  3. Biomonitoring plan for Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposed biomonitoring plan is for Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge in Sweetwater county, Wyoming. Biomonitoring is needed for the refuge especially due to...

  4. Opening the research agenda for selection of hot spots for human biomonitoring research in Belgium: a participatory research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovanova Hana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to select priority hotspots for environment and health research in Flanders (Belgium, an open procedure was organized. Environment and health hotspots are strong polluting point sources with possible health effects for residents living in the vicinity of the hot spot. The selection procedure was part of the work of the Flemish Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health, which investigates the relation between environmental pollution and human health. The project is funded and steered by the Flemish government. Methods The involvement of other actors than merely experts is inspired by the 'analytical-deliberative' approach of the National Research Council in the United States and the extended peer community approach. These approaches stress the importance of involving different expert- and social perspectives in order to increase the knowledge base on complex issues. In the procedure used in the project a combination of expert and stakeholder input was essential. The final decision was supported by a multi-criteria analysis of expert assessment and stakeholder advice. Results The endeavour was challenging from the start because of the complicated ambition of including a diversity of actors, potential hotspots, concerns and assessment criteria, but nevertheless the procedure proved its value in both structuring and informing the decision-making process. Moreover the process gained the support of most actors participating in the process, even though the final selection could not satisfy all preferences. Conclusions Opening the research agenda exemplifies the value of inter- and transdisciplinary cooperation as well as the need for a well-structured and negotiated procedure that combines relevant factors and actors with pragmatism. The value of such a process also needs to prove itself in practice after the procedure has been completed: the tension between an ambition of openness on the one hand and a more closed

  5. Harmonised human biomonitoring in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joas, Reinhard; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Biot, Pierre;

    2012-01-01

    for policy making; (ii) to evaluate policy actions aimed at reducing exposure to potentially hazardous environmental stressors; and (iii) to promote more comprehensive health impact assessments of policy options. In support of the European Environment and Health Action Plan 2004-2010, European scientists...

  6. A proposed framework for the interpretation of biomonitoring data

    OpenAIRE

    Boogaard Peter; Money Chris

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Biomonitoring, the determination of chemical substances in human body fluids or tissues, is more and more frequently applied. At the same time detection limits are decreasing steadily. As a consequence, many data with potential relevance for public health are generated although they need not necessarily allow interpretation in term of health relevance. The European Centre of Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) formed a dedicated task force to build a framework for the ...

  7. Analgesic use - prevalence, biomonitoring and endocrine and reproductive effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Mazaud-Guittot, Sverine; Gaudriault, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Paracetamol and NSAIDs, in particular acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and ibuprofen, are among the most used and environmentally released pharmaceutical drugs. The differences in international trends in the sale and consumption of mild analgesics reflect differences in marketing, governmental...... policies, habits, accessibility, disease patterns and the age distribution of each population. Biomonitoring indicates ubiquitous and high human exposure to paracetamol and to salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid. Furthermore, evidence suggests that analgesics can have...

  8. Human biological monitoring for exposure assessment in response to an incident involving hazardous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Brederode, N.E. van; Bos, P.M.J.; Nijhuis, N.J.; Weerdt, R.H. van de; Woude, I. van der; Eggens, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Biological monitoring in humans (HBM) is widely used in the field of occupational and environmental health. In the situation of an unexpected release of hazardous materials HBM may contribute to the medical support and treatment of exposed individuals from the general population or of emergency

  9. Development of Screening Tools for the Interpretation of Chemical Biomonitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Becker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of a larger number of chemicals in commerce from the perspective of potential human health risk has become a focus of attention in North America and Europe. Screening-level chemical risk assessment evaluations consider both exposure and hazard. Exposures are increasingly being evaluated through biomonitoring studies in humans. Interpreting human biomonitoring results requires comparison to toxicity guidance values. However, conventional chemical-specific risk assessments result in identification of toxicity-based exposure guidance values such as tolerable daily intakes (TDIs as applied doses that cannot directly be used to evaluate exposure information provided by biomonitoring data in a health risk context. This paper describes a variety of approaches for development of screening-level exposure guidance values with translation from an external dose to a biomarker concentration framework for interpreting biomonitoring data in a risk context. Applications of tools and concepts including biomonitoring equivalents (BEs, the threshold of toxicologic concern (TTC, and generic toxicokinetic and physiologically based toxicokinetic models are described. These approaches employ varying levels of existing chemical-specific data, chemical class-specific assessments, and generic modeling tools in response to varying levels of available data in order to allow assessment and prioritization of chemical exposures for refined assessment in a risk management context.

  10. Foote Brook Macroinvertebrate Biomonitoring-Phase I in Johnson, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Foote Brook Biomonitoring Project, Phase I geospatial dataset consists of data from the biomonitoring of benthic macroinvertebrates at three sites located along...

  11. Heavy metal atmospheric deposition and biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, S.; Clocchiatti, R.; Carrot, F.; Michel, A.; Gaudry, A.; Moskura, M.

    2003-05-01

    The atmospheric fluxes of heavy metals were measured continuously in the Paris area. The dry depositions were collected on quartz fiber filters, after comparison between clogging capacities and blank levels on commercial filters. Rain was collected in a polyethylene gauge. Two transplanted biomonitors, the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri, and the pleurocarpeous moss Scleropodium purum, were exposed simultaneously. These two common biomonitors have been used in previous passive biomonitoring campaigns [Galsomies 1999, Grasso 1999]. This work attempts to produce data on heavy metal exposure of this populated area near Paris, and to compare these two cryptogamic species behaviour. The results on bioaccumulation were compared to those given by a previous work in Italy [Bargagli, 2002] comparing the moss Hypnum cupressiforme and the lichen Parmelia caperata. In our study, the transplanted lichens were exposed in different conditions: to the rain or protected from rain, in vertical, horizontal or oblique position. Dry (filters) and wet (rain) depositions and biomonitors were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) for more than 30elements [Ayrault, 2001]. The individual particle composition (on filters and cryptogams) was determined by nuclear microprobe (PIXE) and electron microprobe. The lichens displayed different accumulation rates, depending on exposition conditions. In particular, the inclination influenced the bulk concentrations in the lichen. Relation was made between fluxes and concentration accumulated by the biomonitors. The enrichment factors were spectacular for some elements, e.g. lead.

  12. Biomonitoring of 21 endocrine disrupting chemicals in human hair samples using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, R; Martín, J; Zafra-Gómez, A; Alonso, E; Vílchez, J L; Navalón, A

    2017-02-01

    Rapid industrial growth has increased human exposure to a large variety of chemicals with adverse health effects. These industrial chemicals are usually present in the environment, foods, beverages, clothes and personal care products. Among these compounds, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have raised concern over the last years. In the present work, the determination of 21 EDCs in human hair samples is proposed. An analytical method based on the digestion of the samples with a mixture of acetic acid/methanol (20:80, v/v) followed by a solid-liquid microextraction and analysis by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated. The most influential parameters affecting the extraction method were optimized. The method was validated using matrix-matched calibration and recovery assays. Limits of detection ranged from 0.2 to 4 ng g(-1), limits of quantification from 0.5 to 12 ng g(-1), and inter- and intra-day variability was under 15% in all cases. Recovery rates for spiked samples ranged from 92.1 to 113.8%. The method was applied for the determination of the selected compounds in human hair. Samples were collected weekly from six randomly selected volunteers (three men and three women) over a three-month period. All the analyzed samples tested positive for at least one of the analyzed compounds.

  13. Vehicle and positive control values from the in vivo rodent comet assay and biomonitoring studies using human lymphocytes: historical database and influence of technical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Kamala; Springer, S; Bruce, S; Lawlor, T; Hewitt, N; Aardema, M J

    2014-10-01

    There is increased interest in the in vivo comet assay in rodents as a follow-up approach for determining the biological relevance of chemicals that are genotoxic in in vitro assays. This is partly because, unlike other assays, DNA damage can be assessed in this assay in virtually any tissue. Since background levels of DNA damage can vary with the species, tissue, and cell processing method, a robust historical control database covering multiple tissues is essential. We describe extensive vehicle and positive control data for multiple tissues from rats and mice. In addition, we report historical data from control and genotoxin-treated human blood. Technical issues impacting comet results are described, including the method of cell preparation and freezing. Cell preparation by scraping (stomach and other GI tract organs) resulted in higher % tail DNA than mincing (liver, spleen, kidney etc) or direct collection (blood or bone marrow). Treatment with the positive control genotoxicant, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) in rats and methyl methanesulfonate in mice, resulted in statistically significant increases in % tail DNA. Background DNA damage was not markedly increased when cell suspensions were stored frozen prior to preparing slides, and the outcome of the assay was unchanged (EMS was always positive). In conclusion, historical data from our laboratory for the in vivo comet assay for multiple tissues from rats and mice, as well as human blood show very good reproducibility. These data and recommendations provided are aimed at contributing to the design and proper interpretation of results from comet assays.

  14. Environmental biomonitoring of essential and toxic elements in human scalp hair using accelerated microwave-assisted sample digestion and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumakli, Hope; Duncan, A'ja V; McDaniel, Kiara; Mehari, Tsdale F; Stephenson, Jamira; Maple, Lareisha; Crawford, Zaria; Macemore, Calvin L; Babyak, Carol M; Fakayode, Sayo O

    2017-05-01

    Human scalp hair samples were collected and used to assess exposure to toxic elements and essential elements in the state of North Carolina, USA using accelerated microwave assisted acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The figures-of-merit of the ICP-OES were appropriate for elemental analysis in scalp hair with detection limits as low as 0.0001 mg/L for Cd, good linearity (R(2) > 0.9978), and percent recoveries that ranged from 96 to 106% for laboratory-fortified-blanks and 88-112% for sample spike recovery study. The concentrations of essential elements in scalp hair were larger than those of toxic elements, with Ca having the highest average concentration (3080 μg/g, s = 14,500, n = 194). Some of the maximum concentrations observed for As (65 μg/g), Ni (331 μg/g), Cd (2.96 μg/g), and Cr (84.6 μg/g) in individual samples were concerning, however. Samples were statistically analyzed to determine the influence of race, gender, smoking habits, or age on the elemental concentrations in scalp hair. Higher concentrations of essential elements were observed in the scalp hair of Caucasians, females, and non-smokers, and the differences were often significant at a 90% confidence level. Several pairs of essential elements, for example Ca-K, Ca-Mg, and Ca-Zn, were strongly correlated in Caucasian hair but uncorrelated in African-American hair. Similarly, essential elements were strongly correlated in female hair but weakly correlated in male hair. Toxic element pairs (As-Cd, As-Se, Pb-As, and Se-Cd) were strongly correlated in the hair of smokers but uncorrelated in that of non-smokers, suggesting that cigarette smoke is a common source of toxic elements in humans. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Biomonitoring the human population exposed to pollution from the oil fires in Kuwait: analysis of placental tissue using (32)P-postlabeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafie, E M; Marafie, I; Emery, S J; Waters, R; Jones, N J

    2000-01-01

    The placenta is a readily available source of material for molecular epidemiological investigations. As such, DNA damage in this tissue can be indicative of maternal exposure to environmental pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Previous reports have demonstrated that (32)P-postlabeling (PPL) is able to detect the presence of aromatic adducts in human placenta that are associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy. Using PPL we have assayed the DNA damage in placental samples from Kuwaiti mothers who were exposed to environmental pollution during pregnancy. This pollution arose in the aftermath of the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, which left hundreds of oil wells burning. For comparison, further Kuwaiti samples were obtained approximately 1 year after the oil well fires and, as such, are from individuals unexposed to the airborne pollution from the oil well fires during pregnancy. In addition, placental samples were obtained from subjects in the United Kingdom. Adduct levels were measured in all samples using both the nuclease P1 and butanol extraction enhancement procedures. No elevation of adduct levels was observed in the placenta of mothers exposed to the oil well fires (n = 40) with either procedure (144 +/- 30 attomol/microg DNA for nuclease P1 enrichment, 245 +/- 50 attomol/microg DNA for butanol extraction), when compared with the nonexposed Kuwaiti mothers (180 +/- 32 and 281 +/- 39 attomol/microg DNA, respectively, n = 24). Similar adduct levels were observed in UK mothers who smoked cigarettes (178 +/- 30 and 284 +/- 52 attomol/microg DNA, n = 30), which in turn were approximately twice those observed in nonsmoking mothers (90 +/- 14 and 141 +/- 15 attomol/microg DNA, n = 12), although there is no significant difference in the distribution of adduct levels when statistical analysis is performed. Comprehensive interpretation of the Kuwaiti data is difficult as precise information on PAH levels is unavailable, although the data do

  16. Predicting self-care practices and glycaemic control using health belief model (HBM) in patients with insulin-treated diabetes in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Aris, Aishairma

    2016-01-01

    Background: The practice of diabetes self-care plays an important role in glycaemic control. However, not all patients with insulin-treated diabetes engage in their self-care activities. Although there is evidence that self-care practices in patients with insulin-treated diabetes can be understood and predicted by health beliefs proposed by Health Belief Model (HBM), little is known about adult patients due to several methodological weaknesses of previous studies. Furthermore, knowledge is la...

  17. [Monograph for 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC)--HBM values for the sum of metabolites 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4 CBHC) in the urine of adults and children. Statement of the HBM Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The substance 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC, CAS-No. 36861-47-9 as well as 38102-62-4) is used as UV-filter in cosmetics, mainly in sunscreen lotions. National as well as European evaluations are available for the substance, especially from the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (SCCP). The SCCP did not derive a TDI-value, but used for a MoS assessment a NOAEL of 25 mg/(kg bw · d) based on effects on the thyroid gland of rats in a subchronic study with oral administration. Newer studies, however, indicate lower NOAEL values, leading to tolerable daily intakes of 0,01 mg/kg bw. The HBM Commission established for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) HBM-I values of 0,09 mg/l urine for adults and 0,06 mg/l urine for children. HBM-I values for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4CBHC) were set at 0,38 mg/l urine for adults and 0,25 mg/l urine for children. The rounded HBM-I value for the sum of metabolites 3-4CBC und 3-4CBHC is accordingly 0,5 mg/l urine for adults and 0,3 mg/l urine for children.

  18. Predictors of condom use behaviors based on the Health Belief Model (HBM among female sex workers: a cross-sectional study in Hubei Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhu Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection related to commercial sexual contact is a serious public health issue in China. The objectives of the present study are to explore the predictors of condom use among female sex workers (FSWs in China and examine the relationship between Health Belief Model (HBM constructs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two cities (Wuhan and Suizhou in Hubei Province, China, between July 2009 and June 2010. A total of 427 FSWs were recruited through mediators from the 'low-tier' entertainment establishments. Data were obtained by self-administered questionnaires. Structural equation models were constructed to examine the association. We collected 363 valid questionnaires. Within the context of HBM, perceived severity of HIV mediated through perceived benefits of condom use had a weak effect on condom use (r=0.07. Perceived benefits and perceived barriers were proximate determinants of condom use (r=0.23 and r=-0.62, respectively. Self-efficacy had a direct effect on perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, which was indirectly associated with condom use behaviors (r=0.36. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The HBM provides a useful framework for investigating predictors of condom use behaviors among FSWs. Future HIV prevention interventions should focus on increasing perceived benefits of condom use, reducing barriers to condoms use, and improving self-efficacy among FSWs.

  19. Urinary, circulating, and tissue biomonitoring studies indicate widespread exposure to bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Laura N; Chahoud, Ibrahim; Heindel, Jerrold J; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Paumgartten, Francisco J R; Schoenfelder, Gilbert

    2012-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the highest-volume chemicals produced worldwide, and human exposure to BPA is thought to be ubiquitous. Thus, there are concerns that the amount of BPA to which humans are exposed may cause adverse health effects. We examined many possibilities for why biomonitoring and toxicokinetic studies could come to seemingly conflicting conclusions. More than 80 published human biomonitoring studies that measured BPA concentrations in human tissues, urine, blood, and other fluids, along with two toxicokinetic studies of human BPA metabolism were examined. Unconjugated BPA was routinely detected in blood (in the nanograms per milliliter range), and conjugated BPA was routinely detected in the vast majority of urine samples (also in the nanograms per milliliter range). In stark contrast, toxicokinetic studies proposed that humans are not internally exposed to BPA. Available data from biomonitoring studies clearly indicate that the general population is exposed to BPA and is at risk from internal exposure to unconjugated BPA. The two toxicokinetic studies that suggested human BPA exposure is negligible have significant deficiencies, are directly contradicted by hypothesis-driven studies, and are therefore not reliable for risk assessment purposes.

  20. Three cycles of human biomonitoring in Flanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeters, Greet; Govarts, Eva; Bruckers, Liesbeth

    2017-01-01

    reduced by a factor of 4 in adolescents and in adults. Mean serum concentrations of the more recently regulated perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were significantly lower in cord samples of 2013 compared to samples of 2007. The decline was more pronounced for PFOS than...

  1. Communication in a Human biomonitoring study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exley, Karen; Cano, Noemi; Aerts, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    required for each audience with a time frame for releasing them. Public insight research was used to evaluate the recruitment material, and the feedback was used to improve the documents. Dissemination of results was coordinated in a step by step approach by the participating countries within DEMOCOPHES...

  2. The Contribution of Pre-impact Spine Posture on Human Body Model Response in Whole-body Side Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulard, David; Subit, Damien; Donlon, John-Paul; Lessley, David J; Kim, Taewung; Park, Gwansik; Kent, Richard W

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze independently the contribution of pre-impact spine posture on impact response by subjecting a finite element human body model (HBM) to whole-body, lateral impacts. Seven postured models were created from the original HBM: one matching the standard driving posture and six matching pre-impact posture measured for each of six subjects tested in previously published experiments. The same measurements as those obtained during the experiments were calculated from the simulations, and biofidelity metrics based on signals correlation were established to compare the response of HBM to that of the cadavers. HBM responses showed good correlation with the subject response for the reaction forces, the rib strain (correlation score=0.8) and the overall kinematics. The pre-impact posture was found to greatly alter the reaction forces, deflections and the strain time histories mainly in terms of time delay. By modifying only the posture of HBM, the variability in the impact response was found to be equivalent to that observed in the experiments performed with cadavers with different anthropometries. The patterns observed in the responses of the postured HBM indicate that the inclination of the spine in the frontal plane plays a major role. The postured HBM sustained from 2 to 5 bone fractures, including the scapula in some cases, confirming that the pre-impact posture influences the injury outcome predicted by the simulation.

  3. South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1990-06-01

    There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Protozoa interaction with aquatic invertebrate: interest for watercourses biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Bigot, A; Aubert, D; Hohweyer, J; Favennec, L; Villena, I; Geffard, A

    2013-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Giardia duodenalis are human waterborne protozoa. These worldwide parasites had been detected in various watercourses as recreational, surface, drinking, river, and seawater. As of today, water protozoa detection was based on large water filtration and on sample concentration. Another tool like aquatic invertebrate parasitism could be used for sanitary and environmental biomonitoring. In fact, organisms like filter feeders could already filtrate and concentrate protozoa directly in their tissues in proportion to ambient concentration. So molluscan shellfish can be used as a bioindicator of protozoa contamination level in a site since they were sedentary. Nevertheless, only a few researches had focused on nonspecific parasitism like protozoa infection on aquatic invertebrates. Objectives of this review are twofold: Firstly, an overview of protozoa in worldwide water was presented. Secondly, current knowledge of protozoa parasitism on aquatic invertebrates was detailed and the lack of data of their biological impact was pointed out.

  5. Leaves of Phragmites australis as potential atmospheric biomonitors of Platinum Group Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Pavone, Pietro

    2015-04-01

    The increasing emissions of Platinum Group Elements (PGEs), namely Pt, Pd and Rh, may pose a significant risk to ecosystem processes and human health. A periodic assessment of PGEs distribution in the environment is thus of the utmost importance for the implementation of timely measures of mitigation. Although several studies have quantified PGEs in different life forms such as mammals, birds, fish, crustaceans, algae, mosses and even human beings, data about vascular plants need further surveys. This study aimed to test the suitability of the grass Phragmites australis (common reed) as a biomonitor of PGEs atmospheric pollution. The results showed that Pd and Pt concentrations in leaves are significantly higher in urban areas. In particular, Pd showed the highest range of values in line with current studies that consider palladium as the main element of traffic-related pollution. Overall, the leaves of Phragmites australis reflected the different gradient of PGEs emissions, and may thus be considered as potential biomonitors of atmospheric pollution.

  6. Considerations for estimating daily intake values of non-persistent environmental endocrine disruptors based on urinary biomonitoring data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, Tue; Frederiksen, Hanne; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionHuman exposure to chemicals may be estimated by back-calculating urinary concentrations resulting from biomonitoring studies if knowledge of the chemical's toxicokinetic properties is available.AimTo review available toxicokinetic data for back-calculating urinary concentrations into ...

  7. Biomonitoring of 1,3-butadiene and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman-Golkar, S; Bond, J A

    1996-10-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments list several volatile organic chemicals as hazardous air pollutants, including ethylene oxide, butadiene, styrene, and acrylonitrile. The toxicology of many of these compounds shares several common elements such as carcinogenicity in laboratory animals, genotoxicity of the epoxide intermediates, involvement of cytochrome P450 for metabolic activation (except ethylene oxide), and involvement of at least two enzymes for detoxication of the epoxides (e.g., hydrolysis or conjugation with glutathione). These similarities facilitate research strategies for identifying and developing biomarkers of exposure. This article reviews the current knowledge about biomarkers of butadiene. Butadiene is carcinogenic in mice and rats, which raises concern for potential carcinogenicity in humans. Butadiene is metabolized to DNA-reactive metabolites, including 1,2-epoxy-3-butene and diepoxybutane. These epoxides are thought to play a critical role in butadiene carcinogenicity. Butadiene and some of its metabolites (e.g., epoxybutene) are volatile. Exhalation of unchanged butadiene and excretion of butadiene metabolites in urine represent major routes of elimination. Therefore, biomonitoring of butadiene exposure could be based on chemical analysis of butadiene in exhaled breath, blood levels of butadiene epoxides, excretion of butadiene metabolites in urine, or adducts of butadiene epoxides with DNA or blood proteins. Mutation induction in specific genes (e.g., HPRT) following butadiene exposure can be potentially used as a biomarker. Excretion of 1,2-dihydroxy-4-(N-acetylcysteinyl-S)butane or the product of epoxybutene with N-7 in guanine in urine, epoxybutene-hemoglobin adducts, and HPRT mutation have been used as biomarkers in recent studies of occupational exposure to butadiene. Data in laboratory animals suggest that diepoxybutane may be a more important genotoxic metabolite than epoxybutene. Biomonitoring methods need to be developed for

  8. Quality control in bio-monitoring networks, Spanish Aerobiology Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteros, Jose; Galán, Carmen; Alcázar, Purificación; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio

    2013-01-15

    Several of the airborne biological particles, such as pollen grains and fungal spores, are known to generate human health problems including allergies and infections. A number of aerobiologists have focused their research on these airborne particles. The Spanish Aerobiology Network (REA) was set up in 1992, and since then dozens of research groups have worked on a range of related topics, including the standardization of study methods and the quality control of data generated by this network. In 2010, the REA started work on an inter-laboratory survey for proficiency testing purposes. The main goal of the study reported in the present paper was to determine the performance of technicians in the REA network using an analytical method that could be implemented by other bio-monitoring networks worldwide. The results recorded by each technician were compared with the scores obtained for a bounded mean of all results. The performance of each technician was expressed in terms of the relative error made in counting each of several pollen types. The method developed and implemented here proved appropriate for proficiency testing in interlaboratory studies involving bio-monitoring networks, and enabled the source of data quality problems to be pinpointed. The test revealed a variation coefficient of 10%. The relative error was significant for 3.5% of observations. In overall terms, the REA staff performed well, in accordance with the REA Management and Quality Manual. These findings serve to guarantee the quality of the data obtained, which can reliably be used for research purposes and published in the media in order to help prevent pollen-related health problems.

  9. Biomonitoring and speciation of road dust for heavy metals using Calotropis procera and Delbergia sissoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Prajapati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted for identifying the important heavy metals present in the road dust and at the same time biomonitor them using Calotropis procera and Delbergia sissoo leaves. The study clearly indicated that both the plants can be used as biomonitor for As, Pb, Fe, V, Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu. The heavy metals were estimated using AAS-7000 (Shimadzu. Reason for selecting the plants were their abundance in the area and high air pollution indices. Presence of these heavy metals in the road dust can be attributed to the red soil and more importantly thermal power plants operating in the study area. Since plants are able to capture the road dust, they can also prevent the particulate pollution which is having adverse health impacts for humans.

  10. The First Nations Biomonitoring Initiative-FNBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Corte, Elsa; Wuttke, Stuart

    2012-02-01

    The First Nations Biomonitoring Initiative (FNBI) pilot study was implemented in the winter 2010/2011, sampling 252 First Nations people on reserve in Canada for a suite of chemical contaminants following Cycle 1 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Results will be sent confidentially to participants and a community report will be presented after the analysis of results, expected to be completed by fall of 2011. The national scale of the study will take place during the summer 2011/2012 and aims to sample thirteen communities with a participation of 42 First Nations people per community. Results are expected for spring 2012/2013.

  11. Predicting human papillomavirus vaccine uptake in young adult women: comparing the health belief model and theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A; Shepherd, Janet E

    2012-10-01

    Although theories of health behavior have guided thousands of studies, relatively few studies have compared these theories against one another. The purpose of the current study was to compare two classic theories of health behavior-the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)-in their prediction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. After watching a gain-framed, loss-framed, or control video, women (N = 739) ages 18-26 completed a survey assessing HBM and TPB constructs. HPV vaccine uptake was assessed 10 months later. Although the message framing intervention had no effect on vaccine uptake, support was observed for both the TPB and HBM. Nevertheless, the TPB consistently outperformed the HBM. Key predictors of uptake included subjective norms, self-efficacy, and vaccine cost. Despite the observed advantage of the TPB, findings revealed considerable overlap between the two theories and highlighted the importance of proximal versus distal predictors of health behavior.

  12. Tributyltin biomonitoring using prosobranchs as sentinel organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehlmann, J. [International Graduate School Zittau, Chair of Environmental High Technology, Markt 23, D-02763 Zittau (Germany); Stroben, E. [Institute for Special Zoology and Comparative Embryology, University of Muenster, Huefferstrasse 1, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Schulte-Oehlmann, U. [Institute for Special Zoology and Comparative Embryology, University of Muenster, Huefferstrasse 1, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Bauer, B. [Institute for Special Zoology and Comparative Embryology, University of Muenster, Huefferstrasse 1, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Fioroni, P. [Institute for Special Zoology and Comparative Embryology, University of Muenster, Huefferstrasse 1, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Markert, B. [International Graduate School Zittau, Chair of Environmental High Technology, Markt 23, D-02763 Zittau (Germany)

    1996-03-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) compounds, some of the most toxic xenobiotics, produce a variety of pathological reactions in animals. A reliable biomonitoring method to assess the degree of environmental TBT pollution has been described based on investigations of virilization phenomena in prosobranch snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Examples are the imposex phenomenon in marine and freshwater species, the intersex reaction in littorinids and the reduction of female sexual glands and offspring numbers in further species resulting mainly in a sterilization of females. The degree of imposex or intersex in populations is determined by different biomonitoring indices which allow to assess the TBT pollution of the environment at low costs with high precision. The effectiveness of TBT legislations is analysed by extensive surveys in France and Ireland indicating that there is still a continuing threat to sensitive marine organisms. TBT disturbs the biosynthesis of steroid hormones on the level of estrogen biosynthesis. The observed virilization phenomena seem due to an inhibition of the cytochrome P-450 dependent aromatase by this organotin compound. (orig.). With 4 figs.

  13. Framework for using deciduous tree leaves as biomonitors for intraurban particulate air pollution in exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillooly, Sara E; Shmool, Jessie L Carr; Michanowicz, Drew R; Bain, Daniel J; Cambal, Leah K; Shields, Kyra Naumoff; Clougherty, Jane E

    2016-08-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, varying in concentration and composition, has been shown to cause or exacerbate adverse effects on both human and ecological health. The concept of biomonitoring using deciduous tree leaves as a proxy for intraurban PM air pollution in different areas has previously been explored using a variety of study designs (e.g., systematic coverage of an area, source-specific focus), deciduous tree species, sampling strategies (e.g., single day, multi-season), and analytical methods (e.g., chemical, magnetic) across multiple geographies and climates. Biomonitoring is a low-cost sampling method and may potentially fill an important gap in current air monitoring methods by providing low-cost, longer-term urban air pollution measures. As such, better understanding of the range of methods, and their corresponding strengths and limitations, is critical for employing the use of tree leaves as biomonitors for pollution to improve spatially resolved exposure assessments for epidemiological studies and urban planning strategies.

  14. Toxic ignorance and right-to-know in biomonitoring results communication: a survey of scientists and study participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altman Rebecca

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure assessment has shifted from pollutant monitoring in air, soil, and water toward personal exposure measurements and biomonitoring. This trend along with the paucity of health effect data for many of the pollutants studied raise ethical and scientific challenges for reporting results to study participants. Methods We interviewed 26 individuals involved in biomonitoring studies, including academic scientists, scientists from environmental advocacy organizations, IRB officials, and study participants; observed meetings where stakeholders discussed these issues; and reviewed the relevant literature to assess emerging ethical, scientific, and policy debates about personal exposure assessment and biomonitoring, including public demand for information on the human health effects of chemical body burdens. Results We identify three frameworks for report-back in personal exposure studies: clinical ethics; community-based participatory research; and citizen science 'data judo.' The first approach emphasizes reporting results only when the health significance of exposures is known, while the latter two represent new communication strategies where study participants play a role in interpreting, disseminating, and leveraging results to promote community health. We identify five critical areas to consider in planning future biomonitoring studies. Conclusion Public deliberation about communication in personal exposure assessment research suggests that new forms of community-based research ethics and participatory scientific practice are emerging.

  15. Deriving Biomonitoring Equivalents for selected E- and P-series glycol ethers for public health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poet, Torka; Ball, Nicholas; Hays, Sean M

    2016-01-01

    Glycol ethers are a widely used class of solvents that may lead to both workplace and general population exposures. Biomonitoring studies are available that have quantified glycol ethers or their metabolites in blood and/or urine amongst exposed populations. These biomonitoring levels indicate exposures to the glycol ethers, but do not by themselves indicate a health hazard risk. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) have been created to provide the ability to interpret human biomonitoring data in a public health risk context. The BE is defined as the concentration of a chemical or metabolite in a biological fluid (blood or urine) that is consistent with exposures at a regulatory derived safe exposure limit, such as a tolerable daily intake (TDI). In this exercise, we derived BEs for general population exposures for selected E- and P-series glycol ethers based on their respective derived no effect levels (DNELs). Selected DNELs have been derived as part of respective Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Regulation of Chemicals (REACh) regulation dossiers in the EU. The BEs derived here are unique in the sense that they are the first BEs derived for urinary excretion of compounds following inhalation exposures. The urinary mass excretion fractions (Fue) of the acetic acid metabolites for the E-series GEs range from approximately 0.2 to 0.7. The Fues for the excretion of the parent P-series GEs range from approximately 0.1 to 0.2, with the exception of propylene glycol methyl ether and its acetate (Fue = 0.004). Despite the narrow range of Fues, the BEs exhibit a larger range, resulting from the larger range in DNELs across GEs. The BEs derived here can be used to interpret human biomonitoring data for inhalation exposures to GEs amongst the general population.

  16. Biomonitoring of particulate matter by magnetic properties of Ulmus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and quality of vegetation in different parts of the city and create sustainable urban ... Four stations in different areas of green space, including, one park, one ... Keywords: Particulate matter, green area, magnetic properties, biomonitoring ...

  17. Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 2007 and 2008 Annual Biomonitoring Report [DRAFT

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes results from the first two years (FY 2007 and FY 2008) of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) Long-term Biomonitoring Program (BMP). The...

  18. Biomonitoring program for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides information on historical and present biomonitoring at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, and discusses the creation of the...

  19. Urinary, Circulating, and Tissue Biomonitoring Studies Indicate Widespread Exposure to Bisphenol A Estudos de biomonitoração do sistema urinário, circulatório e tecidos indicam grande exposição ao Bisfenol A

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenberg, Laura N; Ibrahim Chahoud; Heindel, Jerrold J.; Vasantha Padmanabhan; Francisco J.R Paumgartten; Gilbert Schoenfelder

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the highest-volume chemicals produced worldwide, and human exposure to BPA is thought to be ubiquitous. Thus, there are concerns that the amount of BPA to which humans are exposed may cause adverse health effects. We examined many possibilities for why biomonitoring and toxicokinetic studies could come to seemingly conflicting conclusions. More than 80 published human biomonitoring studies that measured BPA concentrations in human tissues, urine, blood, and other f...

  20. Epiphytic Moss as a Biomonitor for Nitrogen Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, T.; Deakova, T.; Shortlidge, E.; Rao, M.; Rosenstiel, T. N.; Rice, A. L.; George, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Tracking nitrogen (N) deposition patterns is important for understanding how anthropogenic sources of nitrogen affect natural habitats, human health, and for evaluating computer models of future N deposition. It can also aid in tracking and modeling anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions. This pilot study investigated the use of Orthotrichum lyellii, a common urban epiphytic moss, as a possible bioindicator for N deposition through the analysis of total moss N content and N isotopic fractionation ( δ15N) for evaluating N sources. In the spring/summer of 2013 we collected 168 O. lyellii samples from the trunks of deciduous trees in 53 locations in the Portland metropolitan area. In the winter of 2013-14, we resampled the same locations to investigate the effect of seasonality. The averaged summer moss N content were plotted against a land use regression model (LUR) developed by taking NOx samples from 144 sites in the Portland area within the Urban Growth Boundary. The correlation between moss N and modeled NO2 was found to be significant at p moss samples N content ranged between 0.71% and 3.36% (mean of 1.87%), the δ15N ranged -8.97‰ and 11.78‰ (mean of -0.91‰). Moss winter N content ranged between .77% and 3.12% (mean of 1.71%), and the δ15N ranged -10.40‰ and 10.27‰ (mean of -3.73‰). The average values for %N and δ15N fall within the range of previous studies in other moss samples, however the maximum values are higher than what other studies have typically found for both %N and δ15N. A significant correlation between δ15N and %N was found (r = 0.67). The moss samples showed a similar pattern of higher N content and δ15N near the urban center decreasing with distance from major roadways and other significant sources of fossil fuel derived NOx. These results indicated the sensitivity of O.lyellii to N and the potential for its use as a biomonitor. With sufficient sampling density, using O. lyellii as an inexpensive biomonitor to evaluate local

  1. US EPA BIOMONITORING AND BIOINDICATOR CONCEPTS NEEDED TO EVALUATE THE BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY OF AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter presents the current uses, concepts and anticipated future directions of biomonitoring and bioindicators in the regulatory and research programs of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The chapter provides a historical look on how biomonitoring ...

  2. USEPA BIOMONITORING AND BIOINDICATORS CONCEPTS NEEDED TO EVALUATE THE BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY OF AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter presents the current uses, concepts and anticipated future directions of biomonitoring and bioindicators in the regulatory and research programs of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The chapter provides a historical look on how biomonitoring ...

  3. Application of Biomonitoring in Risk Assessment of Chemical Hazards%生物监测任化学危害物风险评估中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春峰; Richard A.KREUTZER; 刘弘

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment was widely used as a scientific tool around the world to evaluate the probability of human health effects resulting from chemical hazards exposure. However, limited resources increased the uncertainties in most risk assessments such as lack of human exposure and dose data. Biomonitoring was a direct way to provide human data on internal exposure and early effects for a more precise and realistic risk assessment. Many developed countries and international institutes had established biomonitoring progtams and encourage applying biomonitoring data in the risk assessment process. This article addressed the definition and development of biomonitoring, depicts the use of biomonitoring in chemical risk assessment and exposure assessment,illustrates the interpretation of biomonitoring data for risk assessment, and illuminates the limitations of integration of biomonitoring data in risk assessment. In conclusion, biomonitoring has the potential to greatly improve chemical risk assessment with the accumulation of relevant data.%风险评估,是目前国际上推崇的评估暴露于环境化学危害物导致不良人体健康效应概率的科学方法,己在世界各国广泛使用.然而,在大部分的风险评估中,因缺乏人群暴露和剂量的数据而增加了评估的不确定性.生物监测能提高风险评估的准确性和真实性,直接提供人体内暴露和早期效应的信息.目前,许多国际组织和发达国家已建立生物监测项目,并鼓励将生物监测数据应用干风险评估之中.本文将阐述生物监测的定义和发展,详细描述化学危害物风险评估和暴露评估中生物监测的作用,举例说明风险评估中生物监测数据的解释,以及整合生物监测的局限性.总之,随着各类数据的积累,生物监测有能力使化学危害物风险评估更完善.

  4. 13. APPLICATION OF THE CYTOKINESIS BLOCK MICRONUCLEUS ASSAY FOR BIOMONITORING PURPOSES: INCLUSION OF MICRONUCLEI IN NON-DIVIDED MONONUCLEAR LYMPHOCYTES AND NECROSIS/APOPTOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Human biomonitoring of early genetic effects requires accurate, sensitive and, if possible, easy and not too time-consuming methodologies to assess mutations. One of the most promising methodologies today is the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay, which detects both chromosome breakage and chromosome loss in once-divided

  5. US Fish and Wildlife Service lands biomonitoring operations manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rope, R.C.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1993-08-01

    This is Volume 1 of an operations manual designed to facilitate the development of biomonitoring strategies for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lands. It is one component of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lands Biomonitoring Operations Manual. The Volume contains the Introduction to the Manual, background information on monitoring, and procedures for developing a biomonitoring strategy for Service lands. The purpose of the Biomonitoring Operations Manual is to provide an approach to develop and implement biomonitoring activities to assess the status and trends of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service trust resources. It also provides field sampline methods and documentation protocols for contaminant monitoring activities. The strategy described in the Manual has been designed as a stand alone process to characterize the presence of contaminants on lands managed by the Service. This process can be sued to develop a monitoring program for any tract of real estate with potential threats from on- or off-site contaminants. Because the process was designed to address concerns for Service lands that span the United States from Alaska to the Tropical Islands, it has a generic format that can be used in al types of ecosystems, however, significant site specific informtion is required to complete the Workbook and make the process work successfully.

  6. [Air pollution biomonitoring with plants and fungi: concepts and uses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, D

    2012-07-01

    Air pollution remains a major environmental concern of the French. Since about 30 years, due to evolution and diversification of sources, pollution became more and more complex, constituting a true "cocktail". Today, it is very important to know environmental and health effects of this cocktail. In this context air biomonitoring using plants and fungi can bring a lot of information. Biomonitoring includes four concepts: the use of biomarkers, bioindication biointegration and bioaccumulation. These four concepts are articulated according to the levels of biological organization, what links up biosurveillance on fundamental plan with ecotoxicology. It is a complementary approach of the physicochemical techniques of air pollution measurements. The main objectives of biomonitoring studies are the monitoring of the space and temporal distribution of pollutants effect; the monitoring of local sources; participation in the health risks assessment; the information of people and the help to decision in public policies. Biomonitoring of air quality is a method, which made its proof in numerous domains of application and brings fundamental information on the impacts of the quality of air. Recent evolution of low concerning biggest industries allows us to envisage the increase of air quality biomonitoring with plants and fungi applications in the field of the valuation of environmental and health risks. The recent normalization (French and European) of different methods will also allow the development of uses.

  7. Optimal wavelet denoising for smart biomonitor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Sheila R.; Agzarian, John; Abbott, Derek

    2001-03-01

    Future smart-systems promise many benefits for biomedical diagnostics. The ideal is for simple portable systems that display and interpret information from smart integrated probes or MEMS-based devices. In this paper, we will discuss a step towards this vision with a heart bio-monitor case study. An electronic stethoscope is used to record heart sounds and the problem of extracting noise from the signal is addressed via the use of wavelets and averaging. In our example of heartbeat analysis, phonocardiograms (PCGs) have many advantages in that they may be replayed and analysed for spectral and frequency information. Many sources of noise may pollute a PCG including foetal breath sounds if the subject is pregnant, lung and breath sounds, environmental noise and noise from contact between the recording device and the skin. Wavelets can be employed to denoise the PCG. The signal is decomposed by a discrete wavelet transform. Due to the efficient decomposition of heart signals, their wavelet coefficients tend to be much larger than those due to noise. Thus, coefficients below a certain level are regarded as noise and are thresholded out. The signal can then be reconstructed without significant loss of information in the signal. The questions that this study attempts to answer are which wavelet families, levels of decomposition, and thresholding techniques best remove the noise in a PCG. The use of averaging in combination with wavelet denoising is also addressed. Possible applications of the Hilbert Transform to heart sound analysis are discussed.

  8. Biomonitor of Environmental Stress: Coral Trace Metal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumet, N.; Hughen, K.

    2006-12-01

    Tropical reef corals are extremely sensitive to changes in environmental conditions and, as a result of environmental degradation and global climate change, coral reefs around the globe are severely threatened. Increased human population and development in tropical regions is leading to higher turbidity and silt loading from terrestrial runoff, increased pesticides and nutrients from agricultural land-use and sewage, and the release of toxic trace metals to coastal waters from industrial pollution. The uptake of these metals and nutrients within the coral skeletal aragonite is a sensitive biomonitor of environmental stresses on coral health. We analyzed 18 trace metals from the surface of coral skeletons collected in Bermuda, Indonesia and Belize to assess a range of threats to coral reef health - including climate change, agricultural runoff and pesticides, and coastal development and tourism. This surface sample network also includes samples representing 4 different coral species. Trace metal analysis was performed on an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) to a high degree of accuracy and precision at extremely low (ppb) concentrations using a protocol we developed for samples less than 2 mg. Proper cleaning techniques were employed to minimize blank level concentrations for ultra-trace metal ICP-MS solution analysis. However, Zn/Ca and Ni/Ca concentrations remain below analytical detection limits. Initial results indicate that sea surface temperature proxies (e.g., Sr/Ca, B/Ca and Mg/Ca) display similar ratios between the different sites, whereas those metals associated with anthropogenic activities, such as Co, Pb and Cu, are site-specific and are linked to individual environmental stressors. Results from this study will be applied to down core trace metal records in the future. In doing so, we aim to understand the impacts of compounding environmental stresses on coral health, and to identify regional threshold values beyond which corals

  9. Phylogenetic signals and ecotoxicological responses: potential implications for aquatic biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carew, Melissa E; Miller, Adam D; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2011-05-01

    Macroinvertebrates can be successfully used as biomonitors of pollutants and environmental health because some groups are sensitive whereas, others are relatively tolerant to pollutants. An issue of ongoing debate is what constitutes an appropriate group for biomonitoring; should the group represent species, genera or higher taxonomic levels? A phylogenetic framework can provide new insights into this issue. By developing phylogenies for chironomids and mayflies, this investigation shows that there is strong phylogenetic signal for pollution responses, and that phylogenetic nodes are common to tolerant and sensitive groups of species. A phylogenetic analysis of biotic indices developed for mayflies based on their response to organic pollution shows that mayfly families varied in pollution tolerance. In contrast, based on sediment zinc concentrations as an indicator of pollution tolerance, Australian chironomids tend to vary in tolerance at lower taxonomic levels. Published data on North American chironomids shows much of the signal for pollution responses is contained within genera rather than sub-families. Tools are now available to distinguish whether this signal reflects historical evolutionary constraints or environmental effects leading to common evolved responses. This suggests that ideally higher taxonomic levels should be used for biomonitoring when there are strong phylogenetic constraints at higher levels. Evolutionary considerations can therefore help to guide the development of macroinvertebrate biomonitors and provide insights into processes that produce sensitive and tolerant taxa. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  10. Ethical issues related to biomonitoring studies on children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2007-01-01

    -off and the recruitments. In the initial phase of planning a biomonitoring study consideration of communication of results including risk and means of risk prevention should be made. Ethical considerations regarding the study protocol should take into account (a) justification of biological sampling related...

  11. Retrospective environmental biomonitoring - Mussel Watch expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöne, Bernd R.; Krause, Richard A.

    2016-09-01

    its chemical composition is controlled by the soft parts and that a robust interpretation of the shell record requires a detailed understanding of bivalve physiology, behavior and ecology. This review attempts to bring together the Mussel Watch and sclerochronology communities and lay the foundation of a new subdiscipline of the Mussel Watch: retrospective environmental biomonitoring. For this purpose, we provide an overview of seminal work from both fields and outline potential future research directions.

  12. The alkaline comet assay: towards validation in biomonitoring of DNA damaging exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Peter

    2006-04-01

    Generation of DNA damage is considered to be an important initial event in carcinogenesis. The single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay is a technically simple and fast method that detects genotoxicity in virtually any mammalian cell type without requirement for cell culture. This review discusses the strength of the comet assay in biomonitoring at its present state of validation. The simple version of the alkaline comet assay detects DNA migration caused by strand breaks, alkaline labile sites, and transient repair sites. By incubation with bacterial glycosylase/endonuclease enzymes, broad classes of oxidative DNA damage, alkylations, and ultraviolet light-induced photoproducts are detected as additional DNA migration. The most widely measured enzyme sensitive sites have been those detected by formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) and endonuclease III (ENDOIII). Reports from biomonitoring studies show that the basal level of DNA damage in leukocytes is influenced be a variety of lifestyle and environmental exposures, including exercise, air pollution, sunlight, and diet. Although not all types of carcinogenic exposures should be expected to damage DNA in leukocytes, the comet assay is a valuable method for detection of genotoxic exposure in humans. However, the predictive value of the comet assay is unknown because it has not been investigated in prospective cohort studies. Also, it is important that the performance of the assay is investigated in multi-laboratory validation trials. As a tool in risk assessment the comet assay can be used in characterization of hazards.

  13. [Exploratory biomonitoring study among workers of livestock farms of the Taranto Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavarone, Ivano; De Felip, Elena; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Iacovella, Nicola; Abballe, Annalisa; Valentini, Silvia; Marra, Valentina; Violante, Nicola; D'Ilio, Sonia; Senofonte, Oreste; Petrucci, Francesco; Majorani, Costanza; Alimonti, Alessandro; Conversano, Michele

    2012-01-01

    to conduct a survey on blood levels of metals and organochlorine compounds (dioxins and PCBs) among workers of livestock farms, and to identify the factors able to explain the magnitude and variability of the measured concentrations. exploratory human biomonitoring study. a sample of 45 workers from farms (masserie) located in the Province of Taranto was included in the study. The farms, located between 6 and 43 km from the industrial area, are family owned and animals (mainly sheep and goats) are locally reared outdoors. The study subjects have similar eating habits, including food consumption resulting from their production. manganese concentrations and, to a lesser extent, arsenic, cadmium and lead are in the medium-high range of levels observed in the Italian general population. This study does not identify factors able to explain the variability in the blood levels of metals. The amount of dioxins and PCBs, on the other hand, is strongly associated both with subjects age and the distance of farm from the industrial site. the results of this survey are suggestive of research hypotheses that need to be confirmed by biomonitoring studies of adequate design and size, in particular the hypothesis that the blood level of dioxins and PCBs decreases with increasing distance from the industrial site. We recommend ad hoc studies to better characterize the exposure of farmers (also associated with agricultural activities), and of the inhabitants of Taranto, to environmental persistent pollutants, also in terms of food matrices locally produced and consumed.

  14. Wild rodents (Dipodomys merriami) used as biomonitors in contaminated mining sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Ilizaliturri, Cesar; Gonzalez-Mille, Donaji; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Mejia-Saavedra, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Mining is one of the most important industrial activities globally; however, mining processes have critical environmental impacts, as mining is a major source of metals and metalloids that contribute significantly to the pollution of soil, sediment, water and air. Heavy metals can impact the health of exposed human populations and nonhuman receptors. This study focused on arsenic because its genotoxicity is well-known. Previously, we proposed a methodology to evaluate and integrate risk from a single source affecting different biologic receptors. Here, we propose an alternative approach estimating arsenic exposure in children and kangaroo rats using probabilistic simulation with Monte Carlo modeling. The estimates are then associated to measured DNA damage and compared to both populations of children and rodents living in contaminated and in reference areas. Finally, based on the integrated analysis of the generated information, we evaluate the potential use of wild rodents (Dipodomys merriami) as a biomonitor at mining sites. Results indicate that the variation of genotoxicity in children of the reference site is approximately 2 units when compared to the children of the contaminated site. In the rodents we observed a variation of approximately 4 units between those of the reference site when compared to those living on the contaminated site. We propose that D. merriami can be used as a biomonitor organism in sites with mining activity, and that a non-lethal test can be used to evaluate risk from metal exposure.

  15. Environmental epigenetics: A promising venue for developing next-generation pollution biomonitoring tools in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Ulloa, Victoria; Gonzalez-Romero, Rodrigo; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M

    2015-09-15

    Environmental epigenetics investigates the cause-effect relationships between specific environmental factors and the subsequent epigenetic modifications triggering adaptive responses in the cell. Given the dynamic and potentially reversible nature of the different types of epigenetic marks, environmental epigenetics constitutes a promising venue for developing fast and sensible biomonitoring programs. Indeed, several epigenetic biomarkers have been successfully developed and applied in traditional model organisms (e.g., human and mouse). Nevertheless, the lack of epigenetic knowledge in other ecologically and environmentally relevant organisms has hampered the application of these tools in a broader range of ecosystems, most notably in the marine environment. Fortunately, that scenario is now changing thanks to the growing availability of complete reference genome sequences along with the development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatic methods. Altogether, these resources make the epigenetic study of marine organisms (and more specifically marine invertebrates) a reality. By building on this knowledge, the present work provides a timely perspective highlighting the extraordinary potential of environmental epigenetic analyses as a promising source of rapid and sensible tools for pollution biomonitoring, using marine invertebrates as sentinel organisms. This strategy represents an innovative, groundbreaking approach, improving the conservation and management of natural resources in the oceans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical impact of human breast milk metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesare Marincola, Flaminia; Dessì, Angelica; Corbu, Sara; Reali, Alessandra; Fanos, Vassilios

    2015-12-01

    Metabolomics is a research field concerned with the analysis of metabolome, the complete set of metabolites in a given cell, tissue, or biological sample. Being able to provide a molecular snapshot of biological systems, metabolomics has emerged as a functional methodology in a wide range of research areas such as toxicology, pharmacology, food technology, nutrition, microbial biotechnology, systems biology, and plant biotechnology. In this review, we emphasize the applications of metabolomics in investigating the human breast milk (HBM) metabolome. HBM is the recommended source of nutrition for infants since it contains the optimal balance of nutrients for developing babies, and it provides a range of benefits for growth, immunity, and development. The molecular mechanisms beyond the inter- and intra-variability of HBM that make its composition unique are yet to be well-characterized. Although still in its infancy, the study of HBM metabolome has already proven itself to be of great value in providing insights into this biochemical variability in relation to mother phenotype, diet, disease, and lifestyle. The results of these investigations lay the foundation for further developments useful to identify normal and aberrant biochemical changes as well as to develop strategies to promote healthy infant feeding practices.

  17. Assessment of Health Belief Model (HBM impact on knowledge, beliefs, and self-efficacy of women in need of genetic counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Moodi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Regarding the ever-increasing of genetic diseases, counseling for the prevention of these diseases has got overwhelming necessity. Thus, promoting individuals’ awareness of. genetic counseling is required. The current study aimed at determining  the effect of an educational program based on Health Belief Model on knowledge, beliefs, and self-efficacy of urbanized women in need of genetic counseling. Materials and Methods: In this randomized field trial study, 80 married women in need of genetic counseling were divided into two equal case and control groups. Data collection means were a researcher-designed questionnaire consisting of demographic data and health belief model queries, which were completed by interview. Educational intervention was done during three 90 minute sessions with one week interval between each one. Finally, the obtained data was fed into SPSS (version 16 applying the statistical tests of Chi-square, repeated ANOVA, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney and Friedman for analysis; and P0.05, but the difference became significant immediately and three months after intervention (P<0.001. There was a significant difference between the knowledge, threat, perceived benefits, barriers and self-efficacy in the two groups three week intervals before and  immediately after intervention, before and after the three months, immediately and after three months in the experimental group (P<0.001, but the difference was not significant in the control group. Conclusion: The results showed that educational interventions based on HBM increases women's knowledge, beliefs, and self-efficacy regarding the role of genetic counseling in the prevention of congenital malformations.

