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Sample records for human beings tend

  1. Tend to Compare and Tend to Be Fair: The Relationship between Social Comparison Sensitivity and Justice Sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Zhen

    Full Text Available Social comparison is a prerequisite for processing fairness, although the two types of cognition may be associated with different emotions. Whereas social comparison may induce envy, the perception of unfairness may elicit anger. Yet, it remains unclear whether people who tend to have a strong sense of fairness also tend to compare themselves more with others. Here, Study 1 used a modified ultimatum game (UG and a social comparison game (SCG to examine the relationship between justice sensitivity and social comparison sensitivity in 51 young adults. Study 2 examined self-reported social comparison and justice sensitivity in 142 young adults. Both studies showed a positive correlation between social comparison sensitivity and justice sensitivity. We reason that social comparison and justice sensitivity have an important positive correlation in human decision-making. The rejection of self-disadvantageous inequality offers may be due to the social comparison effect, which suggests that the tendency to compare oneself with others may contribute to having a strong sense of justice. Our findings suggest that the predictions of game theory may vary depending on the social culture context and incorporating notions of fairness and social comparison tendency may be essential to better predict the actual behavior of players in social interactive situations.

  2. Tend to Compare and Tend to Be Fair: The Relationship between Social Comparison Sensitivity and Justice Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Social comparison is a prerequisite for processing fairness, although the two types of cognition may be associated with different emotions. Whereas social comparison may induce envy, the perception of unfairness may elicit anger. Yet, it remains unclear whether people who tend to have a strong sense of fairness also tend to compare themselves more with others. Here, Study 1 used a modified ultimatum game (UG) and a social comparison game (SCG) to examine the relationship between justice sensitivity and social comparison sensitivity in 51 young adults. Study 2 examined self-reported social comparison and justice sensitivity in 142 young adults. Both studies showed a positive correlation between social comparison sensitivity and justice sensitivity. We reason that social comparison and justice sensitivity have an important positive correlation in human decision-making. The rejection of self-disadvantageous inequality offers may be due to the social comparison effect, which suggests that the tendency to compare oneself with others may contribute to having a strong sense of justice. Our findings suggest that the predictions of game theory may vary depending on the social culture context and incorporating notions of fairness and social comparison tendency may be essential to better predict the actual behavior of players in social interactive situations.

  3. Why Do Hubs Tend to Be Essential in Protein Networks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The protein-protein interaction (PPI network has a small number of highly connected protein nodes (known as hubs and many poorly connected nodes. Genome-wide studies show that deletion of a hub protein is more likely to be lethal than deletion of a non-hub protein, a phenomenon known as the centrality-lethality rule. This rule is widely believed to reflect the special importance of hubs in organizing the network, which in turn suggests the biological significance of network architectures, a key notion of systems biology. Despite the popularity of this explanation, the underlying cause of the centrality-lethality rule has never been critically examined. We here propose the concept of essential PPIs, which are PPIs that are indispensable for the survival or reproduction of an organism. Our network analysis suggests that the centrality-lethality rule is unrelated to the network architecture, but is explained by the simple fact that hubs have large numbers of PPIs, therefore high probabilities of engaging in essential PPIs. We estimate that ~ 3% of PPIs are essential in the yeast, accounting for ~ 43% of essential genes. As expected, essential PPIs are evolutionarily more conserved than nonessential PPIs. Considering the role of essential PPIs in determining gene essentiality, we find the yeast PPI network functionally more robust than random networks, yet far less robust than the potential optimum. These and other findings provide new perspectives on the biological relevance of network structure and robustness.

