Sample records for human beta-cluster yac

  1. Genome scan identifies a locus affecting gamma-globin expression in human beta-cluster YAC transgenic mice

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    Lin, S.D.; Cooper, P.; Fung, J.; Weier, H.U.G.; Rubin, E.M.


    Genetic factors affecting post-natal g-globin expression - a major modifier of the severity of both b-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia, have been difficult to study. This is especially so in mice, an organism lacking a globin gene with an expression pattern equivalent to that of human g-globin. To model the human b-cluster in mice, with the goal of screening for loci affecting human g-globin expression in vivo, we introduced a human b-globin cluster YAC transgene into the genome of FVB mice . The b-cluster contained a Greek hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) g allele resulting in postnatal expression of human g-globin in transgenic mice. The level of human g-globin for various F1 hybrids derived from crosses between the FVB transgenics and other inbred mouse strains was assessed. The g-globin level of the C3HeB/FVB transgenic mice was noted to be significantly elevated. To map genes affecting postnatal g-globin expression, a 20 centiMorgan (cM) genome scan of a C3HeB/F VB transgenics [prime] FVB backcross was performed, followed by high-resolution marker analysis of promising loci. From this analysis we mapped a locus within a 2.2 cM interval of mouse chromosome 1 at a LOD score of 4.2 that contributes 10.4% of variation in g-globin expression level. Combining transgenic modeling of the human b-globin gene cluster with quantitative trait analysis, we have identified and mapped a murine locus that impacts on human g-globin expression in vivo.

  2. An integrated YAC-overlap and 'cosmid-pocket' map of the human chromosome 21. (United States)

    Nizetić, D; Gellen, L; Hamvas, R M; Mott, R; Grigoriev, A; Vatcheva, R; Zehetner, G; Yaspo, M L; Dutriaux, A; Lopes, C


    We describe here the construction of an ordered clone map of human chromosome 21, based on the identification of ordered sets of YAC clones covering > 90% of the chromosome, and their use to identify groups of cosmid clones (cosmid pockets) localised to subregions defined by the YAC clone map. This is to our knowledge the highest resolution map of one human chromosome to date, localising 530 YAC clones covering both arms of the chromosome, spanning > 36 Mbp, and localising more than 6300 cosmids to 145 intervals on both arms of the chromosome. The YAC contigs have been formed by hybridising a 6.1 equivalents chromosome 21 enriched YAC collection displayed on arrayed nylon membranes to a series of 115 DNA markers and Alu-PCR products from YACs. Forty eight mega-YACs from the previously published CEPH-Genethon map of sequence tagged sites (STS) have also been included in the contig building experiments. A YAC tiling path was then size-measured and confirmed by gel-fingerprinting. A minimal tiling path of 70 YACs were then used as probes against the 7.5 genome equivalents flow sorted chromosome 21 cosmid library in order to identify the lists of cosmids mapping to alternating shared--non-shared intervals between overlapping YACs ('cosmid pockets'). For approximately 1/5 of the minimal tiling path of YACs, locations and non-chimaerism have been confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), and approximately 1/5 of all cosmid pocket assignments have independent, confirmatory marker hybridizations in the ICRF cosmid reference library system. We also demonstrate that 'pockets' contain overlapping sets of cosmids (cosmid contigs). In addition to being an important logical intermediate step between the YAC maps published so far and a future map of completely ordered cosmids, this map provides immediately available low-complexity cosmid material for high resolution FISH mapping of chromosomal aberrations on interphase nuclei, and for rapid positional isolation of

  3. Integration of the cytogenetic, genetic, and physical maps of the human genome by FISH mapping of CEPH YAC clones

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    Bray-Ward, P.; Menninger, J.; Lieman, J. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [and others


    This article discusses the genetic mapping of over 950 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones on human chromosomes. This integration of the cytogenetic, genetic and physical maps of the human genome was accomplished using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) mapping and the CEPH library of YAC clones. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. A second-generation YAC contig map of human chromosome 3. (United States)

    Gemmill, R M; Chumakov, I; Scott, P; Waggoner, B; Rigault, P; Cypser, J; Chen, Q; Weissenbach, J; Gardiner, K; Wang, H


    A map of human chromosome 3 which integrates both physical and genetic data has been developed from the fusion of two large collections of markers and corresponding yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones. The map contains 972 megabase-sized YACs identified with 593 primary markers, of which 162 are highly polymorphic sequence-tagged sites (STSs) and form a closely spaced genetic linkage map; the remaining markers are hybridization-based. Chromosome 3 is now represented by 24 large YAC contigs whose order and orientation is largely known. The map generated by fusion of these hybridization- and STS-based datasets covers about 80% (over 160 megabases) of the chromosome and will provide the foundation necessary for rapid development of a detailed genetic understanding for this large autosome.

  5. The CEPH YAC library. (United States)

    Dausset, J; Ougen, P; Abderrahim, H; Billault, A; Sambucy, J L; Cohen, D; Le Paslier, D


    Because of their large size, YACs provide is a powerful tool for physical mapping studies of complex genomes. As it will be advantageous to have genomic libraries of clones with large inserts for analyzing megabase sized regions of the human genome, we have investigated a number of parameters in order to increase the insert size of the YACs. We constructed a genomic library currently containing more than 85,000 YAC clones. Mean sizes of YACs produced at several stages of construction of the library range from 430 kb to 1,200 kb, representing 13 haploid equivalents of the human genome. This library was organized in order to allow rapid screen of YACs for large scale physical mapping of the human genome.

  6. FISH-mapped CEPH YACs spanning 0 to 46 cM on human chromosome 6

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    Bray-Ward, P.; Bowlus, C.; Choi, J. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [and others


    Seventy-six CEPH YACs were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to human metaphase chromosomes. These clones have been ordered from pter to 46 cM by combining the results of FISH with sequence-tagged site content mapping using data from the public databases. This created a minimal tiling path containing at least 37 Mb of human genomic DNA from 0 to 46 cM on chromosome 6 that contains up to four gaps not greater than 200 kb. These data provide an integration of the FLpter physical map values with cytogenetic band localization and markers on the genetic and radiation hybrid maps. We also assessed YAC chimerism and placed three additional Whitehead contigs within the integrated map. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. FISH-Mapped CEPH YACs spanning 0 to 46 cM on human chromosome 6. (United States)

    Bray-Ward, P; Bowlus, C; Choi, J; Paslier, D L; Weissenbach, J; Gruen, J R


    Seventy-six CEPH YACs were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to human metaphase chromosomes. These clones have been ordered from pter to 46 cM by combining the results of FISH with sequence-tagged site content mapping using data from the public databases. This created a minimal tiling path containing at least 37 Mb of human genomic DNA from 0 to 46 cM on chromosome 6 that contains up to four gaps not greater than 200 kb. These data provide an integration of the FLpter physical map values with cytogenetic band localization and markers on the genetic and radiation hybrid maps. We also assessed YAC chimerism and placed three additional Whitehead contigs (WC952, WC799, WC436) within the integrated map.

  8. Integration of the cytogenetic, genetic, and physical maps of the human genome by FISH mapping of CEPH YAC clones. (United States)

    Bray-Ward, P; Menninger, J; Lieman, J; Desai, T; Mokady, N; Banks, A; Ward, D C


    The physical locations on human metaphase chromosomes of over 950 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones from the CEPH library have been determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization and described as fractional chromosome length relative to the terminus of the short arm. Collectively, these clones contain approximately 1 billion basepairs of human DNA, about one-third of the human genome. In addition, the locations of 337 of these clones were established in terms of cytogenetic bands for chromosomes 1-18, 20, and X. Since most clones are positive for one or more of the Généthon polymorphic STS markers with defined genetic linkage distances corresponding to their physical locations, these data facilitate the integration of the cytogenetic, genetic, and physical maps of the human genome. Use of these mapping data in conjunction with public database information on CEPH YACs greatly facilitates the identification of YACs or polymorphic markers at specific locations in the genome.

  9. Construction of a panel of transgenic mice containing a contiguous 2-mb set of YAC/P1 clones from human chromosome 21q22

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    Smith, D.J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhang, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others


    Libraries of the entire human genome, or regions of the genome, have been made in bacteria, yeast, and somatic cells. We have expanded this strategy using overlapping YACs and P1s from human 21q22.2 (the Down syndrome region) to create a panel of transgenic mice containing DNA that encompasses this region of the human genome. Together the members of the in vivo library, each with a unique transgene (four YACs and four P1s), contain approximately 2 Mb of contiguous DNA. The integrity, stable inheritance, and expression of a coding sequence for each member of the YAC panel are demonstrated, and the uses of the panel are described. 54 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Complex FISH probes for the subtelomeric regions of all human chromosomes: comparative hybridization of CEPH YACs to chromosomes of the Old World monkey Presbytis cristata and great apes. (United States)

    Kingsley, K; Wirth, J; van der Maarel, S; Freier, S; Ropers, H H; Haaf, T


    We have generated a human subtelomere probe panel, utilizing well characterized CEPH YACs, for the investigation of human chromosome pathology and evolution through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Region-specific FISH probes will be extremely valuable for detecting cytogenetically cryptic telomere abnormalities. Here, we present the first comparative mapping study (with 29 subtelomere probes and 6 chromosome paints) to the Old World monkey Presbytis cristata, followed by hybridizations to the great apes, gorilla and orangutan, when rearrangements were detected. We observed that the position of telomere-associated genomic sequences has been only moderately conserved during primate evolution. YAC 364f9, specific for the subtelomeric long arm of human chromosome 3, contains an evolutionary inversion breakpoint that was involved in independent chromosome rearrangements in P. cristata and gorilla.

  11. A 1.7-Mb YAC contig around the human BDNF gene (11p13): integration of the physical, genetic, and cytogenetic maps in relation to WAGR syndrome

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    Rosier, M.F.; Martin, A.; Houlgatte, R. [Genetique Moleculaire et Biologie du Development, Villejuif (France)] [and others


    WAGR (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genito-urinary abnormalities, mental retardation) syndrome in humans is associated with deletions of the 11p13 region. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene maps to this region, and its deletion seems to contribute to the severity of the patient`s mental retardation. Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) carrying the BDNF gene have been isolated and characterized. Localization of two known exons of this gene leads to a minimal estimation of its size of about 40 kb. Chimerism of the BDNF YACs has been investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization and chromosome assignment on somatic cell hybrids. Using the BDNF gene, YAC end sequence tagged sites (STS), and Genethon microsatellite markers, the authors constructed a 1.7-Mb contig and refined the cytogenetic map at 11p13. The resulting integrated physical, genetic, and cytogenetic map constitutes a resource for the characterization of genes that may be involved in the WAGR syndrome. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Chimera-free, high copy number YAC libraries and efficient methods of analysis. Final technical progress report

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    The first experiment involved a low chimera YAC library in recombination deficient host strains. To determine if the genetic background of the yeast host strain contributes to the formation of chimeric YACs the same YAC ligation mixture was introduced into three isogenic yeast hosts differing only in their recombination abilities. To prepare YACs, human genomic DNA was partially digested with EcoR1 and then ligated to YAC vector pCGS966 arms. DNA was size fractionated before and after ligation by preparative pulsed field gel electrophoresis (CHEF), selecting for fragments greater than 400 kb, and introduced into competent spheroplasts. CHEF gel Southern blots of resulting colony-purified YACs were probed with human DNA to determine if multiple YACs or YAC fragments were present in the same cell. The frequency of chimeric YACs was measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of YACs to human prometaphase spreads. YACs that hybridized to more than one location were assumed to be chimeric. In the second experiment new YAC vectors featuring tags for capture of YACs and YAC inserts were constructed. Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs) have been of tremendous value in the physical mapping of the human genome. Because they can carry very large inserts, YACs are likely not only to contain entire genes but also their control elements. However, the only mode of purification of YAC DNA from current commonly used YAC libraries such as the CEPH library is by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. This is an inefficient, time consuming process and due to the single copy nature of these YACs, often result in poor yields. The vector pCGS1000 was designed to test new efficient ways of YAC DNA purification.

  13. An integrated YAC clone contig for the WAGR region on human chromosome 11p13-p14.1

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    Gawin, B.; Klamt, B.; Koenig, A.; Thaete, C. [Biozentrum der Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany)] [and others


    The WAGR syndrome (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genito-urinary anomalies, and mental retardation) deletion region on chromosome 11p13 has been extensively characterized by deletion analysis and long-range restriction mapping. A dense probe set is available for this genomic region, which harbors a number of disease gene loci, some of which still are not cloned. The identification of candidates for these genes would be greatly facilitated by a complete gene map for this chromosomal segment. As an initial step toward this goal, we have isolated the entire region in 58 overlapping YAC clones. The contig spanning 8 Mb from RAG1 to KCNA4 has been assembled by STS and probe content mapping for 76 loci with an average spacing of about 100 kb. A subset of clones has been analyzed by PFG analysis to position these within the known physical map. Common microsatellite markers permit an alignment of the YAC contig with the genetic and radiation hybrid maps of chromosome 11. Ten known genes, some with much more refined map positions, are placed in the contig. The severalfold coverage of 11p13-p14.1 provides a reliable resource for the future development of a complete gene map of this region. 34 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Chromosomal mapping of human genes by radioactive hybridization of cDNAs to CEPH-YAC high density gridded filter sets. (United States)

    Claas, A; Savelyeva, L; Pillmann, A; Schwab, M


    Chromosomal assignment of human transcribed sequences has been done mainly by high throughput genome analysis in specialized genome centres and, in a more classical fashion, by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Not every laboratory has the ability to map cDNAs by FISH analysis. We here report a rapid mapping approach that is based on the hybridization of cDNA probes to high density gridded CEPH-YAC filters followed by subsequent computational analysis by database searches in the internet. Not only transcribed sequences but also genomic DNA could be subjected to this mapping approach. The presented approach allows to map human transcribed and genomic DNAs within 1-3 days and with a high level of resolution that will constantly increase in line with the incorporation of data deriving from high throughput genome mapping.

  15. Complementation of a defect in the asparagine-linked glycosylation of a mouse FM3A mutant G258 cell line by spheroplast fusion of a human mega YAC clone 923f5. (United States)

    Masuda, Takahisa; Moriya, Masayuki; Kataoka, Kensuke; Nishikawa, Yoshihisa


    Mouse G258 mutant stopped both cell growth and the synthesis of lipid-linked oligosaccharide at the Man(3)GlcNAc(2)-P-P-Dolichol at a restricted temperature with a single gene mutation. To clarify the lesion in the G258 mutant, we isolated human genomic DNA transformants of the G258 mutant, which recovered from both defects by way of cell hybridization with X-ray irradiated HeLa cells. We detected a common 1.3-kb product by inter-human specific sequence in the L1 (L1Hs) PCR in the transformants (Kataoka et al., Somat. Cell Mol. Genet., 24, 235-243 (1998)). In the present study, we screened a human mega yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library by PCR with primers designed according to the 1.3-kb DNA, and selected YAC clone 923f5. Moreover, we found by spheroplast fusion that YAC clone 923f5 complemented both defects of the G258 mutant. Since the human counterpart of the yeast ALG11 gene is localized in the region, the G258 mutant might have a defect in the mouse ALG11 gene.

  16. Construction of a YAC contig in the region of three retinal degeneration genes in 11q13

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    Gerhard, J.; Wang, J. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)


    We have previously isolated a large number of bacteriophage clones specific for human chromosome 11. Seventy-two clones map to distal 11q13, a region haboring a number of human disease genes. Among them are genes for Best macular degeneration (BMD), Usher`s syndrome type 1B, autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV) and a form of Bardet-Biedl syndrome; all diseases involve retinal degenerations. From the genetic mapping it is clear the BMD and Bardet-Biedl syndrome are located in the proximal portion of the band, while Usher`s syndrome 1B and ADNIV are in the distal portion of 11q13. As the first step towards the cloning of the latter two disease genes, we set out to isolate this region of the chromosome as yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). The 72 clones, as well as two transcribed genes, were assigned into 4 segregation groups with radiation-reduced somatic cell hybrids. We have shown previously that this high probe density can result in the development of large YAC contigs. We chose to use two complementing strategies to screen three different YAC libraries. The two strategies are: (1) the generation of Alu-primed products from the bacteriophage clones that are then used as probes against filters from individual YAC library pools; (2) the sequencing of the bacteriophage clones, STS development and screening YAC libraries by the method of Green and Olson (1990). The former has the advantage of speed, while the latter of specificity. We have identified a total of 140 YACs from 50 screens. Approximately 50% of the markers are already in small contigs. The largest contig has 10 markers and is {approximately}1 mbp. This approach results in fairly rapid development of YAC contigs without additional application of labor-intensive, locus-specific manipulation. We expect to complete the contig within a year.

  17. Chromosomal reassignment: YACs containing both YES1 and thymidylate synthase map to the short arm of chromosome 18

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    Silverman, G.A. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Wenlin Kuo; Gray, J.W. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States)); Taillon-Miller, P. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States))


    The YES1 proto-oncogene was mapped previously to human chromosome band 18q21.3 by using isotopic in situ hybridization. Using yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) as probes and fluorescence in situ hybridization, a strong signal was detected in the region corresponding to 18p11.3. Restriction digests confirmed that the YACs contained the YES1 gene and not other cross-hybridizing, protein-tyrosine kinases. In addition, these YACs were found to contain another 18p11.32 gene, thymidylate synthase. These genes were less than 50 kb apart. Collectively, these data suggest that YES1 maps to 18p11.32 rather than to 18p21.3. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Construction of a YAC contig and STS map spanning 2.5 Mbp in Xq25, the critical region for the X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) gene

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    Lanyi, A.; Li, B.F.; Li, S. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)] [and others


    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is characterized by a marked vulnerability in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Infection of XLP patients with EBV invariably results in fatal mononucleosis, agammaglobulinemia or B-cell lymphoma. The XLP gene lies within a 10 cM region in Xq25 between DXS42 and DXS10. Initial chromosome studies revealed an interstitial, cytogenetically visible deletion in Xq25 in one XLP family (43-004). We estimated the size of the Xq25 deletion by dual laser flow karyotyping to involve 2% of the X chromosome, or approximately 3 Mbp of DNA sequences. To further delineate the deletion we performed a series of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analyses which showed that DXS6 and DXS100, two Xq25-specific markers, are missing from 45-004 DNA. Five yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) from a chromosome X specific YAC library containing sequences deleted in patient`s 43-004 DNA were isolated. These five YACs did not overlap, and their end fragments were used to screen the CEPH MegaYAC library. Seven YACs were isolated from the CEPH MegaYAC library. They could be arranged into a contig which spans between DXS6 and DXS100. The contig contains a minimum of 2.5 Mbp of human DNA. A total of 12 YAC end clone, lambda subclones and STS probes have been used to order clones within the contig. These reagents were also used in Southern blot and patients showed interstitial deletions in Xq25. The size of these deletions range between 0.5 and 2.5 Mbp. The shortest deletion probably represents the critical region for the XLP gene.

  19. A complete YAC contig of the Prader-Willi/Angelman chromosome region (15q11-q13) and refined localization of the SNRPN gene

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    Mutirangura, A.; Jayakumar, A.; Sutcliffe, J.S.; Nakao, M.; McKinney, M.J.; Beaudet, A.L.; Chinault, A.C.; Ledbetter, D.H. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Buiting, K.; Horsthemke, B. (Institut fur Humangenetik (Germany))


    Since a previous report of a partial YAC contig of the Prader-Willi/Angelman chromosome region (15q11-q13), a complete contig spanning approximately 3.5 Mb has been developed. YACs were isolated from two human genomic libraries by PCR and hybridization screening methods. Twenty-three sequence-tagged sites (STSs) were mapped within the contig, a density of [approximately]1 per 200 kb. Overlaps between YAC clones were identified by Alu-PCR dot-blot analysis and confirmed by STS mapping or hybridization with ends of YAC inserts. The gene encoding small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated peptide N (SNRPN), recently identified as a candidate gene for Prader-Willi syndrome, was localized within this contig between markers PW71 and TD3-21. Loci mapped within and immediately flanking the Prader-Willi/Angelman chromosome region contig are ordered as follows: cen-IR39-ML34-IR4-3R-TD189-1-PW71-SNRPN-TD3-21-LS6-1-GABRB3,D15S97-GABRA5-IR10-1-CMW1-tel. This YAC contig will be a useful resource for more detailed physical mapping of the region, for generation of new DNA markers, and for mapping or cloning candidate genes for the Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. The hAPP-YAC transgenic model has elevated UPS activity in the frontal cortex similar to Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome. (United States)

    Seo, Hyemyung; Isacson, Ole


    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is critical for handling the intra-cellular load of abnormal and misfolded proteins in several neurodegenerative diseases. First, to determine the effects of the over-expression of human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) on UPS, we measured proteasome activities using fluorescent substrates in the frontal cortex of hAPP-yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) transgenic (tg) mice (R1.40, hemizygous; Lamb, Nat Genet, 9, 4; 1995). Chymotrypsin and PGPH-like activities of proteasome were increased in frontal cortex of hAPP-YAC tg mice. These proteasome activities (both chymotrypsin and PGPH-like) were further increased by cholinergic stimulation in littermate control mice, but not in hAPP-YAC tg mice. Nerve growth factor (NGF) levels were decreased by hAPP over-expression in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of hAPP-YAC tg mice, and further decreased by M1 agonist treatment in the hippocampus of littermate control and hAPP-YAC tg mice. Interestingly, the frontal cortex (BA9 area) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (Stage 3, n=11) and Down's syndrome (DS) patients (n=9) showed similar up-regulation of the UPS activities to those seen in hAPP-YAC tg mice. M1 agonist stimulation increased the activities of α-secretase, which were down-regulated by hAPP over-expression in the frontal cortex of hAPP-YAC tg mice. These results demonstrate that (i) hAPP-YAC tg mice have an up-regulation in the frontal cortex of the UPS similar to AD and DS patients; (ii) muscarinic stimulation increase UPS activities, increase secreted APP (APPs) levels, and decrease amyloid beta 42/40 ratio only in littermate controls, but not in hAPP-YAC tg mice. Taken together, these results suggest that both the adaptive reactions in the proteostatic network and pathological changes in AD and DS need to be considered in the future potential therapeutics. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  1. YAC clone information - RGP physicalmap | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 08/lsdba.nbdc00318-06-002 Description of data contents YAC clones selected with DNA markers Data file File name: File URL: Data acquisition method YAC clones selected with RGP...rom. No. Chromosome number Region Region number Physical map image The file name of rice physical map Order ...bout This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us YAC clone information - RGP physicalmap | LSDB Archive ...

  2. YAC contig information - RGP physicalmap | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8908/lsdba.nbdc00318-06-001 Description of data contents YAC contigs on the rice chromosomes Data file File name: File URL: Data acquisition method The range including YAC con...m Description Chrom. No. Chromosome number Region Region number Physical map image The file name of rice physical...n Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us YAC contig information - RGP physicalmap | LSDB Archive ...

  3. Cellular, molecular and functional characterisation of YAC transgenic mouse models of Friedreich ataxia.

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    Sara Anjomani Virmouni

    Full Text Available Friedreich ataxia (FRDA is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder, caused by a GAA repeat expansion mutation within intron 1 of the FXN gene. We have previously established and performed preliminary characterisation of several human FXN yeast artificial chromosome (YAC transgenic FRDA mouse models containing GAA repeat expansions, Y47R (9 GAA repeats, YG8R (90 and 190 GAA repeats and YG22R (190 GAA repeats.We now report extended cellular, molecular and functional characterisation of these FXN YAC transgenic mouse models. FXN transgene copy number analysis of the FRDA mice demonstrated that the YG22R and Y47R lines each have a single copy of the FXN transgene while the YG8R line has two copies. Single integration sites of all transgenes were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH analysis of metaphase and interphase chromosomes. We identified significant functional deficits, together with a degree of glucose intolerance and insulin hypersensitivity, in YG8R and YG22R FRDA mice compared to Y47R and wild-type control mice. We also confirmed increased somatic GAA repeat instability in the cerebellum and brain of YG22R and YG8R mice, together with significantly reduced levels of FXN mRNA and protein in the brain and liver of YG8R and YG22R compared to Y47R.Together these studies provide a detailed characterisation of our GAA repeat expansion-based YAC transgenic FRDA mouse models that will help investigations of FRDA disease mechanisms and therapy.

  4. Construction of a YAC contig and STS map spanning at least 10 cM in 1q41, the critical region of Usher II gene

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    Wang, J.Y.; Zhen, D.K.; Li, B.F. [Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States)] [and others


    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder causing congenital hearing loss, progressive retinitis pigmentosa and vestibular dysfunction. The Usher syndrome is both clinically and genetically heterogeneous. At least three genetic types of Usher syndrome are know to exist. The Usher II (USH2) syndrome has originally been linked to 1q41 between D1S70 and D1S81. more recently its location was refined and placed between D1S217 and D1S229. We have constructed a YAC contig containing 23 clones and a minimum of 10 Mbp of human DNA. A total of three NotI linking clones, fourteen polymorphic microsatelite markers, eight YAC end clones and twenty lambda and cosmid subclones have been used to order the YACs and assess their integrity. The YAC subclones were used to reassess the location of the USH2 gene. Seven CpG islands have already been identified in the region. Several potential exons have been identified by exon amplification in the cosmid subclones. This map of overlapping clones, the set of densely spaced physical markers and potential exons will promote our understanding of the 1q1 region, its associated genes and eventually the gene mutated in Usher syndrome type II.

  5. Alterations in STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase expression, activation, and downstream signaling in early and late stages of the YAC128 Huntington's disease mouse model. (United States)

    Gladding, Clare M; Fan, Jing; Zhang, Lily Y J; Wang, Liang; Xu, Jian; Li, Edward H Y; Lombroso, Paul J; Raymond, Lynn A


    Striatal neurodegeneration and synaptic dysfunction in Huntington's disease are mediated by the mutant huntingtin (mHtt) protein. MHtt disrupts calcium homeostasis and facilitates excitotoxicity, in part by altering NMDA receptor (NMDAR) trafficking and function. Pre-symptomatic (excitotoxin-sensitive) transgenic mice expressing full-length human mHtt with 128 polyglutamine repeats (YAC128 Huntington's disease mice) show increased calpain activity and extrasynaptic NMDAR (Ex-NMDAR) localization and signaling. Furthermore, Ex-NMDAR stimulation facilitates excitotoxicity in wild-type cortical neurons via calpain-mediated cleavage of STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase 61 (STEP61). The cleavage product, STEP33, cannot dephosphorylate p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), thereby augmenting apoptotic signaling. Here, we show elevated extrasynaptic calpain-mediated cleavage of STEP61 and p38 phosphorylation, as well as STEP61 inactivation and reduced extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 phosphorylation (ERK1/2) in the striatum of 6-week-old, excitotoxin-sensitive YAC128 mice. Calpain inhibition reduced basal and NMDA-induced STEP61 cleavage. However, basal p38 phosphorylation was normalized by a peptide disrupting NMDAR-post-synaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) binding but not by calpain inhibition. In 1-year-old excitotoxin-resistant YAC128 mice, STEP33 levels were not elevated, but STEP61 inactivation and p38 and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation levels were increased. These results show that in YAC128 striatal tissue, enhanced NMDAR-PSD-95 interactions contributes to elevated p38 signaling in early, excitotoxin-sensitive stages, and suggest that STEP61 inactivation enhances MAPK signaling at late, excitotoxin-resistant stages. The YAC128 Huntington's disease mouse model shows early, enhanced susceptibility to NMDA receptor-mediated striatal apoptosis, progressing to late-stage excitotoxicity resistance. This study shows that elevated NMDA

  6. A 3 Mb YAC contig in the region of Usher Ib on chromosome 11q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, P.M.; Overbeck, L.; Weston, M. [Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, NE (United States)] [and others


    Under syndrome type Ib, a recessive disorder characterized by deafness, retinitis pigmentosa, and vestibular dysfunction has been mapped to chromosome 11q13. A 3 Mb YAC contig has been constructed covering the critical region of Usher Ib and spanning over eight loci: D11S1321, D11S527, D11S533, OMP, D11S906, D11S911, D11S937, and D11S918. This contig was constructed by PCR screening using the above described DNA markers of the CEPH mega YAC library. Additional YACs were identified by data presented in the Genethon physical map. A long-range restriction map has been constructed from both YAC and genomic DNA using STS markers as probes. Cosmid libraries from a subset of YACs have been screened for the location of CpG islands. In addition, potential transcribed regions have been identified by 3{prime} exon trapping of cosmid pools and placed on the YAC physical map.

  7. Establishment of Sequence-Tagged Sites on 15q11-q13 by Alu-Vector PCR Cloning of Yac-Generated Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. Kim


    Full Text Available Angelman syndrome (AS is caused by the loss of function of undefined gene(s on human chromosome 15. The majority of subjects have deletions involving maternally-derived chromosome 15q II-q 13, and the shortest region of deletion overlap (SRO has been localized to the region between D15S10 and D15S113. In this study, yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs, 6G-D4, 9H-D2 and 37D-F9, mapping within the AS SRO, were isolated from the ICI Y AC library. Alu-vector PCR products were amplified from the YACs and from YACs A229A2 and A33FI 0 which had been obtained from the St. Louis Y AC library. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced, and three new sequence-tagged sites were generated within the AS SRO, facilitating the characterization of gene(s involved in the Angelman syndrome.

  8. Human Chromosome 21: Mapping of the chromosomes and cloning of cDNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonarakis, S.E.


    The objective of the research funded by DOE grant DE-FG02-89ER60857 from 6/15/89 to 8/31/91 was to contribute to the physical mapping of human chromosome 21 (HC21) by cloning large fragments of DNA into Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs) and identify YACs that map on HC21. A total of 54 sequence tagged sites (STS) have been developed and mapped in our laboratory to HC21 and can be used as initial reference points for YAC identification and construction of overlapping clones. A small YAC library was constructed which is HC21 specific. DNA from somatic cell hybrid WAV17 or from flow-sorted HC21 was partially digested with EcoRI, ligated into vectors PJS97, PJS98, and YACs have been obtained with average size insert of more than 300 kb. This library has been deposited in D. Patterson's lab for the Joint YAC screening effort. Additional YAC libraries from ICI Pharmaceuticals or from Los Alamos National Laboratories have been screened with several STS and positive YACs have been identified. Work in progress includes screening of YAC libraries in order to construct overlapping clones, characterization of the cloning ends of YACs, characterization of additional STS and cloning of HC21 specific cDNAs. 15 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. A Study on the radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity of YAC-1 Cell Line in Vitroand Maxillofacial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eui Hwan; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study was to aid in the prediction of tumor cell tolerance to radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. For this study, cell surviving curves were obtained for mouse lymphoma YAC-1 cell line using semiautomated MTT assay. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 Gy were irradiated at a dose rate of 210 cGy/min using {sup 60}Co Irradiator ALDORADO 8. After irradiation, YAC-1 cell lines (3 X 10{sup 4} cells/ml) were exposed to bleomycin or cisplatin for 1 hour. The viable cells were determined for each radiation dose and/or each concentration of drug at the 4th day. And they were compared to control values. The obtained results were as follows : 1. The surviving curve with gentle slope was obtained after irradiation of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 Gy on YAC-1 cell line. 2. The cytotoxicity of bleomycin or cisplatin was increased significantly at all concentration of 0.2 {mu}g/ml, 2 {mu}g/ml and 20 {mu}g/ml on YAC-1 cell line (P<0.01). 3. There were no significant differences of surviving fractions among 4 Gy, 6 Gy, and 8 Gy after irradiation of each radiation dose with 2 {mu}g/ml of bleomycin compared with irradiation only on YAC-1 cell line (P<0.05). 5. There were significant differences of surviving fractions between the groups of irradiation only and the groups of irradiation with 2 {mu}g/ml of bleomycin or cisplatin at all doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gy on YAC-1 cell line (P<0.05).

  10. Multicolor chromosome banding (MCB) with YAC/BAC-based probes and region-specific microdissection DNA libraries. (United States)

    Liehr, T; Weise, A; Heller, A; Starke, H; Mrasek, K; Kuechler, A; Weier, H-U G; Claussen, U


    Multicolor chromosome banding (MCB) allows the delineation of chromosomal regions with a resolution of a few megabasepairs, i.e., slightly below the size of most visible chromosome bands. Based on the hybridization of overlapping region-specific probe libraries, chromosomal subregions are hybridized with probes that fluoresce in distinct wavelength intervals, so they can be assigned predefined pseudo-colors during the digital imaging and visualization process. The present study demonstrates how MCB patterns can be produced by region-specific microdissection derived (mcd) libraries as well as collections of yeast or bacterial artificial chromosomes (YACs and BACs, respectively). We compared the efficiency of an mcd library based approach with the hybridization of collections of locus-specific probes (LSP) for fluorescent banding of three rather differently sized human chromosomes, i.e., chromosomes 2, 13, and 22. The LSP sets were comprised of 107 probes specific for chromosome 2, 82 probes for chromosome 13, and 31 probes for chromosome 22. The results demonstrated a more homogeneous coverage of chromosomes and thus, more desirable banding patterns using the microdissection library-based MCB. This may be related to the observation that chromosomes are difficult to cover completely with YAC and/or BAC clones as single-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments showed. Mcd libraries, on the other hand, provide high complexity probes that work well as region-specific paints, but do not readily allow positioning of breakpoints on genetic or physical maps as required for the positional cloning of genes. Thus, combinations of mcd libraries and locus-specific large insert DNA probes appear to be the most efficient tools for high-resolution cytogenetic analyses. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Characterization of subventricular zone-derived progenitor cells from mild and late symptomatic YAC128 mouse model of Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Silva, Ana C; Ferreira, Ildete L; Hayden, Michael R; Ferreiro, Elisabete; Rego, A Cristina


    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by an expansion of CAG repeats in the HTT gene, leading to expression of mutant huntingtin (mHTT) and selective striatal neuronal loss, frequently associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased support of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). New neurons derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ) are apparently not able to rescue HD pathological features. Thus, we analyzed proliferation, migration and differentiation of adult SVZ-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPC) from mild (6month-old (mo)) and late (10mo) symptomatic HD YAC128 mice expressing full-length (FL)-mHTT versus age-matched wild-type (WT) mice. SVZ cells derived from 6mo YAC128 mice exhibited higher migratory capacity and a higher number of MAP2+ and synaptophysin+cells, compared to WT cells; MAP2 labeling was enhanced after exposure to BDNF. However, BDNF-evoked neuronal differentiation was not observed in 10mo YAC128 SVZ-derived cells. Interestingly, 6mo YAC128 SVZ-derived cells showed increased intracellular Ca 2+ levels in response to KCl, which was potentiated by BDNF, evidencing the presence of differentiated neurons. In contrast, KCl depolarization-induced intracellular Ca 2+ increase in 10mo YAC128 SVZ-derived cells was shown to be increased only in BDNF-treated YAC128 SVZ-derived cells, suggestive of decreased differentiation capacity. In addition, BDNF-untreated NSPC from 10mo YAC128 mice exhibited lower mitochondrial membrane potential and increased mitochondrial Ca 2+ accumulation, in relation with NSPC from 6mo YAC128 mice. Data evidence age-dependent reduced migration and decreased acquisition of a neuronal phenotype, accompanied by decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in SVZ-derived cells from YAC128 mice through HD symptomatic phases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A YAC contig spanning the dominant retinitis pigmentosa locus (RP9) on chromosome 7p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, T.J.; Inglehearn, C.F.; Patel, R.J.; Peacock, R.E. [Institute of Ophthalmology, London (United Kingdom)] [and others


    The dominant retinitis pigmentosa locus RP9 has previously been localized to 7p13-p15, in the interval D7S526-D7S484. We now report refinement of the locus to the interval D7S795-D7S484 and YAC contig of approximately 4.8 Mb spanning this region and extending both distally and proximally from it. The contig was constructed by STS content mapping and physically orders 29 STSs in 28 YAC clones. The order of polymorphic markers in the contig is consistent with a genetic map that has been assembled using haplotype data from the CEPH pedigrees. This contig will provide a primary resource for the construction of a transcriptional map of this region and for the identification of the defective gene causing this form of adRP. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Topoisomerase 2 is dispensable for the replication and segregation of small yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). (United States)

    Cebrián, Jorge; Monturus, Estefanía; Martínez-Robles, María-Luisa; Hernández, Pablo; Krimer, Dora B; Schvartzman, Jorge B


    DNA topoisomerases are thought to play a critical role in transcription, replication and recombination as well as in the condensation and segregation of sister duplexes during cell division. Here, we used high-resolution two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis to study the replication intermediates and final products of small circular and linear minichromosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence and absence of DNA topoisomerase 2. The results obtained confirmed that whereas for circular minichromosomes, catenated sister duplexes accumulated in the absence of topoisomerase 2, linear YACs were able to replicate and segregate regardless of this topoisomerase. The patterns of replication intermediates for circular and linear YACs displayed significant differences suggesting that DNA supercoiling might play a key role in the modulation of replication fork progression. Altogether, this data supports the notion that for linear chromosomes the torsional tension generated by transcription and replication dissipates freely throughout the telomeres.

  14. A YAC contig encompassing the chromosome 7p locus for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inglehearn, C.F.; Keen, T.J.; Ratel, R. [Institute of Ophthalmology, London (United Kingdom)] [and others


    Retinitis pigmentosa is an inherited retinal degeneration characterized by night blindness and loss of peripheral vision, often leading to complete blindness. The autosomal dominant form (adRP) maps to at least six different loci, including the rhodopsin and peripherin/Rds genes and four loci identified only by linkage analysis on chromosomes 7p, 7q, 8cen and 19q. The 7p locus was reported by this laboratory in a large English family, with a lod score of 16.5. Several new genetic markers have been tested in the family and this locus has now been refined to an interval of approximately 1 cM between markers D7S795 and D7S484 in the 7p13-15 region. In order to clone the gene for adRP, we have used microsatellites and STSs from the region to identify over 80 YACs, from four different libraries, which map to this interval. End clones from key YACs were isolated for the generation of additional STSs. Eleven microsatellite markers between D7S435 (distal) and D7S484 (proximal) have been ordered by a combination of both physical and genetic mapping. In this way we have now obtained a YAC contig spanning approximately 3 megabases of chromosome 7p within which the adRP gene must lie. One gene (aquaporin) and one chromosome 7 brain EST have been placed on the contig but both map distal to the region of interest. Sixteen other ESTs and three further known 7p genes mapping in the region have been excluded. We are now attempting to build a cosmid contig in the defined interval and identify further expressed sequences from both YACs and cosmids to test as candidates for the adRP gene.