  18. Biomonitoring of nitrogen pollution. Possibilities and limitations of bioindication techniques; Biomonitoring von Stickstoffimmissionen. Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen von Bioindikationsverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, K. [Landwirtschaftskammer Niedersachsen, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Background and aim. Air pollution caused by oxidized and reduced nitrogen is distributed over wide areas of Europe at a high level. As an alternative or complement to physical measurements and modelling calculations, biomonitoring with plants provides techniques to assess amounts and effects of pollution from oxidized and reduced nitrogen compounds (depositions and concentrations). Many of the previously implemented techniques are based on well-proven standardised methods, e.g. documented in VDI guidelines, modified more or less for a biomonitoring of atmospheric nitrogen pollution. This paper gives a review of the techniques for a biomonitoring of atmospheric nitrogen pollution, their possibilities as well as their limitations. Main features - diversity of the ground vegetation - nitrogen accumulation in vascular plants - exposure of vascular plants - mapping of epiphytic lichens, bryophytes and algae - nitrogen accumulation in lichens and bryophytes - exposure of lichens and bryophytes. Results and Discussion. Important response parameters are nitrogen concentrations in plant tissue (shoot, needle, leave) and biodiversity of plant species. These responses of vascular plants in many cases are influenced by other local varying conditions, in particular the soil. The exposure of vascular plants over a short period provides a standardised quantification of the total atmospheric nitrogen input in a model ecosystem. The enrichment of nitrogen in the plant tissue of bryophytes and lichens from the ground vegetation is closely correlated with the amount of nitrogen deposition. The diversity of epiphytic lichens and the response of exposed Hypogymnia physodes is more sensitive to ammonia than to nitrous oxide, whereas with the diversity of epiphytic bryophytes or the abundance of algae no significant correlation with atmospheric N pollution were found. Conclusions. Some bioindication techniques provide a cause-effect related, partly standardised biomonitoring of nitrogen

  19. New approach for assessing human perfluoroalkyl exposure via hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Andreia; Jacobs, Griet; Vanermen, Guido; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    In the recent years hair has been increasingly used as alternative matrix in human biomonitoring (HBM) of environmental pollutants. Sampling advantages and time integration of exposure assessment seems the most attractive features of hair matrix. In the current study, a novel miniaturized method was developed and validated for measuring 15 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including perfluoro n-butanoic acid (PFBA), perfluoro n-pentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluoro n-hexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoro n-heptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluor n-octanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoro n-nonanoic acid (PFNA), perfluoro tetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA), perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluoro pentane sulfonic acid (PFPeS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluoroheptane sulfonic acid (PFHpS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononane sulfonic acid (PFNS), perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS) and perfluorododecane sulfonic acid (PFDoS) in human hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). After extraction using ethyl acetate, dispersive ENVI-Carb was used for clean-up. Good intra- and inter-day precision for low (LQ 5 ng/g hair) and high spike (HQ 15n g/g) levels were achieved (in general RSD hair and 3-13 pg/g hair, respectively. The method limit of quantification (LOQm) ranged between 6 and 301 pg/g hair. The PFAS levels were measured in 30 human hair samples indicating that the levels are low (14-1534 pg/g hair). Some PFAS were not present in any hair sample (e.g. PFHpA, PFTeDA, PFNA, PFPeS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFNS), while other PFAS were frequently detected (PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS, PFDS and PFDoS) in human hair. Although levels in general were low, there is evidence of higher human exposure to some analytes, such as PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, and PFDoS. The current study shows that hair is a suitable alternative non-invasive matrix for exposure assessment of PFAS.

  20. From Evidence-based Medicine to Human-based Medicine in Psychosomatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalek, Michael

    2016-08-23

    Human-based medicine (HbM), a form of psychiatry that focuses not only on fragments and constructs but on the whole person, no longer finds its theoretical basis in the positivism of the modern era, but rather owes its central maxims to the post-modernist ideal that ultimate truths or objectivity in identifying the final cause of illness remain hidden from us for theoretical reasons alone. Evidence-based medicine (EbM) and HbM are thus not mutually exclusive opposites; rather, despite superficial differences in methods of diagnosis and treatment, EbM must be integrated into HbM as an indispensable component of the latter. Probably the most important difference between EbM and HbM lies in the aims and methods of treatment. In HbM the goal is no longer simply to make illnesses disappear but rather to allow the patient to return to a life that is as autonomous and happy as possible. The human being with all his or her potential and limitations once again becomes the measure of all things. This also implies, however, that the multidimensional diagnostics of HbM are oriented not only towards symptoms, pathogenesis, process and understanding but also to a greater degree towards the patient's resources. Treatment options and forms of therapy do not put the disease construct at the centre of the diagnostic and therapeutic interest, but have as their primary aim the reopening of the possibility of a largely autonomous and joyful life for the patient.

  1. The European COPHES/DEMOCOPHES project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Birgit Karin; Esteban, Marta; Koch, Holger Martin

    2014-01-01

    COPHES/DEMOCOPHES has its origins in the European Environment and Health Action Plan of 2004 to "develop a coherent approach on human biomonitoring (HBM) in Europe". Within this twin-project it was targeted to collect specimens from 120 mother-child-pairs in each of the 17 participating European ...

  2. Historical intake and elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides by the Australian population reconstructed from biomonitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Qingwei; MacLeod, Matthew; Wong, Fiona; Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Mueller, Jochen F; Yu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the competing rates of intake and elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the human body is necessary to understand the levels and trends of POPs at a population level. In this paper we reconstruct the historical intake and elimination of ten polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and five organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from Australian biomonitoring data by fitting a population-level pharmacokinetic (PK) model. Our analysis exploits two sets of cross-sectional biomonitoring data for PCBs and OCPs in pooled blood serum samples from the Australian population that were collected in 2003 and 2009. The modeled adult reference intakes in 1975 for PCB congeners ranged from 0.89 to 24.5ng/kgbw/day, lower than the daily intakes of OCPs ranging from 73 to 970ng/kgbw/day. Modeled intake rates are declining with half-times from 1.1 to 1.3years for PCB congeners and 0.83 to 0.97years for OCPs. The shortest modeled intrinsic human elimination half-life among the compounds studied here is 6.4years for hexachlorobenzene, and the longest is 30years for PCB-74. Our results indicate that it is feasible to reconstruct intakes and to estimate intrinsic human elimination half-lives using the population-level PK model and biomonitoring data only. Our modeled intrinsic human elimination half-lives are in good agreement with values from a similar study carried out for the population of the United Kingdom, and are generally longer than reported values from other industrialized countries in the Northern Hemisphere.

  3. Investigation of mangrove macroalgae as biomonitors of estuarine metal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melville, Felicity [Department of Environmental Sciences/Institute of Water and Environmental Resource Management, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway NSW 2007 (Australia)], E-mail: f.melville@cqu.edu.au; Pulkownik, Alex [Department of Environmental Sciences/Institute of Water and Environmental Resource Management, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2007-11-15

    This study examined the potential use of macroalgae epiphytic on mangrove aerial roots as biomonitors of estuarine contamination. The metal concentrations of macroalgae were investigated in four estuaries in the vicinity of Sydney, Australia, and compared to water and sediment metal concentrations over three seasonal surveys. Macroalgal metal concentrations (copper, zinc, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, manganese and iron) appeared to be more associated with sediment metal concentrations than water concentrations, suggesting they may be useful biomonitors of estuarine sediment contamination. Algae in the more contaminated estuaries generally contained higher metal concentrations. However, concentrations of iron, nickel and manganese appeared to be similar in the algae despite the varying sediment concentrations, while accumulation of copper, zinc, lead and chromium appeared to be associated with ambient environmental concentrations. The uptake of metals also varied among the different species, suggesting that algal parameters, such as morphology, may also influence metal uptake and accumulation.

  4. Environmental bioindication, biomonitoring, and bioremediation of organometal(loid)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, John S

    2010-01-01

    Environmentally occurring organometal(loid)s have generated some severe health and safety problems. Consequently, scientists have been investigating various organisms to show the presence of such compounds (bioindicators), to follow their movement through the environment (biomonitors), and to remove them (bioremediators). Examples of such organisms and the mechanisms of their action(s) are discussed. Also mentioned are those organisms that form organometal(loid)s as a way of removing toxic inorganic species.

  5. Micronuclei assay: A potential biomonitoring protocol in occupational exposure studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanikumar, L; Panneerselvam, N

    2011-09-01

    As micronuclei (MN) derive from chromosomal fragments and whole chromosomes lagging behind in anaphase, the MN assay can be used to show both clastogenic and aneugenic effects. This particularly concerns the use of MN as a biomarker ofgenotoxic exposure and effects, where differences in MN frequencies between exposed subjects and referents are expected to be small. The present paper reviews the use of the MN assay in biomonitoring of occupational exposure studies.

  6. Biomonitoring of the atmospheric pollution by heavy metals in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudry, A.; Senhou, A.; Chouak, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; Moutia, Z.; Lferde, M.; Elyahyaoui, A.; El Khoukhi, T.; Bounakhla, M.; Embarch, K.; Ayrault, S.; Moskura, M.

    2003-05-01

    In this study, the accumulation sensitivities of trace elements in six types of air pollution biomonitors (lichens, tree barks and a moss) are compared. Three analytical methods were used:14MeV neutron activation analysis, thermal neutron activation analysis method and X-ray fluorescence analysis. Studies of the local concentration variations versus the sizes of lichen and of their altitude of collection from grounds, revealed that a standardisation of the procedures for collecting samples was necessary.

  7. Analytical method for biomonitoring of endocrine-disrupting compounds (bisphenol A, parabens, perfluoroalkyl compounds and a brominated flame retardant) in human hair by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2016-11-16

    In this paper, a method for the determination of four groups of endocrine-disrupting compounds in human hair is proposed. Target compounds were a plastic monomer (bisphenol A), three parabens commonly used as preservatives (methylparaben, ethylparaben and propylparaben), six perfluoroalkyl compounds commonly used as water, oil and dirt repellents (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and five perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, with alkyl chains from four to eight carbon atoms) and a brominated flame retardant (hexabromocyclododecane). All of them are of especial concern to human health because they are utilized in many everyday products. The method is based on hair incubation with methanol/acetic acid solution (85:15, v/v), extraction with acetone for 15 min in an ultrasonic bath and analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode. Limits of quantification in hair samples ranged from 0.6 ng g(-1) to 6.1 ng g(-1), except for hexabromocyclododecane (36 ng g(-1)). Recoveries were higher than 69%. Intra-day and inter-day precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, were lower than 15% and 10%, respectively. The applicability of the method was proven by analyzing the target compounds in hair samples from six volunteers. High frequencies of detection and concentrations were obtained for bisphenol A (83% of samples; concentrations up to 158 ng g(-1)) and parabens (100% of samples; concentrations up to 624 ng g(-1)). Lower concentrations were detected for the perfluoroalkyl compounds (up to 13 ng g(-1)). Hexabromocyclododecane was not detected.

  8. Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum as a biomonitor to metal pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Huifeng; JI Chenglong; WANG Qing; LIU Xiaoli; ZHAO Jianmin; FENG Jianghua

    2013-01-01

    The Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum is a good biomonitor/bioindicator to marine metal pollution and is frequently used in aquatic toxicology.Two dominant pedigrees (white and zebra) of clam are distributed in the Bohai Sea; however,little attention has been paid to potential biological differences between these two pedigrees.In this study,we tested the sensitivity of both pedigrees to marine metal (cadmium and zinc) pollution biomonitoring and marine environmental toxicology.Results demonstrate significant biological differences in gills of white and zebra clams based on metabolic profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities.In addition,we found that hypotaurine,malonate and homarine were relatively high in white clam gills,while alanine,arginine,glutamate,succinate,4-aminobutyrate,taurine and betaine were high in zebra clam gills.Zebra clam gills were also more sensitive to a mixture of Cd and Zn,as shown by antioxidant enzyme activities and metabolic profiles,but white clam gills could accumulate more Zn.Therefore,we suggest that the white pedigree can be used as a biomonitor to marine Zn pollution,whereas the zebra pedigree can be used for toxicology studies on Cd and Zn mixed pollution.

  9. Human semen as an early, sensitive biomarker of highly polluted living environment in healthy men: A pilot biomonitoring study on trace elements in blood and semen and their relationship with sperm quality and RedOx status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamo, Paolo; Volpe, Maria Grazia; Lorenzetti, Stefano; Mantovani, Alberto; Notari, Tiziana; Cocca, Ennio; Cerullo, Stefano; Di Stasio, Michele; Cerino, Pellegrino; Montano, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    The Campania region in Italy is facing an environmental crisis due to the illegal disposal of toxic waste. Herein, a pilot study (EcoFoodFertility initiative) was conducted to investigate the use of human semen as an early biomarker of pollution on 110 healthy males living in various areas of Campania with either high or low environmental impact. The semen from the "high impact" group showed higher zinc, copper, chromium and reduced iron levels, as well as reduced sperm motility and higher sperm DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI). Redox biomarkers (total antioxidant capacity, TAC, and glutathione, GSH) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in semen were lower in the "high impact" group. The percentage of immotile spermatozoa showed a significant inverse correlation with TAC and GSH. Overall, several semen parameters (reduced sperm quality and antioxidant defenses, altered chemical element pattern), which were associated with residence in a high polluted environment, could be used in a further larger scale study, as early biomarkers of environmental pollution.

  10. Biomonitoring of boron: Development and characterization of a simple, reliable and quality controlled biomonitoring method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalke, Bernhard

    2017-03-01

    Boron exposure is of interest and concern from an occupational point of view. Usual daily boron intake is related to boron blood plasma concentration boron biomonitoring, typically in urine, thus is mandatory for occupational health control institutions. This paper reports on the development of a simple, fast and reliable boron determination procedure based on inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Major aims for this method were simplicity in sample preparation, low risk for artifacts and interferences, high precision and accuracy, possibly low costs, including lower costs for element selective detection, short total analysis time and suitability for occupational health laboratories. Precision data (serial or day-to-day) from urine and doped urine were very good: <1.5 or <2%. Accuracy was calculated from analysis of a certified reference material (ERM-CD 281), as 99% or according to recoveries of doped concentrations ranging from 102 to 109% recovery. For cross-checking ICP-OES determinations, samples were analyzed also by quadrupole ICP-qMS and by sectorfield ICP-sf-MS at low and medium resolution. Both systems confirmed ICP-OES measurements when using (11)B for quantification. Determinations based on (10)B however showed some bias, except with ICP-sf-MS at medium resolution. The observed elevated signals are discussed with respect to the known Ne(++) interference (as an impurity in Ar), which is not separated in low resolving quadrupole ICP-MS systems or ICP-sf-MS at low resolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. A multi-element screening method to identify metal targets for blood biomonitoring in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, C A; Finlayson, S; Limpus, C; Gaus, C

    2015-04-15

    Biomonitoring of blood is commonly used to identify and quantify occupational or environmental exposure to chemical contaminants. Increasingly, this technique has been applied to wildlife contaminant monitoring, including for green turtles, allowing for the non-lethal evaluation of chemical exposure in their nearshore environment. The sources, composition, bioavailability and toxicity of metals in the marine environment are, however, often unknown and influenced by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. These factors can vary considerably across time and space making the selection of the most informative elements for biomonitoring challenging. This study aimed to validate an ICP-MS multi-element screening method for green turtle blood in order to identify and facilitate prioritisation of target metals for subsequent fully quantitative analysis. Multi-element screening provided semiquantitative results for 70 elements, 28 of which were also determined through fully quantitative analysis. Of the 28 comparable elements, 23 of the semiquantitative results had an accuracy between 67% and 112% relative to the fully quantified values. In lieu of any available turtle certified reference materials (CRMs), we evaluated the use of human blood CRMs as a matrix surrogate for quality control, and compared two commonly used sample preparation methods for matrix related effects. The results demonstrate that human blood provides an appropriate matrix for use as a quality control material in the fully quantitative analysis of metals in turtle blood. An example for the application of this screening method is provided by comparing screening results from blood of green turtles foraging in an urban and rural region in Queensland, Australia. Potential targets for future metal biomonitoring in these regions were identified by this approach.

  12. Monitoring temporal trends of air pollution in an urban area using mosses and lichens as biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdol, Renato; Marchesini, Roberta; Iacumin, Paola; Brancaleoni, Lisa

    2014-08-01

    Monitoring air quality by using living organisms as biomonitors has received increasing attention in recent years. However, rather few studies were based on the concomitant use of passive biomonitoring (based on the different sensitivity of living organisms to air pollution) and active biomonitoring (based on their capacity to accumulate pollutants in the tissues). We carried out a repeated survey of an urban area in Northern Italy, with the objective of comparing temporal trends of different kinds of air pollutants with bioindication (passive biomonitoring) and bioaccumulation (active biomonitoring) techniques. During a five-year interval, temporal patterns of moss metal concentrations underwent significant changes probably due to intercurring variations in the importance of different pollution sources. Nitrogen (N) concentration in moss tissues also decreased and was paralleled by increasing diversity of epiphytic lichens. Increasing δ(15)N in moss tissues suggested a higher contribution of oxidized N species compared with reduced N species.

  13. Noninvasive Biomonitoring Approaches to Determine Dosimetry and Risk Following Acute Chemical Exposure: Analysis of Lead or Organophosphate Insecticide in Saliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Chuck; Poet, Torka S.; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Campbell, James A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2004-04-01

    There is a need to develop approaches for assessing risk associated with acute exposures to a broad-range of chemical agents and to rapidly determine the potential implications to human health. Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantitate dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. Saliva has been used to evaluate a broad range of biomarkers, drugs, and environmental contaminants including heavy metals and pesticides. To advance the application of non-invasive biomonitoring a microfluidic/ electrochemical device has also been developed for the analysis of lead (Pb), using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The system demonstrates a linear response over a broad concentration range (1 2000 ppb) and is capable of quantitating saliva Pb in rats orally administered acute doses of Pb-acetate. Appropriate pharmacokinetic analyses have been used to quantitate systemic dosimetry based on determination of saliva Pb concentrations. In addition, saliva has recently been used to quantitate dosimetry following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in a rodent model system by measuring the major metabolite, trichloropyridinol, and saliva cholinesterase inhibition following acute exposures. These results suggest that technology developed for non-invasive biomonitoring can provide a sensitive, and portable analytical tool capable of assessing exposure and risk in real-time. By coupling these non-invasive technologies with pharmacokinetic modeling it is feasible to rapidly quantitate acute exposure to a broad range of chemical agents. In summary, it is envisioned that once fully developed, these monitoring and modeling approaches will be useful for accessing acute exposure and health risk.

  14. Biomonitoring of genotoxic exposure among stainless steel welders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Boisen, T; Christensen, J M

    1992-01-01

    . Environmental monitoring of welding fumes and selected metal oxides, biomonitoring of chromium and nickel in serum and urine and mutagenic activity in urine, and evaluation of semen quality were also done. Manual metal arc (MMA) welding and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding were the dominant welding processes...... lymphocytes in exposed persons compared with non-exposed are suggested. MMA welding gave the highest exposure to chromium, an increased number of chromosomal aberrations and a decrease in SCE when compared with TIG welding. Consequently improvements in the occupational practice of stainless steel welding...

  15. Nanoparticle exposure biomonitoring: exposure/effect indicator development approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Desvergne, C.; Dubosson, M.; Lacombe, M.; Brun, V.; Mossuz, V.

    2015-05-01

    The use of engineered nanoparticles (NP) is more and more widespread in various industrial sectors. The inhalation route of exposure is a matter of concern (adverse effects of air pollution by ultrafine particles and asbestos). No NP biomonitoring recommendations or standards are available so far. The LBM laboratory is currently studying several approaches to develop bioindicators for occupational health applications. As regards exposure indicators, new tools are being implemented to assess potentially inhaled NP in non-invasive respiratory sampling (nasal sampling and exhaled breath condensates (EBC)). Diverse NP analytical characterization methods are used (ICP-MS, dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray analysis). As regards effect indicators, a methodology has been developed to assess a range of 29 cytokines in EBCs (potential respiratory inflammation due to NP exposure). Secondly, collaboration between the LBM laboratory and the EDyp team has allowed the EBC proteome to be characterized by means of an LC-MS/MS process. These projects are expected to facilitate the development of individual NP exposure biomonitoring tools and the analysis of early potential impacts on health. Innovative techniques such as field-flow fractionation combined with ICP-MS and single particle-ICPMS are currently being explored. These tools are directly intended to assist occupational physicians in the identification of exposure situations.

  16. Using the pollen viability and morphology for fluoride pollution biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malayeri, Behrooz Eshghi; Noori, Mitra; Jafari, Mehrana

    2012-06-01

    The methods using plants for biomonitoring of air and soil quality are simple, cheap, and fast and can supplement the classical physicochemical methods. In this study, biological pollen characterization of some collected legume species from an aluminum smelter area in Iran (IRALCO) was carried out to determine the actual value of pollen as a bioindicator of the effects of soil and atmospheric pollution. Young buds and flowers of six legumes (Cercis siliquastrum L., Medicago sativa L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Melilotus officinalis (L.) lam, Trifolium repens L., and Sophora alopecuroides L.) in polluted and control plants were removed and compared. Studies of light and electron microscopic preparation showed some abnormalities during pollen development in affect of fluoride pollution. The viability of pollen grains estimated by staining with acetocarmine shows sharp differences in smearing advanced pollen grains from abnormal ones. Except M. officinalis, the pollen grains of C. siliquastrum, M. sativa, R. pseudoacacia, T. repens, and S. alopecuroides in polluted areas showed light, partial, or no staining with acetocarmine, whereas almost all of the control ones clearly stained. Observation of the pollen grains by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed the significant effect of fluoride on shapes and sizes of pollen grains. The stimulation and inhibition of these pollen characteristics depend on the pollen species as well as on the pollutant and its concentration. Therefore, pollen grains provide essential information on biological impact of pollutants and they are good candidates for biomonitoring the atmospheric and edaphic pollutions.

  17. Active biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution using Rosa rugosa plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzoni, Gian Lorenzo [Dip. Biologia, Universita di Bologna, via Irnerio 42, 40126 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: gianlorenzo.calzoni@unibo.it; Antognoni, Fabiana [Dip. Biologia, Universita di Bologna, via Irnerio 42, 40126 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: fabiana.antognoni@unibo.it; Pari, Elena [Gruppo CSA-SpA, via al Torrente 22, Rimini (Italy)], E-mail: epari@csaricerche.com; Fonti, Paolo [Gruppo CSA-SpA, via al Torrente 22, Rimini (Italy)], E-mail: pfonti@csaricerche.com; Gnes, Antonio [ARPA - Agenzia Regionale Protezione Ambientale, Sez. Provinciale di Ravenna, via Alberoni 17, Ravenna (Italy)], E-mail: agnes@ra.arpa.emr.it; Speranza, Anna [Dip. Biologia, Universita di Bologna, via Irnerio 42, 40126 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: anna.speranza@unibo.it

    2007-09-15

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the quality of a rural area near Faenza (Italy) by using an active biomonitoring approach, i.e., by placing homogeneous individuals of the perennial shrub Rosa rugosa in different sites throughout the area. Further sites, within the city or its environs, were used for comparison. Soil and leaves of R. rugosa were analyzed for their heavy metal content. The total heavy metal pattern of leaves closely paralleled the pattern registered in soil, with the highest content (both in total and assimilable forms) at the site in the urban area, which is exposed to heavy traffic. Pollen quality (abortiveness and viability) was also tested as a potential indicator of pollution. Pollen abortiveness was strictly related to Pb levels in leaves, while viability was inversely related to leaf Cr content. Our results suggest that R. rugosa has the potential to be a good biomonitoring system. - Rosa rugosa leaves and pollen are - to different extents - suitable monitoring tools for heavy metal pollution.

  18. Interpretation of biomonitoring data in clinical medicine and the exposure sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bryan L; Barr, Dana B; Wright, J Michael; Buckley, Brian; Magsumbol, Melina S

    2008-11-15

    Biomonitoring has become a fundamental tool in both exposure science and clinical medicine. Despite significant analytical advances, the clinical use of environmental biomarkers remains in its infancy. Clinical use of environmental biomarkers poses some complex scientific and ethical challenges. The purpose of this paper is compare how the clinical and exposure sciences differ with respect to their interpretation and use of biological data. Additionally, the clinical use of environmental biomonitoring data is discussed. A case study is used to illustrate the complexities of conducting biomonitoring research on highly vulnerable populations in a clinical setting.

  19. State Recommendations for the Design of the USFWS RMA Aquatic Biomonitoring Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Colorado Department of Health expresses it's three major concerns regarding the aquatic portion of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal's Biomonitoring Program. Those...

  20. Long-Term Contaminant Biomonitoring Program for Terrestrial Ecological Receptors at Rocky Mountain Arsenal : Revision 0

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document represents a plan developed and recommended by the RMA Biological Advisory Subcommittee (BAS) for long-term biomonitoring of terrestrial ecological...

  1. Bio-monitoring of mycotoxin exposure in Cameroon using a urinary multi-biomarker approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Wilfred A; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Tchana, Angele; Njobeh, Patrick B; Turner, Paul C; Kouanfack, Charles; Eyongetah, Mbu; Dutton, Mike; Moundipa, Paul F

    2013-12-01

    Bio-monitoring of human exposure to mycotoxin has mostly been limited to a few individually measured mycotoxin biomarkers. This study aimed to determine the frequency and level of exposure to multiple mycotoxins in human urine from Cameroonian adults. 175 Urine samples (83% from HIV-positive individuals) and food frequency questionnaire responses were collected from consenting Cameroonians, and analyzed for 15 mycotoxins and relevant metabolites using LC-ESI-MS/MS. In total, eleven analytes were detected individually or in combinations in 110/175 (63%) samples including the biomarkers aflatoxin M1, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A and total deoxynivalenol. Additionally, important mycotoxins and metabolites thereof, such as fumonisin B2, nivalenol and zearalenone, were determined, some for the first time in urine following dietary exposures. Multi-mycotoxin contamination was common with one HIV-positive individual exposed to five mycotoxins, a severe case of co-exposure that has never been reported in adults before. For the first time in Africa or elsewhere, this study quantified eleven mycotoxin biomarkers and bio-measures in urine from adults. For several mycotoxins estimates indicate that the tolerable daily intake is being exceeded in this study population. Given that many mycotoxins adversely affect the immune system, future studies will examine whether combinations of mycotoxins negatively impact Cameroonian population particularly immune-suppressed individuals.

  2. Multi-class method for biomonitoring of hair samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Julia; Möder, Monika; Gaudl, Alexander; Alonso, Esteban; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2015-11-01

    Currently, non-invasive biomonitoring of human exposure to organic pollutants bases upon the analysis mainly of urine and human breast milk. While mostly persistent organic pollutants are the center of interest, the aim of our study was to develop a method for the determination of different chemical classes of emerging pollutants (organophosphorus flame retardants, plastic additives such as phthalates, bisphenol A, insecticides, antimicrobials, preservatives and musk fragrances) in hair by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The preferred sample preparation included hydrolysis of the hair with trifluoroacetic acid in methanol followed by a liquid-liquid extraction using hexane/ethyl acetate. The validated method is characterized by recoveries higher than 77 % for most analytes, relative standard deviations below 16 % and limits of detection between 2 pg mg(-1) (HHCB) and 292 pg mg(-1) (propylparaben) using 50 mg of dry hair. After respective blank corrections, bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and the musk fragrance HHCB were the predominant compounds determined in all hair samples at concentrations between 32 and 59 ng mg(-1) and 0.8-13 ng mg(-1), respectively. The bactericide triclosan and the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) were detected in selected hair samples at 2 and 0.8 ng mg(-1), respectively.

  3. Pilot biomonitoring of adults and children following use of chlorpyrifos shampoo and flea collars on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyk, Melinda Bigelow; Chen, Zhenshan; Mosadeghi, Sasan; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide handlers and pet owners who use products such as shampoos and dips and insecticide-impregnated collars to treat and control fleas on companion animals are exposed to a variety of active ingredients. Chlorpyrifos exposures of adults and children were measured using urine biomonitoring following use of over-the-counter products on dogs. Age and gender-specific measurements of urinary 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) revealed modest elevations of biomarker excretion following shampoo/dips. Smaller TCPy increments were measured following application of impregnated dog collars. The extent of indoor activity and potential pet contact were important determinants of urine biomarker level. Children without direct pet contact excreted more TCPy following collar application. Pet collars may be a source of indoor surface contamination and human exposure. Children excreted up to 4 times more TCPy than adults when urine volumes were adjusted using age-specific creatinine excretion levels. Although chlorpyrifos is no longer used in the United States in pet care products, results of this research provide perspective on the extent of human exposure from similar pet care products. These pilot studies demonstrated that pet care products such as insecticidal shampoos and dips and impregnated collars may expose family members to low levels of insecticide relative to toxic levels of concern.

  4. Needles of Pinus halepensis as biomonitors of bioaerosol emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Galès

    Full Text Available We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached the background level at distances around the composting plant ranging from 2 km to more than 5.4 km, depending on the local topography and average wind directions. From these values, the impacted area around the source of bioaerosols was mapped.

  5. Epiphytic lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric pollution in Slovenian forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeran, Z. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: zvonka.jeran@ijs.si; Mrak, T. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jacimovic, R. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Batic, F. [Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kastelec, D. [Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mavsar, R. [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Vecna pot 2, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simoncic, P. [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Vecna pot 2, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2007-03-15

    Two country-wide surveys using epiphytic lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric pollution carried out during 2000 and 2001 in Slovenia were compared with surveys in 1991 and 1992. In the first survey, epiphytic lichen cover was studied in more than 500 plots of the 4 x 4 km national grid carried out within the framework of forest decline inventories. In the second survey, the epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., was collected on a 16 x 16 km bioindication grid and analysed for S, N, As, Br, Ce, Cd, Cr, K, La, Mo, Rb, Sb, Th, U and Zn contents. Only 'forested area' sampling points were included in the present study. Lichen cover was low, with about 70% of plots with less than 10% foliose lichen cover. No relationship was found between Hypogymnia trace element, N and S concentrations and foliose epiphytic lichen cover. - No relationship between Hypogymnia element concentrations and foliose epiphytic lichen cover was found.

  6. Needles of Pinus halepensis as biomonitors of bioaerosol emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galès, Amandine; Latrille, Eric; Wéry, Nathalie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Godon, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached the background level at distances around the composting plant ranging from 2 km to more than 5.4 km, depending on the local topography and average wind directions. From these values, the impacted area around the source of bioaerosols was mapped.

  7. Use of cryopreserved peripheral mononuclear blood cells in biomonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risom, Lotte; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    1999-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of storing blood samples by freezing on selected biomarkers and possible implications for biomonitoring. Comparative measurements were performed in order to investigate the use of cryopreserved vs. freshly separated peripheral mononuclear blood c....... We measured the DNA repair activity as dimethylsulfate induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in PMBC incubated with either autologous plasma or fetal bovine serum (FBS). Comparison of the hprt mutant frequency by the T cell cloning assay was made in parallel. Finally the content of B....../T-lymphocytes and monocytes was measured in phytohemaglutinin (PHA)-stimulated cultures at different time intervals. The results showed a higher DNA repair activity in cryopreserved samples compared with fresh samples. We also found differences in mutant frequencies with higher values in fresh samples. A significant...

  8. Study of environmental biomonitoring of the Jiaozhou Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P Q; Wang, W Q; Lu, X L; Chen, C Y; Dong, J H

    1999-01-01

    The content of 34 elements was determined in tissue samples of several marine bivalve species collected from various sites in the Jiaozhou Bay. The scope of the study was to determine the most suitable bivalve species to be used for environmental biomonitoring and to evaluate the environmental status of the bay. Clams exhibited higher elemental contents than oysters and they are the major marine bivalve species in the Jiaozhou Bay; therefore, we consider clams to be more suitable than oysters as bioindicators for evaluating the environmental status of the area. Increased elemental levels in clam tissues indicate polluted sites. Also, increased elemental levels in mussels point to possible pollution from tourism development at one selected site.

  9. Biomonitoring and hormone-disrupting effect biomarkers of persistent organic pollutants in vitro and ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C; Ghisari, Mandana; Wielsøe, Maria; Bjerregaard-Olesen, Christian; Kjeldsen, Lisbeth S; Long, Manhai

    2014-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) include lipophilic legacy POPs and the amphiphilic perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). They have long half-lives and bioaccumulate in the environment, animals and human beings. POPs possess toxic, carcinogenic and endocrine-disrupting potentials. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds that either mimic or block endogenous hormones and thus disrupt the normal hormone homeostasis. Biomonitoring assesses the internal doses of a person to provide information about chemical exposures. Effect biomarkers assess chemicals potential to affect cellular functions in vivo/ex vivo. Human beings are exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals, having individually very different biological potentials and effects. Therefore, the assessment of the combined, integrated biological effect of the actual chemical mixture in human blood is important. In vitro and ex vivo cell systems have been introduced for the assessment of the integrated level of xenobiotic cellular effects in human beings. Ex vivo studies have shown geographical differences in bioaccumulated POP serum levels, being reflected by the combined biomarker effects of the complex mixture extracted from human serum. Xenohormone receptor transactivities can be used as an ex vivo integrated biomarker of POP exposure and effects. Epidemiological and in vitro/ex vivo studies have supported the potential impact of the combined effect of serum POPs on the activity of hormone and/or dioxin receptors as a risk factor for human health. With focus on hormone disruption, this MiniReview will give an update on recent POP-related endocrine-disrupting effects in vitro/ex vivo/in vivo and some related genetic data.

  10. Biomonitoring of airborne particulate matter emitted from a cement plant and comparison with dispersion modelling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Gabriela A.; Wannaz, Eduardo D.; Mateos, Ana C.; Pignata, María L.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a cement plant that incinerates industrial waste on the air quality of a region in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, was assessed by means of biomonitoring studies (effects of immission) and atmospheric dispersion (effects of emission) of PM10 with the application of the ISC3 model (Industrial Source Complex) developed by the USEPA (Environmental Protection Agency). For the biomonitoring studies, samples from the epiphyte plant Tillandsia capillaris Ruíz & Pav. f. capillaris were transplanted to the vicinities of the cement plant in order to determine the physiological damage and heavy metal accumulation (Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb). For the application of the ISC3 model, point and area sources from the cement plant were considered to obtain average PM10 concentration results from the biomonitoring exposure period. This model permitted it to be determined that the emissions from the cement plant (point and area sources) were confined to the vicinities, without significant dispersion in the study area. This was also observed in the biomonitoring study, which identified Ca, Cd and Pb, pH and electric conductivity (EC) as biomarkers of this cement plant. Vehicular traffic emissions and soil re-suspension could be observed in the biomonitors, giving a more complete scenario. In this study, biomonitoring studies along with the application of atmospheric dispersion models, allowed the atmospheric pollution to be assessed in more detail.

  11. Mapping and modeling airborne urban phenanthrene distribution using vegetation biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noth, Elizabeth M.; Katharine Hammond, S.; Biging, Gregory S.; Tager, Ira B.

    2013-10-01

    To capture the spatial distribution of phenanthrene in an urban setting we used vegetation biomonitoring with Jeffrey pine trees (Pinus jeffreyi). The major challenge in characterizing spatial variation in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations within a metropolitan area has been sampling at a fine enough resolution to observe the underlying spatial pattern. However, field and chamber studies show that the primary pathway through which PAHs enter plants is from air into leaves, making vegetation biomonitoring a feasible way to examine the spatial distribution of these compounds. Previous research has shown that phenanthrene has adverse health effects and that it is one of the most abundant PAHs in urban air. We collected 99 pine needle samples from 91 locations in Fresno in the morning on a winter day, and analyzed them for PAHs in the inner needle. All 99 pine needle samples had detectable levels of phenanthrene, with mean concentration of 41.0 ng g-1, median 36.9 ng g-1, and standard deviation of 28.5 ng g-1 fresh weight. The ratio of the 90th:10th percentile concentrations by location was 3.3. The phenanthrene distribution had a statistically significant Moran's I of 0.035, indicating a high degree of spatial clustering. We implemented land use regression to fit a model to our data. Our model was able to explain a moderate amount of the variability in the data (R2 = 0.56), likely reflecting the major sources of phenanthrene in Fresno. The spatial distribution of modeled airborne phenanthrene shows the influences of highways, railroads, and industrial and commercial zones.

  12. Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring trace-element air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloof, J.E.

    1993-09-27

    Chapter 1 describes the possibilities to study trace-element air pollution in order to get insight in the character and element levels of such pollution. Chapter 2 describes two monitoring surveys using Parmelia sulcata Taylor on a national scale, in which spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals were investigated. The surveys were carried out in 1982-1983 at 110 sampling sites and in 1986-1987 at 210 sampling sites. From these studies it was concluded that lichens are at least good qualitative biomonitors for atmospheric trace-element levels. Chapter 3 describes the response of lichens to the cesium-137 activity as a result of the Chernobyl accident, deposited by rainfall in the Netherlands. From this study it was concluded that lichens are good biomonitors for atmospheric cesium-137 activity too. Chapter 4 describes the application of factor analysis to a lichen data set from a monitoring survey on a national scale (1986-1987), for source apportionment. In Chapter 5 a field study is described on the contribution of a possible influence from the soil to element concentrations in Parmelia sulcata Taylor growing on trees in a an area with polluted soil. Chapter 6 describes a field study on the interchangeability of two tolerant lichen species (Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Lecanora conizaeoides Nyl.) in a polluted area. In Chapter 7 a field study is described in which the quantitative relationships between concentrations of cobalt, scandium and zinc in lichens and concentrations in air particulate matter and total deposition (wet and dry) were investigated. Chapter 8 describes a laboratory study on the kinetics of the uptake-and release of cadmium in a green algae species (Selenastrum capricornutum Printz), which is regarded to be representative for the algal symboint in the lichens used in this thesis. Chapter 9 presents the central conclusions of this thesis for the lichen species, elements and conditions under study. (orig./MG).

  13. Predicting human papillomavirus vaccine uptake in young adult women: Comparing the Health Belief Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A.; Shepherd, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although theories of health behavior have guided thousands of studies, relatively few studies have compared these theories against one another. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to compare two classic theories of health behavior—the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)—in their prediction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Methods After watching a gain-framed, loss-framed, or control video, women (N=739) ages 18–26 completed a survey assessing HBM and TPB constructs. HPV vaccine uptake was assessed ten months later. Results Although the message framing intervention had no effect on vaccine uptake, support was observed for both the TPB and HBM. Nevertheless, the TPB consistently outperformed the HBM. Key predictors of uptake included subjective norms, self-efficacy, and vaccine cost. Conclusions Despite the observed advantage of the TPB, findings revealed considerable overlap between the two theories and highlighted the importance of proximal versus distal predictors of health behavior. PMID:22547155

  14. Characterization of an area of reference for inhalable particulate matter (PM2.5) associated with genetic biomonitoring in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva da Silva, Cristiane; Rossato, Juliana Marzari; Vaz Rocha, Jocelita Aparecida; Vargas, Vera Maria Ferrão

    2015-01-15

    Humans are exposed to health-impairing air pollutants, especially children who are more sensitive to cancer-causing toxins. This study described an area of reference for inhalable particulates (PM2.5) by chemical (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and mutagenic characterization associated with the genetic biomonitoring of children (aged 5-11 years). The area studied was in a small town in Brazil, used as reference in previous studies. Organic matter of PM2.5 (extracted with dichloromethane) was evaluated for mutagenesis in a Salmonella/microsome (microsuspension) assay, in strains measuring frameshift error (TA98, YG1021 and YG1024) and base pair substitution (TA100) of DNA, in the presence and absence of rat liver metabolization fraction (S9). Exposure was studied analyzing a sample of 45 children using comet assay (peripheral blood lymphocytes) and micronucleus (exfoliated buccal mucosa cells). PM2.5 concentration for the period was 9% (25.89-64.71 μg/m3) events above WHO limit value (25 μg/m3). Mutagenesis responses (revertants/m3) varied from negative (spring) to 8.3±0.69 (autumn) (-S9) and 5.4±0.36 (winter) (+S9), in strain TA98, and for TA100, in spring, from negative to 14.8±4.23 (-S9) and 17.5±2.72 (+S9). YG strain results show mononitroarenes and aromatic amines. Mean biomonitoring values were established for MN, 0.3±0.41 (‰) and for other cell types a variation from 0.6±0.73 (‰), nuclear buds to 57.5±24.92 (‰), karyorrhexis. Comet assay means were 23.1±12.44; 7.3±11.66 and 0.9±2.30 for tail length, intensity and moment, respectively. There was no difference for sex and age for the different parameters. A significant difference in confounding factors was observed for passive smoking and MN induction. PAHs and mutagenesis in the air may be related to local vehicular emissions. These results challenge the definition of areas of reference for air pollution associated with human biomonitoring including the region studied. Copyright © 2014

  15. Impacts of particulate matter pollution on plants: Implications for environmental biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is one of the serious problems world is facing in recent Anthropocene era of rapid industrialization and urbanization. Specifically particulate matter (PM) pollution represents a threat to both the environment and human health. The changed ambient environment due to the PM pollutant in urban areas has exerted a profound influence on the morphological, biochemical and physiological status of plants and its responses. Taking into account the characteristics of the vegetation (wide distribution, greater contact area etc.) it turns out to be an effective indicator of the overall impact of PM pollution and harmful effects of PM pollution on vegetation have been reviewed in the present paper, covering an extensive span of 1960 to March 2016. The present review critically describes the impact of PM pollution and its constituents (e.g. heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons) on the morphological attributes such as leaf area, leaf number, stomata structure, flowering, growth and reproduction as well as biochemical parameters such as pigment content, enzymes, ascorbic acid, protein, sugar and physiological aspect such as pH and Relative water content. Further, the paper provides a brief overview on the impact of PM on biodiversity and climate change. Moreover, the review emphasizes the genotoxic impacts of PM on plants. Finally, on the basis of such studies tolerant plants as potent biomonitors with high Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Air Pollution Index (API) can be screened and may be recommended for green belt development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Biomonitoring of heavy metals using Mytilus galloprovincialis in Safi coastal waters, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maanan, Mohamed

    2007-10-01

    Heavy metal concentrations of mercury, cadmium, lead, zinc, cooper, nickel, manganese, and chromium in Mytilus galloprovincialis were investigated to provide information on pollution of Safi coastal area, since these metals have the highest toxic potential. The concentration of Hg and Pb was determined by AFS and ICP-MS methods, respectively, whilst the remaining metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Ni) were quantified by AAS. High lead, cadmium, chromium, and mercury levels were registered in tissue samples collected from two stations near the Jorf Lihoudi and Safi city, while elevated concentration of manganese and zinc (14.70-25.30 mg kg(-1) and 570-650 mg kg(-1) dry wt, respectively) were found in mussel specimens from Cap Cantin. The high levels of nickel found respectively in the areas near the industrial area being of concern in terms of environmental health need frequent monitoring. The metal concentrations recorded at the clean stations may be considered as useful background levels to which to refer for comparison within the Atlantic coast. M. galloprovincialis are suitable biomonitors to investigate the contamination levels of heavy metals pollution face a different human activity in this coastal area of the Atlantic coast.

  17. Non-destructive techniques for biomonitoring of spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns of mercury bioaccumulation and maternal transfer in turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Brittney C; Hepner, Mark J; Hopkins, William A

    2013-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a globally ubiquitous pollutant that has received much attention due to its toxicity to humans and wildlife. The development of non-destructive sampling techniques is a critical step for sustainable monitoring of Hg accumulation. We evaluated the efficacy of non-destructive sampling techniques and assessed spatial, temporal, and demographic factors that influence Hg bioaccumulation in turtles. We collected muscle, blood, nail, and eggs from snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) inhabiting an Hg contaminated river. As predicted, all Hg tissue concentrations strongly and positively correlated with each other. Additionally, we validated our mathematical models against two additional Hg contaminated locations and found that tissue relationships developed from the validation sites did not significantly differ from those generated from the original sampling site. The models provided herein will be useful for a wide array of systems where biomonitoring of Hg in turtles needs to be accomplished in a conservation-minded fashion.

  18. Biomonitoring Data for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid in the United States and Canada: Interpretation in a Public Health Risk Assessment Context Using Biomonitoring Equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several extensive studies of exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) using urinary concentrations in samples from the general population, farm applicators, and farm family members are now available. Reference doses (RfDs) exist for 2,4-D, and Biomonitoring Equivalents ...

  19. Determination of no-observed effect level (NOEL-biomarker equivalents to interpret biomonitoring data for organophosphorus pesticides in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchard Michèle

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental exposure to organophosphorus pesticides has been characterized in various populations, but interpretation of these data from a health risk perspective remains an issue. The current paper proposes biological reference values to help interpret biomonitoring data related to an exposure to organophosphorus pesticides in children for which measurements of alkylphosphate metabolites are available. Methods Published models describing the kinetics of malathion and chlorpyrifos in humans were used to determine no-observed effect level – biomarker equivalents for methylphosphates and ethylphosphates, respectively. These were expressed in the form of cumulative urinary amounts of alkylphosphates over specified time periods corresponding to an absorbed no-observed effect level dose (derived from a published human exposure dose and assuming various plausible exposure scenarios. Cumulative amounts of methylphosphate and ethylphosphate metabolites measured in the urine of a group of Quebec children were then compared to the proposed biological reference values. Results From a published no-observed effect level dose for malathion and chlorpyrifos, the model predicts corresponding oral biological reference values for methylphosphate and ethylphosphate derivatives of 106 and 52 nmol/kg of body weight, respectively, in 12-h nighttime urine collections, and dermal biological reference values of 40 and 32 nmol/kg of body weight. Out of the 442 available urine samples, only one presented a methylphosphate excretion exceeding the biological reference value established on the basis of a dermal exposure scenario and none of the methylphosphate and ethylphosphate excretion values were above the obtained oral biological reference values, which reflect the main exposure route in children. Conclusion This study is a first step towards the development of biological guidelines for organophophorus pesticides using a toxicokinetic modeling

  20. Evaluation of a Home Biomonitoring Autonomous Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Dorronzoro Zubiete

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing population age demands more services in healthcare domain. It has been shown that mobile robots could be a potential solution to home biomonitoring for the elderly. Through our previous studies, a mobile robot system that is able to track a subject and identify his daily living activities has been developed. However, the system has not been tested in any home living scenarios. In this study we did a series of experiments to investigate the accuracy of activity recognition of the mobile robot in a home living scenario. The daily activities tested in the evaluation experiment include watching TV and sleeping. A dataset recorded by a distributed distance-measuring sensor network was used as a reference to the activity recognition results. It was shown that the accuracy is not consistent for all the activities; that is, mobile robot could achieve a high success rate in some activities but a poor success rate in others. It was found that the observation position of the mobile robot and subject surroundings have high impact on the accuracy of the activity recognition, due to the variability of the home living daily activities and their transitional process. The possibility of improvement of recognition accuracy has been shown too.

  1. Molecular Barcoding of Aquatic Oligochaetes: Implications for Biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivien, Régis; Wyler, Sofia; Lafont, Michel; Pawlowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic oligochaetes are well recognized bioindicators of quality of sediments and water in watercourses and lakes. However, the difficult taxonomic determination based on morphological features compromises their more common use in eco-diagnostic analyses. To overcome this limitation, we investigated molecular barcodes as identification tool for broad range of taxa of aquatic oligochaetes. We report 185 COI and 52 ITS2 rDNA sequences for specimens collected in Switzerland and belonging to the families Naididae, Lumbriculidae, Enchytraeidae and Lumbricidae. Phylogenetic analyses allowed distinguishing 41 lineages separated by more than 10 % divergence in COI sequences. The lineage distinction was confirmed by Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method and by ITS2 data. Our results showed that morphological identification underestimates the oligochaete diversity. Only 26 of the lineages could be assigned to morphospecies, of which seven were sequenced for the first time. Several cryptic species were detected within common morphospecies. Many juvenile specimens that could not be assigned morphologically have found their home after genetic analysis. Our study showed that COI barcodes performed very well as species identifiers in aquatic oligochaetes. Their easy amplification and good taxonomic resolution might help promoting aquatic oligochaetes as bioindicators for next generation environmental DNA biomonitoring of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25856230

  2. Galvanizing industry: evaluation of exposure levels using biomonitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Sabino, Claudia de V.S.; Amaral, Angela Maria [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mattos, Silvania V. de M. [FUNED, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Div. de Bromatologia e Toxicologia; S. Filho, Serafim [Secretaria Municipal de Saude de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Saude do Trabalhador; Maia, Elene Cristina P. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    1999-11-01

    In Brazil, statistical surveys concerning occupational diseases refer to accidents and damages. The surveys do not refer to the occupational diseases developed through long exposures to hazardous work conditions, involving physical risk and toxic chemical substances. The Program of Medical Control of Occupational Health determines the Maximum Biological Levels Allowed and the Values of Normality References. But concerning metal and toxic inorganic, values of only few elements are established. In Belo Horizonte and surroundings areas, which is an important industrial centre in the country, there are different industries distributed over various areas. There are about 80 galvanizing industries which are responsible for the majority of the metal contamination hospitalities. A preliminary sampling was performed in order to conduct a survey of the exposures to elements related to occupational diseases in galvanizing industry. The preliminary results for toxic and non-toxic elements obtained using hair and fingernails as biomonitors are shown. The K{sub 0} parametric neutron activation analysis method was applied and the elements determined were: Ag, Al, Au, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Ti, V, Ta, and Zn. (author) 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.; e-mail: menezes at urano.cdtn.br

  3. Biomonitoring tools and risk assessment in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camus, L. [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Centre, Tromso (Norway); Univercity Centre at Svalbard, (Norway); Nahrgang, J.; Olsen, G.H. [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Centre, Tromso (Norway)

    2009-07-01

    With the expansion of oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Arctic, there is a need for reliable risk assessment and environmental monitoring tools adapted for the Arctic environment. Probabilistic approaches for risk assessment are used by offshore operators in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. However, these methods are based on toxicity data on temperate species because there is insufficient data to run these models on Arctic species. Therefore, this study was conducted to perform toxicity tests with Arctic species and calculate their sensitivity distribution curve. The study was based on the Norwegian Water Column Monitoring programme. It involved a 3 year project to characterize the biological response of polar cold to oil exposure. Waterborne and dietary exposure to crude oil in polar cod collected in Svalbard was monitored. Many biological indexes ranging from molecular to biochemical, cellular and physiological levels were measured at various time points for biomonitoring the impact of oil in pack ice ecosystems. 29 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Protist metabarcoding and environmental biomonitoring: Time for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, J; Lejzerowicz, F; Apotheloz-Perret-Gentil, L; Visco, J; Esling, P

    2016-08-01

    High-throughput amplicon sequencing of environmental DNA and/or RNA proved to be a powerful tool to describe protist diversity. This new approach called also the metabarcoding has totally transformed our view of protist diversity, revealing a large number of novel lineages and expanding the range of protist phylogenetic diversity at almost every taxonomic level. However, until now the objectives of the vast majority of metabarcoding studies were purely academic. Practical applications of protist metabarcoding are surprisingly scarce, despite the fact that several groups of protists are commonly used as bioindicators of environmental impacts in freshwater or marine ecosystems. Here, we are reviewing studies that examine the ecological applications of metabarcoding for two groups of well-known protist bioindicators: diatoms and foraminifera. The results of these studies show that despite some biological and technical biases, molecular data quite faithfully reflect the morphology-based biotic indices and provide a similar assessment of ecosystem status. In view of these results, protist metabarcoding appears as a rapid and accurate tool for the evaluation of the quality of aquatic ecosystems. Hence, we plead for integration of protist metabarcoding in future biomonitoring projects as a complement of traditional methods and a source of new biosensors for environmental impact assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular barcoding of aquatic oligochaetes: implications for biomonitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Vivien

    Full Text Available Aquatic oligochaetes are well recognized bioindicators of quality of sediments and water in watercourses and lakes. However, the difficult taxonomic determination based on morphological features compromises their more common use in eco-diagnostic analyses. To overcome this limitation, we investigated molecular barcodes as identification tool for broad range of taxa of aquatic oligochaetes. We report 185 COI and 52 ITS2 rDNA sequences for specimens collected in Switzerland and belonging to the families Naididae, Lumbriculidae, Enchytraeidae and Lumbricidae. Phylogenetic analyses allowed distinguishing 41 lineages separated by more than 10 % divergence in COI sequences. The lineage distinction was confirmed by Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD method and by ITS2 data. Our results showed that morphological identification underestimates the oligochaete diversity. Only 26 of the lineages could be assigned to morphospecies, of which seven were sequenced for the first time. Several cryptic species were detected within common morphospecies. Many juvenile specimens that could not be assigned morphologically have found their home after genetic analysis. Our study showed that COI barcodes performed very well as species identifiers in aquatic oligochaetes. Their easy amplification and good taxonomic resolution might help promoting aquatic oligochaetes as bioindicators for next generation environmental DNA biomonitoring of aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Hg localisation in Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae), an atmospheric biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, G.M.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Programa Zona Costeira; Andrade, L.R.; Farina, M. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Departamento de Anatomia; Malm, O. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca

    2002-07-01

    The Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides, has been applied as an atmospheric biomonitor of Hg contamination, although the mechanism of metal plant accumulation has not been understood until now. In the present work, analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to localize Hg in T. usneoides exposed to a Hg-air-contaminated area during 15 days. After this period, Hg was determined by the flow injection mercury system, and plants were prepared for SEM observation and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. A concentration of 2702{+-}318{mu}g Hgg{sup -1} was determined in exposed plants. The presented microanalytical results demonstrated that Hg was partly associated with atmospheric particles deposited upon the plant surface, but it was highly absorbed by the scales, stem and leaves surfaces and less absorbed by epidermal cells of T. usneoides. No Hg was detected in mesophyll parenchyma or in vascular system cells. The great surface adsorption area provided by the scales, in addition to the characteristics of T. usneoides morphology, especially of the node region, are suggested to confer the great capability of T. usneoides in Hg holding. (author)

  7. Guidelines for biomonitoring persistent organic pollutants (POPs), using lichens and aquatic mosses--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Sofia; Máguas, Cristina; Branquinho, Cristina

    2013-09-01

    During the last decades, awareness regarding persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), has become a cutting-edge topic, due to their toxicity, bioaccumulation and persistency in the environment. Monitoring of PCDD/Fs and PAHs in air and water has proven to be insufficient to capture deposition and effects of these compounds in the biota. To overcome this limitation, environmental biomonitoring using lichens and aquatic mosses, have aroused as promising tools. The main aim of this work is to provide a review of: i) factors that influence the interception and accumulation of POPs by lichens; ii) how lichens and aquatic bryophytes can be used to track different pollution sources and; iii) how can these biomonitors contribute to environmental health studies. This review will allow designing a set of guidelines to be followed when using biomonitors to assess environmental POP pollution.