  4. Why do hubs tend to be essential in protein networks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xionglei He

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The protein-protein interaction (PPI network has a small number of highly connected protein nodes (known as hubs and many poorly connected nodes. Genome-wide studies show that deletion of a hub protein is more likely to be lethal than deletion of a non-hub protein, a phenomenon known as the centrality-lethality rule. This rule is widely believed to reflect the special importance of hubs in organizing the network, which in turn suggests the biological significance of network architectures, a key notion of systems biology. Despite the popularity of this explanation, the underlying cause of the centrality-lethality rule has never been critically examined. We here propose the concept of essential PPIs, which are PPIs that are indispensable for the survival or reproduction of an organism. Our network analysis suggests that the centrality-lethality rule is unrelated to the network architecture, but is explained by the simple fact that hubs have large numbers of PPIs, therefore high probabilities of engaging in essential PPIs. We estimate that approximately 3% of PPIs are essential in the yeast, accounting for approximately 43% of essential genes. As expected, essential PPIs are evolutionarily more conserved than nonessential PPIs. Considering the role of essential PPIs in determining gene essentiality, we find the yeast PPI network functionally more robust than random networks, yet far less robust than the potential optimum. These and other findings provide new perspectives on the biological relevance of network structure and robustness.

  5. Clever sillies: why high IQ people tend to be deficient in common sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2009-12-01

    In previous editorials I have written about the absent-minded and socially-inept 'nutty professor' stereotype in science, and the phenomenon of 'psychological neoteny' whereby intelligent modern people (including scientists) decline to grow-up and instead remain in a state of perpetual novelty-seeking adolescence. These can be seen as specific examples of the general phenomenon of 'clever sillies' whereby intelligent people with high levels of technical ability are seen (by the majority of the rest of the population) as having foolish ideas and behaviours outside the realm of their professional expertise. In short, it has often been observed that high IQ types are lacking in 'common sense'--and especially when it comes to dealing with other human beings. General intelligence is not just a cognitive ability; it is also a cognitive disposition. So, the greater cognitive abilities of higher IQ tend also to be accompanied by a distinctive high IQ personality type including the trait of 'Openness to experience', 'enlightened' or progressive left-wing political values, and atheism. Drawing on the ideas of Kanazawa, my suggested explanation for this association between intelligence and personality is that an increasing relative level of IQ brings with it a tendency differentially to over-use general intelligence in problem-solving, and to over-ride those instinctive and spontaneous forms of evolved behaviour which could be termed common sense. Preferential use of abstract analysis is often useful when dealing with the many evolutionary novelties to be found in modernizing societies; but is not usually useful for dealing with social and psychological problems for which humans have evolved 'domain-specific' adaptive behaviours. And since evolved common sense usually produces the right answers in the social domain; this implies that, when it comes to solving social problems, the most intelligent people are more likely than those of average intelligence to have novel but

  6. Hospitals Participating In ACOs Tend To Be Large And Urban, Allowing Access To Capital And Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, Carrie H; Lewis, Valerie A; Tierney, Emily; Muhlestein, David B

    2016-03-01

    Relationships between physicians and hospitals have changed considerably over the past decade, as hospitals and physician groups have integrated and new public and private payment policies have created financial interdependence. The extent to which accountable care organizations (ACOs) involve hospitals in their operations may prove to be vitally important, because managing hospital care is a key part of improving health care quality and lowering cost growth. Using primary data on ACO composition and capabilities paired with hospital characteristics, we found that 20 percent of US hospitals were part of an ACO in 2014. Hospitals that were in urban areas, were nonprofit, or had a smaller share of Medicare patients were more likely to participate in ACOs, compared to hospitals that were in more rural areas, were for-profit or government owned, or had a larger share of Medicare patients, respectively. Qualitative data identified the following advantages of including a hospital in an ACO: the availability of start-up capital, advanced data sharing, and engagement of providers across the care continuum. Although the 63 percent of ACOs that included hospitals offered more comprehensive services compared to ACOs without hospitals, we found no differences between the two groups in their ability to manage hospital-related aspects of patient care. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  7. Human Beings And Water

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The writer of this paper on this writing is talking about the human beings and water. Water is one of the very fundamentally things that human beings need to keep their lives. Human beings sometimes do not realise that the water is very important for them because they actually cannot live their lives without the present of water. Human beings can keep their lives without rice, but cannot without water. For instances the use of water for human beings are domestic use, cooking, washing, bathing...