  15. Integrated and sequence-ordered BAC- and YAC-based physical maps for the rat genome. (United States)

    Krzywinski, Martin; Wallis, John; Gösele, Claudia; Bosdet, Ian; Chiu, Readman; Graves, Tina; Hummel, Oliver; Layman, Dan; Mathewson, Carrie; Wye, Natasja; Zhu, Baoli; Albracht, Derek; Asano, Jennifer; Barber, Sarah; Brown-John, Mabel; Chan, Susanna; Chand, Steve; Cloutier, Alison; Davito, Jonathon; Fjell, Chris; Gaige, Tony; Ganten, Detlev; Girn, Noreen; Guggenheimer, Kurtis; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Kreitler, Thomas; Leach, Stephen; Lee, Darlene; Lehrach, Hans; Mayo, Michael; Mead, Kelly; Olson, Teika; Pandoh, Pawan; Prabhu, Anna-Liisa; Shin, Heesun; Tänzer, Simone; Thompson, Jason; Tsai, Miranda; Walker, Jason; Yang, George; Sekhon, Mandeep; Hillier, LaDeana; Zimdahl, Heike; Marziali, Andre; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Zhao, Shaying; Siddiqui, Asim; de Jong, Pieter J; Warren, Wes; Mardis, Elaine; McPherson, John D; Wilson, Richard; Hübner, Norbert; Jones, Steven; Marra, Marco; Schein, Jacqueline


    As part of the effort to sequence the genome of Rattus norvegicus, we constructed a physical map comprised of fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the CHORI-230 BAC library. These BAC clones provide approximately 13-fold redundant coverage of the genome and have been assembled into 376 fingerprint contigs. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) map was also constructed and aligned with the BAC map via fingerprinted BAC and P1 artificial chromosome clones (PACs) sharing interspersed repetitive sequence markers with the YAC-based physical map. We have annotated 95% of the fingerprint map clones in contigs with coordinates on the version 3.1 rat genome sequence assembly, using BAC-end sequences and in silico mapping methods. These coordinates have allowed anchoring 358 of the 376 fingerprint map contigs onto the sequence assembly. Of these, 324 contigs are anchored to rat genome sequences localized to chromosomes, and 34 contigs are anchored to unlocalized portions of the rat sequence assembly. The remaining 18 contigs, containing 54 clones, still require placement. The fingerprint map is a high-resolution integrative data resource that provides genome-ordered associations among BAC, YAC, and PAC clones and the assembled sequence of the rat genome.

  16. Genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells reduce behavioral deficits in the YAC 128 mouse model of Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Dey, Nicholas D; Bombard, Matthew C; Roland, Bartholomew P; Davidson, Stacy; Lu, Ming; Rossignol, Julien; Sandstrom, Michael I; Skeel, Reid L; Lescaudron, Laurent; Dunbar, Gary L


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of the transplantation of bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), genetically engineered to over-express brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or nerve growth factor (NGF) on motor deficits and neurodegeneration in YAC 128 transgenic mice. MSCs, harvested from mouse femurs, were genetically engineered to over-express BDNF and/or NGF and these cells, or the vehicle solution, were injected into the striata of four-month old YAC 128 transgenic and wild-type mice. Assessments of motor ability on the rotarod and the severity of clasping were made one day prior to transplantation and once monthly, thereafter, to determine the effects of the transplanted cells on motor function. The mice were sacrificed at 13-months of age for immunohistological examination. All YAC 128 mice receiving transplants had reduced clasping, relative to vehicle-treated YAC 128 mice, while YAC 128 mice that were transplanted with MSCs which were genetically engineered to over-express BDNF, had the longest latencies on the rotarod and the least amount of neuronal loss within the striatum of the YAC 128 mice. These results indicate that intrastriatal transplantation of MSCs that over-express BDNF may create an environment within the striatum that slows neurodegenerative processes and provides behavioral sparing in the YAC 128 mouse model of HD. Further research on the long-term safety and efficacy of this approach is needed before its potential clinical utility can be comprehensively assessed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Screening of YAC clones and building a map of the chromosome 13 region often deleted during chronic B-cell lymphocytic leucosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brodyanskii, VM; Sulimova, GE; Udina, IG; Aitova, SS; Shaikhaev, GO; Sharikova, OA; Zakharev, VM; Fedorova, LI; Zelenin, AV; Eikhorn, S; Baush, C; Laland, M; Ross, M; Yankovskii, NK


    Pools of YAC clones from the ICRF library were analyzed by PCR using PBKpt, MGG15, and D13S25 markers that flank the chromosome 13 region often deleted during chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Ten clones were found and described. Nine mega-YAC clones from the CEPH library flanking the region of interest

  18. A YAC contig spanning the ataxia-telangiectasia locus (groups A and C) at 11q22-q23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotman, G.; Savitsky, K.; Ziv, Y. [Tel Aviv Univ. Ramat Aviv (Israel)] [and others


    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive disease involving cerebellar degeneration, immunodeficiency, cancer predisposition, chromosomal instability and radiosensitivity. A-T is heterogeneous, and the majority of A-T cases are associated with two complementation groups, A and C. The ATA and ATC loci are closely linked at chromosome 11q22-q23. Recombination mapping and linkage disequilibrium analysis have confined both loci between the markers D11S1817 and D11S927. Construction of this contig was expedited by prior generation of a region-specific ICRF sublibrary using Alu-PCR products derived from a radiation hybrid. The contig was expanded further by screening the libraries with Alu-PCR products derived from YAC clones and with STSs from YAC ends. YAC clones were aligned by fingerprinting with moderately repetitive probes. 56 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Ca2+ Handling in Isolated Brain Mitochondria and Cultured Neurons Derived from the YAC128 Mouse Model of Huntington’s Disease (United States)

    Pellman, Jessica J.; Hamilton, James; Brustovetsky, Tatiana; Brustovetsky, Nickolay


    We investigated Ca2+ handling in isolated brain synaptic and nonsynaptic mitochondria and in cultured striatal neurons from the YAC128 mouse model of Huntington’s disease (HD). Both synaptic and nonsynaptic mitochondria from 2- and 12-month-old YAC128 mice had larger Ca2+ uptake capacity than mitochondria from YAC18 and wild-type FVB/NJ mice. Synaptic mitochondria from 12-month-old YAC128 mice had further augmented Ca2+ capacity compared with mitochondria from 2-month-old YAC128 mice and age-matched YAC18 and FVB/NJ mice. This increase in Ca2+ uptake capacity correlated with an increase in the amount of mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt) associated with mitochondria from 12-month-old YAC128 mice. We speculate that this may happen due to mHtt-mediated sequestration of free fatty acids thereby increasing resistance of mitochondria to Ca2+-induced damage. In experiments with striatal neurons from YAC128 and FVB/NJ mice, brief exposure to 25 or 100μM glutamate produced transient elevations in cytosolic Ca2+ followed by recovery to near resting levels. Following recovery of cytosolic Ca2+, mitochondrial depolarization with FCCP produced comparable elevations in cytosolic Ca2+, suggesting similar Ca2+ release and, consequently, Ca2+ loads in neuronal mitochondria from YAC128 and FVB/NJ mice. Together, our data argue against a detrimental effect of mHtt on Ca2+ handling in brain mitochondria of YAC128 mice. PMID:25963273

  20. YAC contig organization and CpG island analysis in Xq28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmieri, G.; Romano, G.; Ciccodicola, A. [International Institute of Genetics and Biophysics, Naples (Italy)] [and others


    One hundred nineteen YACs were assembled into 6 contigs spanning about 7.1 Mb of Xq28. The contigs were formatted with 65 STSs and 136 hybridization probes and were extensive enough to be aligned and oriented by published genetic linkage and somatic cell hybrid panel data. Selected YACs from the entire region were mapped with five rare-cutter restriction enzymes to infer the position of putative CpG islands indicative of gene locations; 48 such sites were identified by the near coincidence of at least three rare-cutter sites. The analysis defined three subregions of Xq28: 4 Mb of moderate GC and CpG island content from the Xq27 border through the GABRA locus; 1.5 to 2 Mb, extending to the G6PD gene, that is variably and poorly cloned, but contains a high concentration of CpG islands and GC; and about 1.5 Mb between G6PD and the telomere, which is generally low in CpG and GC levels, including a subtelomeric DNA region that shows extensive homology to Yq DNA. 53 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Development of a YAC contig covering the minimal region of a CSNB1 locus in Xp11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boycott, K.M.; Gratton, K.J.; Moore, B.J. [Univ. of Calgary (Canada)] [and others


    X-linked congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB1) is an eye disorder that includes impairment of night vision, reduced visual acuity and, in some cases, myopia and congenital nystagmus. Electroretinography reveals a marked reduction of the b-wave in affected individuals suggesting that X-linked CSNB is due to a molecular defect in the bipolar layer of the retina. Based on our studies of a large four generation family with X-linked CSNB, a CSNB1 locus was mapped to a 4-5 cM region at Xp11.23-Xp11.22 bounded telomerically by DXS426 and centromerically by DXS988. Using a panel of radiation and conventional somatic cell hybrids, a detailed map of new and published STSs has been generated for the minimal region of CSNB1. PCR primer pairs for STSs has been generated for the minimal region of CSNB1. PCR primer pairs for twenty-five STSs, including eleven end-clones, were used to isolate YAC clones from CEPH, mega-CEPH, and X chromosome-specific YAC libraries. In total, fifty-two YACs were characterized for STS overlaps and assembled to provide a minimum of 3 Mb of physical coverage in the region between DXS426 and DXS988. Five gaps proximal to SYP are still to be closed. Our physical map suggests the following gene order: Xpter-OTAL1-GF1-DXS1011E-MG81-HUMCRAS2P-SYP-Xcen. STS analysis of the YACs revealed three subregions of the physical map which appear to be particularly susceptible to internal deletions and end-clone analysis demonstrated chimerism in six of seventeen YACs. A physical map of Xp11.23-Xp11.22 will provide a resource for the isolation of candidate genes for the X-linked CSNB gene which maps to this region.

  2. Systematic characterisation of disease associated balanced chromosome rearrangements by FISH: cytogenetically and genetically anchored YACs identify microdeletions and candidate regions for mental retardation genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirth, J; Nothwang, H G; van der Maarel, S


    Disease associated balanced chromosome rearrangements (DBCRs) have been instrumental in the isolation of many disease genes. To facilitate the molecular cytogenetic characterisation of DBCRs, we have generated a set of >1200 non-chimeric, cytogenetically and genetically anchored CEPH YACs...

  3. Longitudinal analyses of operant performance on the serial implicit learning task (SILT) in the YAC128 Huntington's disease mouse line. (United States)

    Brooks, Simon P; Jones, Lesley; Dunnett, Stephen B


    Huntington's disease is a genetic disorder characterised by progressive striatal and cortical neurodegeneration, resulting in a broad range of motor, cognitive and behavioural abnormalities. The disease is caused by a single mutation in the gene responsible for the protein huntingtin, increasing the number of polyQ repeats and conferring a toxic gain of function to the mutant protein, which ultimately induces cell death. Several mouse models of HD are available. The YAC128 mouse model carries 128 CAG repeats and is known to develop several HD-like symptoms. This model has been well characterised on the FVB/N background strain, a strain that develops severe retinal degeneration. We have therefore sought to characterise YAC128 deficit in mice backcrossed onto the C57BL/6j background strain which is free of visual deficits and therefore more amenable to behavioural testing. In a parallel study (this special issue) we have provided a longitudinal characterisation of the emergence of a motor phenotype in the YAC128/C57BL mice. In the present paper, we have undertaken a more detailed characterisation of cognitive impairment in this mouse line at 6, 12, and 18 months of age using the operant serial implicit learning task (SILT), a task that was first designed to assess impairments in mice similar to the implicit serial learning impairments in HD patients task, and which has subsequently been shown to be highly sensitive to cortico-striatal disruption in mice. On the SILT task, the mouse must attain rewards by correctly nose-poking to 2 stimulus lights (S1 and S2) presented randomly and sequentially in 5 holes (deemed A-E) on a light array. Performance is measured by accuracy and speed of response to the S1 and S2 stimuli. Embedded within the random sequences, was a predictable sequence whereby an S1 in hole B is always followed by the S2 in hole D, which constitutes an implicit learning probe. The YAC128 carriers were less accurate in their responses to both S1 and S2

  4. Development and physical analysis of YAC contigs covering 7 Mb of Xp22.3-p22.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrell, S.; Novo, F.J.; Charlton, R. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)] [and others


    A total of YAC clones have been isolated from the region of Xp22.2-p22.3 extending from the amelogenin gene locus to DXS31. Restriction analysis of these clones in association with STS contenting and end clone analysis has facilitated the construction of 6 contigs covering a total of 7 Mb in which 20 potential CpG islands have been located. Thirty new STSs have been developed from probe and YAC end clone sequences, and these have been used in the analysis of patients suffering from different combinations of chondrodysplasia punctata, mental retardation, X-linked ichthyosis, and Kallmann syndrome. The results suggest that (1) the gene for chondrodysplasia punctata must lie between the X chromosome pseudoautosomal boundary (PABX) and DXS1145; (2) a gene for mental retardation lies between DXS1145 and the sequence tagged site GS1; and (3) the gene for ocular albinism type 1 lies proximal to the STS G13. The CpG islands within the YAC contigs constitute valuable markers for the potential positions of genes. Genes found associated with any of these potential CpG islands would be possible candidates for the disease genes mentioned above. 47 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Mice lacking caspase-2 are protected from behavioral changes, but not pathology, in the YAC128 model of Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bissada Nagat


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington Disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder in which caspase activation and cleavage of substrates, including the huntingtin protein, has been invoked as a pathological mechanism. Specific changes in caspase-2 (casp2 activity have been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of HD, however unique casp2 cleavage substrates have remained elusive. We thus utilized mice completely lacking casp2 (casp2-/- to examine the role played by casp2 in the progression of HD. This 'substrate agnostic' approach allows us to query the effect of casp2 on HD progression without pre-defining proteolytic substrates of interest. Results YAC128 HD model mice lacking casp2 show protection from well-validated motor and cognitive features of HD, including performance on rotarod, swimming T-maze, pre-pulse inhibition, spontaneous alternation and locomotor tasks. However, the specific pathological features of the YAC128 mice including striatal volume loss and testicular degeneration are unaltered in mice lacking casp2. The application of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques validates specific neuropathology in the YAC128 mice that is not altered by ablation of casp2. Conclusions The rescue of behavioral phenotypes in the absence of pathological improvement suggests that different pathways may be operative in the dysfunction of neural circuitry in HD leading to behavioral changes compared to the processes leading to cell death and volume loss. Inhibition of caspase-2 activity may be associated with symptomatic improvement in HD.

  6. A YAC contig encompassing the Treacher Collins syndrome critical region at 5q31.3-32. (United States)

    Dixon, J.; Gladwin, A. J.; Loftus, S. K.; Riley, J. H.; Perveen, R.; Wasmuth, J. J.; Anand, R.; Dixon, M. J.


    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCOF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development the features of which include conductive hearing loss and cleft palate. Previous studies have localized the TCOF1 locus between D5S519 (proximal) and SPARC (distal), a region of 22 centirays as estimated by radiation hybrid mapping. In the current investigation we have created a contig across the TCOF1 critical region, using YAC clones. Isolation of a novel short tandem repeat polymorphism corresponding to the end of one of the YACs has allowed us to reduce the size of the critical region to approximately 840 kb, which has been covered with three nonchimeric YACs. Restriction mapping has revealed that the region contains a high density of clustered rare-cutter restriction sites, suggesting that it may contain a number of different genes. The results of the present investigation have further allowed us to confirm that the RPS14 locus lies proximal to the critical region and can thereby be excluded from a role in the pathogenesis of TCOF1, while ANX6 lies within the TCOF1 critical region and remains a potential candidate for the mutated gene. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8037214

  7. A YAC contig encompassing the Treacher Collins syndrome critical region at 5q31. 3-32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, J.; Gladwin, A.J.; Perveen, R.; Dixon, M.J. (Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)); Loftus, S.K.; Wasmuth, J.J. (Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)); Riley, J.H.; Anand, R.


    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCOF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development the features of which include conductive hearing loss and cleft palate. Previous studies have localized the TCOF1 locus between D5S519 (proximal) and SPARC (distal), a region of 22 centirays as estimated by radiation hybrid mapping. In the current investigation the authors have created a contig across the TCOF1 critical region, using YAC clones. Isolation of a novel short tandem repeat polymorphism corresponding to the end of one of the YACs has allowed reduction of the size of the critical region to [approximately] 840 kb, which has been covered with three nonchimeric YACs. Restriction mapping has revealed that the region contains a high density of clustered rare-cutter restriction sites, suggesting that it may contain a number of different genes. The results of the present investigation have further allowed confirmation that the RPS14 locus lies proximal to the critical region and can thereby be excluded from a role in the pathogenesis of TCOF1, while ANX6 lies within the TCOF1 critical region and remains a potential candidate for the mutated gene. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Construction of a YAC contig encompassing the Usher syndrome type 1C and familial hyperinsulinism loci on chromosome 11p14-15.1. (United States)

    Ayyagari, R; Nestorowicz, A; Li, Y; Chandrasekharappa, S; Chinault, C; van Tuinen, P; Smith, R J; Hejtmancik, J F; Permutt, M A


    The Usher syndrome type 1C (USH1C) and familial hyperinsulinism (HI) loci have been assigned to chromosome 11p14-15.1, within the interval D11S419-D11S1310. We have constructed a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig, extending from D11S926 to D11S899, which encompasses the critical regions for both USH1C and HI and spans an estimated genetic distance of approximately 4 cM. A minimal set of six YAC clones constitute the contig, with another 22 YACs confirming the order of sequence-tagged sites (STSs) and position of YACs on the contig. A total of 40 STSs, including 10 new STSs generated from YAC insert-end sequences and inter-Alu PCR products, were used to order the clones within the contig. This physical map provides a resource for identification of gene transcripts associated with USH1C, HI, and other genetic disorders that map to the D11S926-D11S899 interval.

  9. Molecular cytogenetic mapping of 24 CEPH YACs and 24 gene-specific large insert probes to chromosome 17. (United States)

    Bärlund, M; Nupponen, N N; Karhu, R; Tanner, M M; Paavola, P; Kallioniemi, O P; Kallioniemi, A


    Defining boundaries of chromosomal rearrangements at the molecular level would benefit from landmarks that link the cytogenetic map to physical, genetic, and transcript maps, as well as from large-insert FISH probes for such loci to detect numerical and structural rearrangements in metaphase or interphase cells. Here, we determined the locations of 24 genetically mapped CEPH-Mega YACs along the FLpter scale (fractional length from p-telomere) by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. This generated a set of cytogenetically mapped probes for chromosome 17 with an average spacing of about 5 cM. We then developed large-insert YAC, BAC, PAC, or P1 clones to the following 24 known genes, and determined refined map locations along the same FLpter scale: pter-TP53-TOP3-cen-TNFAIP1-ERBB2-TOP2A- BRCA1-TCF11-NME1-HLF-ZNF147/CL N80-BCL5/MPO/SFRS1-TBX2-PECAM1-DDX5/ PRKCA-ICAM2-GH1/PRKAR1A-GRB2-CDK3 /FKHL13-qter. Taken together, these 48 cytogenetically mapped large-insert probes provide tools for the molecular analysis of chromosome 17 rearrangements, such as mapping amplification, deletion, and translocation breakpoints in this chromosome, in cancer and other diseases.

  10. Tourette syndrome in a pedigree with a 7;18 translocation: Identification of a YAC spanning the translocation breakpoint at 18q22.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boghosian-Sell, L.; Overhauser, J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Comings, D.E. [City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)


    Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by the presence of multiple, involuntary motor and vocal tics. Associated pathologies include attention deficit disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Extensive linkage analysis based on an autosomal dominant mode of transmission with reduced penetrance has failed to show linkage with polymorphic markers, suggesting either locus heterogeneity or a polygenic origin for Tourette syndrome. An individual diagnosed with Tourette syndrome has been described carrying a constitutional chromosome translocation. Other family members carrying the translocation exhibit features seen in Tourette syndrome including motor tics, vocal tics, and OCD. Since the disruption of specific genes by a chromosomal rearrangement can elicit a particular phenotype, we have undertaken the physical mapping of the 7;18 translocation such that genes mapping at the site of the breakpoint can be identified and evaluated for a possible involvement in Tourette syndrome. Using somatic cell hybrids retaining either the der(7) or the der(18), a more precise localization of the breakpoints on chromosomes 7 and 18 have been determined. Furthermore, physical mapping has identified two YAC clones that span the translocation breakpoint on chromosome 18 as determined by FISH. These YAC clones will be useful for the eventual identification of genes that map to chromosomes 7 and 18 at the site of the translocation. 41 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. difusividad, masa, humedad, volumen y sólidos en yacón (Smallantus sonchifolius deshidratado osmóticamente

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    Julio Rojas Naccha


    Full Text Available Se evaluó la capacidad predictiva de la Red Neuronal Artificial (RNA en el efecto de la concentración (30,40, 50 y 60 % p/p y temperatura (30, 40 y 50°C de la solución de fructooligosacaridos (FOS en la masa,humedad, volumen y sólidos en cubos de yacón osmodeshidratados, y en el coeficiente de difusividad efectivamedia del agua, con y sin encogimiento. Se aplicó la RNA del tipoFeedforwardcon los algoritmos deentrenamientoBackpropagationy de ajuste de pesosLevenberg-Marquardt, usando la topología: error metade 10-5, tasa de aprendizaje de 0.01, coeficiente de momento de 0.5, 2 neuronas de entrada, 6 neuronas desalida, una capa oculta con 18 neuronas, 15 etapas de entrenamiento y funciones de transferencialogsig-purelin. El error promedio global por la RNA fue 3.44% y los coeficientes de correlación fueron mayores a0.9. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los valores experimentales con losvalores predichos porla RNA y con los valores predichos por un modelo estadístico de regresión polinomial de segundo orden (p >0.95.Palabras clave:Red Neuronal Artificial (RNA, difusividad efectiva, yacón, deshidratación osmótica

  12. Rae1/YacP, a new endoribonuclease involved in ribosome-dependent mRNA decay in Bacillus subtilis. (United States)

    Leroy, Magali; Piton, Jérémie; Gilet, Laetitia; Pellegrini, Olivier; Proux, Caroline; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Figaro, Sabine; Condon, Ciarán


    The PIN domain plays a central role in cellular RNA biology and is involved in processes as diverse as rRNA maturation, mRNA decay and telomerase function. Here, we solve the crystal structure of the Rae1 (YacP) protein of Bacillus subtilis, a founding member of the NYN (Nedd4-BP1/YacP nuclease) subfamily of PIN domain proteins, and identify potential substrates in vivo Unexpectedly, degradation of a characterised target mRNA was completely dependent on both its translation and reading frame. We provide evidence that Rae1 associates with the B. subtilis ribosome and cleaves between specific codons of this mRNA in vivo Critically, we also demonstrate translation-dependent Rae1 cleavage of this substrate in a purified translation assay in vitro Multiple lines of evidence converge to suggest that Rae1 is an A-site endoribonuclease. We present a docking model of Rae1 bound to the B. subtilis ribosomal A-site that is consistent with this hypothesis and show that Rae1 cleaves optimally immediately upstream of a lysine codon (AAA or AAG) in vivo. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. Refined mapping and YAC contig construction of the X-linked cleft palate and ankyloglossia locus (CPX) including the proximal X-Y homology breakpoint within Xq21.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, S.A.; Brennan, L.; Richardson, M. [Queen Charlotte`s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)] [and others


    The gene for X-linked cleft palate (CPX) has previously been mapped in an Icelandic kindred between the unordered proximal markers DXS1002/DXS349/DXS95 and the distal marker DXYS1X, which maps to the proximal end of the X-Y homology region in Xq21.3. Using six sequence-tagged sites (STSs) within the region, a total of 91 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones were isolated and overlapped in a single contig that spans approximately 3.1 Mb between DXS1002 and DXYS1X. The order of microsatellite and STS markers in this was established as DXS1002-DXS1168-DXS349-DXS95-DXS364-DXS1196-DXS472-DXS1217-DXYS1X. A long-range restriction map of this region was created using eight nonchimeric, overlapping YAC clones. Analysis of newly positioned polymorphic markers in recombinant individuals from the Icelandic family has enabled us to identify DXS1196 and DXS1217 as the flanking markers for CPX. The maximum physical distance containing the CPX gene has been estimated to be 2.0 Mb, which is spanned by a minimum set of five nonchimeric YAC clones. In addition, YAC end clone and STS analyses have pinpointed the location of the proximal boundary of the X-Y homology region within the map. 40 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Yacâpa

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    Full Text Available YACAPA. Le texte en quechua de Ferreñafe, que nous présentons ici en trois versions, essaie d’illustrer les différentes étapes qu’un document de la tradition orale doit traverser depuis l’enregistrement original jusqu’à sa reformulation en texte littéraire susceptible d’être incorporé dans des livres scolaires ou des anthologies. Les nombreux problèmes qui doivent être résolus comprennent la normalisation de l’orthographe d’un dialecte sans tradition écrite, la substitution des hispanismes quand cela semble convénient et, parfois, la reformulation des énoncés trop marqués par l’influence de l’acculturation bilingue. En outre, il faudrait résoudre le problème de l’élimination des éléments caractéristiques du style oral: la répétition excessive, les énoncés tronqués, les hésitations et les incohérences, sans perdre complètement la spontanéité de l’original. El texto en quechua de Ferreñafe que presentamos aquí en tres versiones trata de ilustrar las diferentes etapas por las que pasa un documento de la tradición oral desde la grabación original hasta su reformulación en texto literario apto a ser incluido en libros escolares o antologías. Los diversos problemas que tienen que ser resueltos comprenden la normalización de la grafía de un dialecto sin tradición escrita, la sustitución, cuando parezca conveniente, de los hispanismos y, a veces, la reformulación de los enunciados demasiado influidos por la aculturación bilingüe. Además, tiene que resolverse el problema de la eliminación de elementos característicos del estilo oral: la excesiva repetición, los enunciados truncos, las vacilaciones y las incoherencias, sin perder por completo la espontaneidad del original. YACAPA. By presenting three versions of a text in Ferreñafe Quechua, we aim at illustrating the different stages that oral tradition goes through from its original recording until the establishment of a literary document ready to be published as school material or in an anthology. The many problems which must be resolved include the normalizing of spelling in a dialect with no written tradition, the replacing of Spanish words where it seems justified and the reformulation of sentences over-influenced by bilingual acculturation. It is also necessary to resolve the problem of eliminating aspects of the text which betray its oral origin: over repetition, unfinished sentences, pauses and incoherent remarks, without completely losing the spontaneity of the original.

  15. Efecto hepatoprotector del extracto acuoso de Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacón en un modelo de intoxicación con acetaminofén

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    Acela Inés Arnao-Salas


    Full Text Available En la medicina tradicional se ha publicado que las hojas de Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacón poseen efectos antidiabético y hepatoprotector. Objetivos: Evaluar en suero y hematíes el efecto hepatoprotector del extracto acuoso de hojas de yacón (EAY en un modelo de intoxicación con acetaminofén en ratas. Diseño: Experimental, transversal. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Hojas de yacón. Intervenciones: Se formó cinco grupos de ratas hembra (n=6 que recibieron por cinco días, por vía oral, suero fisiológico (SF, EAY o silimarina (Sil (50 mg/kg y luego de 1 hora, SF o acetaminofén (A 250 mg/kg, según lo siguiente: G1 (control; SF-SF, G2 (SF-A, G3 (EAY (200 mg/kg-A, G4 (EAY (400 mg/kg-A y G5 (Sil-A. Principales medidas de los resultados: Actividad de aspartato amino transferasas (AST, alanina amino transferasa (ALT, fosfatasa alcalina (FAL γ γ-amino transferasa (γ-GTP; niveles de bilirrubina total (BT, proteνnas y lipoperoxidaciσn (MDA. En hematíes, actividades de superóxido dismutasa (SOD, catalasa (CAT y hemoglobina. Resultados: Se observó aumento significativo (p<0,05 en la actividad de γ-GTP entre el grupo G2 y los grupos G3 y G4. Hubo disminuciσn significativa (p<0,05 de proteνnas en el grupo G2 con respecto G1. El nivel de MDA fue menor en el grupo que recibió 200 mg/kg de EAY con respecto al control. Las actividades de AST, ALT y FAL no mostraron diferencias significativas. La relación SOD/CAT fue similar entre los grupos G1, G4 y G5, evidencia de una recuperación del daño causado por el acetaminofén. Conclusiones: La administración del EAY tuvo un efecto hepatoprotector comparable a la silimarina.

  16. A proposal for chemical characterization and quality evaluation of botanical raw materials using glandular trichome microsampling of yacón (Polymnia sonchifolia, Asteraceae, an Andean medicinal plant

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    K. Schorr

    Full Text Available A proposal for chemical characterisation and quality evaluation of botanical raw materials by analysing the glandular trichomes from the leaves of two different populations of yacón (Polymnia sonchifolia Poeppig & Endlicher, Asteraceae is described. This species is an Andean medicinal plant and the tea prepared with their leaves displays hypoglycemic property. The method was based on the glandular trichome microsampling using LC/DAD. Qualitative chromatographic fingerprints of the glands were obtained by isocratic runs and then compared between the two populations, showing the same qualitative profile. The two main metabolites detected in the glands were later isolated from a leaf rinse extract by preparative separation and identified as the melampolides enhydrin and uvedalin. These compounds, subtypes of sesquiterpene lactones, were used as chemical markers. This technique is applicable to other medicinal plants and can be used for the evaluation of the quality of dried material or leaf rinse extracts.

  17. A 1. 8-Mb YAC contig in Xp11. 23: Identification of Cpg islands and physical mapping of CA repeats in a region of high gene density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, M.P.; Nemeth, A.H.; Campbell, L.; Raut, C.P.; Davies, K.E. (Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford (United Kingdom)); Weissenbach, J. (Unite de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Paris (France))


    The genes ARAF1, SYN1, TIMP, and PFC are clustered within 70 kb of one another, and, as reported in the accompanying paper, at least four more genes map within 400 kb: a cluster of Krueppel-type zinc finger genes (including ZNF21, ZNF41, and ZNF81) and ELK-1, a member of the ets oncogene superfamily. This gene-rich region is of particular interest because of the large number of disease genes mapping to Xp11.23: At least three eye diseases (retinitis pigmentosa type 2, congenital stationary night blindness CSNB1, and Aland Island eye disease), Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked nephrolithiasis, and a translocation breakpoint associated with synovial sarcoma. The authors have constructed a 1.8-Mb YAC contig in this region, confirming the link between TIMP and OATL1 reported by Knight et al. (1994) and extending the map in the distal direction. To investigate the likelihood that more genes are located within this region, they have carried out detailed mapping of rare-cutter restriction sites in these YACs and identified seven CpG islands. At least six of these islands are located over 50 kb from any known gene locations, suggesting that the region contains at least this many as yet unidentified genes. They have also mapped the physical locations of six highly polymorphic CA repeats within the contig, thus integrating the physical, genetic, and transcriptional maps of the region and facilitating the mapping and identification of disease genes. Together with the report by Knight et al., these data indicate the following order of loci: Xpter-DXS1264-DXS1055-DXS1003-DXS1146-DXS1266-(ZNF41, ARAF1)-SYN1 CA repeat-SYN1 (3[prime] end)-TIMP-SYN1 (5[prime] end)-PFC CA repeat-PFC-(DXS426, ELK1)-(DXS1265, ZNF81)-ZNF21-DXS1267-OATL1-Xcen. 40 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. The construction of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig in the vicinity of the Usher syndrome type IIa (USH2A) gene in 1q41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumegi, Janos; Wang, Ji-Yi; Zhen, Dong-Kai [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)] [and others


    The gene for Usher syndrome type II (USH2A), and autosomal recessive syndromic deafness, has been mapped to a region of 1q41 flanked proximally by D1S217 and distally by D1S439. Using sequence-tagged sites (STSs) within the region, a total of 21 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones were isolated and ordered into a single contig that spans approximately 11.0 Mb. The order of microsatellite and STS markers in this region was established as D1S505-D1S425-DXS217-D1S556-D1S237-D1S474-EB1-KB6-AFM144XF2-KB1-KB4-D1S229-D1S490-D1S227-TGF{beta}2-D1S439. Analysis of newly positioned polymorphic markers in recombinant individuals in two Usher syndrome type IIa families has enabled us to identify DXS474 and AFM144XF2 as two flanking markers for the Usher type IIa locus. The physical distance between the two markers is 1.0 Mb. This region is covered by eight YACs from the CEPH library: 945f7, 867g9, 762a6, 919h3, 794b8, 785h4, 848b9, and 841g2. A long range physical map of the Usher type IIa critical region, using MluI, BssHII, NotI, EagI, and SacII, has been developed. 41 refs., 5 figs.

  19. A YAC contig and an EST map in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 13 surrounding the loci for neurosensory nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB1 and DFNA3) and Limb-Girdle muscular dystrophy type 2C (LGMD2C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilford, P.; Crozet, F.; Blanchard, S. [Institut Pasteur, Paris (France)] [and others


    Two forms of inherited childhood nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB1 and DFNA3) and a Duchenne-like form of progressive muscular dystrophy (LGMD2C) have been mapped to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 13. To clone the genes responsible for these diseases we constructed a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig spanning an 8-cM region between the polymorphic markers D13S221. The contig comprises 24 sequence-tagged sites, among which 15 were newly obtained. This contig allowed us to order the polymorphic markers centromere- D13S175-D13S141-D13S143-D13S115-AFM128yc1-D13S292-D13S283-AFM323vh5-D13S221-telomere. Eight expressed sequence tags, previously assigned to 13q11-q12 (D13S182E, D13S183E, D13S502E, D13S504E, D13S505E, D13S837E, TUBA2, ATP1AL1), were localized on the YAC contig. YAC screening of a cDNA library derived from mouse cochlea allowed us to identify an {alpha}-tubulin gene (TUBA2) that was subsequently precisely mapped within the candidate region. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Cinética de la transferencia de masa durante la deshidratación osmótica de yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius Cinética de transferência de massa durante a desidratação osmótica de yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius

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    Silvina Maldonado


    Full Text Available El yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius es un tubérculo andino de vida útil muy corta bajo condiciones ambientales. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron determinar: 1 la cinética de deshidratación osmótica de yacón, utilizando sacarosa como soluto; 2 el ajuste de la ecuación de Peleg a los datos experimentales; y 3 el coeficiente de difusión usando la ecuación de Hawkes y Flink. La fruta se peló y cortó en placas de 3 x 3 x 0,3 cm. Se la deshidrató osmóticamente con solución de sacarosa al 40% (p/p, hasta aw = 0,97. El proceso se realizó a temperatura de 25 °C y con agitación continua (105 rpm. Se determinó la pérdida de peso de las muestras, la ganancia de sólidos y la retención de agua. Los parámetros obtenidos para el ajuste de pérdida de agua y ganancia de sólidos son respectivamente: k1: 8,2 0,1 y k2: 0,53 ± 0,06; k1: 234 ± 8 y k2: 2,6 ± 0,5. La mayor transferencia de masa, tanto de agua como de soluto, ocurre durante los primeros 60 a 90 minutos de proceso, lográndose una ganancia media de sólidos de 9,5 [g.100 g-1 MF] y una pérdida de agua de 68,8 [g.100 g-1MF]. Se puede asegurar que es posible aplicar satisfactoriamente el proceso de deshidratación osmótica en yacón como pre tratamiento de conservación.O yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius é um tubérculo andino de vida útil muito curta sob condições ambientais. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar: 1 a cinética de desidratação osmótica do yacón, utilizando sacarose como soluto; 2 o ajuste da equação de Peleg aos dados experimentais; e 3 o coeficiente de difusão usando a equação de Hawkes e Flink. A fruta foi descascada e cortada em placas de 3 x 3 x 0,3 cm. Foi desidratada osmoticamente usando uma solução de sacarose aos 40% (p/p, até aw = 0,97. O processo foi conduzido mantendo a temperatura constante em 25 °C e com agitação orbital contínua (105 rpm. Determinou-se a perda de peso das mostras, o ganho de sólidos e a retenção de

  1. Three members of the human cystatin gene superfamily, AHSG, HRG, and KNG, map within one megabase of genomic DNA at 3q27. (United States)

    Rizzu, P; Baldini, A


    While constructing a contig in the human chromosome region 3q27, we identified two YAC clones that were positive for the polymorphic marker D3S1602. One of these clones was also positive for a sequence-tagged site derived from the kininogen (KNG) gene. Because of the known evolutionary and structural relationship of KNG to other members of the cystatin gene superfamily, we tested the physical linkage of the genes encoding alpha-2HS-glycoprotein (AHSG), KNG, and histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), all of which were previously mapped to the long arm of chromosome 3. Our results show the colocalization of the three genes in two independent, partially overlapping YAC clones. The genomic inserts of the two clones were 1 Mb and 1.3 Mb in size, indicating that the three genes map within 1 Mb of DNA. The largest YAC was also positive for the polymorphic marker D3S1262, substantiating previously reported data of genetic linkage between this marker and HRG. Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized the two YAC clones to chromosome band 3q27.

  2. Área foliar del yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poep. & Endl. H. Rob. estimada mediante método indirecto.

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    Juan Francisco Seminario-Cunya


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar el área foliar de ocho morfotipos de yacón mediante análisis de regresión lineal simple. La investigación se realizó entre los años 2014 y 2015, en el Programa de Raíces y Tubérculos Andinos de la Universidad Nacional de Cajamarca, Perú (7° 10’ 00’’ S, 78° 30’00’’ W, 2650 msnm. Se tomaron cien hojas de cada morfotipo, incluyendo hojas de los estratos basal, medio y terminal de plantas en plena oración. Las siluetas de las hojas frescas se dibujaron en papel y se midió el largo (L y ancho mayor de la lámina (W. El área medida (o real de la lámina se determinó con planímetro digital. Con el área medida (variable dependiente y los valores de largo, ancho, largo al cuadrado, ancho al cuadrado, largo x ancho y largo/ancho (como variables independientes, se realizó el análisis de regresión para cada morfotipo. En todos los morfotipos, excepto en dos, las mejores ecuaciones para estimar el área foliar, fueron aquellas en donde intervino el producto de L x W. La ecuación A= 20,41 + 0,4167 (L x W (r2 = 0,89 permitió estimar el área foliar de los ocho morfotipos en conjunto. El área del peciolo de los morfotipos en estudio signi có 15%, respecto del área total de la hoja.

  3. Caracterización morfológica de seis variedades parentales de yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius) y trece cruzas obtenidas de un plan de hibridación


    Vegas Albino, Diana P.; Laboratorio de Citogenética. Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Casilla 11-058, Lima 11, Perú. Tel.: +51 6 197000 – 1529; fax: +51 6 197000 – 1509.; Bracamonte Guevara, Olga; Laboratorio de Citogenética. Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Casilla 11-058, Lima 11, Perú. Tel.: +51 6 197000 – 1529; fax: +51 6 197000 – 1509.; Valladolid Cavero, Andrés; Andean Roots SRL. Carretera Central Huánuco-Lima, km. 40, Ambo, Huánuco, Perú.


    En el presente trabajo se caracterizan morfológicamente los parentales y las plantas obtenidas a partir de los cruzamientos dialélicos de yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius), con la finalidad de identificar la diversidad obtenida y confirmar la naturaleza híbrida de estas. Tres descriptores morfológicos de raíz fueron usados para caracterizar a los parentales y a 68 de las 162 plantas obtenidas de las cruzas, cada una con sus respectivas replicaciones, en total se evaluaron 834 plantas. Finalmen...