  8. Saliva as an analytical matrix: state of the art and application for biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporossi, Lidia; Santoro, Alessia; Papaleo, Bruno

    2010-09-01

    Analytical tests to measure chemicals in saliva can be employed for numerous analytes, endogenous compounds or xenobiotics. The objective was to determine which chemicals can be analysed with this matrix, which analytical methods are applicable, and what application is possible for biomonitoring. We reviewed the literature using three databases, MEDLINE, PubMed and Scopus, collecting articles on different kinds of analysis in saliva. Studies were principally about molecules of clinical interest, xenobiotics, especially drugs of abuse, and chemicals used at workplaces; some substances show no relevant correlation with exposure data while others seems to be of particular interest for systematic use for biomonitoring. Currently, saliva is used far less than other biological fluids but its use for biomonitoring of exposure to chemicals might open up new areas for research and would certainly simplify the collection of biological samples.

  9. US Fish and Wildlife Service biomonitoring operations manual, Appendices A--K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianotto, D.F.; Rope, R.C.; Mondecar, M.; Breckenridge, R.P.; Wiersma, G.B.; Staley, C.S.; Moser, R.S.; Sherwood, R.; Brown, K.W.

    1993-04-01

    Volume 2 contains Appendices and Summary Sheets for the following areas: A-Legislative Background and Key to Relevant Legislation, B- Biomonitoring Operations Workbook, C-Air Monitoring, D-Introduction to the Flora and Fauna for Biomonitoring, E-Decontamination Guidance Reference Field Methods, F-Documentation Guidance, Sample Handling, and Quality Assurance/Quality Control Standard Operating Procedures, G-Field Instrument Measurements Reference Field Methods, H-Ground Water Sampling Reference Field Methods, I-Sediment Sampling Reference Field Methods, J-Soil Sampling Reference Field Methods, K-Surface Water Reference Field Methods. Appendix B explains how to set up strategy to enter information on the ``disk workbook``. Appendix B is enhanced by DE97006389, an on-line workbook for users to be able to make revisions to their own biomonitoring data.

  10. Caddisflies as biomonitors identifying thresholds of toxic metal bioavailability that affect the stream benthos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow, Philip S; Hildrew, Alan G; Smith, Brian D; Geatches, Tim; Luoma, Samuel N

    2012-07-01

    It has been proposed that bioaccumulated concentrations of toxic metals in tolerant biomonitors be used as indicators of metal bioavailability that could be calibrated against the ecological response to metals of sensitive biotic assemblages. Our hypothesis was that metal concentrations in caddisfly larvae Hydropsyche siltalai and Plectrocnemia conspersa, as tolerant biomonitors, indicate metal bioavailability in contaminated streams, and can be calibrated against metal-specific ecological responses of mayflies. Bioaccumulated concentrations of Cu, As, Zn and Pb in H. siltalai from SW English streams were related to the mayfly assemblage. Mayflies were always sparse where bioavailabilities were high and were abundant and diverse where bioavailabilities of all metals were low, a pattern particularly evident when the combined abundance of heptageniid and ephemerellid mayflies was the response variable. The results offer promise that bioaccumulated concentrations of metals in tolerant biomonitors can be used to diagnose ecological impacts on stream benthos from metal stressors.

  11. Davis Pond Freshwater Prediversion Biomonitoring Study: Freshwater Fisheries and Eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Bourgeois, E. Beth; Jeske, Clint W.

    2008-01-01

    In January 2001, the construction of the Davis Pond freshwater diversion structure was completed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The diversion of freshwater from the Mississippi River is intended to mitigate saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Mexico and to lessen the concomitant loss of wetland areas. In addition to the freshwater inflow, Barataria Bay basin would receive nutrients, increased flows of sediments, and water-borne and sediment-bound compounds. The purpose of this biomonitoring study was, therefore, to serve as a baseline for prediversion concentrations of selected contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings (hereafter referred to as eaglets), representative freshwater fish, and bivalves. Samples were collected from January through June 2001. Two similarly designed postdiversion studies, as described in the biological monitoring program, are planned. Active bald eagle nests targeted for sampling eaglet blood (n = 6) were generally located southwest and south of the diversion structure. The designated sites for aquatic animal sampling were at Lake Salvador, at Lake Cataouatche, at Bayou Couba, and along the Mississippi River. Aquatic animals representative of eagle prey were collected. Fish were from three different trophic levels and have varying feeding strategies and life histories. These included herbivorous striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), omnivorous blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Three individuals per species were collected at each of the four sampling sites. Freshwater Atlantic rangia clams (Rangia cuneata) were collected at the downstream marsh sites, and zebra mussels (Dreissena spp.) were collected on the Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) protocols served as guides for fish sampling and health assessments. Fish are useful for monitoring aquatic ecosystems because they accumulate

  12. Talitrid amphipods (Crustacea) as biomonitors for copper and zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow, P. S.; Moore, P. G.; Watson, D.

    1989-06-01

    Data are presented on the copper and zinc concentrations of four talitrid amphipod species (standard dry weight 10 mg), i.e. Orchestia gammarellus (Pallas), O. mediterranea Costa, Talitrus saltator Montagu and Talorchestia deshayesii (Audouin), from 31 sites in S.W. Scotland, N. Wales and S.W. England. More limited data are also presented for cadmium in O. gammarellus (three sites) and T. deshayesii (one site). In S.W. Scotland, copper concentrations were raised significantly in O. gammarellus from Whithorn and Auchencairn (Solway) and Loch Long and Holy Loch (Clyde). In S.W. England, copper concentrations were highest at Restronguet Creek, Torpoint and Gannel (Cornwall). Samples of O. gammarellus from Islay (inner Hebrides) taken adjacent to the effluent outfalls of local whisky distilleries fell into two groups based on copper concentrations (presumably derived from copper stills), the higher copper levels deriving from the more productive distilleries. High copper levels were found in T. saltator and Tal. deshayesii from Dulas Bay (Wales). Zinc levels in O. gammarellus were high in Holy Loch and Auchencairn (Scotland), Gannel and Torpoint (England) but extremely elevated (as was Zn in O. mediterranea) at Restronguet Creek. Zinc was also high in T. saltator from Dulas Bay (Wales), but not in Tal. deshayesii. Cadmium levels in O. gammarellus from Kilve (Bristol Channel) were much raised. These differences (a) conform with expectations of elevated bioavailability of these metals from well researched areas (S.W. England & N. Wales), and (b) identify hitherto unappreciated areas of enrichment in S.W. Scotland. Orchestia gammarellus is put forward as a suitable biomonitor for copper and zinc in British coastal waters.

  13. Molecular biomonitoring during rhizoremediation of oil-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jussila, M.

    2006-07-01

    Rhizoremediation is the use of microbial populations present in the rhizosphere of plants for environmental cleanup. The idea of this work was that bacteria living in the rhizosphere of a nitrogen-fixing leguminous plant, goat's rue (Galega orientalis), could take part in the degradation of harmful monoaromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene and xylene (BTEX), from oil-contaminated soils. In addition to chemical (e.g. pollutant concentration) and physical (e.g. soil structure) information, the knowledge of biological aspects (e.g. bacteria and their catabolic genes) is essential when developing the rhizoremediation into controlled and effective bioremediation practice. Therefore, the need for reliable biomonitoring methods is obvious. The main aims of this thesis were to evaluate the symbiotic G. orientalis - Rhizobium galegae system for rhizoremediation of oil-contaminated soils, to develop molecular methods for biomonitoring, and to apply these methods for studying the microbiology of rhizoremediation. In vitro, Galega plants and rhizobia remained viable in m-toluate concentrations up to 3000 mg/l. Plant growth and nodulation were inhibited in 500 mg/l m-toluate, but were restored when plants were transferred to clean medium. In the greenhouse, Galega showed good growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation, and developed a strong rhizosphere in soils contaminated with oil or spiked with 2000 mg/l m-toluate. The high aromatic tolerance of R. galegae and the viability of Galega plants in oil-polluted soils proved this legume system to be a promising method for the rhizoremediation of oil-contaminated soils. Molecular biomonitoring methods were designed and/or developed further for bacteria and their degradation genes. A combination of genomic fingerprinting ((GTG)5-PCR), taxonomic ribotyping of 16S rRNA genes and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing were chosen for molecular grouping of culturable, heterogeneous rhizosphere bacteria. PCR primers specific for

  14. Biomonitoring of genotoxic effects and elemental accumulation derived from air pollution in community urban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Lobo, Debora Jã A; Guimarães, Eliane T; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2017-01-01

    Urban gardening is a growing global phenomenon with a positive impact on society. Despite several associated benefits, growing vegetables in urban gardens that are localized in highly polluted areas poses questions about the safety of the produced food. Therefore, the identification of risk factors that result in possible deleterious effects to human health is important for realizing all of the benefits to society. We evaluated the use of two biomonitoring methods in ten urban gardens of Sao Paulo city and one control site: the micronuclei frequencies for early tetrads of Tradescantia pallida (Rose) Hunt. cv. "Purpurea" Boom (hereafter, Trad-MCN) as a short-term indicator of genotoxic response and tree barks to quantify the accumulation of traffic-related chemical elements as a long-term biomarker of air pollution in urban gardens. Mature plants of Tradescantia pallida were exposed in each garden, and their inflorescences were sampled over three months. A random set of 300 early tetrads in 13 to 21 slides per garden were evaluated for micronuclei frequencies. Elemental concentrations in 428 tree barks samples from 107 different trees in the areas surrounding urban gardens were quantified using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The frequency of Trad-MCN has a significant correlation with traffic variables and chemical elements related to road dust and tailpipe emissions deposited in tree barks. Negative associations between Trad-MCN and both the distance through traffic and the presence of vertical obstacles were observed in the community gardens. The Mn/Zn concentrations in tree barks were associated with increased Trad-MCN.

  15. Biomonitoring of infant exposure to phenolic endocrine disruptors using urine expressed from disposable gel diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangpo; Xia, Tongwei; Zhang, Xueqin; Barr, Dana Boyd; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Meiping; Huang, Qingyu; Shen, Heqing

    2014-08-01

    Infant exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs) may cause adverse health effects because of their fast growth and development during this life stage. However, collecting urine from infants for exposure assessment using biological monitoring is not an easy task. For this purpose, we evaluated the feasibility of using urine expressed from disposable gel absorbent diapers (GADs) as a matrix for biomonitoring selected phenolic EDs. GADs urine was expressed with the assistance of CaCl(2) and was collected using a device fabricated in our laboratory. The analytes were extracted and concentrated using a liquid-liquid method and their hydroxyl groups were modified by dansyl chloride to enhance their chromatography and detection. Finally, the analytes were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The target chemicals were bisphenol A, triclosan, 17 α-ethynylestradiol, the natural hormone estrone, and 17 β-estradiol. The ratio of the CaCl(2) to the urine-wetted gel absorbent, variation of the inter-urination volume, and analyte deposition bias in the diaper were assessed. Analyte blank values in the diapers, the sample storage stabilities, and recoveries of the analytes were also evaluated. The results showed that 70-80 % of the urine could be expressed from the diaper with the assistance of CaCl(2) and 70.5-124 % of the spiked analytes can be recovered in the expressed urine. The limits of detections (LODs) were 0.02-0.27 ng/mL, well within the range for detection in human populations. Our pilot data suggest that infants are widely exposed to the selected EDs.

  16. Genetic biomonitoring of an urban population exposed to mutagenic airborne pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronas, Mariana V; Pereira, Tatiana S; Rocha, Jocelita A V; Lemos, Andréia T; Fachel, Jandyra M G; Salvadori, Daisy M F; Vargas, Vera M F

    2009-10-01

    Biomonitoring studies have increased as a consequence of risks and effects to human health on exposure to environmental contaminants, mainly air pollutants. Genetic biomarkers are useful tools for the early assessment of exposure to occupational and environmental pollution. The objective of the present study was to investigate genotoxic effects on people residing and/or working downwind from an oil refinery in southern Brazil and the mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter (PM10). Samples of peripheral blood and buccal mucosa cells were evaluated using the single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) and the micronucleus (MN) assay, respectively. PM10 samples were collected in the target site and the organic matter extraced with dichloromethane was assessed for mutagenic activity in the Salmonella/microsome assay. The exposed group (n=37) was compared to a reference group (n=37) of subjects living in an urban area with limited traffic and industrial influence, located far from the main industrial areas. All PM10 organic extracts showed mutagenic positive responses and the effect decreased in the presence of S9 mix indicating that the predominant compounds present were direct-acting mutagens. The responses of YGs strains are consistent with aromatic amines and nitroarenes being present in the PM10 extracts. The group in the area under the influence of the oil refinery (exposed group) showed significantly higher DNA damage in lymphocytes than the reference group. The MN frequencies in buccal mucosa were very low for both groups and no difference between groups was observed. No association was found between age and tobacco smoking habit and level of DNA damages measured by the comet assay. The results indicate that the comet assay was a sensitive tool to detect DNA damage in subjects under the influence of an oil refinery, with marked genotoxic activity in the atmospheric environment.

  17. [The biomonitoring of toxic substances in biological samples of general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarluzea, Jesús; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Porta, Miquel; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2016-11-01

    Many of the world's most developed countries have adopted biomonitoring of toxic substances in order to ascertain their levels in biological samples. These substances get into the body through different environmental exposures. Monitoring toxic substances in biological samples should allow us to ascertain their levels in vulnerable groups, assess their evolution over time, make comparisons with levels observed in other countries, identify groups at risk or with high toxic levels and promote research. The main objective of biomonitoring is to act as a policy design tool to facilitate the implementation of particular measures in various sectors: health, environmental, agricultural and livestock or food industry sectors. In Spain, information on levels of toxic substances of environmental origin is provided by specific studies on health effects from environmental sources, such as the INMA project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [childhood and environment]). In addition, biomonitoring projects have been implemented in Catalonia and the Canary Islands, together with a national biomonitoring programme in the adult working population. However, further progress is needed to develop a system that covers the general population as well as subgroups at risk, which relies on the collaboration of the involved authorities and the participation of professionals from different sectors and citizen organisations interested in the relationship between health and the environment.

  18. CHARACTERISTICS OF GAMBUSIA PUNCTATA (POECILIDAE FOR ITS SELECTION AS BIOMONITOR IN AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY IN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argota, George

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural organisms in their capacity as biomonitors allows the evaluation of the environmental conditions of aquatic ecosystems. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of Gambusia punctata Poey, 1854 (Poeciliidae for selection as a biomonitor in aquatic ecotoxicology. The species was selected to be representative and monitored from 2004 to 2012 on a quarterly basis, with two of them corresponding to periods of rain and little rain outside the Almendares -Vento Basin in San Juan Havana and Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, respectively. The description of the characteristics of the referred species considered whether they met seven criteria for biomonitoring: 1 cosmopolitan distribution, 2 easy taxonomic identification, 3 appropriate size, 4 limited mobility and relatively long life cycle, 5 tolerant to contamination, 6 easy handling in laboratory studies, and 7 correlation between the contaminant of interest and other environmental matrices. The characteristics were met for each of the seven criteria, and thus have conditional use as biomonitors in ecotoxicology studies and for the ecosystem at San Juan Almendares, Cuba.

  19. Analysis of environmental quality by means of bioindication and biomonitoring studies on plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manes, F.; Capogna, F.; Giannini, M.A.; Silli, V. [Univ. degli Studi ' ' La Sapienza' ' di Roma, Roma (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Vegetale

    2002-07-01

    In the present work, bioindication and biomonitoring studies, carried out in both natural area and those subjected to high anthropogenic activity, are described. Some indicators developed are discussed and their integration is presented as a useful tool to define and manage environmental quality. (orig.)

  20. Usefulness of different vascular plant species for passive biomonitoring of Mediterranean rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Alfani, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Choosing native vascular plants as nutrient and toxic element accumulators for passive biomonitoring of urban river quality is not an easy task in Mediterranean rivers, due to the particular climate determining high variations in river hydrology. To identify potential biomonitors for this area, the roots of seven species (Angelica sylvestris, Apium nodiflorum, Tradescantia fluminensis, Nasturtium officinale, Persicaria lapathifolia, Arctium lappa, Typha latifolia), growing in seven sites along the River Irno (Southern Italy), were collected in July 2010 and analyzed regarding their capability to accumulate Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn through atomic absorption spectrometry. Notwithstanding the expected different accumulation degree among the species, they highlighted similar spatial contamination gradients, and all of them appeared suitable, alone or in combination, for river passive biomonitoring. A. nodiflorum, in particular, appeared the best biomonitor for the River Irno, where severe anthropogenic impacts were detected: high Cu and Cd contamination from vine cultivation in the upper stretch, and Pb, Zn, and Mn contamination in the medium stretch from airborne dusts coming from a cast iron foundry.

  1. Online Biomonitoring and Early Warning Systems for Protection of Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to perform real time biomonitoring of behavioral responses and stress levels experienced by fish is important as it could be used for assessing source water toxicity as a first line of defense to protect and encourage recreational use of waterbodies. This paper propos...

  2. A Sensor Array Using Multi-functional Field-effect Transistors with Ultrahigh Sensitivity and Precision for Bio-monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Il; Quang Trung, Tran; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Kim, Jin-Su; Jeon, Sanghun; Bae, Jihyun; Park, Jong-Jin; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2015-07-01

    Mechanically adaptive electronic skins (e-skins) emulate tactition and thermoception by cutaneous mechanoreceptors and thermoreceptors in human skin, respectively. When exposed to multiple stimuli including mechanical and thermal stimuli, discerning and quantifying precise sensing signals from sensors embedded in e-skins are critical. In addition, different detection modes for mechanical stimuli, rapidly adapting (RA) and slowly adapting (SA) mechanoreceptors in human skin are simultaneously required. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of a highly sensitive, pressure-responsive organic field-effect transistor (OFET) array enabling both RA- and SA- mode detection by adopting easily deformable, mechano-electrically coupled, microstructured ferroelectric gate dielectrics and an organic semiconductor channel. We also demonstrate that the OFET array can separate out thermal stimuli for thermoreception during quantification of SA-type static pressure, by decoupling the input signals of pressure and temperature. Specifically, we adopt piezoelectric-pyroelectric coupling of highly crystalline, microstructured poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) gate dielectric in OFETs with stimuli to allow monitoring of RA- and SA-mode responses to dynamic and static forcing conditions, respectively. This approach enables us to apply the sensor array to e-skins for bio-monitoring of humans and robotics.

  3. Biomonitoring of toxic metals in incinerator workers: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriello, Maria Chiara; Sbordone, Carmine; Montuori, Paolo; Alfano, Rossella; Triassi, Maria; Iavicoli, Ivo; Manno, Maurizio

    2017-04-15

    Exposure to chemicals released during urban waste disposal and treatment is increasingly regarded as a potential occupational health issue. Indeed, several toxic metals emitted by an incinerator, including As, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni and V, have potentially toxic properties and their exposure, therefore, may be of concern for the health of the workers involved. The levels of exposure should therefore be carefully measured. Environmental monitoring, however, may be unable, alone, to assess true exposure, due to its intrinsic limitations mainly concerning its inability to assess oral and dermal absorption. In these cases biological monitoring may represent a fundamental supplementary tool for the definition of the workers' true occupational exposure and for the prevention of the related health effects. There is, therefore, an increasing interest in developing and using, in these workers, sensitive and specific biomarkers for health risk assessment, particularly at low or even very low levels of exposure. Despite the large number of original and review articles present in the literature on the biomonitoring of workers exposed to metals, the data on subjects employed in waste treatment activities are scattered and results are sometimes inconsistent. This is the first systematic review, performed according to PRISMA methodology, of the major studies investigating the levels of different toxic metals measured in the main biological matrices (blood, urine, hair) of incinerator workers. The results show that the levels of metals measured in incinerators' workers are generally low, with some notable exceptions for Cd and Pb. These results, though, can be affected by several confounders related either to non-occupational exposure, including diet, area of residence and others, and/or by a number of methodological limitations, as we found in the reported studies. Future work should focus on an integrated approach, using ideally both biological and environmental monitoring

  4. DBS-platform for biomonitoring and toxicokinetics of toxicants: proof of concept using LC-MS/MS analysis of fipronil and its metabolites in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Kanumuri Siva Rama; Taneja, Isha; Rashid, Mamunur; Sonkar, Ashish Kumar; Wahajuddin, Muhammad; Singh, Sheelendra Pratap

    2016-03-01

    A simple, sensitive and high throughput LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for quantification of fipronil, fipronil sulfone and fipronil desulfinyl in rat and human dried blood spots (DBS). DBS samples were prepared by spiking 10 μl blood on DMPK-C cards followed by drying at room temperature. The whole blood spots were then punched from the card and extracted using acetonitrile. The total chromatographic run time of the method was only 2 min. The lower limit of quantification of the method was 0.1 ng/ml for all the analytes. The method was successfully applied to determine fipronil desulfinyl in DBS samples obtained from its toxicokinetic study in rats following intravenous dose (1 mg/kg). In conclusion, the proposed DBS methodology has significant potential in toxicokinetics and biomonitoring studies of environmental toxicants. This microvolume DBS technique will be an ideal tool for biomonitoring studies, particularly in paediatric population. Small volume requirements, minimally invasive blood sampling method, easier storage and shipping procedure make DBS a suitable technique for such studies. Further, DBS technique contributes towards the principles of 3Rs resulting in significant reduction in the number of rodents used and refinement in sample collection for toxicokinetic studies.

  5. Multilingual education of students on a global scale and perspective-international networking on the example of bioindication and biomonitoring (B&B technologies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, Bernd; Baltrėnaitė, Edita; Chudzińska, Ewa; De Marco, Silvia; Diatta, Jean; Ghaffari, Zahra; Gorelova, Svetlana; Marcovecchio, Jorge; Tabors, Guntis; Wang, Meie; Yousef, Naglaa; Fraenzle, Stefan; Wuenschmann, Simone

    2014-04-01

    Living or formerly living organisms are being used to obtain information on the quality of the general health status of our environment by bioindication and biomonitoring methods for many decades. Thus, different roads toward this common scientific goal were developed by a lot of different international research groups. Global cooperation in between various scientific teams throughout the world has produced common ideas, scientific definitions, and highly innovative results of this extremely attractive working field. The transdisciplinary approach of different and multifaceted scientific areas-starting from biology, analytical chemistry, via health physics, up to social and economic issues-have surpassed mental barriers of individual scientists, so that "production" of straightforward common results related to the influence of material and immaterial environmental factors to the well-being of organisms and human life has now reached the forefront of international thinking. For the further sustainable development of our common scientific "hobby" of bioindication and biomonitoring, highest personal energy has to be given by us, being teachers to our students and to convince strategically decision makers as politicians to invest (financially) into the development of education and research of this innovative technique. Young people have to be intensively convinced on the "meaning" of our scientific doing, e.g., by extended forms of education. One example of multilingual education of students on a global scale and perspective is given here, which we started about 3 years ago.

  6. Biomonitoring of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in transgenic Arabidopsis using the mammalian pregnane X receptor system: a role of pectin in pollutant uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieming Bao

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic pollutants damaging to human health and the environment. Techniques to indicate PCB contamination in planta are of great interest to phytoremediation. Monitoring of dioxin-like PCBs in transgenic plants carrying the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR has been reported previously. Herein, we report the biomonitoring of non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs using the mammalian pregnane X receptor (PXR. In the transgenic Arabidopsis designated NDL-PCB Reporter, the EGFP-GUS reporter gene was driven by a promoter containing 18 repeats of the xenobiotic response elements, while PXR and its binding partner retinoid X receptor (RXR were coexpressed. Results showed that, in live cells, the expression of reporter gene was insensitive to endogenous lignans, carotenoids and flavonoids, but responded to all tested NDL-PCBs in a dose- and time- dependent manner. Two types of putative PCB metabolites, hydroxy- PCBs and methoxy- PCBs, displayed different activation properties. The vascular tissues seemed unable to transport NDL-PCBs, whereas mutation in QUASIMODO1 encoding a 1,4-galacturonosyltransferase led to reduced PCB accumulation in Arabidopsis, revealing a role for pectin in the control of PCB translocation. Taken together, the reporter system may serve as a useful tool to biomonitor the uptake and metabolism of NDL-PCBs in plants.

  7. ARSENIC SPECIATION ANALYSIS IN HUMAN SALIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...

  8. ARSENIC SPECIATION ANALYSIS IN HUMAN SALIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...

  9. Evaluating Ethanol-based Sample Preservation to Facilitate Use of DNA Barcoding in Routine Freshwater Biomonitoring Programs Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, have the potential in enhance biomonitoring programs worldwide. Altering routinely used sample preservation methods to protect DNA from degradation may pose a potential impediment to application of DNA barcoding and metagenomics for biom...

  10. [Response to Reviews : Woodward-Clyde Consultants Comments on Biomonitoring Plan for Rocky Mountain Arsenal : Dieldrin Toxicity in Badgers : 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter responds to a recent review of the proposed Biomonitoring Plan for Rocky Mountain Arsenal by Mr. Doug Reagan of Woodward-Clyde Consultants. Enclosed are...

  11. Biomonitoring and risk assessment on earth and during exploratory missions using AquaHab ®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenzka, K.; Dünne, M.; Jastorff, B.

    2008-12-01

    Bioregenerative closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) will be necessary in the exploration context revitalizing atmosphere, waste water and producing food for the human CELSS mates. During these long-term space travels and stays far away from Earth in an hostile environment as well as far for example from any hospital and surgery potential, it will be necessary to know much more about chemical and drug contamination in the special sense and by human's themselves in detail. Additionally, there is a strong need on Earth for more relevant standardized test systems including aquatic ones for the prospective risk assessment of chemicals and drugs in general on a laboratory scale. Current standardized test systems are mono species tests, and thus do not represent system aspects and have reduced environmental relevance. The experience gained during the last years in our research group lead to the development of a self-sustaining closed aquatic habitat/facility, called AquaHab ® which can serve regarding space exploration and Earth application. The AquaHab ® module can be the home of several fish species, snails, plants, amphipods and bacteria. The possibility to use different effect endpoints with certain beneficial characteristics is the basis for the application of AquaHab ® in different fields. Influence of drugs and chemicals can be tested on several trophic levels and ecosystem levels; guaranteeing a high relevance for aquatic systems in the real environment. Analyses of effect parameters of different complexity (e.g. general biological and water chemical parameters, activity of biotransforming enzymes) result in broad spectra of sensitivity. Combined with residual analyses (including all metabolites), this leads to an extended prospective risk assessment of a chemical on Earth and in a closed Life Support System. The possibility to measure also sensitive "online" parameters (e.g. behavior, respiration/photosynthetic activity) enables a quick and

  12. Testing benthic foraminiferal distributions as a contemporary quantitative approach to biomonitoring estuarine heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William J; Armynot du Châtelet, Eric; Rogerson, Mike

    2012-05-01

    Biomonitoring of estuarine pollution is the subject of active research, and benthic foraminifera are an attractive group to use for these purposes due to their ubiquitous presence in saline water and wide diversity. Here, we describe a case study of biomonitoring using benthic foraminifera in the French Mediterranean lagoon, Bages-Sigean lagoon. In this case, the major pollutants of interest are heavy metals in the sediment, particularly contaminated by Cu and Cd derived from industrial and agricultural sources. The foraminiferal assemblages of the Bages-Sigean lagoon are typical of normal paralic environments, but unusually almost completely lack agglutinated forms. The density of benthic foraminifera was shown to be more influenced by the sediment characteristics rather than heavy metal pollution. However, the relative abundance of Quinqueloculina bicostata was shown to increase in the most polluted areas and we propose that this taxon may be used as an indicator of heavy metal pollution.

  13. Towards improved biomonitoring tools for an intensified sustainable multi-use environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2016-09-01

    The increasing use of our environment for multiple contrasting activities (e.g. fisheries, tourism) will have to be accompanied by improved monitoring of environmental quality, to avoid transboundary conflicts and ensure long-term sustainable intensified usage. Biomonitoring approaches are appropriate for this, since they can integrate biological effects of environmental exposure rather than measure individual compound concentrations. Recent advances in biomonitoring concepts and tools focus on single-cell assays and purified biological components that can be miniaturized and integrated in automated systems. Despite these advances, we are still very far from being able to deploy bioassays routinely in environmental monitoring, mostly because of lack of experience in interpreting responses and insufficient robustness of the biosensors for their environmental application. Further future challenges include broadening the spectrum of detectable compounds by biosensors, accelerate response times and combining sample pretreatment strategies with bioassays.

  14. Quantified Bodies in the Checking Loop: Analyzing the Choreographies of Biomonitoring and Generating Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana Parviainen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring digital devices have become popular in physical activities and are receiving intensive focus as motivational and support vehicles for health. The aim of this article is to develop a new theoretical framework to analyze biomonitoring from the two perspectives constituting the opposite ends of the big data spectrum: individual (micro and institutional (macro. In applying phenomenology of the body, discussions of choreography, and Latour’s actor–network theory, I seek to evolve a choreography-based approach that can outline feedback systems between embodied practices and the macrolevel choreography of big data. Health informatics data as economic and political assets are illustrated based on netnography. Netnographic methodology pays close attention to online fieldwork and media texts. Emphasizing the lived body in the analysis of knowledge infrastructure, I aim to contribute to the theoretical discussion of human–data interaction. The findings suggest that highly intimate, personal technology can distance people from their lived bodies.

  15. Biological Matrix Effects in Quantitative Tandem Mass Spectrometry-Based Analytical Methods: Advancing Biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E.; D’Souza, Priya E.; Chen, Xianyu; Radford, Samantha A.; Cohen, Jordan R.; Marder, M. Elizabeth; Kartavenka, Kostya; Ryan, P. Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-01-01

    The ability to quantify levels of target analytes in biological samples accurately and precisely, in biomonitoring, involves the use of highly sensitive and selective instrumentation such as tandem mass spectrometers and a thorough understanding of highly variable matrix effects. Typically, matrix effects are caused by co-eluting matrix components that alter the ionization of target analytes as well as the chromatographic response of target analytes, leading to reduced or increased sensitivity of the analysis. Thus, before the desired accuracy and precision standards of laboratory data are achieved, these effects must be characterized and controlled. Here we present our review and observations of matrix effects encountered during the validation and implementation of tandem mass spectrometry-based analytical methods. We also provide systematic, comprehensive laboratory strategies needed to control challenges posed by matrix effects in order to ensure delivery of the most accurate data for biomonitoring studies assessing exposure to environmental toxicants. PMID:25562585

  16. Post-Remediation Biomonitoring of Pesticides in Marine Waters Near the United Heckathorn Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, Liam D.; Kohn, Nancy P.

    2000-09-05

    Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in January 1998 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for the first post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and DDT were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared to pre-remediation data available from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissues) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Biomonitoring results indicated that pesticides were still bioavailable in the water column, and have not been reduced from pre-remediation levels. Annual biomonitoring will continue to assess the effectiveness of remedial actions at the United Heckathorn Site.

  17. Conceptual strategy for design, implementation, and validation of a biomarker-based biomonitoring capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, J.F.; Halbrook, R.S.; Shugart, L.R.

    1991-12-01

    This document describes a strategy for defining specific objectives for biomarker studies and for designing and implementing a biomonitoring study that focuses on these objectives. In researching this subject, it became clear to the authors that the subject of biomarkers created a great deal of interest among scientists and regulators but that general acceptance of biomarkers as a tool for environmental protection was hampered by lack of a clear notion of how to develop and apply this approach. We intend this document to be a ``user`s guide`` that lays out a logical scheme for applying biomarkers in environmental monitoring. In addition, laboratory and field research components needed to develop and validate fundamental understanding and interpretation of biomarker responses are also described, as is a strategy for evolution of a biomarker-based biomonitoring capability. The document is divided into sections intended to lead the reader to an understanding of how biomarkers can be developed and applied.

  18. Conceptual strategy for design, implementation, and validation of a biomarker-based biomonitoring capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, J.F.; Halbrook, R.S.; Shugart, L.R.

    1991-12-01

    This document describes a strategy for defining specific objectives for biomarker studies and for designing and implementing a biomonitoring study that focuses on these objectives. In researching this subject, it became clear to the authors that the subject of biomarkers created a great deal of interest among scientists and regulators but that general acceptance of biomarkers as a tool for environmental protection was hampered by lack of a clear notion of how to develop and apply this approach. We intend this document to be a user's guide'' that lays out a logical scheme for applying biomarkers in environmental monitoring. In addition, laboratory and field research components needed to develop and validate fundamental understanding and interpretation of biomarker responses are also described, as is a strategy for evolution of a biomarker-based biomonitoring capability. The document is divided into sections intended to lead the reader to an understanding of how biomarkers can be developed and applied.

  19. Using shark biomarkers as tools for biomonitoring the health of atlantic waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Miguel Fonseca Alves

    2014-06-01

    The results obtained in this first biomarkers screening are promising as it allowed for a better understanding on how blue sharks deal with the intake and accumulation of different xenobiotics and which are the most suitable tissues for specific biomarker testing and more efficient biomonitoring. Lastly, this approach presents a potential to be adapted to other species which are also on top of food chains, providing an even more robust insight on the oceanic deep waters health status.

  20. Native legumes from the Atlantic Rainforest and their potential for biomonitoring urban air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Guilherme Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    In Southeastern Brazil, the city of Ipatinga is inserted in the Steel Valley Metropolitan Region, which is characterized by the predominance of steel industry, and also by the presence of one of the largest vehicle fleets in the country. Developing standardized biomonitoring methods with native plant species may be an economically viable option for assessing air quality across extensive urban areas, which usually cannot be achieved by instrumental monitoring due to cost issues. In this sense,...

  1. Environmental barcoding: a next-generation sequencing approach for biomonitoring applications using river benthos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Shokralla, Shadi; Zhou, Xin; Singer, Gregory A C; Baird, Donald J

    2011-04-13

    Timely and accurate biodiversity analysis poses an ongoing challenge for the success of biomonitoring programs. Morphology-based identification of bioindicator taxa is time consuming, and rarely supports species-level resolution especially for immature life stages. Much work has been done in the past decade to develop alternative approaches for biodiversity analysis using DNA sequence-based approaches such as molecular phylogenetics and DNA barcoding. On-going assembly of DNA barcode reference libraries will provide the basis for a DNA-based identification system. The use of recently introduced next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches in biodiversity science has the potential to further extend the application of DNA information for routine biomonitoring applications to an unprecedented scale. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using 454 massively parallel pyrosequencing for species-level analysis of freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate taxa commonly used for biomonitoring. We designed our experiments in order to directly compare morphology-based, Sanger sequencing DNA barcoding, and next-generation environmental barcoding approaches. Our results show the ability of 454 pyrosequencing of mini-barcodes to accurately identify all species with more than 1% abundance in the pooled mixture. Although the approach failed to identify 6 rare species in the mixture, the presence of sequences from 9 species that were not represented by individuals in the mixture provides evidence that DNA based analysis may yet provide a valuable approach in finding rare species in bulk environmental samples. We further demonstrate the application of the environmental barcoding approach by comparing benthic macroinvertebrates from an urban region to those obtained from a conservation area. Although considerable effort will be required to robustly optimize NGS tools to identify species from bulk environmental samples, our results indicate the potential of an environmental barcoding

  2. Davis Pond freshwater prediversion biomonitoring study: freshwater fisheries and eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Bourgeois, E. Beth; Jeske, Clint W.

    2008-01-01

    In January 2001, the construction of the Davis Pond freshwater diversion structure was completed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The diversion of freshwater from the Mississippi River is intended to mitigate saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Mexico and to lessen the concomitant loss of wetland areas. In addition to the freshwater inflow, Barataria Bay basin would receive nutrients, increased flows of sediments, and water-borne and sediment-bound compounds. The purpose of this biomonitoring study was, therefore, to serve as a baseline for prediversion concentrations of selected contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings (hereafter referred to as eaglets), representative freshwater fish, and bivalves. Samples were collected from January through June 2001. Two similarly designed postdiversion studies, as described in the biological monitoring program, are planned. Active bald eagle nests targeted for sampling eaglet blood (n = 6) were generally located southwest and south of the diversion structure. The designated sites for aquatic animal sampling were at Lake Salvador, at Lake Cataouatche, at Bayou Couba, and along the Mississippi River. Aquatic animals representative of eagle prey were collected. Fish were from three different trophic levels and have varying feeding strategies and life histories. These included herbivorous striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), omnivorous blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Three individuals per species were collected at each of the four sampling sites. Freshwater Atlantic rangia clams (Rangia cuneata) were collected at the downstream marsh sites, and zebra mussels (Dreissena spp.) were collected on the Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) protocols served as guides for fish sampling and health assessments. Fish are useful for monitoring aquatic ecosystems because they accumulate

  3. Priority persistent contaminants in people dwelling in critical areas of Campania Region, Italy (SEBIOREC biomonitoring study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felip, Elena; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Bove, Crescenzo; Cori, Liliana; D'Argenzio, Angelo; D'Orsi, Giancarlo; Fusco, Mario; Miniero, Roberto; Ortolani, Rosanna; Palombino, Raffaele; Parlato, Antonino; Pelliccia, Maria Grazia; Peluso, Filomena; Piscopo, Giovanni; Pizzuti, Renato; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Protano, Domenico; Senofonte, Oreste; Spena, Silvana Russo; Simonetti, Andrea; di Domenico, Alessandro

    2014-07-15

    To investigate if protracted living in degraded environments of the Caserta and Naples provinces (Campania Region, Italy) had an impact on exposure of local people, highly toxic persistent contaminants were measured in blood, blood serum, and human milk of a large number of healthy donors. Sampling was carried out from 2008 to 2009. Blood was collected from over 850 20-64-year old donors; by pooling, 84 blood and 84 serum samples were obtained. Milk was donated by 52 mothers: specimens were pooled into six samples. Polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs, dioxin-like (DL) and non-dioxin-like (Σ6PCBs)), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were measured in serum (organic biomarkers) and blood (metals); these chemicals and polybromobiphenyl ethers (Σ9PBDEs) were analyzed in milk. PCDD+PCDF, DL-PCB, TEQTOT, and Σ6PCB concentration ranges (medians) in serum were 6.26-23.1 (12.4), 3.42-31.7 (11.5), 10.0-52.8 (23.9) pgTEQ97/g fat, and 55.5-647 (219) ng/g fat, respectively, while in milk concentration ranges were 5.99-8.77, 4.02-6.15, 10.0-14.2 pgTEQ97/g fat, and 48.7-74.2 ng/g fat. Likewise, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb findings in blood spanned 2.34-13.4 (5.83), 0.180-0.930 (0.475), 1.09-7.60 (2.60), 10.2-55.9 (28.8) μg/L, respectively; only Pb could be measured in milk (2.78-5.99 μg/L). Σ9PBDE levels in milk samples were 0.965-6.05 ng/g fat. Biomarkers' concentrations were found to be compatible with their current values in European countries and in Italy, and consistent with an exposure primarily determined by consumption of commercial food from the large distribution system. Based on relatively higher biomarker values within the hematic biomonitoring database, the following municipalities were flagged as possibly deserving attention for health-oriented interventions: Brusciano and Caivano (As), Giugliano (Hg), Pianura (PCDDs+PCDFs), and Qualiano-Villaricca (As, Hg). The analysis of samples

  4. Biomonitoring of selected trace elements in women, men and children from Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tratnik J. S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available on exposure of general population to metals at low levels. As a part of a research project PHIME within the EU 6th Framework programme and National Human Biomonitoring programme, several studies following the same protocol were conducted to find out to what extent the Slovenian population of women in childbearing age, women 50–60 years, men and children 6–11 years is exposed to environmental chemicals including Hg, Pb, Cd and As and on the other hand to estimate their supply with essential elements (Se, Zn, Cu. Hair, blood and urine were collected from all participants, breast milk from lactating mothers. Most of the subjects had the levels for non-essential toxic metals below the reference levels and the levels for essential elements Zn, Cu and Se within the reference intervals. Concentrations of metals and As did not differ between genders, while significantly higher levels of Se were observed in men and significantly higher levels of Cu in women. Comparing women of different ages, higher Hg levels and lower Cd and Pb levels were found in blood of younger women (20–35 than in older women (50–60. Se levels were higher in older women, while Cu and Zn levels were higher in younger women. In compare to children, women (both, younger and older and men showed higher Cd, Pb, Se and Zn concentration in blood. Hg concentration was higher in women (20–35 and men than in children. Looking at the difference between different geographical areas where subjects were recruited, we found higher Cd and Pb levels in blood of rural children than in children from urban area. Hg in blood and urine was in contrary, higher in children from urban area than in children from rural area. In adults, As was observed to be the highest in urban area. Levels of essential elements differed between different areas in Slovenia as well. The present study has provided the basis to establish preliminary reference values for the selected

  5. Lichens as biomonitors around a coal-fired power station in Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garty, J.; Tomer, S.; Levin, T.; Lehr, H. [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel). Dept. of Plant Science

    2003-03-01

    In the present study epiphytic lichens were applied as biomonitors of air pollution to determine the environmental impact of a coal-fired power station. Thalli of the lichen Ramalina lacera (With.) J.R. Laund. growing on carob twigs (Ceratonia siliqua L.) were collected with their substrate in July 2000 in a relatively unpolluted forest near HaZorea, Ramoth Menashe, Northeast Israel, and transplanted to 10 biomonitoring sites in the vicinity of the coal-fired power station Oroth Rabin near the town of Hadera. The lichens were retrieved in January 2001. The following parameters of lichen vitality were examined: (a) potential quantum yield of photosynthesis expressed as fluorescence ratio F{sub v}/F{sub m}, (b) stress-ethylene production, and (c) electric conductivity expressing integrity of cell membranes. Following an exposure of 7 months, the lichens were retrieved and physiological parameters and data of elemental content were analyzed comparatively. Electric conductivity values correlated positively with B, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Sn, and Ti content. Concentrations of stress-ethylene correlated positively with Al, Ba, Pb, S, and V content and negatively with Cu and Sn. F{sub v}/F{sub m} ratios correlated negatively with S content. Some of the heavy metals reached lower levels than those reported in the relevant literature despite a wind regime that should have blown pollutants toward the biomonitoring sites.

  6. Intra-urban biomonitoring: Source apportionment using tree barks to identify air pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Amato, Luís Fernando Lourenço; Kang, Choong-Min; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Saiki, Mitiko

    2016-05-01

    It is of great interest to evaluate if there is a relationship between possible sources and trace elements using biomonitoring techniques. In this study, tree bark samples of 171 trees were collected using a biomonitoring technique in the inner city of São Paulo. The trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn) were determined by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the plausible sources associated with tree bark measurements. The greatest source was vehicle-induced non-tailpipe emissions derived mainly from brakes and tires wear-out and road dust resuspension (characterized with Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn), which was explained by 27.1% of the variance, followed by cement (14.8%), sea salt (11.6%) and biomass burning (10%), and fossil fuel combustion (9.8%). We also verified that the elements related to vehicular emission showed different concentrations at different sites of the same street, which might be helpful for a new street classification according to the emission source. The spatial distribution maps of element concentrations were obtained to evaluate the different levels of pollution in streets and avenues. Results indicated that biomonitoring techniques using tree bark can be applied to evaluate dispersion of air pollution and provide reliable data for the further epidemiological studies.

  7. Lichens as biomonitors around a coal-fired power station in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garty, Jacob; Tomer, Sharon; Levin, Tal; Lehr, Haya

    2003-03-01

    In the present study epiphytic lichens were applied as biomonitors of air pollution to determine the environmental impact of a coal-fired power station. Thalli of the lichen Ramalina lacera (With.) J.R. Laund. growing on carob twigs (Ceratonia siliqua L.) were collected with their substrate in July 2000 in a relatively unpolluted forest near HaZorea, Ramoth Menashe, Northeast Israel, and transplanted to 10 biomonitoring sites in the vicinity of the coal-fired power station Oroth Rabin near the town of Hadera. The lichens were retrieved in January 2001. We examined the following parameters of lichen vitality: (a) potential quantum yield of photosynthesis expressed as fluorescence ratio F(v)/F(m), (b) stress-ethylene production, and (c) electric conductivity expressing integrity of cell membranes. Following an exposure of 7 months, the lichens were retrieved and physiological parameters and data of elemental content were analyzed comparatively. Electric conductivity values correlated positively with B, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Sn, and Ti content. Concentrations of stress-ethylene correlated positively with Al, Ba, Pb, S, and V content and negatively with Cu and Sn. F(v)/F(m) ratios correlated negatively with S content. Some of the heavy metals reached lower levels than those reported in the relevant literature despite a wind regime that should have blown pollutants toward the biomonitoring sites.

  8. A mine of information: Benthic algal communities as biomonitors of metal contamination from abandoned tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavoie, Isabelle; Lavoie, Michel; Fortin, Claude, E-mail: fortincl@ete.inrs.ca

    2012-05-15

    Various biomonitoring approaches were tested in the field to assess the response of natural periphythic algal communities to chronic metal contamination downstream from an abandoned mine tailings site. The accumulation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) as well as the production of phytochelatins, the presence of diatom taxa known to tolerate high metal concentrations, diatom diversity and the presence of teratologies were determined. We observed highly significant relationships between intracellular metal and calculated free metal ion concentrations. Such relationships are often observed in laboratory studies but have been rarely validated in field studies. These results suggest that the concentration of metal inside the field-collected periphyton, regardless of its species composition, is a good indicator of exposure and is an interesting proxy for bioavailable metal concentrations in natural waters. The presence of teratologies and metal-tolerant taxa at our contaminated sites provided a clear indication that diatom communities were responding to this metal stress. A multi-metric approach integrating various bioassessment methods could be used for the field monitoring of metal contamination and the quantification of its effects. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Various approaches for metal contamination biomonitoring were used in the field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal accumulation in periphyton is correlated to free ion concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Teratologies and metal-tolerant taxa provided a clear indication of metal stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stream periphyton shows great potential as a biomonitor of metal contamination.

  9. Developmental instability in German Iris flower as a potential biomonitoring method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barišić-Klisarić Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In light of the increasing need for appropriate, cost-effective detection methods of anthropogenic pollution, we evaluated the biomonitoring potential of flower developmental instability (DI on a widely planted decorative species, Iris germanica, under in situ conditions. DI was measured by fluctuating and radial asymmetries of parts of Iris germanica perianth (810 fall lengths and widths, from clones already growing in two distinct types of habitats with contrasting levels of anthropogenic pollution: in unpolluted (rural areas, Novi Banovci, Stari Banovci and Belegiš (flowers from 137 clones sampled, and in a polluted (urban Belgrade metropolitan area (flowers from 133 clones sampled. Our results revealed significantly higher flower radial asymmetry in the polluted habitats compared to unpolluted ones (for three out of four univariate indices, as well as both multivariate ones, but failed to detect a similar effect on fluctuating asymmetry indices. The results of our study therefore demonstrate the potential of DI (when estimated by flower radial asymmetry in Iris germanica as a cost-effective biomonitoring method for in situ pollution detection based on readily measurable flower parts and moderate sample sizes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173025: Evolution in heterogeneous environments: mechanisms of adaptation, biomonitoring and conservation of biodiversity

  10. Active biomonitoring of palladium, platinum, and rhodium emissions from road traffic using transplanted moss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suoranta, Terhi; Niemelä, Matti; Poikolainen, Jarmo; Piispanen, Juha; Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain; Meisel, Thomas; Perämäki, Paavo

    2016-08-01

    The use of transplanted moss (Pleurozium schreberi) in active biomonitoring of traffic-related emissions of Pd, Pt, and Rh was studied. Moss mats were transplanted to three locations along highway E75 (in Oulu, Finland) at three different distances from the highway. Five samples were collected from a background site after the same exposure period. Mass fractions of Pd, Pt, and Rh as well as mass fractions of 18 other elements were determined in these samples. The results indicated that P. schreberi is well suited for active biomonitoring of Pd, Pt, and Rh. Mass fractions above the background values were observed in the samples exposed to traffic-related emissions. When the results were compared with those of the other elements, high correlations of Pd, Pt, and Rh with commonly traffic-related elements (e.g., Cu, Ni, Sb, Zn, etc.) were found. It was also found that the amounts of Pd, Pt, and Rh in moss samples decreased when the distance to the highway increased. This trend gives evidence for the suitability of P. schreberi for active biomonitoring of Pd, Pt, and Rh. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the mass fractions determined in this study provide valuable evidence about the current state of Pd, Pt, and Rh emissions in Oulu, Finland.

  11. Biomonitoring of cadmium, chromium, nickel and arsenic in general population living near mining and active industrial areas in Southern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlifi, Rim; Olmedo, Pablo; Gil, Fernando; Feki-Tounsi, Molka; Hammami, Bouthaina; Rebai, Ahmed; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2014-02-01

    The human health impact of the historic and current mining and industrial activities in Tunisia is not known. This study assessed the exposure to metals in the population of Southern Tunisia, using biomonitoring. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate metal exposure on 350 participants living near mining and active industrial areas in the South of Tunisia. Blood specimens were analyzed for metals (Cd, Cr, As, and Ni) by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer equipped with Zeeman background correction and AS-800 auto sampler by graphite furnace and graphite tubes with integrated L'vov platform. The sample population was classified according to different age groups, sex, smoking habit, sea food and water drinking consumption, occupational exposure, amalgam fillings and place of residence. The blood As, Cd, Cr and Ni values expressed as mean ± SD were 1.56 ± 2.49, 0.74 ± 1.15, 35.04 ± 26.02 and 30.56 ± 29.96 μg/l, respectively. Blood Cd and Ni levels in smokers were 2 and 1.2 times, respectively, higher than in non-smokers. Blood Cd levels increase significantly with age (p = 0.002). As, Cd and Ni were significantly correlated with gender and age (p Tunisia reveals a substantial exposure to several metals. The pathways of exposure and health significance of these findings need to be further investigated.

  12. Notes on the Iran Caddisflies and Role of Annulipalpian Hydropsychid Caddisflies as a Bio-monitoring Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseh Malekei-Ravasan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eco-faunistic studies are inevitable step in environmental researches. Aquatic organisms like caddisflies are known as biological indicators for water quality assessment and water resource management. They have special role for energy flow in the freshwater habitats as food web and food chain among aquatic creatures.Methods: In addition to an extensive literature review on Iran Caddisflies, a field study was carried out in Lavasan river flows in north east of Tehran to collect aquatic insects using D-frame nets and or direct search on stone beneath. The water quality was measured using analytical method. Results: Literature revealed record of 62 trichopterid species in the country comprising 14 families. The most abun­dant species belonged to the Hydropsychidae. Herein we report presence of the Annulipalpian Hydropsyche sciligra H Malicky, 1977 in the study area. Habitat water quality of H. sciligra resembled human drinkable water. However presence of snail, Physa acuta and fish Capoeta buhsei in the water sampling area indicated inferior quality. Conclusion: From ecological point of view caddisfly larvae are predators of most important medical vectors like mosquitoes, blackflies and midges. Also they are useful and important indicator for monitoring physicochemical effects in the nature, so that they can be used for bio-monitoring program. From medical point of view, wing hairs or other body parts of caddisflies can be inhalant and contact allergens in Trichopterists and in sensitive individuals who come in contact.

  13. Cd, Pb and Hg Biomonitoring in Fish of the Mediterranean Region and Risk Estimations on Fish Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisavet A. Renieri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and mercury (Hg are toxic metals with increasing interest due to their tendency to bioaccumulate in fish tissue which may pose a threat to human health via fish consumption. This review of the recent literature on Cd, Pb, Hg levels summarizes data of fish biomonitoring studies in the Mediterranean Sea in order to determine potential risks due to dietary intake of metals. The analytical methods applied are described, with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy being the most popular. Most of the literature reviewed is focused on the Eastern Mediterranean. Results from the studies indicate that metals mostly accumulate in liver, followed by muscle. Although there are few studies reporting metal levels in fish exceeding the maximum residue levels (MRLs, the bulk of the studies cite levels below the MRLs. The hazard index (HI of fish consumption, namely the ratio of estimated weekly intake to provisional tolerable weekly intake (EWI/PTWI was estimated for adult consumers and no risk emerged. The EWI/PTWI ratios of lead and mercury for Italy (0.14 and 0.22 respectively represent the highest HI levels estimated. In view of maximizing the benefits while minimizing the risks of fish consumption, a more detailed fish-specific database on intakes for consumers is required and extended bimonitoring in as many regions as possible.

  14. Notes on the Iran Caddisflies and Role of Annulipalpian Hydropsychid Caddisflies as a Bio-monitoring Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekei-Ravasan, Naseh; Bahrami, Abbas; Shayeghi, Mansoreh; Oshaghi, Mohamad Ali; Malek, Masomeh; Mansoorian, Allah Bedasht; Vatandoost, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Eco-faunistic studies are inevitable step in environmental researches. Aquatic organisms like caddisflies are known as biological indicators for water quality assessment and water resource management. They have special role for energy flow in the freshwater habitats as food web and food chain among aquatic creatures. In addition to an extensive literature review on Iran Caddisflies, a field study was carried out in Lavasan river flows in north east of Tehran to collect aquatic insects using D-frame nets and or direct search on stone beneath. The water quality was measured using analytical method. Literature revealed record of 62 trichopterid species in the country comprising 14 families. The most abundant species belonged to the Hydropsychidae. Herein we report presence of the Annulipalpian Hydropsyche sciligra H Malicky, 1977 in the study area. Habitat water quality of H. sciligra resembled human drinkable water. However presence of snail, Physa acuta and fish Capoeta buhsei in the water sampling area indicated inferior quality. From ecological point of view caddisfly larvae are predators of most important medical vectors like mosquitoes, blackflies and midges. Also they are useful and important indicator for monitoring physicochemical effects in the nature, so that they can be used for bio-monitoring program. From medical point of view, wing hairs or other body parts of caddisflies can be inhalant and contact allergens in Trichopterists and in sensitive individuals who come in contact.