  8. The Eosinophil Count Tends to Be Negatively Associated with Levels of Serum Glucose in Patients with Adrenal Cushing Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Younghak; Yi, Hyon Seung; Kim, Hae Ri; Joung, Kyong Hye; Kang, Yea Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Koon Soon; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ku, Bon Jeong; Shong, Minho

    2017-09-01

    Cushing syndrome is characterized by glucose intolerance, cardiovascular disease, and an enhanced systemic inflammatory response caused by chronic exposure to excess cortisol. Eosinopenia is frequently observed in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome, but the relationship between the eosinophil count in peripheral blood and indicators of glucose level in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome has not been determined. A retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical and laboratory findings of 40 patients diagnosed with adrenal Cushing syndrome at Chungnam National University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2016. Clinical characteristics, complete blood cell counts with white blood cell differential, measures of their endocrine function, description of imaging studies, and pathologic findings were obtained from their medical records. Eosinophil composition and count were restored by surgical treatment of all of the patients with adrenal Cushing disease. The eosinophil count was inversely correlated with serum and urine cortisol, glycated hemoglobin, and inflammatory markers in the patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome. Smaller eosinophil populations in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome tend to be correlated with higher levels of blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin. This study suggests that peripheral blood eosinophil composition or count may be associated with serum glucose levels in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome.

  9. We Are Human Beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine Jeff McMahan’s arguments for his claim that we are not human organisms, and the arguments of Derek Parfit to the same effect in a recent paper. McMahan uses these arguments to derive conclusions concerning the moral status of embryos and permanent vegetative state (PVS) patients. My claim will be that neither thinker has successfully shown that we are not human beings, and therefore these arguments do not establish the ethical conclusions that McMahan has sought to draw from the arguments in respect of the moral status of embryos and PVS patients. PMID:26810918

  10. Learning to Be Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmurray, John

    2012-01-01

    This article presents "Learning to be Human", which John Macmurray delivered on 5 May 1958 as the annual public lecture at Moray House College of Education, now part of Edinburgh University. The key themes of the paper are ones to which Macmurray returned again and again in both his educational and his philosophical writing for over 40 years and…

  11. Could a zygote be a human being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, John

    2010-02-01

    This paper re-examines the question of whether quirks of early human foetal development tell against the view (conceptionism) that we are human beings at conception. A zygote is capable of splitting to give rise to identical twins. Since the zygote cannot be identical with either human being it will become, it cannot already be a human being. Parallel concerns can be raised about chimeras in which two embryos fuse. I argue first that there are just two ways of dealing with cases of fission and fusion and both seem to be available to the conceptionist. One is the Replacement View according to which objects cease to exist when they fission or fuse. The other is the Multiple Occupancy View - both twins may be present already in the zygote and both persist in a chimera. So, is the conceptionist position tenable after all? I argue that it is not. A zygote gives rise not only to a human being but also to a placenta - it cannot already be both a human being and a placenta. Neither approach to fission and fusion can help the conceptionist with this problem. But worse is in store. Both fission and fusion can occur before and after the development of the inner cell mass of the blastocyst - the entity which becomes the embryo proper. The idea that we become human beings with the arrival of the inner cell mass leads to bizarre results however we choose to accommodate fission and fusion.

  12. Children Are Human Beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossard, James H. S.

    2017-01-01

    The basic assumption underlying this article is that the really significant changes in human history are those that occur, not in the mechanical gadgets which men use nor in the institutionalized arrangements by which they live, but in their attitudes and in the values which they accept. The revolutions of the past that have had the greatest…

  13. To be human is to be creative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2013-01-01

    We will assert than in the era of Ubiquitous Technology to be human is to be creative. Small children are experimental and creative actors. The socialisation process in modern societies, both at home and at educational institutions, does not enhance and develop their creativity. On the contrary...