  4. A FISH approach for mapping the human genome using Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, R.S.; Chen, X.N.; Mitchell, S. [Univ. of Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others


    As the Human Genome Project progresses, large insert cloning vectors such as BACs, P1, and P1 Artificial Chromosomes (PACs) will be required to complement the YAC mapping efforts. The value of the BAC vector for physical mapping lies in the stability of the inserts, the lack of chimerism, the length of inserts (up to 300 kb), the ability to obtain large amounts of pure clone DNA and the ease of BAC manipulation. These features helped us design two approaches for generating physical mapping reagents for human genetic studies. The first approach is a whole genome strategy in which randomly selected BACs are mapped, using FISH, to specific chromosomal bands. To date, 700 BACs have been mapped to single chromosome bands at a resolution of 2-5 Mb in addition to BACs mapped to 14 different centromeres. These BACs represent more than 90 Mb of the genome and include >70% of all human chromosome bands at the 350-band level. These data revealed that >97% of the BACs were non-chimeric and have a genomic distribution covering most gaps in the existing YAC map with excellent coverage of gene-rich regions. In the second approach, we used YACs to identify BACs on chromosome 21. A 1.5 Mb contig between D21S339 and D21S220 nears completion within the Down syndrome congenital heart disease (DS-CHD) region. Seventeen BACs ranging in size from 80 kb to 240 kb were ordered using 14 STSs with FISH confirmation. We have also used 40 YACs spanning 21q to identify, on average, >1 BAC/Mb to provide molecular cytogenetic reagents and anchor points for further mapping. The contig generated on chromosome 21 will be helpful in isolating the genes for DS-CHD. The physical mapping reagents generated using the whole genome approach will provide cytogenetic markers and mapped genomic fragments that will facilitate positional cloning efforts and the identification of genes within most chromosomal bands.

  5. Long-range mapping and construction of a YAC contig within the cat eye syndrome critical region. (United States)

    McDermid, H E; McTaggart, K E; Riazi, M A; Hudson, T J; Budarf, M L; Emanuel, B S; Bell, C J


    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is typically associated with a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome derived from human chromosome 22pter to 22q11.2. The region of 22q duplicated in the typical CES marker chromosome extends between the centromere and locus D22S36. We have constructed a long-range restriction map of this region using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and probes to 10 loci (11 probes). The map covers -3.6 Mb. We have also used 15 loci to construct a yeast artificial chromosome contig, which encompasses about half of the region critical to the production of the CES phenotype (centromere to D22S57). Thus, the CES critical region has been mapped and a substantial portion of it cloned in preparation for the isolation of genes in this region.

  6. Localization of cDNAs to a region poorly represented in the CEPH chromosome 21 YAC contig: Candidate genes for genetic diseases mapped to 21q22.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiner, K.; Patterson, D. [Eleanor Roosevelt Inst., Denver, CO (United States); Ichikawa, H.; Ohki, Misao [National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan); Cheng, Jan-Fang [Lawerence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)


    Fifty-three cDNA fragments previously obtained by hybridization selection from random clones in the chromosome 21 cosmid library LL21CNO2 failed to identify clones in the chromosome 21 YAC contig described. Using an expanded panel of somatic cell hybrids, we have verified that the majority of these cDNAs map to chromosome 21 and that in particular a very high proportion, {approximately}85%, localize to a 5-Mb region of distal 21q22.3. Pulsed-field analysis coupled with information from the NotI restriction map of the region further indicate that 17 cDNA fragments map within 650 kb of the PFKL gene and thus may be candidates for genetic diseases linked to this gene. This work helps to characterize a region poorly represented in the CEPH YAC contig and adds to the number of cDNAs useful in analysis of chromosome 21-associated diseases. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Localization of cDNAs to a region poorly represented in the CEPH chromosome 21 YAC contig: candidate genes for genetic diseases mapped to 21q22.3. (United States)

    Gardiner, K; Ichikawa, H; Ohki, M; Patterson, D; Cheng, J F


    Fifty-three cDNA fragments previously obtained by hybridization selection from random clones in the chromosome 21 cosmid library LL21CNO2 failed to identify clones in the chromosome 21 YAC contig described by Chumakov et al. (1992, Nature 359: 380-387). Using an expanded panel of somatic cell hybrids, we have verified that the majority of these cDNAs map to chromosome 21 and that in particular a very high proportion, approximately 85%, localize to a 5-Mb region of distal 21q22.3. Pulsed-field analysis coupled with information from the NotI restriction map of the region further indicate that 17 cDNA fragments map within 650 kb of the PFKL gene and thus may be candidates for genetic diseases linked to this gene. This work helps to characterize a region poorly represented in the CEPH YAC contig and adds to the number of cDNAs useful in analysis of chromosome 21-associated diseases.

  8. Direct selection of expressed sequences on a YAC clone revealed proline-rich-like genes and BARE-1 sequences physically linked to the complex ¤Mla¤ powdery mildew resistance locus of barley (¤Hordeum vulgare¤ L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, G.; Michalek, W.; Jahoor, A.


    An entire 170-kb YAC clone, spanning the complex Mla powdery mildew resistance locus of barley, was used as a hybridization probe to screen a cDNA library made from a bulk of inoculated and non-inoculated primary barley leaves for isolating expressed sequences physically linked to the resistance...

  9. Localization of a human homolog of the mouse Tiam-1 gene to chromosome 21q22.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haiming Chen; Antonarakis, S.E. [Univ. of Geneva Medical School (Switzerland)


    Exon trapping was applied to genomic DNA from a chromosome 21-specific cosmid library (LL21NC02-Q) to clone portions of genes from this chromosome. Among a large number of trapped exons, three showed striking homology to different regions of the cDNA for the mouse T-lymphoma invasion and metastasis gene (Tiam-1) at both nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence levels, suggesting that these three exons are part of a human homolog of the mouse Tiam-1 gene. We mapped this presumed human TIAM1 gene to chromosome 21 by using appropriate somatic cell hybrids, YACs, and cosmids. The TIAM1 gene localizes to YAC 760H5 of the I. Chumakov et al. YAC contig between markers D21S298 and D21S404 in band 21q22.1. This human gene (which is a member of the group of guanine nucleotide-dissociation stimulators that modulate the activity of Rho-like proteins) may be important in the development or metastasis of malignancies that are associated with abnormalities on chromosome 21, including the various forms of leukemia frequent in trisomy 21. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Localization of the human phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C {beta}{sub 3} gene (PLCB3) within chromosome band 11q13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinke, R.J.; Geurts Van Kessel, A. [Univ. Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands)


    In course of the molecular characterization of a human extragonadal germ cell tumor (EGCT)-associated chromosomal translocation, we identified YACs and cosmids from the 11q13 region. The endclone of one of these YACs appeared to contain a stretch of DNA homologous to part of the human phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C {Beta}{sub 3} gene (PLCB3). Since we considered PLCB3 a candidate gene for these EGCTs, we set out to clone the PLCB3 cDNA, from which the 5{prime} end was still missing, and performed Northern and Southern blot analyses. The localization of PLCB3 to 11q13 was confirmed. In addition, we were able to exclude the gene from involvement in EGCT development. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Functional copies of a human gene can be directly isolated by transformation-associated recombination cloning with a small 3′ end target sequence (United States)

    Kouprina, Natalay; Annab, Lois; Graves, Joan; Afshari, Cynthia; Barrett, J. Carl; Resnick, Michael A.; Larionov, Vladimir


    Unique, small sequences (sequence tag sites) have been identified at the 3′ ends of most human genes that serve as landmarks in genome mapping. We investigated whether a single copy gene could be isolated directly from total human DNA by transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning in yeast using a short, 3′ unique target. A TAR cloning vector was constructed that, when linearized, contained a small amount (381 bp) of 3′ hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) sequence at one end and an 189-bp Alu repeat at the other end. Transformation with this vector along with human DNA led to selective isolations of the entire HPRT gene as yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) that extended from the 3′ end sequence to various Alu positions as much as 600 kb upstream. These YACs were retrofitted with a NeoR and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequence to transfer the YACs to bacteria and subsequently the BACs to mouse cells by using a Neo selection. Most of the HPRT isolates were functional, demonstrating that TAR cloning retains the functional integrity of the isolated material. Thus, this modified version of TAR cloning, which we refer to as radial TAR cloning, can be used to isolate large segments of the human genome accurately and directly with only a small amount of sequence information. PMID:9539761

  12. Efecto de gelificantes en la formulación de dulce de yacón Efeito de gelificante na formulação do doce do yacon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Maldonado


    Full Text Available El yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius es un tubérculo andino cultivado en las laderas de los Andes. Es una planta perenne que llega a su madurez entre 6-7 meses hasta 1 año, según la altura sobre el nivel del mar. Este trabajo propone la formulación de un producto alimenticio a partir de yacón por agregado de solutos: glucosa y sacarosa y combinación de barreras de estrés. Se estudió el efecto de gelificantes: agar-agar, pectina y goma arábiga, en tres concentraciones: 0,30, 0,41 y 0,48%. Se agregó benzoato de sodio, metabisulfito de sodio y ácido cítrico. Se desarrolló un dulce tipo pan. Se registró la evolución de temperatura durante la cocción. Se empacó y envasó el dulce en bandejas. Se analizaron parámetros de textura principales y secundarios. La formulación que alcanzó valores de textura similares a la referencia fue: 0,48% de agar-agar; 12% de sacarosa; 17% de glucosa; 23% de agua; 996,75 ppm de metabisulfito; 498,50 ppm de ácido cítrico y 1435,7 ppm de benzoato de sodio. Se realizó una prueba sensorial a través de la evaluación de los parámetros más representativos de la textura, utilizando para ello una escala hedónica, determinando la aceptación de la formulación seleccionada.O yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius é um tubérculo andino cultivado nas encostas Dos Andes. É uma planta perene que chega a sua maduração entre 6 meses e 1 ano. Este trabalho propõe a formulação de um produto alimentício a partir do yacón agregando solutos: glicose, sacarose e combinação de barreiras de estresse. Estudou-se o efeito de gelificantes: ágar-ágar e arábica, em três concentrações 0.30, 0.41 e 0.48%. Agregou-se benzoato de sódio, metabisulfito de sódio, e ácido cítrico. Desenvolveu-se um doce tipo pão. Registrou-se a evolução da temperatura durate cozimento. Empacotou-se e envasou-se o doce em bandejas. Analisaram-se parâmetros de textura principais e secundários. A formulação que atingiu os

  13. Physical mapping of human chromosome 16. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, G.R.


    We aim to isolate cDNAs mapping to human chromosome 16 and localise such cDNAs on the high resolution physical map. In collaboration with LANL, PCR primers will be synthesised from cDNA sequences mapped to chromosome 16 and used as ESTs in the generation of mega-YAC contigs for this chromosome. Probing of high density cosmid grids will enable integration of the ESTs into cosmid contigs and location of the cosmid contigs on the YAC contig. A hn-cDNA library has been constructed from the hybrid CY18 which contains chromosome 16 as the only human chromosome. A modified screening protocol has been successfully developed and 15 hn-cDNA clones have been sequenced and localised on the hybrid map. Sequence analysis of four of these revealed that they were known cDNAs, which are now mapped to chromosome 16. Development of techniques to allow the isolation of longer cDNAs from the identified exons is in progress. This will depend on PCR amplification of cDNAs from a total human CDNA library.

  14. A novel humanized mouse model of Huntington disease for preclinical development of therapeutics targeting mutant huntingtin alleles. (United States)

    Southwell, Amber L; Skotte, Niels H; Villanueva, Erika B; Østergaard, Michael E; Gu, Xiaofeng; Kordasiewicz, Holly B; Kay, Chris; Cheung, Daphne; Xie, Yuanyun; Waltl, Sabine; Dal Cengio, Louisa; Findlay-Black, Hailey; Doty, Crystal N; Petoukhov, Eugenia; Iworima, Diepiriye; Slama, Ramy; Ooi, Jolene; Pouladi, Mahmoud A; Yang, X William; Swayze, Eric E; Seth, Punit P; Hayden, Michael R


    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a mutation in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. HTT is a large protein, interacts with many partners and is involved in many cellular pathways, which are perturbed in HD. Therapies targeting HTT directly are likely to provide the most global benefit. Thus there is a need for preclinical models of HD recapitulating human HTT genetics. We previously generated a humanized mouse model of HD, Hu97/18, by intercrossing BACHD and YAC18 mice with knockout of the endogenous mouse HD homolog (Hdh). Hu97/18 mice recapitulate the genetics of HD, having two full-length, genomic human HTT transgenes heterozygous for the HD mutation and polymorphisms associated with HD in populations of Caucasian descent. We have now generated a companion model, Hu128/21, by intercrossing YAC128 and BAC21 mice on the Hdh-/- background. Hu128/21 mice have two full-length, genomic human HTT transgenes heterozygous for the HD mutation and polymorphisms associated with HD in populations of East Asian descent and in a minority of patients from other ethnic groups. Hu128/21 mice display a wide variety of HD-like phenotypes that are similar to YAC128 mice. Additionally, both transgenes in Hu128/21 mice match the human HTT exon 1 reference sequence. Conversely, the BACHD transgene carries a floxed, synthetic exon 1 sequence. Hu128/21 mice will be useful for investigations of human HTT that cannot be addressed in Hu97/18 mice, for developing therapies targeted to exon 1, and for preclinical screening of personalized HTT lowering therapies in HD patients of East Asian descent. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  15. Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Cloning of an alternatively spliced human islet-cell cDNA, tissue distribution, physical mapping, and identification of a polymorphic genetic marker. (United States)

    Ferrer, J; Aoki, M; Behn, P; Nestorowicz, A; Riggs, A; Permutt, M A


    Pancreatic beta-cell mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH) plays a major role in glucose-induced insulin secretion. Decreased activity of this enzyme has thus been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of NIDDM. Cloning of human insulinoma mGPDH cDNAs disclosed the existence of two variant transcripts with different 5' ends. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed the presence of both mGPDH mRNAs in purified native human pancreatic islets and other tissues. A major 6.5-Kb mGPDH transcript was detected by Northern blot analysis in RNA from human and rat pancreatic islets, with distinctly lower levels in other human tissues, indicating that previously reported high mGPDH enzymatic activity in beta-cells is determined by high transcript levels. The mGPDH gene was mapped to chromosome 2 by PCR analysis of genomic DNA from human/rodent somatic cell hybrids, and five independent overlapping yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones containing the mGPDH sequence were identified from the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain YAC library. Analysis of these YAC clones identified a highly polymorphic chromosome 2q21-q33 dinucleotide repeat genetic marker (D2S141) physically linked to the mGPDH gene. These studies provide the means to investigate the role of the human mGPDH gene in the pathogenesis of NIDDM and illustrate the value of a novel strategy to identify genetic markers for diabetes candidate genes.

  16. Differential Changes in Postsynaptic Density Proteins in Postmortem Huntington’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease Human Brains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fourie


    Full Text Available NMDA and AMPA-type glutamate receptors and their bound membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs are critical for synapse development and plasticity. We hypothesised that these proteins may play a role in the changes in synapse function that occur in Huntington’s disease (HD and Parkinson’s disease (PD. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of human postmortem brain tissue to examine changes in the expression of SAP97, PSD-95, GluA2 and GluN1 in human control, and HD- and PD-affected hippocampus and striatum. Significant increases in SAP97 and PSD-95 were observed in the HD and PD hippocampus, and PSD95 was downregulated in HD striatum. We observed a significant increase in GluN1 in the HD hippocampus and a decrease in GluA2 in HD and PD striatum. Parallel immunohistochemistry experiments in the YAC128 mouse model of HD showed no change in the expression levels of these synaptic proteins. Our human data show that major but different changes occur in glutamatergic proteins in HD versus PD human brains. Moreover, the changes in human HD brains differ from those occurring in the YAC128 HD mouse model, suggesting that unique changes occur at a subcellular level in the HD human hippocampus.

  17. CEPH viewer: A client-server database to browse and manipulate CEPH physical mapping and linkage data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadkarni, P.M.; Bray-Ward, P. [Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)


    With their announcement of the first high-level physical map of the human genome, the Center for Study of Human Polymorphisms (CEPH) made the supporting data on the clones in their mega-YAC library and their linkage markers publicly available through anonymous ftp. Individual researchers as well as genome centers now need to constantly reference this voluminous body of data that, as of May 9, 1994, held information on approximately 4000 STSs, 33,500 YACs, 17,600 STS-YAC associations, 87,400 YAC-YAC associations based on Alu-PCR analysis, and 99,000 YAC-YAC associations based on a combination of fingerprint and Alu-PCR data, in addition to 6 sets of fingerprints for each YAC and a total of 1.5 million fingerprint fragments for all YACs. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  18. PODAAC-AQR50-3YACS (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aquarius Level 3 sea surface salinity (SSS) rain-flagged standard mapped image data contains gridded 1 degree spatial resolution SSS averaged over daily, 7 day,...

  19. Cloning of the cDNA for the human ATP synthase OSCP subunit (ATP5O) by exon trapping and mapping to chromosome 21q22.1-q22.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haiming [Geneva Univ. Medical School (Switzerland); Morris, M.A.; Rossier, C. [Cantonal Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland)] [and others


    Exon trapping was used to clone portions of potential genes from human chromosome 21. One trapped sequence showed striking homology with the bovine and rat ATP synthase OSCP (oligomycin sensitivity conferring protein) subunit. We subsequently cloned the full-length human ATP synthase OSCP cDNA (GDB/HGMW approved name ATP50) from infant brain and muscle libraries and determined its nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence (EMBL/GenBank Accession No. X83218). The encoded polypeptide contains 213 amino acids, with more than 80% identity to bovine and murine ATPase OSCP subunits and over 35% identity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and sweet potato sequences. The human ATP5O gene is located at 21q22.1-q22.2, just proximal to D21S17, in YACs 860G11 and 838C7 of the Chumakov et al. YAC contig. The gene is expressed in all human tissues examined, most strongly in muscle and heart. This ATP5O subunit is a key structural component of the stalk of the mitochondrial respiratory chain F{sub 1}F{sub 0}-ATP synthase and as such may contribute in a gene dosage-dependent manner to the phenotype of Down syndrome (trisomy 21). 39 refs., 5 figs.

  20. A fully humanized transgenic mouse model of Huntington disease. (United States)

    Southwell, Amber L; Warby, Simon C; Carroll, Jeffrey B; Doty, Crystal N; Skotte, Niels H; Zhang, Weining; Villanueva, Erika B; Kovalik, Vlad; Xie, Yuanyun; Pouladi, Mahmoud A; Collins, Jennifer A; Yang, X William; Franciosi, Sonia; Hayden, Michael R


    Silencing the mutant huntingtin gene (muHTT) is a direct and simple therapeutic strategy for the treatment of Huntington disease (HD) in principle. However, targeting the HD mutation presents challenges because it is an expansion of a common genetic element (a CAG tract) that is found throughout the genome. Moreover, the HTT protein is important for neuronal health throughout life, and silencing strategies that also reduce the wild-type HTT allele may not be well tolerated during the long-term treatment of HD. Several HTT silencing strategies are in development that target genetic sites in HTT that are outside of the CAG expansion, including HD mutation-linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms and the HTT promoter. Preclinical testing of these genetic therapies has required the development of a new mouse model of HD that carries these human-specific genetic targets. To generate a fully humanized mouse model of HD, we have cross-bred BACHD and YAC18 on the Hdh(-/-) background. The resulting line, Hu97/18, is the first murine model of HD that fully genetically recapitulates human HD having two human HTT genes, no mouse Hdh genes and heterozygosity of the HD mutation. We find that Hu97/18 mice display many of the behavioral changes associated with HD including motor, psychiatric and cognitive deficits, as well as canonical neuropathological abnormalities. This mouse line will be useful for gaining additional insights into the disease mechanisms of HD as well as for testing genetic therapies targeting human HTT.

  1. Physical mapping in the Cri du Chat region on human chromosome 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, D.M.; Bengtsson, U. [Univ. of California, Irvine (United States); Niebuhr, E. [Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark)] [and others


    The Cri du Chat syndrome is a segmental aneusomy associated with deletions in the short arm of human chromosome 5. More specifically, the cytogenetic band 5p15.2 must be deleted in order to manifest the typical phenotypic signs. We have studied several cell lines from individuals who have chromosomal abnormalities within this cytogenetic band but who do not have typical Cri du Chat syndrome. In fact, several individual studied have no discernible features of this syndrome. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and PCR analysis on somatic cell hybrids we have mapped the breakpoints relative to each other within this band. There is a great degree of phenotypic heterogeneity between several of the patients, even those which share common breakpoints. This heterogeneity makes it very difficult to narrow the region of interest to a very small (<1 Mb) region. In order to more thoroughly analyze this region, we have assembled a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig of part of this region. This contig has been analyzed for STS content and covers approximately a 1.5-2.0 Mb region within 5p15.2. In addition, we have constructed a radiation hybrid map of the region. The YACs contained within the minimal contig have been used as hybridization probes to isolate corresponding cosmid clones within the region of interest. These cosmids, in turn, are being utilized to obtain potential exons using exon amplification. Several cosmids within this region have been isolated by STS content and potential exons have been isolated from them. These exons have been used as probes to isolate cDNA clones from the region. It is our hope that isolation of genes throughout the region of interest will allow a better understanding of the etiology of Cri du Chat.

  2. An overview of the human genome project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzer, M.A.


    The human genome project is one of the most ambitious scientific projects to date, with the ultimate goal being a nucleotide sequence for all four billion bases of human DNA. In the process of determining the nucleotide sequence for each base, the location, function, and regulatory regions from the estimated 100,000 human genes will be identified. The genome project itself relies upon maps of the human genetic code derived from several different levels of resolution. Genetic linkage analysis provides a low resolution genome map. The information for genetic linkage maps is derived from the analysis of chromosome specific markers such as Sequence Tagged Sites (STSs), Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTRs) or other polymorphic (highly informative) loci in a number of different-families. Using this information the location of an unknown disease gene can be limited to a region comprised of one million base pairs of DNA or less. After this point, one must construct or have access to a physical map of the region of interest. Physical mapping involves the construction of an ordered overlapping (contiguous) set of recombinant DNA clones. These clones may be derived from a number of different vectors including cosmids, Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs), P1 derived Artificial Chromosomes (PACs), somatic cell hybrids, or Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs). The ultimate goal for physical mapping is to establish a completely overlapping (contiguous) set of clones for the entire genome. After a gene or region of interest has been localized using physical mapping the nucleotide sequence is determined. The overlap between genetic mapping, physical mapping and DNA sequencing has proven to be a powerful tool for the isolation of disease genes through positional cloning.

  3. From selective full-length genes isolation by TAR cloning in yeast to their expression from HAC vectors in human cells. (United States)

    Kouprina, Natalay; Lee, Nicholas C O; Kononenko, Artem V; Samoshkin, Alexander; Larionov, Vladimir


    Transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning allows selective isolation of full-length genes and genomic loci as large circular Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs) in yeast. The method has a broad application for structural and functional genomics, long-range haplotyping, characterization of chromosomal rearrangements, and evolutionary studies. In this paper, we describe a basic protocol for gene isolation by TAR as well as a method to convert TAR isolates into Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) using a retrofitting vector. The retrofitting vector contains a 3' HPRT-loxP cassette to allow subsequent gene loading into a unique loxP site of the HAC-based (Human Artificial Chromosome) gene delivery vector. The benefit of combining the TAR gene cloning technology with the HAC gene delivery system for gene expression studies is discussed.

  4. A 1.5-Mb contig within the cat eye syndrome critical region at human chromosome 22q11.2. (United States)

    Johnson, A; Minoshima, S; Asakawa, S; Shimizu, N; Shizuya, H; Roe, B A; McDermid, H E


    We have constructed a 1.5-Mb contig spanning the distal half of the critical region for cat eye syndrome on human chromosome 22 from D22S543 to D22S181. The contig consists of 20 P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) clones and 11 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones screened from 2 BAC and 2 PAC libraries. Continuous overlap between the clones was confirmed using vectorette PCR and riboprobes. Despite the instability of this region in a previous YAC contig, only 1 BAC showed a minor instability and then in only one isolation. This contig is now providing the basis for genomic sequencing and gene identification in the cat eye syndrome critical region. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  5. Loss of Expression of Human Spectrin Src Homology Domain Binding Protein 1 is Associated with 10p Loss in Human Prostatic Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Macoska


    Full Text Available The gene encoding human spectrin Src homology domain binding protein 1, or Hssh3bpl, which is a marker of macropinocytic vesicles and a potential regulator of macropinocytosis, co-localizes to a YAC containing chromosome 10p sequences at loci D10S89 and D10S111 that are frequently deleted in prostate tumors. Expression of Hssh3bp1 was evaluated at the protein level in 17 paired normal and malignant prostate tumor samples using the monoclonal antibody 2G8 to Hssh3bpl. These experiments demonstrated that 4/6 tumors (67% with 10p deletion failed to express Hssh3bp1 protein compared to 5/11 (46% tumors with intact 10p. Thus, loss of Hssh3bp1 expression is concordant with allelic loss of adjacent 10p sequences in human prostate tumors. In addition, two prostate tumor cell lines contain an exon skipping mutation in the Hssh3bp1 gene that leads to the abnormal splicing of the mRNA and loss of a portion of Abl tyrosine kinase SH3 domain binding site in the protein. These data are consistent with a role for Hssh3bp1 as a candidate tumor suppressor gene inactivated during prostate tumorigenesis.

  6. Human glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT): Localization to 8q24.3, cDNA and genomic sequences, and polymorphic sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohocki, M.M.; Sullivan, L.S.; Daiger, S.P. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others


    Two frequent protein variants of glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) (E.C. have been used as genetic markers in humans for more than two decades, although chromosomal mapping of the GPT locus in the 1980s produced conflicting results. To resolve this conflict and develop useful DNA markers for this gene, we isolated and characterized cDNA and genomic clones of GPT. We have definitively mapped human GPT to the terminus of 8q using several methods. First, two cosmids shown to contain the GPT sequence were derived from a chromosome 8-specific library. Second, by fluorescence in situ hybridization, we mapped the cosmid containing the human GPT gene to chromosome band 8q24.3. Third, we mapped the rat gpt cDNA to the syntenic region of rat chromosome 7. Finally, PCR primers specific to human GPT amplify sequences contained within a {open_quotes}half-YAC{close_quotes} from the long arm of chromosome 8, that is, a YAC containing the 8q telomere. The human GPT genomic sequence spans 2.7 kb and consists of 11 exons, ranging in size from 79 to 243 bp. The exonic sequence encodes a protein of 495 amino acids that is nearly identical to the previously reported protein sequence of human GPT-1. The two polymorphic GPT isozymes are the result of a nucleotide substitution in codon 14. In addition, a cosmid containing the GPT sequence also contains a previously unmapped, polymorphic microsatellite sequence, D8S421. The cloned GPT gene and associated polymorphisms will be useful for linkage and physical mapping of disease loci that map to the terminus of 8q, including atypical vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD1) and epidermolysis bullosa simplex, type Ogna (EBS1). In addition, this will be a useful system for characterizing the telomeric region of 8q. Finally, determination of the molecular basis of the GPT isozyme variants will permit PCR-based detection of this world-wide polymorphism. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Report of the Fourth International Workshop on human X chromosome mapping 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlessinger, D.; Mandel, J.L.; Monaco, A.P.; Nelson, D.L.; Willard, H.F. [eds.


    Vigorous interactive efforts by the X chromosome community have led to accelerated mapping in the last six months. Seventy-five participants from 12 countries around the globe contributed progress reports to the Fourth International X Chromosome Workshop, at St. Louis, MO, May 9-12, 1993. It became clear that well over half the chromosome is now covered by YAC contigs that are being extended, verified, and aligned by their content of STSs and other markers placed by cytogenetic or linkage mapping techniques. The major aim of the workshop was to assemble the consensus map that appears in this report, summarizing both consensus order and YAC contig information.

  8. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. Final progress report, 1 March 1991--28 February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, F.T.


    The objectives of this grant proposal include (1) development of a chromosome microdissection and PCR-mediated microcloning technology, (2) application of this microtechnology to the construction of region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. During this grant period, the authors have successfully developed this microtechnology and have applied it to the construction of microdissection libraries for the following chromosome regions: a whole chromosome 21 (21E), 2 region-specific libraries for the long arm of chromosome 2, 2q35-q37 (2Q1) and 2q33-q35 (2Q2), and 4 region-specific libraries for the entire short arm of chromosome 2, 2p23-p25 (2P1), 2p21-p23 (2P2), 2p14-p16 (wP3) and 2p11-p13 (2P4). In addition, 20--40 unique sequence microclones have been isolated and characterized for genomic studies. These region-specific libraries and the single-copy microclones from the library have been used as valuable resources for (1) isolating microsatellite probes in linkage analysis to further refine the disease locus; (2) isolating corresponding clones with large inserts, e.g. YAC, BAC, P1, cosmid and phage, to facilitate construction of contigs for high resolution physical mapping; and (3) isolating region-specific cDNA clones for use as candidate genes. These libraries are being deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) for general distribution.

  9. Towards a transcription map of human chromosome 21: Identification of expressed sequences by exon trapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.M.; Chrast, R.; Rossier, C. [Geneva Univ. Medical School (Switzerland)] [and others


    Chromosome 21q contains about 1% of the human genome, and when triplicated is responsible for Down syndrome. The genetic and physical maps of this chromosome are amongst the most developed of all human chromosomes. A considerable international effort is now under way with the aims of cloning and mapping all chromosome 21 genes, assigning functions, and determining their involvement in disease phenotypes. We have used exon trapping/amplification methods to identify exons of genes that map on chromosome 21. EcoR1 or Bam HI-digested DNA from pools of 96 cosmids from the chromosome 21 library LL21NC02{open_quotes}Q{close_quotes} were used for cloning in vector pSLP3 (after elimination of cosmids positive for ribosomal RNR genes and mouse DNA); recombinant plasmids were transfected into cos7 cells and trapped sequences were subcloned. False positive clones, i.e. those containing vector self-spliced sequences (which represented between 8-30% of clones in different experiments), have been eliminated by hybridization of oligonucleotides corresponding to sequences of the vector self-spliced events. More than 100 different trapped {open_quotes}exons{close_quotes} have been identified to date after single or double pass sequencing. Two sequences matched exons of known genes on chromosome 21 (COL6A 1 and MX1). About 45% of the sequences were entirely new, i.e. there was no homology with entries in the nucleotide or protein databases (blastin and blastx searches). An additional 48% of the sequences were homologous but not identical to sequences in the databases. Only 4% were repetitive elements. Specific homologies will be presented. All of the trapped sequences that have been mapped by filter hybridization, PCR, or FISH, map back to cosmids or YACs of chromosome 21. This approach permits rapid identification of expressed sequences of this chromosome, the cloning of its genes, and the understanding of its disorders.

  10. High density transcriptional mapping of chromosome 21 by hybridization selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassone, F.; Wade, H.; Gardiner, K. [Eleanor Roosevelt Institute, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others


    A transcriptional map of human chromosome 21 is important for the study of Down syndrome, development processes and genome organization. To construct a high density transcriptional map, the technique of cDNA hybrid selection is being applied to a minimal tiling path of YAC clones that span 21q. The cDNA used for selection represents a complex pool of sequences obtained from a variety of fetal and adult tissues and cell lines. Approximately 70-80 YAC clones are sufficient to span 21q; each is individually processed through the selection procedure to obtain a YAC-specific {open_quotes}selected cDNA library{close_quotes}. Survey analysis of each library includes determination of levels of ribosomal contamination, verification of enrichment of control genes, identification of a preliminary number of novel unique sequences, and verification that novel sequences map to the correct YAC and chromosomal regions. This analysis has been completed for 19 YACs that together comprise approximately 10 Mb of non-overlapping DNA, 25% of the long arm. Ribosomal cDNA contamination is low (<10%) and all known genes of appropriate tissue specificity of expression have been recovered, as well as new genes from each YAC. Libraries of expression have been recovered, as well as new genes from each YAC. Libraries from 8 of these YACs are now being subjected to exhaustive analysis to identify all novel genes contained within them and to obtain complete cDNAs and expression analysis for each. Not all regions of the chromosome, however, are equally amenable to these analyses. Selected cDNA libraries from the centromeric YACs are yielding apparently novel genes, but confirmation of map position is problematic. Also of interest is a region of several megabases within the Giemsa dark band, 21q21. Selected cDNA libraries from these YACs so far have yielded no novel genes and support the idea of a genuinely very gene-poor region.

  11. The gene for human U2 snRNP auxiliary factor small 35-kDa subunit (U2AF1) maps to the progressive myoclonus epilepsy (EPM1) critical region on chromosome 21q22.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalioti, M.D.; Rossier, C.; Antonarakis, S.E. [Univ. of Geneva Medical School (Switzerland)] [and others


    We used targeted exon trapping to clone portions of genes from human chromosome 21q22.3. One trapped sequence showed complete homology with the cDNA of human U2AF{sup 35} (M96982; HGM-approved nomenclature U2AF1), which encodes for the small 35-kDa subunit of the U2 snRNP auxiliary factor. Using the U2AF1 cDNA as a probe, we mapped this gene to cosmid Q15D2, a P1, and YAC 350F7 of the Chumakov et al. contig, close to the cystathionine-{beta}-synthase gene (CBS) on 21q22.3. This localization was confirmed by PCR using oligonucleotides from the 3{prime} UTR and by FISH. As U2AF1 associated with a number of different factors during mRNA splicing, overexpression in trisomy 21 individuals could contribute to some Down syndrome phenotypes by interfering with the splicing process. Furthermore, because this gene maps in the critical region for the progressive myoclonus epilepsy I locus (EPM1), mutation analysis will be carried out in patients to evaluate the potential role of U2AF1 as a candidate for EPM1. 24 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Identification and characterization of a new multigene family in the human MHC: A candidate autoimmune disease susceptibility element (3.8-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J.M.; Venditti, C.P.; Chorney, M.J. [Pennsylvania State Univ. College of Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States)


    An association between idiopathic hemochromatosis (HFE) and the HLA-A3 locus has been previously well-established. In an attempt to identify potential HFE candidate genes, a genomic DNA fragment distal to the HLA-A9 breakpoint was used to screen a B cell cDNA library; a member (3.8-1) of a new multigene family, composed of five distinct genomic cross-reactive fragments, was identified. Clone 3.8-1 represents the 3{prime} end of 9.6 kb transcript which is expressed in multiple tissues including the spleen, thymus, lung and kidney. Sequencing and genome database analysis indicate that 3.8-1 is unique, with no homology to any known entries. The genomic residence of 3-8.1, defined by polymorphism analysis and physical mapping using YAC clones, appears to be absent from the genomes of higher primates, although four other cross-reactivities are maintained. The absence of this gene as well as other probes which map in the TNF to HLA-B interval, suggest that this portion of the human HMC, located between the Class I and Class III regions, arose in humans as the result of a post-speciation insertional event. The large size of the 3.8-1 gene and the possible categorization of 3.8-1 as a human-specific gene are significant given the genetic data that place an autoimmune susceptibility element for IDDM and myasthenia gravis in the precise region where this gene resides. In an attempt to isolate the 5{prime} end of this large transcript, we have constructed a cosmid contig which encompasses the genomic locus of this gene and are progressively isolating coding sequences by exon trapping.

  13. More Human than Human. (United States)

    Lawrence, David


    Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration. This article questions the validity and necessity of drawing divisions among beings that satisfy the minimum requirements for personhood; considering how future beings-intelligent androids, synthezoids, even alternate-substrate sentiences-might fit alongside the "baseline" human. I ask whether these alternate beings ought to be considered different to us, and why this may or may not matter in terms of a notion of "human community." The film Blade Runner, concerned in large part with humanity and its key synthezoid antagonist Roy Batty, forms a framing touchstone for my discussion. Batty is stronger, faster, more resilient, and more intelligent than Homo sapiens. His exploits, far beyond the capability of normal humans, are contrasted with his frailty and transient lifespan, his aesthetic appreciation of the sights he has seen, and his burgeoning empathy. Not for nothing does his creator within the mythos term him "more human than human."

  14. Insert size of YAC clones - RGP physicalmap | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available //) != -1 ) { url = url.replace(/contents/,/contents-en/); document.getElementById(lang).innerHTML=[ Japanes...e(/contents-en/,/contents/); document.getElementById(lang).innerHTML=[ Japanese | English ]; } else if( != -1 || != -1 ) { document.getElementById(lang).innerHTML=...h)-e.html/) != -1 ) { url = url.replace(-e.html,.html); document.getElementById(lang).innerHTML=[ Japanese |... English ]; } else { document.getElementById(lang).innerHTML= '[ Japanese | English ]'; } } window.onload =

  15. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de


    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards

  16. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security


    Gasper, D.R.


    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  17. Full-length huntingtin levels modulate body weight by influencing insulin-like growth factor 1 expression. (United States)

    Pouladi, Mahmoud A; Xie, Yuanyun; Skotte, Niels Henning; Ehrnhoefer, Dagmar E; Graham, Rona K; Kim, Jeong Eun; Bissada, Nagat; Yang, X William; Paganetti, Paolo; Friedlander, Robert M; Leavitt, Blair R; Hayden, Michael R


    Levels of full-length huntingtin (FL htt) influence organ and body weight, independent of polyglutamine length. The growth hormone-insulin like growth factor-1 (GH-IGF-1) axis is well established as a regulator of organ growth and body weight. In this study, we investigate the involvement of the IGF-1 pathway in mediating the effect of htt on body weight. IGF-1 expression was examined in transgenic mouse lines expressing different levels of FL wild-type (WT) htt (YAC18 mice), FL mutant htt (YAC128 and BACHD mice) and truncated mutant htt (shortstop mice). We demonstrate that htt influences body weight by modulating the IGF-1 pathway. Plasma IGF-1 levels correlate with body weight and htt levels in the transgenic YAC mice expressing human htt. The effect of htt on IGF-1 expression is independent of CAG size. No effect on body weight is observed in transgenic YAC mice expressing a truncated N-terminal htt fragment (shortstop), indicating that FL htt is required for the modulation of IGF-1 expression. Treatment with 17beta-estradiol (17beta-ED) lowers the levels of circulating IGF-1 in mammals. Treatment of YAC128 with 17beta-ED, but not placebo, reduces plasma IGF-1 levels and decreases the body weight of YAC128 animals to WT levels. Furthermore, given the ubiquitous expression of IGF-1 within the central nervous system, we also examined the impact of FL htt levels on IGF-1 expression in different regions of the brain, including the striatum, cerebellum of YAC18, YAC128 and littermate WT mice. We demonstrate that the levels of FL htt influence IGF-1 expression in striatal tissues. Our data identify a novel function for FL htt in influencing IGF-1 expression.

  18. Human Monkeypox

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Mary E; Hughes, James M; McCollum, Andrea M; Damon, Inger K


    Human monkeypox is found primarily in forested areas of Central Africa. This article provides a basic review of the clinical, epidemiological, and biological factors that contribute to human disease...

  19. The Generation of Mouse and Human Huntington Disease iPS Cells Suitable for In vitro Studies on Huntingtin Function. (United States)

    Szlachcic, Wojciech J; Wiatr, Kalina; Trzeciak, Marta; Figlerowicz, Marek; Figiel, Maciej


    Huntington disease (HD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of CAG repeats in huntingtin (HTT) gene, resulting in expanded polyglutamine tract in HTT protein. Although, HD has its common onset in adulthood, subtle symptoms in patients may occur decades before diagnosis, and molecular and cellular changes begin much earlier, even in cells that are not yet lineage committed such as stem cells. Studies in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) HD models have demonstrated that multiple molecular processes are altered by the mutant HTT protein and suggested its silencing as a promising therapeutic strategy. Therefore, we aimed to generate HD iPS cells with stable silencing of HTT and further to investigate the effects of HTT knock-down on deregulations of signaling pathways e.g., p53 downregulation, present in cells already in pluripotent state. We designed a gene silencing strategy based on RNAi cassette in piggyBAC vector for constant shRNA expression. Using such system we delivered and tested several shRNA targeting huntingtin in mouse HD YAC128 iPSC and human HD109, HD71, and Control iPSC. The most effective shRNA (shHTT2) reagent stably silenced HTT in all HD iPS cells and remained active upon differentiation to neural stem cells (NSC). When investigating the effects of HTT silencing on signaling pathways, we found that in mouse HD iPSC lines expressing shRNA the level of mutant HTT inversely correlated with p53 levels, resulting in p53 level normalization upon silencing of mutant HTT. We also found that p53 deregulation continues into the NSC developmental stage and it was reversed upon HTT silencing. In addition, we observed subtle effects of silencing on proteins of Wnt/β-catenin and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. In summary, we successfully created the first mouse and human shRNA-expressing HD iPS cells with stable and continuous HTT silencing. Moreover, we demonstrated reversal of HD p53 phenotype in mouse HD iPSC, therefore, the stable

  20. Human microbiomics


    Rajendhran, J.; Gunasekaran, P.