  15. Notes on the Iran Caddisflies and Role of Annulipalpian Hydropsychid Caddisflies as a Bio-monitoring Agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseh Malekei-Ravasan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eco-faunistic studies are inevitable step in environmental researches. Aquatic organisms like caddisflies are known as biological indicators for water quality assessment and water resource management. They have special role for energy flow in the freshwater habitats as food web and food chain among aquatic creatures.In addition to an extensive literature review on Iran Caddisflies, a field study was carried out in Lavasan river flows in north east of Tehran to collect aquatic insects using D-frame nets and or direct search on stone beneath. The water quality was measured using analytical method.Literature revealed record of 62 trichopterid species in the country comprising 14 families. The most abundant species belonged to the Hydropsychidae. Herein we report presence of the Annulipalpian Hydropsyche sciligra H Malicky, 1977 in the study area. Habitat water quality of H. sciligra resembled human drinkable water. However presence of snail, Physa acuta and fish Capoeta buhsei in the water sampling area indicated inferior quality.From ecological point of view caddisfly larvae are predators of most important medical vectors like mosquitoes, blackflies and midges. Also they are useful and important indicator for monitoring physicochemical effects in the nature, so that they can be used for bio-monitoring program. From medical point of view, wing hairs or other body parts of caddisflies can be inhalant and contact allergens in Trichopterists and in sensitive individuals who come in contact.

  16. Investigations of Altered Aquatic Ecosystems: Biomonitoring, Disease, and Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Lunde, Kevin Bryce

    2011-01-01

    Changes to hydrology, water chemistry, physical habitat, and the landscape surrounding aquatic ecosystems can have profound effects on their biological communities, potentially reducing important ecosystem services and functions provided to wildlife and humans. In this dissertation, I examine how environmental variables, human activities, and management practices have affected stream and wetland biota throughout Northern California. The parasitic trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae has been shown to...

  17. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  18. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  19. Is there a future for biomonitoring of elemental air pollution? A review focused on a larger-scaled health-related (epidemiological) context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterbeek, B.; Sarmento, S.; Verburg, T.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper focuses on biomonitoring of elemental atmospheric pollution, which is reviewed in terms of larger-scaled biomonitoring surveys in an epidemiological context. Based on the literature information, today’s availability of solar-powered small air filter samplers and fibrous ion exchang

  20. Climate biomonitoring. Assessing climate change and its impacts on the biosphere. New focus of the working group bioindication/assessment of effects; Klima-Biomonitoring: Nachweis des Klimawandels und dessen Folgen fuer die belebte Umwelt. Neuer Schwerpunkt des Arbeitskreises Bioindikation/Wirkungsermittlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, Harald [Landesanstalt fuer Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg, Karlsruhe (Germany); Rammert, Uwe [Landesamt fuer Landwirtschaft, Umwelt und laendliche Raeume Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek (Germany); Schroeder, Winfried [Hochschule Vechta (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Landschaftsoekologie; Wolf, Helmut [Hessisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt und Geologie, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Background, aim and scope: The use of biomonitoring is proposed for the identification, assessment and documentation of climate change impacts on the biosphere as requested in the German 'National Adaptation Strategy' (BMU 2009), because - this method succeeds to present climatic changes in especially sensitive areas of Germany including their habitats, ecosystems, and species; - it can reveal relevant information about the migration and dispersal of new pests and diseases threatening humans, animals and plants; - it can provide politicians with information, documents and a basis for decision support to assess climate change impacts and - it is possible to develop new and to evaluate the effectiveness of existing adaptive measures. It is proposed to use the term 'climate biomonitoring' for biomonitoring methods that are able to indicate climate change effects. For several reasons (e.g. unified methods, common data basis, cost reduction) all federal states should participate in it. Today, bioindication is an indispensable method for the early detection of changes in the biosphere, giving information about special hazards (early warning system). Climate biomonitoring preferably makes use of already existing monitoring systems and data collections. Materials and methods: Climate biomonitoring refers back to accepted and tested methods of bioindication to assess environmental changes. Existing methods are enhanced and supplemented in order to meet the particular needs for the indication of climate change conditions. On the basis of an evaluation of relevant and actual monitoring programs on state and national level we identify relevant impacts of climate change and programs providing relevant data, and we propose evaluation methods. Additionally, other data sources are described, that may enable further in depth assessments. Results: An overview table systematically lists the monitoring programs on national and state level and shows their relevance

  1. Atmospheric Deposition of Trace Elements Around Ulan-Bator City Studied by Moss and Lichen Biomonitoring Technique and INAA

    CERN Document Server

    Ganbold, G; Gundorina, S F; Frontasyeva, M V; Ostrovnaya, T M; Pavlov, S S; Tsendeekhuu, T

    2005-01-01

    For the first time the moss and lichen biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution in Mongolia (Ulan-Bator, the capital city). INAA at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the content of 35 elements in moss and lichen biomonitors. Samples collected at sites located 10-15 km from the center of Ulan-Bator were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using epithermal neutrons. The mosses (\\textit{Rhytidium rugosum}, \\textit{Thuidium abietinum}, \\textit{Entodon concinnus}) and lichens (\\textit{Cladonia stellaris}, \\textit{Parmelia separata}) were used to study the atmospheric deposition of trace elements. It was shown that the suggested types of mosses could be used as suitable biomonitors to estimate the concentration levels of heavy metals and trace elements in Ulan-Bator atmospheric deposition. The results are compared to the data of atmospheric deposition of some European countries.

  2. Is there a future for biomonitoring of elemental air pollution? A review focused on a larger-scaled health-related (epidemiological) context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolterbeek, Bert; Sarmento, Susana; Verburg, Tona

    The present paper focuses on biomonitoring of elemental atmospheric pollution, which is reviewed in terms of larger-scaled biomonitoring surveys in an epidemiological context. Based on the literature information, today's availability of solar-powered small air filter samplers and fibrous ion exchange materials is regarded as adequate or an even better alternative for biomonitor transplant materials used in small-scaled set-ups, but biomonitors remain valuable in larger-scaled set-ups and in unforeseen releases and accidental situations. In the latter case, in-situ biomonitoring is seen as the only option for a retrospective study: biomoniors are there before one even knows that they are needed. For biomonitoring, nuclear analytical techniques are discussed as key techniques, especially because of the necessary multi-element assessments in both source recognition and single-element interpretation. To live up to the demands in an epidemiological context, larger-scaled in-situ biomonitoring asks for large numbers of samples, and consequently, for large total sample masses, this all to ensure representation of both local situations and survey area characteristics. Possibly, this point should direct studies into new "easy-to-sample" biomonitor organisms, of which high masses and numbers may be obtained in field work, rather than continue with biomonitors such as lichens. This also means that both sample handling and processing are of key importance in these studies. To avoid problems in comparability of analytical general procedures in milling, homogenization and digestion of samples of large masses, the paper proposes to involve only few but high-quality laboratories in the total element assessment routines. In this respect, facilities that can handle large sample masses in the assessment of element concentrations are to be preferred. This all highlights the involvement of large-sample-volume nuclear facilities, which, however, should be upgraded and automated in their

  3. Biomonitoring of exposure to lewisite based on adducts to haemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fidder, A.; Noort, D.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, L.P.A.de; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    The development of a procedure for retrospective detection and quantitation of exposure to the arsenical dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine (lewisite; L1) has been initiated. Upon incubation of human blood with [14C]L1 (20 nM-0.2 mM) in vitro, more than 90% of the total radioactivity was found in the ery

  4. Biomonitoring of exposure to lewisite based on adducts to haemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fidder, A.; Noort, D.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, L.P.A.de; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    The development of a procedure for retrospective detection and quantitation of exposure to the arsenical dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine (lewisite; L1) has been initiated. Upon incubation of human blood with [14C]L1 (20 nM-0.2 mM) in vitro, more than 90% of the total radioactivity was found in the

  5. Stream biomonitoring using macroinvertebrates around the globe: a comparison of large-scale programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Daniel F; Carlisle, Daren M; Chon, Tae-Soo; Culp, Joseph; Harding, Jon S; Keizer-Vlek, Hanneke E; Robinson, Wayne A; Strachan, Stephanie; Thirion, Christa; Hughes, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Water quality agencies and scientists are increasingly adopting standardized sampling methodologies because of the challenges associated with interpreting data derived from dissimilar protocols. Here, we compare 13 protocols for monitoring streams from different regions and countries around the globe. Despite the spatially diverse range of countries assessed, many aspects of bioassessment structure and protocols were similar, thereby providing evidence of key characteristics that might be incorporated in a global sampling methodology. Similarities were found regarding sampler type, mesh size, sampling period, subsampling methods, and taxonomic resolution. Consistent field and laboratory methods are essential for merging data sets collected by multiple institutions to enable large-scale comparisons. We discuss the similarities and differences among protocols and present current trends and future recommendations for monitoring programs, especially for regions where large-scale protocols do not yet exist. We summarize the current state in one of these regions, Latin America, and comment on the possible development path for these techniques in this region. We conclude that several aspects of stream biomonitoring need additional performance evaluation (accuracy, precision, discriminatory power, relative costs), particularly when comparing targeted habitat (only the commonest habitat type) versus site-wide sampling (multiple habitat types), appropriate levels of sampling and processing effort, and standardized indicators to resolve dissimilarities among biomonitoring methods. Global issues such as climate change are creating an environment where there is an increasing need to have universally consistent data collection, processing and storage to enable large-scale trend analysis. Biomonitoring programs following standardized methods could aid international data sharing and interpretation.

  6. Mapping elements distribution in carapace of Caretta caretta: A strategy for biomonitoring contamination in sea turtles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, D; Veschetti, E; D'Ilio, S; Blasi, M F

    2015-09-15

    This study analyzed the carapace distribution of Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sb, U, V and Zn by GF-AAS and ICP-AES in one specimen of Caretta caretta from Mediterranean Sea. Calcium, Mg, Mn, Pb, U, Zn were mainly distributed in the central area while Cd, Cr, Cu, Sb, V in lateral areas. Cadmium, Cr, Mg, Mn, Sb, U and V were different between lateral areas. The different distribution may be related to several exposures during lifetime and/or the shell ossification during growth. Carapace may be a suitable matrix for metal biomonitoring, however, further studies are required to confirm these findings.

  7. METHODS OF BIOMONITORING IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT: LEAF AREA AND FRACTAL DIMENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In urban conditions, we investigated several leaf traits (leaf area, specific leaf area, fractal dimension and specific leaf weight on Taraxacum officinale, Tilia tomentosa, Aesculus hippocastanum and Ambrosia artemisiifolia. The analyzed organs were mature leaves, on the first indications of senescence. This study used an exact, inexpensive and efficient in terms of costs alternative methods for determining the leaf parameters. On the other hand, this paper presents an application of the leaf area and fractal dimension in the analysis of leaf shape. Our results show that leaf area and fractal dimension are sensitive parameters that can be effectively used in biomonitoring.

  8. A System for Wireless Power Transfer and Data Communication of Long-Term Bio-Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A system for wireless power transfer and data communication of implantable bio-monitoring systems is presented. The proposed solution uses a servo-controlled power transmitter moved under the animal moving space. An x-y movable magnetic coil transmits the required power with a level able to keep constant the received energy by the bio-sensor system. The power is transferred via the optimized remote powering link at 13.56 MHz. The received AC signal is converted to DC voltage with a passive fu...

  9. Lichens and mosses as polonium and uranium biomonitors on Sobieszewo Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boryło, Alicja; Romańczyk, Grzegorz; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    In the study the activities of polonium (210)Po and uranium (234)U, (238)U radionuclides in moss and lichen samples were determined using the alpha spectrometry. Different lichens and mosses were collected around the Sobieszewo Island (northern Poland) and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for (210)Po and (238)U deposition. Mosses and lichens have a high efficiency in capturing (210)Po and (238)U from atmospheric fallout. The obtained results showed that (210)Po, (238)U concentrations are changing in analyzed thallophytes samples depending on the type of thallus.

  10. Priority persistent contaminants in people dwelling in critical areas of Campania Region, Italy (SEBIOREC biomonitoring study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Felip, Elena, E-mail: defelip@iss.it [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Dipartimento Ambiente e connessa Prevenzione Primaria, Rome (Italy); Bianchi, Fabrizio [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica, Pisa and Rome (Italy); Bove, Crescenzo [ASL CE, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Caserta (Italy); Cori, Liliana [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica, Pisa and Rome (Italy); D' Argenzio, Angelo [ASL CE, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Caserta (Italy); D' Orsi, Giancarlo [ASL NA2 Nord, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Naples (Italy); Fusco, Mario [Registro Tumori della Regione Campania, ASL NA3 Sud, Naples (Italy); Miniero, Roberto [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Dipartimento Ambiente e connessa Prevenzione Primaria, Rome (Italy); Ortolani, Rosanna [ASL NA1 Centro, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Naples (Italy); Palombino, Raffaele [ASL NA3 Sud, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Distretto Sanitario 69, Naples (Italy); Parlato, Antonino; Pelliccia, Maria Grazia; Peluso, Filomena [ASL NA2 Nord, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Naples (Italy); Piscopo, Giovanni [ASL NA3 Sud, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Distretto Sanitario 69, Naples (Italy); Pizzuti, Renato [Regione Campania, Assessorato alla Sanità, Osservatorio Epidemiologico, Naples (Italy); Porpora, Maria Grazia [Dipartimento di Ginecologia e Ostetricia, Dipartimento di Scienze Ginecologiche, Perinatologia, e Puericultura, Policlinico Umberto I, Università “Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); Protano, Domenico [ASL CE, Servizio di Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, Caserta (Italy); Senofonte, Oreste [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Dipartimento Ambiente e connessa Prevenzione Primaria, Rome (Italy); and others

    2014-07-01

    To investigate if protracted living in degraded environments of the Caserta and Naples provinces (Campania Region, Italy) had an impact on exposure of local people, highly toxic persistent contaminants were measured in blood, blood serum, and human milk of a large number of healthy donors. Sampling was carried out from 2008 to 2009. Blood was collected from over 850 20–64-year old donors; by pooling, 84 blood and 84 serum samples were obtained. Milk was donated by 52 mothers: specimens were pooled into six samples. Polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs, dioxin-like (DL) and non-dioxin-like (Σ{sub 6}PCBs)), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were measured in serum (organic biomarkers) and blood (metals); these chemicals and polybromobiphenyl ethers (Σ{sub 9}PBDEs) were analyzed in milk. PCDD + PCDF, DL-PCB, TEQ{sub TOT}, and Σ{sub 6}PCB concentration ranges (medians) in serum were 6.26–23.1 (12.4), 3.42–31.7 (11.5), 10.0–52.8 (23.9) pgTEQ{sub 97}/g fat, and 55.5–647 (219) ng/g fat, respectively, while in milk concentration ranges were 5.99–8.77, 4.02–6.15, 10.0–14.2 pgTEQ{sub 97}/g fat, and 48.7–74.2 ng/g fat. Likewise, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb findings in blood spanned 2.34–13.4 (5.83), 0.180–0.930 (0.475), 1.09–7.60 (2.60), 10.2–55.9 (28.8) μg/L, respectively; only Pb could be measured in milk (2.78–5.99 μg/L). Σ{sub 9}PBDE levels in milk samples were 0.965–6.05 ng/g fat. Biomarkers' concentrations were found to be compatible with their current values in European countries and in Italy, and consistent with an exposure primarily determined by consumption of commercial food from the large distribution system. Based on relatively higher biomarker values within the hematic biomonitoring database, the following municipalities were flagged as possibly deserving attention for health-oriented interventions: Brusciano and Caivano (As), Giugliano (Hg), Pianura

  11. Relation between DNA damage measured by comet assay and OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism in antineoplastic drugs biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antineoplastic drugs are hazardous chemical agents used mostly in the treatment of patients with cancer, however health professionals that handle and administer these drugs can become exposed and develop DNA damage. Comet assay is a standard method for assessing DNA damage in human biomonitoring and, combined with formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG enzyme, it specifically detects DNA oxidative damage.The aim of this study was to investigate genotoxic effects in workers occupationally exposed to cytostatics (n = 46, as compared to a control group with no exposure (n = 46 at two Portuguese hospitals, by means of the alkaline comet assay. The potential of the OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism as a susceptibility biomarker was also investigated. Exposure was evaluated by investigating the contamination of surfaces and genotoxic assessment was done by alkaline comet assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes. OGG1 Ser326Cys (rs1052133 polymorphism was studied by Real Time PCR.As for exposure assessment, there were 121 (37% positive samples out of a total of 327 samples analysed from both hospitals. No statistically significant differences (Mann-Whitney test, p > 0.05 were found between subjects with and without exposure, regarding DNA damage and oxidative DNA damage, nevertheless the exposed group exhibited higher values. Moreover, there was no consistent trend regarding the variation of both biomarkers as assessed by comet assay with OGG1 polymorphism.Our study was not statistically significant regarding occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs and genetic damage assessed by comet assay. However, health professionals should be monitored for risk behaviour, in order to ensure that safety measures are applied and protection devices are used correctly.

  12. Determination of seven arsenic compounds in urine by HPLC-ICP-DRC-MS: a CDC population biomonitoring method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Carl P; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Fresquez, Mark R; Jones, Robert L

    2009-02-01

    A robust analytical method has been developed and validated by use of high-performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with Dynamic Reaction Cell (DRC) technology that separates seven arsenic (As) species in human urine: arsenobetaine (AB), arsenocholine, trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), arsenate (As(V)), arsenite (As(III)), monomethylarsonate, and dimethylarsinate. A polymeric anion-exchange (Hamilton PRP X-100) column was used for separation of the species that were detected at m/z 75 by ICP-DRC-MS (PerkinElmer SCIEX ELAN DRCII) using 10% hydrogen-90% argon as the DRC gas. The internal standard (As) is added postcolumn via an external injector with a sample loop. All analyte peaks were baseline-separated except AB and TMAO. Analytical method limits of detection for the various species ranged from 0.4 to 1.7 microg L(-1) as elemental As. As(III) conversion to As(V) was avoided by adjusting the urine sample to biomonitoring studies of As exposure. This method meets our requirement for sample throughput of 2,000-3,000 sample analyses per year.

  13. 应用健康信念模型分析社会心理因素与手足口病预防行为的关系%Application of health belief model (HBM) in relationship of socio-psychological factors and hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) prevention behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕊; 康晓平; 张丽平

    2012-01-01

    目的 应用健康信念模型(HBM)分析社会心理因素与手足口病预防行为的关系.方法 采用分层抽样方法对天津市塘沽地区幼儿园中530名婴幼儿家长进行问卷调查,采用SPSS 13.0进行统计分析,对原有的HBM进行校正,应用结构方程方法进行分析.结果 对手足口病知觉到严重性和到易感性有较强信念的人为46.92%和30.82%.手足口病相关知识得分低的人群的预防行为得分低于手足口病相关知识得分高的人群,差异有统计学意义(x2 =8.24,P<0.05).结构方程分析结果显示,户籍(t=-1.962)、手足口病相关知识(t =2.020)和知觉到障碍(t=-22.220)对预防手足口病预防行为有直接效应;家庭月收入(t=2.872)和手足口病相关知识(t=1.990)对预防行为有间接效应;手足口病相关知识(t=2.866)和知觉到障碍(t=-22.220)对预防行为有总效应,均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 校正后的健康信念模型能够成功地解释社会心理因素与手足口病预防行为的关系.良好的个人预防行为可以通过健康教育的形式,建立健康信念来实现.%Objective To use health belief model (HBM) for analysis of socio-psychological factors associated with hand-foot-mouth disease ( HFMD) prevention behaviors. Methods 530 parents or guardians of children were randomly selected for questionnaire survey from Tanggu District, Tianjin. The SPSS 13. 0 software was used for statistical a-nalysis. The original HBM model was corrected, and structural equation methods was used for influencing factors statistical analysis. Results The perceived severity and susceptibility by HFMD model were 46. 92% and 30. 82%. Parents with low knowledge scores had lower behaviors score than those with higher knowledge score, and the differences were statistically significant (x2= 8. 24, P < 0. 05 ). Structural equation analysis results showed that household registration (t = - 1. 962 ) , knowledge (t =2. 020) and perceived

  14. The amphipod Hyalella azteca as a biomonitor in field deployment studies for metal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couillard, Y. [Existing Substances Division, Science and Risk Assessment Directorate, Environment Canada, Place Vincent Massey, 351 St. Joseph Boulevard, 20th floor, Gatineau, Quebec, K1A 0H3 (Canada)], E-mail: yves.couillard@ec.gc.ca; Grapentine, L.C.; Borgmann, U. [Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Doyle, P. [Existing Substances Division, Science and Risk Assessment Directorate, Environment Canada, Place Vincent Massey, 351 St. Joseph Boulevard, 20th floor, Gatineau, Quebec, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Masson, S. [Parc Aquarium du Quebec, 1675 avenue des Hotels, Quebec, Quebec, Canada G1W 4S3 (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    Specimens of the amphipod Hyalella azteca were deployed, in June-July 2003, along metal contamination gradients in two rivers affected by metal mining in the Abitibi - James Bay region, northwestern Quebec. The amphipods were placed along with natural food items in small, acrylic cages and left in six riverine sites for 17 days. Twelve metals (As, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Sb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn, and CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} modelled by WHAM VI) in transplanted H. azteca varied along metal contamination gradients in a consistent manner, i.e., as a function of metal exposure. Bioaccumulation of As, Cr, La, Ni, Sb, Se, Tl, U and V, as defined by a field BCF, was significantly correlated with their chronic toxicity potential towards the amphipod. We conclude that H. azteca may be a useful field biomonitor for metal mining. In addition, our results suggest that such biomonitoring programs should include less studied elements such as Se in mining effluents. - Hyalella azteca accumulates dissolved metals in a dose-dependent manner.

  15. The amphipod Hyalella azteca as a biomonitor in field deployment studies for metal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couillard, Y; Grapentine, L C; Borgmann, U; Doyle, P; Masson, S

    2008-12-01

    Specimens of the amphipod Hyalella azteca were deployed, in June-July 2003, along metal contamination gradients in two rivers affected by metal mining in the Abitibi-James Bay region, northwestern Québec. The amphipods were placed along with natural food items in small, acrylic cages and left in six riverine sites for 17 days. Twelve metals (As, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Sb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn, and CrO4(2-) modelled by WHAM VI) in transplanted H. azteca varied along metal contamination gradients in a consistent manner, i.e., as a function of metal exposure. Bioaccumulation of As, Cr, La, Ni, Sb, Se, Tl, U and V, as defined by a field BCF, was significantly correlated with their chronic toxicity potential towards the amphipod. We conclude that H. azteca may be a useful field biomonitor for metal mining. In addition, our results suggest that such biomonitoring programs should include less studied elements such as Se in mining effluents.

  16. Comparative biomonitors of coastal trace metal contamination in tropical South America (N. Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    e Silva, Carlos Augusto R; Smith, Brian D; Rainbow, Philip S

    2006-05-01

    Samples of 5 bivalve molluscs (Crassostrea rhizophorae, Mytella charruana, Anomalocardia brasiliana, Anadara ovalis, Phacoides pectinata), 2 barnacles (Fistulobalanus citerosum, Balanus amphitrite) and leaves of the mangrove tree Rhizophora mangle were collected from up to 11 sites in two estuaries in Natal, Brazil--the comparatively contaminated Potengi estuary and the comparatively uncontaminated Curimataú estuary. Specimens were analysed for the trace metals Zn, Cu, Cd, Fe, Mn and Ni, and a comparative assessment made of the power of the different species as trace metal biomonitors. Four of the 5 bivalves (not P. pectinata) take up metals from solution and suspended material (food source), while P. pectinata as a lucinid with symbiotic chemosynthetic bacteria takes up metals from dissolved sources only. The organisms with the strongest net accumulation of particular metals showed the greatest discrimination between trace metal bioavailabilities between sites. Barnacles (F. citerosum) showed the best discrimination, but oysters (C. rhizophorae) are particularly recommended as biomonitors given their strong accumulation patterns for many trace metals, their large size and their local abundance.

  17. The role of native lichens in the biomonitoring of gaseous mercury at contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Berdonces, Miguel A; Higueras, Pablo L; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes; Borreguero, Ana M; Carmona, Manuel

    2017-01-15

    Contamination by atmospheric mercury has been assessed in two different areas from Spain (Las Cuevas, Ciudad Real and Flix, Tarragona) using lichens as biomonitors. The relationship established between mercury contents in the soils and the gaseous mercury (GM) was also observed. It was found that the GM is highest in the vicinity of the source and it is dispersed depending on of the distance to the source and the wind directions. The mercury concentration in the gas phase in Flix was higher than that found in Las Cuevas and also higher than the value that the US EPA recommended. The mercury bioaccumulation in the native lichens from genders Ramalina and Xanthoria were used as biomonitors for absorbing mercury in Las Cuevas and Flix, respectively. The mercury uptake by Ramalina was higher than the amount accumulated by Xanthoria, a difference that was mainly due to the lichen characteristics. The content of mercury in lichens in relation to the mercury in gas was fitted by a Freundlich type equation, indicating that the equilibrium between both phases was established. Besides, transplanted Ramalina lichen in Las Cuevas allowed to obtain the kinetic of mercury uptake. A kinetic model of first order based on the equilibrium was proposed and the mass transfer constants for each sampling station were estimated. As it was expected, these values increased with the predominant wind flow direction.

  18. Bivalve Omics: State of the Art and Potential Applications for the Biomonitoring of Harmful Marine Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Venier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The extraordinary progress experienced by sequencing technologies and bioinformatics has made the development of omic studies virtually ubiquitous in all fields of life sciences nowadays. However, scientific attention has been quite unevenly distributed throughout the different branches of the tree of life, leaving molluscs, one of the most diverse animal groups, relatively unexplored and without representation within the narrow collection of well established model organisms. Within this Phylum, bivalve molluscs play a fundamental role in the functioning of the marine ecosystem, constitute very valuable commercial resources in aquaculture, and have been widely used as sentinel organisms in the biomonitoring of marine pollution. Yet, it has only been very recently that this complex group of organisms became a preferential subject for omic studies, posing new challenges for their integrative characterization. The present contribution aims to give a detailed insight into the state of the art of the omic studies and functional information analysis of bivalve molluscs, providing a timely perspective on the available data resources and on the current and prospective applications for the biomonitoring of harmful marine compounds.

  19. A biomonitor for tracking changes in the availability of lakewater cadmium over space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, L.; Tessier, A.; Croteau, M.-N.

    2008-01-01

    Determining the exposure of organisms to contaminants is a key component of Ecological Risk Assessments (ERAs). Effective estimates of exposure consider not only the total concentrations of contaminants in an organism's surroundings but also the availability of the contaminants to organisms. Contaminant availability can be inferred from mechanistic models and verified by measurements of contaminant concentrations in organisms. We evaluated the widespread lake-dwelling insect Chaoborus as a potential biomonitor for use in exposure assessments for three metals: cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). We show that larvae of this midge maintain constant their concentrations of the essential metals Cu and Zn and thus cannot be used to monitor them. In contrast, larval Cd concentrations varied widely both among lakes and in a given lake over time. We were able to relate these variations in biomonitor Cd to changes in lakewater Cd and pH using the Free Ion Activity Model (FIAM). Our results suggest that Chaoborus larvae could be used as an effective tool for estimating the Cd exposure of organisms in lakes for the purposes of ERAs.

  20. Heavy Metals and Trace Elements Atmospheric Deposition Studies in Tula Region Using Moss Biomonitors Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitors technique was used in air pollution studies in Tula Region (Central Russia), applying NAA, AAS. Moss samples were collected at 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy adopted in European projects on biomonitoring atmospheric deposition. A wide set of trace elements in mosses was determined. The method of epithermal neutron activation at IBR-2 reactor of FLNP JINR has made it possible to identify 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) in the large-scale concentration range - from 10000 ppm for K to 0,001 ppm for Tb and Ta. Cu, Cd and Pb were determined by the flame AAS in the Norwegian Institute of Science and Technology. Using the graphical technique and principal component analysis allowed to separate plant, crustal and general pollution components in the moss. The obtained data will be used for constructing coloured maps of the distribution of elements over t...

  1. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tula Region) Using Moss Biomonitoring Technique, NAA and AAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution monitoring in Central Russia (Tula Region). Moss samples were collected from 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy of European projects on biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the concentration of 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) over a large concentration range (from 10000 mg/kg for K to 0.001 mg/kg for Tb and Ta). In addition to NAA, flame AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry) was applied to determine the concentration of Cd, Cu and Pb. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of elements detected in the investigated mosses. Eight factors were identified. The geographical distribution of factor scores is presented. The interpretation of the factor analysis findings points to natural as well as anthr...

  2. Feasibility of poplar foliages as bio-monitors for organochlorine pesticides in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI TianYou; ZHU XiaoHua; WANG Wei; MENG Wei; YU YunJiang; LI FaSheng; YANG YongLiang; LIU Feng

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of poplar (P. tomentosa) foliages as passive biomonitors for organochlorine pesticides In air was explored. The accumulation patterns of poplar foliages for HCHs, DDTs and HCB were similar, the amount of HCHs, DDTs and HCB increased with foliage growth in spring, and decreased thereafter. There was no obvious distinction in the accumulation styles between the adult leaf and the leaf-litter. This accumulation pattern is likely related to the growing process of the poplar foliage, and was ob-served for the first time in our work, giving an evidence for the "bud burst effect" in plants. The tech-nical HCH and DDT were used largely in history and not used in recent years, but there was a little usage of lindane and new input of o,p'DDT in recent years, and dicofol usage may be the main source of o,p'-DDT. Concentrations of HCHs, DDTs and HCB in poplar foliages were similar to those in pine needles at the corresponding period, and there is a positive strong correlation between OCP concen-tration data of two kinds of trees. It presents no difference in the accumulation style between two kinds of trees. The level of OCPs in the poplar foliage reflected the pollution status of OCPs in air. The result of this work showed that the poplar foliage can be used as the bio-monitor of OCPs in air.

  3. Biomonitoring of bees. Upgrading of electronic monitoring of thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuhalev, I.; Rajh-Alatic, Z. [Electroinstitute Ljubljana (Slovakia)

    1995-12-31

    Environmental monitoring of the air quality associates procedures whose task is to acquire data about the measurement of the polluted air in the real time and on-line mode. Air quality measurements are made at the point of the measurement site which is the most exposed to pollution. Apart from the point measurements, there are also line measurements carried out. They are made in a particular area where they provide better results about the environmental pollution. Data that are obtained in this way provide the basis for adequate procedures for the air protection. The effect of noxious substances from the air on living organisms under laboratory conditions is known to a certain degree. The real extent of the effect of the air pollution under existing conditions in a particular area and time can only be established with biomonitoring. One of its most frequent forms is observation of a particular plant specimen which is sensitive to some noxious components from the air. Biomonitoring of plants provides data about the complex pollution stress to which an observed plant is exposed. It covers a certain time period and gives point results of an area. To get a complete insight into the effect of the pollution stress in an area biomonotoring was expanded onto bees

  4. Potential of Opuntia ficus-indica for air pollution biomonitoring: a lead isotopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hayek, Eliane; El Samrani, Antoine; Lartiges, Bruno; Kazpard, Veronique; Benoit, Mathieu; Munoz, Marguerite

    2015-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (Ofi) is a long-domesticated cactus that is widespread throughout arid and semiarid regions. Ofi is grown for both its fruits and edible cladodes, which are flattened photosynthetic stems. Young cladodes develop from mother cladodes, thus forming series of cladodes of different ages. Therefore, successive cladodes may hold some potential for biomonitoring over several years the local atmospheric pollution. In this study, cladodes, roots, dust deposited onto the cladodes, and soil samples were collected in the vicinity of three heavily polluted sites, i.e., a fertilizer industry, the road side of a highway, and mine tailings. The lead content was analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used to characterize the cladode surfaces and the nature of dust deposit, and the lead isotopes were analyzed to identify the origin of Pb. The results show that (i) Ofi readily bioaccumulates Pb, (ii) the lead isotopic composition of cladodes evidences a foliar pathway of lead into Ofi and identifies the relative contributions of local Pb sources, and (iii) an evolution of air quality is recorded with successive cladodes, which makes Ofi a potential biomonitor to be used in environmental and health studies.

  5. Biomonitoring of 1,3-butadiene and related compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterman-Golkar, S. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Bond, J.A. [Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments list several volatile organic chemicals as hazardous air pollutants, including ethylene oxide, butadiene, styrene, and acrylonitrile. The toxicology of many of these compounds shares several common elements such as carcinogenicity in laboratory animals, genotoxicity of the epoxide intermediates, involvement of cytochrome P450 for metabolic activation (except ethylene oxide), and involvement of at least two enzymes for detoxication of the epoxides (e.g., hydrolysis or conjugation with glutathione). These similarities facilitate research strategies for identifying and developing biomarkers of exposure. This article reviews the current knowledge about biomarkers of butadiene. Butadiene is carcinogenic in mice and rats, which raises concern for potential carcinogenicity in humans. 85 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Biomonitoring of a population of Portuguese workers exposed to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lestón, Julia; Roma-Torres, Joana; Vilares, Maria; Pinto, Rui; Cunha, Luís M; Prista, João; Teixeira, Joao Paulo; Mayan, Olga; Pásaro, Eduardo; Méndez, Josefina; Laffon, Blanca

    2011-03-18

    Lead is a heavy metal that has been used for many centuries and it is still used for various industrial purposes thanks to its physical and chemical characteristics. Human exposure to lead can result in a wide range of biological effects depending upon the level and duration of exposure. Despite the fact that lead has been found capable of eliciting genotoxic responses in a wide range of tests, not all studies have been conclusive. Although several experimental studies have shown that lead may modulate immune responses, data in exposed humans are still preliminary. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the genotoxic and immunotoxic effects of lead exposure in a group of 70 male workers from two Portuguese factories. The control group comprised 38 healthy males. The exposed individuals showed significantly higher levels of lead in blood and zinc protoporphyrin, and significantly lower δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity than the controls, suggesting a relatively high lead exposure. Nevertheless, the limit of 70 μg/dl for lead in blood established by the Portuguese regulation was never reached. Results of the comet assay were not modified by the exposure, but a significant increase in the mutation frequency in the exposed workers was obtained in the T-cell receptor mutation assay. Furthermore, data obtained in the analysis of the different lymphocyte subsets showed a significant decrease in %CD8+ cells and a significant increase in the %CD4+/%CD8+ ratio in exposed individuals with regard to the controls. No clear effect was observed for vitamin D receptor genetic polymorphism on the parameters evaluated. In view of our results showing mutagenic and immunotoxic effects related to lead exposure in occupational settings, it seems that the Portuguese biological exposure limit for lead needs to be revised in order to increase the safety of exposed workers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Application of Internal Dose Measures, Biokinetics, and Biomonitoring Data in the Risk Assessment of Dioxin-Like Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aylward, L.L.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents a series of investigations into the biokinetic behavior of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds and the application of biokinetic modeling and biomonitoring data in quantitative risk assessment for these compounds. The biokinetic properties of TCDD an

  8. Development of a feeding behavioural bioassay using the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex and the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, A.; Lange, de H.J.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study reports the development of a feeding behavioural bioassay using the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor (MFB). This device is based on the quadruple impedance conversion technique to record online different behaviours of animals. Animal movements in the water generate specific frequ

  9. In vitro biomonitoring in polar extracts of solid phase matrices reveals the presence of unknown compounds with estrogenic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legler, J.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Spenkelink, A.; Murk, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Determination of estrogenic activity has so far mainly concentrated on the assessment of compounds in surface water and effluent. This study is one of the first to biomonitor (xeno-)estrogens in sediment, suspended particulate matter and aquatic organisms. The relatively polar acetone extracts from

  10. Physical and digital design of the BlueBio biomonitoring system prototype, to be used in emergency medical response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramp, Gunnar; Kristensen, M; Pedersen, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the physical and digital design of a wireless biomonitoring system meant to be used especially in the prehospital medical emergency response. Handling of many patients with a minimum of ressources at major incidents is an immense challenge for the emergency personnel on work a...

  11. Physical and Digital Design of the BlueBio Biomonitoring System Prototype, to be used in Emergency Medical Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramp, Gunnar; Kristensen, Margit; Pedersen, Jacob Frølund

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the physical and digital design of a wireless biomonitoring system meant to be used especially in the prehospital medical emergency response. The handling of many patients with a minimum of ressources at major incidents is an immense challenge for the emergency personnel at wo...

  12. Physical and Digital Design of the BlueBio Biomonitoring System Prototype, to be used in Emergency Medical Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramp, Gunnar; Kristensen, Margit; Pedersen, Jacob Frølund

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the physical and digital design of a wireless biomonitoring system meant to be used especially in the prehospital medical emergency response. The handling of many patients with a minimum of ressources at major incidents is an immense challenge for the emergency personnel at work...... of the current prototype....

  13. Differential accumulation of mercury and other trace metals in the food web components of a reservoir impacted by a chlor-alkali plant (Flix, Ebro River, Spain): Implications for biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, David X., E-mail: david.soto@ec.gc.ca [Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Acces a la Cala St. Francesc 14, 17300 Blanes (Spain); Roig, Romero; Gacia, Esperanca; Catalan, Jordi [Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Acces a la Cala St. Francesc 14, 17300 Blanes (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    Comparative studies of biomonitors of trace metal contamination are relatively scarce. We took advantage of a point source pollution in a reservoir (Flix, Spain) to compare trace metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Se, As, Zn, Cu, Cr) bioaccumulation patterns among 16 food web components. Our results indicate that most organisms are suitable for Hg biomonitoring, whereas other metals are better monitored by only some of them. Biofilms and zebra mussel were the organisms with larger and more diverse biomonitoring capacity. However, we show that using groups of biomonitors increase the scope and strengths of the conclusions and specific goals can be better addressed. We conclude providing an overview of the strengths and weaknesses of the main organisms considered for biomonitoring trace metals in rivers and reservoirs. - Highlights: > We compare many food web components of a reservoir for trace metal bioaccumulation. > Most organisms are suitable for Hg biomonitoring. > Biofilms and zebra mussel showed more general biomonitoring capacity. > Other organisms showed strengths for specific metals or environmental compartments. > The use of a group of biomonitors increases the scope and strengths of conclusions. - The use of a group of biomonitors increases the scope and strengths of conclusions in trace metal biomonitoring.

  14. Uso de los Datos de Biomonitoreo para Informar sobre la Evaluacion Infantil (American translation is: USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  15. Uso de los Datos de Biomonitoreo para Informar sobre la Evaluacion Infantil (American translation is: USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  16. Tillandsia usneoides L, a biomonitor in the determination of Ce, La and Sm by neutron activation analysis in an industrial corridor in Central Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac-Olive, K. [Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, Toluca, 50120 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Solis, C., E-mail: corina@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Martinez-Carrillo, M.A; Andrade, E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Lopez, C.; Longoria, L.C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Salazar, 50045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho-Constantino, C.A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun, Km. 20., Hidalgo, Mexico (Mexico); Beltran-Hernandez, R.I. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo. Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo km. 4.5, 42184, Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)

    2012-04-15

    The atmosphere of the Tula Industrial Corridor in Central Mexico is contaminated due to several industries including oil refining while station monitoring in this area are limited. Lanthanides are considered fingerprint of oil refinery activities, and La, Ce and Sm have been previously detected in this area using filters. The suitability of T. usneoides as a biomonitor assessing the La, Ce and Sm concentrations in Particulate Matter is evaluated by NAA. Results of both biomonitor and filters are highly correlated.

  17. Lead resistant bacteria: lead resistance mechanisms, their applications in lead bioremediation and biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Milind Mohan; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is non-bioessential, persistent and hazardous heavy metal pollutant of environmental concern. Bioremediation has become a potential alternative to the existing technologies for the removal and/or recovery of toxic lead from waste waters before releasing it into natural water bodies for environmental safety. To our best knowledge, this is a first review presenting different mechanisms employed by lead resistant bacteria to resist high levels of lead and their applications in cost effective and eco-friendly ways of lead bioremediation and biomonitoring. Various lead resistant mechanisms employed by lead resistant bacteria includes efflux mechanism, extracellular sequestration, biosorption, precipitation, alteration in cell morphology, enhanced siderophore production and intracellular lead bioaccumulation.

  18. Spatial scales of variation in lichens: implications for sampling design in biomonitoring surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, Paolo; Brunialti, Giorgio; Frati, Luisa; Incerti, Guido; Ianesch, Luca; Vallone, Emanuele; Bacaro, Giovanni; Maccherini, Simona

    2013-02-01

    The variability of biological data is a main constraint affecting the quality and reliability of lichen biomonitoring surveys for estimation of the effects of atmospheric pollution. Although most epiphytic lichen bioindication surveys focus on between-site differences at the landscape level, associated with the large scale effects of atmospheric pollution, current protocols are based on multilevel sampling, thus adding further sources of variation and affecting the error budget. We test the hypothesis that assemblages of lichen communities vary at each spatial scale examined, in order to determine what scales should be included in future monitoring studies. We compared four sites in Italy, along gradients of atmospheric pollution and climate, to test the partitioning of the variance components of lichen diversity across spatial scales (from trunks to landscapes). Despite environmental heterogeneity, we observed comparable spatial variance. However, residuals often overcame between-plot variability, leading to biased estimation of atmospheric pollution effects.

  19. METHODS OF BIOMONITORING IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT: ALLERGENIC POLLEN IN WESTERN ROMANIA AND RELATIONSHIPS WITH METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring results showed that a total of 23 pollen types were located in the air of the study area. The analysis of the airborne pollen content concerned 20 taxa, whose pollen has allergenic properties and occurs in large quantities in the air of Timisoara: Alnus, Taxaceae/Cupressaceae, Salix, Populus, Ulmus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Quercus, Tilia, Pinaceae, Corylus, Carpinus, Betula, Poaceae, Rumex, Plantago, Urticaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Ambrosia and Artemisia. Analysis of the pollen count in Timisoara was performed on the basis of the data collected in the year 2009. Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Urticaceae and Poaceae reached the highest atmospheric pollen concentrations in Timisoara. Multiple regression analysis was found to be a very valuable tool for identifying the weather variables most closely associated with atmospheric pollen seasons.

  20. Orchomenella pinguis (amphipoda)-a possible species for heavy metal biomonitoring of marine sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lis Bach; Laura Ferguson; Vilhelm Feltelius; Jens Sondergaard

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the potential local benthic biomonitor organism, Orchomenella pinguis (O. pinguis), for mining contamination by addressing accumulation and toxicity of mining related metals in this arctic marine amphipod. Methods:A toxicity study exposed O. pinguis to four commonly occurring heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb) associated to the mining industry in Greenland using:1) a 5-day water-only bioassay;2) a water-only bioassay evaluating the response between metal accumulation in O. pinguis and metal concentrations in water during a 5-day period;and finally 3) a sediment bioassay evaluating the response between metal accumulation in O. pinguis and metal concentrations in sediment as a function of time during a 20-day period using different mixtures of mining-contaminated sediments. Results:LC50 values for the four metals were 2.8, 5.4, 10.4 and 21.4 µmol/L, for Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively, with corresponding modelled metal concentrations of 3.4, 1.0, 11.1 and 6.1 µmol/g dry weight. During the sediment exposure experiments, a similar concentration of Zn did not induce lethal effects at the same level. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the appliance of metal organism concentrations as an estimate of effects is not a sufficient biomonitor of environmental effects. The organism may sequester metals into cellular compartments thus rendering the metals inert for toxic effects. More studies are needed to investigate effects of metal bioavailability. Additional biomarkers such as effects on functional responses e.g. feeding and burial behavior or effects on reproductive success are suggested in order enhance to the ecological significance.

  1. Indoor and outdoor biomonitoring using lichens at urban and rural primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canha, N; Almeida, S M; Freitas, M C; Wolterbeek, H T

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring particulate matter (PM) and its chemical constituents in classrooms is a subject of special concern within the scientific community in order to control and minimize child exposure. Regulatory sampling methods have presented several limitations in their application to larger number of classrooms due to operational and financial constraints. Consequently, passive sampling methodologies using filters were developed for indoor sampling. However, such methodologies could not provide parallel information for outdoors, which is important to identify pollution sources and assess outdoor contribution to the indoors. Therefore, biomonitoring with transplanted lichens, a technique usually applied for outdoor studies, was used both indoor and outdoor of classrooms. Three main objectives were proposed, to (i) characterize simultaneously indoor and outdoor of classrooms regarding inorganic air pollutants, (ii) investigate spatial patterns of lichen conductivity, and (iii) assess pollution sources that contribute to a poor indoor air quality in schools. Lichens Flavoparmelia caperata were transplanted to indoor and outdoor of classrooms for 59 d. After exposure, electric conductivity of lichens leachate was measured to evaluate lichen vitality and cell damage. Outdoors lichen conductivity was higher near the main highways, and indoors there was great variability in levels, which indicates different emissions sources and different ventilation patterns. Chemical content of lichens was assessed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and As, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Th, Yb, and Zn were determined. Element accumulation, crustal enrichment factors, and spatial variability of elements were analyzed and contaminants from anthropogenic sources, such as traffic (As, Sb, and Zn) and indoor chalk (Ca) found. Classrooms with potential indoor air quality problems were identified by presenting higher accumulations of

  2. Introduce lichen Lepraria incana as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Amin; Jahangiri, Ahmad; Iranmanesh, Jalil

    2016-08-01

    Lichens have been used as biomonitors of airborne radionuclides released in conjunction with nuclear bomb testing as well as nuclear power plant accidents. The potential of lichens for monitoringof radionuclides has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide monitoring by lichens, in Iran. Thus, as a first step, we have conducted a comparison of (137)Csactivity concentration capacity of three epiphytic lichen species including Lepraria incana, Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea from Ramsar Northern Iran. In this work, accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was determined in 36 lichen samples using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The results showed that highest accumulation capacity of (137)Cs in the lichen species was found in Lepraria incana and Xanthoria parietina, 30.2, 9.8 Bq/kg respectively, and lowest average accumulation capacity were found in Ramalina farinacea 2.7 Bq/kg (dry weight). This study showed that activity concentration (137)Cs is in crustose > foliose > fruticose lichens in the same biotope. Thus, crustose lichens are capable to accumulate higher (137)Cs than foliose and fruticose species because of different factors such as special morphological characteristics in these species and large surface/volume ratio or longer biological half-life of (137)Cs in lichen Lepraria incana. Therefore, Lepraria incana due to high concentration capability of (137)Cs (approximately 3 and 11 time higher than Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea, respectively), is introduced as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, North of Iran.

  3. Orchomenella pinguis (amphipoda-a possible species for heavy metal biomonitoring of marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis Bach

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the potential local benthic biomonitor organism, Orchomenella pinguis (O. pinguis, for mining contamination by addressing accumulation and toxicity of mining related metals in this arctic marine amphipod. Methods: A toxicity study exposed O. pinguis to four commonly occurring heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb associated to the mining industry in Greenland using: 1 a 5-day water-only bioassay; 2 a water-only bioassay evaluating the response between metal accumulation in O. pinguis and metal concentrations in water during a 5-day period; and finally 3 a sediment bioassay evaluating the response between metal accumulation in O. pinguis and metal concentrations in sediment as a function of time during a 20-day period using different mixtures of mining-contaminated sediments. Results: LC50 values for the four metals were 2.8, 5.4, 10.4 and 21.4 µmol/L, for Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively, with corresponding modelled metal concentrations of 3.4, 1.0, 11.1 and 6.1 µmol/g dry weight. During the sediment exposure experiments, a similar concentration of Zn did not induce lethal effects at the same level. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the appliance of metal organism concentrations as an estimate of effects is not a sufficient biomonitor of environmental effects. The organism may sequester metals into cellular compartments thus rendering the metals inert for toxic effects. More studies are needed to investigate effects of metal bioavailability. Additional biomarkers such as effects on functional responses e.g. feeding and burial behavior or effects on reproductive success are suggested in order enhance to the ecological significance.

  4. APPLICATION OF SALMONIDS (SALMONIDAE N THE BIOMONITORING OF AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yanovych

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Due to the pollution of fisheries water bodies by industrial and agricultural waste waters, as well as by xenobiotics coming from other sources, taking into account a pridictable increase in the amounts of such effluents in the short and long terms, the problems related to the study of the effects of the pollutants of different nature and origin on aquatic organisms, especially fish, as well as a prediction of possible adverse consequences on aquatic ecosystems, becomes particularly important. The aim of our work was an analysis and synthesis of existing literature data concerning the indication in the biomonitoring of aquatic environments based on biological markers of salmonids as highly sensitive objects of fish fauna to external factors. Findings. The review summarizes and systematizes the data concerning the use of salmonids in biomonitoring studies. Furthermore, we highlighted and characterized the specificity of bioindication parameters of the aquatic environment state, such as the biochemical, genetic, physiological, morphological, histopathological, behavioral and population markers and noted the effects of hydroecosystem ecotoxication on different levels of biological organization (cell, individual, population, fish community. We also described the possibility of biological monitoring based on saprobic indexes identified for indicator species belonging to salmonids. Originality. In the article describes the structure, pros and cons of the use of specific biomarkers of individual salmonid fish and their populations for assessing the ecological status of aquatic environments. Practical value. The data given in the article can be used to improve the system of the ecological monitoring of aquatic environments by extending the range of indicator indices with organism and population biomarkers of highly sensitive salmonid species.

  5. Taxonomy-free molecular diatom index for high-throughput eDNA biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apothéloz-Perret-Gentil, Laure; Cordonier, Arielle; Straub, François; Iseli, Jennifer; Esling, Philippe; Pawlowski, Jan

    2017-03-14

    Current biodiversity assessment and biomonitoring are largely based on the morphological identification of selected bioindicator taxa. Recently, several attempts have been made to use eDNA metabarcoding as an alternative tool. However, until now, most applied metabarcoding studies have been based on the taxonomic assignment of sequences that provides reference to morphospecies ecology. Usually, only a small portion of metabarcoding data can be used due to a limited reference database and a lack of phylogenetic resolution. Here, we investigate the possibility to overcome these limitations using a taxonomy-free approach that allows the computing of a molecular index directly from eDNA data without any reference to morphotaxonomy. As a case study, we use the benthic diatoms index, commonly used for monitoring the biological quality of rivers and streams. We analysed 87 epilithic samples from Swiss rivers, the ecological status of which was established based on the microscopic identification of diatom species. We compared the diatom index derived from eDNA data obtained with or without taxonomic assignment. Our taxonomy-free approach yields promising results by providing a correct assessment for 77% of examined sites. The main advantage of this method is that almost 95% of OTUs could be used for index calculation, compared to 35% in the case of the taxonomic assignment approach. Its main limitations are under-sampling and the need to calibrate the index based on the microscopic assessment of diatoms communities. However, once calibrated, the taxonomy-free molecular index can be easily standardized and applied in routine biomonitoring, as a complementary tool allowing fast and cost-effective assessment of the biological quality of watercourses.

  6. Heavy metal biomonitoring and phytoremediation potentialities of aquatic macrophytes in River Nile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Manal Ahmed; Badr, Nadia El-sayed; El-Khatib, Ahmed; Abo-El-Kassem, Amany

    2012-03-01

    The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in sediments, water, and different plant organs of six aquatic vascular plant species, Ceratophyllum demersum L. Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc. & Chase; Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laub; Myriophyllum spicatum L.; Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud; and Typha domingensis (Pers.) Poir. ex Steud, growing naturally in the Nile system (Sohag Governorate), were investigated. The aim was to define which species and which plant organs exhibit the greatest accumulation and evaluate whether these species could be usefully employed in biomonitoring and phytoremediation programs. The recorded metals in water samples were above the standard levels of both US Environmental Protection Agency and Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency except for Pb. The concentrations of heavy metals in water, sediments, and plants possess the same trend: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd which reflects the biomonitoring potentialities of the investigated plant species. Generally, the variation of heavy element concentrations in water and sediments in relation to site and season, as assessed by two-way repeated measured ANOVA, was significant (p heavy elements for the investigated plants varied significantly (p E. crassipes > M. spicatum > E. pyramidalis > T. domingensis > P. australis. On the basis of the element concentrations, roots of all the studied species contain higher concentrations of Cu and Zn than shoots while leaves usually acquire the highest concentrations of Pb. Cd concentrations among different plant organs are comparable except in M. spicatum where the highest Cd concentrations were recorded in the leaves. Our results also demonstrated that all the studied species can accumulate more than 1,450-fold the concentration of the investigated heavy elements in water rendering them of interest for use in phytoremediation studies of polluted waters. Given the absence of systematic water quality monitoring, heavy elements in plants, rather

  7. Could gingko foliage serve as a bio-monitor for organochlorine pesticides in air?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI TianYou; ZHU XiaoHua; MENG Wei; YU YunJiang; WANG Wei; LI FaSheng; LIU Feng; YANG YongLiang; WU DaNian

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of gingko (Gingo Biloba) foliage as a passive bio-monitor for organochlorine pesticides in air was explored. The accumulation patterns of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in gingko foliage were similar; the amounts of HCHs, DDTs and HCB increased with foliage growth in spring and decreased thereafter. This accumu-lation pattern is likely related to the growing process of the gingko foliage, which was observed for the first time in our work, giving a piece of evidence for the "bud burst effect" in plants. Compared with those in pine needles in 1980's, the residual levels of HCHs and DDTs have declined obviously in Bei-jing, indicating that the ban on the production and use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in our country is effective; however, the amount of HCB has increased, indicating great progress of chemical industry in Beijing. The analysis for the source of OCPs in the gingko foliage showed that the technical HCHs and DDTs were used largely in history, but were not used in recent years. A little lidane has been used and there was a new input of o,p'-DDT in recent years; dicofol usage may be the main source of o,p'-DDT. Concentrations of HCHs, DDTs and HCB in gingko foliages were similar to those in pine nee-dles in the corresponding period and there is a strong positive correlation between the OCPs concen-tration data obtained from these two kinds of trees. It presents no difference in the accumulation style between these two kinds of trees. The level of OCPs in the gingko foliage reflects the pollution status of OCP in air. The result of this work shows that the gingko foliage can be used as a bio-monitor of OCPs in air.