  14. Human genes with a greater number of transcript variants tend to show biological features of housekeeping and essential genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryu, Jae Yong; Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-01-01

    64 vertebrate species as orthologs, subjected to regulations by transcription factors and microRNAs, and showed hub node-like properties in the human protein-protein interaction network. These findings were also confirmed by metabolic simulations of 60 cancer metabolic models. All these results......Alternative splicing is a process observed in gene expression that results in a multi-exon gene to produce multiple mRNA variants which might have different functions and activities. Although physiologically important, many aspects of genes with different number of transcript variants (or splice...... variants) still remain to be characterized. In this study, we provide bioinformatic evidence that genes with a greater number of transcript variants are more likely to play functionally important roles in cells, compared with those having fewer transcript variants. Among 21 983 human genes, 3728 genes were...

  15. The forms trafficking in human beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijalković Saša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking in human beings is an illegal act which interferes with the order foreseen by international regulations and national laws and endangers the values vital to society. However, all forms of human trafficking are not of the same danger to society and therefore do not represent the same risk, threat or danger to the safety of the state, society or individuals. In this paper, the author tends to classify the existing forms and aspects of trafficking in human beings as a manifestation in security practice in accordance with the level of social endangerment, geographical level of implementation, bio-physical characteristics of the victims, relation of the victim toward the position in which he/she finds himself/herself and the form of exploitation of the victim, including a short description of their most significant characteristics.

  16. Why do hubs in the yeast protein interaction network tend to be essential: reexamining the connection between the network topology and essentiality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zotenko

    Full Text Available The centrality-lethality rule, which notes that high-degree nodes in a protein interaction network tend to correspond to proteins that are essential, suggests that the topological prominence of a protein in a protein interaction network may be a good predictor of its biological importance. Even though the correlation between degree and essentiality was confirmed by many independent studies, the reason for this correlation remains illusive. Several hypotheses about putative connections between essentiality of hubs and the topology of protein-protein interaction networks have been proposed, but as we demonstrate, these explanations are not supported by the properties of protein interaction networks. To identify the main topological determinant of essentiality and to provide a biological explanation for the connection between the network topology and essentiality, we performed a rigorous analysis of six variants of the genomewide protein interaction network for Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained using different techniques. We demonstrated that the majority of hubs are essential due to their involvement in Essential Complex Biological Modules, a group of densely connected proteins with shared biological function that are enriched in essential proteins. Moreover, we rejected two previously proposed explanations for the centrality-lethality rule, one relating the essentiality of hubs to their role in the overall network connectivity and another relying on the recently published essential protein interactions model.

  17. Do Medicare Advantage enrollees tend to be admitted to hospitals with better or worse outcomes compared with fee-for-service enrollees?

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    Friedman, Bernard; Jiang, H Joanna

    2010-06-01

    The hospitals selected by or for Medicare beneficiaries might depend on whether the patient is enrolled in a Medicare Advantage (MA) plan. A theoretical model of profit maximization by MA plans takes into account the tradeoffs of consumer preferences for annual premium versus outcomes of care in the hospital and other attributes of the plan. Hospital discharge databases for 13 states in 2006, maintained by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, are the main source of data. Risk-adjusted mortality rates are available for all non-maternity adult patients in each of 15 clinical categories in about 1,500 hospitals. All-adult postoperative safety event rates covering 9 categories of events are calculated for surgical cases in about 900 hospitals. Instrumental variables are used to address potential endogeneity of the choice of a MA plan. The key findings are these: enrollees in MA plans tend to be treated in hospitals with lower resource cost and higher risk-adjusted mortality compared to Fee-for-Service (FFS) enrollees. The risk-adjusted mortality measure is about 1.5 percentage points higher for MA plan enrollees than the overall mean of 4%. However, the rate of safety events in surgical patients favors MA plan enrollees--the rate is 1 percentage point below the average of 3.5%. These discrepant results are noteworthy and are plausibly due to greater discretion by the health plan in approving patients for elective surgery and as well as selecting hospitals for surgical patients. Emergency patients are generally excluded for the safety outcome measures. In addition, the current mortality measures may not adequately represent all surgical patients. Such caveats should be prominently highlighted when presenting comparative data. With that proviso, the study justifies informing Medicare beneficiaries about the mortality and safety outcome measures for hospitals being used by a MA plan compared to hospitals used by FFS enrollees.