    The sequencing of the human genome has driven the study of human biology in a significant way and enabled the genome-wide study to elucidate the molecular basis of complex human diseases. Recently, the role of microbiota on human physiology and health has received much attention. The influence of gut microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microbiota) in obesity has been demonstrated, which may pave the way for new prophylactic and therapeutic strategies such as bacteriotherapy. The sig...

  1. Human Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)


    textabstract‘Human development’ language spread gradually in circles of national and international development policy and planning from the 1970s and acquired a definitive form in the 1990s in the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Reports (HDRs). Human development was defined

  2. Human Smuggling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel - Rozenblit, Dina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/152524096; Zaitch, Damian|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/183348486


    Human smuggling is based on a consensus between smuggler, smuggled, and his/her family (which usually guarantees or effectuates payment). However, unauthorized immigrants are violating immigration laws and human smugglers are profiting from enabling illegal immigration. Both human smuggling and its

  3. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent


    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation...... will ask and try to answer. The mobile phone and its devices are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence, interaction, and affect. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity - soul...... - is the prophecy. This personification or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. The technology is seen as creating a technotranscendens towards a more qualified humanity, which is in contact with the fundamental human values like intuition, vision, and sensing; all the qualities...

  4. Human Parvoviruses. (United States)

    Qiu, Jianming; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Young, Neal S


    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) and human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), members of the large Parvoviridae family, are human pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases. For B19V in particular, host features determine disease manifestations. These viruses are prevalent worldwide and are culturable in vitro, and serological and molecular assays are available but require careful interpretation of results. Additional human parvoviruses, including HBoV2 to -4, human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), and human bufavirus (BuV) are also reviewed. The full spectrum of parvovirus disease in humans has yet to be established. Candidate recombinant B19V vaccines have been developed but may not be commercially feasible. We review relevant features of the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses, and the human immune response that they elicit, which have allowed a deep understanding of pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Human Rights/Human Needs. (United States)

    Canning, Cynthia


    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  6. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels


    Digital humanities is an umbrella term for theories, methodologies, and practices related to humanities scholarship that use the digital computer as an integrated and essential part of its research and teaching activities. The computer can be used for establishing, finding, collecting......, and preserving material to study, as an object of study in its own right, as an analytical tool, or for collaborating, and for disseminating results. The term "digital humanities" was coined around 2001, and gained currency within academia in the following years. However, computers had been used within...... the humanities for decades, starting with research fields such as humanities computing or computational linguistics in the 1950s, and later new media studies and internet studies. The historical development of digital humanities has been characterized by a focus on three successive, but co-existing types...

  7. Human evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llamas, Bastien; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre


    The field of human ancient DNA (aDNA) has moved from mitochondrial sequencing that suffered from contamination and provided limited biological insights, to become a fully genomic discipline that is changing our conception of human history. Recent successes include the sequencing of extinct hominins......, and true population genomic studies of Bronze Age populations. Among the emerging areas of aDNA research, the analysis of past epigenomes is set to provide more new insights into human adaptation and disease susceptibility through time. Starting as a mere curiosity, ancient human genetics has become...

  8. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)


    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  9. Human Rights and Human Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Possenti


    Full Text Available There seems to be two different versions of human rights in Western tradition: say Rationalistic and Christian; the former adopted in revolutionary France, the latter highly developed in Renaissance Spain. Current relativistic criticisms attempt to deny the universality of human rights alleging that this theory has been created in Western countries or it has no strong justification, and therefore cannot have universal approach; but this objection can be dismissed with an alternative justification of human rights.

  10. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard


    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...... with the human-centered theory of communication advocated by integrationism....

  11. Human trichuriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter


    Human trichuriasis is a neglected tropical disease which affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is particularly prevalent among children living in areas where sanitation is poor. This review examines the current knowledge on the taxonomy, genetics and phylogeography of human Trichuris...

  12. Human kapital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders; Nielsen, Peder Harbjerg


    finansiel og human kapital. Den traditionelle rådgivnings snævre synsvinkel kan føre til forkerte investeringsråd. Der skal derfor opfordres til, at de finansielle virksomheder i tilrettelæggelsen af deres rådgivning af private kunder systematisk inddrager den humane kapitals størrelse og karakteristika i...

  13. Delineating Rearrangements in Single Yeast Artificial Chromosomes by Quantitative DNA Fiber Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Greulich-Bode, Karin M.; Wu, Jenny; Duell, Thomas


    Cloning of large chunks of human genomic DNA in recombinant systems such as yeast or bacterial artificial chromosomes has greatly facilitated the construction of physical maps, the positional cloning of disease genes or the preparation of patient-specific DNA probes for diagnostic purposes. For this process to work efficiently, the DNA cloning process and subsequent clone propagation need to maintain stable inserts that are neither deleted nor otherwise rearranged. Some regions of the human genome; however, appear to have a higher propensity than others to rearrange in any host system. Thus, techniques to detect and accurately characterize such rearrangements need to be developed. We developed a technique termed 'Quantitative DNA Fiber Mapping (QDFM)' that allows accurate tagging of sequence elements of interest with near kilobase accuracy and optimized it for delineation of rearrangements in recombinant DNA clones. This paper demonstrates the power of this microscopic approach by investigating YAC rearrangements. In our examples, high-resolution physical maps for regions within the immunoglobulin lambda variant gene cluster were constructed for three different YAC clones carrying deletions of 95 kb and more. Rearrangements within YACs could be demonstrated unambiguously by pairwise mapping of cosmids along YAC DNA molecules. When coverage by YAC clones was not available, distances between cosmid clones were estimated by hybridization of cosmids onto DNA fibers prepared from human genomic DNA. In addition, the QDFM technology provides essential information about clone stability facilitating closure of the maps of the human genome as well as those of model organisms.

  14. Human Computation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    What if people could play computer games and accomplish work without even realizing it? What if billions of people collaborated to solve important problems for humanity or generate training data for computers? My work aims at a general paradigm for doing exactly that: utilizing human processing power to solve computational problems in a distributed manner. In particular, I focus on harnessing human time and energy for addressing problems that computers cannot yet solve. Although computers have advanced dramatically in many respects over the last 50 years, they still do not possess the basic conceptual intelligence or perceptual capabilities...

  15. Human phantom

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    This human phantom has been received by CERN on loan from the State Committee of the USSR for the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It is used by the Health Physics Group to study personel radiation doses near the accelerators.

  16. Human expunction (United States)

    Klee, Robert


    Thomas Nagel in `The Absurd' (Nagel 1971) mentions the future expunction of the human species as a `metaphor' for our ability to see our lives from the outside, which he claims is one source of our sense of life's absurdity. I argue that the future expunction (not to be confused with extinction) of everything human - indeed of everything biological in a terran sense - is not a mere metaphor but a physical certainty under the laws of nature. The causal processes by which human expunction will take place are presented in some empirical detail, so that philosophers cannot dismiss it as merely speculative. I also argue that appeals to anthropic principles or to forms of mystical cosmology are of no plausible avail in the face of human expunction under the laws of physics.

  17. Human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, María Pía; Mulder, Maximilian; Gilman, Robert H.; Smits, Henk L.


    Human brucellosis still presents scientists and clinicians with several challenges, such as the understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of Brucella spp, the identification of markers for disease severity, progression, and treatment response, and the development of improved treatment regimens.

  18. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter


    This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... on characterisation factors means that results should by default be reported and interpreted in log scales when comparing scenarios or substance contribution! We conclude by outlining future trends in human toxicity modelling for LCIA, with promising developments for (a) better estimates of degradation halflives, (b......) the inclusion of ionization of chemicals in human exposure including bioaccumulation, (c) metal speciation, (d) spatialised models to differentiate the variability associated with spatialisation from the uncertainty, and (e) the assessment of chemical exposure via consumer products and occupational settings...

  19. Human ehrlichiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Milomir


    Full Text Available Background. Human ehrlichiosis is a newly recognized disease. It is a tick-borne disease caused by several bacterial species of the genhus Erlichia. These are small gram-negative pleomorphic cocci, that are obligatory intracellular bacteria. Tick Ixodes is the principle vector in Europe, and Amblyomma americanum in the United States. Bacterial organisms replicate in a tick, and are transmited from infected cells in a vector to the blood cells of animals or humans. Human ehrlichiosis is a name for a group of diseases caused by different species of Ehrlichia. One of them is the disease named human monocytic ehrlichiosis, caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and the other is a human granulocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilia. Case report. We reported a 23-year-old patient admitted for the clinical treatment with the symptoms of high febrility (above 40 °C, headache, vomiting, general weakness and exhaustion, but without data on a tick bite. The patient was treated with trimetoprim-sulfamethoxazole for a week when Ehrlichia chaffeensis was confirmed by the immunofluoroscence test, and the therapy contimed with doxacyclin. Conclusion. Human ehrlichiosis is also present in our country, so this disease should be considered everyday, especially in infectology practice.

  20. [Humanized childbirth]. (United States)

    Kuo, Su-Chen


    Childbirth is a major event in a family. The expectant parent's perception of the childbirth experience influences his or her development as a parent. Making childbirth a positive and satisfying experience for women is the responsibility of health care providers. Women want to have physical and emotional privacy during labor and delivery, and to experience both in a friendly, comfortable environment. For women expected to undergo normal deliveries, humanized childbirth is one accessible approach. This article explores the definition and evolution of humanized childbirth and the care practice that it involves. It also explores birth plans and birth experiences, and the improvements necessary to routine labor practices to enable women to participate in decision making about their childbirth experiences. The author emphasizes that when health-care providers recognize the value of humanized childbirth and make changes accordingly, the dignity of women's childbirth experiences will be enhanced.

  1. Human monkeypox. (United States)

    McCollum, Andrea M; Damon, Inger K


    Human monkeypox is a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus with a presentation similar to smallpox. Clinical differentiation of the disease from smallpox and varicella is difficult. Laboratory diagnostics are principal components to identification and surveillance of disease, and new tests are needed for a more precise and rapid diagnosis. The majority of human infections occur in Central Africa, where surveillance in rural areas with poor infrastructure is difficult but can be accomplished with evidence-guided tools and educational materials to inform public health workers of important principles. Contemporary epidemiological studies are needed now that populations do not receive routine smallpox vaccination. New therapeutics and vaccines offer hope for the treatment and prevention of monkeypox; however, more research must be done before they are ready to be deployed in an endemic setting. There is a need for more research in the epidemiology, ecology, and biology of the virus in endemic areas to better understand and prevent human infections.

  2. Human mimicry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chartrand, T.L.; Baaren, R.B. van


    Human mimicry is ubiquitous, and often occurs without the awareness of the person mimicking or the person being mimicked. First, we briefly describe some of the major types of nonconscious mimicry—verbal, facial, emotional, and behavioral—and review the evidence for their automaticity. Next, we

  3. Practicing Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje


    and self-reflective democracy. Contemporary humanities have adopted a new orientation towards practices, and it is not clear how this fits with the ideals of ‘Bildung’ and ‘pure science’. A possible theoretical framework for this orientation towards practices could be found in John Dewey’s pragmatic...

  4. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna


    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  5. Human Parasites


    Davis, Ryan S.; Hodgson, Erin W.


    Entomologists often get “bug” samples for identification, including those that accidentally infest residences. In the United States, we are fortunate to have very few arthropods (e.g., insects, spiders, mites, ticks, etc.) that actually infest or feed on humans.

  6. Human steroidogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Y; Ezcurra, Diego


    reviews current knowledge of the regulation of progesterone in the human ovary during the follicular phase and highlights areas where knowledge remains limited. In this review, we provide in-depth information outlining the regulation and function of gonadotropins in the complicated area of steroidogenesis...

  7. Human Parechoviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Thea Kølsen; Harvala, Heli; Midgley, Sofie


    Infections with human parechoviruses (HPeV) are highly prevalent, particularly in neonates, where they may cause substantial morbidity and mortality. The clinical presentation of HPeV infection is often indistinguishable from that of enterovirus (EV) infection and may vary from mild disease...

  8. Nothing Human (United States)

    Wharram, C. C.


    In this essay C. C. Wharram argues that Terence's concept of translation as a form of "contamination" anticipates recent developments in philosophy, ecology, and translation studies. Placing these divergent fields of inquiry into dialogue enables us read Terence's well-known statement "I am a human being--I deem nothing…

  9. Human Trafficking (United States)

    Wilson, David McKay


    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  10. Human monkeypox. (United States)

    Jezek, Z; Gromyko, A I; Szczeniowski, M V


    Human monkeypox, occurring in the tropical rainforest of west and central Africa, is regarded as the most important orthopoxvirus infection for epidemiological surveillance during the post-smallpox era. This disease, first recognized in Zaïre in 1970 resembles smallpox clinically but differs epidemiologically. Clinical features, their evolution and sequelae of monkeypox could be compared with discrete ordinary or modified type of smallpox. A case-fatality rate of 14% has been observed but some cases can be exceedingly mild or atypical and may easily remain undetected and unreported. Pronounced lymphadenopathy has been the only clinical feature found commonly in monkeypox but not in smallpox. Fifty-seven cases of human monkeypox have occurred since 1970, in the tropical rainforests in six west and central African countries, the majority of them (45) being reported from Zaïre. The disease appears to be more frequent in dry season. Children below ten years of age comprise 84% of the cases. Smallpox vaccination protects against monkeypox. Clusters of cases have been observed in certain areas within countries and within affected households. Human-to-human spread has possibly occurred seven times. No cases of possible tertiary spread were observed. The secondary attack rate among susceptible close household contacts was 10%, among all susceptible contacts 5%. This is much lower than that occurring with smallpox, which is between 25-40%. The limited avidity of monkeypox virus for human beings indicates that monkeypox is probably a zoonosis, although the animal reservoir(s) have not yet been identified. The low transmissibility, resulting in low frequency of disease in man indicates that monkeypox is not a public health problem. Human monkeypox has been a relatively newly recognized disease. Studies are in progress to identify the natural cycle of monkeypox virus and to define better its clinical and epidemiological characteristics. Special surveillance is maintained in

  11. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)


    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  12. Human Development Report 2000: Human Rights and Human Development


    United Nations Development Programme, UNDP


    The Human Development Report 2000 looks at human rights as an intrinsic part of development—and at development as a means to realizing human rights. It shows how human rights bring principles of accountability and social justice to the process of human development.

  13. Human Rights in the Humanities (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey


    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  14. Human Protothecosis (United States)

    Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Mayr, Astrid


    Human protothecosis is a rare infection caused by members of the genus Prototheca. Prototheca species are generally considered to be achlorophyllic algae and are ubiquitous in nature. The occurrence of protothecosis can be local or disseminated and acute or chronic, with the latter being more common. Diseases have been classified as (i) cutaneous lesions, (ii) olecranon bursitis, or (iii) disseminated or systemic manifestations. Infections can occur in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients, although more severe and disseminated infections tend to occur in immunocompromised individuals. Prototheca wickerhamii and Prototheca zopfii have been associated with human disease. Usually, treatment involves medical and surgical approaches; treatment failure is not uncommon. Antifungals such as ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, and amphotericin B are the most commonly used drugs to date. Among them, amphotericin B displays the best activity against Prototheca spp. Diagnosis is largely made upon detection of characteristic structures observed on histopathologic examination of tissue. PMID:17428884

  15. Human paleoneurology

    CERN Document Server


    The book presents an integrative review of paleoneurology, the study of endocranial morphology in fossil species. The main focus is on showing how computed methods can be used to support advances in evolutionary neuroanatomy, paleoanthropology and archaeology and how they have contributed to creating a completely new perspective in cognitive neuroscience. Moreover, thanks to its multidisciplinary approach, the book addresses students and researchers approaching human paleoneurology from different angles and for different purposes, such as biologists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists

  16. Human Cloning (United States)


    research group, headed by Douglas Melton and Kevin Eggan, submitted their proposal to a Harvard committee composed of ethicists, scientists and public...United States. Although the company offered no proof of its claim, Dr . Brigette Boisselier, Managing Director of Clonaid, stated that genetic tests would...a year of the Dolly announcement, concerns over human cloning were heightened when Dr . Richard Seed, a Chicago scientist, announced on January 7

  17. Human universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian


    Human life is a staggeringly strange thing. On the surface of a ball of rock falling around a nuclear fireball in the blackness of a vacuum the laws of nature conspired to create a naked ape that can look up at the stars and wonder where it came from. What is a human being? Objectively, nothing of consequence. Particles of dust in an infinite arena, present for an instant in eternity. Clumps of atoms in a universe with more galaxies than people. And yet a human being is necessary for the question itself to exist, and the presence of a question in the universe - any question - is the most wonderful thing. Questions require minds, and minds bring meaning. What is meaning? I don't know, except that the universe and every pointless speck inside it means something to me. I am astonished by the existence of a single atom, and find my civilisation to be an outrageous imprint on reality. I don't understand it. Nobody does, but it makes me smile. This book asks questions about our origins, our destiny, and our place i...

  18. Human Being Human: Culture and the Soul


    Hauke, Chris


    Human Being Human explores the classical question 'What is a human being?'\\ud \\ud In examining our human being, Christopher Hauke challenges the notion of human nature, questions the assumed superiority of human consciousness and rational thinking and pays close attention to the contradiction of living simultaneously as an autonomous individual and a member of the collective community. The main chapters include:\\ud \\ud who's in charge here?\\ud knowledge power and human being\\ud that thinking ...

  19. Introduction: Digital Humanities, Public Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Christie


    Full Text Available NANO: New American Notes Online: An Interdisciplinary Academic Journal for Big Ideas in a Small World. This special issue shows how both public and digital humanities research can be rendered more persuasive through engagement with cultures beyond the academy. More specifically, the aim of this special issue is to demonstrate how investments in technologies and computation are not necessarily antithetical to investments in critical theory and social justice.

  20. Human Computing, Virtual Humans and Artificial Imperfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.; Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, Antinus; Quek, F.; Yang, Y.


    In this paper we raise the issue whether imperfections, characteristic of human-human communication, should be taken into account when developing virtual humans. We argue that endowing virtual humans with the imperfections of humans can help making them more ‘comfortable’ to interact with. That is,

  1. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education (United States)

    Le Grange, L.


    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  2. Humanizing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard


    The article proposes the urban digital gallery as an opportunity to explore the relationship between ‘human’ and ‘technology,’ through the programming of media architecture. It takes a curatorial perspective when proposing an ontological shift from considering media facades as visual spectacles...... agency and a sense of being by way of dematerializing architecture. This is achieved by way of programming the symbolic to provide new emotional realizations and situations of enlightenment in the public audience. This reflects a greater potential to humanize the digital in media architecture....

  3. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard


    The paper probes the background of the dire rhetoric of the Danish National Health Board’s 40 week anti-alcohol consumption campaign, in particular the model of communication implied by the campaign's strategy. Contrasting the campaign's strategy in 2011 with the results of evaluations of previous...... years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...

  4. Human Factors Planning Guidelines (United States)


    To ensure human factors considerations are fully incorporated in the system : development, the Integrated Product Team (IPT) or Program Manager initiates a : Human Factors Program (HFP) that addresses the human performance and human : resource parame...

  5. The Digital Humanities as a Humanities Project (United States)

    Svensson, Patrik


    This article argues that the digital humanities can be seen as a humanities project in a time of significant change in the academy. The background is a number of scholarly, educational and technical challenges, the multiple epistemic traditions linked to the digital humanities, the potential reach of the field across and outside the humanities,…

  6. NATO Human View Architecture and Human Networks (United States)

    Handley, Holly A. H.; Houston, Nancy P.


    The NATO Human View is a system architectural viewpoint that focuses on the human as part of a system. Its purpose is to capture the human requirements and to inform on how the human impacts the system design. The viewpoint contains seven static models that include different aspects of the human element, such as roles, tasks, constraints, training and metrics. It also includes a Human Dynamics component to perform simulations of the human system under design. One of the static models, termed Human Networks, focuses on the human-to-human communication patterns that occur as a result of ad hoc or deliberate team formation, especially teams distributed across space and time. Parameters of human teams that effect system performance can be captured in this model. Human centered aspects of networks, such as differences in operational tempo (sense of urgency), priorities (common goal), and team history (knowledge of the other team members), can be incorporated. The information captured in the Human Network static model can then be included in the Human Dynamics component so that the impact of distributed teams is represented in the simulation. As the NATO militaries transform to a more networked force, the Human View architecture is an important tool that can be used to make recommendations on the proper mix of technological innovations and human interactions.

  7. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørn


    overgangen fra trykkekultur til digital kultur. For det første problemstillingen omkring digitalisering af litterær kulturarv med fokus på kodning og tagging af teksten samt organisering i hypertekststrukturer. For det andet reorganiseringen af det digitale dokument i dataelementer og database. For det......Artiklen præsenterer først nogle generelle problemstillinger omkring Digital Humanities (DH) med det formål at undersøge dem nærmere i relation til konkrete eksempler på forskellige digitaliseringsmåder og ændringer i dokumentproduktion. I en nærmere afgrænsning vælger artiklen den tendens i DH......, der betragter DH som forbundet med "making" og "building" af digitale objekter og former. Dette kan også karakteriseres som DH som praktisk-produktiv vending. Artiklen har valgt tre typer af digitalisering. De er valgt ud fra, at de skal repræsentere forskellige måder at håndtere digitaliseringen på...

  8. Human Rhinoviruses (United States)

    Lamson, Daryl M.; St. George, Kirsten; Walsh, Thomas J.


    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs), first discovered in the 1950s, are responsible for more than one-half of cold-like illnesses and cost billions of dollars annually in medical visits and missed days of work. Advances in molecular methods have enhanced our understanding of the genomic structure of HRV and have led to the characterization of three genetically distinct HRV groups, designated groups A, B, and C, within the genus Enterovirus and the family Picornaviridae. HRVs are traditionally associated with upper respiratory tract infection, otitis media, and sinusitis. In recent years, the increasing implementation of PCR assays for respiratory virus detection in clinical laboratories has facilitated the recognition of HRV as a lower respiratory tract pathogen, particularly in patients with asthma, infants, elderly patients, and immunocompromised hosts. Cultured isolates of HRV remain important for studies of viral characteristics and disease pathogenesis. Indeed, whether the clinical manifestations of HRV are related directly to viral pathogenicity or secondary to the host immune response is the subject of ongoing research. There are currently no approved antiviral therapies for HRVs, and treatment remains primarily supportive. This review provides a comprehensive, up-to-date assessment of the basic virology, pathogenesis, clinical epidemiology, and laboratory features of and treatment and prevention strategies for HRVs. PMID:23297263

  9. Human Factors in Human-Systems Integration (United States)

    Fitts, David J.; Sandor, Aniko; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Tillman, Barry


    Any large organization whose mission is to design and develop systems for humans, and train humans needs a well-developed integration and process plan to deal with the challenges that arise from managing multiple subsystems. Human capabilities, skills, and needs must be considered early in the design and development process, and must be continuously considered throughout the development lifecycle. This integration of human needs within system design is typically formalized through a Human-Systems Integration (HSI) program. By having an HSI program, an institution or organization can reduce lifecycle costs and increase the efficiency, usability, and quality of its products because human needs have been considered from the beginning.

  10. Humane Education: An Overview. (United States)

    Whitlock, Eileen S.; Westerlund, Stuart R.

    This booklet traces the historical development of human education as it has been instilled into the young people of America from colonial times to the present and provides a future prognosis of humaneness in the schools. Humane education promotes humane behavior and is an important part of the humane movement in the United States, although until…

  11. IVI human factors strategy (United States)


    This document focuses on human factors research that supports the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI). The status of the problem areas within categories used often by the human factors community to organize human factors process is discussed. A simi...

  12. Human Factors Job Aid (United States)


    The purpose of this Human Factors Job Aid is to serve as a desk reference for : human factors integration during system acquisition. The first chapter contains : an overview of the FAA human factors process in system acquisitions. The : remaining eig...

  13. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de


    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  14. Human-machine interactions (United States)

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM; Abbott, Robert G [Albuquerque, NM; Brannon, Nathan G [Albuquerque, NM; Bernard, Michael L [Tijeras, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM


    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  15. Rescue of Targeted Regions of Mammalian Chromosomes by in Vivo Recombination in Yeast (United States)

    Kouprina, Natalya; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Barrett, J. Carl; Larionov, Vladimir; Koi, Minoru


    In contrast to other animal cell lines, the chicken pre-B cell lymphoma line, DT40, exhibits a high level of homologous recombination, which can be exploited to generate site-specific alterations in defined target genes or regions. In addition, the ability to generate human/chicken monochromosomal hybrids in the DT40 cell line opens a way for specific targeting of human genes. Here we describe a new strategy for direct isolation of a human chromosomal region that is based on targeting of the chromosome with a vector containing a yeast selectable marker, centromere, and an ARS element. This procedure allows rescue of the targeted region by transfection of total genomic DNA into yeast spheroplasts. Selection for the yeast marker results in isolation of chromosome sequences in the form of large circular yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) up to 170 kb in size containing the targeted region. These YACs are generated by homologous recombination in yeast between common repeated sequences in the targeted chromosomal fragment. Alternatively, the targeted region can be rescued as a linear YACs when a YAC fragmentation vector is included in the yeast transformation mixture. Because the entire isolation procedure of the chromosomal region, once a target insertion is obtained, can be accomplished in ∼1 week, the new method greatly expands the utility of the homologous recombinationproficient DT40 chicken cell system. PMID:9647640

  16. Isolation of expressed sequences from the region commonly deleted in Velo-cardio-facial syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirotkin, H.; Morrow, B.; DasGupta, R. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)] [and others


    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is a relatively common autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by cleft palate, cardiac abnormalities, learning disabilities and a characteristic facial dysmorphology. Most VCFS patients have interstitial deletions of 22q11 of 1-2 mb. In an effort to isolate the gene(s) responsible for VCFS we have utilized a hybrid selection protocol to recover expressed sequences from three non-overlapping YACs comprising almost 1 mb of the commonly deleted region. Total yeast genomic DNA or isolated YAC DNA was immobilized on Hybond-N filters, blocked with yeast and human ribosomal and human repetitive sequences and hybridized with a mixture of random primed short fragment cDNA libraries. Six human short fragment libraries derived from total fetus, fetal brain, adult brain, testes, thymus and spleen have been used for the selections. Short fragment cDNAs retained on the filter were passed through a second round of selection and cloned into lambda gt10. cDNAs shown to originate from the YACs and from chromosome 22 are being used to isolate full length cDNAs. Three genes known to be present on these YACs, catechol-O-methyltransferase, tuple 1 and clathrin heavy chain have been recovered. Additionally, a gene related to the murine p120 gene and a number of novel short cDNAs have been isolated. The role of these genes in VCFS is being investigated.

  17. Special Section: Human Rights (United States)

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others


    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  18. ISS Payload Human Factors (United States)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan


    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  19. Human Dignity, Three Human Rights, and Pedagogy. (United States)

    Vandenberg, Donald


    A general theory of value is outlined to show that moral agency is necessary to human dignity and that liberty, equality, and fraternity are necessary to moral agency. These ideals can be implemented in schools and human dignity can be at the core of the professional ethics of teaching. (MT)

  20. Human dignity, bioethics, and human rights. (United States)

    Häyry, Matti; Takala, Tuija


    The authors analyse and assess the Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights published by UNESCO. They argue that the Draft has two main weaknesses. It unnecessarily confines the scope of bioethics to life sciences and their practical applications. And it fails to spell out the intended role of human dignity in international ethical regulation.

  1. [Humanization in health care]. (United States)

    Oliveira, Beatriz Rosana Gonçalves de; Collet, Neusa; Viera, Cláudia Silveira


    This study aims to reflect on humanization in health care, recovering the history of understanding about mankind, the human and humanity, until humanization in humanity and health. We discuss the national humanization program in hospital care and reflect on this proposal and on the issue of humanization in Brazilian health care nowadays. Communication is indispensable to establish humanization, as well as technical and material conditions. Both users and health professionals need to be heard, building a network of dialogues to think and promote singular humanization actions. For this process to take effect, there is a need to involve the whole that makes up the health service. This group involves different professionals, such as managers, public policy makers, professional councils and education institutions.

  2. Global Law: Humanism and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilane Serratine Grubba


    Full Text Available This article discusses the ideal of human rights before globalizatórios inflows. It begins with a general statement about the legal globalization, comparing it with the Global Law in the political and economic implications. Later, it approaches the ideal predicted with transnationalism. Proposes a reflection on the present Human Rights. Also, rethinks the lines of the complex web of Global Law, its institutions and its actors, which circulate between the public and private plans. There is no sense in space maintenance of the ideal of human rights only in the state or territory in international treaties originally linked to the states.

  3. Human Resource Accounting System (United States)

    Cerullo, Michael J.


    Main objectives of human resource accounting systems are to satisfy the informational demands made by investors and by operating managers. The paper's main concern is with the internal uses of a human asset system. (Author)

  4. Telling the Human Story. (United States)

    Richardson, Miles


    Proposes that one of the fundamental human attributes is telling stories. Explores the debate on whether Neanderthals possessed language ability. Discusses the role of the "human story" in teaching anthropology. (DH)

  5. Human Use Index (Future) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  6. Human Use Index (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  7. Immunology Taught by Humans


    Davis, Mark M


    After a half-century of mouse-dominated research, human immunology is making a comeback. Informed by mouse studies and powered by new techniques, human immune research is both advancing disease treatment and providing new insights into basic biology.

  8. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... 6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open TOP

  9. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine: What You Need to Know (VIS) ... Why get vaccinated? HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with many ...

  10. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  11. Human Parainfluenza Viruses (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

  12. Human bites (image) (United States)

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  13. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women HPV (human papillomavirus) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español In Chamorro In Urdu In Vietnamese HPV (human papillomavirus) is a sexually transmitted virus. It is ...

  14. Humane Education in Action. (United States)

    Savesky, Kathy


    Provides a brief history and description of a field test in the United States and Canada of the National Association for the Advancement of Humane Education's humane education curriculum guide for grades 1-6. (CS)

  15. A novel sandwich hybridization method for selecting cDNAs from large genomic regions: Identification of cDNAs from the cloned genomic DNA spanning the XLRP locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, D.; McHenry, C.; Fujita, R. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others


    We have developed an efficient hybridization-based cDNA-selection method. A sandwich of three species - single-stranded cDNA, tagged RNA derived from genomic DNA, and biotinylated RNA complementary to the tag - allows specific retention of hybrids on an avidin-matrix. Previously, using model experiments, we demonstrated highly specific and efficient selection of a retinal gene, NRL, from complex mixtures of cDNA clones, using a sub-library from a 5 kb NRL genomic clone. We have now applied this selection strategy to isolate cDNAs from human adult retina and fetal eye libraries, with the {open_quotes}genomic RNA{close_quotes} derived from two YAC clones (OTC-C and 55B) spanning the region of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) locus RP3 at Xp21.1. Effectiveness of the selection-method was monitored by enrichment of TCTEX-1L gene that maps within the 55B YAC. Of the 15 selected cDNA clones that hybridized to the 55B YAC DNA, five appear to the map to specific cosmid clones derived from the 55B YAC. Inserts in these selected cDNA clones range from 0.5 to 2.3 kb in size. Additional clones are now being isolated and characterized. This procedure should be independent of the size or complexity of genomic DNA being used for selection, allow for the isolation of full-length cDNAs, and may have wider application.

  16. Human papillomavirus molecular biology. (United States)

    Harden, Mallory E; Munger, Karl

    Human papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses with a tropism for squamous epithelia. A unique aspect of human papillomavirus molecular biology involves dependence on the differentiation status of the host epithelial cell to complete the viral lifecycle. A small group of these viruses are the etiologic agents of several types of human cancers, including oral and anogenital tract carcinomas. This review focuses on the basic molecular biology of human papillomaviruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Human Resource Management System


    Navaz, A. S. Syed; Fiaz, A. S. Syed; Prabhadevi, C.; Sangeetha, V.; Gopalakrishnan, S.


    The paper titled HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM is basically concerned with managing the Administrator of HUMAN RESOURCE Department in a company. A Human Resource Management System, refers to the systems and processes at the intersection between human resource management and information technology. It merges HRM as a discipline and in particular its basic HR activities and processes with the information technology field, whereas the programming of data processing systems evolved into standa...

  18. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton


    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  19. International Human Rights Kit. (United States)

    Woito, Robert, Ed.

    Designed for students, educators, and citizens interested in human rights, the booklet presents resources for learning about the facts, perspectives, and existing procedures and institutions to promote human rights. Chapter one explores the relationship between human rights and war. Chapter two presents a self-survey to help readers clarify…

  20. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.


    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  1. Humanities Review Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humanities Review Journal is published in June and December by Humanities Research Forum. The Journal publishes original, well-researched papers, review essays, interviews, resume, and commentaries, which offer new insights into the various disciplines in the Humanities. The focus is on issues about Africa.

  2. A Human Rights Glossary. (United States)

    Flowers, Nancy


    Presents a human rights glossary that includes definitions of basic terms, treaties, charters, and groups/organizations that have been featured in previous articles in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education"; the human rights terms have been compiled as part of the celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights…

  3. Esprit: A Humanities Magazine. (United States)

    Parker, Donald G.; Capella, Barry John

    In March 1984, the first issue of "Esprit," a semi-annual humanities magazine for the 56 two-year colleges in New York State, was published. The magazine seeks to confront the apparent decline of student interest in the humanities, community doubts about the relevance of the humanities, and the seeming indifference to the special truths…

  4. Visible Human Project (United States)

    ... NLM Mobile Gallery Site Navigation Home The Visible Human Project ® Overview The Visible Human Project ® is an outgrowth of the NLM's 1986 ... dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies. Acquisition of transverse CT, MR and cryosection ...

  5. Modeling Human Leukemia Immunotherapy in Humanized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Xia


    Full Text Available The currently available human tumor xenograft models permit modeling of human cancers in vivo, but in immunocompromised hosts. Here we report a humanized mouse (hu-mouse model made by transplantation of human fetal thymic tissue plus hematopoietic stem cells transduced with a leukemia-associated fusion gene MLL-AF9. In addition to normal human lymphohematopoietic reconstitution as seen in non-leukemic hu-mice, these hu-mice showed spontaneous development of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL, which was transplantable to secondary recipients with an autologous human immune system. Using this model, we show that lymphopenia markedly improves the antitumor efficacy of recipient leukocyte infusion (RLI, a GVHD-free immunotherapy that induces antitumor responses in association with rejection of donor chimerism in mixed allogeneic chimeras. Our data demonstrate the potential of this leukemic hu-mouse model in modeling leukemia immunotherapy, and suggest that RLI may offer a safe treatment option for leukemia patients with severe lymphopenia.

  6. From Human Past to Human Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik


    Full Text Available This paper begins with a refutation of the orthodox model of final Pleistocene human evolution, presenting an alternative, better supported account of this crucial phase. According to this version, the transition from robust to gracile humans during that period is attributable to selective breeding rather than natural selection, rendered possible by the exponential rise of culturally guided volitional choices. The rapid human neotenization coincides with the development of numerous somatic and neural detriments and pathologies. Uniformitarian reasoning based on ontogenic homology suggests that the cognitive abilities of hominins are consistently underrated in the unstable orthodoxies of Pleistocene archaeology. A scientifically guided review establishes developmental trajectories defining recent changes in the human genome and its expressions, which then form the basis of attempts to extrapolate from them into the future. It is suggested that continuing and perhaps accelerating unfavorable genetic changes to the human species, rather than existential threats such as massive disasters, pandemics, or astrophysical events, may become the ultimate peril of humanity.

  7. Human Beings And Water


    Pakpahan, Putra Andika


    The writer of this paper on this writing is talking about the human beings and water. Water is one of the very fundamentally things that human beings need to keep their lives. Human beings sometimes do not realise that the water is very important for them because they actually cannot live their lives without the present of water. Human beings can keep their lives without rice, but cannot without water. For instances the use of water for human beings are domestic use, cooking, washing, bathing...

  8. Rethinking medical humanities. (United States)

    Chiapperino, Luca; Boniolo, Giovanni


    This paper questions different conceptions of Medical Humanities in order to provide a clearer understanding of what they are and why they matter. Building upon former attempts, we defend a conception of Medical Humanities as a humanistic problem-based approach to medicine aiming at influencing its nature and practice. In particular, we discuss three main conceptual issues regarding the overall nature of this discipline: (i) a problem-driven approach to Medical Humanities; (ii) the need for an integration of Medical Humanities into medicine; (iii) the methodological requirements that could render Medical Humanities an effective framework for medical decision-making.

  9. Situating Human Sexual Conditioning. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Heather


    Conditioning is often thought of as a basic, automatic learning process that has limited applicability to higher-level human behavior. In addition, conditioning is seen as separable from, and even secondary to, "innate" processes. These ideas involve some misconceptions. The aim of this article is to provide a clearer, more refined sense of human sexual conditioning. After providing some background information and reviewing what is known from laboratory conditioning studies, human sexual conditioning is compared to sexual conditioning in nonhumans, to "innate" sexual responding, and to other types of human learning processes. Recommendations for moving forward in human sexual conditioning research are included.

  10. Integrated Environmental Modelling: human decisions, human challenges (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.


    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  11. Oxytocin and Human Evolution. (United States)

    Carter, C Sue


    A small, but powerful neuropeptide, oxytocin coordinates processes that are central to both human reproduction and human evolution. Also embedded in the evolution of the human nervous system are unique pathways necessary for modern human sociality and cognition. Oxytocin is necessary for facilitating the birth process, especially in light of anatomical restrictions imposed by upright human locomotion, which depends on a fixed pelvis. Oxytocin, by facilitating birth, allowed the development of a large cortex and a protective bony cranium. The complex human brain in turn permitted the continuing emergence of social sensitivity, complex thinking, and language. After birth is complete, oxytocin continues to support human development by providing direct nutrition, in the form of human milk, and emotional and intellectual support through high levels of maternal behavior and selective attachment. Oxytocin also encourages social sensitivity and reciprocal attunement, on the part of both the mother and child, which are necessary for human social behavior and for rearing an emotionally healthy human child. Oxytocin supports growth during development, resilience, and healing across the lifespan. Oxytocin dynamically moderates the autonomic nervous system, and effects of oxytocin on vagal pathways allowing high levels of oxygenation and digestion necessary to support adaptation in a complex environment. Finally, oxytocin has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, helping to explain the pervasive adaptive consequences of social behavior for emotional and physical health.