  8. Assessment of Anodonta cygnea as a Biomonitor Agent for Copper and Zinc in Anzali Wetland, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ganjali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anzali wetland has been subjected to high levels of pollution due to contamination from several industrial sites in addition to agricultural chemicals. Mussels have been widely used for monitoring pollution in aquatic ecosystems, because they, as filter feeders, bioaccumulate pollutants. Therefore we decided to evaluate Anodonta cygnea for its application as a bio-monitor for copper (Cu and zinc (Zn. Methods: A. cygnea specimens and their surface sediments were gathered from three locations in Anzali wetland. Afterwards, the collected samples (the soft tissues and shells of A. cygnea as well as surface sediments were analyzed for Cu and Zn by a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Model 670G. Results: The Cu and Zn concentrations in the sediments obtained from Anzali wetland were in the range of 21.05 to 25.53 for copper and 37.84 to 82.26 μg g-1 dw for zinc. The Cu and Zn levels in the soft tissue were 1.09-1.5 times and 5-7.3 times, respectively, higher than those of the shells. The CV values (% in the soft tissues and shells were 36 and 53 for Cu, and 53.5 and 150.3 for Zn respectively. Conclusions: The lower Zn variability (CV in the soft tissues of A. cygnea and significant correlation between Zn levels in the soft tissues of A. cygnea and the surface sediments indicated that the soft tissues of A. cygnea are more appropriate for bio-monitoring of Zn. Cu concentration in the sediment and Zn levels in the soft tissues were found to be comparatively higher than some of the international standards of reference.

  9. The response of some common Egyptian plants to ozone and their use as biomonitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khatib, A.A

    2003-08-01

    Growth and physiological response of plants was shown to be an effective tool for O{sub 3}-biomonitoring. - Relative sensitivity of five common Egyptian plant species namely, Senecio vulgaris, Malva parviflora, Sonchus oleraceus, Medicago sativa and Melilotus indicus to elevated levels of ozone has been studied. The plants were exposed to charcoal filtered air (CFA) and different levels of O{sub 3} (50 and 100 ppb) for 5 h per day. The studied parameters were recorded for five consecutive days after fumigation. The foliar injury varied significantly among species in a dose-dependent manner. Severe injury symptoms were recorded on the leaves of M. sativa. With the exception of M. parviflora, all species exhibited significant increases in the percentage reduction of the above-ground dry weight as a result of reductions in both leaf and stem dry weights. M. sativa showed a marked reduction in its relative growth rate at elevated levels of O{sub 3}. The extent of chlorophyll a destruction was higher in both M. sativa and S. oleraceus than in the other species tested. No differences in the sensitivity of chlorophylls a+b and carotenoids to ozone levels were recorded in this work. Percentage reduction of ascorbic acid was higher in M. sativa and S. oleraceus, compared with the other species studied. With respect to relative percentages of proline, there was a significant difference in the responses of plants to ozone. According to the ozone resistance (R%), measured as relative growth rate, the test species were arranged in the descending order: M. parviflora>M. Indicus>S. Vulgaris>S. Oleraceus>M. sativa. In M. sativa, both determinant and correlation coefficients are well reflected in the relationship between its physiological response, its performance and ozone levels, supporting its recommendation as a candidate for biomonitoring in Egypt.

  10. The Role of Molecular Biology in the Biomonitoring of Human Exposure to Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balam Muñoz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to different substances in an occupational environment is of utmost concern to global agencies such as the World Health Organization and the International Labour Organization. Interest in improving work health conditions, particularly of those employees exposed to noxious chemicals, has increased considerably and has stimulated the search for new, more specific and selective tests. Recently, the field of molecular biology has been indicated as an alternative technique for monitoring personnel while evaluating work-related pathologies. Originally, occupational exposure to environmental toxicants was assessed using biochemical techniques to determine the presence of higher concentrations of toxic compounds in blood, urine, or other fluids or tissues; results were used to evaluate potential health risk. However, this approach only estimates the presence of a noxious chemical and its effects, but does not prevent or diminish the risk. Molecular biology methods have become very useful in occupational medicine to provide more accurate and opportune diagnostics. In this review, we discuss the role of the following common techniques: (1 Use of cell cultures; (2 evaluation of gene expression; (3 the “omic” sciences (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics and (4 bioinformatics. We suggest that molecular biology has many applications in occupational health where the data can be applied to general environmental conditions.

  11. Biomonitoring of human exposures to chlorinated derivatives and structural analogs of bisphenol A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andra, Syam S.; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Arora, Manish; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Makris, Konstantinos C.

    2015-01-01

    The high reactivity of bisphenol A (BPA) with disinfectant chlorine is evident in the instantaneous formation of chlorinated BPA derivatives (Cl(x)BPA) in various environmental media that show increased estrogen-activity when compared with that of BPA. The documented health risks associated with BPA

  12. In vivo Metabolismus-Studien und Human-Biomonitoring von Monoterpenen

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Monoterpene sind biogene flüchtige organische Verbindungen mit strukturabhängig charakteristischen Aromaeigenschaften, die von einer Vielzahl von Pflanzen und Mikroorganismen gebildet werden. Aus diesem Grund ist der Mensch täglich über die Ernährung und die Atemluft gegenüber diesen Substanzen exponiert. Die quantitativ bedeutendste Rolle spielen dabei das in vielen Pflanzen, Lebensmitteln, Kosmetika und Bedarfsgegenständen verbreitete, monocyclische Monoterpen R-Limonen und die beiden für N...

  13. Comet assay as a human biomonitoring tool: application in occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-05-01

    Occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs is associated with genotoxic effects, although comet assay analyzed parameters were higher in exposed comparing with controls, were not significant. Also the study of the susceptibility biomarkers did not show statistical significant differences, the small size of our sample hampered the finding of a possible association, let alone a causality relationship.

  14. Micronutrients intake associated with DNA damage assessed by in a human biomonitoring study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-05-01

    Retinol was positively correlated with oxidative DNA damage in controls. The study by van Helden et al. (2009 demonstrated that vitamin A enhances OH radical formation in the Fenton reaction, showing that vitamin A can act as pro-oxidant or antioxidant, depending on the type of radicals involved, and may lead to DNA oxidative damage (Alakhras et al., 2011. Azqueta & Collins (2012 clearly distinguished between effects of vitamin A, pro-vitamin A carotenoids, and non-vitamin A carotenoids; being the latter group almost invariably reported to protect against DNA damage, whether endogenous or induced by exogenous agents, the pro-vitamin A carotenoids show a wider spectrum of effects, sometimes protecting and sometimes enhancing DNA damage. Vitamin E was found to be positively correlated with % DNA in tail. Watters et al. (2007 also found a positive association of vitamin E and oxidative DNA damage in a healthy, non-smoking population of young adults. A possible explanation for this result stems from some evidence that in the presence of copper or in smokers with a fat rich diet, vitamin E can act as a strong pro-oxidant, nevertheless it remains an unexpected result. Results found a positive correlation between iron and % DNA in tail, meaning that higher intake of iron associates with higher DNA damage. Oxidative lesions, and more specifically 8-OHdG, is one of the most prevalent lesions induced by iron containing substances (Prá et al., 2012, however the FPG biomarker was not statistically associated with iron. There is sound evidence that iron deficiency increases genome instability, among other mechanisms, by impairing enzymes involved in antioxidant and nuclei acid metabolism (Prá et al., 2012. Results presented herein found that the amount of calories ingested was negatively correlated with both biomarkers assessed by comet assay. This was somewhat unexpected, as calories restriction reduces metabolic rate and oxidative stress, meaning that lower calories ingestion decreases DNA damage and DNA oxidative damage (Hart et al., 1999; Heilbronn & Ravussin, 2003. A significant negative correlation was found between folate and % DNA in tail. Courtemanche et al. (2004 also found that folate deficiency leads to increased DNA damage in primary lymphocytes, and that deficiency in the physiological level of folate caused more DNA damage than low-dose radiation in primary T lymphocytes. A significant negative correlation between vitamin B12 and DNA oxidative damage (FPG was found, suggesting that vitamin B12 acts like a protective factor (Ames, 2001; Ames & Wakimoto, 2002; Ames, 2006. Minnet et al. (2011 also found a negative correlation between DNA damage and vitamin B12 levels, meaning that higher levels of vitamin B12 decrease DNA damage, in good agreement with the results herein. Comet assay allows for the study of the effects of nutrients with known anti- or pro-oxidant capacities on different cell types and in different concentrations. These studies have revealed an apparent paradox, or at least a hormetic effect, whereby many of these antioxidant compounds seem to protect against DNA damage at low doses while actually causing DNA damage at higher doses (Wasson et al., 2008. There are several possible reasons why significant associations are difficult to find. First, samples usually comprise mostly healthy persons; second, it is possible that a synergistic effect exists involving all antioxidants which is not seen for each individual nutrient (Watters et al., 2007. Third, it is plausible that associations between some of the antioxidants examined and oxidative DNA damage may be better captured using other measures of oxidative DNA damage. Fourth, it is possible that the range of antioxidant concentrations and/or oxidative DNA damage in this study was not wide enough to detect associations or that the associations simply do not exist (Watters et al., 2007. Previous studies have suggested a significant moderating effect of long-term antioxidant supplementation on endogenous and exogenous oxidative DNA damage in lymphocytes, supporting the hypothesis that dietary antioxidants may protect against cancer.

  15. The role of molecular biology in the biomonitoring of human exposure to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Balam; Albores, Arnulfo

    2010-11-12

    Exposure to different substances in an occupational environment is of utmost concern to global agencies such as the World Health Organization and the International Labour Organization. Interest in improving work health conditions, particularly of those employees exposed to noxious chemicals, has increased considerably and has stimulated the search for new, more specific and selective tests. Recently, the field of molecular biology has been indicated as an alternative technique for monitoring personnel while evaluating work-related pathologies. Originally, occupational exposure to environmental toxicants was assessed using biochemical techniques to determine the presence of higher concentrations of toxic compounds in blood, urine, or other fluids or tissues; results were used to evaluate potential health risk. However, this approach only estimates the presence of a noxious chemical and its effects, but does not prevent or diminish the risk. Molecular biology methods have become very useful in occupational medicine to provide more accurate and opportune diagnostics. In this review, we discuss the role of the following common techniques: (1) Use of cell cultures; (2) evaluation of gene expression; (3) the "omic" sciences (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) and (4) bioinformatics. We suggest that molecular biology has many applications in occupational health where the data can be applied to general environmental conditions.

  16. Biomonitoring of human exposures to chlorinated derivatives and structural analogs of bisphenol A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andra, Syam S.; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Arora, Manish; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Makris, Konstantinos C.

    2015-01-01

    The high reactivity of bisphenol A (BPA) with disinfectant chlorine is evident in the instantaneous formation of chlorinated BPA derivatives (Cl(x)BPA) in various environmental media that show increased estrogen-activity when compared with that of BPA. The documented health risks associated with BPA

  17. Human biomonitoring of multiple mycotoxins in the Belgian population: Results of the BIOMYCO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyndrickx, Ellen; Sioen, Isabelle; Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons; De Henauw, Stefaan; De Saeger, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Mycotoxins are important food contaminants responsible for health effects such as cancer, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity or immunosuppression. The assessment of mycotoxin exposure is often based on calculations combining mycotoxin occurrence data in food with population data on food consumption. Because of limitations inherent to that approach, the direct measurement of biomarkers of exposure in biological fluids has been proposed as a suitable alternative to perform an accurate mycotoxin exposure assessment at individual level. For this reason, the BIOMYCO study was designed to assess mycotoxin exposure in Belgian adults and children using urinary biomarkers of exposure. Morning urine was gathered in a representative part of the Belgian population according to a standardised study protocol, whereby 155 children (3-12 years old) and 239 adults (19-65 years old) were selected based on random cluster sampling. These urine samples were analysed for the presence of 33 potential biomarkers with focus on aflatoxins, citrinin (CIT), fumonisins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone and their metabolites using two validated LC-MS/MS methods. Nine out of the 33 analysed mycotoxins were detected whereby deoxynivalenol (DON), OTA, CIT and their metabolites were the most frequently detected. Deoxynivalenol-15-glucuronide was the main urinary DON biomarker and was found in all urine samples in the ng/mL range. Furthermore deoxynivalenol-3-glucuronide was quantified in 91% of the urine samples collected from children and in 77% of the samples collected from adults. Deoxynivalenol was detected in 70% and 37% of the samples of children and adults respectively. For the first time deepoxy-deoxynivalenol-glucuronide was detected in children's urine (17%). In the samples collected by adults, the prevalence was 22%. Whereas all these mycotoxins contaminated the urine samples in the ng/mL range, CIT and OTA were present in much lower concentrations (pg/mL). OTA contaminated 51% and 35% of the samples collected by children and adults respectively. CIT and its metabolite were present in 72% and 6% of children's urine, whereas they contaminated 59% and 12% of adult's urine. Finally, α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol-14-glucuronide were found in respectively one and two samples from adults. The exposure to DON, OTA and CIT was compared between subgroups and urinary mycotoxin concentrations differed significantly among age and gender. Based on the urinary levels, the daily intake of DON and OTA was estimated and evaluated whereby, depending on the used method, 16-69% of the population possibly exceeded the tolerable daily intake for DON and 1% for OTA. The BIOMYCO study is the first study whereby a multi-toxin approach was applied for mycotoxin exposure assessment in adults and children on a large-scale. Moreover, it is the first study that described the exposure to an elaborated set of mycotoxins in the Belgian population. Biomarker analysis showed a clear exposure of a broad segment of the Belgian population to DON, OTA and CIT. The risk assessment based on these data indicates a potential concern for a number of individuals whereby young children need special attention because of the relatively higher food intake per kg body weight.

  18. The Role of Molecular Biology in the Biomonitoring of Human Exposure to Chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Balam Muñoz; Arnulfo Albores

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to different substances in an occupational environment is of utmost concern to global agencies such as the World Health Organization and the International Labour Organization. Interest in improving work health conditions, particularly of those employees exposed to noxious chemicals, has increased considerably and has stimulated the search for new, more specific and selective tests. Recently, the field of molecular biology has been indicated as an alternative technique for monitoring ...

  19. The Role of Molecular Biology in the Biomonitoring of Human Exposure to Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Balam; Albores, Arnulfo

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to different substances in an occupational environment is of utmost concern to global agencies such as the World Health Organization and the International Labour Organization. Interest in improving work health conditions, particularly of those employees exposed to noxious chemicals, has increased considerably and has stimulated the search for new, more specific and selective tests. Recently, the field of molecular biology has been indicated as an alternative technique for monitoring personnel while evaluating work-related pathologies. Originally, occupational exposure to environmental toxicants was assessed using biochemical techniques to determine the presence of higher concentrations of toxic compounds in blood, urine, or other fluids or tissues; results were used to evaluate potential health risk. However, this approach only estimates the presence of a noxious chemical and its effects, but does not prevent or diminish the risk. Molecular biology methods have become very useful in occupational medicine to provide more accurate and opportune diagnostics. In this review, we discuss the role of the following common techniques: (1) Use of cell cultures; (2) evaluation of gene expression; (3) the “omic” sciences (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) and (4) bioinformatics. We suggest that molecular biology has many applications in occupational health where the data can be applied to general environmental conditions. PMID:21151453

  20. Human biomonitoring for Cd, Hg and Pb in blood of inhabitants of the Sacco Valley (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia D'Ilio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The Sacco Valley (Lazio, Italy is characterized by high density population and several industrial chemical productions that during the time had led to a substantial amount of by-products. The result was a severe environmental pollution of the area and in particular of the river Sacco. In 1991, the analysis of water and soils samples of three industrial landfills revealed the presence of organochlorine compounds and heavy metals. A research project named "Health of residents living in Sacco Valley area", coordinated by the regional Department of Epidemiology, was undertaken and financed to evaluate the state of health of the population living near those polluted areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Cd, Hg and Pb were quantified in 246 blood samples of potentially exposed residents of the Sacco Valley by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS. RESULTS. Individuals who agreed to be sampled did not exhibit high levels of the elements. The distance from the river does not seem to be directly connected with the elements levels in blood. The contribution of these contaminants to the total intake due to ingestion of food was difficult to evaluate. The unclear trend of data would require a characterization of the polluted site with environmental sampling of different matrices.

  1. Use of the induced gene-expression in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a biomonitor; Nutzung der induzierbaren Genexpression des Nematoden Caenorhabditis elegans als Biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, R.; Reichert, K.; Achazi, R. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Biologie - Oekotoxikologie und Biochemie

    2002-07-01

    The soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the simplest animals having the status of a laboratory model. Its already completely sequenced genome contains the remarkable number of 80 cytochrome P450 genes (CYP) and many further genes coding for enzymes involved in biotransformation. In order to study xenobiotically induced gene expression in C. elegans, liquid cultures were exposed to different, well-known xenobiotic inducers. The mRNA expression was detected by two different types of DNA arrays and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. {beta}-naphthoflavone, PCB52 and lansoprazol were the most active and, in particular, induced almost all CYP35 isoforms strongly. In conclusion, the xenobiotic dependent gene expression of C. elegans is a useful tool to reveal defense mechanisms against potential damaging substances as well as for developing a biomonitoring system. (orig.) [German] Der Bodennematode Caenorhabditis elegans gilt als das einfachste mehrzellige Tier mit dem Status eines Labormodels. Basierend auf seinem entschluesselten Genom konnte die bemerkenswerte Zahl von 80 Cytochrom P450 Genen (CYP) und eine Vielzahl weiterer Gene, welche fuer Enzyme der Biotransformation kodieren, identifiziert werden. Die differentielle Genexpression von C. elegans nach Schadstoffzugabe wurde in Fluessigkulturen mit 18 Xenobiotika aus unterschiedlichen Schadstoffgruppen untersucht. Anschliessend wurde die mRNA Expression mit DNA Arrays und semi-quantitativer RT-PCR bestimmt. {beta}-Naphthoflavone, PCB52 and Lansoprazol erwiesen sich dabei als die wirksamsten Induktoren und konnten unter anderen alle CYP 35 Isoformen stark induzieren. Mit diesen Untersuchungen konnte gezeigt werden, dass die schadstoffinduzierte Genexpression in C. elegans ein adaequates System ist, um sowohl Detoxifikationsmechanismen zu untersuchen als auch ein Biomonitorscreening aufzubauen. (orig.)

  2. An assessment of Microtox{trademark} as a biomonitoring tool for whole effluent testing for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachritz, W.H. II; Morrow, J. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1994-06-13

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has special discharge problems relating to potential radioactive content of the effluent discharge waters. Because of this all testing must be performed on-site and results must be rapidly determined. There is a need to examine the development of a real-time procedure for effluent biomonitoring to met these site limitations. The Microtox{trademark} unit for toxicity testing is a microbially-based test system that shows great promise to be used for WET testing. The overall goal of this study is to develop an acceptable protocol for operational biomonitoring using the Microtox {trademark} toxicity test for LANL. The specific objectives include: development of an appropriate toxicity testing protocol using the Microtox{trademark} toxicity test for whole effluent toxicity testing and evaluation of the protocol based on factors such as sensitivity, response time, cost of analysis, and simplicity of operation.

  3. Caddisflies Hydropsyche spp. as biomonitors of trace metal bioavailability thresholds causing disturbance in freshwater stream benthic communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awrahman, Zmnako; Rainbow, Philip S; Smith, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    statistical analysis. A simpler approach is the use of accumulated trace metal concentrations in a metal-resistant biomonitor to define thresholds that indicate the presence of raised trace metal bioavailabilities causing ecotoxicological responses in populations of more metal-sensitive members....... This approach has great potential as a simple tool to detect the more subtle effects of mixed trace metal contamination in freshwater systems. An informed choice of suitable biomonitor extends the principle to different freshwater habitats over different ranges of severity of trace metal contamination.......Demonstration of an ecotoxicological effect of raised toxic metal bioavailabilities on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in contaminated freshwater streams typically requires the labour-intensive identification and quantification of such communities before the application of multivariate...

  4. Study of the air quality in industrial areas of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain) by active biomonitoring with Pseudoscleropodium purum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Ángela; Fernández, Jose Ángel; Aboal, Jesús Ramón; Carballeira, Alejo

    2011-03-01

    A biomonitoring technique with terrestrial moss transplants (50 sampling sites in a regular grid) was used in an area of the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, close to an oil refinery and to an area of dense road traffic for a period of 2 months. The concentration of metals and metalloids (As, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb and V) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined. The density distribution was represented, the enrichment factors calculated and multifactorial analysis applied. In addition, contamination maps were elaborated on the basis of the bioconcentration obtained, and after confirming the existence of spatial structure, the response surfaces were represented. The results showed very high levels of contamination by Ni and V in the study area, with similar dispersal patterns observed for both. The concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb and PAHs were lower. Active biomonitoring with terrestrial mosses was found to be a suitable technique for implementing inexpensive environmental monitoring programmes in urban and industrialized areas.

  5. Atmospheric pollution biomonitoring of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region using epiphytic lichens; Uso de liquens epifiticos no biomonitoramento da poluicao atmosferica da regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuga, Alessandra

    2006-07-01

    Due to the increasing problems of atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region that affect the environment and human health the application of biomonitoring methodologies using cosmopolite organisms has now become relevant. Biomonitoring is a method to evaluate the response of live organisms to pollution. This method offers advantages such as reduced costs, efficient monitoring of large geographic areas and accumulated pollutants over a large period in which low concentrations of chemicals elements in the environment can be evaluated. In the present study, neutron activation analysis method was applied to determine elements accumulated in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi. Samples were collected in two distinct areas: Carlos Botelho (PECB) and Intervales (PEI) State Parks that are considered as non-polluted areas and that belong to the Atlantic Forest - SP ecosystem; and Sao Paulo city metropolitan region in sites near automatic monitoring stations of the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). The lichens collected from the bark of the trees were properly treated, and irradiated with neutrons from IEA-R1 nuclear reactor along with synthetic standards of elements. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of IAEA-336 LICHEN and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT -MPH-2) certified reference materials. The results obtained for these materials were in accordance with the certified values and presented good precision with variation coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 14.6%. Results obtained for lichens showed that elements As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Mo, Sb, Sc, Se and U are present at ng g{sup -1} levels, Ba, Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn at {mu}g g{sup -1} and Ca at mg g{sup -1}. By applying cluster and discriminant analyses to the results for the lichen samples from areas with different levels of pollution, the sampling sites were grouped according to their chemical similarities and their elemental

  6. Biomonitoring with epiphytic lichens as a complementary method for the study of mercury contamination near a cement plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubič Mlakar, Tanja; Horvat, Milena; Kotnik, Jože; Jeran, Zvonka; Vuk, Tomaž; Mrak, Tanja; Fajon, Vesna

    2011-10-01

    The study was focused on understanding the mercury contamination caused by a cement plant. Active and passive biomonitoring with epiphytic lichens was combined with other instrumental measurements of mercury emissions, mercury concentrations in raw materials, elemental mercury concentrations in air, quantities of dust deposits, temperatures, precipitation and other measurements from the cement plant's regular monitoring programme. Active biomonitoring with transplanted lichens Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf was performed at seven of the most representative sites around the cement plant and one distant reference site for periods of 3, 6 and 12 months. In situ lichens of different species were collected at the beginning of the monitoring period at the same sites. Mercury speciation of the plant exhaust gas showed that the main form of emitted mercury is reactive gaseous mercury Hg²⁺, which is specific for cement plants. Elemental mercury in air was measured in different meteorological conditions using a portable mercury detector. Concentrations in air were relatively low (on average below 10 ng m⁻³). In situ lichens showed Hg concentrations comparable to lichens taken from the background area for transplantation, indicating that the local pollution is not severe. Transplanted lichens showed an increase of mercury, especially at one site near the cement plant. A correlation between precipitation and Hg uptake was not found probably due to a rather uniform rainfall in individual periods. Dust deposits did not influence Hg uptake significantly. Lichens vitality was affected over longer biomonitoring periods, probably due to some elements in dust particles, their alkalinity and the influence of other emissions. Mercury uptake measured in vital transplanted lichens was in a good correlation with the working hours (i.e. emitted Hg quantity) of the kiln. The study showed that selected lichens could be used to detect low to moderate Hg emissions from a cement plant

  7. Anwendung des Comet Assay (Einzelzell-Gelelektrophorese) an Zellen von Fischen zum Nachweis gentoxischer Wirkungen im aquatischen Biomonitoring

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Gewässer sind Lebensgrundlage, jedoch gleichzeitig Schadstoffsenken für eine Vielzahl von Kontaminanten. Biologische Wirkungstests und das Biomonitoring aquatischer Proben sind daher besonders wichtig, um Umwelt-Gefahrenpotenziale erkennen zu können. Der "Comet Assay" (Einzelzell-Gelelektrophorese) ist ein Indikator von DNA-Strangbrüchen und wurde hier als Test auf gentoxische Wirkungen erprobt und angewandt. Mit bekannten, gentoxischen Substanzen wurden Nachweisgrenzen und Dosis-Wirkungs-Be...

  8. AQB - air quality biomonitoring an innovative and standardized approach for the evaluation of traffic pollutant diffusion in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virano, M. [SITAF Spa, Susa (Italy); Orsi, M. [Consulagri Srl., Torino (Italy); Badino, G. [Univ. degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale e dell' Uomo; Ostacoli, G.; Zelano, V.; Gastaldi, D. [Univ. degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Analitica; Parodi, A. [Univ. degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale e dell' Uomo]|[Consulagri Srl., Torino (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    AQB - Air Quality Biomonitoring - is a wide scale, effective and valid biorecording system at both a scientific and an economic level. It enables a detailed evaluation of pollutant diffusion in space, as well as their accumulation over time. The data relate to the diffusion of pollutants (PAH and heavy metals) due to traffic emissions on the A32 Turin-Bardonecchia motorway. Results were obtained using aeroponic culture biostations equipped with vegetal biosensors: Brassica oleracea and Holcus lanatus. (orig.)

  9. Miniaturized video-microscopy system for near real-time water quality biomonitoring using microfluidic chip-based devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yushi; Nigam, Abhimanyu; Campana, Olivia; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2016-12-01

    Biomonitoring studies apply biological responses of sensitive biomonitor organisms to rapidly detect adverse environmental changes such as presence of physic-chemical stressors and toxins. Behavioral responses such as changes in swimming patterns of small aquatic invertebrates are emerging as sensitive endpoints to monitor aquatic pollution. Although behavioral responses do not deliver information on an exact type or the intensity of toxicants present in water samples, they could provide orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than lethal endpoints such as mortality. Despite the advantages of behavioral biotests performed on sentinel organisms, their wider application in real-time and near realtime biomonitoring of water quality is limited by the lack of dedicated and automated video-microscopy systems. Current behavioral analysis systems rely mostly on static test conditions and manual procedures that are time-consuming and labor intensive. Tracking and precise quantification of locomotory activities of multiple small aquatic organisms requires high-resolution optical data recording. This is often problematic due to small size of fast moving animals and limitations of culture vessels that are not specially designed for video data recording. In this work, we capitalized on recent advances in miniaturized CMOS cameras, high resolution optics and biomicrofluidic technologies to develop near real-time water quality sensing using locomotory activities of small marine invertebrates. We present proof-of-concept integration of high-resolution time-resolved video recording system and high-throughput miniaturized perfusion biomicrofluidic platform for optical tracking of nauplii of marine crustacean Artemia franciscana. Preliminary data demonstrate that Artemia sp. exhibits rapid alterations of swimming patterns in response to toxicant exposure. The combination of video-microscopy and biomicrofluidic platform facilitated straightforward recording of fast moving objects. We

  10. Toxic metal levels in children residing in a smelting craft village in Vietnam: a pilot biomonitoring study

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Alison P.; Miller, Sloane K.; Nguyen, Viet; Kotch, Jonathan B; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2014-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, environmental pollution caused by small-scale domestic smelting of automobile batteries into lead ingot is a growing concern. The village of Nghia Lo is a smelting craft village located roughly 25 km southeast of Hanoi in the Red River Delta. Despite the concern of toxic metal exposure in the village, biomonitoring among susceptible populations, such as children, has not been previously conducted. The aim of this study was to determine the body burden of toxic metals in...

  11. Verification, Dosimetry and Biomonitoring of Mustard Gas Exposure via Immunochemical Detection of Mustard Gas Adducts to DNA and Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    11.11.2. The samples resulting from the various treatments were tested in the competitive ELISA . Treatment Vih alkli Single-stranded calf-thymus DNA...exposure, Biomonitoring, Verification, Immunochemical detection, Competitive ELISA , Interstrand DNA crossslinking, Alkaline elution. Monoclonal antibodies...material at 50 ng per well. A competitive ELISA was developed in which mustard gas adducts to DNA could be detected with a minimum detectable amount of a few

  12. The need for non- or minimally-invasive biomonitoring strategies and the development of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models for quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Charles; Weber, Thomas J.; Smith, Jordan N.

    2017-06-01

    Advancements in Exposure Science involving the development and deployment of biomarkers of exposure and biological response are anticipated to significantly (and positively) influence health outcomes associated with occupational, environmental and clinical exposure to chemicals/drugs. To achieve this vision, innovative strategies are needed to develop multiplex sensor platforms capable of quantifying individual and mixed exposures (i.e. systemic dose) by measuring biomarkers of dose and biological response in readily obtainable (non-invasive) biofluids. Secondly, the use of saliva (alternative to blood) for biomonitoring coupled with the ability to rapidly analyze multiple samples in real-time offers an innovative opportunity to revolutionize biomonitoring assessments. In this regard, the timing and number of samples taken for biomonitoring will not be limited as is currently the case. In addition, real-time analysis will facilitate identification of work practices or conditions that are contributing to increased exposures and will make possible a more rapid and successful intervention strategy. The initial development and application of computational models for evaluation of saliva/blood analyte concentration at anticipated exposure levels represents an important opportunity to establish the limits of quantification and robustness of multiplex sensor systems by exploiting a unique computational modeling framework. The use of these pharmacokinetic models will also enable prediction of an exposure dose based on the saliva/blood measurement. This novel strategy will result in a more accurate prediction of exposures and, once validated, can be employed to assess dosimetry to a broad range of chemicals in support of biomonitoring and epidemiology studies.

  13. The biomonitoring and bioremediation of toxic water resulting from municipal waste storage of Somârd, Sibiu county

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents information from the specialty literature and laboratory experimental results on biomonitoring, phytoextraction, biodegradation, and biotransformation of toxic water pollutants at the biotechnology laboratory of the Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering. The study was conducted in laboratory micro tanks with contaminated water from the municipal landfill water storage pit with toxic bund of Somârd/Medias, Sibiu County, in order to research and develo...

  14. Biomonitoring of genotoxic risk in agricultural workers from five colombian regions: association to occupational exposure to glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, C; Carrasquilla, G; Volpi, S; Solomon, K R; Marshall, E J P

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess possible human effects associated with glyphosate formulations used in the Colombian aerial spray program for control of illicit crops, a cytogenetic biomonitoring study was carried out in subjects from five Colombian regions, characterized by different exposure to glyphosate and other pesticides. Women of reproductive age (137 persons 15-49 yr old) and their spouses (137 persons) were interviewed to obtain data on current health status, history, lifestyle, including past and current occupational exposure to pesticides, and factors including those known to be associated with increased frequency of micronuclei (MN). In regions where glyphosate was being sprayed, blood samples were taken prior to spraying (indicative of baseline exposure), 5 d after spraying, and 4 mo after spraying. Lymphocytes were cultured and a cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay was applied to evaluate chromosomal damage and cytotoxicity. Compared with Santa Marta, where organic coffee is grown without pesticides, the baseline frequency of binucleated cells with micronuclei (BNMN) was significantly greater in subjects from the other four regions. The highest frequency of BNMN was in Boyaca, where no aerial eradication spraying of glyphosate was conducted, and in Valle del Cauca, where glyphosate was used for maturation of sugar cane. Region, gender, and older age (> or =35 yr) were the only variables associated with the frequency of BNMN measured before spraying. A significant increase in frequency of BNMN between first and second sampling was observed in Narino, Putumayo, and Valle immediately (glyphosate exposure. The increase in frequency of BNMN observed immediately after the glyphosate spraying was not consistent with the rates of application used in the regions and there was no association between self-reported direct contact with eradication sprays and frequency of BNMN. Four months after spraying, a statistically significant decrease in the mean frequency of

  15. Pollution biomonitoring in the Bizerte lagoon (Tunisia), using combined chemical and biomarker analyses in grass goby, Zosterisessor ophiocephalus (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhoumi, Badreddine; Clérandeau, Christelle; Gourves, Pierre-Yves; Le Menach, Karyn; El Megdiche, Yassine; Peluhet, Laurent; Budzinski, Hélène; Baudrimont, Magalie; Driss, Mohamed Ridha; Cachot, Jérôme

    2014-10-01

    In this study, biological responses and contaminant levels in biological tissues were investigated in grass goby fish specimens (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) collected from five stations in a moderately polluted ecosystem, namely the Bizerte lagoon on the north coast of Tunisia. The following biomarkers were measured: muscular acetylcholinesterase (AChE), hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), lipoperoxidation (TBARS), condition factor (CF), and hepatosomatic index (HSI). These measurements were taken in parallel with the content of Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace metals (As, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, V, Zn, Ag, Cd, Co and Ni) in muscle tissue. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 20.09 ± 0.68 to 105.77 ± 42.58 ng g(-1) dw, PCB from 33.19 ± 6.25 to 126.28 ± 7.37 ng g(-1) dw, OCP from 11.26 ± 1.62 to 19.17 ± 2.06 ng g(-1) dw, and metals from 107.83 ± 1.83 to 187.21 ± 2.00 mg/kg dw. The highest levels of pollutants and biomarkers were observed at station S1, located in the Bizerte channel. Elevated EROD, GST and CAT activities, as well as TBARS levels in liver were positively correlated with tissue contaminant levels at station S1. Significant negative correlations were also found between hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) body burden with AChE activity in muscle at station S2. The integration of biological responses and contaminant tissue content indicated that certain areas of the Bizerte lagoon, notably station S1, are significantly impacted by various human activities, which likely represent a threat for aquatic wildlife. On the basis of these results, and due to its ecological characteristics, the grass goby appears a suitable indicator species for pollution biomonitoring in coastal marine areas along the Mediterranean Sea.

  16. Urine and serum biomonitoring of exposure to environmental estrogens II: Soy isoflavones and zearalenone in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Stefanie C; Churchwell, Mona I; Doerge, Daniel R; Teeguarden, Justin G

    2016-09-01

    Urine and serum biomonitoring was used to measure internal exposure to selected dietary estrogens in a cohort of 30 pregnant women. Exposure was measured over a period comprising one-half day in the field (6 h) and one day in a clinic (24 h). Biomonitoring of the dietary phytoestrogens genistein (GEN), daidzein (DDZ) and equol (EQ), as well as the mycoestrogen, zearalenone (ZEN) and its congeners, was conducted using UPLC-MS/MS. Biomonitoring revealed evidence of internal exposure to naturally occurring dietary estrogens during pregnancy. Urinary concentrations of total GEN, DDZ and EQ were similar to levels reported for general adult U.S. Measurable concentrations of total (parent and metabolites) GEN, DDZ and EQ were present in 240, 207 and 2 of 270 serum samples, respectively. Six out of 30 subjects had measurable concentrations of unconjugated GEN and/or DDZ in serum between 0.6 and 7.1 nM. Urine to serum total isoflavone ratios for GEN, DDZ and EQ were 13, 47, and 180, respectively. ZEN and its reductive metabolite, α-zearalenol (α-ZEL), were present in pregnant women (11 out of 30 subjects) as conjugates at levels near the limit of quantification. The average total urinary concentration was 0.10 μg/L for ZEN and 0.11 μg/L for α-ZEL. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The skin of Commerson's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) as a biomonitor of mercury and selenium in Subantarctic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Saez, Iris; Goodall, R Natalie P; Dellabianca, Natalia A; Cappozzo, H Luis; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio

    2015-11-01

    The skin of bycaught Commerson's dolphins was tested for mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) biomonitoring in Subantarctic environments. The correlation of levels detected in the skin with those found in internal tissues - lung, liver, kidney and muscle - was assessed to evaluate how skin represents internal Hg and Se distribution for monitoring purposes. Mercury in skin had a concentration range of 0.68-3.11 μg g(-1) dry weight (DW), while Se had a higher concentration range of 74.3-124.5 μg g(-1) DW. There was no significant correlation between selenium levels in any of the analyzed tissues. Thus, the skin selenium concentration did not reflect the tissular Se levels and did not provide information for biomonitoring. The lack of correlation is explained by the biological role of Se, provided that each tissue regulates Se levels according to physiological needs. However, the skin Hg level had significant positive correlation with the levels in internal tissues (ANOVA pbioindication using skin biopsies is a non-lethal approach that allows screening of a large number of specimens with little disturbance and makes possible an adequate sampling strategy that produces statistically valid results in populations and study areas. The correlation between Hg levels in the skin and internal tissues supports the use of the epidermis of Commerson's dolphins for Hg biomonitoring in the waters of the Subantarctic, which is a poorly studied region regarding Hg levels, sources and processes.

  18. Traffic contribution to air pollution in urban street canyons: Integrated application of the OSPM, moss biomonitoring and spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazić, Lazar; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Mijić, Zoran; Vuković, Gordana; Ilić, Luka

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the air pollutant distribution within the ambient of urban street canyon, Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) was used to predict hourly content of NOX, NO, NO2, O3, CO, BNZ and PM10. The study was performed in five street canyons in Belgrade (Serbia) during 10-week summer period. The model receptors were located on each side of street canyons at 4 m, 8 m and 16 m height. To monitor airborne trace element content, the moss bag biomonitors were simultaneously exposed with the model receptors at two heights-4 m and 16 m. The results of both methods, modelling and biomonitoring, showed significantly decreasing trend of the air pollutants with height. The results indirectly demonstrate that biomonitoring, i.e., moss bag technique could be a valuable tool to verify model performance. In addition, spectral analysis was applied to investigate weekly variation of the daily background and modelled data set. Typical periodicities and weekend effect, caused by anthropogenic influences, have been identified.

  19. Application of the BMWP-Costa Rica biotic index in aquatic biomonitoring: sensitivity to collection method and sampling intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E; Lorion, Christopher M

    2014-04-01

    The use of aquatic macroinvertebrates as bio-indicators in water quality studies has increased considerably over the last decade in Costa Rica, and standard biomonitoring methods have now been formulated at the national level. Nevertheless, questions remain about the effectiveness of different methods of sampling freshwater benthic assemblages, and how sampling intensity may influence biomonitoring results. In this study, we compared the results of qualitative sampling using commonly applied methods with a more intensive quantitative approach at 12 sites in small, lowland streams on the southern Caribbean slope of Costa Rica. Qualitative samples were collected following the official protocol using a strainer during a set time period and macroinvertebrates were field-picked. Quantitative sampling involved collecting ten replicate Surber samples and picking out macroinvertebrates in the laboratory with a stereomicroscope. The strainer sampling method consistently yielded fewer individuals and families than quantitative samples. As a result, site scores calculated using the Biological Monitoring Working Party-Costa Rica (BMWP-CR) biotic index often differed greatly depending on the sampling method. Site water quality classifications using the BMWP-CR index differed between the two sampling methods for 11 of the 12 sites in 2005, and for 9 of the 12 sites in 2006. Sampling intensity clearly had a strong influence on BMWP-CR index scores, as well as perceived differences between reference and impacted sites. Achieving reliable and consistent biomonitoring results for lowland Costa Rican streams may demand intensive sampling and requires careful consideration of sampling methods.

  20. Trace element biomonitoring using mosses in urban areas affected by mud volcanoes around Mt. Etna. The case of the Salinelle, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Lo Giudice, Rosa; Pavone, Pietro

    2012-08-01

    Trace element impact was assessed using mosses in a densely inhabited area affected by mud volcanoes. Such volcanoes, locally called Salinelle, are phenomena that occur around Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy) and are interpreted as the surface outflow of a hydrothermal system located below Mt. Etna, releasing sedimentary fluids (hydrocarbons and NaCl brines) along with magmatic gases (mainly CO(2) and He). To date, scarce data are available about the presence of trace elements, and no biomonitoring campaigns are reported about the cumulative effects of such emissions. In this study, concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn were detected in the moss Bryum argenteum, in soil and water. Results showed that the trace element contribution of the Salinelle to the general pollution was significant for Al, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The comparison of trace concentrations in mosses from Salinelle and Etna showed that the mud volcanoes release a greater amount of Al and Mn, whereas similar values of Ni were found. Natural emissions of trace elements could be hazardous in human settlements, in particular, the Salinelle seem to play an important role in environmental pollution.

  1. Brominated flame retardants in the hair and serum samples from an e-waste recycling area in southeastern China: the possibility of using hair for biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Si; Xu, Feng; Tang, Weibiao; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Lili; Wang, Junxia; Lin, Kuangfei

    2016-08-01

    Hair samples and paired serum samples were collected from e-waste and urban areas in Wenling of Zhejiang Province, China. The PBDE and DBDPE concentrations in hair and serum samples from e-waste workers were significantly higher than those of non-occupational residents and urban residents. BDE209 was the dominating BFRs in hair and serum samples from the e-waste area, while DBDPE was the major BFRs from the urban area. Statistically significant correlations were observed between hair level and serum level for some substances (BDE209, DBDPE, BDE99, BDE47, BDE28, and BDE17), although the PBDE congener profiles in hair were different from those in the serum. A statistically significant positive correlation between the PBDE concentrations and the working age, as well as gender difference, was observed in e-waste workers. Different sources of PBDEs and DBDPE in three groups were identified by principal component analysis and spearman correlation coefficient. Hair is suggested to be a useful matrix for biomonitoring the PBDE exposure in humans.

  2. Analytical approaches used in stream benthic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring programs of State agencies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, James L.; Resh, Vincent H.

    2013-01-01

    Biomonitoring programs based on benthic macroinvertebrates are well-established worldwide. Their value, however, depends on the appropriateness of the analytical techniques used. All United States State, benthic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring programs were surveyed regarding the purposes of their programs, quality-assurance and quality-control procedures used, habitat and water-chemistry data collected, treatment of macroinvertebrate data prior to analysis, statistical methods used, and data-storage considerations. State regulatory mandates (59 percent of programs), biotic index development (17 percent), and Federal requirements (15 percent) were the most frequently reported purposes of State programs, with the specific tasks of satisfying the requirements for 305b/303d reports (89 percent), establishment and monitoring of total maximum daily loads, and developing biocriteria being the purposes most often mentioned. Most states establish reference sites (81 percent), but classify them using State-specific methods. The most often used technique for determining the appropriateness of a reference site was Best Professional Judgment (86 percent of these states). Macroinvertebrate samples are almost always collected by using a D-frame net, and duplicate samples are collected from approximately 10 percent of sites for quality assurance and quality control purposes. Most programs have macroinvertebrate samples processed by contractors (53 percent) and have identifications confirmed by a second taxonomist (85 percent). All States collect habitat data, with most using the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol visual-assessment approach, which requires ~1 h/site. Dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity are measured in more than 90 percent of programs. Wide variation exists in which taxa are excluded from analyses and the level of taxonomic resolution used. Species traits, such as functional feeding groups, are commonly used (96 percent), as are tolerance values for organic pollution

  3. Magnetic biomonitoring of roadside pollution in the restricted Midagahara area of Mt. Tateyama, Toyama, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Kazuo; Horikawa, Keiji; Sakai, Hideo

    2017-03-07

    Magnetic biomonitoring techniques and in situ topsoil magnetic susceptibility measurements have been shown to be rapid, cost-effective, and useful methods for investigating roadside pollution. However, combustible vegetation in samples makes it very difficult to use them in high-temperature magnetic experiments although the thermal alteration of spontaneous magnetization is a fundamental magnetic property and can be used to identify reliably the magnetic minerals. Here, we report the first magnetic biomonitoring results of dust deposited on plant leaves along the Tateyama-Kurobe Alpine route at the highly protected Midagahara wetland areas of Mt. Tateyama in Toyama, Japan. In-field magnetic susceptibility from 15 sites (161 points) shows higher susceptibilities near the roadside. Dust deposited on the leaves of Sasa kurilensis, or dwarf bamboo, has been wiped off at 12 sites (64 samples) with a commercial ethanol wipe sheet or silica wool damped in ethanol and subjected to rock magnetic analyses. Thermomagnetic remanence curves and low-temperature behaviors for samples collected near the roadside using silica wool show clearly that the main magnetic mineral in the dust is partially oxidized magnetite. Further, detailed rock magnetic analyses and elemental analyses of leaves in the study area indicate that (a) the magnetic mineralogy on leaves' surface is consistent throughout the study area and (b) higher saturation isothermal remanent magnetization intensities as well as higher concentrations of Pb, Fe, Cr, and Y are observed near the roadside, i.e., the closer to the roadside, the more anthropogenic materials, including partially oxidized magnetite, are present. Also, microscopic observations show the lack of spherical grains, indicating that dust on the roadside leaves is derived from passing vehicle rather than industrial process. Both rock magnetic and geochemical results show that S. kurilensis would be an excellent candidate for investigating air pollution

  4. Biomonitoring of environmental pollution on the Algerian west coast using caged mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Amiard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An active biomonitoring study was carried out on the Algerian west coast using wild reference mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis sampled from the Kristel (K site and transplanted in net cages during one month (between May and June 2007 to Oran Harbour (OH and Mostaganem Harbour (MH, areas characterised by high levels of urban and industrial pollution. The biological response of the mussels was evaluated by their condition index and the use of a general stress biomarker (evaluation of lysosomal membrane stability: the neutral red retention time (NRRT method, a genotoxic effects biomarker (determination of micronuclei (MN frequency and a neurotoxic effects biomarker (determination of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE concentration.       Compared to the K reference specimens, OH and MH caged mussels presented a significant decrease of NRRT in lysosomal haemocytes (56.45 ± 26.48 min and 67.25 ± 22.77 min, respectively (78 ± 16.97 min for K mussels, an MN frequency respectively 7.3 and 9 times higher in the haemocytes and the gill cells of the OH caged mussels, and 7.2 and 6.4 times higher in the two tissues of the MH caged mussels. Significant inhibition of AChE activity was noted in the gills (16.93 ± 3.1 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 and the digestive gland (7.69 ± 1.79 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 of the OH mussels, but only in the gills (23.21 ± 5.94 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 of the MH mussels, compared to the organs of the K control specimens (35.9 ± 6.4 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 in the gills and 11.17 ± 0.49 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 in the digestive gland.       This study reflects the interest in such in situ biomonitoring assays and the utility of these biomarkers for assessing the effects of pollution in the Algerian coastal marine environment.

  5. Robust human body model injury prediction in simulated side impact crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golman, Adam J; Danelson, Kerry A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a parametric methodology to robustly predict occupant injuries sustained in real-world crashes using a finite element (FE) human body model (HBM). One hundred and twenty near-side impact motor vehicle crashes were simulated over a range of parameters using a Toyota RAV4 (bullet vehicle), Ford Taurus (struck vehicle) FE models and a validated human body model (HBM) Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS). Three bullet vehicle crash parameters (speed, location and angle) and two occupant parameters (seat position and age) were varied using a Latin hypercube design of Experiments. Four injury metrics (head injury criterion, half deflection, thoracic trauma index and pelvic force) were used to calculate injury risk. Rib fracture prediction and lung strain metrics were also analysed. As hypothesized, bullet speed had the greatest effect on each injury measure. Injury risk was reduced when bullet location was further from the B-pillar or when the bullet angle was more oblique. Age had strong correlation to rib fractures frequency and lung strain severity. The injuries from a real-world crash were predicted using two different methods by (1) subsampling the injury predictors from the 12 best crush profile matching simulations and (2) using regression models. Both injury prediction methods successfully predicted the case occupant's low risk for pelvic injury, high risk for thoracic injury, rib fractures and high lung strains with tight confidence intervals. This parametric methodology was successfully used to explore crash parameter interactions and to robustly predict real-world injuries.

  6. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical...... assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating...

  7. Use of atomic absorption spectrometry in assessment of biomonitor plants for lead, cadmium and copper pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Kaya; Mehmet, Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Eleven plant species were collected from the vicinity of lead-battery plant in the city of Gaziantep, Turkey. Lead, cadmium and copper concentrations in the soil and leaves of plants were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead, Cd and Cu concentrations in the soil samples taken from battery area were found to be in the ranges of 304-602, 0.4-0.44 and 31-37 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Significantly increased lead concentration up to 2 750 mg x kg(-1) was found in the leaves of Eleagnus angustifolia L. plant. The lead concentrations in the other plant leaves taken from 50 m around battery factory followed the order Ailanthus altissima > Morus sp. > Juglans regia L. > Ficus carica L. > Cydonia oblonga Miller > Prunus x domestica L. The plants, Populus nigra L. , Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Salix sp. were found useful for Cd, and the plant, Eleagnus angusti folia L. for Pb, to be considered as potential biomonitor. Especially, leaves of trees and plants taken from the distance of 50 m from battery plant have relatively higher Pb concentrations. Therefore, people who and animals which live in this area and benefit from these soil and plants have vital risks.

  8. Morus nigra plant leaves as biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, M.; Khalid, N.; Waheed, S.; Wasim, M.; Arif, M.; Zaidi, J.H. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Chemistry Div.

    2011-07-01

    The present paper deals with the determination of 36 elements in 120 leaf samples of Morus nigra plant to assess their potential as biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring. The elemental quantification was made by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) techniques. The leaf samples were collected in spring, summer and winter seasons from various sites in Islamabad with different types of anthropogenic activities as well as from a reference site with minimum of such activities. Twenty four soil samples from the respective sites were also analyzed. The reliability of the adopted procedures was established by analyzing the certified reference materials, i.e., citrus leaves-1572 and soil-7, from NIST and IAEA, respectively, under identical experimental conditions and comparing the results obtained with the certified values which are in quite good agreement with each other. The enrichment values and Pollution Load Index (PLI) of the determined elements were computed and discussed accordingly. The elemental translocation from soil to roots, stem and leaves has also been studied by analyzing these parts of the same plant. The results indicated that the leaves of Morus nigra plant have promising potential to monitor the extent of air pollution in the vicinity of industrial as well as in high traffic areas. (orig.)

  9. Atmospheric pollution in an urban environment by tree bark biomonitoring--part I: trace element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Lahd Geagea, Majdi; Boutin, René

    2012-03-01

    Tree bark has been shown to be a useful biomonitor of past air quality because it accumulates atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in its outermost structure. Trace element concentrations of tree bark of more than 73 trees allow to elucidate the impact of past atmospheric pollution on the urban environment of the cities of Strasbourg and Kehl in the Rhine Valley. Compared to the upper continental crust (UCC) tree barks are strongly enriched in Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. To assess the degree of pollution of the different sites in the cities, a geoaccumulation index I(geo) was applied. Global pollution by V, Ni, Cr, Sb, Sn and Pb was observed in barks sampled close to traffic axes. Cr, Mo, Cd pollution principally occurred in the industrial area. A total geoaccumulation index I(GEO-tot) was defined; it is based on the total of the investigated elements and allows to evaluate the global pollution of the studied environment by assembling the I(geo) indices on a pollution map.

  10. Biomonitoring spatial and temporal impact of atmospheric dust from a cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branquinho, Cristina [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande, Edificio C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade Atlantica, Antiga Fabrica da Polvora de Barcarena, 2745-615 Barcarena (Portugal)], E-mail: cmbranquinho@fc.ul.pt; Gaio-Oliveira, Gisela; Augusto, Sofia; Pinho, Pedro; Maguas, Cristina; Correia, Otilia [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande, Edificio C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the spatial and temporal impact of dust-pollution in the vicinity of a cement industry, located in an area with dry climate. The spatial impact integrated over time was evaluated from the concentrations of Ca, Fe and Mg in in-situ Xanthoria parietina. The temporal pattern was assessed through one-month transplants of the lichen Ramalina canariensis. Four potential sources of atmospheric dust were evaluated: the limestone-quarry; the unpaved roads, the deposit area and the cement mill. Calcium concentration in lichens was considered the best cement-dust indicator. Different types of dust (clinker and grinded-limestone-dust) resulted in different time-patterns of Ca accumulation, which was also related with the different influence that wet and dry periods have in the lichen accumulation process. The dust pollution was found to be deposited locally and dependent on: the nature of dust particles and the volume and frequency of precipitation. - Biomonitoring Spatial and Temporal dust emissions in dry climates.