  12. Human Capital and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs


    Full Text Available A study of sustainability needs to consider the role of all forms of capital—natural, biological, social, technological, financial, cultural—and the complex ways in which they interact. All forms of capital derive their value, utility and application from human mental awareness, creativity and social innovation. This makes human capital, including social capital, the central determinant of resource productivity and sustainability. Humanity has entered the Anthropocene Epoch in which human changes have become the predominant factor in evolution. Humanity is itself evolving from animal physicality to social vitality to mental individuality. This transition has profound bearing on human productive capabilities, adaptability, creativity and values, the organization of economy, public policy, social awareness and life styles that determine sustainability. This article examines the linkages between population, economic development, employment, education, health, social equity, cultural values, energy intensity and sustainability in the context of evolving human consciousness. It concludes that development of human capital is the critical determinant of long-term sustainability and that efforts to accelerate the evolution of human consciousness and emergence of mentally self-conscious individuals will be the most effective approach for ensuring a sustainable future. Education is the primary lever. Human choice matters.

  13. Humanities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, Internet studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    Todays expanding digital landscape constitutes an important research object as well as the research environment for the Humanities at the beginning of the 21st century. Taking this state of affairs as a starting point this inaugural lecture presents a vision for how the digital affects the interp......Todays expanding digital landscape constitutes an important research object as well as the research environment for the Humanities at the beginning of the 21st century. Taking this state of affairs as a starting point this inaugural lecture presents a vision for how the digital affects...... the interplay between four areas which until now to a certain extent have been separated: Traditional Hu- manities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, and Internet studies. The vision is followed by an outline of how it can be unfolded in concrete activities, in the form of research projects, research...

  14. Human Performance in Space (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna


    Human factors is a critical discipline for human spaceflight. Nearly every human factors research area is relevant to space exploration -- from the ergonomics of hand tools used by astronauts, to the displays and controls of a spacecraft cockpit or mission control workstation, to levels of automation designed into rovers on Mars, to organizational issues of communication between crew and ground. This chapter focuses more on the ways in which the space environment (especially altered gravity and the isolated and confined nature of long-duration spaceflight) affects crew performance, and thus has specific novel implications for human factors research and practice. We focus on four aspects of human performance: neurovestibular integration, motor control and musculo-skeletal effects, cognitive effects, and behavioral health. We also provide a sampler of recent human factors studies from NASA.

  15. Bursty human dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Karsai, Márton; Kaski, Kimmo


    This book provides a comprehensive overview on emergent bursty patterns in the dynamics of human behaviour. It presents common and alternative understanding of the investigated phenomena, and points out open questions worthy of further investigations. The book is structured as follows. In the introduction the authors discuss the motivation of the field, describe bursty phenomena in case of human behaviour, and relate it to other disciplines. The second chapter addresses the measures commonly used to characterise heterogeneous signals, bursty human dynamics, temporal paths, and correlated behaviour. These definitions are first introduced to set the basis for the discussion of the third chapter about the observations of bursty human patterns in the dynamics of individuals, dyadic interactions, and collective behaviour. The subsequent fourth chapter discusses the models of bursty human dynamics. Various mechanisms have been proposed about the source of the heterogeneities in human dynamics, which leads to the in...

  16. Outsourcing in Human Resource


    Oliver Pamelan


    The research paper aimed to contribute to the literature of Human Resource Management Planning and employment through the widely used function of the outsourcing human resource. The research paper is based on the description of the process of outsourcing with the reference to the theories of outsourcing management activities. It also explained the effects of this function through measuring the benefits and drawbacks of the outsourcing human resource while planning the employment strategies. T...

  17. The Humanities Matter! Infographic


    Terras, M. M.; Priego, E.; Liu, A.; Rockwell, G.; Sinclair, S.; Henseler, C.; Thomas, L.


    The Humanities are academic disciplines that seek to understand and interpret the human experience, from individuals to entire cultures, engaging in the discovery, preservation, and communication of the past and present record to enable a deeper understanding of contemporary society. The Humanities encompass literature, classics, ancient and modern languages, history, philoso - phy, media studies, the fine and performing arts, and other related subjects. It can be a challenge to show the bene...

  18. Human Resource Planning


    Lache Cãtãlina


    The objective of human resource planning is to adapt the human capital needed to develop the enterprises’ activities and to accomplish their priority objectives on the medium and/or short term. Human resource planning is a dynamic activity, time being an essential variable, both in what regards the quantitative side (adapting the number of jobs according to the organisation’s evolution in time) and the qualitative side (harmonising the jobs’ complexity with technological changes). The quantit...

  19. Crimes against humanity


    Podlahová, Veronika


    57 Resumé "Crimes against humanity" (the thesis title) Crimes against humanity constitute one of the three integral parts of "crimes under international law." At the same time they represent the most severe form of infringement of fundamental human rights that are as the principle value protected by the international community and its peremptory rules. Although these crimes have not emerged during the 20th century for the first time, it was the World War II., which established the term "crime...

  20. Modern Human Capital Management


    Feldberger, Madita


    Title: Modern Human Capital Management Seminar date: 30th of May 2008 Course: Master thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS Authors: Madita Feldberger Supervisor: Lars Svensson Keywords: Human capital, SWOT Analysis, Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard Research Problem: Despite of the success of Human Capital Management (HCM) in research it did not arrive yet in the HR departments of many companies. Numerous firms even have problems to set their strategic goals with focus on HR. The HR Bala...

  1. Human hemoglobin genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, G.R.; Adams, J.G.


    This book contains the following 10 chapters: Introduction; The Human Hemoglobins; The Human Globin Genes; Hemoglobin Synthesis and Globin Gene Expression; The Globin Gene Mutations - A. Mechanisms and Classification; The Globin Gene Mutations - B. Their Phenotypes and Clinical Expression; The Genetics of the Human Globin Gene Loci: Formal Genetics and Gene Linkage; The Geographic Distribution of Globin Gene Variation; Labortory Identification, Screening, Education, and Counseling for Abnormal Hemoglobins and Thalassemias; and Approaches to the Treatment of the Hemoglobin Disorders.

  2. Exclusion of the PAX2 gene as a candidate gene for Crouzon craniofacial dysostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R.A.; Gorry, M.C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Warman, M. [Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States)] [and others


    Crouzon craniofacial dysostosis (CFD, MIM 123500) is an abnormality of craniofacial development characterized by premature craniosynostosis, maxillary hypoplasia, and shallow orbits. We have mapped the CFD gene locus using a candidate gene approach to a 7 centiMorgan region on chromosome 10q in three CFD families. A maximal multipoint LOD score of 12.33 was achieved for a locus 2 cM distal to the microsatellite marker D10S209. A comparison of several physical, cytogenetic, and linkage maps revealed that the cytogenetic bands, 10q25-q26, most likely contain this CFD locus. The PAX2 gene, which has been mapped near another marker which in turn has been mapped to 10q25, was analyzed as a candidate gene. PAX2 was chosen for analysis because mutations in other members of the PAX gene family have been identified with human craniofacial abnormalities (e.g. Waardenburg syndrome). A YAC contig, consisting of 5 overlapping groups and composed of 11 YACs that spans the entire 7 cM region, was assembled for PAX2 analyses. None of these YACs supported PAX2-specific amplification using primer sets for both the second and third PAX2 exons. Control amplifications for YAC vector sequences produced robust amplifications in all cases. In addition, SSCP analyses of amplification products generated from the second and third PAX2 exons and the 3{prime} untranslated region of the PAX2 gene from both affected and unaffected family members in two of the kindreds failed to reveal any polymorphisms. Although it remains theoretically possible, due to artifacts in the YAC contigs, it is unlikely that PAX2 is the CFD gene.

  3. Human Performance Research Center (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Biochemistry:Improvements in energy metabolism, muscular strength and endurance capacity have a basis in biochemical and molecular adaptations within the human body....

  4. Human cloning 2001. (United States)

    Healy, David L; Weston, Gareth; Pera, Martin F; Rombauts, Luk; Trounson, Alan O


    This review summaries human cloning from a clinical perspective. Natural human clones, that is, monozygotic twins, are increasing in the general community. Iatrogenic human clones have been produced for decades in infertile couples given fertility treatment such as ovulation induction. A clear distinction must be made between therapeutic cloning using embryonic stem cells and reproductive cloning attempts. Unlike the early clinical years of in vitro fertilization, with cloning there is no animal model that is safe and dependable. Until there is such a model, 'Dolly'-style human cloning is medically unacceptable.

  5. Robotics for Human Exploration (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria


    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  6. [Human physiology: kidney]. (United States)

    Natochin, Iu V


    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  7. Challenges for Virtual Humans in Human Computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Huang, T; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Pentland, A.

    The vision of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) presumes a plethora of embedded services and devices that all endeavor to support humans in their daily activities as unobtrusively as possible. Hardware gets distributed throughout the environment, occupying even the fabric of our clothing. The environment


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives To determine whether raised levels of serum Beta -HCG) are associated with higher grade and Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin ( -HCG in higher category tumors and whether in patients with raised levels of -HCG their sera the rise (above normal range) and the fall (to normal) in levels would correspond with ...

  9. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.


    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  10. Skin and the non-human human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk


    ) article 'Visualizing the mind: Looking at Titian's Flaying of Marsyas', addressing features of the painting not commented on by Hart, and supplementing Hart's (Kleinian) theoretical frame by involving Didier Anzieu's 'skin ego', Slavoj Zizek's concept of the 'non-human', Giorgio Agamben's term...

  11. Human Resource Accounting (United States)

    Woodruff, Robert L., Jr.


    An interview is reported which discussed the implications for the hiring, recruiting, screening and development of employees in the light of human resource accounting, here defined as the identification, accumulation and dissemination of information about human resources in dollar terms. (SA)

  12. Human-centred Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bason, Christian


    Design approaches are now being applied all over the world as a powerful approach to innovating public policies and services. Christian Bason, author of Leading public design: Discovering human-centred governance, argues that by bringing design methods into play, public managers can lead change...... with citizens at the centre, and discover a new model for steering public organisations: human-centred governance....

  13. Human Mind Maps (United States)

    Glass, Tom


    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  14. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.


    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  15. Biodemography of human ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W


    Human senescence has been delayed by a decade. This finding, documented in 1994 and bolstered since, is a fundamental discovery about the biology of human ageing, and one with profound implications for individuals, society and the economy. Remarkably, the rate of deterioration with age seems...

  16. the human genome project

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    have resulted in the biological diversity, both past and present, on this planet. RAJ RAMESAR. MSc, PhD. Professor and Head. Division of Human Genetics. Faculty of Health Sciences. University of Cape Town. Raj Ramesar serves as Director of the MRC. Human Genetics Research Unit and. CANSA's Colorectal Cancer ...

  17. Translating the human microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Distefano, P.S.; Doré, J.; Huttenhower, C.; Knight, R.; Lawley, T.D.; Raes, J.; Turnbaugh, P.


    Over the past decade, an explosion of descriptive analyses from initiatives, such as the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) and the MetaHIT project, have begun to delineate the human microbiome. Inhabitants of the intestinal tract, nasal passages, oral cavities, skin, gastrointestinal tract and

  18. Damping Effect of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    Passive humans (sitting or standing) might well be present on flooring-systems, footbridges or other structures that carry humans. An active croud of people might generate structural vibrations, and these might be problematic. The passive crowd of people, however, will interact with the structura...

  19. Evaluating the Humanities (United States)

    Brody, Howard


    How can one measure the value of teaching the humanities? The problem of assessment and accountability is prominent today, of course, in secondary and higher education. It is perhaps even more acute for those who teach the humanities in nontraditional settings, such as medical and other professional schools. The public assumes that academes can…

  20. The Humanities' Value (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey Galt


    Why should society support the humanities when so many people are suffering from the effects of the economic crisis? What claim do the humanities, or scholarship generally, have on increasingly limited resources? Shouldn't such pursuits be considered luxuries at a time when people should be focusing on essentials? The alleviation of human…

  1. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically (United States)

    Odden, Allan


    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  2. Incorporating Human Interindividual Biotransformation ... (United States)

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accomplished through (1) the characterization of enzyme expression in large banks of human liver samples, (2) the employment of appropriate techniques for the quantification and extrapolation of metabolic rates derived in vitro, and (3) the judicious application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. While in vitro measurements of specific biochemical reactions from multiple human samples can yield qualitatively valuable data on human variance, such measures must be put into the perspective of the intact human to yield the most valuable predictions of metabolic differences among humans. For quantitative metabolism data to be the most valuable in risk assessment, they must be tied to human anatomy and physiology, and the impact of their variance evaluated under real exposure scenarios. For chemicals metabolized in the liver, the concentration of parent chemical in the liver represents the substrate concentration in the MichaelisMenten description of metabolism. Metabolic constants derived in vitro may be extrapolated to the intact liver, when appropriate conditions are met. Metabolic capacity Vmax; the maximal rate of the reaction) can be scaled directly to the concentration

  3. Damping Effect of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    Passive humans (sitting or standing) might well be present on flooring-systems, footbridges or other structures that carry humans. An active croud of people might generate structural vibrations, and these might be problematic. The passive crowd of people, however, will interact with the structural...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    Abstract. An up-to-date review on human paragonimiasis in Africa was carried out to determine the current geographical distribution of human cases and analyze the animal reservoir, snails and crustaceans which intervene in the local life cycle of Paragonimus species. Two countries, i.e., Cameroon and. Nigeria, were ...

  5. Human Rights, History of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Wright, James


    In this article, six basic debates about human rights are clarified from a historical perspective: the origin of human rights as moral rights connected to the natural law doctrine and opposed to positive rights; the wave of criticism of their abstract and absolute character by nineteenth-century

  6. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  7. Fungi that Infect Humans. (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R


    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients-Candida, Pneumocystis, and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  8. Businesses’ human rights responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Lewis


    Full Text Available There is no international human rights law standard that expresslyprohibits businesses’ arbitrary displacement of persons. Businessesdo, however, have the responsibility to avoid infringements of humanrights that could lead to displacement and also to take actions toremedy their human rights violations that might lead to displacement.

  9. Global Journal of Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Global Journal of Humanities is aimed at promoting reasearch in all areas of Humanities including philosophy, languages, linguistics, literature, history, fine/applied arts, theater arts, architecture, etc. Visit the Global Journal Series website here: ...

  10. Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, Japan (United States)

    Gaowa; Wuritu; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Wu, Dongxing; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Chiya, Seizou; Fukunaga, Kazutoshi; Funato, Toyohiko; Shiojiri, Masaaki; Nakajima, Hideki; Hamauzu, Yoshiji; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Ando, Shuji; Kishimoto, Toshio


    We retrospectively confirmed 2 cases of human Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. Patient blood samples contained unique p44/msp2 for the pathogen, and antibodies bound to A. phagocytophilum antigens propagated in THP-1 rather than HL60 cells. Unless both cell lines are used for serodiagnosis of rickettsiosis-like infections, cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis could go undetected. PMID:23460988

  11. Humane Education Projects Handbook. (United States)

    Junior League of Ogden, UT.

    This handbook was developed to promote interest in humane education and to encourage the adoption of humane education projects. Although specifically designed to assist Junior Leagues in developing such projects, the content should prove valuable to animal welfare organizations, zoos, aquariums, nature centers, and other project-oriented groups…

  12. Human migraine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg


    , which is a human experience. A set-up for investigations of experimental headache and migraine in humans, has been evaluated and headache mechanisms explored by using nitroglycerin and other headache-inducing agents. Nitric oxide (NO) or other parts of the NO activated cascade seems to be responsible...

  13. Overophedning af det humane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen Nepper


    Anmelder Marius Gudmand-Høyer, Sverre Raffnsøe og Morten Raffnsøe-Møller (red.): "Den humane vending. En antologi", Aarhus Universitetsforlag......Anmelder Marius Gudmand-Høyer, Sverre Raffnsøe og Morten Raffnsøe-Møller (red.): "Den humane vending. En antologi", Aarhus Universitetsforlag...

  14. The Human Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

     Bent Fausing  "The Humane Technology", abstract (for The Two Cultures: Balancing Choices and Effects Oxford University July 20-26, 2008). The paper will investigate the use of technology in everyday aesthetics such as TV-commercials for mobile phones for Nokia, which slogan is, as it is well known...... for as a better humanity.      The paper will investigate how the two cultures are combined in this way in a TV-commercial. Technology points, is the conclusion, towards a forgotten pre-human and not to the often-motioned post-human condition.    ......, "Nokia - connecting people". Which function does this technology get in narratives, images, interactions and affects here?      The mobile phone and its digital camera are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence and interaction. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get...

  15. Humanity at the Edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.; Gjødsbøl, Iben M.; Dam, Mie S.


    At the heart of anthropology and the social sciences lies a notion of human existence according to which humans and animals share the basic need for food, but only humans have the capacity for morality. Based on fieldwork in a pig laboratory, a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and a dementia...... nursing home, we follow practices of feeding precarious lives lacking most markers of human personhood, including the exercise of moral judgment. Despite the absence of such markers, laboratory researchers and caregivers in these three sites do not abstain from engaging in questions about the moral status...... of the piglets, infants, and people with dementia in their care. They continually negotiate how their charges belong to the human collectivity and thereby challenge the notion of ‘the human’ that is foundational to anthropology. Combining analytical approaches that do not operate with a fixed boundary between...

  16. Refractoriness in human atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Jespersen, Thomas; Christ, Torsten


    rhythm and chronic atrial fibrillation tissues and was neither affected by changes in frequency (1 vs. 3Hz). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a preferentially voltage-dependent, rather than time-dependent, effect with respect to refractoriness at physiologically relevant rates in human atria. However...... drugs. Cardiomyocyte excitability depends on availability of sodium channels, which involves both time- and voltage-dependent recovery from inactivation. This study therefore aims to characterise how sodium channel inactivation affects refractoriness in human atria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Steady......-state activation and inactivation parameters of sodium channels measured in vitro in isolated human atrial cardiomyocytes were used to parameterise a mathematical human atrial cell model. Action potential data were acquired from human atrial trabeculae of patients in either sinus rhythm or chronic atrial...

  17. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei


    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogeno...... of the solutions used in the study nor was it present as a residual material in blank HPLC runs. CONCLUSIONS: Morphine is present in human gliomas, suggesting that it may exert an action that effects tumour physiology/pathology.......BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  18. The human cell atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah A.; Lander, Eric S.


    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international...... collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells...... in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early...

  19. Designing Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. The keynote present and discuss Designing Human Technologies – an initiative aiming at establishing a design oriented main subject area alongside traditional main subject areas such as Natural Science......, the Humanities, and Social Science. The initiative broadens the perspective of IS and recognize reflections on aesthetics, ethics, values, connections to politics, and strategies for enabling a better future as legitimate parts of the research agenda. Designing Human Technologies is a design-oriented Strategic...... Research Initiative supporting Roskilde University’s new Humanities and Technology bachelor programme (‘HumTek’), and its three dimensions: Design, Humanities, and Technology. The research initiative involves 70 researchers from different departments and research groups at Roskilde University through...

  20. Human Milk Banking. (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E


    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Human Power Empirically Explored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, A.J.


    Harvesting energy from the users' muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are convenient and can be environmentally and economically beneficial. This work provides insight into the knowledge required to design human-powered energy systems in consumer products from a scientific perspective. It shows the developments of human-powered products from the first introduction of the BayGen Freeplay radio in 1995 till current products and provides an overview and analysis of 211 human-powered products currently on the market. Although human power is generally perceived as beneficial for the environment, this thesis shows that achieving environmental benefit is only feasible when the environmental impact of additional materials in the energy conversion system is well balanced with the energy demands of the products functionality. User testing with existing products showed a preference for speeds in the range of 70 to 190 rpm for crank lengths from 32 to 95 mm. The muscular input power varied from 5 to 21 W. The analysis of twenty graduation projects from the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering in the field of human-powered products, offers an interesting set of additional practice based design recommendations. The knowledge based approach of human power is very powerful to support the design of human-powered products. There is substantial potential for improvements in the domains energy conversion, ergonomics and environment. This makes that human power, when applied properly, is environmentally and economically competitive over a wider range of applications than thought previously.

  2. Genetics of human hydrocephalus. (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Williams, Michael A; Rigamonti, Daniele


    Human hydrocephalus is a common medical condition that is characterized by abnormalities in the flow or resorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), resulting in ventricular dilatation. Human hydrocephalus can be classified into two clinical forms, congenital and acquired. Hydrocephalus is one of the complex and multifactorial neurological disorders.A growing body of evidence indicates that genetic factors play a major role in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. An understanding of the genetic components and mechanism of this complex disorder may offer us significant insights into the molecular etiology of impaired brain development and an accumulation of the cerebrospinal fluid in cerebral compartments during the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. Genetic studies in animal models have started to open the way for understanding the underlying pathology of hydrocephalus. At least 43 mutants/loci linked to hereditary hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models and humans. Up to date, 9 genes associated with hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models. In contrast, only one such gene has been identified in humans. Most of known hydrocephalus gene products are the important cytokines, growth factors or related molecules in the cellular signal pathways during early brain development. The current molecular genetic evidence from animal models indicate that in the early development stage, impaired and abnormal brain development caused by abnormal cellular signaling and functioning, all these cellular and developmental events would eventually lead to the congenital hydrocephalus. Owing to our very primitive knowledge of the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of human hydrocephalus, it is difficult to evaluate whether data gained from animal models can be extrapolated to humans. Initiation of a large population genetics study in humans will certainly provide invaluable information about the molecular and cellular etiology and the developmental mechanisms of human

  3. Human exposure to aluminium. (United States)

    Exley, Christopher


    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  4. Aluminium in human sweat. (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher


    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Wear in human knees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Wang


    Full Text Available Wear occurs in natural knee joints and plays a pivotal factor in causing articular cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis (OA processes. Wear particles are produced in the wear process and get involved in inflammation of human knees. This review presents progresses in the mechanical and surface morphological studies of articular cartilages, wear particles analysis techniques for wear studies and investigations of human knee synovial fluid in wear of human knees. Future work is also included for further understanding of OA symptoms and their relations which may shed light on OA causes.

  6. Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, S. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dally, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Fortson, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Joyce, G. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Kimble, H. J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Lewis, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Max, C. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Prince, T. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Schwitters, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Weinberger, P. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Woodin, W. H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office


    The study reviews Department of Energy supported aspects of the United States Human Genome Project, the joint National Institutes of Health/Department of Energy program to characterize all human genetic material, to discover the set of human genes, and to render them accessible for further biological study. The study concentrates on issues of technology, quality assurance/control, and informatics relevant to current effort on the genome project and needs beyond it. Recommendations are presented on areas of the genome program that are of particular interest to and supported by the Department of Energy.

  7. Human Capital and Development


    Rodolfo E. Manuelli


    Perhaps no question has attracted as much attention in the economics literature as “Why are some countries richer than others?” In this article, the author revisits the “development problem” and provides some estimates of the importance of human capital in accounting for cross-country differences in output per worker. His results suggest that human capital has a central role in determining the wealth of nations and that the quality of human capital varies systematically with the level of deve...

  8. Human pancreas development. (United States)

    Jennings, Rachel E; Berry, Andrew A; Strutt, James P; Gerrard, David T; Hanley, Neil A


    A wealth of data and comprehensive reviews exist on pancreas development in mammals, primarily mice, and other vertebrates. By contrast, human pancreatic development has been less comprehensively reviewed. Here, we draw together those studies conducted directly in human embryonic and fetal tissue to provide an overview of what is known about human pancreatic development. We discuss the relevance of this work to manufacturing insulin-secreting β-cells from pluripotent stem cells and to different aspects of diabetes, especially permanent neonatal diabetes, and its underlying causes. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Human dignity and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš


    Full Text Available By opening the field of bioethics followed a new wave of intense debate on the theological, philosophical and legal significance of the concept of human dignity . Exactly ten years ago (December 2003 American bioethicist Ruth Maclin has proposed to divest ourselves of the concept of human dignity because it is vague, useless and redundant and that, without any loss, we can replace it by the ethical principle of personal autonomy. Her article was followed by harsh reactions and opposite views. What is this term in so broad, almost inflationary and opposite use is not a reason to deprive him, but, on the contrary, it shows how important it is and that it should be determined at least outline. As universal values and general concept, the human dignity has no pre-defined and narrow, precise meaning. It is more an evaluation horizon, the guiding principle and regulatory ideas that must constantly define and codify by many guaranted human rights and fundamental freedoms. As generic notion of each reasonable law, it is their foundation and a common denominator, legitimising basis of natural but also of positive law. As intrinsic and static value which means the humaneness, the humanity it is absolute, inherent to every human being without distinction and conditioning, as a unique and unrepeatable creation. In this meaning, the dignity is the obligation and limitation of the state, society and each of us. As an ethical and dynamic category, it is not given to us, but it is assign to us, and it is not in us, but always before us, as a guide of our actions in accordance with virtues, to treat ourselves, each other and the nature in a human way. The century in which we live is named the century of molecular biology and genetic engineering because of the enormous potential but also risks to human dignity. Because of that human dignity has become a central principle in all international documents relating to the human genome, genetics and bioethics, adopted

  10. Sulfatases and human disease. (United States)

    Diez-Roux, Graciana; Ballabio, Andrea


    Sulfatases are a highly conserved family of proteins that cleave sulfate esters from a wide range of substrates. The importance of sulfatases in human metabolism is underscored by the presence of at least eight human monogenic diseases caused by the deficiency of individual sulfatases. Sulfatase activity requires a unique posttranslational modification, which is impaired in patients with multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) due to a mutation of the sulfatase modifying factor 1 (SUMF1). Here we review current knowledge and future perspectives on the evolution of the sulfatase gene family, on the role of these enzymes in human metabolism, and on new developments in the therapy of sulfatase deficiencies.

  11. Propelling medical humanities in China. (United States)

    Tang, Wei


    Advances in the study of the medical humanities and medical humanities education have been made over the past few decades. Many influential journals have published articles examining the role of medical humanities and medical humanities education, the development and evaluation of medical humanities, and the design of a curriculum for medical humanities education in Western countries. However, most articles related to medical humanities in China were published in Chinese, moreover, researchers have worked in relative isolation and published in disparate journals, so their work has not been systematically presented to and evaluated by international readers. The six companion articles featured in this issue describe the current status and challenge of medical humanities and medical humanities education in China in the hope of providing international readers with a novel and meaningful glimpse into medical humanities in China. This Journal is calling for greater publication of research on medical humanities and medical humanities education to propel medical humanities in China.

  12. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 553734860 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  13. Human Research Program (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strategically, the HRP conducts research and technology development that: 1) enables the development or modification of Agency-level human health and performance...

  14. The human urine metabolome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S


    .... Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine...

  15. The bionic human


    Francalanza, Emmanuel;


    Faster, fitter and flawless? What would it take to build a Bionic Human? Emmanuel Francalanza delved into research at the Faculty of Engineering to see how Malta could contribute. 3D Art by Jean Claude Vancell.

  16. Human Resource Planning (United States)

    Hoffman, W. H.; Wyatt, L. L.


    By using the total resource approach, we have focused attention on the need to integrate human resource planning with other business plans and highlighted the importance of a productivity strategy. (Author)

  17. Human factors in aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salas, Eduardo; Maurino, Daniel E


    .... HFA offers a comprehensive overview of the topic, taking readers from the general to the specific, first covering broad issues, then the more specific topics of pilot performance, human factors...

  18. Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsinck Boie, Hans Nikolaj; Torp, Kristian

    The book addresses the issue of corporate respect for human rights by examining if and how states are obligated to ensure that corporations originating from their jurisdiction respect human rights when they operate abroad. The existence of such a duty is much debated by academics at national...... and international level, and in an attempt to bring something new to the table, the book examines both if states have extraterritorial obligations in regard to their corporations and what can be required of states under such an obligation. The complex issue of states and corporate respect for human rights cannot...... adequately be addressed without including the approach to the problem taken in practice; Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. The book therefore draws upon the concept of CSR and the approaches developed here and discusses whether states may utilize the CSR-based concept of human rights due diligence...

  19. Aerospace Human Factors (United States)

    Jordan, Kevin


    The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human factors research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human Factors Research Division (Code AF), and the Human Factors Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.

  20. Journal of Humanities: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. Japhet Bakuwa Copy and Production Editor Chancellor College Publications Journal of Humanities Chancellor College Publications PO Box 280 Zomba Malawi Email: ...

  1. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of Transnational Business Governance Interactions (TBGI) analytical framework (Eberlein et al. 2014). The article identifies and discusses dime...... business governance suggests that this form of governance offers prospects for public institutions as a means towards regulating global sustainability concerns.......This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of Transnational Business Governance Interactions (TBGI) analytical framework (Eberlein et al. 2014). The article identifies and discusses...... that the UN Guiding Principles are unique in several respects of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicate the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational...

  2. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael


    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  3. Human Bond Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee


    Modern dexterous communication technology is progressively enabling humans to communicate their information through them with speech (aural) and media (optical) as underpinning essence. Humans realize this kind of aural and optical information by their optical and auditory senses. However, due...... to certain constraints, the ability to incorporate the other three sensory features namely, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile are still far from reality. Human bond communication is a novel concept that incorporates olfactory, gustatory, and tactile that will allow more expressive and holistic sensory...... information exchange through communication techniques for more human sentiment centric communication. This concept endorses the need of inclusion of other three senses and proposes an innovative approach of holistic communication for future communication network....

  4. Strategic Human Resources Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marta Muqaj


    Strategic Human Resources Management (SHRM) represents an important and sensitive aspect of the functioning and development of a company, business, institution, state, public or private agency of a country...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović


    Full Text Available In this paper the authors analyze the process of negotiating and beginning of the United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning as well as the paragraphs of the very Declaration. The negotiation was originally conceived as a clear bioethical debate that should have led to a general agreement to ban human cloning. However, more often it had been discussed about human rights, cultural, civil and religious differences between people and about priorities in case of eventual conflicts between different value systems. In the end, a non-binding Declaration on Human Cloning had been adopted, full of numerous compromises and ambiguous formulations, that relativized the original intention of proposer states. According to authors, it would have been better if bioethical discussion and eventual regulations on cloning mentioned in the following text had been left over to certain professional bodies, and only after the public had been fully informed about it should relevant supranational organizations have taken that into consideration.

  6. Science and Humanism (United States)

    Auger, Pierre


    Science and humanism are separated so completely as to bring about the creation of two cultures quite distinct from each other within contemporary civilization. Pragmatic, rational attitudes are needed on both sides to bring them together. (DF)

  7. Human Capital Tracking Tool - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — AVS is now required to collect, track, and report on data from the following Flight, Business and Workforce Plan. The Human Resource Management’s Performance Target...

  8. Human Factors Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  9. Human Power Empirically Explored

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.J.


    Harvesting energy from the users’ muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Student Ioana - Julieta Josan


    Full Text Available Once with the development of the human capital theory, the education received an economic value. Leading theorists and specialists in the field have shown that the remarkable economic effects of the investments in education influence the chances of acquiring a job and earnings, demonstrating how the theory justifies such an investment. At the hand, the allocation of resources in human capital brings performance and benefits to companies investing in their employees. Also, the investment in human capital is strategic for any country that seeks to create a knowledge economy. Considering the above arguments, the aim of this paper is to highlight the characteristics of investment in human capital, the types of investment, the factors of education investment and the entities interested in investing and their benefits.

  11. Human female meiosis revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capalbo, Antonio; Hoffmann, Eva R.; Cimadomo, Danilo


    in the female germline is a crucial step towards the development of new diagnostic approaches and, possibly, for the development of therapeutic targets and molecules. Here, we have reviewed emerging mechanisms that may drive human aneuploidy, in particular the maternal age effect. SEARCH METHODS We conducted...... a systematic search in PubMed Central of the primary literature from 1990 through 2016 following the PRISMA guidelines, using MeSH terms related to human aneuploidy. For model organism research, we conducted a literature review based on references in human oocytes manuscripts and general reviews related...... to chromosome segregation in meiosis and mitosis. OUTCOMES Advances in genomic and imaging technologies are allowing unprecedented insight into chromosome segregation in human oocytes. This includes the identification of a novel chromosome segregation error, termed reverse segregation, as well as sister...

  12. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  13. Pushing Human Frontiers (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert


    With human colonization of Mars, I think you will see a higher standard of civilization, just as America set a higher standard of civilization which then promulgated back into Europe. I think that if you want to maximize human potential, you need a higher standard of civilization, and that becomes an example that benefits everyone. Without an open frontier, closed world ideologies, such as the Malthus Theory, tend to come to the forefront. It is that there are limited resources; therefore, we are all in deadly competition with each other for the limited pot. The result is tyrannical and potentially genocidal regimes, and we've already seen this in the twentieth century. There s no truth in the Malthus Theory, because human beings are the creators of their resources. With every mouth comes a pair of hands and a brain. But if it seems to be true, you have a vector in this direction, and it is extremely unfortunate. It is only in a universe of infinite resources that all humans can be brothers and sisters. The fundamental question which affects humanity s sense of itself is whether the world is changeable or fixed. Are we the makers of our world or just its inhabitants? Some people have a view that they re living at the end of history within a world that s already defined, and there is no fundamental purpose to human life because there is nothing humans can do that matters. On the other hand, if humans understand their own role as the creators of their world, that s a much more healthy point of view. It raises the dignity of humans. Indeed, if we do establish a new branch of human civilization on Mars that grows in time and potency to the point where it cannot really settle Mars, but transforms Mars, and brings life to Mars, we will prove to everyone and for all time the precious and positive nature of the human species and every member of it.

  14. Human-Robot Biodynamics


    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.


    This paper presents the scientific body of knowledge behind the Human Biodynamics Engine (HBE), a human motion simulator developed on the concept of Euclidean motion group SE(3), with 270 active degrees of freedom, force-velocity-time muscular mechanics and two-level neural control - formulated in the fashion of nonlinear humanoid robotics. The following aspects of the HBE development are described: geometrical, dynamical, control, physiological, AI, behavioral and complexity, together with s...

  15. Reclaiming human machine nature


    Fass, Didier


    International audience; Extending and modifying his domain of life by artifact production is one of the main characteristics of humankind. From the first hominid, who used a wood stick or a stone for extending his upper limbs and augmenting his gesture strength, to current systems engineers who used technologies for augmenting human cognition, perception and action, extending human body capabilities remains a big issue. From more than fifty years cybernetics, computer and cog-nitive sciences ...

  16. Genetics of human hydrocephalus


    Zhang, Jun; Michael A. Williams; Rigamonti, Daniele


    Human hydrocephalus is a common medical condition that is characterized by abnormalities in the flow or resorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), resulting in ventricular dilatation. Human hydrocephalus can be classified into two clinical forms, congenital and acquired. Hydrocephalus is one of the complex and multifactorial neurological disorders. A growing body of evidence indicates that genetic factors play a major role in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. An understanding of the genetic co...

  17. Human ocular anatomy. (United States)

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M


    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evolution and human sexuality. (United States)

    Gray, Peter B


    The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.



    Dr. M. Panneerselvam


    Electronic Human Resource Management is an essence the revolution of human resource functions to management and employees. These functions are typically used via intranet and web technology. This helps the organization to improve their standards where they can able to review and forward. All those documents can be viewed within a fraction of second with help of client and server links. The phenomenon of E- HRM deserves closer and more fundamental roots to HR activity. The E-HRM develops and b...

  20. Human motricity and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sérgio Vieira e Cunha


    Full Text Available If human motricity science intends to study motor conduct (or actions in which the human being pursues transcendence (or surmounting, it inevitably relates to the large realm of health. What are the aspects it evinces? Transdisciplinarity, solidarity among the various knowledge types (including poetical, complexity, (where the physical is integrated but surmounted and the firm belief that to be healthy is to have in ourselves, alive and working, the capacity for surmounting anything.

  1. Human Germline Genome Editing. (United States)

    Ormond, Kelly E; Mortlock, Douglas P; Scholes, Derek T; Bombard, Yvonne; Brody, Lawrence C; Faucett, W Andrew; Garrison, Nanibaa' A; Hercher, Laura; Isasi, Rosario; Middleton, Anna; Musunuru, Kiran; Shriner, Daniel; Virani, Alice; Young, Caroline E


    With CRISPR/Cas9 and other genome-editing technologies, successful somatic and germline genome editing are becoming feasible. To respond, an American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) workgroup developed this position statement, which was approved by the ASHG Board in March 2017. The workgroup included representatives from the UK Association of Genetic Nurses and Counsellors, Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, International Genetic Epidemiology Society, and US National Society of Genetic Counselors. These groups, as well as the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Asia Pacific Society of Human Genetics, British Society for Genetic Medicine, Human Genetics Society of Australasia, Professional Society of Genetic Counselors in Asia, and Southern African Society for Human Genetics, endorsed the final statement. The statement includes the following positions. (1) At this time, given the nature and number of unanswered scientific, ethical, and policy questions, it is inappropriate to perform germline gene editing that culminates in human pregnancy. (2) Currently, there is no reason to prohibit in vitro germline genome editing on human embryos and gametes, with appropriate oversight and consent from donors, to facilitate research on the possible future clinical applications of gene editing. There should be no prohibition on making public funds available to support this research. (3) Future clinical application of human germline genome editing should not proceed unless, at a minimum, there is (a) a compelling medical rationale, (b) an evidence base that supports its clinical use, (c) an ethical justification, and (d) a transparent public process to solicit and incorporate stakeholder input. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.



    Ph. D. Student Ioana - Julieta Josan


    Once with the development of the human capital theory, the education received an economic value. Leading theorists and specialists in the field have shown that the remarkable economic effects of the investments in education influence the chances of acquiring a job and earnings, demonstrating how the theory justifies such an investment. At the hand, the allocation of resources in human capital brings performance and benefits to companies investing in their employees. Also, the investment in hu...

  3. Deuteronomy and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Braulik


    Full Text Available If one compares the articles of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" dated December 10th, 1948, with the regulations of the book of Deuteronomy, one detects a surprising abundance of correspondences, or at least of similar tendencies, between them. As the social theorists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the architects of the catalogue of Human Rights, knew the Scripture very well. References to Deuteronomy are historically well probable and factually hardly coincidental. Deuteronomy rightly boasts about its social laws (4:8 that are unique in the Ancient Near East. The paper orientates itself to the short formula of Human Rights and at the same time to the normative basic character of each human right, as it is formulated in the first article of the declaration: "liberty", "equality", "fraternity". Each of these basic categories are concretised in terms of several Deuteronomic regulations and prove themselves to be central matters of concern within the YHWH religion. Finally, it is outlined how the connection between Deuteronomy and modem expressions of human rights might be explained, and further it is shown what actually makes up the peculiarity of biblical thinking on human rights.

  4. Proteomics of human mitochondria. (United States)

    Palmfeldt, Johan; Bross, Peter


    Proteomics have passed through a tremendous development in the recent years by the development of ever more sensitive, fast and precise mass spectrometry methods. The dramatically increased research in the biology of mitochondria and their prominent involvement in all kinds of diseases and ageing has benefitted from mitochondrial proteomics. We here review substantial findings and progress of proteomic analyses of human cells and tissues in the recent past. One challenge for investigations of human samples is the ethically and medically founded limited access to human material. The increased sensitivity of mass spectrometry technology aids in lowering this hurdle and new approaches like generation of induced pluripotent cells from somatic cells allow to produce patient-specific cellular disease models with great potential. We describe which human sample types are accessible, review the status of the catalog of human mitochondrial proteins and discuss proteins with dual localization in mitochondria and other cellular compartments. We describe the status and developments of pertinent mass spectrometric strategies, and the use of databases and bioinformatics. Using selected illustrative examples, we draw a picture of the role of proteomic analyses for the many disease contexts from inherited disorders caused by mutation in mitochondrial proteins to complex diseases like cancer, type 2 diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, we speculate on the future role of proteomics in research on human mitochondria and pinpoint fields where the evolving technologies will be exploited. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Cytokines in human milk. (United States)

    Garofalo, Roberto


    Epidemiologic studies conducted in the past 30 years to investigate the protective functions of human milk strongly support the notion that breastfeeding prevents infantile infections, particularly those affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. However, more recent clinical and experimental observations also suggest that human milk not only provides passive protection, but also can directly modulate the immunological development of the recipient infant. The study of this remarkable defense system in human milk has been difficult because of its biochemical complexity, the small concentration of certain bioactive components, the compartmentalization of some of these agents, the dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes of milk during lactation, and the lack of specific reagents to quantify these agents. However, a host of bioactive substances, including hormones, growth factors, and immunological factors such as cytokines, have been identified in human milk. Cytokines are pluripotent polypeptides that act in autocrine/paracrine fashions by binding to specific cellular receptors. They operate in networks and orchestrate the development and functions of immune system. Several different cytokines and chemokines have been discovered in human milk in the past years, and the list is growing very rapidly. This article will review the current knowledge about the increasingly complex network of chemoattractants, activators, and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in human milk and their potential role in compensating for the developmental delay of the neonate immune system. Copyright 2010. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  6. Human Factors Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)


    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Abram


    Full Text Available From an initial project to investigate the relationship between magic and traditional medicine as practiced by shamans in Southern rural Asia, the focus of attention gradually shifted to an awareness of the negotiation traditional medicine people or shamans exert between the human community and the larger community of beings. This attentiveness to a more-than-human world does not occur at a supernatural domain above nature or inside her personal self but is the result of the shaman’s special ability to project her consciousness horizontally to other forms of sensibility with which human existence is interwoven. The ecological function of the shaman is to maintain a constant balance between what is taken and what is given from the human community to the larger community. The spirits of indigenous cultures are not defined in opposition to materiality but are essentially those modes of intelligence or awareness that do not possess a human form. By exploring different landscapes, and the sensibility living in them, a new sensitivity is awoken that allows for communication with those intelligences. However, the drowning of these other voices in Western culture, which reduces otherness to an object, creates an uneasiness that is hardly perceived except as an inability to interact with anything more-than-human and its dire consequences in the form of “civilization’s” destructive behavior.

  8. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight (United States)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer


    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  9. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (United States)

    ... education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus AUGUST 2015 • Reasons for Getting Tested • Who Should ... For More Information • Glossary Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that ...

  10. Human bites - self-care (United States)

    Bites - human - self-care ... Human bites can occur in 2 ways: If someone bites you If your hand comes into contact ... bite to express anger or other negative feelings. Human bites may be more dangerous than animal bites. ...

  11. Developing Human Performance Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Joe; Bruce Hallbert; Larry Blackwood; Donald Dudehoeffer; Kent Hansen


    Through the reactor oversight process (ROP), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors the performance of utilities licensed to operate nuclear power plants. The process is designed to assure public health and safety by providing reasonable assurance that licensees are meeting the cornerstones of safety and designated crosscutting elements. The reactor inspection program, together with performance indicators (PIs), and enforcement activities form the basis for the NRC’s risk-informed, performance based regulatory framework. While human performance is a key component in the safe operation of nuclear power plants and is a designated cross-cutting element of the ROP, there is currently no direct inspection or performance indicator for assessing human performance. Rather, when human performance is identified as a substantive cross cutting element in any 1 of 3 categories (resources, organizational or personnel), it is then evaluated for common themes to determine if follow-up actions are warranted. However, variability in human performance occurs from day to day, across activities that vary in complexity, and workgroups, contributing to the uncertainty in the outcomes of performance. While some variability in human performance may be random, much of the variability may be attributed to factors that are not currently assessed. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that relate to plant safety and to develop measures that can be used to successfully assure licensee performance and indicate when additional investigation may be required. This paper presents research that establishes a technical basis for developing human performance measures. In particular, we discuss: 1) how historical data already gives some indication of connection between human performance and overall plant performance, 2) how industry led efforts to measure and model human performance and organizational factors could serve as a data source and basis for a

  12. Interaction Between Humans and Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars


    On structures two types of humans may be present. (1) Active humans and (2) passive humans (sitting or standing on the structure). The active humans can excite the structure and cause structural vibrations. The mass of the passive humans will interact with the structure and basically it changes...... the structural system (modal characteristics and structural vibration levels). The paper addresses this subject and explores the implications of having passive humans present on the structure....

  13. Towards a better understanding of human smuggling


    Heckmann, Friedrich


    Contents: What is human smuggling?; How can we know about human smuggling?; Human smuggling as a migration phenomenon; Human smuggling as a business; The social organizing of human smuggling; Fighting against human smuggling.

  14. Why Geo-Humanities (United States)

    Graells, Robert Casals i.; Sibilla, Anna; Bohle, Martin


    Anthropogenic global change is a composite process. It consists of societal processes (in the 'noosphere') and natural processes (in the 'bio-geosphere'). The 'noosphere' is the ensemble of social, cultural or political insights ('shared subjective mental concepts') of people. Understanding the composite of societal and natural processes ('human geo-biosphere intersections'), which shapes the features of anthropogenic global change, would benefit from a description that draws equally on natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. To that end it is suggested to develop a concept of 'geo-humanities': This essay presents some aspects of its scope, discussing "knowledge that is to manage", "intentions that are to shape", "choices that are to justify" and "complexity that is to handle". Managing knowledge: That people understand anthropogenic global change requires their insights into how 'human geosphere intersections' function. Insights are formed ('processed') in the noosphere by means of interactions between people. Understanding how 'human geosphere intersections' functions combines scientific, engineering and economic studies with studies of the dynamics of the noosphere. Shaping intentions: During the last century anthropogenic global change developed as the collateral outcome of humankind's accumulated actions. It is caused by the number of people, the patterns of their consumption of resources, and the alterations of their environments. Nowadays, anthropogenic global chance is either an intentional negligence or a conscious act. Justifying choices: Humanity has alternatives how to alter Earth at planetary scale consciously. For example, there is a choice to alter the geo-biosphere or to adjust the noosphere. Whatever the choice, it will depend on people's world-views, cultures and preferences. Thus beyond issues whether science and technology are 'sound' overarching societal issues are to tackle, such as: (i) how to appropriate and distribute natural

  15. Humanity and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin


    Full Text Available So far our open access publishing company MDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute has published mainly science, medicine and technology journals. To become a multidisciplinary publisher, we launched the journal Sustainability [1]. More recently, we started to run several social science journals, including Societies [2], Religions [3], Administrative Sciences [4] and Behavioral Sciences [5]. Today we published the first paper [6] of the inaugural issue of Humanities (ISSN 2076-0787. This will be an international open access journal, publishing scholarly papers of high quality across all humanities disciplines. As a publisher, I would like to publish journals surrounding the topics of sustainability and I believe the humanities as a discipline of academic studies are very important. As a scientist, I believed science and technology will only benefit human beings. I was raised in a small village, living a very primitive life in a peasant family: no electricity, no machines, of course no TV and no refrigerator. Now, the life of my children is completely different. Even my own life has completely changed. I have witnessed very rapid changes: more and more machines are used to consume mineral resources and energy and to pollute the environment, in order to produce more and more powerful machines (we are also launching a journal titled Machines, in which the relationship between Man and machine should be an interesting topic.. Machines are more and more like human individuals consuming resources themselves (we are launching a journal titled Resources. [...

  16. Human milk banking guidelines. (United States)

    Bharadva, Ketan; Tiwari, Satish; Mishra, Sudhir; Mukhopadhyay, Kanya; Yadav, Balraj; Agarwal, R K; Kumar, Vishesh


    WHO and UNICEF state that the use of human milk from other sources should be the first alternative when it is not possible for the mother to breastfeed. Human milk banks should be made available in appropriate situations. The IYCF Chapter is actively concerned about the compelling use of formula feeds in the infants because of the non availability of human breast milk banks. A National Consultative Meet for framing guidelines was summoned by the IYCF Chapter and the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India on 30th June, 2013, with representations from various stakeholders. The guidelines were drafted after an extensive literature review and discussions. Though these guidelines are based on the experiences and guidelines from other countries, changes have been made to suit the Indian setup, culture and needs, without compromising scientific evidence. To ensure quality of donated breast milk as a safe end product. Human Milk Banking Association should be constituted, and human milk banks should be established across the country. National coordination mechanism should be developed with a secretariat and technical support to follow-up on action in States. Budgetary provisions should be made available for the activities.

  17. The human serum metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Psychogios


    Full Text Available Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at

  18. Philosophical foundations of human rights

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Matthew S


    What makes something a human right? What is the relationship between the moral foundations of human rights and human rights law? What are the difficulties of appealing to human rights? This book offers the first comprehensive survey of current thinking on the philosophical foundations of human rights. Divided into four parts, this book focusses firstly on the moral grounds of human rights, for example in our dignity, agency, interests or needs. 'Secondly, it looks at the implications that different moral perspectives on human rights bear for human rights law and politics. Thirdly, it discusses specific and topical human rights including freedom of expression and religion, security, health and more controversial rights such as a human right to subsistence. The final part discusses nuanced critical and reformative views on human rights from feminist, Kantian and relativist perspectives among others. The essays represent new and canonical research by leading scholars in the field. Each part is comprised of a set...

  19. Infants' Responses to Real Humans and Representations of Humans (United States)

    Heron, Michelle; Slaughter, Virginia


    Infants' responses to typical and scrambled human body shapes were assessed in relation to the realism of the human body stimuli presented. In four separate experiments, infants were familiarized to typical human bodies and then shown a series of scrambled human bodies on the test. Looking behaviour was assessed in response to a range of different…

  20. Medical practice, human experimentation and the sanctity of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... human health and the sanctity of human life. In checkmating these dangers, the paper recommends and canvasses for the adoption of the ethical principles of the Nuremberg code of 1947 in properly regulating human experimentation so as to maximize its benefits and at the same time respect the sanctity of human life.

  1. Movement coordination in applied human-human and human-robot interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubö, Anna; Vesper, Cordula; Wiesbeck, Mathey


    and describing human-human interaction in terms of goal-oriented movement coordination is considered an important and necessary step for designing and describing human-robot interaction. In the present scenario, trajectories of hand and finger movements were recorded while two human participants performed......The present paper describes a scenario for examining mechanisms of movement coordination in humans and robots. It is assumed that coordination can best be achieved when behavioral rules that shape movement execution in humans are also considered for human-robot interaction. Investigating...... coordination were affected. Implications for human-robot interaction are discussed....

  2. [Diagnosis of human toxocarosis]. (United States)

    Roldán, William H; Espinoza, Yrma A; Huapaya, Pedro E; Jiménez, Susana


    Human toxocarosis is an important parasitic zoonosis caused by larval stages of Toxocara species, the roundworms from dogs and cats. Larval migration through different soft tissues in the human generates several clinical entities in the patient, such as visceral larva migrans, ocular toxocarosis, and neurotoxocarosis. Definitive diagnosis by histopathological methods is very difficult or almost impossible and, nowadays, the diagnosis is usually made by clinical signs/symptoms, epidemiological background of the patient and the use of hematological and immunological tests which finally help to confirm the clinical suspicion of the illness. The purpose of this paper was to update the available knowledge on the use of different tools for both the diagnosis and following up of human toxocarosis.

  3. Social cognition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta


    We review a diversity of studies of human social interaction and highlight the importance of social signals. We also discuss recent findings from social cognitive neuroscience that explore the brain basis of the capacity for processing social signals. These signals enable us to learn about...... the world from others, to learn about other people, and to create a shared social world. Social signals can be processed automatically by the receiver and may be unconsciously emitted by the sender. These signals are non-verbal and are responsible for social learning in the first year of life. Social...... signals can also be processed consciously and this allows automatic processing to be modulated and overruled. Evidence for this higher-level social processing is abundant from about 18 months of age in humans, while evidence is sparse for non-human animals. We suggest that deliberate social signalling...

  4. Philanthropy and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind


    in Germany, England, France and USA. In each tradition is developed special features of the concept of philanthropy. The four traditions are summarized in the UN universal human rights, which has become the common normative reference for global philanthropy. In this way philanthropy has become, in a modern......, and normally utilized to promote one’s own prestige in the city-state. In Roman context, universal humanism, humanitas, was invented. This universal perspective was also supported by Christianity. It is this universal concept of philanthropy which is the foundation for the different philanthropic traditions...... sense, a charitable act with the aim to promote human happiness independent of gender, class, race, etc. This is the genealogy of the modern understanding of philanthropy, which will be developed in this paper....

  5. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens


    This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...... the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions....

  6. Abortion and human rights. (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy


    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Whither medical humanities? (United States)

    Singh, Navjeevan


    Understanding the medical humanities (MH) and their role in medical education is in its infancy in India. Students are initiated into professional (medical) education too early in life, usually at the expense of a basic grounding in the humanities, resulting in warped intellectual growth. The author, arguing against the wholesale import of foreign systems, advocates free inquiry by medical educators to evolve a humanities programme for medical students derived from our own cultural context. This essay describes the early experiences of efforts to make a beginning at the University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi. The author reviews the various strategies used and the challenges of introducing the subject to the current generation of medical students.

  8. Medical humanities ... almost. (United States)

    Dangayach, Neha


    Brought up in the traditional education system in a large teaching hospital in Mumbai, India, I moved on to do specialisation in neurology in the United States of America. The Indian system of pre-medical education mandates early choices between the humanities and the sciences and thus precludes a more well-rounded development of a student. Though medical humanities is not taught as a subject as part of the medical curriculum in India, listening to inspiring and learned teachers and the daily interaction with scores of patients who are willing to submit themselves to examination "in the cause of medical education" is a humbling experience to a sensitive student. I see similar willingness in patients in the United States. However, a formal course in the medical humanities, including arts, literature, and philosophy will surely enrich the experience of a larger number of undergraduates and postgraduates learning the core subjects and help in moulding a more rounded physician.

  9. Human-Robot Interaction (United States)

    Rochlis-Zumbado, Jennifer; Sandor, Aniko; Ezer, Neta


    Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is a new Human Research Program (HRP) risk. HRI is a research area that seeks to understand the complex relationship among variables that affect the way humans and robots work together to accomplish goals. The DRP addresses three major HRI study areas that will provide appropriate information for navigation guidance to a teleoperator of a robot system, and contribute to the closure of currently identified HRP gaps: (1) Overlays -- Use of overlays for teleoperation to augment the information available on the video feed (2) Camera views -- Type and arrangement of camera views for better task performance and awareness of surroundings (3) Command modalities -- Development of gesture and voice command vocabularies

  10. Humanities under Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Mittelstrass


    Full Text Available The Humanities have a problem with visibility both in the public sphere and in the academic system itself, and they have an organisational problem when compared with other sections of the academic system. They also have a funding problem, particularly in a European context, i.e., in the framework of the European research policy. The topic of this position paper is the essential role of the Humanities when dealing with the European project, the framing of Europe. In this respect, in contrast to the natural and social sciences, the Humanities need specific models of research funding, more individualised and of more interdisciplinary character. Additionally, they may need more multi-national centres for advanced studies on a European level, thus also solving their visibility and organisational problems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Miovska Spaseva


    Full Text Available The article examines the complex role and great responsibility of the education today in development of the moral strength and human values of the children and youth. At the beginning of the article the author reconsiders the pedagogical ideas of Maria Montessori and her concept of education for peace as an instrument for reconstruction of the society and for improvement of the human living. Than the analysis of the moral values in the contemporary society is made and several issues and dilemmas are discussed referring the value disorientation of the youth and the importance of the models of adult’s moral behavior in their search for personal identity. On the basis of this analysis, the human dimension of the education is elaborated enhancing the need for its understanding as support of development, which is based on several crucial elements: love, freedom and spirit of community.

  12. Human Relations-skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen


    Human Relations-skolen er en samlebetegnelse for to forskningsretninger, som tilsammen bidrog som nogle af de første til at indkredse og belyse de mellemmenneskelige relationers betydning for motivation og trivsel i arbejdslivet, og som skulle få stor ind"ydelse ikke bare på organisationsteorien......, men også arbejdssociologien, arbejdspsykologien og human resource development. Den første retning udsprang af de såkaldte Hawthorne-eksperimenter og psykologen Elton Mayos bearbejdelse af resultaterne derfra. Den anden er en løsere gruppering bestående af navne som Abraham Maslow og Frederick Herzberg......, som formulerede en række teorier og modeller om menneskets motivation, trivsel og behov i arbejdslivet. Selvom de ikke nødvendigvis relaterede sig til hinandens arbejde, er de forskellige bidragsydere i dag kendt som repræsentanter for den paradigmatiske betegnelse Human Relations. Undertiden skelnes...

  13. Defining Human Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana


    Emerging technologies open the prospect of extraordinary interventions on the human body. These may go beyond what is strictly necessary to sustain health and well-being. While responding to social and ethical challenges of such advances, the Law simultaneously faces the challenge of reflecting...... on the legitimacy to legislate and on whether the existing legal framework is appropriate to address the various concerns. In order to do so, it is crucial to establish clear legal definitions. Precise distinctions between interventions on the human body are intrinsically difficult to formulate. However, subject......-matter definitions are vital legal tools to determine what is currently regulated in established fields of law and whether there is room for a new legal field – Enhancement Law. This paper provides a reflection on the relevance of establishing a legal definition of human enhancement and to what extent different...

  14. The Human Centrifuge (United States)

    van Loon, Jack J. W. A.


    Life on Earth has developed at unit gravity, 9.81 m/s2, which was a major factor especially when vertebrates emerged from water onto land in the late Devonian, some 375 million years ago. But how would nature have evolved on a larger planet? We are able to address this question simply in experiments using centrifuges. Based on these studies we have gained valuable insights in the physiological process in plants and animals. They adapt to a new steady state suitable for the high-g environments applied. Information on mammalian adaptations to hyper-g is interesting or may be even vital for human space exploration programs. It has been shown in long duration animal hypergravity studies, ranging from snails, rats to primates, that various structures like muscles, bones, neuro-vestibular, or the cardio-vascular system are affected. However, humans have never been exposed to a hyper-g environment for long durations. Centrifuge studies involving humans are mostly in the order of hours. The current work on human centrifuges are all focused on short arm systems to apply short periods of artificial gravity in support of long duration space missions in ISS or to Mars. In this paper we will address the possible usefulness of a large human centrifuge on Earth. In such a centrifuge a group of humans can be exposed to hypergravity for, in principle, an unlimited period of time like living on a larger planet. The input from a survey under scientists working in the field of gravitational physiology, but also other disciplines, will be discussed.

  15. Handbook of human computation

    CERN Document Server

    Michelucci, Pietro


    This volume addresses the emerging area of human computation, The chapters, written by leading international researchers, explore existing and future opportunities to combine the respective strengths of both humans and machines in order to create powerful problem-solving capabilities. The book bridges scientific communities, capturing and integrating the unique perspective and achievements of each. It coalesces contributions from industry and across related disciplines in order to motivate, define, and anticipate the future of this exciting new frontier in science and cultural evolution. Reade

  16. We Are Human Beings (United States)

    McGee, Andrew


    In this paper, I examine Jeff McMahan’s arguments for his claim that we are not human organisms, and the arguments of Derek Parfit to the same effect in a recent paper. McMahan uses these arguments to derive conclusions concerning the moral status of embryos and permanent vegetative state (PVS) patients. My claim will be that neither thinker has successfully shown that we are not human beings, and therefore these arguments do not establish the ethical conclusions that McMahan has sought to draw from the arguments in respect of the moral status of embryos and PVS patients. PMID:26810918

  17. Human Body Exergy Metabolism


    Mady, Carlos


    The exergy analysis of the human body is a tool that can provide indicators of health and life quality. To perform the exergy balance it is necessary to calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis, or metabolic exergy, although there is not yet consensus in its calculation procedure. Hence, the aim of this work is to provide a general method to evaluate this physical quantity for human body based on indirect calorimetry data. To calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis it is necessary to d...

  18. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin


    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of transnational business governance interactions (TBGI) analytical framework.1 The article identifies and discusses dimensions of interaction...... in several areas of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicates the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational business governance suggests that this form...... of governance offers prospects for public institutions as a means towards regulating global sustainability concerns....

  19. Ayahuasca and human destiny. (United States)

    McKenna, Dennis J


    In this essay, the author shares his personal reflections gleaned from a lifetime of research with ayahuasca, and speculates on the societal, political, planetary, and evolutionary implications of humanity's aeons-old symbiosis with this shamanic plant. The thesis is developed that at this critical historical juncture, ayahuasca has developed a strategy to broadcast its message to a wider world--a reflection of the urgent need to avert global ecological catastrophe. While ayahuasca has much to teach us, the critical question is, will humanity hear it, and heed it, in time?

  20. When computers were human

    CERN Document Server

    Grier, David Alan


    Before Palm Pilots and iPods, PCs and laptops, the term ""computer"" referred to the people who did scientific calculations by hand. These workers were neither calculating geniuses nor idiot savants but knowledgeable people who, in other circumstances, might have become scientists in their own right. When Computers Were Human represents the first in-depth account of this little-known, 200-year epoch in the history of science and technology. Beginning with the story of his own grandmother, who was trained as a human computer, David Alan Grier provides a poignant introduction to the wider wo

  1. Human Environmental Disease Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine


    During the past decades, many epidemiological, toxicological and biological studies have been performed to assess the role of environmental chemicals as potential toxicants for diverse human disorders. However, the relationships between diseases based on chemical exposure have been rarely studied...... by computational biology. We developed a human environmental disease network (EDN) to explore and suggest novel disease-disease and chemical-disease relationships. The presented scored EDN model is built upon the integration on systems biology and chemical toxicology using chemical contaminants information...

  2. Experimental headache in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg


    The need for valid human experimental models of headache is obvious. Several compounds have been proposed as headache-inducing agents, but only the nitroglycerin (NTG) model has been validated. In healthy subjects, intravenous infusions of the nitric oxide (NO) donor NTG induce a dose-dependent h......The need for valid human experimental models of headache is obvious. Several compounds have been proposed as headache-inducing agents, but only the nitroglycerin (NTG) model has been validated. In healthy subjects, intravenous infusions of the nitric oxide (NO) donor NTG induce a dose...

  3. On human health. (United States)

    van Spijk, Piet


    If it is true that health is a priority objective of medicine, then medical practice can only be successful if the meaning of the term "health" is known. Various attempts have been made over the years to define health. This paper proposes a new definition. In addition to current health concepts, it also takes into account the distinction between specifically human (great) health and health as the absence of disease and illness-i.e. small health. The feeling of leading a life that makes sense plays a key role in determining specifically human great health.

  4. The Humanities, Human Rights, and the Comparative Imagination


    McClennen, Sophia A.


    In her paper "The Humanities, Human Rights, and the Comparative Imagination" Sophia A. McClennen argues that understanding the relationship between culture and human rights depends on humanist perspectives attentive to the relationship between storytelling and identity, mass culture and ideology, text and audience, critical thinking and engaged citizenship. After briefly considering how the divide between the humanities and human rights advocates developed and how it might best be overcome, s...

  5. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim


    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  6. Human Modeling For Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis (United States)

    Tran, Donald; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Barth, Tim


    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over that last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft and launch vehicles. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the different types of human modeling used currently and in the past at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) currently, and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs.

  7. Human Rights: The Essential Reference. (United States)

    Devine, Carol; Hansen, Carol Rae; Wilde, Ralph; Bronkhorst, Daan; Moritz, Frederic A.; Rolle, Baptiste; Sherman, Rebecca; Southard, Jo Lynn; Wilkinson, Robert; Poole, Hilary, Ed.

    This reference work documents the history of human rights theory, explains each article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, explores the contemporary human rights movement, and examines the major human rights issues facing the world today. This book is the first to combine historical and contemporary perspectives on these critical…

  8. Making IBM's Computer, Watson, Human (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard


    This essay uses the recent victory of an IBM computer (Watson) in the TV game, "Jeopardy," to speculate on the abilities Watson would need, in addition to those it has, to be human. The essay's basic premise is that to be human is to behave as humans behave and to function in society as humans function. Alternatives to this premise are considered…

  9. Humane Education and Global Education. (United States)

    Selby, David


    Presents and explains model representing four dimensions of global education: temporal, spatial, issues, and inner. Presents six principal areas covered by humane curricula; the relationships between humane education, environmental education, and human rights education; and two humane education activities for the secondary and elementary/secondary…

  10. Humanism in Education (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael


    This is the text of Michael Armstrong's address to the Brian Simon Centenary conference, held at the Institute of Education on 26 March 2015. Michael Armstrong celebrates the humanism that underlay Brian's belief in a common system of education, democratic and non-selective, and finds its counterpart in the creative practice of school children.

  11. Hauntings of Human Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias


    The central conflicts of Stephen King’s horror novel The Shining are rooted in human nature and reflect evolutionarily recurrent adaptive problems—the problem of balancing conflicting evolved motives, such as motives for selfish status striving versus motives for affiliative nurturing behavior...

  12. Human Resource Outsourcing Success


    Hasliza Abdul-Halim; Elaine Ee; T. Ramayah; Noor Hazlina Ahmad


    The existing literature on partnership seems to take the relationship between partnership quality and outsourcing success for granted. Therefore, this article aims at examining the role of service quality in strengthening the relationship between partnership quality and human resource (HR) outsourcing success. The samples were obtained from 96 manufacturing organizations in Penang, Malaysia. The results showed that par...

  13. Computational human body models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Dommelen, J.A.W. van


    Computational human body models are widely used for automotive crashsafety research and design and as such have significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic injuries and fatalities. Currently crash simulations are mainly performed using models based on crash-dummies. However crash dummies

  14. Human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha


    introduced into clinical medicine in variety of applications and through different ways of administration. Here, we discuss approaches for isolation, characterization and directing differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). An update of the current clinical use of the cells is also provided....

  15. Animal and human influenzas. (United States)

    Peiris, M; Yen, H-L


    Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security.

  16. Human social genomics. (United States)

    Cole, Steven W


    A growing literature in human social genomics has begun to analyze how everyday life circumstances influence human gene expression. Social-environmental conditions such as urbanity, low socioeconomic status, social isolation, social threat, and low or unstable social status have been found to associate with differential expression of hundreds of gene transcripts in leukocytes and diseased tissues such as metastatic cancers. In leukocytes, diverse types of social adversity evoke a common conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) characterized by increased expression of proinflammatory genes and decreased expression of genes involved in innate antiviral responses and antibody synthesis. Mechanistic analyses have mapped the neural "social signal transduction" pathways that stimulate CTRA gene expression in response to social threat and may contribute to social gradients in health. Research has also begun to analyze the functional genomics of optimal health and thriving. Two emerging opportunities now stand to revolutionize our understanding of the everyday life of the human genome: network genomics analyses examining how systems-level capabilities emerge from groups of individual socially sensitive genomes and near-real-time transcriptional biofeedback to empirically optimize individual well-being in the context of the unique genetic, geographic, historical, developmental, and social contexts that jointly shape the transcriptional realization of our innate human genomic potential for thriving.

  17. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)


    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  18. Humanities Review Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Papers for Humanities Review Journal should be submitted in English and should not exceed 25 pages typed double-spaced on A4 paper. References should be listed alphabetically at the end of the paper. Two copies of the paper, plus a 3_ diskette in Microsoft Word should be submitted. Neither ...

  19. Human Learning and Memory (United States)

    Lieberman, David A.


    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  20. Human Memory: The Basics (United States)

    Martinez, Michael E.


    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  1. Home heating & human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, Sophie


    Human health is influenced by pollutants in the air. Since people spend over 80% of their time indoors, indoor air quality may be more related to health problems than outdoor air qual-ity. Indoor air quality is deteriorating because of energy conservation

  2. Children Are Human Beings (United States)

    Bossard, James H. S.


    The basic assumption underlying this article is that the really significant changes in human history are those that occur, not in the mechanical gadgets which men use nor in the institutionalized arrangements by which they live, but in their attitudes and in the values which they accept. The revolutions of the past that have had the greatest…

  3. Is human fecundity changing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smarr, Melissa M; Sapra, Katherine J; Gemmill, Alison


    Fecundity, the biologic capacity to reproduce, is essential for the health of individuals and is, therefore, fundamental for understanding human health at the population level. Given the absence of a population (bio)marker, fecundity is assessed indirectly by various individual-based (e.g. semen ...

  4. The Humanization of Science. (United States)

    Larson, James H.


    Describes an exercise which focuses on the ethical and human aspects of science. Outlines the approach and components of a writing assignment based on a literary and humanistic analysis of "The Double Helix" by James Watson. Provides sample questions and examples of integrative literary works. (ML)

  5. Dermatophilus congolensis human infection. (United States)

    Towersey, L; Martins, E de C; Londero, A T; Hay, R J; Soares Filho, P J; Takiya, C M; Martins, C C; Gompertz, O F


    Four cases of human dermatophilosis observed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are reported. Data that suggest nail infection by Dermatophilus congolensis are presented. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranged from an asymptomatic infection to a pustular eruption. Our findings suggest that epidermal Langerhans cells play a role in the pathogenesis of the infection.

  6. Marketing Human Resource Development. (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.


    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  7. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume...

  8. Lessons in Human Relations. (United States)

    Glenn, Joanne Lozar


    Explores the importance of relationship literacy--the ability to create good relationships with others--in the next economy and offers perspectives on how business education instructors can help students develop and improve their human relations skills for business success. (Author/JOW)

  9. Journal of Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Humanities is a theoretical journal which aims to challenge, provoke and excite thinking in the areas of the classics, fine performing arts, literature and orature, linguistics, theology and philosophy. The journal appears annually and is sponsored by the Research and Publications Committee of the Univeristy of ...

  10. Human paragonimiasis in Africa. (United States)

    Aka, N'Da A; Adoubryn, Koffi; Rondelaud, Daniel; Dreyfuss, Gilles


    An up-to-date review on human paragonimiasis in Africa was carried out to determine the current geographical distribution of human cases and analyze the animal reservoir, snails and crustaceans which intervene in the local life cycle of Paragonimus species. Two countries, i.e., Cameroon and Nigeria, were mainly affected by this disease, while the distribution of human cases in the other eight states of the intertropical zone was scattered. Infected patients were currently few in number and two Poragonimus species: P. africanus and P. uterobilateralis, were found. The animal reservoir is mainly constituted by crab-eating mammals. The identity of the host snail remains doubtful and was either a prosobranch, or a land snail. Seven crab species belonging to Callinectes, Liberonautes and Sudononautes genera are able to harbour paragonimid metacercariae. Due to the current low prevalence of human paragonimiasis recorded in Africa and the high cost of wide-scale screenings for this disease, training of technicians in anti-tuberculosis centers would be the most realistic attitude to detect mycobacteria and/or Paragonimus eggs during the same sputum examination.

  11. Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Greer, L.L.; van Kleef, G.A.; Shalvi, S.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.


    Human ethnocentrism—the tendency to view one's group as centrally important and superior to other groups—creates intergroup bias that fuels prejudice, xenophobia, and intergroup violence. Grounded in the idea that ethnocentrism also facilitates within-group trust, cooperation, and coordination, we

  12. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity (United States)

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph


    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  13. Radar: Human Safety Net (United States)

    Ritz, John M.


    Radar is a technology that can be used to detect distant objects not visible to the human eye. A predecessor of radar, called the telemobiloscope, was first used to detect ships in the fog in 1904 off the German coast. Many scientists have worked on the development and refinement of radar (Hertz with electromagnetic waves; Popov with determining…

  14. Superintelligence, Humans, and War (United States)


    artificial intelligence. “The Navy’s Aegis Combat System is a computerized command, decision, and weapon-control program conceived because humans were no...continues to invest in highly technological weapons systems ...perform tasks that were only imagined 10 years ago. For example, Apple’s Siri will provide answers to verbally asked questions. There are driving

  15. Antihumanism in the Humanities. (United States)

    Schwartz, Joel


    Analyzes the antihumanistic elements of Jacques Derrida's theory of deconstruction. Argues that the modern French intellectuals, including Foucault, Derrida, and Lacan, have had an antihumanistic effect on the American social sciences and humanities by rejecting the existence of truth, morality, and rationality. (FMW)

  16. Human Actions Made Tangible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Caglio, Agnese; Jensen, Lars Christian


    , a method developed to engage people from different backgrounds in collaboratively analysing videos with the help of physical objects. We will present one of these tools, Action Scrabble, for analysing temporal organisation of human actions. We work with a case of skilled forklift truck driving...

  17. Human-Centered Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; Kosara, R.; Urquiza, J.; Wassink, I.; Kerren, A.; Ebert, A.; Meyer, J.


    Humans have remarkable perceptual capabilities. These capabilities are heavily underestimated in current visualizations. Often, this is due to the lack of an in-depth user study to set the requirements for optimal visualizations. The designer does not understand what kind of information should be

  18. Soil Borne Human Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeffery, Simon; Van der Putten, Wim H.


    Soils are home to a remarkable array of biodiversity with some estimates stating that 25% of the Earth’s species find their home in the soil. Of these organisms, the vast majority are not of any threat to human health, but rather function to provide numerous ecosystem services which emerge through

  19. Disability and Human Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff McNair


    Full Text Available This article provides a brief overview of models of disability growing out of the field of disability studies and leading to a call for interventions going beyond a simply medical model approach. A brief discussion of human supports/services is provided such that readers engaged in the development of services/supports can base them on best principles.

  20. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Humane Treatment of Animals. (United States)

    Dawson, Joan Smithey

    This booklet is designed to give teachers resource information about the humane treatment of and care for animals. The topics are presented as springboards for discussion and class activity. Topics include the care of dogs, cats, birds, horses, and fish; wildlife and ecological relationships; and careers with animals. Illustrations on some pages…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These researchers tested the effect of. Hallucinogenic ... stories illustrating human cruelty as well as strong advocacy for the ... Experiments must be strictly beneficial to individuals,their communities, or the society in general. Same experiments previously conducted on animals and the natural history of the disease must be ...

  3. "Healthy" Human Development Indices (United States)

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari


    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  4. Haptocorrin in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Anne Louise; Nexo, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier


    knowledge concerning its function and its distribution in adult and foetal life is limited. In this study, we present data on the tissue expression of haptocorrin and on the relation between analogues on haptocorrin and vitamin B(12) status in humans. Methods: Polyclonal antibodies towards haptocorrin were...

  5. Cobalamin analogues in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Obeid, Rima; Herrmann, Wolfgang


    BACKGROUND: Haptocorrin (HC) carries cobalamin analogues (CorA), but whether CorA are produced in the body is unknown. All cobalamins (Cbl) to the foetus are delivered by the Cbl-specific protein transcobalamin (TC), and therefore analysis of cord serum for CorA may help to clarify the origin of ......A in the human body are derived from Cbl....

  6. Studying Human Origins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbey, Raymond; Roebroeks, Wil


    This history of human origin studies covers a wide range of disciplines. This important new study analyses a number of key episodes from palaeolithic archaeology, palaeoanthropology, primatology and evolutionary theory in terms of various ideas on how one should go about such reconstructions and

  7. Human memory search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davelaar, E.J.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Hills, T.T.; Robbins, T.W.; Todd, P.M.


    The importance of understanding human memory search is hard to exaggerate: we build and live our lives based on what whe remember. This chapter explores the characteristics of memory search, with special emphasis on the use of retrieval cues. We introduce the dependent measures that are obtained

  8. Inconvenient Human Rights (United States)

    Ryan, Natasha


    Abstract Following an increase in Roma migration under the European “freedom of movement” laws, Swedish municipalities initiated more than 80 evictions of informal Roma settlements on the grounds of poor sanitation between 2013 and 2016. These evictions echo policies from earlier in the 20th century, when Roma living in Sweden were often marginalized through the denial of access to water and sanitation facilities. The recent Swedish evictions also follow similar government actions across Europe, where Roma settlements are controlled through the denial of access to water and sanitation. However, access to water and sanitation—central aspects of human health—are universal human rights that must be available to all people present in a jurisdiction, regardless of their legal status. The evictions described here violated Sweden’s obligations under both European and international human rights law. More positive government responses are required, such as providing shelters or camping sites, setting up temporary facilities, and directly engaging with communities to address water and sanitation issues. The authors conclude by providing guidance on how states and municipalities can meet their human rights obligations with respect to water and sanitation for vulnerable Roma individuals and informal settlements in their communities. PMID:29302163

  9. Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an essential element for human health and it is toxic at high concentrations. Selenium is a constituent component of selenoproteins that have enzymatic and structural roles in human biochemistry. Selenium is a best antioxidant and catalyst for production of thyroid hormone. This element has the key role in the immune function; prevention of AIDS progression and the deactivity of toxins. Furthermore, selenium is essential for sperm motility and can reduce abortions. Selenium deficiency was also associated with adverse mood states. The findings regarding cardiovascular disease risk related to selenium deficiency is unclear, though other conditions such as vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and selenium deficiency can cause this disease too. Moreover, consuming of 60 mg of selenium per day may be associated with reduction of cancer risk. In this study, a review of studies has been performed on the biochemical function of selenium toxicity, and its effects on human health. Furthermore, certain identified cancers associated with selenium have been discussed to absorb more attention to the status of this element and also as a guide for further studies. Selenium plays the dual character (useful and harmful in human health, and then it is necessary to determine the concentration of this element in body fluids and tissues. An appropriate method for routine measurement of selenium in clinical laboratories is electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS with very low detection limit and good precision.

  10. Cultivating human nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, Maarten


    Evolutionary psychology claims to offer a unified perspective on human nature and culture, which can serve to further the integration of psychology and the social sciences. I describe four approaches to evolutionary psychology, and note increasing attention to the agency of the individual in

  11. Pesticides and Human Health (United States)

    ... types of pesticides Disponible en español Pesticides and Human Health Pesticides have a specific purpose in society. Pesticides are ... aging populations may be more sensitive to the effects of pesticides than others. To reduce the risk of health problems from pesticides there are several things you ...

  12. Human oocyte cryopreservation. (United States)

    Tao, Tao; Zhang, Wenling; Del Valle, Alfonso


    This review summarized the clinical breakthroughs in the human oocyte cryopreservation field in the past 2 years and gave special emphasis on the role of vitrification method. Human oocyte cryopreservation is an attractive strategy to preserve female fertility, as it offers more opportunities to the future destination of the female gametes and also raises fewer legal and ethical questions compared with embryo cryopreservation. It became promising in recent years because of dramatic improvement in cryopreservation technologies. Human oocyte cryopreservation would not become a clinical routine until the availability of reliable cryopreservation methods and long-term follow-up results of the babies born by this technique. Oocyte cryopreservation produced very exciting results with pregnancy and implantation rates comparable to embryo cryopreservation and in some cases comparable to fresh in-vitro fertilization cycles with both modified slow-freezing and vitrification methods. A cancer patient conceived and delivered her own babies by this technology after recovery from the disease. Oocyte cryopreservation became a new focus in assisted reproductive technology. We witnessed the advanced development of human oocyte cryopreservation in the past years because of increasing demand, medically, legally and ethically, and also because of the dramatic improvement of the freezing technique. There is still a long way to go to integrate it into a routine clinical procedure to benefit more patients and encourage clinicians to follow the standard protocols.

  13. Human perspectives in horticulture (United States)

    Charles A. Lewis


    Gardening produces not only vegetables and flowers, but also social and behavioral benefits. In low-income housing sites in New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago, gardening programs have resulted in reduced vandalism, new neighborliness, cleaned and painted buildings and streets, and other improvements. The human response to plants, and the qualities of plants that...