  11. Translocation of isotopically distinct macroalgae: A route to low-cost biomonitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröcke, Darren R; Racionero-Gómez, Blanca; Marschalek, James W; Greenwell, H Chris

    2017-10-01

    Nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(15)N) in macroalgae are often used to identify sources of nitrogenous pollution in fluvial and estuarine settings. This approach assumes that the macroalgal δ(15)N is representative of the sources of the pollution averaged over a timespan in the order of days to weeks. The preferential uptake of a particular nitrogen compound or potential for fractionation in the water column or during uptake and assimilation by the macroalgae could make this assumption invalid. Laboratory studies were therefore performed to investigate the uptake and assimilation of both nitrate and ammonium at a variety of concentrations using the vegetative (non-fertile) tips of the brown macroalgae, Fucus vesiculosus. Nitrate appeared to fractionate at high concentrations, and was found to be taken up more rapidly than ammonia; within 13 days, the macroalgae tips were in isotopic equilibrium with the nitrate solution at 500 μM. These experiments were complemented by an investigation involving the translocation of macroalgae collected from a site enriched in (15)N relative to natural levels (Staithes, UK), to the River Tees, Middlesbrough (UK), a site depleted in (15)N relative to natural levels. The nitrogen isotope signature shifted by ∼50% within 7 days, with samples deployed nearer the surface subject to greater change. These findings suggest that the translocation of macroalgae with isotopically distinct signatures can be used as a rapid, cost-efficient method for nitrogen biomonitoring in estuarine environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Large-Scale Biomonitoring of Remote and Threatened Ecosystems via High-Throughput Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Joel F.; Shokralla, Shadi; Curry, Colin; Baird, Donald J.; Monk, Wendy A.; King, Ian; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity metrics are critical for assessment and monitoring of ecosystems threatened by anthropogenic stressors. Existing sorting and identification methods are too expensive and labour-intensive to be scaled up to meet management needs. Alternately, a high-throughput DNA sequencing approach could be used to determine biodiversity metrics from bulk environmental samples collected as part of a large-scale biomonitoring program. Here we show that both morphological and DNA sequence-based analyses are suitable for recovery of individual taxonomic richness, estimation of proportional abundance, and calculation of biodiversity metrics using a set of 24 benthic samples collected in the Peace-Athabasca Delta region of Canada. The high-throughput sequencing approach was able to recover all metrics with a higher degree of taxonomic resolution than morphological analysis. The reduced cost and increased capacity of DNA sequence-based approaches will finally allow environmental monitoring programs to operate at the geographical and temporal scale required by industrial and regulatory end-users. PMID:26488407

  13. Terrestrial gastropods (Helix spp) as sentinels of primary DNA damage for biomonitoring purposes: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, Dario; Sebbio, Claudia; Carere, Claudio; Cimmaruta, Roberta; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Pepe, Gaetano; Mosesso, Pasquale

    2013-04-01

    We validated the alkaline comet assay in two species of land snail (Helix aspersa and Helix vermiculata) to test their suitability as sentinels for primary DNA damage in polluted environments. The study was conducted under the framework of a biomonitoring program for a power station in Central Italy that had recently been converted from oil to coal-fired plant. After optimizing test conditions, the comet assay was used to measure the % Tail DNA induced by in vitro exposure of hemocytes to different concentrations of a reactive oxygen species (H2 O2 ). The treatment induced significant increases in this parameter with a concentration effect, indicating the effectiveness of the assay in snail hemocytes. After evaluating possible differences between the two species, we sampled them in three field sites at different distances from the power station, and in two reference sites assumed to have low or no levels of pollution. No species differences emerged. Percent Tail DNA values in snails from the sites near the power station were higher than those from control sites. An inverse correlation emerged between % Tail DNA and distance from the power station, suggesting that the primary DNA damage decreased as distance increased away from the pollution source. Detection of a gradient of heavy metal concentration in snail tissues suggests that these pollutants are a potential cause of the observed pattern. The comet assay appears to be a suitable assay and Helix spp. populations suitable sentinels to detect the genotoxic impact of pollutants.

  14. Citizen participatory dioxin monitoring campaign by pine needles as biomonitor of ambient air dioxin pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komichi, I.; Takatori, A. [Environmental Research Institute Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Aoyama, T. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Environment and Informations; Vrzic, B. [Maxxam Analytics Inc. HRMS Laboratory, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    The needle-type leaves of Japanese black pine trees (hereafter abbreviated as pine needles) have been used as an effective bio-monitor of ambient air pollution. Miyata Laboratory of Setsunan University has reported that the pine needles accumulate PCDDs and PCDFs (hereafter abbreviated as D/F) through photosynthesis and respiration during their lifetime. On the basis of this study, we have revealed the correlation between ambient air and pine needle concentrations to be estimated at or near 1:10 by analyzing long term continuous ambient dioxin monitoring data and that of pine needles sampled from the same area as ambient air in the Kanagawa Prefecture in 1999. Since then, the citizen groups of each local area all over Japan have started monitoring the ambient air dioxin concentration levels by using pine needles. Samples analyzed during these 5 years totaled more than 650 throughout Japan. The results of these citizen participatory environmental monitoring activities are the tremendous effects achieved in reducing the dioxin levels. This occurs through observation of the dioxin emission sources such as Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Plants as well as the Industrial Waste Incineration plants, which exist in numbers exceeding several thousands in Japan. This short paper will present the results of 56 municipalities of western Japan where ambient air dioxin levels have improved steadily against local averages during these 5 years.

  15. Ecological, morphological, and histological studies on Blaps polycresta (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as biomonitors of cadmium soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Wafaa; El-Samad, Lamia M; Mokhamer, El-Hassan; El-Touhamy, Aya; Shonouda, Mourad

    2015-09-01

    Soil pollution in Egypt became far more serious than before due to either the heavy usage of different toxic pesticides or aerosol deposition of industrial pollutants. The present mentioned ground beetle, Blaps polycresta Tschinkel 1975 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), showed ecological, morphological, and histological alterations in adult insects as biomonitors. Two cultivated sites (reference and polluted) were chosen for sampling the insects. The results indicated a significant increase in soil cadmium concentration of the polluted site leading to sex-specific difference in cadmium accumulation in gonads and alimentary canal of insects that being higher in males than females. The cadmium pollution leads significantly to a decrease in population density, a reduction in body weight, an increase in mortality rate, and an increase in sex ratio of the insects. The results also revealed a striking decrease in body length of the polluted insects with a marked increase in the percentage of deformed gonads and alimentary canal of both sexes. Some histopathological alterations were also recorded in testis, ovary, and midgut of the polluted insects. Our results confirmed that beetles are a good bioindicator for soil pollution, and the different studied parameters could be easily employed as sensitive monitors for cadmium soil pollution.

  16. Delonix regia and Casuarina equisetifolia as passive biomonitors and as bioaccumulators of atmospheric trace metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukpebor, Emmanuel Ehiabhi; Ukpebor, Justina Ebehirieme; Aigbokhan, Emmanuel; Goji, Idris; Onojeghuo, Alex Okiemute; Okonkwo, Anthony Chinedum

    2010-01-01

    The suitability of two common and ubiquitously distributed and exotic ornamental plant species in Nigeria-Delonix regia and Casuarina equisetifolia as biomonitors and as effective bioaccumulators of atmospheric trace metals (Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu) has been evaluated. Bark and leaf samples from these plant species were collected in June and July 2006 at five locations in Benin City. Four of the sampling sites were in areas of high traffic density and commercial activities, the fifth site is a remote site, selected to act as a control and also to provide background information for the metals. The plant samples were collected and processed using standard procedures and trace metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The bark of the plants was able to bioaccumulate the trace metals, especially Pb which originates from anthropogenic contributions in the city. The Pb range of 20.00-70.00 microg/g measured for the bark samples of D. regia, exceeded the normal plant Pb concentration of 0.2-20.0 microg/g and most Pb data available in literature. The bark of the plants was observed to accumulate more metals compared to the leave, while D. regia was found to be slightly better than C. equisetifolia in trace metal uptake efficiency. Spatial variations in the distributions of Pb and Zn were significant (p < 0.05), and the continuous use of leaded fuel in Nigeria was identified as the predominant source of Pb in the atmosphere.

  17. Small mammals as biomonitors of metal pollution: a case study in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sayegh Petkovšek, Samar; Kopušar, Nataša; Kryštufek, Boris

    2014-07-01

    The transfer of lead, cadmium, zinc, mercury, copper and molybdenum from soil to the tissues of small mammals inhabiting differently polluted areas in Slovenia was investigated. Metals were determined in soil samples and in the livers of 139 individuals of five small mammal species, collected in 2012 in the vicinity of a former lead smelter, the largest Slovenian thermal power plant, along a main road and in a control area. The area in the vicinity of former lead smelter differs considerably from other study areas. The soil from that area is heavily polluted with Pb and Cd. The mean metal concentrations in the liver, irrespective of species, varied in the following ranges-Pb: 0.40-7.40 mg/kg fw and Cd: 0.27-135 mg/kg fw and reached effect concentrations at which toxic effects can be expected in a significant proportion of the livers of the small mammal specimens (Pb 40 %, Cd 67 %). These findings indicate that the majority of small mammals trapped in the area of the former lead smelter are at risk of toxic effects due to the very high bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd in the organism. On the contrary, Pd and Cd concentrations in the livers of small mammals sampled in the vicinity of the thermal power plant and along the main road were comparable with reference values and considerably lower than effect concentrations. Additionally, the study suggests that Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus are very suitable biomonitors of metal pollution.

  18. Isocyanate exposure assessment combining industrial hygiene methods with biomonitoring for end users of orthopedic casting products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Ronald L; Logan, Perry W; Kore, Anita M; Strom, Constance M; Brosseau, Lisa M; Kingston, Richard L

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested a potential risk to healthcare workers applying isocyanate-containing casts, but the authors reached their conclusions based on immunological or clinical pulmonology test results alone. We designed a study to assess potential exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) among medical personnel applying orthopedic casts using two different application methods. Air, dermal, surface, and glove permeation sampling methods were combined with urinary biomonitoring to assess the overall risk of occupational asthma to workers handling these materials. No MDI was detected in any of the personal and area air samples obtained. No glove permeation of MDI was detected. A small proportion of surface (3/45) and dermal wipe (1/60) samples were positive for MDI, but were all from inexperienced technicians. Urinary metabolites of MDI [methylenedianiline (MDA)] were detected in three of six study participants prior to both a 'dry' and 'wet' application method, five of six after the dry method, and three of six after the wet method. All MDA results were below levels noted in worker or general populations. Our conclusion is that the risk of MDI exposure is small, but unquantifiable. Because there is some potential risk of dermal exposure, medical personnel are instructed to wear a minimum of 5-mil-thick (5 mil = 0.005 inches) nitrile gloves and avoid contact to unprotected skin. This could include gauntlets, long sleeves, and/or a laboratory coat.

  19. Factors to consider for trace element deposition biomonitoring surveys with lichen transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, S.; Clochiatti, R.; Carrot, F.; Daudin, L.; Bennett, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    A trace element deposition biomonitoring experiment with transplants of the fruticose lichen Evernia prunastri was developed, aimed at monitoring the effects of different exposure parameters (exposure orientation and direct rain) and to the elements Ti, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, Sb and Pb. Accumulations were observed for most of the elements, confirming the ability of Evernia transplants for atmospheric metal deposition monitoring. The accumulation trends were mainly affected by the exposure orientation and slightly less so by the protection from rain. The zonation of the trace elements inside the thallus was also studied. It was concluded that trace element concentrations were not homogeneous in Evernia, thus imposing some cautions on the sampling approach. A nuclear microprobe analysis of an E. prunastri transplanted thallus in thin cross-sections concluded that the trace elements were mainly concentrated on the cortex of the thallus, except Zn, Ca and K which were also present in the internal layers. The size of the particles deposited or entrapped on the cortex surface averaged 7????m. A list of key parameters to ensure the comparability of surveys aiming at observing temporal or spatial deposition variation is presented. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biomonitoring of mercury pollution in a wetland near Ravenna, Italy by translocated bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattani, O.; Fabbri, D.; Salvati, M.; Trombini, C.; Vassura, I.

    1999-08-01

    An active biomonitoring experiment using mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) was performed in Pialassa Baiona, a mercury-polluted coastal wetland near Ravenna, Italy. Three stations (A, B, and C) were selected along the south to north axis. Following a 52-d field exposure, organisms transplanted in the southernmost polluted area (station A) showed mean mercury concentration values of 660 ng/g (dry weight), 4.4 times the initial background level, and were still accumulating mercury. Mussels in both the central area (station B) and the northern area (station C) seemed to reach a steady state with mean mercury concentration values of 323 and 412 ng/g, respectively. This field experiment is the first study carried out in the Ravenna wetlands to evaluate mercury bioavailability in this environment. Finally, the efficiency of the population of Mytilus galloprovincialis selected for the field experiment as mercury bioaccumulators was tested in a laboratory experiment that revealed that up to 135 {micro}g/g (dry weight) could be reached after 77 d of exposure to mercury-polluted water.

  1. Use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in Assessment of Biomonitor Plants for Lead, Cadmium and Copper Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gokce Kaya; Mehmet Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Eleven plant species were collected from the vicinity of lead-battery plant in the city of Gaziantep,Turkey.Lead,cadmium and copper concentrations in the soil and leaves of plants were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry.Lead,Cd and Cu concentrations in the soil samples taken from battery area were found to be in the ranges of 304~602,0.4~0.44 and 31~37 mg · kg-1,respectively.Significantly increased lead concentration up to 2 750 mg · kg-1 was found in the leaves of Eleagnus angustifolia L.plant.The lead concentrations in the other plant leaves taken from 50 m around battery factory followed the order Ailanthus altissima >Morus sp.> Juglans regia L.> Ficus carica L.>Cydonia oblonga Miller> Prunus x domestica L.The plants,Populus nigra L.,Eleagnus angustifolia L.and Salix sp.were found useful for Cd,and the plant,Eleagnus angustifolia L.for Pb,to be considered as potential biomonitor.Especially,leaves of trees and plants taken from the distance of 50 m from battery plant have relatively higher Pb concentrations.Therefore,people who and animals which live in this area and benefit from these soil and plants have vital risks.

  2. Immobilised Phaeodactylum tricornutum as biomonitor of trace element availability in the water column during dredging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Raimundo, Joana; Pereira, Patrícia; Vale, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    This work reports changes of Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations in the dissolved fraction, suspended particulate matter and immobilised Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin (Bacillariophyceae), as well as of microalgae specific growth rates, during a 5-month period dredging operation in a contaminated area of the Tagus estuary, Portugal. Trace element concentrations showed broad variations in the dissolved fraction and suspended particulate matter, presumably reflecting rapid exchanges of redox-sensitive elements between water and particles, in conjunction with the dilution effect caused by the tidal excursion. Immobilised cells exposed to dredging environmental conditions showed significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb than under no dredging conditions. Concomitantly, specific cell growth was significantly lower, suggesting that elements released with dredging affect the microalgae physiology. The results obtained in this in situ work imply that the dissolved fraction and the suspended particulate matter are relatively ineffective indicators of the trace element enhancement during dredging and pointed out immobilised P. tricornutum as a reliable and efficient biomonitoring tool for the assessment of trace element remobilisation.

  3. Evaluation of ginkgo as a biomonitor of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Abe, Maho; Kakumoto, Yoriko; Kawano, Hiromi; Fukasawa, Hiroko; Saha, Mahua; Takada, Hideshige

    2012-07-01

    The utility of ginkgo leaves as biomonitors of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated. We investigated PAH concentrations among tree species, the effect of variations in leaf position in a tree, tissue distributions, correlations between ginkgo leaves and air, and seasonal variations. Among the five species examined (Ginkgo biloba L., Zelkova serrata Makino, Liriodendron tulipifera L., Prunus yedoensis Matsum, and Magnolia kobus DC.), ginkgo accumulated the greatest amount of PAHs from roadside air. Most PAHs (˜80%) were accumulated in the wax fraction, and most of the remainder (17%) penetrated the inner tissues of the leaves. PAH concentrations in ginkgo leaves decreased with increasing height and distance from the road, reflecting the derivation of PAHs from vehicle emissions. Seasonal time-series sampling showed that PAH concentrations in ginkgo leaves increased with time, attributable to the effects of temperature and accumulation through long-term exposure. Concentrations in ginkgo leaves collected from various roads showed a strong and significant correlation with those in air collected by a high-volume air sampler (r2 = 0.68, P Ginkgo leaf data clearly showed a dramatic decrease in the ratio of low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs to high-molecular-weight PAHs from 2001 or 2002 to 2006, indicating that on-road diesel emission regulations effectively reduced LMW PAH concentrations in air.

  4. Biomonitoring of marine vertebrates in Monterey Bay using eDNA metabarcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andruszkiewicz, Elizabeth A; Starks, Hilary A; Chavez, Francisco P; Sassoubre, Lauren M; Block, Barbara A; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2017-01-01

    Molecular analysis of environmental DNA (eDNA) can be used to assess vertebrate biodiversity in aquatic systems, but limited work has applied eDNA technologies to marine waters. Further, there is limited understanding of the spatial distribution of vertebrate eDNA in marine waters. Here, we use an eDNA metabarcoding approach to target and amplify a hypervariable region of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene to characterize vertebrate communities at 10 oceanographic stations spanning 45 km within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS). In this study, we collected three biological replicates of small volume water samples (1 L) at 2 depths at each of the 10 stations. We amplified fish mitochondrial DNA using a universal primer set. We obtained 5,644,299 high quality Illumina sequence reads from the environmental samples. The sequence reads were annotated to the lowest taxonomic assignment using a bioinformatics pipeline. The eDNA survey identified, to the lowest taxonomic rank, 7 families, 3 subfamilies, 10 genera, and 72 species of vertebrates at the study sites. These 92 distinct taxa come from 33 unique marine vertebrate families. We observed significantly different vertebrate community composition between sampling depths (0 m and 20/40 m deep) across all stations and significantly different communities at stations located on the continental shelf (200 m bottom depth). All but 1 family identified using eDNA metabarcoding is known to occur in MBNMS. The study informs the implementation of eDNA metabarcoding for vertebrate biomonitoring.

  5. Factors to consider for trace element deposition biomonitoring surveys with lichen transplants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayrault, Sophie [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]. E-mail: sophie.ayrault@lsce.cnrs-gif.fr; Clochiatti, Roberto [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Carrot, Francine [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Daudin, Laurent [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bennett, James P. [U. S. Geological Survey and Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A trace element deposition biomonitoring experiment with transplants of the fruticose lichen Evernia prunastri was developed, aimed at monitoring the effects of different exposure parameters (exposure orientation and direct rain) and to the elements Ti, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, Sb and Pb. Accumulations were observed for most of the elements, confirming the ability of Evernia transplants for atmospheric metal deposition monitoring. The accumulation trends were mainly affected by the exposure orientation and slightly less so by the protection from rain. The zonation of the trace elements inside the thallus was also studied. It was concluded that trace element concentrations were not homogeneous in Evernia, thus imposing some cautions on the sampling approach. A nuclear microprobe analysis of an E. prunastri transplanted thallus in thin cross-sections concluded that the trace elements were mainly concentrated on the cortex of the thallus, except Zn, Ca and K which were also present in the internal layers. The size of the particles deposited or entrapped on the cortex surface averaged 7 {mu}m. A list of key parameters to ensure the comparability of surveys aiming at observing temporal or spatial deposition variation is presented.

  6. Factors to consider for trace element deposition biomonitoring surveys with lichen transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, Sophie; Clochiatti, Roberto; Carrot, Francine; Daudin, Laurent; Bennett, James P

    2007-01-01

    A trace element deposition biomonitoring experiment with transplants of the fruticose lichen Evernia prunastri was developed, aimed at monitoring the effects of different exposure parameters (exposure orientation and direct rain) and to the elements Ti, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, Sb and Pb. Accumulations were observed for most of the elements, confirming the ability of Evernia transplants for atmospheric metal deposition monitoring. The accumulation trends were mainly affected by the exposure orientation and slightly less so by the protection from rain. The zonation of the trace elements inside the thallus was also studied. It was concluded that trace element concentrations were not homogeneous in Evernia, thus imposing some cautions on the sampling approach. A nuclear microprobe analysis of an E. prunastri transplanted thallus in thin cross-sections concluded that the trace elements were mainly concentrated on the cortex of the thallus, except Zn, Ca and K which were also present in the internal layers. The size of the particles deposited or entrapped on the cortex surface averaged 7 microm. A list of key parameters to ensure the comparability of surveys aiming at observing temporal or spatial deposition variation is presented.

  7. Comparative Use of Tree Leaves, Needles, Tree Barks and Lichens for Air Pollution Biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoukhi, T.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chouak, A.; Moutia, Z.; Lferde, M.; Senhou, A.; Gaudry, A.; Ayrault, S.; Chakir, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the most suitable bioaccumulators for air pollution survey in Morocco. For this, we compare in this paper heavy metals uptake efficiencies for different types of biomonitors: leaves of oak and eucalyptus trees, needles of coniferous trees, tree-barks and lichens collected at the same site. Instrumental neutron activation analysis using the k0 method (INAA-k0) was used for its adequate characteristics to analyze accurately a wide number of elements. Reference materials were analyzed to check the reliability and the accuracy of this technique. The results obtained for all these bioaccumulators lead to the following conclusions. For the major elements, leaves and needles are more accumulating than tree barks and lichens. While for the intermediate and trace elements, there is an obvious accumulation in lichens in comparison with tree barks, leaves and needles. This work shows the possibility to use these four bioaccumulators according to their availability in an area. It will be useful however to set up an inter calibration between these bioaccumulators.

  8. Black pine (Pinus nigra) barks as biomonitors of airborne mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarantini, Laura; Rimondi, Valentina; Benvenuti, Marco; Beutel, Marc W; Costagliola, Pilario; Gonnelli, Cristina; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Paolieri, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Tree barks are relevant interfaces between plants and the external environment, and can effectively retain airborne particles and elements at their surface. In this paper we have studied the distribution of mercury (Hg) in soils and in black pine (Pinus nigra) barks from the Mt. Amiata Hg district in southern Tuscany (Italy), where past Hg mining and present-day geothermal power plants affect local atmospheric Hg concentration, posing serious environmental concerns. Barks collected in heavily Hg-polluted areas of the district display the highest Hg concentration ever reported in literature (8.6mg/kg). In comparison, barks of the same species collected in local reference areas and near geothermal power plants show much lower (range 19-803μg/kg) concentrations; even lower concentrations are observed at a "blank" site near the city of Florence (5-98μg/kg). Results show a general decrease of Hg concentration from bark surface inwards, in accordance with a deposition of airborne Hg, with minor contribution from systemic uptake from soils. Preliminary results indicate that bark Hg concentrations are comparable with values reported for lichens in the same areas, suggesting that tree barks may represent an additional useful tool for biomonitoring of airborne Hg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metal deposition: Spatial patterns and temporal trends in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmens, H., E-mail: hh@ceh.ac.u [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Norris, D.A., E-mail: danor@ceh.ac.u [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Steinnes, E., E-mail: Eiliv.Steinnes@chem.ntnu.n [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kubin, E., E-mail: Eero.Kubin@metla.f [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kirkkosaarentie 7, 91500 Muhos (Finland); Piispanen, J., E-mail: Juha.Piispanen@metla.f [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kirkkosaarentie 7, 91500 Muhos (Finland); Alber, R., E-mail: Renate.Alber@provinz.bz.i [Environmental Agency of Bolzano, 39055 Laives (Italy); Aleksiayenak, Y., E-mail: beataa@gmail.co [International Sakharov Environmental University, Minsk (Belarus); Blum, O., E-mail: blum@nbg.kiev.u [National Botanical Garden, Academy of Science of Ukraine, Timiryazevs' ka St. 1, 01014 Kyiv (Ukraine); Coskun, M., E-mail: coskunafm@yahoo.co [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100 Canakkale (Turkey); Dam, M., E-mail: mariad@us.f [Environment Agency, Traoagota 38, FO-165 Argir (Faroe Islands); De Temmerman, L., E-mail: ludet@var.fgov.b [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Leuvensesteenweg 17, 3080 Tervuren (Belgium); Fernandez, J.A., E-mail: jangel.fernandez@usc.e [University of Santiago de Compestela, Faculty of Biology, Department of Ecology, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Frolova, M., E-mail: marina.frolova@lvgma.gov.l [Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Agency, Maskavas Str. 165, Riga LV 1019 (Latvia); Frontasyeva, M., E-mail: marina@nf.jinr.r [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Str. Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Gonzalez-Miqueo, L., E-mail: lgonzale2@alumni.unav.e [University of Navarra, Irunlarrea No 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    In recent decades, mosses have been used successfully as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals. Since 1990, the European moss survey has been repeated at five-yearly intervals. Although spatial patterns were metal-specific, in 2005 the lowest concentrations of metals in mosses were generally found in Scandinavia, the Baltic States and northern parts of the UK; the highest concentrations were generally found in Belgium and south-eastern Europe. The recent decline in emission and subsequent deposition of heavy metals across Europe has resulted in a decrease in the heavy metal concentration in mosses for the majority of metals. Since 1990, the concentration in mosses has declined the most for arsenic, cadmium, iron, lead and vanadium (52-72%), followed by copper, nickel and zinc (20-30%), with no significant reduction being observed for mercury (12% since 1995) and chromium (2%). However, temporal trends were country-specific with sometimes increases being found. - Since 1990, heavy metal concentrations in mosses have declined in Europe for most metals.

  10. Systematic microcarrier screening and agitated culture conditions improves human mesenchymal stem cell yield in bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Qasim A; Coopman, Karen; Nienow, Alvin W; Hewitt, Christopher J

    2016-03-01

    Production of human mesenchymal stem cells for allogeneic cell therapies requires scalable, cost-effective manufacturing processes. Microcarriers enable the culture of anchorage-dependent cells in stirred-tank bioreactors. However, no robust, transferable methodology for microcarrier selection exists, with studies providing little or no reason explaining why a microcarrier was employed. We systematically evaluated 13 microcarriers for human bone marrow-derived MSC (hBM-MSCs) expansion from three donors to establish a reproducible and transferable methodology for microcarrier selection. Monolayer studies demonstrated input cell line variability with respect to growth kinetics and metabolite flux. HBM-MSC1 underwent more cumulative population doublings over three passages in comparison to hBM-MSC2 and hBM-MSC3. In 100 mL spinner flasks, agitated conditions were significantly better than static conditions, irrespective of donor, and relative microcarrier performance was identical where the same microcarriers outperformed others with respect to growth kinetics and metabolite flux. Relative growth kinetics between donor cells on the microcarriers were the same as the monolayer study. Plastic microcarriers were selected as the optimal microcarrier for hBM-MSC expansion. HBM-MSCs were successfully harvested and characterised, demonstrating hBM-MSC immunophenotype and differentiation capacity. This approach provides a systematic method for microcarrier selection, and the findings identify potentially significant bioprocessing implications for microcarrier-based allogeneic cell therapy manufacture.

  11. First results from dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the population from Madeira Island, Portugal. Part 2. Biomonitoring in breast milk of women living near to a solid waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Fatima Reis; Sampaio, C.; J. Pereira Miguel [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Lisbon (Portugal); J. Mauricio Melim [Public Health Regional Dept., Funchal (Portugal)

    2004-09-15

    Although breast-feeding women cannot be representative of the general population, for biomonitoring programs carried out to ultimately assist in policy design to improve public health and safety, it is important to monitor dioxin exposure of this demographic segment through breast milk due to several reasons: 1) breast milk reflects the maternal body burden of lipophilic chemicals and thus it is a measure of prenatal exposure to those compounds; 2) being a human food and the first and main foodstuff for most newborn babies during first lifetime-period, breast milk can be a very significant pathway for infant exposure to dioxins; 3) because large volumes can be collected non-invasively, breast milk is also a convenient sampling specimen for biomonitoring purposes if it is collected taking into consideration all the relevant factors influencing fat content and thus levels of lipophilic compounds, namely the time of sampling during lactation, breastfeeding patterns and maternal characteristics. As part of an Environmental Health Survey Program, relative to an updated incinerator at Meia Serra, Madeira Island, Portugal, dioxin breast milk levels have been determined to provide indicative data on the extent and pattern of exposure of the general population to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and to investigate potential determinants of dioxin exposure in age reproductive women for prevention priorities. The ultimate objective was to determine whether living in the vicinity of the incinerator increases the maternal dioxin exposure and accordingly their breast-fed infants. Data will also be collected longitudinally in order to provide information on temporal trends in breast milk dioxin levels, which will indicate whether controls on sources of these pollutants are effective.

  12. PCDD/F and WHO-PCB contamination in an industrialized area in Brazil. First results of atmospheric monitoring and the use of Tillandsia usneoides (L) as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, M. de S. [Dept. de Geoquimica, Univ. Federal Fluminense. Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Waller, U.; Reifenhaeuser, W.; Koerner, W. [Bavarian Environmental Protection Agency, Augsburg (Germany); Torres, J.P.; Malm, O. [Inst. de Biofisica, CCS-UFRJ. Ilha do Fundao, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-09-15

    A major issue of concern in developing countries like Brazil is to conciliate increasing industrialization rates to secure health and environmental standards already required to promote the free market among countries. This was pointed out during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 (Agenda 21). There it became clear that Brazil needs to develop better methods and techniques for environmental monitoring in order to control pollution sources and promote sustainable development. Among dozens of different kinds of persistent organic pollutants, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are a matter of great concern due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicological properties. PCDD and PCDF are unwanted by-products from the combustion of organic material containing trace amounts of chlorine set free in both stationary thermal sources and diffuse fuel burning. They can also be present as unwanted by-products of various industrial and metallurgical processes and metal recycling and smelters. PCB are ubiquitous contaminants of the environment and can be produced during thermal processes. In spite of their high environmental persistence and relevance in human health concerns, legal aspects regarding maximum emission limits and control of these contaminants are absent in Brazil at present. Moreover, the absence of adequately equipped laboratories and human resources together with the high costs associated hampers the research and monitoring of these contaminants in Brazil. The present work is a first report of the monitoring of total deposition rates of PCDD/PCDF and PCB in Volta Redonda City, a highly industrialized area in Rio de Janeiro State. Simultaneously, the use of an endemic Bromeliad species, Tillandsia usneoides (L), an epiphytic bromeliad, as a possible bio-monitor for persistent organochlorine compounds was investigated.

  13. An integrated end-to-end modeling framework for testing ecosystem-wide effects of human-induced pressures in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacz, Artur; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Christensen, Asbjørn

    to the high-resolution coupled physical-biological model HBM-ERGOM and the fisheries bio-economic FishRent model. We investigate ecosystem-wide responses to changes in human-induced pressures by simulating several eutrophication scenarios that are relevant to existing Baltic Sea management plans (e.g. EU BSAP......, EU CFP). We further present the structure and calibration of the Baltic ATLANTIS model and the operational linkage to the other models. Using the results of eutrophication scenarios, and focusing on the relative changes in fish and fishery production, we discuss the robustness of the model linking...

  14. An Integrated End-to-End Modeling Framework for Testing Ecosystem-Wide Effects of Human-Induced Pressures in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacz, Artur; Maar, Marie; Nielsen, Rasmus

    to the high-resolution coupled physical-biological model HBM-ERGOM and the fisheries bio-economic FishRent model. We investigate ecosystem-wide responses to changes in human-induced pressures by simulating several eutrophication scenarios that are relevant to existing Baltic Sea management plans (e.g. EU BSAP......, EU CFP). We further present the structure and calibration of the Baltic ATLANTIS model and the operational linkage to the other models. Using the results of eutrophication scenarios, and focusing on the relative changes in fish and fishery production, we discuss the robustness of the model linking...

  15. Variation in patterns of metal accumulation in thallus parts of Lessonia trabeculata (Laminariales; Phaeophyceae): implications for biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Claudio A; Lobos, M Gabriela; Macaya, Erasmo C; Oliva, Doris; Quiroz, Waldo; Brown, Murray T

    2012-01-01

    Seaweeds are well known to concentrate metals from seawater and have been employed as monitors of metal pollution in coastal waters and estuaries. However, research showing that various intrinsic and extrinsic factors can influence metal accumulation, raises doubts about the basis for using seaweeds in biomonitoring programmes. The thallus of brown seaweeds of the order Laminariales (kelps) is morphologically complex but there is limited information about the variation in metal accumulation between the different parts, which might result in erroneous conclusions being drawn if not accounted for in the biomonitoring protocol. To assess patterns of individual metals in the differentiated parts of the thallus (blade, stipe, holdfast), concentrations of a wide range of essential and non-essential metals (Fe, Cr, Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Al) were measured in the kelp Lessonia trabeculata. Seaweeds were collected from three sampling stations located at 5, 30 and 60 m from an illegal sewage outfall close to Ventanas, Chile and from a pristine location at Faro Curaumilla. For the majority of metals the highest concentrations in bottom sediment and seaweed samples were found at the site closest to the outfall, with concentrations decreasing with distance from the outfall and at control stations; the exception was Cd, concentrations of which were higher at control stations. The patterns of metal concentrations in different thallus parts were metal specific and independent of sampling station. These results and the available literature suggest that biomonitoring of metals using seaweeds must take account of differences in the accumulation of metals in thallus parts of complex seaweeds.

  16. Variation in patterns of metal accumulation in thallus parts of Lessonia trabeculata (Laminariales; Phaeophyceae: implications for biomonitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A Sáez

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are well known to concentrate metals from seawater and have been employed as monitors of metal pollution in coastal waters and estuaries. However, research showing that various intrinsic and extrinsic factors can influence metal accumulation, raises doubts about the basis for using seaweeds in biomonitoring programmes. The thallus of brown seaweeds of the order Laminariales (kelps is morphologically complex but there is limited information about the variation in metal accumulation between the different parts, which might result in erroneous conclusions being drawn if not accounted for in the biomonitoring protocol. To assess patterns of individual metals in the differentiated parts of the thallus (blade, stipe, holdfast, concentrations of a wide range of essential and non-essential metals (Fe, Cr, Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Al were measured in the kelp Lessonia trabeculata. Seaweeds were collected from three sampling stations located at 5, 30 and 60 m from an illegal sewage outfall close to Ventanas, Chile and from a pristine location at Faro Curaumilla. For the majority of metals the highest concentrations in bottom sediment and seaweed samples were found at the site closest to the outfall, with concentrations decreasing with distance from the outfall and at control stations; the exception was Cd, concentrations of which were higher at control stations. The patterns of metal concentrations in different thallus parts were metal specific and independent of sampling station. These results and the available literature suggest that biomonitoring of metals using seaweeds must take account of differences in the accumulation of metals in thallus parts of complex seaweeds.

  17. Evaluating ethanol-based sample preservation to facilitate use of DNA barcoding in routine freshwater biomonitoring programs using benthic macroinvertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Stein

    Full Text Available Molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, have the potential to enhance biomonitoring programs worldwide. Altering routinely used sample preservation methods to protect DNA from degradation may pose a potential impediment to application of DNA barcoding and metagenomics for biomonitoring using benthic macroinvertebrates. Using higher volumes or concentrations of ethanol, requirements for shorter holding times, or the need to include additional filtering may increase cost and logistical constraints to existing biomonitoring programs. To address this issue we evaluated the efficacy of various ethanol-based sample preservation methods at maintaining DNA integrity. We evaluated a series of methods that were minimally modified from typical field protocols in order to identify an approach that can be readily incorporated into existing monitoring programs. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected from a minimally disturbed stream in southern California, USA and subjected to one of six preservation treatments. Ten individuals from five taxa were selected from each treatment and processed to produce DNA barcodes from the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI. On average, we obtained successful COI sequences (i.e. either full or partial barcodes for between 93-99% of all specimens across all six treatments. As long as samples were initially preserved in 95% ethanol, successful sequencing of COI barcodes was not affected by a low dilution ratio of 2∶1, transfer to 70% ethanol, presence of abundant organic matter, or holding times of up to six months. Barcoding success varied by taxa, with Leptohyphidae (Ephemeroptera producing the lowest barcode success rate, most likely due to poor PCR primer efficiency. Differential barcoding success rates have the potential to introduce spurious results. However, routine preservation methods can largely be used without adverse effects on DNA integrity.

  18. The contribution of diet to total Bisphenol A body burden in humans: results of a 48 hour fasting study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human biomonitoring studies measuring BPA in urine have shown widespread exposure in the general population. Diet is thought to be a major route of exposure. We studied urinary BPA patterns in five individuals over a 48-hr period of fasting (bottled water only). Personal acti...

  19. The contribution of diet to total Bisphenol A body burden in humans: results of a 48 hour fasting study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human biomonitoring studies measuring BPA in urine have shown widespread exposure in the general population. Diet is thought to be a major route of exposure. We studied urinary BPA patterns in five individuals over a 48-hr period of fasting (bottled water only). Personal acti...

  20. Biomonitoring of air pollution by organic compounds in the city of Graz and the industrial area of Leoben-Donawitz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, W. [TUeV Sueddeutschland, Stuttgart (Germany). Bau und Betrieb Umwelt Service; Pirker, D.; Pongratz, T.; Schopper, A. [Amt der Steiermaerkischen Landesregierung, Graz (Austria). Fachabteilung 1a; Waikinat, I. [TUeV Sueddeutschland, Muenchen (Germany). Bau und Betrieb

    2002-07-01

    The air pollution of some persistent organic compounds (PAH, PCB, PCDD/F) was measured in two regions of Styria/Austria, Graz and Leoben, by biomonitoring methods. These measurements were carried out in addition to the air quality monitoring network, the monitoring of airborne dust, contaminated with dioxines and furanes and the contamination of soil. Urban emissions (traffic, domestic heating) of air pollutants dominate the pollution level in Graz. Emissions of iron and steel industry are responsible for problems in air quality in Leoben-Donawitz. (orig.)

  1. Biomonitoring of ozone: a tool to initiate the young people into the scientific method and air pollution impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castell, J.F. [INA PG /INRA - Unite Environnement et Grandes Cultures, Thiverval Grignon (France); Maronnier, D. [ALOISE, Les Mureaux (France). Site de l' Oseraie

    2002-07-01

    An operation of air quality biomonitoring is proposed collectively by an agricultural research centre (INRA) and an association of scientific leisure activities (ALOISE) in the region of Paris. The operation consists in realizing a map of ozone impacts on tobacco Bel-W3 plants using observations made by school pupils. The main objectives are to introduce the young people to the scientific method by an experimental approach, to incite them to work on the air quality problems, and to allow them to meet researchers. The first educational results are encouraging. However, the standardization of the observations should be improved to allow the realization of reliable maps. (orig.)

  2. The use of moss as biomonitors of atmospherical deposition in Romania. An example from the Eastern Carpathian mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucaciu, A. [' ' Horia Hulubei' ' National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania)

    2004-07-01

    In the last thirty years, the use of naturally growing mosses as biomonitors in the study of atmospheric deposition of the heavy metals became a common method for monitoring air pollution. Naturally growing mosses have a primitive structure with no specialization of cells within the tissue. Mosses are able to concentrate and to solubilize some chemical species of environmental pollutants. Because the contact between the moss and the soil (or rock) is very weak, it is possible that the moss can not absorb notable quantities of metal ions from the soil. (orig.)

  3. Genes and environment - striking the fine balance between sophisticated biomonitoring and true functional environmental genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Christian E W; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R; Menzel, Ralph

    2008-08-01

    This article provides an overview how the application of the gene profiling (mainly via microarray technology) can be used in different organisms to address issues of environmental importance. Only recently, environmental sciences, including ecotoxicology, and molecular biology have started to mutually fertilize each other. This conceptual blend has enabled the identification of the interaction between molecular events and whole animal and population responses. Likewise, striking the fine balance between biomonitoring and functional environmental genomics will allow legislative and administrative measures to be based on a more robust platform. The application of DNA microarrays to ecotoxicogenomics links ecotoxicological effects of exposure with expression profiles of several thousand genes. The gene expression profiles are altered during toxicity, as either a direct or indirect result of toxicant exposure and the comparison of numerous specific expression profiles facilitates the differentiation between intoxication and true responses to environmental stressors. Furthermore, the application of microarrays provides the means to identify complex pathways and strategies that an exposed organism applies in response to environmental stressors. This review will present evidence that the widespread phenomenon of hormesis has a genetic basis that goes beyond an adaptive response. Some more practical advantages emerge: the toxicological assessment of complex mixtures, such as effluents or sediments, as well as drugs seems feasible, especially when classical ecotoxicological tests have failed. The review of available information demonstrates the advantages of microarray application to environmental issues spanning from bacteria, over algae and spermatophytes, to invertebrates (nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, crustacea Daphnia spp., earthworms), and various fish species. Microarrays have also highlighted why populations of a given species respond differently to similar

  4. A biomonitoring study: trace metals in algae and molluscs from Tyrrhenian coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Cecchetti, Gaetano

    2003-09-01

    Marine organisms were evaluated as possible biomonitors of heavy metal contamination in marine coastal areas. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in the green algae Ulva lactuca L., the brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy, the bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, and the two gastropod molluscs Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella cerulea L. collected at six coastal stations in the area of the Gulf of Gaeta (Tyrrhenian Sea, central Italy). The coastal area of the Regional Park of Gianola and Monte di Scauri (a "Protected Sea Park" area) was chosen as a control site. Seawater samples were also collected in each site to assess soluble and total metal concentrations and to gain additional information on both the environmental conditions of the area and possible bioaccumulation patterns. Metal concentrations detected in algae and molluscs did not show significant differences among all stations studied. Moreover, statistical analyses (ANOVA, multiple comparison tests, cluster analysis) showed that the Sea Park station was not significantly different from the others. The hypothesis that the Protected Sea Park would be cleaner than the others must therefore be reconsidered. Data from this study were also compared with those previously obtained from uncontaminated sites in the Sicilian Sea, Italy. The results show clearly differences between these two marine ecosystems. The species examined showed great accumulations of metals, with concentration factors (CFs) higher than 10,000 with respect to the concentrations (soluble fractions) in marine waters. Metal concentrations recorded in this area may be used for background levels for intraspecific comparison within the Tyrrhenian area, a body of water about which information is still very scarce.

  5. The effects of exposure duration and feeding status on fish bile metabolites: implications for biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, C M; Haritos, V S; Ahokas, J T; Holdway, D A

    1998-02-01

    Biliary metabolites of 2-chlorosyringaldehyde (2-CSA), the major chlorinated phenol found in chlorine dioxide bleached eucalypt pulp effluent, have been found to be sensitive biomarkers of effluent exposure in the sand flathead (Platycephalus bassensis). Before this method of biomonitoring can be applied in the field, the influences of exposure duration, depuration time, and fish feeding status on the level of this metabolite should be determined. In this study, sand flathead were exposed to a measured concentration of 0.3 microgram/1 of 2-CSA for 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, or 16 days. Fish previously exposed to 2-CSA were then held in sea-water alone for 1, 2, 3, 4, or 6 days. Fish were fed ad libitum throughout the experiment, and the fullness of the fish's stomach at the time of sampling was noted. There were no effects of exposure on biotransformation enzyme activities, either between exposure times or between the exposure and depuration periods. The major metabolite of 2-CSA, 2-chloro-4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzylalcohol (2-CB-OH), was first detected in the bile of some fish sampled after 24 h of exposure, and the mean concentration of 2-CB-OH in the bile increased over the exposure period. The mean concentration (+/- SE) of 2-CB-OH in the bile was strongly influenced by fish feeding status, being 94 +/- 18 ng/ml bile in fish with empty stomachs and undetectable in fish with full stomachs. Bile volume was also influenced by fish feeding status, being greatest in fish with empty stomachs at the time of sampling. Results indicate that the feeding status of fish should be taken into consideration when using biliary metabolites as biomarkers of effluent exposure in the field, and methods to establish this are discussed.

  6. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Córdoba (Spain) by biomonitoring foraging honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Miriam; Molero, Rafael; Gaju, Miquel; van der Steen, Josef; Porrini, Claudio; Ruiz, José Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Due to features that make them outstanding environmental bioindicator, colonies of Apis mellifera are being used to study environmental pollution. The primary objective of this research was to use honeybee colonies to identify heavy metals and determine their utility for environmental management. Five stations each with two A. mellifera hives were strategically located in urban, industrial, agricultural and forested areas within the municipality of Córdoba (Spain), and foraging bees were collected from April to December in 2007, 2009 and 2010 to analyse spatial and temporal variation in Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd pollution. Metal concentrations, in milligram per kilogram of honeybee, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Significant differences in concentrations were found among the various locations and periods. The highest number of values exceeding the upper reference thresholds proposed for this study (Pb, 0.7 mg/kg; Cr, 0.12 mg/kg; Ni, 0.3 mg/kg; and Cd, 0.1 mg/kg) was observed for Pb and Cr (6.25% respectively), station S4 (13.22%), year 2007 (20.83%) and in months of May and July (11.90% each). Regarding the Cd, which was analysed only in 2010, the highest number of values exceeding the upper reference thresholds was 40%. Biomonitoring with colonies of A. mellifera could contribute to improved surveillance and control systems for atmospheric pollution by integrating qualitative and quantitative assessments, thus facilitating prevention and readiness in the event of environmental crises.

  7. Active biomonitoring of airborne fluoride near an HF producing factory using standardised grass cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzaring, J.; Klumpp, A.; Fangmeier, A.

    In order to study the pollution gradient in the vicinity of an HF producing factory, a biomonitoring programme was performed employing VDI standardised grass cultures. Specimen plants of Lolium multiflorum cv. Lema were exposed at 11 sites over five monthly periods and the biomass produced was used for subsequent F-analyses. Meteorological data from the study region confirmed that wind direction accounted for changes in the pollution pattern over periods of time. Fluoride concentrations in the grass cultures, however, were unrelated to temperature and precipitation sums during the exposures. The biomass production of the grass cultures proved to be unrelated to these parameters as well but, with the enhanced growth of the plants, the fluoride concentrations were lower due to the dilution of the element with higher biomass accumulation. Because the contribution of particulate fluoride was unknown, both the washed grass cultures and the washing water were analysed in order to determine the amount of external fluoride. Washing reduced the fluoride concentrations by 22% on average, indicating that most of the element was internal fluoride stemming from stomatal uptake. Larger amounts of fluoride, however, could be washed off from grass cultures exposed at sites close to the factory indicating that dust emissions played a greater role at these locations. Because particulate emissions were supposed to arise from CaF 2 and the waste-product anhydrite, grass cultures were also analysed for calcium and sulphur. While calcium concentrations were generally high but unrelated to fluoride, sulphur concentrations showed a slight relationship to the F-concentrations determined in the unwashed plants. Latter findings indicate the co-deposition of the two elements as surface bound, external loads, but bioindication could not clarify to what extent both elements were partitioned in the gas-to-particle phase. We therefore recommend using the grass culture method in air quality

  8. IMPACT OF JUTE RETTING ON PHYTOPLANKTON DIVERSITY AND AQUATIC HEALTH: BIOMONITORING IN A TROPICAL OXBOW LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Ghosh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton acts as a primary producer and biological filter of aquatic ecosystem. Jute retting during monsoon is a common anthropological activity in the rural Bengal. Quantitative seasonal bio-monitoring of phytoplankton community composition with relative abundance and its diversity indices was carried out in this study from April 2013 to March 2014 to assess water quality and the impact of jute retting on phytoplankton diversity of a tropical fresh water oxbow lake in Nadia district of India. We recorded a total of 34 genera of 5 distinct classes, Chlorophyceae (15, Bacillariophyceae (13, Cyanophyceae (4, Dinophyceae (1 and Euglenophyceae (1. Members of Chlorophyceae dominated throughout the year. Unlike Cyanophyceae, Bacillariophyceae was found to be significantly increased during monsoon when compared to the rest of the year. Average phytoplankton density was highest in post-monsoon (8760/L followed by monsoon (4680/L and pre-monsoon (3650/L. Owing to the dominance of class Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae we found this lake to be oligotrophic to mesotrophic. Indices values of genera richness, Shannon-Wiener, evenness and Simpson’s diversity reached their lowest 14, 1.61, 0.61 and 0.68 in monsoon and highest 23, 2.42, 0.77 and 0.86 in post monsoon respectively. The lowest diversity values during monsoon clearly suggested that the selected lake has highest anthropogenic pollution due to jute retting which impacted significantly on phytoplankton diversity. Therefore, the lake is not conducive for fish growth especially during monsoon and we opine that there is a need to regulate jute retting process, intensity and its density in the lake during the monsoon to ensure enhanced biodiversity for sustainable management and conservation of aquatic environment of this Oxbow lake.

  9. The response of some common Egyptian plants to ozone and their use as biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khatib, A A

    2003-01-01

    Relative sensitivity of five common Egyptian plant species namely, Senecio vulgaris, Malva parviflora, Sonchus oleraceus, Medicago sativa and Melilotus indicus to elevated levels of ozone has been studied. The plants were exposed to charcoal filtered air (CFA) and different levels of O3 (50 and 100 ppb) for 5 h per day. The studied parameters were recorded for five consecutive days after fumigation. The foliar injury varied significantly among species in a dose-dependent manner. Severe injury symptoms were recorded on the leaves of M. sativa. With the exception of M. parviflora, all species exhibited significant increases in the percentage reduction of the above-ground dry weight as a result of reductions in both leaf and stem dry weights. M. sativa showed a marked reduction in its relative growth rate at elevated levels of O3. The extent of chlorophyll a destruction was higher in both M. sativa and S. oleraceus than in the other species tested. No differences in the sensitivity of chlorophylls a+b and carotenoids to ozone levels were recorded in this work. Percentage reduction of ascorbic acid was higher in M. sativa and S. oleraceus, compared with the other species studied. With respect to relative percentages of proline, there was a significant difference in the responses of plants to ozone. According to the ozone resistance (R%), measured as relative growth rate, the test species were arranged in the descending order: M. parviflora>M. Indicus>S. Vulgaris>S. Oleraceus>M. sativa. In M. sativa, both determinant and correlation coefficients are well reflected in the relationship between its physiological response, its performance and ozone levels, supporting its recommendation as a candidate for biomonitoring in Egypt.

  10. A quarter century of biomonitoring atmospheric pollution in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchara, Ivan; Sucharová, Julie; Holá, Marie

    2017-05-01

    The Czech Republic (CZ) had extremely high emissions and atmospheric deposition of pollutants in the second half of the 1980s. Since the beginning of the 1990s, moss, spruce bark and forest floor humus have been used as bioindicators of air quality. In the first half of the 1990s, seven larger areas were found to be affected by high atmospheric deposition loads. Six of these "hot spots" were caused by industrial pollution sources, mainly situated in coal basins in the NW and NE part of the country, and one large area in the SE was affected by increased deposition loads of eroded soil particles. After restructuring of industry in CZ, these hot spots were substantially reduced or even disappeared between 1995 and 2000. Since 2000, only two larger areas with slightly increased levels of industrial pollutant deposition and a larger area affected by soil dust have repeatedly been identified by biomonitoring. The distribution of lead isotope ratios in moss showed the main deposition zones around important emission sources. Very high SO2 emissions led to extreme acidity of spruce bark extracts (pH of about 2.3) at the end of the 1980s. The rate of increasing bark pH was strikingly similar to the rate of recovery of acid wet deposition measured at forest stations in CZ. By about 2005, when the median pH value in bark increased to about 3.2, the re-colonisation of trees by several epiphyte lichen species was observed throughout CZ. An increase in the accumulation of Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs in bark was detected at about ten sites affected by precipitation during the time when radioactive plumes crossed CZ (1986). Accumulated deposition loads in forest floor humus corresponded to the position of the moss and bark hot spots.

  11. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in the threeridge mussel (Amblema plicata) by chlorpyrifos: implications for biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, W.J.; Cope, W.G.; Rada, R.G.; Sandheinrich, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of chlorpyrifos, an organophosphorus insecticide, were examined on the activity of the nervous system enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the threeridge mussel Amblema plicata in a 24-day laboratory test. Thirty-six mussels in each of seven treatments (18 mussels per duplicate) were exposed to chlorpyrifos (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 mg/L), a solvent (acetone), and a solvent-free (well water) control for 12, 24, or 96 h. The activity of AChE was measured in the anterior adductor muscle of eight mussels from each treatment after exposure. To assess potential latent effects, six mussels from each treatment were removed after 24 h of exposure and transferred to untreated water for a 21-day holding period; AChE activity was measured on three mussels from each treatment at 7 and 21 days of the holding period. The activity of AChE in chlorpyrifos-exposed mussels did not differ from controls after 12 or 24 h of exposure (t- test, P>0.05), but was significantly less than controls after 96 h (t- test, P=0.01). AChE activity did not vary among mussels at 24 h of exposure (i.e., Day 0 of holding period) and those at Day 7 and Day 21 of the holding period. Overall changes in AChE activity of mussels during the test were unrelated to individual chlorpyrifos concentrations and exposure times (repeated measure ANOVA; (P=0.06). A power analysis revealed that the sample size must be increased from 2 to 5 replicates (8 to 20 mussels per time interval and test concentration) to increase the probability of detecting significant differences in AChE activity. This calculated increase in sample size has potential implications for future biomonitoring studies with chlorpyrifos and unionid mussels.