  14. Human social genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W Cole


    Full Text Available A growing literature in human social genomics has begun to analyze how everyday life circumstances influence human gene expression. Social-environmental conditions such as urbanity, low socioeconomic status, social isolation, social threat, and low or unstable social status have been found to associate with differential expression of hundreds of gene transcripts in leukocytes and diseased tissues such as metastatic cancers. In leukocytes, diverse types of social adversity evoke a common conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA characterized by increased expression of proinflammatory genes and decreased expression of genes involved in innate antiviral responses and antibody synthesis. Mechanistic analyses have mapped the neural "social signal transduction" pathways that stimulate CTRA gene expression in response to social threat and may contribute to social gradients in health. Research has also begun to analyze the functional genomics of optimal health and thriving. Two emerging opportunities now stand to revolutionize our understanding of the everyday life of the human genome: network genomics analyses examining how systems-level capabilities emerge from groups of individual socially sensitive genomes and near-real-time transcriptional biofeedback to empirically optimize individual well-being in the context of the unique genetic, geographic, historical, developmental, and social contexts that jointly shape the transcriptional realization of our innate human genomic potential for thriving.

  15. Human health and groundwater (United States)

    The high quality of most groundwaters, consequent upon the self-purification capacity of subsurface strata, has long been a key factor in human health and wellbeing. More than 50% of the world’s population now rely on groundwater for their supply of drinking water – and in most circumstances a prope...

  16. Haptic Physical Human Assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keemink, Arvid Quintijn Leon


    This dissertation covers three aspects of upper-extremity exoskeleton design: 1) Kinematics & motion: How to support the full range of motion of the human shoulder? We present a 2D visualization method that can show coupling between the range of motion (ROM) of rotations of the glenohumeral joint.

  17. Human Rights in Prisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jefferson, Andrew M.; Gaborit, Liv Stoltze

    Drawing on participatory action research conducted in Sierra Leone, Kosovo and the Philippines, Human Rights in Prisons analyses encounters between rights-based non-governmental organisations and prisons. It explores the previously under-researched perspectives of prison staff and prisoners...

  18. Animal and Human Communication. (United States)

    Rummel, Lynda

    Several misconceptions regarding the status of human communication systems relative to the systems of other animals are discussed in this paper. Arguments are offered supporting the expansion of the communication discipline to include the study of the communication systems of other species. The "communicative continuity" view which ranks…

  19. Humane Education in Kindergarten (United States)

    Montgomery, Charlotte Baker


    Describes objectives and activities of a humane education program to teach kindergarten students to respect animals. Activities include daily manners practice, observation of nature, bringing animals to the classroom, field trips, and organizing a be kind to animals week. For journal availability, see SO 505 454. (Author/DB)

  20. Human Babesiosis, Bolivia, 2013. (United States)

    Gabrielli, Simona; Totino, Valentina; Macchioni, Fabio; Zuñiga, Freddy; Rojas, Patricia; Lara, Yuni; Roselli, Mimmo; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Cancrini, Gabriella


    To investigate human babesiosis in the Bolivian Chaco, in 2013 we tested blood samples from 271 healthy persons living in 2 rural communities in this region. Microscopy and PCR indicated that 3.3% of persons were positive for Babesia microti parasites (US lineage); seroprevalence was 45.7%. Appropriate screening should mitigate the risk for transfusion-associated babesiosis.

  1. Human-Robot Interaction (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee


    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  2. Cosmic Humanity: Utopia, Realities, Prospects


    Sergey Krichevsky


    The philosophical foundations of the theory and practice of the creation of cosmic humanity as a process of the evolution of human civilization, the emergence into space, with the prospect of resettlement outside the Earth are considered. There is a connection between myths, fantasies, ideas, concepts and projects aimed at the exploration of outer space, the creation of cosmic humanity. A new and voluminous definition of cosmic humanity in the evolutionary paradigm is given. Cosmic humanity i...

  3. Pragmatic Challenges to Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten


    Pragmatism offers a platform for posing relevant questions. This article uses a pragmatic point of departure to question a natural law conception of human rights and to take a closer look at three pressing human rights problems: The human rights situation in states with little or no state capacity......; the revision and adaptation of human rights law; and the not straightforward relationship betweemn human rights and democracy....

  4. International terrorism and human rights


    Gurská, Zuzana


    Summary: International Terrorism and Human Rights Key words: international terrorism, antiterrorist measures, human rights First part of the thesis is centered on characteristics of international terrorism, concept of human rights and three aspects of their mutual relationship: the immediate impact of terrorist attacks on human rights of their direct victims and the society as a whole and aspects linked to the states' response consisting of human rights breaches of suspects during repressive ...

  5. Human mammary microenvironment better regulates the biology of human breast cancer in humanized mouse model. (United States)

    Zheng, Ming-Jie; Wang, Jue; Xu, Lu; Zha, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yi; Ling, Li-Jun; Wang, Shui


    During the past decades, many efforts have been made in mimicking the clinical progress of human cancer in mouse models. Previously, we developed a human breast tissue-derived (HB) mouse model. Theoretically, it may mimic the interactions between "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin and human breast cancer cells. However, detailed evidences are absent. The present study (in vivo, cellular, and molecular experiments) was designed to explore the regulatory role of human mammary microenvironment in the progress of human breast cancer cells. Subcutaneous (SUB), mammary fat pad (MFP), and HB mouse models were developed for in vivo comparisons. Then, the orthotopic tumor masses from three different mouse models were collected for primary culture. Finally, the biology of primary cultured human breast cancer cells was compared by cellular and molecular experiments. Results of in vivo mouse models indicated that human breast cancer cells grew better in human mammary microenvironment. Cellular and molecular experiments confirmed that primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model showed a better proliferative and anti-apoptotic biology than those from SUB to MFP mouse models. Meanwhile, primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model also obtained the migratory and invasive biology for "species-specific" tissue metastasis to human tissues. Comprehensive analyses suggest that "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin better regulates the biology of human breast cancer cells in our humanized mouse model of breast cancer, which is more consistent with the clinical progress of human breast cancer.

  6. The Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights. (United States)

    Mayor, Federico


    Since 1985, UNESCO studies ethical questions arising in genetics. In 1992, I established the International Bioethics Committee at UNESCO with the mission to draft the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights, which was adopted by UNESCO in 1997 and the United Nations in 1998. The Declaration relates the human genome with human dignity, deals with the rights of the persons concerned by human genome research and provides a reference legal framework for both stimulating the ethical debate and the harmonization of the law worldwide, favouring useful developments that respect human dignity.

  7. Physical mapping of Xp11.22-Xp11.3; an interval containing the RP2 gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiselton, D.L.; Hardcastle, A.J.; Kamakari, S. [Institute of Ophthalmology, London (United Kingdom)] [and others


    Genetic linkage studies have established a region on the short arm of the human X chromosome (Xp11.22-Xp11.3) to be implicated in several inherited opthalmic diseases. Aland Island eye disease (AIED), congenital stationary night blindness 1 (CSNB1), X-linked progressive cone dystrophy and one form of retinitis pigmentosa (RP2) all map to the interval. A lack of multiple informative recombinants in RP2 families, coupled with the paucity of highly polymorphic markers in this region, has to date impeded progress in refining the genetic interval containing this gene. A YAC contig is being generated as a total for the isolation of microsatellites and candidate genes in the region of interest. This contig will be constructed to cover and extend beyond the two markers flanking this interval, MAO (Xp11.3) and DXS255 (Xp11.22), a genetic distance of approximately 9 cM. Since the best evidence for linkage to RP2 is with the markers DXS255 and DXS426 (Xp11.23), these were used to initiate the construction of a contig utilizing a PCR-based screening strategy on the ICI 4X YAC library. Other STSs derived from genes and known microsatellite markers in the region were likewise used to obtain seed YACs within this interval. End sequences from such YACs have been obtained by a combination of Alu-vector PCR and chemical genetics methodologies to generate novel STSs with which to isolate overlapping clones. A complete contig is now assembled from TIMP to DXS1126, encompassing a physical distance of approximately 2-3 Mb. Microsatellite markers are being isolated from YACs which appear to span critical cross-overs in affected RP2 patients. In this way we hope to refine the localization of the RP2 gene. Key YACs will then be analyzed for CpG islands and retinally expressed sequences which may become candidate genes for the several opthalmic diseases mapping to Xp11.

  8. Digitalization of the human mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Drita Mehmeti


    Full Text Available The human faces with various problems already in its first steps in live, and carriers of such life situations are found in various ages which bring new currents in the way of life. Starting from the ancient Greek thought, the human and its mind made the centre of the world, already orienting the Western thought towards the study of the human mind (namely human reason, since it made the key tool for human survival. Although human problems have been discussed throughout various ages, they have not been able to resolve in full the human problems, and therefore, the same issues were taken by the representatives of the socalled “critical theory”, who used the theory to criticize the way of live Western civilization was offering, known as digitalization of the human mind. The human problems are addressed in a poly-dimensional manner. The factors affecting the human mind are: industrial civilization, technical progress, automation, overtly influence of machinery on humans, substitution of cultural values, which in sum have developed a new World Order, where the ruler is technology. In the modern world, the human fails to recognize himself, since he is out of himself and lives according to the rules set forth by the “remote control”. In the flow of this kind of livelihood, human alienates, or in other words, the human goes out of himself, trying to adapt maximally to the requirements of the new way of life.

  9. Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP) (United States)

    Boyer, Jennifer


    The purpose of the Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP) document is to provide human-systems integration design processes, including methodologies and best practices that NASA has used to meet human systems and human rating requirements for developing crewed spacecraft. HIDP content is framed around human-centered design methodologies and processes in support of human-system integration requirements and human rating. NASA-STD-3001, Space Flight Human-System Standard, is a two-volume set of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Agency-level standards established by the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer, directed at minimizing health and performance risks for flight crews in human space flight programs. Volume 1 of NASA-STD-3001, Crew Health, sets standards for fitness for duty, space flight permissible exposure limits, permissible outcome limits, levels of medical care, medical diagnosis, intervention, treatment and care, and countermeasures. Volume 2 of NASASTD- 3001, Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, focuses on human physical and cognitive capabilities and limitations and defines standards for spacecraft (including orbiters, habitats, and suits), internal environments, facilities, payloads, and related equipment, hardware, and software with which the crew interfaces during space operations. The NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 8705.2B, Human-Rating Requirements for Space Systems, specifies the Agency's human-rating processes, procedures, and requirements. The HIDP was written to share NASA's knowledge of processes directed toward achieving human certification of a spacecraft through implementation of human-systems integration requirements. Although the HIDP speaks directly to implementation of NASA-STD-3001 and NPR 8705.2B requirements, the human-centered design, evaluation, and design processes described in this document can be applied to any set of human-systems requirements and are independent of reference

  10. Rendering Humanities Sustainable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik


    Full Text Available Launching a journal intended to cover the entire humanities is certainly an audacious project, for two reasons at least. Firstly, this journal will be expected to cover much academic diversity, particularly by including the “social sciences.” However, in this time of rampant overspecialization, perhaps it is precisely such wholeness and breadth of vision that could become a journal’s strength. Secondly, since the viability of the humanities has been questioned from a number of perspectives it seems essential to meet these challenges by reinventing the discipline in response to issues raised—also a major task. It involves justifying the continuation of humanistic traditions. For this, humanists need to consider the nature of these challenges, understand and analyze them, and respond to them. It is therefore inevitable that a forward-looking, new journal in this discipline will deem it relevant to review these matters. [...

  11. Human biology of taste. (United States)

    Gravina, Stephen A; Yep, Gregory L; Khan, Mehmood


    Taste or gustation is one of the 5 traditional senses including hearing, sight, touch, and smell. The sense of taste has classically been limited to the 5 basic taste qualities: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami or savory. Advances from the Human Genome Project and others have allowed the identification and determination of many of the genes and molecular mechanisms involved in taste biology. The ubiquitous G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) make up the sweet, umami, and bitter receptors. Although less clear in humans, transient receptor potential ion channels are thought to mediate salty and sour taste; however, other targets have been identified. Furthermore, taste receptors have been located throughout the body and appear to be involved in many regulatory processes. An emerging interplay is revealed between chemical sensing in the periphery, cortical processing, performance, and physiology and likely the pathophysiology of diseases such as diabetes.

  12. Human corneal epithelial subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Chris Bath


    subpopulations in human corneal epithelium using a combination of laser capture microdissection and RNA sequencing for global transcriptomic profiling. We compared dissociation cultures, using either expansion on γ-irradiated NIH/3T3 feeder cells in serum-rich medium or expansion directly on plastic in serum......-free EpiLife medium, using a range of physiologically relevant oxygen concentrations (2%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%). Using immunocytochemistry and advanced fluorescence microscopy, cells were characterized regarding growth, cell cycle distribution, colony-forming efficiency (CFE), phenotypes...... was not dependent on the system used for propagation (Bath et al. 2013a). Laser capture microdissection was used to isolate cellular subpopulations in situ from the spatially defined differentiation pathway in human corneal epithelium according to an optimized protocol for maintenance of expression profiles...

  13. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo


    interneurons and exert a direct (willful) muscle control with the aid of a context-dependent integration of somatosensory and visual information at cortical level. However, spinal networks also play an important role. Sensory feedback through spinal circuitries is integrated with central motor commands...... and contributes importantly to the muscle activity underlying voluntary movements. Regulation of spinal interneurons is used to switch between motor states such as locomotion (reciprocal innervation) and stance (coactivation pattern). Cortical regulation of presynaptic inhibition of sensory afferents may focus...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...

  14. Sleep and Human Aging. (United States)

    Mander, Bryce A; Winer, Joseph R; Walker, Matthew P


    Older adults do not sleep as well as younger adults. Why? What alterations in sleep quantity and quality occur as we age, and are there functional consequences? What are the underlying neural mechanisms that explain age-related sleep disruption? This review tackles these questions. First, we describe canonical changes in human sleep quantity and quality in cognitively normal older adults. Second, we explore the underlying neurobiological mechanisms that may account for these human sleep alterations. Third, we consider the functional consequences of age-related sleep disruption, focusing on memory impairment as an exemplar. We conclude with a discussion of a still-debated question: do older adults simply need less sleep, or rather, are they unable to generate the sleep that they still need? Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Posthumanism: beyond humanism? (United States)

    Valera, Luca


    The focal point of posthumanism consists not as such in an a-critical acceptance of the technological promises - like there is for transhumanism - but in a total contamination and hybridization of human beings with other living beings and machines (these are the two main forms of contamination). The change of perspective untaken by posthumanism would be, thus, a paradigmatic shift in anthropology. As with ecologism, posthumanism, in order to obtain total contamination and man's openness to otherness, proposes the elimination and the fluidification of boundaries, thus even denying man's identity, and, with it, the very possibility of openness. However, by denying the identity, one denies the condition of possibility of thought, just as it has been manifested in history until now: hence we understand how, primarily, posthumanism is not configured as an adequate philosophical reflection, but as a narrative that takes origin from certain requirements, which are eminently human, and that discloses its deeply anthropogenic roots.

  16. Human freedom and enhancement. (United States)

    Heilinger, Jan-Christoph; Crone, Katja


    Ideas about freedom and related concepts like autonomy and self-determination play a prominent role in the moral debate about human enhancement interventions. However, there is not a single understanding of freedom available, and arguments referring to freedom are simultaneously used to argue both for and against enhancement interventions. This gives rise to misunderstandings and polemical arguments. The paper attempts to disentangle the different distinguishable concepts, classifies them and shows how they relate to one another in order to allow for a more structured and clearer debate. It concludes in identifying the individual underpinnings and the social conditions of choice and decision-making as particularly salient dimensions of freedom in the ethical debate about human enhancement.

  17. Human Cytomegalovirus Persistence


    Goodrum, Felicia; Caviness, Katie; Zagallo, Patricia


    Viral persistence is the rule following infection with all herpesviruses. The β-herpesvirus, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), persists through chronic and latent states of infection. Both the chronic and latent states of infection contribute to HCMV persistence and to the high HCMV seroprevalence worldwide. The chronic infection is poorly defined molecularly, but clinically manifests as low-level virus shedding over extended periods of time and often in the absence of symptoms. Latency requires ...

  18. Neanderthals and Modern Humans (United States)

    Finlayson, Clive


    The Neanderthals were a people native to Europe during the Pleistocene period, who became extinct between forty and thirty thousand years ago. Challenging the commonly held view that extinction was caused by the arrival of our ancestors, Clive Finlayson provides evidence that their extinction actually occurred because the Neanderthals could not adapt fast enough to changing ecological and environmental conditions, not their relationship with modern humans.

  19. The Human Body Sword

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Borer


    Full Text Available The human body shield problem involves an apparent dilemma for a libertarian, forcing him to choose between his own death and the death of an innocent person. This paper argues that the non-aggression principle permits a forceful response against the property of innocent individuals when a conflict is initiated with that property. In other words, a libertarian may shoot the hostage in order to save himself.

  20. Wilhelm Roepke: Economic humanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božo


    Full Text Available The paper presents the basic ideas of the great German thinker Wilhelm Roepke advocated a free market acting in a particular social context (comprising of market insti­tutions, and a particular system of values created within the society and not by the market itself. He substantiated why free market economy has to be supplemented with a particular social ethics. He argued in favor of a society that defends and advances human liberty.

  1. Glycogen metabolism in humans ? ??


    Adeva-Andany, María M.; González-Lucán, Manuel; Donapetry-García, Cristóbal; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Ameneiros-Rodríguez, Eva


    In the human body, glycogen is a branched polymer of glucose stored mainly in the liver and the skeletal muscle that supplies glucose to the blood stream during fasting periods and to the muscle cells during muscle contraction. Glycogen has been identified in other tissues such as brain, heart, kidney, adipose tissue, and erythrocytes, but glycogen function in these tissues is mostly unknown. Glycogen synthesis requires a series of reactions that include glucose entrance into the cell through...

  2. Decoding the human genome

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Antonerakis, S E


    Decoding the Human genome is a very up-to-date topic, raising several questions besides purely scientific, in view of the two competing teams (public and private), the ethics of using the results, and the fact that the project went apparently faster and easier than expected. The lecture series will address the following chapters: Scientific basis and challenges. Ethical and social aspects of genomics.

  3. Human Hearing Loss


    Ware, Stacy Lee


    Hearing loss affects as much as 5% of the global human population and its negative consequences, often exacerbated by cultural bias or distributive injustice, include delayed cognitive and language development, learning deficits and poor academic performance, chronic unemployment and dependency, poverty, elevated risk of harm and poor health. This paper is based on a review of the academic literature as well as other credible published resources to identify the principal causes of hearing los...

  4. Post-human Viewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette


    This article discusses the relationship between theories of photography and mobile phone footage. In doing so, it asks if theories of photography still apply in a technologically saturated world of imagery. Technology is an increasingly important part of viewing imagery today and enables imagery ...... implications. The author takes photojournalism and, in particular, mobile phone footage as a starting point for an exploration of the (post-human) body as evidence and sign of authenticity in the modern age of digital communications and journalism....

  5. Human resource management


    Balážová, Barbora


    Human resource management is currently regarded as one of the most important areas of management of the organization. Its task is to ensure and maintain sufficient number of skilled and motivated employees and their optimum use to achieve the planned prosperity and competitiveness of the organization. This task is pursued through partial personnel activities (the creation and analysis of jobs, personnel planning, acquisition, selection, recruitment and orientation of staff, evaluation and com...

  6. Human Resource Management Roles


    Tamara R. Mitchell


    The roles of Human Resource and Management play a vital role in the success of the organization. Internal recruitment is more valuable than external recruitment because it is less expensive, the employee’s skills are well known and companies that do internal recruitment have an important tool to boost morale in the organization. Performance management is an important part of an organization. The most important thing is that it strengthens the supervisor and employee relationship and promotes ...

  7. Human health and groundwater


    Candela Lledó, Lucila


    Strategic overview series of the International Association of Hydrogeologists-IAH. This Series is designed both to inform professionals in other sectors of key interactions with groundwater resources and hydrogeological science, and to guide IAH members in their outreach to related sectors. The naturally high microbiological and chemical quality of groundwater, captured at springheads and in shallow galleries and dugwells, has been vital for human survival, wellbeing and development from o...

  8. The effects of human resource flexibility on human resources development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeidMehdi Veise


    Full Text Available Human resources are the primary factor for development of competitiveness and innovation and reaching competitive advantage and they try to improve corporate capabilities through various characteristics such as value creation, scarcity and difficulty of imitation. This paper investigates the effect of human resource flexibility and its dimensions on human resource development and its dimensions. The survey was conducted using descriptive-correlation method that intended to describe how human resource flexibility was effective on human resource development. Questionnaire was tool of data collection. The statistical population included one hundred employees of the Electric Company in Ilam province, thus census method was used. Reliability of the questionnaire was measured via Cronbach's alpha equal to 0.96. The findings revealed that flexibility and its dimensions were effective on human resource development and dimensions of it. As a result, human resource flexibility should be considered for development of human resources and employees with the highest flexibility should be selected.

  9. Human parasitology worldwide research. (United States)

    Garrido-Cardenas, Jose Antonio; Mesa-Valle, Concepción; Manzano-Agugliaro, Francisco


    In this article, the trends in human parasitology have been studied through the analysis of the number of publications in this area. The parameters studied were: number of articles, language, countries and institutions with the highest number of publications, and keywords with greater presence in the articles of human parasitology. The results of the analysis confirm the growing interest in this area, observing an exponential growth in the number of publications in the last decades. We also verified that the main country in terms of scientific production is the USA, although among the most important institutions, we find non-US centres such as the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. For observing the relative importance of the journals that publish articles in this specific topic, an index has been created based on the h-index of the journal with publications related to human parasitology and divided by every 100 items. This rank is led fist by 'Journal of Medical Entomology' closely followed by 'Parasitology'. The analysis of the keywords allows to draw conclusions about the great importance of malaria in the current world research. A change in analytical methodology is also observed, and molecular techniques are now being imposed. These techniques, in the near future, have to influence in an improvement in the treatments and prevention of the diseases caused by parasites. Finally, it can be seen that diseases traditionally studied as helminthiasis and amebiasis are currently as well studied as others such as toxoplasmosis or leishmaniasis.

  10. Mapping the human genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantor, Charles R.


    The following pages aim to lay a foundation for understanding the excitement surrounding the ''human genome project,'' as well as to convey a flavor of the ongoing efforts and plans at the Human Genome Center at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Our own work, of course, is only part of a broad international effort that will dramatically enhance our understanding of human molecular genetics before the end of this century. In this country, the bulk of the effort will be carried out under the auspices of the Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health, but significant contributions have already been made both by nonprofit private foundations and by private corporation. The respective roles of the DOE and the NIH are being coordinated by an inter-agency committee, the aims of which are to emphasize the strengths of each agency, to facilitate cooperation, and to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort. The NIH, for example, will continue its crucial work in medical genetics and in mapping the genomes of nonhuman species. The DOE, on the other hand, has unique experience in managing large projects, and its national laboratories are repositories of expertise in physics, engineering, and computer science, as well as the life sciences. The tools and techniques the project will ultimately rely on are thus likely to be developed in multidisciplinary efforts at laboratories like LBL. Accordingly, we at LBL take great pride in this enterprise -- an enterprise that will eventually transform our understanding of ourselves.

  11. Human Melia azedarach poisoning. (United States)

    Phua, Dong Haur; Tsai, Wei-Jen; Ger, Jiin; Deng, Jou-Fang; Yang, Chen-Chang


    In traditional Chinese medicine, Melia azedarach (Ku-lian) is used orally and topically as an antiparasitic and antifungal agent. Although toxicity of this plant has been widely described in veterinary literature, human poisoning is rarely reported. We describe five patients with M. azedarach poisoning who recovered with supportive care. Five patients were identified retrospectively from the database of the Taiwan National Poison Center at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Three cases were on-site patients, and two were telephone consultations from outside hospitals. Neurological symptoms were the major manifestation in four cases: weakness, myalgia, numbness, and ptosis. Treatment was symptomatic and supportive; all patients recovered without sequelae. It is not known which limonoids are responsible for human toxicity. In the Chinese medical literature, human M. azedarach poisoning is said to occur if six to nine fruits, 30 to 40 seeds, or 400 g of the bark is consumed. Onset of symptoms typically occurs within 4-6 h, but as short as 0.5 h had been documented. In our patients, the onset of M. azedarach poisoning was variable, ranging from a few hours to up to 3 weeks after consumption of the herb. M. azedarach poisoning may result in gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, respiratory, or neurological effects, and death in severe cases.

  12. Human innate lymphoid cells. (United States)

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen


    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly acknowledged as important mediators of immune homeostasis and pathology. ILCs act as early orchestrators of immunity, responding to epithelium-derived signals by expressing an array of cytokines and cell-surface receptors, which shape subsequent immune responses. As such, ILCs make up interesting therapeutic targets for several diseases. In patients with allergy and asthma, group 2 innate lymphoid cells produce high amounts of IL-5 and IL-13, thereby contributing to type 2-mediated inflammation. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells are implicated in intestinal homeostasis and psoriasis pathology through abundant IL-22 production, whereas group 1 innate lymphoid cells are accumulated in chronic inflammation of the gut (inflammatory bowel disease) and lung (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), where they contribute to IFN-γ-mediated inflammation. Although the ontogeny of mouse ILCs is slowly unraveling, the development of human ILCs is far from understood. In addition, the growing complexity of the human ILC family in terms of previously unrecognized functional heterogeneity and plasticity has generated confusion within the field. Here we provide an updated view on the function and plasticity of human ILCs in tissue homeostasis and disease. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychophysics of human echolocation. (United States)

    Schörnich, Sven; Wallmeier, Ludwig; Gessele, Nikodemus; Nagy, Andreas; Schranner, Michael; Kish, Daniel; Wiegrebe, Lutz


    The skills of some blind humans orienting in their environment through the auditory analysis of reflections from self-generated sounds have received only little scientific attention to date. Here we present data from a series of formal psychophysical experiments with sighted subjects trained to evaluate features of a virtual echo-acoustic space, allowing for rigid and fine-grain control of the stimulus parameters. The data show how subjects shape both their vocalisations and auditory analysis of the echoes to serve specific echo-acoustic tasks. First, we show that humans can echo-acoustically discriminate target distances with a resolution of less than 1 m for reference distances above 3.4 m. For a reference distance of 1.7 m, corresponding to an echo delay of only 10 ms, distance JNDs were typically around 0.5 m. Second, we explore the interplay between the precedence effect and echolocation. We show that the strong perceptual asymmetry between lead and lag is weakened during echolocation. Finally, we show that through the auditory analysis of self-generated sounds, subjects discriminate room-size changes as small as 10%.In summary, the current data confirm the practical efficacy of human echolocation, and they provide a rigid psychophysical basis for addressing its neural foundations.

  14. Human viruses and cancer. (United States)

    Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M


    The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt's lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers.

  15. Human Viruses and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Morales-Sánchez


    Full Text Available The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers.

  16. Science and Human Experience (United States)

    Cooper, Leon N.


    Part I. Science and Society: 1. Science and human experience; 2. Does science undermine our values?; 3. Can science serve mankind?; 4. Modern science and contemporary discomfort: metaphor and reality; 5. Faith and science; 6. Art and science; 7. Fraud in science; 8. Why study science? The keys to the cathedral; 9. Is evolution a theory? A modest proposal; 10. The silence of the second; 11. Introduction to Copenhagen; 12. The unpaid debt; Part II. Thought and Consciousness: 13. Source and limits of human intellect; 14. Neural networks; 15. Thought and mental experience: the Turing test; 16. Mind as machine: will we rubbish human experience?; 17. Memory and memories: a physicist's approach to the brain; 18. On the problem of consciousness; Part III. On the Nature and Limits of Science: 19. What is a good theory?; 20. Shall we deconstruct science?; 21. Visible and invisible in physical theory; 22. Experience and order; 23. The language of physics; 24. The structure of space; 25. Superconductivity and other insoluble problems; 26. From gravity to light and consciousness: does science have limits?

  17. Human prion diseases. (United States)

    Thakur, Rajeev; Vincent, Yasmeen Marbaniang; Chaturvedi, Sujata


    Prion diseases is another name for a group of 'transmissible spongiform encephalopathies'. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the first prion disease described in humans, occurs in sporadic, familial or iatrogenic form. Other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in humans such as familial Creutzfeldt-]akob disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease and fatal familial Insomnia have been shown to be associated with specific prion protein gene mutations. In 1996, a new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was reported in the United Kingdom among young patients with unusual clinical features and unique neuropathological findings. This new form could be due to transmission to humans of the agent causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy. While examination of brain tissue is the key to making a diagnosis, it is not always possible antemortem. Immunological tests such as ELISA or western blot assays along with tests for 1 4-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid remain the main tools of diagnosis. Conventional disinfection and sterilization practices are Ineffective for these agents. The unusual properties of prions pose a challenge for treatment, surveillance and control of these diseases.

  18. Computing human image annotation. (United States)

    Channin, David S; Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Kleper, Vladimir; Rubin, Daniel L


    An image annotation is the explanatory or descriptive information about the pixel data of an image that is generated by a human (or machine) observer. An image markup is the graphical symbols placed over the image to depict an annotation. In the majority of current, clinical and research imaging practice, markup is captured in proprietary formats and annotations are referenced only in free text radiology reports. This makes these annotations difficult to query, retrieve and compute upon, hampering their integration into other data mining and analysis efforts. This paper describes the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid's (caBIG) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) project, focusing on how to use AIM to query for annotations. The AIM project delivers an information model for image annotation and markup. The model uses controlled terminologies for important concepts. All of the classes and attributes of the model have been harmonized with the other models and common data elements in use at the National Cancer Institute. The project also delivers XML schemata necessary to instantiate AIMs in XML as well as a software application for translating AIM XML into DICOM S/R and HL7 CDA. Large collections of AIM annotations can be built and then queried as Grid or Web services. Using the tools of the AIM project, image annotations and their markup can be captured and stored in human and machine readable formats. This enables the inclusion of human image observation and inference as part of larger data mining and analysis activities.

  19. Human Provenancing: It's Elemental… (United States)

    Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Kemp


    Forensic science already uses a variety of methods often in combination to determine a deceased person's identity if neither personal effects nor next of kin (or close friends) can positively identify the victim. While disciplines such as forensic anthropology are able to work from a blank canvass as it were and can provide information on age, gender and ethnical grouping, techniques such as DNA profiling do rely on finding a match either in a database or a comparative sample presumed to be an ante-mortem sample of the victim or from a putative relation. Chances for either to succeed would be greatly enhanced if information gained from a forensic anthropological examination and, circumstances permitting a facial reconstruction could be linked to another technique that can work from a blank canvass or at least does not require comparison to a subject specific database. With the help of isotope ratio mass spectrometry even the very atoms from which a body is made can be used to say something about a person that will help to focus human identification using traditional techniques such as DNA, fingerprints and odontology. Stable isotope fingerprinting works on the basis that almost all chemical elements and in particular the so-called light elements such as carbon (C) that comprise most of the human body occur naturally in different forms, namely isotopes. 2H isotope abundance values recorded by the human body through food and drink ultimately reflect averaged isotopic composition of precipitation or ground water. Stable isotope analysis of 2H isotopic composition in different human tissue such as hair, nails, bone and teeth enables us to construct a time resolved isotopic profile or ‘fingerprint' that may not necessarily permit direct identification of a murder victim or mass disaster victim but in conjunction with forensic anthropological information will provide sufficient intelligence to construct a profile for intelligence lead identification stating where a

  20. Human bite and human immune deficiency virus (HIV) transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The concentration of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) in the saliva of a carrier is low. As a result, human bite is not considered the traditional route of HIV infection transmission. Aim: To report a case of HIV sero-positivity following a human bite. Setting: University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port ...

  1. Animal continuities. Arguments against human/non-human animal dichotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ignacio Vernal


    Full Text Available At present, there is still a deep need to differentiate the members of the species Homo sapiens from the individuals belonging to the rest of the animal kingdom. As a consequence of this need arises the dichotomy human/non-human animal based on artificial and groundless differences that leads to actions always harmful to the non-human animals. In this work we want to show, on the one hand, that many of the characteristics proposed as specifically human are shared by at least some non-human animal species, and on the other hand, that specifically human characteristics do exist, but from this fact does not follow that we should draw a sharp line between human and non-human animals. We reject the speciesist and segregationist perspective that establishes that only human beings possess a singular position in nature. Every animal species has its own characteristics and, therefore, there would be no place for a human exception, but there would be as many exceptions as animal species exist in the nature. Instead of the abyss established between human animals and non-human animals, we defend the perspective of the animal continuum, which allows recognizing the characteristics that we share with other animal species and, therefore, promotes the end of the speciesism.

  2. Victim and the victor: Humanism and new humanism in Chris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On New Humanism and Broken Chains, the paper affirms that Humanity's dualism is the central tenet of New Humanism. The chains of fornication and adultery of victims like Dr Imasuen, Dr Osaze, Blossom, Daisy and Tonia were only broken and they became victors when they repented of their sins and accepted God's ...

  3. Human to human transmission of arthropod-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, Byron E.; Barzon, Luisa; Pijlman, Gorben P.; Fuente, de la José; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Wammes, Linda J.; Takken, Willem; Rij, van Ronald P.; Papa, Anna


    Human-to-human (H2H) transmitted arthropod-borne pathogens are a growing burden worldwide, with malaria and dengue being the most common mosquito-borne H2H transmitted diseases. The ability of vectors to get infected by humans during a blood meal to further propel an epidemic depends on complex

  4. Human to human transmission of arthropod-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, B.E.; Barzon, L.; Pijlman, G.P.; Fuente, J. de la; Rizzoli, A.; Wammes, L.J.; Takken, W.; Rij, R.P. van; Papa, A.


    Human-to-human (H2H) transmitted arthropod-borne pathogens are a growing burden worldwide, with malaria and dengue being the most common mosquito-borne H2H transmitted diseases. The ability of vectors to get infected by humans during a blood meal to further propel an epidemic depends on complex

  5. Human Resource Management and Human Resource Development: Evolution and Contributions (United States)

    Richman, Nicole


    Research agrees that a high performance organization (HPO) cannot exist without an elevated value placed on human resource management (HRM) and human resource development (HRD). However, a complementary pairing of HRM and HRD has not always existed. The evolution of HRD from its roots in human knowledge transference to HRM and present day HRD…

  6. Human dignity according to international instruments on human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pablo Alzina de Aguilar


    Full Text Available According to international instruments on human rights, the dignity of the human person is the foundation of human rights, and both human dignity and human rights are inherent to the human being, universal and inviolable. This understanding of human dignity is not a fruitless truism, but the solid foundation on which to build a world community under the rule of the new ius gentium: the International Law for Humankind. Moreover, it is the clue to answer many questions raised by the new world of globalization and of the exponential growth of international rules.Consequently, there is a need to a common doctrine on a notion of human dignity which will allow the implementation and adjudication of the aforementioned instruments, at the service of the human person and in conformity with the juridical conscience which they reflect. Philosophy of Law concepts which can be traced back to Aristotle provide that notion. According to these concepts, the demanding nature of “human dignity” sustains the notion of “legal personhood”, and both notions pertain to the realm of Law and Right, not of Morale and Values. Thus, human dignity and human rights are and must be, respectively, a basic principle and a necessary part of any Law system, including international law

  7. Human-Centered Computing: Toward a Human Revolution


    Jaimes, Alejandro; Gatica-Perez, Daniel; Sebe, Nicu; Huang, Thomas S.


    Human-centered computing studies the design, development, and deployment of mixed-initiative human-computer systems. HCC is emerging from the convergence of multiple disciplines that are concerned both with understanding human beings and with the design of computational artifacts.

  8. The Humanization of Information Science (United States)

    Elman, Stanley A.


    Information science is presently a mechanistic discipline which needs to be humanized. There must be more communication between librarians and information scientists, perhaps through seminars and exchanges, to bring the advantages of computerization to bear on human needs. (LS)

  9. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation. (United States)

    Irvine, George W.


    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  10. Human Exposure Database System (HEDS) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Human Exposure Database System (HEDS) provides public access to data sets, documents, and metadata from EPA on human exposure. It is primarily intended for...

  11. Fire Control and Human Evolution. (United States)

    Russell, Claire


    Briefly outlines some aspects of the discovery of fire control by primitive people, such as the preadaptation for speech, the evolution of the human brain, and natural selection for human nakedness or loss of hair. (CS)

  12. Human Health at the Beach (United States)

    ... Agency Search Search Beaches Contact Us Share LEARN: Human Health at the Beach Swimming at beaches with ... water pollution, there are other potential threats to human health at the beach to be aware of. ...

  13. Humane Education: A Forgotten Mandate (United States)

    Quinn, Peter J.


    Discusses the importance of humane education (i.e., the teaching of the principles of justice, goodwill, and respect for all living creatures) and offers suggestions for integrating humane education in the elementary school curriculum. (JG)

  14. Humane Education and Some Implications (United States)

    Carding, Tony


    The article explores some of the relationships between the value of humane education and those of education concerning the environment and education for international understanding and respect of human rights. (Author)

  15. Humane Education: A Curriculum Approach. (United States)

    Pearce, Robert W.


    Describes a curriculum-based approach to humane education and addresses the role of humane education in the school curriculum as well as the relationship's of education to other facets of animal welfare work. (Author/DS)

  16. Picasso: (in)human face


    Cox, Neil


    Rejecting the notion that Picasso's representations of faces should always be considered in a biographical context as portraits, it is argued that in considering them as human faces we encounter a crisis in the idea of an essential humanity. The essay then discusses Picasso's faces relation to Georges Bataille's treatment of vernacular portrait photography and of animality in human emotional expression, arguing that Picasso's human faces court the inhuman. This inhuman countenance, bred so ef...

  17. Sex differences in human gregariousness


    Benenson, Joyce F.; Sandra Stella; Anthony Ferranti


    Research on human sociality rarely includes kinship, social structure, sex, and familiarity, even though these variables influence sociality in non-human primates. However, cross-cultural ethnographic and observational studies with humans indicate that, beginning after age 5 years, males and females form differing social structures with unrelated individuals in a community. Specifically, compared with females, human males exhibit greater tolerance for and form larger, interconnected groups of...

  18. Human Milk-Treatment and Quality of Banked Human Milk. (United States)

    Picaud, Jean-Charles; Buffin, Rachel


    The aim of human milk banks is to deliver safe and high quality donor human milk. Treatment of human milk has to destroy most microorganisms while preserving immunological and nutrient components, which is obtained when using low time low temperature pasteurization. However it destroys bile-simulated lipase, reduces lactoferrin, lysozyme, immunoglobulins, and bactericidal capacity of human milk. New methods are under investigation such as high temperature short time pasteurization, high pressure processing, or ultraviolet irradiation. They have been tested in experimental conditions and there are promising results, but they have to be tested in real conditions in human milk bank. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Human Rights, Anti-Metaphysics and Legal Humanism


    Oliveira, Lauro Ericksen Cavalcanti de


    It discusses the philosophical and ethical perspective of human rights and points its framming on post-modern and anti-metaphysical nowadays tendencies. It scopes in general, to explain the  concept  and  foundations  of  human  rights  under  the  historical  premisses  of  legal humanism. Specifically, it aims to shows the historical evolution of human rights to the posr- modernity, and to analyze how the methaphysical entwining of the man reflects on human rights interpretation. Methodolog...

  20. Rejecting medical humanism: medical humanities and the metaphysics of medicine. (United States)

    Bishop, Jeffrey P


    The call for a narrative medicine has been touted as the cure-all for an increasingly mechanical medicine. It has been claimed that the humanities might create more empathic, reflective, professional and trustworthy doctors. In other words, we can once again humanise medicine through the addition of humanities. In this essay, I explore how the humanities, particularly narrative medicine, appeals to the metaphysical commitments of the medical institution in order to find its justification, and in so doing, perpetuates a dualism of humanity that would have humanism as the counterpoint to the biopsychosociologisms of our day.