  12. Biomonitoring of genotoxicity of industrial fertilizer pollutants in Aiolopus thalassinus (Orthoptera: Acrididae) using alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Eman A; Augustyniak, Maria; Yousef, Hesham A

    2017-09-01

    Phosphate fertilizer industry is considered as one of the main sources of environmental pollutants. Besides solid waste products, e.g. phosphates, sulphates, and heavy metals, also atmospheric pollutants, such as hydrofluoric acid fumes (HF), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NO2), and particulate matter with diameter up to 10 μm (PM10) can be dangerous. Genotoxic effect of these pollutants was monitored by assessing the DNA damage using alkaline comet assay on cells from brain, thoracic muscles and gut of Aiolopus thalassinus collected at three sites (A-C) located at 1, 3, and 6 km away from Abu-Zaabal Company for Fertilizers and Chemical Industries. Control site was established 32 km from the source of pollution, at the Cairo University Campus. The level of the DNA damage was significantly higher in insects from polluted sites comparing to that from the control site. A strong negative correlation between percentage of cells with visible DNA damage (% of severed cells) and the distance of the sites from Abu-Zaabal Company was found. The best parameter for monitoring of fertilizer pollutants is % of severed cells. Possible impact of Abu-Zaabal Company (extremely high concentration of phosphates and sulphates in all the polluted sites) on DNA integrity in A. thalassinus tissues was discussed. The potential use of the comet assay as a biomonitoring method of the environmental pollution caused by fertilizer industry was proposed. Specific pollution resulting from the activity of the fertilizer industry can cause comparable adverse effects in the organisms inhabiting areas up to 6 km from the source of contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The use of Eupatorium Odoratum as bio-monitor for radionuclides determination in Manjung, Perak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zainal, Fetri, E-mail: fetrizainal@yahoo.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Khalik [Faculty of Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA,40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA,40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Alias, Masitah [TNB Research Sdn. Bhd. 43000 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    The accumulation of radionuclides in plants can be used as bio-monitoring in the environment. This technique is a cost-effective as the plants used to uptake deposited radionuclides from soil, commonly as soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF), which is widely used for calculating radiological risk. Radionuclides deposited in the soil carry by the air as particles or gases lead to the accumulation in soil. Eupatorium odoratum, known as pokok kapal terbang in Malaysia was chosen as sample for their abundances and properties to measure surface soil contamination. The plants were collected in three different directions (North, North-East and South-East) from Manjung district. The plants were collected in same size and then separated in to three parts (roots, stems and leaves) to determine the transfer factor from soil to each part. The concentrations of thorium (Th) and uranium (U) were analyzed using Energy Disperse X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and found in the range of 1.20-3.50 mg/kg and 1.20-3.90 mg/kg in roots, 1.40-3.90 mg/kg and 1.50-5.90 mg/kg in stems and 1.50-2.50 mg/kg and 2.00-6.00 mg/kg in leaves, respectively. Transfer factor (TF) was calculated through concentrations as reported in this article and show that the plants have transferred and accumulated radionuclides in significant values. From radionuclides concentrations in topsoil, the radiological risk was calculated and the present result show that external hazard index (H{sub ex}) is below than unity indicate low radiological risk at that area.

  14. Barn owl feathers as biomonitors of mercury: sources of variation in sampling procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Inês; Lourenço, Rui; Marques, Ana; Coelho, João Pedro; Coelho, Cláudia; Pereira, Eduarda; Rabaça, João E; Roulin, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    Given their central role in mercury (Hg) excretion and suitability as reservoirs, bird feathers are useful Hg biomonitors. Nevertheless, the interpretation of Hg concentrations is still questioned as a result of a poor knowledge of feather physiology and mechanisms affecting Hg deposition. Given the constraints of feather availability to ecotoxicological studies, we tested the effect of intra-individual differences in Hg concentrations according to feather type (body vs. flight feathers), position in the wing and size (mass and length) in order to understand how these factors could affect Hg estimates. We measured Hg concentration of 154 feathers from 28 un-moulted barn owls (Tyto alba), collected dead on roadsides. Median Hg concentration was 0.45 (0.076-4.5) mg kg(-1) in body feathers, 0.44 (0.040-4.9) mg kg(-1) in primary and 0.60 (0.042-4.7) mg kg(-1) in secondary feathers, and we found a poor effect of feather type on intra-individual Hg levels. We also found a negative effect of wing feather mass on Hg concentration but not of feather length and of its position in the wing. We hypothesize that differences in feather growth rate may be the main driver of between-feather differences in Hg concentrations, which can have implications in the interpretation of Hg concentrations in feathers. Finally, we recommend that, whenever possible, several feathers from the same individual should be analysed. The five innermost primaries have lowest mean deviations to both between-feather and intra-individual mean Hg concentration and thus should be selected under restrictive sampling scenarios.

  15. Biomonitoring of air pollution using antioxidative enzyme system in two genera of family Pottiaceae (Bryophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Pooja; Verma, Sonam; Srivastava, Alka

    2016-09-01

    Bryophyte particularly mosses, have been found to serve as reliable indicators of air pollution and can serve as bryometers-biological instruments for measuring air pollution. They are remarkable colonizers, as they have the ability to survive in adverse environments and are also particular in their requirement of environmental conditions, which makes them appropriate ecological indicators. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidative enzymes in two mosses viz., Hyophila rosea R.S. Williams and Semibarbula orientalis (Web.) Wijk. & Marg. and assess their suitability as biomonitors. Three different locations viz., Lucknow University, Residency (contaminated sites) and Dilkusha Garden (reference site) within Lucknow city with different levels of air pollutants were used for comparison. Our results indicate that air pollution caused marked enhancement in activity of antioxidative enzymes viz., catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. All the three are capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species. In the genus S. orientalis, catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity was minimum at the reference site Dilkusha Garden and was significantly higher at the two contaminated sites for catalase and peroxidase, whereas the difference was non significant for superoxide dismutase. In H. rosea the activity of catalase and peroxidase at the three locations was almost similar, however superoxide dismutase activity showed a significant increase in the two contaminated sites when compared to the reference site, the value being highest for Lucknow University site. It was thus observed that the two genera, from the same location, showed difference in the activity of the antioxidative enzymes. Based on our results, we recommend bryophytes as good monitors of air pollution.

  16. Evaluation of 6 and 10 Year-Old Child Human Body Models in Emergency Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Emergency events can influence a child’s kinematics prior to a car-crash, and thus its interaction with the restraint system. Numerical Human Body Models (HBMs) can help understand the behaviour of children in emergency events. The kinematic responses of two child HBMs–MADYMO 6 and 10 year-old models–were evaluated and compared with child volunteers’ data during emergency events–braking and steering–with a focus on the forehead and sternum displacements. The response of the 6 year-old HBM was similar to the response of the 10 year-old HBM, however both models had a different response compared with the volunteers. The forward and lateral displacements were within the range of volunteer data up to approximately 0.3 s; but then, the HBMs head and sternum moved significantly downwards, while the volunteers experienced smaller displacement and tended to come back to their initial posture. Therefore, these HBMs, originally intended for crash simulations, are not too stiff and could be able to reproduce properly emergency events thanks, for instance, to postural control. PMID:28099505

  17. A real-time system for biomechanical analysis of human movement and muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bogert, Antonie J; Geijtenbeek, Thomas; Even-Zohar, Oshri; Steenbrink, Frans; Hardin, Elizabeth C

    2013-10-01

    Mechanical analysis of movement plays an important role in clinical management of neurological and orthopedic conditions. There has been increasing interest in performing movement analysis in real-time, to provide immediate feedback to both therapist and patient. However, such work to date has been limited to single-joint kinematics and kinetics. Here we present a software system, named human body model (HBM), to compute joint kinematics and kinetics for a full body model with 44 degrees of freedom, in real-time, and to estimate length changes and forces in 300 muscle elements. HBM was used to analyze lower extremity function during gait in 12 able-bodied subjects. Processing speed exceeded 120 samples per second on standard PC hardware. Joint angles and moments were consistent within the group, and consistent with other studies in the literature. Estimated muscle force patterns were consistent among subjects and agreed qualitatively with electromyography, to the extent that can be expected from a biomechanical model. The real-time analysis was integrated into the D-Flow system for development of custom real-time feedback applications and into the gait real-time analysis interactive lab system for gait analysis and gait retraining.

  18. Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Serbia Studied by Moss Biomonitoring, Neutron Activation Analysis and GIS Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Frontasyeva, M V; Kumar, M; Matavuly, M; Pavlov, S S; Radnovic, D; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    The results of a pilot study on atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other trace elements using the moss biomonitoring technique in the northern part of Serbia and some areas of Bosnia are presented. Samples of Hypnum cupressiforme along with some other moss types were collected at 92 sites during the summer of 2000. A total of 44 elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons. The observed levels of Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, etc. in the area surrounding the town of Bor (Serbia) are comparable to those reported from similar industrial areas in other countries such as the Copper Basin in Poland and the South Urals of Russia. In the same region the maximum Se and Mo concentrations are the highest ever recorded in biomonitoring studies using mosses. High median concentrations of Fe and Ni in Serbian mosses are associated with a crustal component as apparent from factor analysis of the moss data. This component could be a result of windblown soil dust (most ...

  19. A new way to contemplate Darwin's tangled bank: how DNA barcodes are reconnecting biodiversity science and biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Donald J.; Fahner, Nicole A.; Beiko, Robert; Golding, G. Brian

    2016-01-01

    Encompassing the breadth of biodiversity in biomonitoring programmes has been frustrated by an inability to simultaneously identify large numbers of species accurately and in a timely fashion. Biomonitoring infers the state of an ecosystem from samples collected and identified using the best available taxonomic knowledge. The advent of DNA barcoding has now given way to the extraction of bulk DNA from mixed samples of organisms in environmental samples through the development of high-throughput sequencing (HTS). This DNA metabarcoding approach allows an unprecedented view of the true breadth and depth of biodiversity, but its adoption poses two important challenges. First, bioinformatics techniques must simultaneously perform complex analyses of large datasets and translate the results of these analyses to a range of users. Second, the insights gained from HTS need to be amalgamated with concepts such as Linnaean taxonomy and indicator species, which are less comprehensive but more intuitive. It is clear that we are moving beyond proof-of-concept studies to address the challenge of implementation of this new approach for environmental monitoring and regulation. Interpreting Darwin's ‘tangled bank’ through a DNA lens is now a reality, but the question remains: how can this information be generated and used reliably, and how does it relate to accepted norms in ecosystem study? This article is part of the themed issue ‘From DNA barcodes to biomes’. PMID:27481782

  20. Can we use modelling methodologies to assess airborne benzo[a]pyrene from biomonitors? A comprehensive evaluation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ratola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring data available on levels of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in pine needles from the Iberian Peninsula was used to estimate air concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP and, at the same time, fuelled the comparison with chemistry transport model representations. Simulations with the modelling system WRF + CHIMERE were validated against data from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP air sampling network and using modelled atmospheric concentrations as a consistent reference in order to compare the performance of vegetation-to-air estimating methods. A spatial and temporal resolution of 9 km and 1 h was implemented. The field-based database relied on a pine needles sampling scheme comprising 33 sites in Portugal and 37 sites in Spain complemented with the BaP measurements available from the EMEP sites. The ability of pine needles to act as biomonitoring markers for the atmospheric concentrations of BaP was estimated converting the levels obtained in pine needles into air concentrations by six different approaches, one of them presenting realistic concentrations when compared to the modelled atmospheric values. The justification for this study is the gaps still existing in the knowledge of the life cycles of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs, particularly the partition processes between air and vegetation. The strategy followed in this work allows the definition of the transport patterns (e.g. dispersion established by the model for atmospheric concentrations and the estimated values in vegetation.

  1. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) as a biomonitor of trace elements along the southern shoreline of Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoults-Wilson, W Aaron; Elsayed, Norhan; Leckrone, Kristen; Unrine, Jason

    2015-02-01

    The invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has become an accepted biomonitor organism for trace elements, but it has yet to be studied along the Lake Michigan shoreline. Likewise, the relationships between tissue concentrations of elements, organism size, and sediment concentrations of elements have not been fully explained. The present study found that a variety of allometric variables such as length, dry tissue mass, shell mass, organism condition indices, and shell thickness index were useful in explaining intrasite variability in elemental concentrations. The flesh condition index (grams of tissue dry mass per gram of shell mass) explained variability at the most sites for most elements. Once allometric intrasite variability was taken into account, additional significant differences were found between sites, although the net effect was small. Significant positive relationships between sediment and tissue concentrations were found for Pb and Zn, with a significant negative relationship for Cd. It was also found that Cu and Zn concentrations in tissues increased significantly along the shoreline in the southeasterly direction, whereas Hg increased in a northwesterly direction. Opportunistic sampling found that zebra mussels accumulate significantly higher concentrations of nearly all elements analyzed compared to Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) at the same site. The present study demonstrates the need to fully explain natural sources of variability before using biomonitors to explain spatial distributions of trace elements.

  2. The linear accumulation of atmospheric mercury by vegetable and grass leaves: Potential biomonitors for atmospheric mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Sen; Ci, Zhijia; Kong, Xiangrui; Wang, Zhangwei

    2013-09-01

    One question in the use of plants as biomonitors for atmospheric mercury (Hg) is to confirm the linear relationships of Hg concentrations between air and leaves. To explore the origin of Hg in the vegetable and grass leaves, open top chambers (OTCs) experiment was conducted to study the relationships of Hg concentrations between air and leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The influence of Hg in soil on Hg accumulation in leaves was studied simultaneously by soil Hg-enriched experiment. Hg concentrations in grass and vegetable leaves and roots were measured in both experiments. Results from OTCs experiment showed that Hg concentrations in leaves of the four species were significantly positively correlated with those in air during the growth time (p  0.05). Thus, Hg in grass leaves is mainly originated from the atmosphere, and grass leaves are more suitable as potential biomonitors for atmospheric Hg pollution. The effect detection limits (EDLs) for the leaves of alfalfa and ryegrass were 15.1 and 22.2 ng g(-1), respectively, and the biological detection limit (BDL) for alfalfa and ryegrass was 3.4 ng m(-3).

  3. Urban deciduous tree leaves as biomonitors of trace element (As, V and Cd atmospheric pollution in Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATARINA M. ŠUĆUR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of common deciduous trees: horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum and linden (Tilia spp. from three parks within the urban area of Belgrade were studied as biomonitors of trace element (As, V, and Cd atmospheric pollution. The May–September trace element accumulation in the leaves, and their temporal trends, were assayed in a multi-year period (2002–2006. Significant accumulation in the leaves was evident for As and V, but not so regularly for Cd. Slightly decreasing temporal trends of V and As ac-cumulated in the leaf tissues were observed over the years. During the time span, the concentrations of Cd remained approximately on the same level, except in May 2002 and September 2005, when a rapid increase was observed. The May–September accumulations of As and V were higher in horse chestnut than in linden, although both may be used as biomonitors for these elements, and optionally for Cd in conditions of its high atmospheric loadings.

  4. A biogeochemical approach to understanding the accumulation patterns of trace elements in three species of dragonfly larvae: evaluation as biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavilla, Isela; Rodríguez-Liñares, Genma; Garrido, Josefina; Bendicho, Carlos

    2010-03-01

    The accumulation patterns of different trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were studied in three species of dragonfly larvae (Cordulegaster boltoni, Boyeria irene and Onychogomphus uncatus). Additionally these species were assessed as potential biomonitors in a lotic ecosystem (Louro River, Spain). Element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in both dragonfly larvae and river sediments. The surface of the larvae was observed and analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A desorption test was used to establish the percentage of element adsorbed into the exoskeleton. Field biomonitoring studies were made considering the first part of the river as a control area in relation to the second part, which was severely polluted by industrial and domestic activities. Upon application of principal component analysis (PCA), two different element groups were found in relation to element bioaccumulation. Cu, Cd and Zn were mainly associated with the inner part of the larvae. As, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were found on the outer body parts, related with deposition of oxyhydroxides in the hydrocycle. SEM revealed a layer of inorganic particles, similar in composition to fine bed sediments. Significant relations between the element content of this group and that of sediments at the sampling site were found. Differences in bioaccumulation for each of the three species, except for As, were observed. Dragonfly larvae revealed their ability to reflect environmental concentrations of As in freshwater media.

  5. Using remote biomonitoring to understand heterogeneity in immune-responses and disease-dynamics in small, free-living animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, James S; Moyers, Sahnzi C; Hawley, Dana M

    2014-09-01

    Despite the ubiquity of parasites and pathogens, behavioral and physiological responses to infection vary widely across individuals. Although such variation can have pronounced effects on population-level processes, including the transmission of infectious disease, the study of individual responses to infection in free-living animals remains a challenge. To fully understand the causes and consequences of heterogeneous responses to infection, research in ecoimmunology and disease-ecology must incorporate minimally invasive techniques to track individual animals in natural settings. Here, we review how several technologies, collectively termed remote biomonitoring, enable the collection of data on behavioral and physiological responses to infection in small, free-living animals. Specifically, we focus on the use of radiotelemetry and radio-frequency identification to study fever, sickness-behaviors (including lethargy and anorexia), and rates of inter-individual contact in the wild, all of which vary widely across individuals and impact the spread of pathogens within populations. In addition, we highlight future avenues for field studies of these topics using emerging technologies such as global positioning system tracking and tri-axial accelerometry. Through the use of such remote biomonitoring techniques, researchers can gain valuable insights into why responses to infection vary so widely and how this variation impacts the spread and evolution of infectious diseases. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The comet assay as a rapid test in biomonitoring occupational exposure to DNA-damaging agents and effect of confounding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, P; Knudsen, L E; Loft, S; Wallin, H

    2000-10-01

    Within the last decade, the comet assay has been used with increasing popularity to investigate the level of DNA damage in terms of strand breaks and alkaline labile sites in biomonitoring studies. The assay is easily performed on WBCs and has been included in a wide range of biomonitoring studies of occupational exposures encompassing styrene, vinyl chloride, 1,3-butadiene, pesticides, hair dyes, antineoplastic agents, organic solvents, sewage and waste materials, wood dust, and ionizing radiation. Eleven of the occupational studies were positive, whereas seven were negative. Notably, the negative studies appeared to have less power than the positive studies. Also, there were poor dose-response relationships in many of the biomonitoring studies. Many factors have been reported to produce effects by the comet assay, e.g., age, air pollution exposure, diet, exercise, gender, infection, residential radon exposure, smoking, and season. Until now, the use of the comet assay has been hampered by the uncertainty of the influence of confounding factors. We argue that none of the confounding factors are unequivocally positive in the majority of the studies. We recommend that age, gender, and smoking status be used as criteria for the selection of populations and that data on exercise, diet, and recent infections be registered before blood sampling. Samples from exposed and unexposed populations should be collected at the same time to avoid seasonal variation. In general, the comet assay is considered a suitable and fast test for DNA-damaging potential in biomonitoring studies.

  7. Application and further characterization of the snap bean S156/R123 ozone biomonitoring system in relation to ambient air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased mixing ratios of ground-level ozone threaten individual plants, plant communities and ecosystems. In this sense, ozone biomonitoring is of great interest. The ozone-sensitive S156 and the ozone-tolerant R123 genotypes of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have been proposed as a potential t...

  8. Real-time automated measurement of Xenopus leavis tadpole behavior and behavioral response following triphenyltin exposure using the multispecies freshwater biomonitor (MFB)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schriks, M.; Hoorn, van M.K.; Faassen, E.J.; Dam, van J.W.; Murk, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines whether behavior of Xenopus laevis tadpoles, when measured with the multispecies freshwater biomonitor (MFB), can be a sensitive and practical parameter for quantification of behavioral effects induced by toxic compounds. The MFB system is capable of automated simultaneous

  9. Use of an integrated flow model to estimate ecologically relevant hydrologic characteristics at stream biomonitoring sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennen, J.G.; Kauffman, L.J.; Ayers, M.A.; Wolock, D.M.; Colarullo, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    We developed an integrated hydroecological model to provide a comprehensive set of hydrologic variables representing five major components of the flow regime at 856 aquatic-invertebrate monitoring sites in New Jersey. The hydroecological model simulates streamflow by routing water that moves overland and through the subsurface from atmospheric delivery to the watershed outlet. Snow accumulation and melt, evapotranspiration, precipitation, withdrawals, discharges, pervious- and impervious-area runoff, and lake storage were accounted for in the water balance. We generated more than 78 flow variables, which describe the frequency, magnitude, duration, rate of change, and timing of flow events. Highly correlated variables were filtered by principal component analysis to obtain a non-redundant subset of variables that explain the majority of the variation in the complete set. This subset of variables was used to evaluate the effect of changes in the flow regime on aquatic-invertebrate assemblage structure at 856 biomonitoring sites. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) to evaluate variation in aquatic-invertebrate assemblage structure across a disturbance gradient. We employed multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis to build a series of MLR models that identify the most important environmental and hydrologic variables driving the differences in the aquatic-invertebrate assemblages across the disturbance gradient. The first axis of NMS ordination was significantly related to many hydrologic, habitat, and land-use/land-cover variables, including the average number of annual storms producing runoff, ratio of 25-75% exceedance flow (flashiness), diversity of natural stream substrate, and the percentage of forested land near the stream channel (forest buffer). Modifications in the hydrologic regime as the result of changes in watershed land use appear to promote the retention of highly tolerant aquatic species; in contrast, species that are sensitive to

  10. BIO-MONITORING FOR URANIUM USING STREAM-SIDE TERRESTRIAL PLANTS AND MACROPHYTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, E.; Duff, M.; Hicks, T.; Coughlin, D.; Hicks, R.; Dixon, E.

    2012-01-12

    This study evaluated the abilities of various plant species to act as bio-monitors for environmental uranium (U) contamination. Vegetation and soil samples were collected from a U processing facility. The water-way fed from facility storm and processing effluents was the focal sample site as it represented a primary U transport mechanism. Soils and sediments from areas exposed to contamination possessed U concentrations that averaged 630 mg U kg{sup -1}. Aquatic mosses proved to be exceptional accumulators of U with dry weight (dw) concentrations measuring as high as 12500 mg U kg{sup -1} (approximately 1% of the dw mass was attributable to U). The macrophytes (Phragmites communis, Scripus fontinalis and Sagittaria latifolia) were also effective accumulators of U. In general, plant roots possessed higher concentrations of U than associated upper portions of plants. For terrestrial plants, the roots of Impatiens capensis had the highest observed levels of U accumulation (1030 mg kg{sup -1}), followed by the roots of Cyperus esculentus and Solidago speciosa. The concentration ratio (CR) characterized dry weight (dw) vegetative U levels relative to that in associated dw soil. The plant species that accumulated U at levels in excess of that found in the soil were: P. communis root (CR, 17.4), I. capensis root (CR, 3.1) and S. fontinalis whole plant (CR, 1.4). Seven of the highest ten CR values were found in the roots. Correlations with concentrations of other metals with U were performed, which revealed that U concentrations in the plant were strongly correlated with nickel (Ni) concentrations (correlation: 0.992; r-squared: 0.984). Uranium in plant tissue was also strongly correlated with strontium (Sr) (correlation: 0.948; r-squared: 0.899). Strontium is chemically and physically similar to calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), which were also positively-correlated with U. The correlation with U and these plant nutrient minerals, including iron (Fe), suggests that active

  11. Reporting individual results for biomonitoring and environmental exposures: lessons learned from environmental communication case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Julia Green; Dunagan, Sarah C; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brown, Phil; Patton, Sharyle; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2014-05-26

    Measurement methods for chemicals in biological and personal environmental samples have expanded rapidly and become a cornerstone of health studies and public health surveillance. These measurements raise questions about whether and how to report individual results to study participants, particularly when health effects and exposure reduction strategies are uncertain. In an era of greater public participation and open disclosure in science, researchers and institutional review boards (IRBs) need new guidance on changing norms and best practices. Drawing on the experiences of researchers, IRBs, and study participants, we discuss ethical frameworks, effective methods, and outcomes in studies that have reported personal results for a wide range of environmental chemicals. Belmont Report principles and community-based participatory research ethics imply responsibilities to report individual results, and several recent biomonitoring guidance documents call for individual reports. Meaningful report-back includes contextual information about health implications and exposure reduction strategies. Both narrative and graphs are helpful. Graphs comparing an individual's results with other participants in the study and benchmarks, such as the National Exposure Report, are helpful, but must be used carefully to avoid incorrect inferences that higher results are necessarily harmful or lower results are safe. Methods can be tailored for specific settings by involving participants and community members in planning. Participants and researchers who have participated in report-back identified benefits: increasing trust in science, retention in cohort studies, environmental health literacy, individual and community empowerment, and motivation to reduce exposures. Researchers as well as participants gained unexpected insights into the characteristics and sources of environmental contamination. Participants are almost universally eager to receive their results and do not regret getting

  12. Aquatic biomonitoring of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Ching; Ngui, Romano; Tan, Tiong Kai; Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Ithoi, Init; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2014-01-01

    An aquatic biomonitoring of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in river water corresponding to five villages situated in three states in peninsular Malaysia was determined. There were 51.3% (20/39) and 23.1% (9/39) samples positive for Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts, respectively. Overall mean concentration between villages for Giardia cysts ranged from 0.10 to 25.80 cysts/l whilst Cryptosporidium oocysts ranged from 0.10 to 0.90 oocysts/l. Detailed results of the river samples from five villages indicated that Kuala Pangsun 100% (9/9), Kemensah 77.8% (7/9), Pos Piah 33.3% (3/9) and Paya Lebar 33.3% (1/3) were contaminated with Giardia cysts whilst Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts were only detected in Kemensah (100 %; 9/9) and Kuala Pangsun (66.6%; 6/9). However, the water samples from Bentong were all negative for these waterborne parasites. Samples were collected from lower point, midpoint and upper point. Midpoint refers to the section of the river where the studied communities are highly populated. Meanwhile, the position of the lower point is at least 2 km southward of the midpoint and upper point is at least 2 km northward of the midpoint. The highest mean concentration for (oo)cysts was found at the lower points [3.15 ± 6.09 (oo)cysts/l], followed by midpoints [0.66 ± 1.10 (oo)cysts/l] and upper points [0.66 ± 0.92 (oo)cysts/l]. The mean concentration of Giardia cysts was highest at Kuala Pangsun (i.e. 5.97 ± 7.0 cysts/l), followed by Kemensah (0.83 ± 0.81 cysts/l), Pos Piah (0.20 ± 0.35 cysts/l) and Paya Lebar (0.10 ± 0.19 cysts/l). On the other hand, the mean concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts was higher at Kemensah (0.31 ± 0.19 cysts/l) compared to Kuala Pangsun (0.03 ± 0.03cysts/l). All the physical and chemical parameters did not show significant correlation with both protozoa. In future, viability status and molecular characterisation of Giardia and Cryptosporidium should be applied to identify

  13. Biomonitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in child populations living near contaminated sites in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ramírez, R; Pérez-Vázquez, F J; Rodríguez-Aguilar, M; Medellín-Garibay, S E; Van Brussel, E; Cubillas-Tejeda, A C; Carrizales-Yáñez, L; Díaz-Barriga, F

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a POP biomonitoring programme for children in high-risk areas. We evaluated 247 serum samples from children between the ages of 6 and 12years old from two zones in Mexico: (1) indigenous zones, which included Cuatlamayan (CUA), Tocoy (TOC), and Santa Maria Picula (SAM); and (2) industrial zones, which included Tercera Chica (TC), Industrial San Luis (IND) and Rincon de San Jose (SJR); Mundo Nuevo (MN); and Alpuyeca (ALP). Our results showed that α-endosulfan was similar to CUA, TOC, SAM, TC and MN (178.6-306.9ng/g lipid). β-Endosulfan levels were higher in ALP (901.5ng/g lipid), followed by CUA (139.9ng/g lipid) and TOC, SAM, TC and MN, which had similar levels (55.4-64.5ng/g lipid). For endosulfan sulfate, the ALP community had the highest concentration levels (1096.4ng/g lipid), whereas CUA and TOC (212.3 and 289ng/g lipid, respectively) had concentrations similar to those found in SAM and TC (99.5 and 119.1ng/g lipid, respectively). DDE levels were found in malaria-endemic areas of SAM, CUA and TOC (1782.2, 1358.3 and 57.0ng/g lipid), followed by MN (35.1ng/g lipid). HCB concentration levels were found to be higher in MN and SJR (691.8 and 575.4ng/g lipid, respectively), followed by CUA and TC (363.9 and 269.1ng/g lipid, respectively), with levels similar to those found in TOC and SAM (191.8 and 181.9ng/g lipid, respectively). Finally, PCB 101 concentration levels were found to be the highest in ALP (1032.7ng/g lipid), followed by similar levels of SJR and IND (567.5 and 327.3ng/g lipid, respectively) and TC and MN, with 109.1 and 144.5ng/g lipid, respectively. The evidence provided by this exploratory study indicates that the evaluation of the health risks posed to children living in contaminated areas is a high priority health issue.

  14. Biomonitoring of selected freshwater macrophytes to assess lake trace element contamination: a case study of Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita N. KUMAR

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A biomonitoring study was carried out at Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, a proposed Ramsar site, Gujarat State, India, to ascertain the degree of trace element contamination. The study focused on assessment of trace element contamination in certain aquatic macrophytes to be used as biomonitors, in comparison with the sediments (abiotic monitor for heavy metal pollution. Good information was provided by analyzing roots, stems and leaves of native aquatic plants (biomonitors represented by eight species: Bergia odorata, Hydrilla verticillata, Ipomoea aquatica, Najas graminea, Nelumbo nucifera, Phragmites karka, Typha angustata and Vellisnaria spiralis, alongwith surface sediments and water, were analyzed for Cd, Co, Cu, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn contamination. The highest concentrations of the trace elements were measured in Ipomoea aquatica and the lowest in Bergia odorata. Based on the concentration and toxicity status observed in the lake's vegetation, the six metals are arranged in the following decreasing order: Zn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb > Cd. Compared with the standard, normal and critical toxicity range in plants, the detected values of Cd and Pb falls within normal range, while that of Co, Ni and Cu were within the critical range. However, Zn showed the highest concentration and alarming toxicity levels, which is considered as one of the most hazardous pollutants in Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary. Certain aquatic macrophytes species are also proposed as biomonitors for the investigated heavy metal pollutants. Such result was significant in the plant species such as Ipomoea aquatica and Phragmites karka, which are the two most useful species in biomonitoring studies due to their ability to accumulate elements in high concentration in the roots and their availability throughout the year. The results showed the significant difference in accumulation rate of some metals like Zn, Cu and Ni in different plant organs, which showed more accumulation in root than

  15. On optimization of data assimilation in the HBM -circulation model

    OpenAIRE

    VÀhÀ-Piikkiö, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a method for optimizing the data assimilation system of the HIROMB-BOOS -model at the Finnish Meteorological Institute by finding an optimal time interval and an optimal grid for the data assimilation. This is needed to balance the extra time the data assimilation adds to the runtime of the model and the improved accuracy it provides. Data assimilation is the process of combining observations with a numerical model to improve the accuracy of the mod...

  16. Green garden snail, Cantareus apertus, as biomonitor and sentinel for integrative metal pollution assessment in roadside soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleiki, Anwar; Marigómez, Ionan; El Menif, Najoua Trigui

    2017-09-14

    The present investigation was conceived to study, in a small scale field study, the potential of the green garden snail, Cantareus apertus, as biomonitor and sentinel for integrative metal pollution assessment in soils. For this purpose, we investigated the association between the trace metal (Cd, Pb, As, Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) concentrations in soil, plants (Trifolium repens), and C. apertus depending on the distance (20, 150, and 700 m) from a main roadside in Tunisia as well as between metal concentrations and biomarkers of oxidative stress, oxidative damage, and neurotoxicity in C. apertus. Results revealed a clear association between the concentration of metals such as Ni, Cu, and Zn in snail digestive gland, both amongst them and with oxidative stress and neurotoxicity biomarkers recorded in the same organ. Interestingly, Ni, Pb, and Zn occurred at the highest concentration in soil, plant, and snails and the association appeared related to the immediacy of the roadside and the concentration of these three metals tended to decrease with distance from the roadside in the soil-plant-snail system. Conversely, Cd and Cu were bioaccumulated in plants and snails but their concentrations in soil were not high and did not show a decline in concentration with distance from the roadside. After PCA analysis, PC-01 (56% of the variance) represented metal bioaccumulation and associated toxic effects in snails in the presence of high levels of metal pollution (nearby the roadside) while PC-02 (35% of the variance) represented stress induced by moderate levels of metal pollution (at intermediate distances from the roadside). The four studied sites were clearly discriminated one from each other, depending on how they are affected by traffic pollution. In summary, this field study reveals that (a) C. apertus can be used as biomonitor for metal pollution in roadside soils and as sentinel for pollution effects assessment based on biochemical biomarkers; and (b) that oxidative

  17. [Comments of the State of Colorado on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Biomonitoring Program for Rocky Mountain Arsenal - Aquatic Ecosystems : Addendum to Amendment 5 of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Management Plan : September, 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment reviewed the USFWS's draft plan for the aquatic portion of the Service's biomonitoring program, dated...

  18. [The Use of In-situ Biomonitoring to Assess the Fate and Effects of Sediment-associated Dieldrin in Lakes at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal : Drafts and Comments : 1993-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document consists of multiple drafts of the proposal 'The Use of In-situ Biomonitoring to Assess the Fate and Effects of Sediment-associated Dieldrin in Lakes...

  19. Influência de poluentes atmosféricos em Belo Jardim (PE utilizando Cladonia verticillaris (líquen como biomonitor Influence of atmospheric pollutants in Belo Jardim (PE using Cladonia verticillaris (lichen as biomonitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Oliveira Mota Filho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Cladonia verticillaris used in this study was collected in the cerrado vegetation of Saloá (PE, Brazil and transplanted in plastic containers on soil from the collection place to Belo Jardim (PE that possesses lead smelters and battery industries. The experiments were disposed at eleven different places for evaluating the dispersion of pollutants and their effects on the biomonitor. The exposed lichens were collected over eight months and submitted to thin layer and high performance liquid chromatographies, and scanning electron microscopy. C. verticillaris placed in the vicinity of the emission sources demonstrated alteration in its metabolism, decreasing the production of its major compound, fumarprotocetraric acid, and deterioration of its external and internal surfaces.

  20. USE OF THE FRESHWATER CRAB TRICHODACTYLUS FLUVIATILIS TO BIOMONITORING AL AND MN CONTAMINATION IN RIVER WATER = USO DO CARANGUEJO DE ÁGUA DOCE TRICHODACTYLUS FLUVIATILIS COMO BIOMONITOR DA CONTAMINAÇÃO DE AL E MN EM AMBIENTES FLUVIAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Consentini das Chagas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinations of Al and Mn concentrations in the tissues (gills, hepatopancreas and muscle of the freshwater crab Trichodactylus fluviatilis and water samples, both collected from sites on tributaries of the Corumbataí River (São Paulo, Brazil were performed. The Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF, calculated for different sites with respect to the water concentration, ranged from 173-555 for Al and from 636 - 921 for Mn. Dissolved concentrations of Al and Mn in water samples (collected in different sites were related to the accumulation of these metals in crabs, suggesting that T. fluviatilis is good biomonitor for Al and Mn pollution in aquatic ecosystem. = Foram determinadas as concentrações de Al e Mn nos tecidos (brânquias, hepatopancreas e músculos do caranguejo de água doce Trichodactylus fluviatilis e em amostras de água, ambos coletados em afluentes do Rio Corumbataí (São Paulo, Brasil. O Fator de Bioacumulação (BAF, calculado para os diferentes sítios de coletas em relação às respectivas concentrações nas amostras de água, encontrou-se entre 173 e 555 para Al e entre 636 e 921 para Mn. As concentrações de Al e Mn dissolvidos nas amostras de água (coletados nos diferentes sítios foram relacionadas à acumulação desses metais nos caranguejos, sugerindo que T. fluviatilis é um bom biomonitor da poluição de Al e Mn em ecossistemas aquáticos.

  1. Acute lung injury after tracheal instillation of acidified soya-based or Enfalac formula or human breast milk in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, C; Lerman, J; Endo, J

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the severity of the acute lung injury after tracheal instillation of acidified soya-based or Enfalac infant formula, or human breast milk (HBM) in anesthetized rabbits. Alveolar-arterial oxygen tension gradient (A-aDO2) and dynamic compliance were measured before (baseline) and hourly for four hours after tracheal instillation of 0.8 ml x kg(-1) soya-based or Enfalac infant formula or HBM (all acidified to pH 1.8 with hydrochloric acid) or no fluid (control) in 24 anesthetized and tracheotomized adult rabbits. The A-aDO2, the difference between alveolar and arterial oxygen tensions, was corrected for barometric pressure and carbon dioxide tension. Dynamic compliance was the ratio of the expired tidal volume to the peak inspiratory airway pressure, normalized to body weight. Baseline A-aDO2 and dynamic compliance were similar among the four groups. In the control rabbits, A-aDO2 remained unchanged throughout the four hours, whereas mean A-aDO2 increased 180 mm Hg in the soya-based group (P soya > control (P soya > control.

  2. Biomonitoring of trace metal contamination in the Potengi estuary, Natal (Brazil), using the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae, a local food source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C A; Rainbow, P S; Smith, B D; Santos, Z L

    2001-12-01

    The oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae was collected in September 1997 from 10 stations along the Potengi estuary, Natal, Brazil, a mangrove-lined estuary receiving anthropogenic inputs of trace metals. C. rhizophorae is a net accumulator of trace metals and can be used as a biomonitor, the accumulated soft tissue concentrations representing integrated records of bioavailable metal fractions over the life of the oyster. Significant differences in oyster accumulated concentrations (and hence bioavailabilities) of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni and Ag (but not Mn) were found between stations, and attributed to anthropogenic inputs including discharges of sewage and industrial effluent. The oysters are also a local food source, and concentrations of zinc, copper and lead in some of the oysters are above typical public health recommended limits.

  3. Use of Muscular Cholinesterase of Astyanax bifasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae) as a Biomarker in Biomonitoring of Rural Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimet, Jardel; Guimarães, Ana Tereza Bittencourt; Delariva, Rosilene Luciana

    2017-08-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was measured in Astyanax bifasciatus maintained in controlled conditions. Muscle ChE activity of individuals collected in field conditions in two seasons was compared among specimens collected in seven streams (forest and rural) of the lower Iguaçu river basin in association with physical, chemical, pesticides and biological factors. Significant differences in muscle ChE activity between control fish and fish collected in streams in both seasons were found, with higher activity in natural conditions. This the first time that differences in muscle ChE activity have been found among fish collected from different streams, suggesting synergism among multiple factors (e.g. temperature, pH, animal weight) and ecological attributes (richness and abundance) as influencing the variation in biomarkers. It is necessary to evaluate the quality of aquatic environments for a more accurate biomonitoring approach.

  4. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Olenycz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(aanthracene, chrysene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(kfluoranthene, benzo(apyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene, dibenz(a,hanthracene, benzo(g,h,iperylene at 17 sampling sites to assess their relative bioavailabilities in coastal waters around Europe. Because of the temporal differences in PCBs and PAHs concentrations, data were adjusted using Seasonal Variation Coefficients (SVC before making large-scale spatial comparisons. The highest concentrations of PCBs were found near estuaries of large rivers flowing through urban areas and industrial regions. Elevated bioavailabilities of PAHs occurred in the vicinity of large harbors, urban areas, and regions affected by petroleum pollution as well as in some remote locations, which indicated long-range atmospheric deposition.

  5. Characterization of the Etna volcanic emissions through an active biomonitoring technique (moss-bags): part 2--morphological and mineralogical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, S; D'Alessandro, W

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic emissions were studied at Mount Etna (Italy) by using moss-bags technique. Mosses were exposed around the volcano at different distances from the active vents to evaluate the impact of volcanic emissions in the atmosphere. Morphology and mineralogy of volcanic particulate intercepted by mosses were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Particles emitted during passive degassing activity from the two active vents, Bocca Nuova and North East Crater (BNC and NEC), were identified as silicates, sulfates and halide compounds. In addition to volcanic particles, we found evidences also of geogenic, anthropogenic and marine spray input. The study has shown the robustness of this active biomonitoring technique to collect particles, very useful in active volcanic areas characterized by continuous degassing and often not easily accessible to apply conventional sampling techniques.

  6. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental contaminants and their effects on fish in the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Bartish, Timothy M.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Blazer, Vicki; Anderson, Patrick J.; Coyle, James J.; Dethloff, Gail M.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    This project examined and analyzed 560 fish representing eight species from 16 sites in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) from September 1997 to April 1998. Ten of the 16 sampling locations were historical National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) sites where organochlorine and elemental contaminants in fish had been monitored from 1969 through 1986. Five sites were co-located at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)-National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations at which water quality is monitored. The sampling location at Marine Park in Vancouver, Washington did not correspond to either of the established monitoring programs. Eight of the sampling locations were located on the Columbia River; three were on the Snake River; two were on the Willamette River, and one site was on each of the Yakima, Salmon and Flathead Rivers.

  7. Active moss biomonitoring applied to an industrial site in Romania: relative accumulation of 36 elements in moss-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culicov, O A; Mocanu, R; Frontasyeva, M V; Yurukova, L; Steinnes, E

    2005-09-01

    Active moss biomonitoring using the species Sphagnum girgensohnii was tested at a strongly polluted site in Romania (Baia Mare) according to a novel sampling design. Nine moss transplants from each of the two background areas (Dubna, Russia and Vitosha Mountain, Bulgaria) were deployed in parallel on balconies about 24 m above street level for 4 months. The samples were analyzed for 36 elements using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Based on the results obtained the sampling variability is discussed in relation to the analytical variability, and the relative uptake of the different elements is assessed. The moss-bags using Sphagnum girgensohnii demonstrate a high or a very high relative uptake for a majority of the 36 investigated elements, but the values depend on the initial element concentration in the moss. Moss leaves analyzed separately showed somewhat higher levels than stems for many elements. Practical considerations however still speak in favor of using the whole moss for transplants.

  8. Lichen Usnea barbata as biomonitor of airborne elements deposition in the Province of Tierra del Fuego (southern Patagonia, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Pino, Anna; Botrè, Francesco; Bocca, Beatrice; Alimonti, Alessandro

    2009-05-01

    Lichen Usnea barbata was tested as a possible biomonitor of atmospheric deposition in a supposedly pristine environment Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). Lichen samples were collected in 2005 and again in 2006 in 71 sites covering almost the entire region. The aim of the study was to evaluate the bioaccumulation of 26 elements in order to define the background levels in the region. The quantification was carried out by the sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No relevant temporal accumulation patterns between 2005 and 2006 sampling campaigns were observed. Then, the results were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis (cluster and principal component analyses). Cluster analysis produced a dendrogram where the 71 sites were divided into four clusters at (Dlink/Dmax)100Tierra del Fuego is not a relatively pristine environment as occasionally supposed. However, when comparing our results with other countries, Tierra del Fuego lichens have a very low content of the measured elements.

  9. Analysis of lichens for use in biomonitoring of environmental pollution; Analise de liquens para uso na biomonitoracao da poluicao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horimoto, Lidia K.; Saiki, Mitiko; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica; Marcelli, Marcello P. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Micologia e Liquenologia

    2000-07-01

    This work presents the results of Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se, Th, V and Zn obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis in the analyses of epiphytic lichen samples collected in different sites of the States of Sao Paulo and Parana. These lichens were collected in the following sites: Cidade Universitaria, Campo Limpo Paulista, Sao Bernardo do Campo and Itanhaen situated in the State of Sao Paulo and one sample was from Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa of Parana State. The purpose of these analyses were to obtain preliminary information of air quality of these regions and also select a region of interest for biomonitoring studies. (author)

  10. The FOBIMO (FOraminiferal BIo-MOnitoring) initiative—Towards a standardised protocol for soft-bottom benthic foraminiferal monitoring studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Joachim; Alve, Elisabeth; Geslin, Emmanuelle; Jorissen, Frans; Korsun, Sergei; Spezzaferri, Silva; Abramovich, Sigal; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Armynot du Chatelet, Eric; Barras, Christine; Bergamin, Luisa; Bicchi, Erica; Bouchet, Vincent; Cearreta, Alejandro; Di Bella, Letizia; Dijkstra, Noortje; Trevisan Disaro, Sibelle; Ferraro, Luciana; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Gennari, Giordana; Golikova, Elena; Haynert, Kristin; Hess, Silvia; Husum, Katrine; Martins, Virginia; McGann, Mary; Oron, Shai; Romano, Elena; Mello Sousa, Silvia; Tsujimoto, Akira

    2012-01-01

    The European Community Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was established to provide guidelines for monitoring the quality of marine ecosystems. Monitoring the status of marine environments is traditionally based on macrofauna surveys, for which standardised methods have been established. Benthic foraminifera are also good indicators of environmental status because of their fast turnover rates, high degree of specialisation, and the preservation of dead assemblages in the fossil record. In spite of the growing interest in foraminiferal bio-monitoring during the last decades, no standardised methodology has been proposed until today. The aim of the FOraminiferal BIo-MOnitoring (FOBIMO) expert workshop, held in June 2011 at Fribourg, Switzerland, which assembled 37 scientists from 24 research groups and 13 countries, was to develop a suite of standard methods. This paper presents the main outcome of the workshop, a list of motivated recommendations with respect to sampling devices, sample storage, treatment, faunal analysis and documentation. Our recommendations fulfil the criteria imposed both by scientific rigour and by the practical limitations of routine studies. Hence, our aim is to standardise methodologies used in bio-monitoring only and not to limit the use of different methods in pure scientific studies. Unless otherwise stated, all recommendations concern living (stained) benthic foraminiferal assemblages. We have chosen to propose two types of recommendations. Mandatory recommendations have to be followed if a study wants to qualify as sound and compatible to the norms. The most important of these recommendations are the interval from 0 to 1 cm below the sediment surface has to be sampled, and an interface corer or box corer that keeps the sediment surface intact is to be used for offshore surveys. A grab sampler must not be deployed in soft sediments. Three replicate samples are to be taken and analysed separately. Samples are to be washed on a

  11. Biomonitoring of essential and toxic metals in single hair using on-line solution-based calibration in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Valderi L; Pozebon, Dirce; Mesko, Marcia Foster; Matusch, Andreas; Kumtabtim, Usarat; Wu, B; Sabine Becker, J

    2010-10-15

    Li, V, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Sr, Mo, Ag, Ba, Cd, I, Hg, Pb, Bi and U in a single hair strand were in the range of 0.001-0.90 μg g(-1), whereas those of Cr and Zn were 3.4 and 5.1 μg g(-1), respectively. The proposed quantification strategy using on-line solution-based calibration in LA-ICP-MS was applied for biomonitoring (the spatial resolved distribution analysis) of essential and toxic metals and iodine in human hair and mouse hair.

  12. Inkjet-/3D-/4D-printed autonomous wearable RF modules for biomonitoring, positioning and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Jo; Bahr, Ryan; Hester, Jimmy; Kimionis, John; Nauroze, Abdullah; Su, Wenjing; Tehrani, Bijan; Tentzeris, Manos M.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, numerous inkjet-/3D-/4D-printed wearable flexible antennas, RF electronics, modules and sensors fabricated on paper and other polymer (e.g. LCP) substrates are introduced as a system-level solution for ultra-low-cost mass production of autonomous Biomonitoring, Positioning and Sensing applications. This paper briefly discusses the state-of-the-art area of fully-integrated wearable wireless sensor modules on paper or flexible LCP and show the first ever 4D sensor module integration on paper, as well as numerous 3D and 4D multilayer paper-based and LCP-based RF/microwave, flexible and wearable structures, that could potentially set the foundation for the truly convergent wireless sensor ad-hoc "on-body networks of the future with enhanced cognitive intelligence and "rugged" packaging. Also, some challenges concerning the power sources of "nearperpetual" wearable RF modules, including flexible miniaturized batteries as well as power-scavenging approaches involving electromagnetic and solar energy forms are discuessed. The final step of the paper will involve examples from mmW wearable (e.g. biomonitoring) antennas and RF modules, as well as the first examples of the integration of inkjet-printed nanotechnology-based (e.g.CNT) sensors on paper and organic substrates for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. It has to be noted that the paper will review and present challenges for inkjetprinted organic active and nonlinear devices as well as future directions in the area of environmentally-friendly "green") wearable RF electronics and "smart-skin conformal sensors.

  13. Biomonitoring of trace metals using transplanted mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, in coastal areas around Ulsan and Onsan Bays, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan-Kook; Choi, Man Sik

    2017-03-01

    Mediterranean (blue) mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from a reference site were transplanted to 15 stations in coastal areas around Ulsan and Onsan Bays, an extensively metal polluted area in Korean coastal waters, to assess metal contamination in the coastal oceans of Korea. During the biomonitoring periods (June 30 to July 20, 2003; 21 days), transplanted mussels, seawater, and particulate materials were collected for analysis of 15 metals (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn). Transplanted mussels showed metal enrichment compared to initial concentrations and spatial gradients consistent with dissolved and/or particulate metal concentrations in seawaters. Based on Q mode factor analysis, stations were clustered into three groups. The first group, located on Onsan Bay, showed high Ag, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb and Zn enrichment, presumably arising from non-ferrous metal refineries and chemical industries in this area. The second group was located near the mouth of the Oehwang River and was enriched in Co from petrochemical industries. The third group comprised a site intermediate between Group 1 and Group 2, an isolated station with independent metal sources located in Jangsaengpo harbor, where a number of ship repairing and building companies operate, and a less contaminated station near a small fishing village. Metal accumulation rates (%·day-1) in mussels were estimated to be between 8% (Cr) and 281% (Pb), based on accumulated metal concentrations over 21 days. The active biomonitoring technique using M. galloprovincialis demonstrated here is a useful monitoring method because it reflects the present status of seawaters; furthermore, physiological factors can be standardized, and bioavailable and time-integrated metal concentrations can be obtained. Furthermore, this method can be applied even in coastal seawaters so heavily contaminated that living organisms would not normally survive.

  14. Development of a Non-Invasive Biomonitoring Approach to Determine Exposure to the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos in Rat Saliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Chuck; Campbell, James A.; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe; Kousba, Ahmed A.

    2007-03-01

    Abstract Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantify dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. In the current study, rats were given single oral gavage doses (1, 10 or 50 mg/kg) of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), saliva and blood were collected from groups of animals (4/time-point) at 3, 6, and 12 hr post-dosing, and the samples were analyzed for the CPF metabolite trichlorpyridinol (TCP). Trichlorpyridinol was detected in both blood and saliva at all doses and the TCP concentration in blood exceeded saliva, although the kinetics in blood and saliva were comparable. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF incorporated a compartment model to describe the time-course of TCP in blood and saliva. The model adequately simulated the experimental results over the dose ranges evaluated. A rapid and sensitive sequential injection (SI) electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor TCP, and the reported detection limit for TCP in water was 6 ng/L. Computer model simulation in the range of the Allowable Daily Intake (ADI) or Reference Dose (RfD) for CPF (0.01-0.003 mg/kg/day) suggest that the electrochemical immunoassay had adequate sensitivity to detect and quantify TCP in saliva at these low exposure levels. To validate this approach further studies are needed to more fully understand the pharmacokinetics of CPF and TCP excretion in saliva. The utilization of saliva as a biomonitoring matrix, coupled to real-time quantitation and PBPK/PD modeling represents a novel approach with broad application for evaluating both occupational and environmental exposures to insecticides.

  15. Targeted gene enrichment and high-throughput sequencing for environmental biomonitoring: a case study using freshwater macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowle, Eddy J; Pochon, Xavier; C Banks, Jonathan; Shearer, Karen; Wood, Susanna A

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have advocated biomonitoring using DNA techniques. In this study, two high-throughput sequencing (HTS)-based methods were evaluated: amplicon metabarcoding of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene and gene enrichment using MYbaits (targeting nine different genes including COI). The gene-enrichment method does not require PCR amplification and thus avoids biases associated with universal primers. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected from 12 New Zealand rivers. Macroinvertebrates were morphologically identified and enumerated, and their biomass determined. DNA was extracted from all macroinvertebrate samples and HTS undertaken using the illumina miseq platform. Macroinvertebrate communities were characterized from sequence data using either six genes (three of the original nine were not used) or just the COI gene in isolation. The gene-enrichment method (all genes) detected the highest number of taxa and obtained the strongest Spearman rank correlations between the number of sequence reads, abundance and biomass in 67% of the samples. Median detection rates across rare (5%) taxa were highest using the gene-enrichment method (all genes). Our data indicated primer biases occurred during amplicon metabarcoding with greater than 80% of sequence reads originating from one taxon in several samples. The accuracy and sensitivity of both HTS methods would be improved with more comprehensive reference sequence databases. The data from this study illustrate the challenges of using PCR amplification-based methods for biomonitoring and highlight the potential benefits of using approaches, such as gene enrichment, which circumvent the need for an initial PCR step. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Optimization of A Portable Microanalytical System to Reduce Electrode Fouling from Proteins Associated with Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Saliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Dean A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-09-15

    There is a need to develop reliable portable analytical systems for on-site and real-time biomonitoring of lead (Pb) from both occupational and environmental exposures. Saliva is an appealing matrix since it is easily obtainable, and therefore a potential substitute for blood since there is a reasonably good correlation between Pb levels in both blood and saliva. The microanalytical system is based on stripping voltammetry of Pb at the microelectrochemical cell having a flow injection/flow-onto design. Samples that contain as little as 1% saliva can cause electrode fouling, resulting in significantly reduced responsiveness, irreproducible quantitations, and the need for frequent electrode regeneration. In addition, incomplete Pb release from salivary protein can also yield a lower Pb response than expected. This paper evaluates the extent of in vitro Pb-protein binding and the optimal pre-treatment for releasing Pb from the saliva samples. Even in 50% by volume of rat saliva, the electrode fouling was not observed, due to the appropriate sample pretreatment (with 1.0 M acid, followed by centrifugation at the RCF of 15200?g) and the constant flow of the sample and acidic carrier that prevented passivation by the protein. The system offered a linear response over a low Pb range (1-10 ppb), low detection limit (1 ppb), excellent reproducibility (5% RSD), and reliability. It also yielded the same Pb concentrations in unknown samples as did the ICP-MS. These encouraging results suggest that the microanalytical system represents an important analytical advancement for real-time non-invasive (i.e., saliva) biomonitoring of Pb.

  17. Lichens as biomonitor of atmospheric aerosol composition in the Northwest European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Vladimir P.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Zamber, Natalia S.; Konov, Konstantin G.; Starodymova, Dina P.

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown that aerosols are of importance for atmospheric chemistry and climate of the Arctic. At the coasts of Arctic seas and in their catchment areas delivery of chemical elements and compounds are registered in natural archives, for example in lichens. Lichens absorb substances, including trace elements, through dry and wet deposition, and have been widely used as biomonitors. We studied multi-element composition of terricolous (mostly of genera Cladonia and Cetraria) and fruticose epiphytic (mostly of genera Alectoria, Usnea and Bryoria) lichens collected in 2004-2009 in Kola Peninsula, Karelia, Arkhangelsk Region and Komi Republic of NW Russia, mostly in the frame of International Polar Year activity. About 110 samples were analyzed. The unwashed lichen samples were air dried and homogenised to a fine powder in an agate crusher. Samples were treated in a four-step chemical digestion procedure (full dissolution via acid attack) and element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Parts of dry samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). An enrichment factor (EF) was calculated for each element (X) relative to the composition of earth's crust: EF = ((X/Al) in lichen) / ((X/Al) in the earth's crust). Al was used as a crustal indicator. In most samples contents of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, rare earth elements (REEs), Th, U are at the background level and their EFs are less than 10. These low EF values indicated that, relative to average values for crustal rocks, there was no enrichment of these elements in the lichen concerned. For some elements (Se, Cd, Zn, Sb, Pb, As, Ni, Cu) consistently higher EF values were obtained. These higher values were interpreted in terms of sources of both anthropogenic and natural sources other than crustal rock and (or) soil. These elements could be derived by long-range atmospheric transport. Highest concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb in lichens

  18. Guidelines for the use of biological monitors in air pollution control (plants). Pt. 1. Methodological guidance for the drawing-up of biomonitoring guidelines (plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, R.D. [Buero fuer Konzeptionelle Bioindikation, Jockgrim (Germany); Wagner, G. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany). Inst. fuer Biogeographie; Finck, M.

    2000-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to encourage and promote further development of the methodological basis for a broader and more effective use of biological methods for monitoring the effects of air pollution on plants. It is not intended here to explain or discuss general criteria for the design of environmental monitoring studies and principal statistical methods for dealing with heterogeneously distributed spatial phenomena in detail. A further objective of this study is to give general guidance on how to - select suitable bioindicators, - develop, optimise and validate specific guidelines for the use of these bioindicators, - plan, design and employ biomonitoring studies for different purposes, - develop case-specific study plans determining how to apply an appropriate bioindicator (method-specific guideline) to a given task, case and area, - adapt principles of quality assurance and quality control to biomonitoring studies, - increase the importance and reliability of results obtained by bioindicators with respect to administrative measures. (orig.)

  19. Analysis of epiphytic lichen species for atmospheric pollutant biomonitoring use; Analise de especies de liquens epifiticos para uso na biomonitoracao de poluentes atmosfericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuga, Alessandra; Saiki, Mitiko; Vasconcelos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica; Honda, Neil K.; Siqueira, Onofre S. [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2002-07-01

    Lichens are recognized as potential indicators of air pollution and they have been widely studied to be used as biomonitor of heavy metals. In this work, neutron activation analysis method was applied in the analysis of epiphytic lichen species Usnea meridionalis, Parmotrema tinctorum and Parmotrema dilatatum, collected in Vila Piraputanga, MS, Brazil. Concentrations of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, V and Zn were determined at the levels of {mu}g g{sup -1} and As, Cs, Cr, Co, Hf, Mo, Sb, Sc, Se, Th and lanthanide elements at ng g{sup -1} levels. Results obtained showed that these three lichen species could be used in the environmental biomonitoring purposes. The precision and the accuracy of the results were also evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials IAEA 336 Lichen and 1547 NIST Peach Leaves. (author)

  20. Spatiotemporal Changes in Atmospheric Deposition Rates Across The Czech Republic Estimated in The Selected Biomonitoring Campaigns. Examples of Results Available For Landscape Ecology and Land Use Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchara Ivan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Several large-scale and fine-scale biomonitoring surveys were carried out in the Czech Republic to estimate current and long-term accumulated atmospheric deposition rates using moss, spruce bark and forest floor humus as bioindicators since the end of 1980s. The results of the bioindicator analyses significantly correlated with available figures of deposition rates detected at the EMEP or Czech national measurement stations.

  1. Environmental survey 1998. Vol. 3: Human biomonitoring. Concentrations of substances in blood and urine of the German population; Umwelt-Survey 1998. Bd. 3: Human-Biomonitoring. Stoffgehalte in Blut und Urin der Bevoelkerung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.; Kaus, S.; Krause, C.; Lepom, P.; Schulz, C.; Seiwert, M.; Seifert, B.

    2002-03-01

    The occurrence of precious metals in the environment is increasing, due primarily to their use in catalytic converters for motor vehicles, and they were therefore integrated into the study programme in 1998. Urine samples of 1080 subjects were analysed for gold, platinum and iridium, resulting in mean concentrations of 46 ng/l, 2.2 ng/l and 0.2 ng/l. The number of dental inlays, crowns and bridge elements has a clear influence on the mean levels of gold and platinum in urine. Road traffic was not found to be a signficant factor. Nicotine and cotinine are common markers for exposure to tobacco smoke. Non-smokers exhibit a mean nicotine level in urine of less than 2 {mu}g/l and a cotinine level of less than 4 {mu}gl. Nicotine and cotinine levels in urine increase as a function of the number of cigarettes smoked per day, reaching values of 1080 {mu}g/l and 2060 {mu}g/l, respectively, when consumption exceeds 20 cigarettes per day. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is also reflected by nicotine and cotinine levels in urine. The present report provides representative data for environmentally related health monitoring and reporting at national level. The data serve as the basis for the formulation of reference values characterising the population's internal exposure to environmental contaminants. The report shows trends over time and regional differences in pollution, and identifies exposure pathways. The results of the Environmental Survey serve inter alia to achieve nationally harmonised methodologies for assessment, health-related environmental reporting, and the development and monitoring of prevention, intervention and abatement strategies within the scope of health and environmental policy actions. (orig.)

  2. Biomonitoring polluted sediments in Arctic regions - possibilities and challenges using benthic foraminifera. Case studies from northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirbekk, Kari; Dijkstra, Noortje; Junttila, Juho; Sternal, Beata; Pedersen, Kristine Bondo; Forwick, Matthias; Carroll, JoLynn

    2016-04-01

    Biomonitoring pollution in marine environments using benthic foraminifera assemblages have proven to be a valid method for many regions. Two important reasons for their suitability are their sensitivity to changes in the environment and their rapid response time due to short life cycles. In addition, they are preserved in the sedimentary record, allowing for baseline studies of conditions prior to introduction of contaminants. Species of benthic foraminifera that appear to tolerate polluted sediments are referred to as opportunistic species. This notion is in general used for species able to dominate environments that are too stressful for most species. The high latitude setting of the northern Norwegian coastal zone experience high seasonality and, hence, largely changing conditions throughout a year: variations in water mass domination, freshwater influence, temperature and current velocity. It is possible that an environment like this is inhibited by a higher amount of opportunistic species generally thriving under high stress conditions. This might make the use of benthic foraminifera for biomonitoring more challenging, as the faunal compositions may be a result of a complex set of processes. Consequently, large datasets are necessary in order to make reliable conclusions, which in time may be used as generalized guidelines for biomonitoring in this geographical area. Here, we present preliminary results of benthic foraminiferal assemblages from two sites in Finnmark, northern Norway, which have been exposed to pollution. The main site is Repparfjorden, where the inner parts of the fjord were used as a submarine waste deposal site for mine tailings from a local copper mine during the 1970´s. Results from four marine sediment cores (10-20 cm long) containing sediments classified to be in moderate to very bad state (according to Norwegian sediment quality criteria) are presented. The contamination is seen in intervals of elevated copper content dated to the 1970

  3. Human biomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofuranes in teachers working in a PCB-contaminated school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, M; Gabrio, T; Päpke, O; Wallenhorst, T

    2002-04-01

    Eighteen teachers from a highly contaminated school and 11 teachers from a control school participated in this study. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) indoor air concentration (six indicator congeners x 5) was beyond 12000 ng/m3 in some rooms of the contaminated school. PCB 28 and PCB 52 were the prevailing congeners. Whole blood was taken from each participant by the local health authority, pooled in two groups and analysed for the six PCB indicator congeners, non-ortho PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF). Blood analysis showed elevated mean PCB 28 and PCB 52 levels for the exposed group, however the two groups were almost identical with regard to PCB 101, 138, 153 and 180. Moreover no difference can be observed for the concentration of non-ortho PCBs and PCDD/PCDF. The data support the finding, that heavy indoor air contamination with low chlorinated PCBs causes an increase of PCB 28 and PCB 52 blood levels. However, this increment was small compared to their total PCB load.

  4. Studies of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Dungeness Crabs: Biomonitoring, Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Model, and Human Health Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Eickhoff, Curtis

    2004-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous pollutants released into the environment from the incomplete combustion of organic material and petrochemical sources. PAH are persistent molecules that partition into sediments and biota in the aquatic environment. PAH such as benzo[a]pyrene, are of concern because they are metabolised into potentially carcinogenic chemicals that can cause tumours in fish and mammals. The purpose of this research was three-fold, (1) to explore the use of ...

  5. Recent developments in human biomonitoring: non-invasive assessment of target tissue dose and effects of pneumotoxic metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, A.; Corradi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary Tobacco smoke and polluted environments substantially increase the lung burden of pneumotoxic chemicals, particularly pneumotoxic metallic elements. To achieve a better understanding of the early events between exposure to inhaled toxicants and the onset of adverse effects on the lung, the characterization of dose at the target organ would be extremely useful. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC), obtained by cooling exhaled air under conditions of spontaneous breathing, is a novel technique that could provide a non-invasive assessment of pulmonary pathobiology. Considering that EBC is water practically free of interfering solutes, it represents an ideal biological matrix for elemental characterization. Published data show that several toxic metals and trace elements are detectable in EBC, raising the possibility of using this medium to quantify the lung tissue dose of pneumotoxic substances. This novel approach may represent a significant advance over the analysis of alternative media (blood, serum, urine, hair), which are not as reliable (owing to interfering substances in the complex matrix) and reflect systemic rather than lung (target tissue) levels of both toxic metals and essential trace elements. Data obtained among workers occupationally exposed to either hard metals or chromium (VI) and in smokers with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are reviewed to show that – together with biomarkers of exposure – EBC also allows the simultaneous quantification of biomarkers of effect directly sampled from the epithelial lining fluid, thus providing novel insights on both kinetic and dynamic aspects of metal toxicology. Riassunto «Recenti sviluppi nel biomonitoraggio umano: valutazione non invasiva della dose a livello dell’organo bersaglio e degli effetti pneumotossici». L’esposizione cronica a fumo di tabacco ed ad altri inquinati ambientali determina un accumulo polmonare di sostanze pneumotossiche, soprattutto metalli. Allo scopo di ottenere una migliore comprensione dei meccanismi attraverso i quali i tossici inalati inducono un danno polmonare, la valutazione della dose a livello dell’organo bersaglio, in questo caso il polmone, potrebbe essere molto utile. Il condensato dell’aria espirata (CAE) è un fluido ottenuto raffreddando l’aria esalata durante la respirazione a volume corrente ed è una nuova tecnica che può fornire una valutazione della patobiologia polmonare. Il CAE è formato quasi completamente da acqua, quindi rappresenta una matrice biologica ideale per la determinazione d’elementi metallici. Dati presenti in letteratura dimostrano come nel CAE si possono dosare vari metalli tossici ed elementi di transizione, permettendo quindi di proporre questa matrice per la quantificazione della dose al bersaglio di sostanze pneumotossiche. La quantificazione della dose al bersaglio consente di avere informazioni aggiuntive rispetto a quelle ottenute con i tradizionali metodi di monitoraggio biologico in lavoratori esposti, che generalmente consentono di stimare la dose sistemica, ma non l’esposizione delle vie respiratorie ad inquinanti aerodispersi né la frazione trattenuta nel polmone, verosimilmente implicata nella patologia infiammatoria e degenerativa a livello polmonare. In questa breve rassegna sono discussi i dati ottenuti in lavoratori professionalmente esposti a metalli duri ed in fumatori con o senza bronco-pneumopatica cronica ostruttiva (BPCO), per mostrare come il CAE – oltre agli indicatori di esposizione – consente di valutare indicatori di effetto campionati direttamente dal film che riveste le vie respiratorie, fornendo quindi nuovi spunti per meglio comprendere sia gli aspetti cinetici che quelli dinamici della tossicologia dei metalli. PMID:17017350

  6. Chemical contamination assessment in mangrove-lined Caribbean coastal systems using the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae as biomonitor species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Rubí, Javier R; Luna-Acosta, Andrea; Etxebarría, Nestor; Soto, Manu; Espinoza, Félix; Ahrens, Michael J; Marigómez, Ionan

    2017-05-24

    This paper aims to contribute to the use of mangrove cupped oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae, as a biomonitor species for chemical contamination assessment in mangrove-lined Caribbean coastal systems. Sampling was carried out in eight localities (three in Nicaragua and five in Colombia) with different types and levels of contamination. Oysters were collected during the rainy and dry seasons of 2012-2013 and the tissue concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined. Low tissue concentrations of metals (except Hg) and PAHs; moderate-to-high tissue concentrations of Hg, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs); detectable levels of chlorpyrifos, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (mainly CB28, CB118, CB138 and CB 153) and brominated diphenyl ethers 85 (BDE85); and negligible levels of musks were recorded in Nicaraguan oysters. A distinct profile of POPs was identified in Colombia, where the tissue concentrations of PCBs and synthetic musk fragrances were low to moderate, and Ag, As, Cd, Pb, and PAHs ranged from moderate to extremely high. Overall, the values recorded for HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in Nicaraguan mangrove cupped oysters greatly exceeded the reference values in tissues of C. rhizophorae from the Wider Caribbean Region, whereas only the levels of PCBs were occasionally surpassed in Colombia. Different contaminant profiles were distinguished between oysters from Nicaragua and Colombia in radar plots constructed using the main groups of contaminants (metals, PAHs, musks, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)). Likewise, integrated pollution indices revealed differences in the levels of contaminants. Moreover, the profiles and levels in oyster tissues also varied with season. Thus, principal component analysis clearly discriminated Nicaraguan and Colombian localities and, especially in Colombia, seasonal trends in chemical contamination and differences

  7. Active biomonitoring in freshwater environments: early warning signals from biomarkers in assessing biological effects of diffuse sources of pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wepener, V.; van Vuren, J. H. J.; Chatiza, F. P.; Mbizi, Z.; Slabbert, L.; Masola, B.

    Effluents are a main source of direct and continuous input of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. Relating observed effects to specific pollutants or even classes of pollutants remains a very difficult task due to the usually unknown, complex and often highly variable composition of effluents. It is recognized that toxicants interfere with organism integrity at the biochemical level and give rise to effects at the individual level and is manifested in reduced ecologically relevant characteristics such as growth, reproduction and survival, and ultimately at the ecosystem level. By integrating multiple endpoints at different ecologically relevant levels of organization within one test organism, it should be possible to gain understanding in how different levels of organization within this organism respond to toxic exposure and how responses at these different levels are interrelated. This paper presents results from a field study in the Rietvlei Wetland system, Gauteng, South Africa using the freshwater mollusk ( Melanoides tuberculata) and freshwater fish ( Oreochromis mossambicus) as bioindicator organisms. Active biomonitoring (ABM) exposures were conducted where organisms were exposed for 28 days in an effluent dominated river during high flow conditions in April 2003. The river receives effluent from a wastewater treatment plant and an industrial complex, so that up to 75% of the total flow of the river is effluent-based. Effects of field exposure were determined using cellular biomarkers e.g. DNA damage, HSP 70, metallothionein, acetylcholine esterase, lactate dehydrogenase and ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity. The results clearly indicate that although the traditional mortality-based whole effluent toxicity testing did not indicate any toxicity, the in situ exposed organisms were stressed. A multivariate statistical approach was particularly useful for integrating the biomarker responses and highlighting sites at which more detailed analysis of chemical

  8. Tradescantia as a biomonitor for pesticide genotoxicity evaluation of iprodione, carbaryl, dimethoate and 4,4'-DDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadic, Ximena; Placencia, Fabián; Domínguez, Ana María; Cereceda-Balic, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    There is a current tendency to develop and apply environmentally friendly techniques that meet the requirements of green analytical chemistry as an alternative to conventional analytical methods. For toxicity evaluation, these alternatives may be found in bioassays such as Tradescantia. This technique, developed in the 1980s, is highly sensitive to evaluate environmental mutagens, simple and cheap. In this paper, the sensibility of both the Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN) and the Tradescantia stamen hair bioassay (Trad-SH) were studied for carbaryl, dimethoate and iprodione, common agricultural and domestic pesticides that are currently used in Chile, which have never been tested with such bioassays. Biomonitor exposures were performed by capillary absorption for each individual pesticide over a wide range of concentrations, from maximum residue limits (trace levels) up to the application dose in agricultural fields. In addition, the organochloride 4,4'-DDE was included but only in the concentration range from 0.01mgL(-1) to 1mgL(-1), mimicking residue concentrations since it is not a commercial product but, rather, the main breakdown product of the persistent organochloride pesticide 4,4-DDT, whose use was discontinued in Chile in the 1980s. The Trad-MCN bioassay revealed a significant increase in micronucleus frequency at the early tetrads of meiotic pollen mother cells of the biomonitor Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea, induced by 4,4'-DDE (for 1mgL(-1)), dimethoate (for 40mgL(-1), 200mgL(-1), 400mg/L(-1)) and carbaryl (for 889mgL(-1)). Iprodione did not generate any significant change at the tested concentration. Meanwhile, the Trad-SH bioassay was carried out by analysis of the phenotype variations of the stamen hair cells of the Tradescantia clone KU-20 for the same pesticides and doses. This bioassay was not sufficiently sensitive for toxicity evaluation of most of the pesticides tested, with exception of dimethoate in low doses (2 and 5mg

  9. Toxic metal levels in children residing in a smelting craft village in Vietnam: a pilot biomonitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Alison P; Miller, Sloane K; Nguyen, Viet; Kotch, Jonathan B; Fry, Rebecca C

    2014-02-04

    In Vietnam, environmental pollution caused by small-scale domestic smelting of automobile batteries into lead ingot is a growing concern. The village of Nghia Lo is a smelting craft village located roughly 25 km southeast of Hanoi in the Red River Delta. Despite the concern of toxic metal exposure in the village, biomonitoring among susceptible populations, such as children, has not been previously conducted. The aim of this study was to determine the body burden of toxic metals in children residing in a smelting craft village. Twenty children from Nghia Lo, Vietnam, ages 18 months to four years were selected for capillary whole blood and toenail biomonitoring. Whole blood lead levels (BLLs) were measured using a portable lead analyzer, and toenail levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The findings show that all of the 20 children had detectable BLLs, and every child had levels that exceeded the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline level of 5 μg/dL. Eighty percent of tested subjects had BLLs higher than 10 μg/dL. Five children (25%) had BLLs greater than 45 μg/dL, the level of recommended medical intervention. In addition to blood lead, all of the children had detectable levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, and mercury in toenail samples. Notably, average toenail lead, manganese, and mercury levels were 157 μg/g, 7.41 μg/g, and 2.63 μg/g respectively, well above levels previously reported in children. Significant Spearman's rank correlations showed that there were relationships between blood and toenail lead levels (r = 0.65, p < 0.05), toenail levels of lead and cadmium (r = 0.66, p < 0.05), and toenail levels of manganese and chromium (r = 0.72, p < 0.001). Linear regression showed that reducing the distance to the nearest active smelter by half was associated with a 116% increase in BLL (p < 0

  10. Importance of soil contamination in Hylocomium Splendens used as biomonitor of atmospheric trace element deposition in remote areas; Importanza della contaminazione da suolo in Hylocmium Splendens utilizzato come biomonitor della deposizione atmosferica di elementi in traccia in zone remote

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spazzano, P.; Bari, A.; Olivetta, A. [ENEA, Saluggia, VC (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente, Sez. Componente Biotica degli Ecosistemi

    1999-09-01

    In the framework of a monitoring programme in rural areas using Hylocomium Splendens as biomonitor, several mass and soil samples were collected in different sampling stations. The soil content of analysed moss samples ranged from 1.7 to 7.7% on a dry mass basis as evaluated using aluminium as an indicator of soil retention. Soil particles entrapped by mosses affect the contamination levels of trace elements contributing to the variability of element concentrations. The normalisation of mass concentrations to the element concentrations in surface soils by calculating enrichment factor (EF) does not seem to be able to discriminate between soil-derived and anthropogenic contribution of trace elements. [Italian] Nell'ambito di un progetto di monitoraggio della deposizione atmosferica di metalli pesanti in zone rurali sono stati raccolti in differenti stazioni campioni di muschio e di suolo superficiale. L'articolo analizza i risultati ottenuti: le particelle di suolo ritenute nei muschi condizionano notevolmente i livelli di metalli in traccia di interesse ambientale e contribuiscono alla variabilita' delle concentrazioni. La normalizzazione rispetto alle concetrazioni presenti nel suolo e calcolata mediante il fattore di arricchimento (FA) non sembra in grado di differenziare tra contributo di origine terrigena ed eventuale contributo antropico.

  11. Human elastin-based recombinant biopolymers improve mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Betül; Cloutier, Maxime; Rabelo, Rodrigo B; Balloni, Rodrigo; Mantovani, Diego; Bandiera, Antonella

    2012-11-01

    Elastin-based polypeptides are a class of smart biopolymers representing an important model in the design of biomaterials. The combination of biomimetic materials with cells that have great plasticity provides a promising strategy for the realization of highly engineered cell-based constructs for regenerative medicine and tissue repair applications. Two recombinant biopolymers inspired by human elastin are assessed as coating agents to prepare biomimetic surfaces for cell culture. These substrates are assayed for hBM MSC culture. The coated surfaces are also characterized with AFM to evaluate the topographical features of the deposited biopolymers. The results suggest that the elastin-derived biomimetic surfaces play a stimulatory role on osteogenic differentiation of MSCs.

  12. College Men and Women and Their Intent to Receive Genital Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Richards

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study set out to investigate what influences the intentions of college students to get vaccinated against genital human papillomavirus (HPV. College men and women were surveyed to understand their intentions. Regression was used and supported that the constructs of the health belief model (HBM as well as gender, norms, and information seeking contributed to predicting intent to receive the HPV vaccine, R2 = .61, F(6, 159 = 39.41, p < .001. Benefits and barriers were the most influential variable, and men were more likely to intend to receive the vaccine. The findings should be applied to future campaigns aimed at increasing preventive health behaviors, especially vaccinations among college students.

  13. Biomonitoring of air quality in the Cologne conurbation using pine needles as a passive sampler—Part I: magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbat, M.; Lehndorff, E.; Schwark, L.

    High resolution temporal and spatial control of atmospheric pollutants is of crucial importance for environmental health monitoring. Passive sampling using natural vegetation biomonitoring allows acquisition of well-defined samples at affordable costs. We here present results from a study conducted in the conurbation of Cologne, Germany, based on airborne pollutants accumulated on pine needles. This integrated study includes (i) the microscopic analysis of pine needles and analysis of their magnetic properties, (ii) PAH, and (iii) selected trace elements (Fe, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu). A major proportion of atmospheric pollutants is bound to particles, for which in part I of the study we present data on magnetic susceptibility, remanence measurements (IRM, ARM) and total Fe content. SEM-analysis indicates that particles accumulated on needles are mostly brake-wear and from railroad and tram traffic preferentially due to material wear. Parks, forests and agricultural areas show the lowest levels of pollution by magnetic particles, followed by residential areas. This implies that traffic emissions with short transportation distances (<1.0 km) are dominant in the Cologne conurbation, whereas the contribution from power plants is negligible.

  14. Lichens as biomonitors of uranium and other trace elements in an area of Kosovo heavily shelled with depleted uranium rounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lella, Luigi A.; Frati, Luisa; Loppi, Stefano; Protano, Giuseppe; Riccobono, Francesco

    This paper reports the results of a study using lichens as biomonitors to investigate the small-scale environmental distribution of uranium and other trace elements in an area of Kosovo (Djakovica) heavily shelled with depleted uranium (DU) anti-tank ammunition. The results of total uranium concentrations showed great variability and species-specific differences, mainly due to differences in the exposed surface area of the lichens. The uranium concentrations in lichen samples were rather similar at a site heavily shelled with DU ammunition and at a control site. Unexpectedly, the highest uranium concentrations were found at the control site. The observed U distribution can be explained by contamination of lichen thalli by soil particles. The soil geochemistry was similar at the two sampling sites. The 235U/ 238U ratios in the soil samples suggested a modest DU contribution only at the heavily shelled site. Measurements of U isotopes in lichens did not reveal DU pollution at the control site. The U isotopic ratios in lichens at the shelled site showed variable figures; only two samples were clearly contaminated by DU. There were no signs of contamination by other trace elements.

  15. Use of native mosses as biomonitors of heavy metals and nitrogen deposition in the surroundings of two steel works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Miqueo, L; Elustondo, D; Lasheras, E; Santamaría, J M

    2010-02-01

    A biomonitoring survey using the moss species Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. was conducted in the surroundings of two steel plants located in the North of Spain. Levels of V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb and N were determined. Very high concentrations in the areas of study were detected when compared to nearby unaffected regions. Similar trends were observed for all the elements in the differently orientated transects, showing an appreciable influence of the NW prevailing winds of the region in the dispersion of pollutants, as well as a clear decreasing gradient in the concentrations of metals in mosses within a distance of 1500 meters from the facilities. A differentiation between the elements emitted by the chimney as result of the industrial activity (V, Cr, Ni, Cu and As) and those with a high presence in steel slag deposits (Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb) was observed. The range of contamination was also established by means of the Contamination Factor, indicating a category 4 out of 6 categories, which shows the high levels reported in the areas of study. A different dynamic was registered for nitrogen regarding the rest of the heavy metals analysed except for Hg, probably due to the elevated volatility and mobility of both elements, as well as their high persistence in the atmosphere.

  16. Lichen (Xanthoria parietina) biomonitoring of trace element contamination and air quality assessment in Livorno Province (Tuscany, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scerbo, R.; Barghigiani, C.; Ristori, T. [CNR Istituto di Biofisica, Via S. Lorenzo 26, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Possenti, L.; Barale, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Via Volta, Pisa (Italy); Lampugnani, L. [CNR Istituto di Chimica Analitica Strumentale, Via Risorgimento, Pisa (Italy)

    1999-10-29

    This paper deals with the biomonitoring of air in Livorno Province (Tuscany, Italy) using lichens for both quantitative monitoring of airborne metals and air quality assessment. On the basis of the possible sources of metal pollution in the study area, the following elements were analyzed: As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Zn and Hg. The small number of lichen species, the often stunted appearance of the specimens, and metal analysis revealed widespread atmospheric pollution in the study area. The results indicate extensive anthropic impact. The highest levels of contamination were recorded for Hg, Cd, Pb, and V concentrations. Good agreement was found between bioindication and metal concentrations in lichens. The impact of anthropic activities is particularly due to steelworks and chemical plants, combustion processes related to energy production and vehicle emissions. In addition to air pollution, some natural factors, such as climate, rocky shores or ozone, were assumed to affect lichen occurrence. Comparison with the Lake Orta area in northern Italy showed Livorno Province was more contaminated by trace elements. Similar contamination levels were found in another area of Tuscany, probably due to the geological characteristics of this region.

  17. Biomonitoring of a polluted coastal area (Bay of Muggia, Northern Adriatic Sea): A five-year study using transplanted mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschino, Vanessa; Del Negro, Paola; De Vittor, Cinzia; Da Ros, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    The subcellular effects of pollution were evaluated using two lysosomal biomarkers in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, deployed periodically over a period of 5 years in a harbour area in the Bay of Muggia (Gulf of Trieste, North Adriatic Sea) that is strongly influenced by anthropogenic activities. Mussels were collected from a clean marine farm and analysed (sample T0). A sub-sample was transplanted to the harbour site (sample M) and analysed after about 12 weeks. An additional sub-sample was relocated within the farm as a control and was also tested at the end of the 12-week period (sample T1). The transplantation procedures were repeated twice yearly for 5 consecutive years, starting in 2009. Two well-established lysosomal biomarkers, i.e. lysosomal membrane stability and lipofuscin accumulation, were evaluated in hepatopancreas cells. The body condition index and mortality rate were also assessed. Moreover, various pollutants were determined in both mussel flesh, for a better comprehension of the biological response, and sediments, for a general characterization of the study area. As a whole, the applied biomarkers were found to be appropriate for determining the responses of mussels to environmental pollutant loads over time. Variations in lysosomal membrane stability and lipofuscin content were mostly related to total PAHs and metals respectively. Our results confirm the usefulness of active biomonitoring in evaluating pollution trends in marine coastal areas and in particular the value of lysosomal biomarkers as a rapid screening tool for highlighting pollutant effects at least at organism level.

  18. Testing a cumulative and aggregate exposure model using biomonitoring studies and dietary records for Italian vineyard spray operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Marc C; Glass, C Richard; Fustinoni, Silvia; Moretto, Angelo; Mandic-Rajcevic, Stefan; Riso, Patrizia; Turrini, Aida; van der Voet, Hilko; Hetmanski, Michel T; Fussell, Richard J; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    The need for improved tools to estimate the cumulative and aggregate exposure to compounds such as plant protection products (PPPs) is recognised in the EU Regulation 1107/2009. A new model has been developed to estimate the exposure within a population to single compounds or compounds within a Cumulative Action Group, considering dietary and non-dietary sources and multiple exposure routes. To test the model a field study was carried out in Italy with operators applying tebuconazole fungicides, with measurements of dermal exposure collected. Whole urine samples were collected and analysed to provide values for the absorbed dose of tebuconazole, with duplicate diet samples collected and analysed as a measure of dietary exposures. The model provided predicted values of exposure for combined dietary and non-dietary routes of exposures which were compared to the measured absorbed dose values based on urinary analysis. The model outputs provided mean daily exposure values of 1.77 (± 1.96) µg a.s./kg BW which are comparable to measured mean values from the biomonitoring field study of 1.73 (± 1.31) µg a.s./kg BW. To supplement the limited measurement data available, comparisons against other models were also made and found to be comparable.

  19. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br; Nogueira, C.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saiki, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Milian, F.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, Av. Miguel Stefano No. 3687, CEP 04301-012, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad plant able to absorb water and nutrients directly from the air. For this reason this species was selected to carry out a monitoring study of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Five consecutive transplantation experiments (8 weeks each) were performed in 10 sites of the city, submitted to different sources of air pollution (industrial, vehicular), using plants collected from an unpolluted area. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Traffic-related elements such as Zn and Ba presented high concentrations in exposure sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and may be associated to vehicular sources. For Zn and Co the highest contents were related to industrial zones and can be associated to the presence of anthropogenic emission sources. The rare earth elements, Fe and Rb, probably have soil particles as main source. - This paper is the first work on the use of biomonitors to assess metal pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the biggest city in Latin America.

  20. In vitro biomonitoring in polar extracts of solid phase matrices reveals the presence of unknown compounds with estrogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, J; Leonards, P; Spenkelink, A; Murk, A J

    2003-01-01

    Determination of estrogenic activity has so far mainly concentrated on the assessment of compounds in surface water and effluent. This study is one of the first to biomonitor (xeno-)estrogens in sediment, suspended particulate matter and aquatic organisms. The relatively polar acetone extracts from these solid phase matrices do not contain the well-known estrogenic compounds such as hormones, alkylphenols and phthalates. An in vitro 'estrogen receptor-mediated chemical activated luciferase gene expression' (ER-CALUX) assay was applied to samples from various locations in the Netherlands. Estrogenic activity measured in polar fractions of particulate matter and sediment extracts ranged from below detection limit to up to 4.5 pmol estradiol equivalents (EEQ)/g dry weight. Estrogenic activity in freshwater river sediments was up to five times higher compared to sediments from large lakes and coastal locations. Tissue extracts EEQs were determined in bream (Abramis brama), flounder (Platichthysflesus), freshwater mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and marine mussels (Mytilus edulis). The highest biota EEQ levels were found in the freshwater zebra mussel (30 pmol EEQ/g lipid). One sample site showed greatly elevated EEQs in sediment and biota, which correlated with effects found in the wild populations of bream. The EEQ activity of the unknown compounds in the polar fraction mostly was much higher than the calculated EEQ levels based on known estrogens in the non-polar fraction (previously published data).

  1. A novel approach for acid mine drainage pollution biomonitoring using rare earth elements bioaccumulated in the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnail, Estefanía; Pérez-López, Rafael; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Nieto, José Miguel; DelValls, T Ángel

    2017-09-15

    Lanthanide series have been used as a record of the water-rock interaction and work as a tool for identifying impacts of acid mine drainage (lixiviate residue derived from sulphide oxidation). The application of North-American Shale Composite-normalized rare earth elements patterns to these minority elements allows determining the origin of the contamination. In the current study, geochemical patterns were applied to rare earth elements bioaccumulated in the soft tissue of the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea after exposure to different acid mine drainage contaminated environments. Results show significant bioaccumulation of rare earth elements in soft tissue of the clam after 14 days of exposure to acid mine drainage contaminated sediment (ΣREE=1.3-8μg/gdw). Furthermore, it was possible to biomonitor different degrees of contamination based on rare earth elements in tissue. The pattern of this type of contamination describes a particular curve characterized by an enrichment in the middle rare earth elements; a homologous pattern (EMREE=0.90) has also been observed when applied NASC normalization in clam tissues. Results of lanthanides found in clams were contrasted with the paucity of toxicity studies, determining risk caused by light rare earth elements in the Odiel River close to the Estuary. The current study purposes the use of clam as an innovative "bio-tool" for the biogeochemical monitoring of pollution inputs that determines the acid mine drainage networks affection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical element accumulation in tree bark grown in volcanic soils of Cape Verde-a first biomonitoring of Fogo Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rosa; Prudêncio, Maria Isabel; Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Dias, Maria Isabel; Rocha, Fernando

    2015-10-03

    Barks from Prosopis juliflora (acacia) were collected in 12 sites of different geological contexts over the volcanic Fogo Island (Cape Verde). Elemental contents of Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Na, Zn and some rare earth elements (REE)-La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, and Lu, were obtained for biological samples and topsoils by using k 0-standardized and comparative method of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), aiming the evaluation of chemical elements uptake by acacia bark. This first biomonitoring study of Fogo Island showed that, in general, significant accumulations of trace elements present in high amounts in these soils occur. This can be partially explained by the semi-arid climate with a consequent bioavailability of chemical elements when rain drops fall in this non-polluted environment. REE enrichment factors (EFs) increase with the decrease of ionic radius. Heavy REE (HREE) are significantly enriched in bark, which agrees with their release after the primary minerals breakdown and the formation of more soluble compounds than the other REE, and uptake by plants. Among the potential harmful chemical elements, Cr appears to be partially retained in nanoparticles of iron oxides. The high EFs found in tree barks of Fogo Island are certainly of geogenic origin rather than anthropogenic input since industry and the use of fertilizers is scarce.

  3. Comparison of Kriging and Moving Least Square Methods to Change the Geometry of Human Body Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, Erwan; Lafon, Yoann; Petit, Philippe; Beillas, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Finite Element Human Body Models (HBM) have become powerful tools to study the response to impact. However, they are typically only developed for a limited number of sizes and ages. Various approaches driven by control points have been reported in the literature for the non-linear scaling of these HBM into models with different geometrical characteristics. The purpose of this study is to compare the performances of commonly used control points based interpolation methods in different usage scenarios. Performance metrics include the respect of target, the mesh quality and the runability. For this study, the Kriging and Moving Least square interpolation approaches were compared in three test cases. The first two cases correspond to changes of anthropometric dimensions of (1) a child model (from 6 to 1.5 years old) and (2) the GHBMC M50 model (Global Human Body Models Consortium, from 50th to 5th percentile female). For the third case, the GHBMC M50 ribcage was scaled to match the rib cage geometry derived from a CT-scan. In the first two test cases, all tested methods provided similar shapes with acceptable results in terms of time needed for the deformation (a few minutes at most), overall respect of the targets, element quality distribution and time step for explicit simulation. The personalization of rib cage proved to be much more challenging. None of the methods tested provided fully satisfactory results at the level of the rib trajectory and section. There were corrugated local deformations unless using a smooth regression through relaxation. Overall, the results highlight the importance of the target definition over the interpolation method.

  4. Biomonitorization of iron accumulation in the substantia nigra from Lewy body disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Belén; Ferrer, Isidro; Gil, Fernando; Hilfiker, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Iron levels in the healthy human brain are known to be high in certain areas such as the substantia nigra (SN), and increase further with age. In addition, there is some evidence for a further increase in iron load in the SN of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients as compared to controls, which correlates with motor disability. Here, we have analyzed total iron levels in cells as well as mouse and human brain samples by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Our data indicate that iron load is more pronounced in cells with dopaminergic features. Moreover, region-specific differences in iron load reflecting those in the human brain were detected in rodent brains as well. Whilst altered iron load was not observed in other regions also affected in PD patients, we report a significant increase in iron load in the SN of Lewy body disease patients as compared to Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients or controls, which correlates with neurodegeneration in this brain area. PMID:28529891

  5. Human plasma concentrations of herbicidal carbamate molinate extrapolated from the pharmacokinetics established in in vivo experiments with chimeric mice with humanized liver and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masanao; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Murayama, Norie; Nishiyama, Sayako; Shimizu, Makiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    To predict concentrations in humans of the herbicidal carbamate molinate, used exclusively in rice cultivation, a forward dosimetry approach was carried out using data from lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level doses orally administered to rats, wild type mice, and chimeric mice with humanized liver and from in vitro human and rodent experiments. Human liver microsomes preferentially mediated hydroxylation of molinate, but rat livers additionally produced molinate sulfoxide and an unidentified metabolite. Adjusted animal biomonitoring equivalents for molinate and its primary sulfoxide from animal studies were scaled to human biomonitoring equivalents using known species allometric scaling factors and human metabolic data with a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. The slower disposition of molinate and accumulation of molinate sulfoxide in humans were estimated by modeling after single and multiple doses compared with elimination in rodents. The results from simplified PBPK modeling in combination with chimeric mice with humanized liver suggest that ratios of estimated parameters of molinate sulfoxide exposure in humans to those in rats were three times as many as general safety factor of 10 for species difference in toxicokinetics. Thus, careful regulatory decision is needed when evaluating the human risk resulting from exposure to low doses of molinate and related carbamates based on data obtained from rats.

  6. The use of buccal cells in human biological monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Błaszczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic methods for determining the degree of environmental risk posed to humans is identification of harmful substances in various environmental elements (air, water, soil, food. In contrast to environmental monitoring human biological monitoring (HBM enables the estimation of an absorbed dose, general or localized in a specific organ. HBM enables the assessment of exposure to substances which are absorbed by the body via different exposure pathways and with different contaminant carriers. It is based on the measurement of indicators, the so-called biomarkers, in body fluids (blood, urine, saliva, etc. or in tissues and organs. Biomarkers can be divided into markers of exposure, effects and susceptibility. A particularly useful method is determination of adducts, i.e. carcinogenic compounds (or their metabolites with proteins or DNA, which are markers of exposure. Biomarkers of biological effects are different cytogenetic changes, including micronuclei. These are extranuclear structures containing fragments of chromatin (arising as a result of DNA breaks or whole chromosomes (damage to the spindle apparatus during mitosis. Up to now most studies on the DNA adduct levels and micronuclei have been conducted in peripheral lymphocytes. At present, studies using blood, especially in children to restricted to ethical aspects, and therefore tests using epithelial cells from the oral cavity have become more popular. Epithelial cells are the main building material of an epithelial tissue which makes up about 60% of all cells of the human body. The main function of the epithelial tissue is covering and lining of the outer and inner surfaces of the body. Epithelium underwent high specialisation in various parts of the human body, which is associated with its structure and function. Human oral cavity is covered by stratified squamous epithelium, which is comprised of cells called keratinocytes. Oral epithelial cells may differentiate in two

  7. Active biomonitoring of trace heavy metals using fish ( Oreochromis niloticus) as bioindicator species. The case of Nakivubo wetland along Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birungi, Z.; Masola, B.; Zaranyika, M. F.; Naigaga, I.; Marshall, B.

    The Nakivubo wetland in Uganda, which feeds Lake Victoria at Murchison bay, has become severely degraded over recent years and is particularly threatened by the expansion of industry, settlement and cultivation on its fertile fringes. The aim of this study was to actively biomonitor selected trace heavy metals using Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). Nile tilapia was set in cages at six sampling sites in Murchison bay for a period of six weeks, and sampling was done every 2 weeks for active biomonitoring and weekly for physico-chemical variables. The control (site 7) was at the Aquaculture Research and Development centre, Uganda. Fish tissue was dissected and gills, liver and muscle removed for heavy metal analysis. Water samples and fish tissue from each site were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) to determine metal concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium and manganese. Site 4 had the highest average NH 4-N of 14.28 ± 12.73 mg/l which was above effluent standards for Uganda. From the findings, there were significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals in fish than in water ( p > 0.01). Fish kills were recorded highest for sites 4 (55%), 5 (77.5%) and 6 (60%) in less than six weeks indicating high levels of pollution. Gills showed the highest accumulation of copper after a period of six weeks as compared to other metals with a mean ± SE of 11.7 μg/mg wet weight. In general, the order of accumulation of metals in tissue after six weeks was in order; copper > zinc > chromium > manganese and gills > liver > muscle. In conclusion, active biomonitoring was found to be a good tool for monitoring water quality as it integrates responses to combinations of all contaminants thereby indicating overall effects in a water body. To improve the study, there is need to incorporate post mortem studies and biomarker analysis since the later can give early warning of pollution before fish kills are observed.

  8. Biomonitoring of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb using lichens and mosses around coal-fired power plants in Western Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sert, Emel, E-mail: emel.sert@mail.ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ugur, Aysun, E-mail: aysun.ugur@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ozden, Banu, E-mail: banu.ozden@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Sac, Mueslim Murat, E-mail: muslum.murat.sac@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Camgoez, Berkay, E-mail: berkay.camgoz@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-06-15

    Mosses and lichens are useful biological indicators of environmental contamination for a variety of metals and radionuclides of both natural and artificial origin. These plants lack a well-developed root system and rely largely on atmospheric deposition for nourishment. Therefore in the study, different lichens (Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia foliacea) and mosses (Homalothecium sericeum, Hypnum lacunosum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa, Didymodon acutus, Syntrichia ruralis, Syntrichia intermedia, Pterogonium graciale, Isothecium alopecuroides, Pleurochatae squarrosa) were collected around the Yatagan (Mugla), Soma (Manisa), Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) coal-fired power plants and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb deposition. While the activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in lichens are in the ranges of 151 {+-} 7-593 {+-} 21 and 97 {+-} 5-364 {+-} 13 Bq kg{sup -1}, for mosses the ranges for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb are 124 {+-} 5-1125 {+-} 38 and 113 {+-} 4-490 {+-} 17 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. In the study, the moss samples were observed to accumulate more {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb compared to lichens. While the most suitable biomonitor was a moss species (H. lacunosum) for Yatagan (Mugla), it was another moss species (S. intermedia) for Soma (Manisa) and Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) sites. {sup 210}Po concentrations were found higher than {sup 210}Pb concentrations at the all sampling stations. - Highlights: > Lichens and mosses have been used as biomonitors of 210Po and 210Pb deposition. > The morphology of lichens and mosses does not vary with seasons. > Lichens and mosses retain and accumulate pollutants deposited from the atmosphere. > Canopy is an important factor causing differences in the concentrations of radionuclides.

  9. Have the bioavailabilities of trace metals to a suite of biomonitors changed over three decades in SW England estuaries historically affected by mining?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow, P S; Kriefman, S; Smith, B D; Luoma, S N

    2011-03-15

    Many estuaries of southwest England were heavily contaminated with toxic metals associated with the mining of copper and other metals, particularly between 1850 and 1900. The question remains whether the passage of time has brought remediation to these estuaries. In 2003 and 2006 we revisited sites in 5 metal-contaminated estuaries sampled in the 1970s and 1980s - Restronguet Creek, Gannel, West Looe, East Looe and Tavy. We evaluate changes in metal contamination in sediments and in metal bioavailabilities in sediments and water to local organisms employed as biomonitors. We find that the decline in contamination in these estuaries is complex. Differences in bioavailable contamination in the water column were detectable, as were significant detectable changes in at least some estuaries in bioavailable metal contamination originating from sediments. However, in the 100 years since mining activities declined, bioavailable contamination has not declined to the regional baseline in any estuary affected by the mine wastes. The greatest decline in contamination occurred in the one instance (East Looe) where a previous industrial source of (Ag) contamination was considered. We used the macroalgae Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum as biomonitors of dissolved metal bioavailabilities and the deposit feeders Nereis diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana as biomonitors of bioavailable metal in sediments. We found no systematic decrease in the atypically high Ag, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in the estuarine sediments over a 26 year period. Accumulated metal (Ag, As, Cu, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in the deposit feeders are similarly still atypically high in at least one estuary for each metal, and there is no consistent evidence for general decreases in sediment metal bioavailabilities over time. We conclude that the legacy of mining in sheltered estuaries of southwest England is the ongoing presence of sediments rich in metals bioavailable to deposit feeders, while

  10. Metal uptake of Nerium oleander from aerial and underground organs and its use as a biomonitoring tool for airborne metallic pollution in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, S; Martín, A; García, M; Español, C; Navarro, E

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of the airborne particulate matter-PM-incorporated to plant leaves may be informative of the air pollution in the surroundings, allowing their use as biomonitoring tools. Regarding metals, their accumulation in leaves can be the result of both atmospheric incorporation of metallic PM on aboveground plant organs and root uptake of soluble metals. In this study, the use of Nerium oleander leaves as a biomonitoring tool for metallic airborne pollution has been assessed. The metal uptake in N. oleander was assessed as follows: (a) for radicular uptake by irrigation with airborne metals as Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, As, Ce and Zn (alone and in mixture) and (b) for direct leave exposure to urban PM. Plants showed a high resistance against the toxicity of metals under both single and multiple metal exposures. Except for Zn, the low values of translocation and bioaccumulation factors confirmed the excluder behaviour of N. oleander with respect to the metals provided by the irrigation. For metal uptake from airborne pollution, young plants grown under controlled conditions were deployed during 42 days in locations of the city of Zaragoza (700,000 h, NE Spain), differing in their level of traffic density. Samples of PM2.5 particles and the leaves of N. oleander were simultaneously collected weekly. High correlations in Pb concentrations were found between leaves and PM2.5; in a lesser extent, correlations were also found for Fe, Zn and Ti. Scanning electron microscopy showed the capture of airborne pollution particles in the large and abundant substomatal chambers of N. oleander leaves. Altogether, results indicate that N. Oleander, as a metal resistant plant by metal exclusion, is a suitable candidate as a biomonitoring tool for airborne metal pollution in urban areas.

  11. Lantana camara invasion in urban forests of an Indo–Burma hotspot region and its ecosustainable management implication through biomonitoring of particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed in urban forests of Aizawl, Mizoram, north east India falling under an Indo–Burma hot spot region of existing ecological relevance and pristine environment. The phytosociolology of invasive weeds has been studied, showing that Lantana camara was the most dominant invasive weed. Further, the air quality studies revealed high suspended particulate matter as well as respirable suspended particulate matter in the ambient air of Aizawl. Biomonitoring through plant leaves has been recognized as a recent thrust area in the field of particulate matter science. We aimed to investigate whether L. camara leaves may act as a biomonitoring tool hence allowing its sustainable management. The quantity of respirable suspended particulate matter and suspended particulate matter at four different sites were much higher than the prescribed limits of Central Pollution Control Board of India during the summer and winter seasons. The dust deposition of L. camara leaves was 1.01 mg/cm2 and, pertaining to the biochemical parameters: pH was 7.49; relative water content 73.74%; total chlorophyll 1.91 mg/g; ascorbic acid 7.06 mg/g; sugar 0.16 mg/g; protein 0.67 mg/g; catalase 30.76 U/mg protein; peroxidase 0.16 U/mg protein; and air pollution tolerance index was 12.91. L. camara was observed in the good category in anticipated performance index, which shows the tolerant and conditioning capacity of air pollution. Therefore, the present study recommends the use of L. camara as biomonitor that may further have sustainable management implications for an invasive plant.

  12. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities Part II. Ozone-induced plant injury and its relationship with descriptors of ozone pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.

    2006-01-01

    Within the scope of a biomonitoring study conducted in twelve urban agglomerations in eight European countries, the ozone-sensitive bioindicator plant Nicotiana tabacum cv. Bel-W3 was employed in order to assess the occurrence of phytotoxic ozone effects at urban, suburban, rural and traffic....... This is because the actual ozone flux into the leaf, which is modified by various environmental factors, rather than ambient ozone concentration determines the effects on plants. The advantage of sensitive bioindicators like tobacco Bel-W3 is that the impact of the effectively absorbed ozone dose can directly...

  13. Urinary, Circulating, and Tissue Biomonitoring Studies Indicate Widespread Exposure to Bisphenol A Estudos de biomonitoração do sistema urinário, circulatório e tecidos indicam grande exposição ao Bisfenol A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N. Vandenberg

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is one of the highest-volume chemicals produced worldwide, and human exposure to BPA is thought to be ubiquitous. Thus, there are concerns that the amount of BPA to which humans are exposed may cause adverse health effects. We examined many possibilities for why biomonitoring and toxicokinetic studies could come to seemingly conflicting conclusions. More than 80 published human biomonitoring studies that measured BPA concentrations in human tissues, urine, blood, and other fluids, along with two toxicokinetic studies of human BPA metabolism were examined. Unconjugated BPA was routinely detected in blood (in the nanograms per milliliter range, and conjugated BPA was routinely detected in the vast majority of urine samples (also in the nanograms per milliliter range. In stark contrast, toxicokinetic studies proposed that humans are not internally exposed to BPA. Available data from biomonitoring studies clearly indicate that the general population is exposed to BPA and is at risk from internal exposure to unconjugated BPA. The two toxicokinetic studies that suggested human BPA exposure is negligible have significant deficiencies, are directly contradicted by hypothesis-driven studies, and are therefore not reliable for risk assessment purposes.Bisfenol A (BPA é um dos produtos químicos mais produzido em todo o mundo, e a exposição humana a ele é considerada onipresente. Assim, há preocupações de que a quantidade de BPA para o qual os seres humanos estão expostos podem causar efeitos adversos à saúde. Nós examinamos muitas possibilidades sobre o porquê estudos de biomonitorização e toxicocinética podem chegar a conclusões aparentemente conflitantes. Mais de 80 estudos publicados de biomonitorização humana que mediram a concentração de BPA em tecidos humanos, urina, sangue e outros fluidos, juntamente com dois estudos de toxicocinética do metabolismo humano BPA foram examinados. BPA não conjugado foi detectado

  14. Parental Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Survey (PHPVS): nurse-led instrument development and psychometric testing for use in research and primary care screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tami Lynn; Strickland, Ora L; DiClemente, Ralph; Higgins, Melinda; Williams, Bryan; Hickey, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was approved for girls aged 9-24 years in 2006 to prevent HPV infection and cervical cancer. The Parental Human Papillomavirus Survey (PHPVS) was framed on theoretical constructs of the health belief model (HBM) and developed to survey parents regarding their HPV knowledge, attitudes, and intent to vaccinate. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the PHPVS using classical item analysis and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) among a sample of 200 parents/caregivers. The EFA yielded a 4-factor unidimensional model that explained between 62% and 68% of the total variance depending on the extraction method used. The estimated Cronbach's alpha for the PHPVS was .96. The PHPVS is a reliable measure of HPV knowledge, attitudes, and intent to vaccinate.

  15. Biomonitoring Study of Heavy Metals in Blood from a Cement Factory Based Community

    OpenAIRE

    Bank M.S.; Spengler J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of cement factory pollution, emissions, and kiln dust on contaminant exposure in human populations, including school environments, in close proximity to these point sources. In Ravena, New York, USA and vicinity, environmental pollution from a local cement plant is considered significant and substantial according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Toxic Release Inventory, published in 2006, 2007, and 2010. We hypothesized that cement facto...