  1. Humanity and Human Rights: The Contours of International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyassu Gayim


    Full Text Available Laws regulate conducts by responding to social and political requirements. This holds true for the law of nations as well. Contemporary international law follows two separate tracks when it comes to regulating human rights and humanitarian questions. If international human rights law and international humanitarian law are intended to protect the dignity and worth of human beings, as it is often said, why follow separate tracks? Does humanity really exist? If it does, how does it relate to human rights? If the two are distinct, where do they converge? This article highlights these questions by revisiting the contours of international law.

  2. Anti-humanism of the human rights ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Jovan


    Full Text Available How can we say that the ideology of human rights is not human? Yes, we can say that, because the human rights of one person usually stay in confrontation with the human rights of some other person. There is no social conflict and the law deals with social conflicts, which could be arranged by respecting the human rights of both sides. SomeoneÆs human right always has to be refused in some way. The author talks about that in this article. He talks about criminal law for example and that the human rights of an accused and convicted offender stay in confrontation with the human rights of a victim. If we respect the human rights of the accused and the convicted person it does mean that we do not respect enough the human rights of the victim. Because of that, the human rights are not a good concept to build-up the law system. Something that is more objective then 'my' or 'his', (individual understanding of what is the human right, what is the justice has to exist. TodayÆs concept of human rights is based on reducing the state regulation, but it does mean that there is no criteria which is above our individual points of view. In that situation of total individualism no oneÆs human right could be respected well. That is the second name for the anarchy, where we can not speak about the law and the human rights. On the other side, the problem of human rights is very much connected with the problem of understanding what is normal, what is moral, what is justice and the answer to those questions is very different in different societies and different cultures. If we are trying to build one global law system, in fact we are reducing the human right of people from different civilizations to have their own different answer on what is moral. That is also one very interesting paradox of the ideology of human rights which we can express in a very strange sentence: 'there is no human rights for those who are against human rights!',

  3. Genomic analysis of the Xp21 region around the RP3 locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navia, B.A. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Eisenman, R.E.; Bruns, G.A. [Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others


    One form of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa has been localized by deletion and linkage analysis to proximal Xp21 near the OTC locus and the proximal breakpoint of the BB deletion. A deletion junction clone, previously isolated from this region, was used to initiate a series of bidirectional walks in a human genomic library in EMBL3A. A phage contig of nearly 70 kb has been cloned and systematically searched for conserved sequences and CA repeats. A number of unique sequences around the breakpoint have been sequenced and analyzed with exon identification programs. An HTF island was identified approximately 35 kb distal to the centromeric breakpoint of the BB deletion and several CA repeat-containing areas were found in the contig. Two YACs that contain the breakpoint and surrounding region were isolated. A phage sublibrary was constructed from one of the YACs and is being used to extend the contig map further centromeric. To isolate transcripts from the region, two rounds of cDNA selection from a combined short insert human retinal and fetal brain library were performed against the pooled phage clones from the contig and against the pooled phage from the YAC derived sublibrary. Among the selected cDNAs, several unique sequences have been identified and are currently being mapped and sequenced.

  4. Genetic and physical mapping of the Chediak-Higashi syndrome on chromosome 1q42-43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrat, F.J.; Auloge, L.; Pastural, E. [INSERM, Paris (France)] [and others


    The Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a severe autosomal recessive condition, features of which are partial oculocutaneous albinism, increased susceptibility to infections, deficient natural killer cell activity, and the presence of large intracytoplasmic granulations in various cell types. Similar genetic disorders have been described in other species, including the beige mouse. On the basis of the hypothesis that the murine chromosome 13 region containing the beige locus was homologous to human chromosome 1, we have mapped the CHS locus to a 5-cM interval in chromosome segment 1q42.1-q42.2. The highest LOD score was obtained with the marker D1S235 (Z{sub max} = 5.38; {theta} = 0). Haplotype analysis enabled us to establish D1S2680 and D1S163, respectively, as the telomeric and the centromeric flanking markers. Multipoint linkage analysis confirms the localization of the CHS locus in this interval. Three YAC clones were found to cover the entire region in a contig established by YAC end-sequence characterization and sequence-tagged site mapping. The YAC contig contains all genetic markers that are nonrecombinant for the disease in the nine CHS families studied. This mapping confirms the previous hypothesis that the same gene defect causes CHS in human and beige phenotype in mice and provides a genetic framework for the identification of candidate genes. 36 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Human factors in network security


    Jones, Francis B.


    Human factors, such as ethics and education, are important factors in network information security. This thesis determines which human factors have significant influence on network security. Those factors are examined in relation to current security devices and procedures. Methods are introduced to evaluate security effectiveness by incorporating the appropriate human factors into network security controls

  6. Human capital and career success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Kato, Takao

    formal schooling and subsequent human capital obtained informally on the job are found to be complements in the production of career success. Fourth, though there is a large body of the literature on the relationship between firm-specific human capital and wages, the relative value of firm-specific human...

  7. Legon Journal of the Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Founded in 1974, Legon Journal of the Humanities (LJH) is a peer-reviewed periodical published by the College of Humanities, University of Ghana. LJH welcomes the following types of contributions in the humanities from scholars in all countries: research articles; reviews of new and particularly noteworthy books and ...

  8. Human Rights and Public Education (United States)

    Bowring, Bill


    This article attempts a contrast to the contribution by Hugh Starkey. Rather than his account of the inexorable rise of human rights discourse, and of the implementation of human rights standards, human rights are here presented as always and necessarily scandalous and highly contested. First, I explain why the UK has lagged so far behind its…

  9. A Hierarchy of Human Rights. (United States)

    Brockett, Charles

    To establish an objective conception of human rights, one must first identify basic needs intrinsic to all people and then determine whether these needs are or can be hierarchically ordered. Many scholars have conducted research on the concept of human needs, particularly in the area of human rights. Among these scholars are Abraham H. Maslow…

  10. The human and fire connection (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain


    We refer to fire as a natural disturbance, but unlike other disturbances such as forest insects and diseases, fire has had an intimate relationship with humans. Fire facilitated human evolution over two million years ago when our ancestors began to use fire to cook. Fire empowered our furbearers to adapt to cold climates, allowing humans to disperse and settle into...

  11. Leadership in a Humane Organization (United States)

    Dimitrov, Danielle


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the way leadership influences an organization to become humane through its features and behaviors; as well as the organizational circumstances in which humane leadership can be nurtured. The first empirical case study, in the fields of Human Resource Development (HRD) and hospitality management, to…

  12. Human Rights and the Statistician. (United States)

    Spirer, Herbert F.

    Statisticians can help to improve human rights reporting. The statistician's approach to measurement, summary, and interpretation is needed to understand and help reduce human rights violations. Statistical problems in the measurement and analysis of human rights violations include: lack of agreement on the definition; great difficulties in…

  13. Human memory B cells. (United States)

    Seifert, M; Küppers, R


    A key feature of the adaptive immune system is the generation of memory B and T cells and long-lived plasma cells, providing protective immunity against recurring infectious agents. Memory B cells are generated in germinal center (GC) reactions in the course of T cell-dependent immune responses and are distinguished from naive B cells by an increased lifespan, faster and stronger response to stimulation and expression of somatically mutated and affinity matured immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. Approximately 40% of human B cells in adults are memory B cells, and several subsets were identified. Besides IgG(+) and IgA(+) memory B cells, ∼50% of peripheral blood memory B cells express IgM with or without IgD. Further smaller subpopulations have additionally been described. These various subsets share typical memory B cell features, but likely also fulfill distinct functions. IgM memory B cells appear to have the propensity for refined adaptation upon restimulation in additional GC reactions, whereas reactivated IgG B cells rather differentiate directly into plasma cells. The human memory B-cell pool is characterized by (sometimes amazingly large) clonal expansions, often showing extensive intraclonal IgV gene diversity. Moreover, memory B-cell clones are frequently composed of members of various subsets, showing that from a single GC B-cell clone a variety of memory B cells with distinct functions is generated. Thus, the human memory B-cell compartment is highly diverse and flexible. Several B-cell malignancies display features suggesting a derivation from memory B cells. This includes a subset of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, hairy cell leukemia and marginal zone lymphomas. The exposure of memory B cells to oncogenic events during their generation in the GC, the longevity of these B cells and the ease to activate them may be key determinants for their malignant transformation.

  14. Human due diligence. (United States)

    Harding, David; Rouse, Ted


    Most companies do a thorough job of financial due diligence when they acquire other companies. But all too often, deal makers simply ignore or underestimate the significance of people issues in mergers and acquisitions. The consequences are severe. Most obviously, there's a high degree of talent loss after a deal's announcement. To make matters worse, differences in decision-making styles lead to infighting; integration stalls; and productivity declines. The good news is that human due diligence can help companies avoid these problems. Done early enough, it helps acquirers decide whether to embrace or kill a deal and determine the price they are willing to pay. It also lays the groundwork for smooth integration. When acquirers have done their homework, they can uncover capability gaps, points of friction, and differences in decision making. Even more important, they can make the critical "people" decisions-who stays, who goes, who runs the combined business, what to do with the rank and file-at the time the deal is announced or shortly thereafter. Making such decisions within the first 30 days is critical to the success of a deal. Hostile situations clearly make things more difficult, but companies can and must still do a certain amount of human due diligence to reduce the inevitable fallout from the acquisition process and smooth the integration. This article details the steps involved in conducting human due diligence. The approach is structured around answering five basic questions: Who is the cultural acquirer? What kind of organization do you want? Will the two cultures mesh? Who are the people you most want to retain? And how will rank-and-file employees react to the deal? Unless an acquiring company has answered these questions to its satisfaction, the acquisition it is making will be very likely to end badly.

  15. Humanizing the Information Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Billington


    Full Text Available Provides a brief historical perspective on the role of books and libraries in the United States and asks whether the impact of electronic media will result in the loss of the ’values of the book culture that made democracy and the responsible use of freedom possible’. Describes the efforts of the Library of Congress to create a National Digital Library of American history and culture, to make free and reliable educational content accessible on the Web and develop human mediators who can help integrate new online knowledge with the older wisdom in books.

  16. Human - Robot Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    The media and political/managerial levels focus on the opportunities to re-perform Denmark through digitization. Feeding assistive robotics is a welfare technology, relevant to citizens with low or no function in their arms. Despite national dissemination strategies, it proves difficult to recruit...... the study that took place as multi-sited ethnography at different locations in Denmark and Sweden. Based on desk research, observation of meals and interviews I examine socio-technological imaginaries and their practical implications. Human - robotics interaction demands engagement and understanding...

  17. Magnetic human body communication. (United States)

    Park, Jiwoong; Mercier, Patrick P


    This paper presents a new human body communication (HBC) technique that employs magnetic resonance for data transfer in wireless body-area networks (BANs). Unlike electric field HBC (eHBC) links, which do not necessarily travel well through many biological tissues, the proposed magnetic HBC (mHBC) link easily travels through tissue, offering significantly reduced path loss and, as a result, reduced transceiver power consumption. In this paper the proposed mHBC concept is validated via finite element method simulations and measurements. It is demonstrated that path loss across the body under various postures varies from 10-20 dB, which is significantly lower than alternative BAN techniques.

  18. Human Genome Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The DOE Human Genome program has grown tremendously, as shown by the marked increase in the number of genome-funded projects since the last workshop held in 1991. The abstracts in this book describe the genome research of DOE-funded grantees and contractors and invited guests, and all projects are represented at the workshop by posters. The 3-day meeting includes plenary sessions on ethical, legal, and social issues pertaining to the availability of genetic data; sequencing techniques, informatics support; and chromosome and cDNA mapping and sequencing.

  19. Structure of human adenovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemerow, Glen R.; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Reddy, Vijay S. (Scripps); (Vanderbilt)


    A detailed structural analysis of the entire human adenovirus capsid has been stymied by the complexity and size of this 150 MDa macromolecular complex. Over the past 10 years, the steady improvements in viral genome manipulation concomitant with advances in crystallographic techniques and data processing software has allowed structure determination of this virus by X-ray diffraction at 3.5 {angstrom} resolution. The virus structure revealed the location, folds, and interactions of major and minor (cement proteins) on the inner and outer capsid surface. This new structural information sheds further light on the process of adenovirus capsid assembly and virus-host cell interactions.

  20. [Human brown adipose tissue]. (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo


    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  1. Human Transposon Tectonics (United States)

    Burns, Kathleen H.; Boeke, Jef D.


    Mobile DNAs have had a central role in shaping our genome. More than half of our DNA is comprised of interspersed repeats resulting from replicative copy and paste events of retrotransposons. Although most are fixed, incapable of templating new copies, there are important exceptions to retrotransposon quiescence. De novo insertions cause genetic diseases and cancers, though reliably detecting these occurrences has been difficult. New technologies aimed at uncovering polymorphic insertions reveal that mobile DNAs provide a substantial and dynamic source of structural variation. Key questions going forward include the how and how much new transposition events affect human health and disease. PMID:22579280


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey


    The remediation and deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear waste storage tanks using telerobotics is one of the most challenging tasks faced in environmental cleanup. Since a number of tanks have reached the end of their design life and some of them have leaks, the unstructured, uncertain and radioactive environment makes the work inefficient and expensive. However, the execution time of teleoperation consumes ten to hundred times that of direct contact with an associated loss in quality. Thus, a considerable effort has been expended to improve the quality and efficiency of telerobotics by incorporating into teleoperation and robotic control functions such as planning, trajectory generation, vision, and 3-D modeling. One example is the Robot Task Space Analyzer (RTSA), which has been developed at the Robotics and Electromechanical Systems Laboratory (REMSL) at the University of Tennessee in support of the D&D robotic work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This system builds 3-D models of the area of interest in task space through automatic image processing and/or human interactive manual modeling. The RTSA generates a task plan file, which describes the execution of a task including manipulator and tooling motions. The high level controller of the manipulator interprets the task plan file and executes the task automatically. Thus, if the environment is not highly unstructured, a tooling task, which interacts with environment, will be executed in the autonomous mode. Therefore, the RTSA not only increases the system efficiency, but also improves the system reliability because the operator will act as backstop for safe operation after the 3-D models and task plan files are generated. However, unstructured conditions of environment and tasks necessitate that the telerobot operates in the teleoperation mode for successful execution of task. The inefficiency in the teleoperation mode led to the research

  3. Human adaptation to smog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, G.W. (Univ. of California, Irvine) Jacobs, S.V.; Frager, N.B.


    This study examined the health effects of human adaptation to photochemical smog. A group of recent arrivals to the Los Angeles air basin were compared to long-term residents of the basin. Evidence for adaptation included greater irritation and respiratory problems among the recent arrivals and desensitization among the long-term residents in their judgments of the severity of the smog problem to their health. There was no evidence for biochemical adaptation as measured by hemoglobin response to oxidant challenge. The results were discussed in terms of psychological adaption to chronic environmental stressors.

  4. Strength of human pulleys. (United States)

    Manske, P R; Lesker, P A


    The length, breaking stength, and tensile strength of each of the annular fibroosseous pulleys of digital flexor sheath in ten fresh human cadaver specimens were measured. The first annular pulley and the fourth annular pulley were found to be the strongest, while the second annular pulley was the weakest. The design of artificial pulleys should reproduce the strength of the first annular and fourth annular pulleys. Suggested minimum requirements for the breaking strength of artificial implant pulleys may be made based on these studies.

  5. Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosicka, Iga


    Diabetes mellitus type II is a metabolic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. The disease is associated with occurence of insoluble, fibrillar, protein aggregates in islets of Langerhans in the pancreas - islet amyloid. The main constituent of these protein fibers is the human islet...... amyloid polypeptide, which has a propensity to form oligomeric and fibrillar aggregates consisting of stable beta-sheets. These aggregates are toxic to the pancreatic cells. In-depth knowledge of the mechanisms of islet amyloid formation is an important step towards better understanding of the etiology...... of diabetes type II, while revealing the structure(s) of islet amyloid fibrils is necessary for potential design of therapeutic agents....

  6. Human Ressource Management


    Larsen, Camilla


    Projektet undersøger hvordan den engelske virksomhed The Body Shop anvender Human Ressource management i deres organisation. Jeg har selv arbejdet i firmaet i 6 år, hvilket selvfølgelig har givet mig en del problematikker. Jeg har ved brug af Kvale og Brinkmanns interview teori lavet to interviews med hhv. HR-assistenten Nanna Broholm og Retail Academy Træneren Susan Chahrour. De har givet mig en indsigt i deres arbejde, og hvordan The Body Shop forholder sig til forskellige faktorer. I proje...

  7. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, Frederica; Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil


    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID framework, and a sample of 54 HWID related papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009–2014. We group the papers into six topical groups....... Furthermore, much focus has been on studying design sketching or implemented systems-in-use, while little attention has been paid to mature design (prototypes) or early implementation (content templates). In conclusion, we recommend an update to the framework so that it can be also useful for research...

  8. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, Frederica; Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil


    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID frame-work, and a sample of 54 papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009-2014. We group the papers into six topical groups, and then at....... Furthermore, much focus has been on studying design sketching or implemented systems-in-use, while little attention has been paid to mature design (prototypes) or early implementation (content templates). In conclusion, we recommend an update to the framework so that it can be also useful for research...

  9. Machines Imitating Humans (United States)

    Zia-Ul-Haque, Qazi S. M.; Wang, Zhiliang; Zhang, Xueyuan

    The authors have synthesized the emotion in the speech of robot. The modeling of emotion in speech relies on a number of parameters among others, fundamental frequency (F0) level, voice quality, or articulation precision etc. As an initial work for synthesizing emotion in speech, we utilized the three voice features provided by the TTS engine of Microsoft Speech SDK i.e. pitch, rate and volume. Speech with these parameters controlled, was generated randomly with 20 sentences for each emotion and perception by human hearers were collected.

  10. Visual Analysis of Humans

    CERN Document Server

    Moeslund, Thomas B


    This unique text/reference provides a coherent and comprehensive overview of all aspects of video analysis of humans. Broad in coverage and accessible in style, the text presents original perspectives collected from preeminent researchers gathered from across the world. In addition to presenting state-of-the-art research, the book reviews the historical origins of the different existing methods, and predicts future trends and challenges. This title: features a Foreword by Professor Larry Davis; contains contributions from an international selection of leading authorities in the field; includes

  11. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume....... The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability...

  12. More Than Human Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    In this episode of AnthroPod, guest producers Stine Krøijer and Astrid Oberborbeck Andersen take up a debate that is central to current environmental and political anthropology: namely, how ethnographers can identify and describe the political when earth beings, spirits, or nonhuman others become...... part of the ethnographic equation? How can we methodologically and theoretically engage with these beings as they become entwined in political processes? The episode is built around a recording of a workshop on “More than Human Politics,” which was held in the Department of Anthropology...



    Shashank Shekhar Tiwari*, Shivani Joshi, Tanvi Mittal, Shruti Jain


    This project deals with the nervous system and its function in brain. Here connectome means the microscopic neural connectivity and its mapping between all the neurons present in the brain which further represents their graphical representation on the visual screen also which will further help us to zoom into a region to explore the cells and the functions depending on it and taking this one step ahead the memory implementation in human brain so it will be used as a memory unit except the fac...





    This paper presents the most representative approaches to concepts of human resources, human resource management and strategic human resource management in the last two decades, based on purely theoretical analysis of the concepts mentioned above. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate through a critical analysis of concepts, that in this era of change and uncertainty, attention to human resources of an organization has changed radically. It can be seen by analyzing the definitions, evol...





    This paper presents the most representative approaches to concepts of human resources, human resource management and strategic human resource management in the last two decades, based on purely theoretical analysis of the concepts mentioned above. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate through a critical analysis of concepts, that in this era of change and uncertainty, attention to human resources of an organization has changed radically. It can be seen by analyzing the definitions, e...

  16. The Specificity of Human Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchet, Dominique


    Today, humankind is being reintroduced within nature. Humankind is no longer presented as supernatural to nature. There is no longer a clear divide between animal and human. What makes us human is neither culture, nor language nor labor, nor art, but the degree of complexity those products......, and the craving to make sense of all kinds of relations that characterizes humans. Being able to produce artworks as external representations aimed at “the other,” made of internal representations is thus essential to humanity. Human aesthetics is not so much an issue of beauty but of imagination and social...

  17. [Terrorism and human behavior]. (United States)

    Leistedt, S J


    Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases. This work examines, in a multidimensional way, how terrorists employ these features of religion to achieve their goals. In the same way, it describes how terrorists use rituals to conditionally associate emotions with sanctified symbols that are emotionally evocative and motivationally powerful, fostering group solidarity, trust, and cooperation. Religious beliefs, including promised rewards in the afterlife, further serve to facilitate cooperation by altering the perceived payoffs of costly actions, including suicide bombing. The adolescent pattern of brain development is unique, and young adulthood presents an ideal developmental stage to attract recruits and enlist them in high-risk behaviors. This work offers insights, based on this translational analysis, concerning the links between religion, terrorism and human behavior. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. First human Cerenkography. (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonello Enrico; Ferdeghini, Marco; Cavedon, Carlo; Zivelonghi, Emanuele; Calandrino, Riccardo; Fenzi, Alberto; Sbarbati, Andrea; Boschi, Federico


    Cerenkov luminescence imaging is an emerging optical preclinical modality based on the detection of Cerenkov radiation induced by beta particles when traveling though biological tissues with a velocity greater than the speed of light. We present the first human Cerenkography obtained by detecting Cerenkov radiation escaping the thyroid gland of a patient treated for hyperthyroidism. The Cerenkov light was detected using an electron multiplied charge coupled device and a conventional C-mount lens. The system set-up has been tested by using a slab of ex vivo tissue equal to a 1 cm slice of chicken breast in order to simulate optical photons attenuation. We then imaged for 2 min the head and neck region of a patient treated orally 24 h before with 550 MBq of I-131. Co-registration between photographic and Cerenkov images showed a good localization of the Cerenkov light within the thyroid region. In conclusion, we showed that it is possible to obtain a planar image of Cerenkov photons escaping from a human tissue. Cerenkography is a potential novel medical tool to image superficial organs of patients treated with beta minus radiopharmaceuticals and can be extended to the imaging of beta plus emitters.

  19. Our humanity at CERN

    CERN Multimedia


    Diversity and respect are defining aspects of CERN and something that I am very proud of. Our institution is the closest to a true meritocracy that I have ever experienced in my long career, and as such is a valuable role model for the world. It is a place where everyone is welcome, and where anyone can succeed, regardless of his or her ethnicity, beliefs or sexual orientation. It is therefore with some disappointment that I have learned of a spate of recent events concerning posters put up around the Laboratory by our LGBT community.   Freedom of expression is a fundamental human right. One needs to look no further than the Universal Declaration of Human Rights for common-sense clarity on this issue. It states that: ‘everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers’. In line with that, I fully supp...

  20. Predicting Human Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Nay

    Full Text Available The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection, when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner's Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.

  1. Humanization of mathematics learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bayu Kurniawan


    Full Text Available The study concerned here was to describe (1 the characteristics of humanistic mathematics learning and (2 the stages to actualize such learning. The said study was a qualitative one employing the phenomenological approach with six stages of inductive analysis. The data were validated by using the data source triangulation technique. The study involved 75 students of an elementary school, SD Mangunan, Berbah, Sleman, 36 students of a state senior high school, SMA Negeri 1 of Sewon, Bantul, and 42 students of another state senior high school, SMA Negeri 1 of Dlingo, Bantul. The results of the validation showed that the data were valid and consistent. The conclusions of the study are as follows. (1 Humanistic mathematics learning is characterized by the facts that the use of the mathematics learning media gives students space and time to explore and construct mathematical concept understanding and mathematics learning methods are applied by using an inductive approach. (2 The stages to realize humanistic mathematics learning include the setting of mathematics learning objectives based on humanism, existentialism, and religious teachings by building individual students’ strengths through independent and civilized manners, the setting of mathematics learning goals emphasizing balance among the domains of idea, intention, and action, and the setting of the development of contextual and cooperative mathematics learning strategies. Keywords: humanization, mathematics learning

  2. On Human Essence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Fernández Beites


    Full Text Available To offer a response to the challenge posed by the existentialism of M. Heidegger, the present work uses the ontology proposed by X. Zubiri in Sobre la esencia. The work, then, deals with thinking «about essence», but above all, «about human essence», which creates the difficulty raised by existentialism. The difference between «constitutive» and «conditional» proposed by Zubiri is studied in order to highlight the human being’s (and of all living beings in general character of not being made once and for all. If we designate essence in the classical sense (unalterable essence as «constitutive», we propose to bring Zubiri’s intuition to its limit by acknowledging another «essential» level, which is the «constitutional». The constitutional is not essential in tradition’s strict sense, but neither is it accidental; it is essential in a new sense, allowing the incorporation of changes in essenceitself. Thus, one arrives at the so-called processive (or dynamic essences, which, for not being made once and for all, necessarily include their being made.

  3. The human gut resistome (United States)

    van Schaik, Willem


    In recent decades, the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens has become a major threat to public health. Bacteria can acquire antibiotic resistance genes by the mobilization and transfer of resistance genes from a donor strain. The human gut contains a densely populated microbial ecosystem, termed the gut microbiota, which offers ample opportunities for the horizontal transfer of genetic material, including antibiotic resistance genes. Recent technological advances allow microbiota-wide studies into the diversity and dynamics of the antibiotic resistance genes that are harboured by the gut microbiota (‘the gut resistome’). Genes conferring resistance to antibiotics are ubiquitously present among the gut microbiota of humans and most resistance genes are harboured by strictly anaerobic gut commensals. The horizontal transfer of genetic material, including antibiotic resistance genes, through conjugation and transduction is a frequent event in the gut microbiota, but mostly involves non-pathogenic gut commensals as these dominate the microbiota of healthy individuals. Resistance gene transfer from commensals to gut-dwelling opportunistic pathogens appears to be a relatively rare event but may contribute to the emergence of multi-drug resistant strains, as is illustrated by the vancomycin resistance determinants that are shared by anaerobic gut commensals and the nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium. PMID:25918444

  4. Adipokines in human reproduction. (United States)

    Dupont, Joëlle; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Reverchon, Maxime; Mellouk, Namya; Levy, Rachel


    Adipose tissue communicates with other central and peripheral organs by the synthesis and release of substances called adipokines. The most studied adipokine is leptin but others have been recently identified including resistin, adiponectin, chemerin, omentin and visfatin. These adipokines have a critical role in the development of obesity-related complications and inflammatory conditions. However, they are also involved in other functions in the organism including reproductive functions. Indeed, many groups have demonstrated that adipokine receptors, such as adiponectin and chemerin, but also adipokines themselves (adiponectin, chemerin, resistin, visfatin and omentin) are expressed in human peripheral reproductive tissues and that these adipokines are likely to exert direct effects on these tissues. After a brief description of these new adipokines, an overview of their actions in different human reproductive organs (hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, testis, uterus and placenta) will be presented. Finally, comments will be made on the eventual alterations of these adipokines in reproductive disorders, with special attention to polycystic ovary syndrome, a disease characterized by dysfunction of gonadal axis and systemic nerve endocrine metabolic network with a prevalence of up to 10% in women of reproductive age.

  5. Rangifer and human interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Anderson


    Full Text Available This article reviews biological and anthropological literatute on wild and tame Rangifer to demonstrate the powerful effect that this species has had on the imaginations of biologists, social scientists and local hunters. Through identifying a general 'human interest' in Rangifer, the author argues that there is great potential for these three communities to work together. To demonstrate this idea, the paper reviews several examples of successful and unsuccessful 'alliances' between local peoples and both natural and social scientists which have had a fundamental impact upon the history of these sciences. The paper examines recent theorerical models which suggest that human action is a major factor in the behaviour and ecology of the animals. The paper also analyses the ideas of many indigenous people for whom there is no categorical difference between semi-domesticated, semi-sedentary and migratory Rangifer through comparison with many 'anomalous' texts in English and Russian language wildlife biology. By reviewing the history of scholarly interest in Rangifer, the author argues that contemporary models of Rangifer behaviour and identity could be 'revitalised' and 'recalibrated' through the establishment of that dialogue between scientists and local peoples which so characterised the 19th century. Such a dialogue, it is argued, would help mediate many of the political conflicts now appearing in those districts where Rangifer migrate.

  6. Human metabolism of caesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeaef, C.L. [Lund Univ., Dept. of Radiation Physics in Malmoe (Sweden); Falk, R. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (Sweden); Lauridsen, Bente [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Rahola, T. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Soogard-Hansen, J. [NRPA - Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)


    A study of the human biokinetics of caesium in two forms, i.) incorporated in foodstuff (137Cs in perch and mushrooms) and ii.) in ionic state ({sup 134}Cs in aqueous solution) has been carried out at the department of Radiation Physics in Malmoe, starting in 2001. The results of the pilot study were published in 2004, and a continuation of that study has now been carried out by means of NKS funding (NKS-B Cskinetik). The aim is to, i.) investigate whether Scandinavian populations exhibit shorter biological half-time of radiocaesium than other populations; ii.) extend the biokinetic study to additional human subjects from the other Nordic countries. Results from the continued study further indicate a near complete absorption of radiocaesium in the gastro-intestinal tract, be it in ion state or contained in food matrix. So far, the literature survey of Nordic studies on biokinetics of Cs suggests that the biological half time is somewhat shorter among Scandinavian males (84 days vs. ICRP-value of 110 days), although females do not exhibit any significant difference (64 days vs ICRP value of 65 days). (au)

  7. Human Life History Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine J. Chua


    Full Text Available Human life history (LH strategies are theoretically regulated by developmental exposure to environmental cues that ancestrally predicted LH-relevant world states (e.g., risk of morbidity–mortality. Recent modeling work has raised the question of whether the association of childhood family factors with adult LH variation arises via (i direct sampling of external environmental cues during development and/or (ii calibration of LH strategies to internal somatic condition (i.e., health, which itself reflects exposure to variably favorable environments. The present research tested between these possibilities through three online surveys involving a total of over 26,000 participants. Participants completed questionnaires assessing components of self-reported environmental harshness (i.e., socioeconomic status, family neglect, and neighborhood crime, health status, and various LH-related psychological and behavioral phenotypes (e.g., mating strategies, paranoia, and anxiety, modeled as a unidimensional latent variable. Structural equation models suggested that exposure to harsh ecologies had direct effects on latent LH strategy as well as indirect effects on latent LH strategy mediated via health status. These findings suggest that human LH strategies may be calibrated to both external and internal cues and that such calibrational effects manifest in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenotypes.

  8. The Human Variome Project. (United States)

    Burn, John; Watson, Michael


    The practical realization of genomics has meant a growing realization that variant interpretation is a major barrier to practical use of DNA sequence data. The late Professor Dick Cotton devoted his life to innovation in molecular genetics and was a prime mover in the international response to the need to understand the "variome." His leadership resulted in the launch first of the Human Genetic Variation Society and then, in 2006, an international agreement to launch the Human Variome Project (HVP), aimed at data integration enabled by standards and infrastructure of the databases of variants being identified in families with a range of inherited disorders. The project attracted a network of affiliates across 81 countries and earned formal recognition by UNESCO, which now hosts its biennial meetings. It has also signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the World Health Organization. Future progress will depend on longer term secure funding and integration with the efforts of the genomics community where the rapid advances in sequencing technology have enabled variant capture on a previously unimaginable scale. Efforts are underway to integrate the efforts of HVP with those of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health to provide a lasting legacy of Dick Cotton's vision. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  9. Human activity recognition and prediction

    CERN Document Server


    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  10. [A cyborg is only human]. (United States)

    Schermer, Maartje H N


    New biomedical technologies make it possible to replace parts of the human body or to substitute its functions. Examples include artificial joints, eye lenses and arterial stents. Newer technologies use electronics and software, for example in brain-computer interfaces such as retinal implants and the exoskeleton MindWalker. Gradually we are creating cyborgs: hybrids of man and machine. This raises the question: are cyborgs still humans? It is argued that they are. First, because employing technology is a typically human characteristic. Second, because in western thought the human mind, and not the body, is considered to be the seat of personhood. However, it has been argued by phenomenological philosophers that the body is more than just an object but is also a subject, important for human identity. From this perspective, we can appreciate that a bionic body does not make one less human, but it does influence the experience of being human.

  11. Leptospirosis in Humans (United States)

    Levett, Paul N.


    Leptospirosis is a widespread and potentially fatal zoonosis that is endemic in many tropical regions and causes large epidemics after heavy rainfall and flooding. Infection results from direct or indirect exposure to infected reservoir host animals that carry the pathogen in their renal tubules and shed pathogenic leptospires in their urine. Although many wild and domestic animals can serve as reservoir hosts, the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the most important source of human infections. Individuals living in urban slum environments characterized by inadequate sanitation and poor housing are at high risk of rat exposure and leptospirosis. The global burden of leptospirosis is expected to rise with demographic shifts that favor increases in the number of urban poor in tropical regions subject to worsening storms and urban flooding due to climate change. Data emerging from prospective surveillance studies suggest that most human leptospiral infections in endemic areas are mild or asymptomatic. Development of more severe outcomes likely depends on three factors: epidemiological conditions, host susceptibility, and pathogen virulence (Fig. 1). Mortality increases with age, particularly in patients older than 60 years of age. High levels of bacteremia are associated with poor clinical outcomes and, based on animal model and in vitro studies, are related in part to poor recognition of leptospiral LPS by human TLR4. Patients with severe leptospirosis experience a cytokine storm characterized by high levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-10. Patients with the HLA DQ6 allele are at higher risk of disease, suggesting a role for lymphocyte stimulation by a leptospiral superantigen. Leptospirosis typically presents as a nonspecific, acute febrile illness characterized by fever, myalgia, and headache and may be confused with other entities such as influenza and dengue fever. Newer diagnostic methods facilitate early diagnosis and antibiotic treatment. Patients progressing to

  12. The human urine metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souhaila Bouatra

    Full Text Available Urine has long been a "favored" biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS, direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify a total of: 209 (209 by NMR, 179 (85 by GC-MS, 127 (127 by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40 by ICP-MS and 10 (10 by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database

  13. Human dignity and human rights in bioethics: the Kantian approach. (United States)

    Rothhaar, Markus


    The concept of human dignity plays an important role in the public discussion about ethical questions concerning modern medicine and biology. At the same time, there is a widespread skepticism about the possibility to determine the content and the claims of human dignity. The article goes back to Kantian Moral Philosophy, in order to show that human dignity has in fact a determinable content not as a norm in itself, but as the principle and ground of human rights and any deontological norms in biomedical ethics. When it comes to defining the scope of human dignity, i.e., the question which entities are protected by human dignity, Kant clearly can be found on the "pro life"-side of the controversy. This, however, is the result of some specific implications of Kant's transcendental approach that may be put into question.

  14. Report of the fifth international workshop on human X chromosome mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, H.F.; Cremers, F.; Mandel, J.L.; Monaco, A.P.; Nelson, D.L.; Schlessinger, D.


    A high-quality integrated genetic and physical map of the X chromosome from telomere to telomere, based primarily on YACs formatted with probes and STSs, is increasingly close to reality. At the Fifth International X Chromosome Workshop, organized by A.M. Poustka and D. Schlessinger in Heidelberg, Germany, April 24--27, 1994, substantial progress was recorded on extension and refinement of the physical map, on the integration of genetic and cytogenetic data, on attempts to use the map to direct gene searches, and on nascent large-scale sequencing efforts. This report summarizes physical and genetic mapping information presented at the workshop and/or published since the reports of the fourth International X Chromosome Workshop. The principle aim of the workshop was to derive a consensus map of the chromosome, in terms of physical contigs emphasizing the location of genes and microsatellite markers. The resulting map is presented and updates previous versions. This report also updates the list of highly informative microsatellites. The text highlights the working state of the map, the genes known to reside on the X, and the progress toward integration of various types of data.

  15. Energy and human health. (United States)

    Smith, Kirk R; Frumkin, Howard; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Butler, Colin D; Chafe, Zoë A; Fairlie, Ian; Kinney, Patrick; Kjellstrom, Tord; Mauzerall, Denise L; McKone, Thomas E; McMichael, Anthony J; Schneider, Mycle


    Energy use is central to human society and provides many health benefits. But each source of energy entails some health risks. This article reviews the health impacts of each major source of energy, focusing on those with major implications for the burden of disease globally. The biggest health impacts accrue to the harvesting and burning of solid fuels, coal and biomass, mainly in the form of occupational health risks and household and general ambient air pollution. Lack of access to clean fuels and electricity in the world's poor households is a particularly serious risk for health. Although energy efficiency brings many benefits, it also entails some health risks, as do renewable energy systems, if not managed carefully. We do not review health impacts of climate change itself, which are due mostly to climate-altering pollutants from energy systems, but do discuss the potential for achieving near-term health cobenefits by reducing certain climate-related emissions.

  16. Art and human nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Toledo


    Full Text Available This article presents a visual artist’s point of view about art. This view confronts the Eurocentric traditional cannon with some ignored, but valuable traditions, thus proposing a contra-canon. These ideas are examined on the light of a variety of sources, including prehistoric, pre-Columbian, and 20th century art expressions, in a variety of media, from sculpture to literature. Recent art expressions are characterized by their incorporation of minority values and perspectives that challenge “universal” views. Using samples of works from Latino and African American artists, the author shows that, even today, art is a means to know the world and its people, to exhibit personal life, to create personal symbolism, and to show one’s identity or the search for it. Like the human nature it represents, art has multiple faces.

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sinha


    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients.

  18. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability......This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume......, and mobile probing. They have been organized in the following topical sections: work analysis: dimensions and methods; interactions, models and approaches; and evaluations, interactions and applications....

  19. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume. ......, and mobile probing. They have been organized in the following topical sections: work analysis: dimensions and methods; interactions, models and approaches; and evaluations, interactions and applications........ The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability...

  20. Redesigned Human Metabolic Simulator (United States)

    Duffield, Bruce; Jeng, Frank; Lange, Kevin


    A design has been formulated for a proposed improved version of an apparatus that simulates atmospheric effects of human respiration by introducing controlled amounts of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and heat into the air. Denoted a human metabolic simulator (HMS), the apparatus is used for testing life-support equipment when human test subjects are not available. The prior version of the HMS, to be replaced, was designed to simulate the respiratory effects of as many as four persons. It exploits the catalytic combustion of methyl acetate, for which the respiratory quotient (the molar ratio of carbon dioxide produced to oxygen consumed) is very close to the human respiratory quotient of about 0.86. The design of the improved HMS provides for simulation of the respiratory effects of as many as eight persons at various levels of activity. The design would also increase safety by eliminating the use of combustion. The improved HMS (see figure) would include a computer that would exert overall control. The computer would calculate the required amounts of oxygen removal, carbon dioxide addition, water addition, and heat addition by use of empirical equations for metabolic profiles of respiration and heat. A blower would circulate air between the HMS and a chamber containing a life-support system to be tested. With the help of feedback from a mass flowmeter, the blower speed would be adjusted to regulate the rate of flow according to the number of persons to be simulated and to a temperature-regulation requirement (the air temperature would indirectly depend on the rate of flow, among other parameters). Oxygen would be removed from the circulating air by means of a commercially available molecular sieve configured as an oxygen concentrator. Oxygen, argon, and trace amounts of nitrogen would pass through a bed in the molecular sieve while carbon dioxide, the majority of nitrogen, and other trace gases would be trapped by the bed and subsequently returned to the chamber. If