  18. Being Human Beings: The Domains and a Human Realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    evolutionary step to highlight the human component in conflict. As Francis Bacon said, “It would be an unused fancy and self-contradictory to expect that...Special Operations Command, Special Operations White Paper, 1. 50 Francis Bacon , “The New Organon or True Directions Concerning the Interpretation of...Nature,” 1620, http://www.constitution.org/ bacon /nov_org.htm, (accessed February 24, 2013). 51 Mark E. Redden and Michael P. Hughes, “Global

  19. 'Human Beings in the Round'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Norman; Kaspersen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    In this introduction we highlight Norbert Elias’s bold attempt to build a general model of the human sciences, integrating the social and natural sciences. We point to a range of different disciplines, emphasizing how he rarely developed a consistent critique of individual disciplines, though he...... often made some very fruitful suggestions about they should be reconceptualized in a relational and more integrative way. Based on our own research on survival units and the contributions to this special issue, we discuss the innovative potential of his ambition for transdisciplinary research, while...

  20. 'Human Beings in the Round'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Norman; Kaspersen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    In this introduction we highlight Norbert Elias’s bold attempt to build a general model of the human sciences, integrating the social and natural sciences. We point to a range of different disciplines, emphasizing how he rarely developed a consistent critique of individual disciplines, though he...... often made some very fruitful suggestions about they should be reconceptualized in a relational and more integrative way. Based on our own research on survival units and the contributions to this special issue, we discuss the innovative potential of his ambition for transdisciplinary research, while...

  1. Can human populations be stabilized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Stephen G.

    2015-02-01

    Historical examples of demographic change, in China, Italy, Nigeria, Utah, Easter Island, and elsewhere, together with simple mathematics and biological principles, show that stabilizing world population before it is limited by food supply will be more difficult than is generally appreciated. United Nations population projections are wrong because they assume, in spite of the absence of necessary feedbacks, that all nations will converge rapidly to replacement-level fertility and thereafter remain at that level. Education of women and provision of contraceptives have caused dramatic reductions in fertility, but many groups, including some that are well-educated, maintain high fertility. Small groups with persistent high fertility can grow to supplant low-fertility groups, resulting in continued growth of the total population. The global average fertility rate could rise even if each country's fertility rate is falling. In some low-fertility European countries where deaths exceed births, the population continues to grow because of immigration. Producing more than two offspring is normal for all animal species with stable populations because their populations are limited by resources or predation rather than birth control. It may therefore be appropriate to view the growth of human population as the result not of excess fertility but rather of excess food.

  2. The desire to hasten death: Using Grounded Theory for a better understanding "When perception of time tends to be a slippery slope".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestinger, Martina; Stiel, Stephanie; Elsner, Frank; Widdershoven, Guy; Voltz, Raymond; Nauck, Friedemann; Radbruch, Lukas

    2015-09-01

    Some patients with advanced and progressive diseases express a desire to hasten death. This study evaluated the motivations of patients expressing such a desire in a country with prohibitive legislation on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. A modified form of Grounded Theory was used. Patients from the departments of palliative medicine in three hospitals in Germany were recruited when they had made a statement or request to hasten death. Participants were interviewed face to face. Recruitment was stopped with 12 participants because of data saturation. Thematic analysis revealed three main motivational themes: self-determination, agony, and time. Expectations toward health professionals, attitudes toward death, and secureness related to the end of life were additional main themes emerging from the analysis. The desire to hasten death may be used as an extreme coping strategy to maintain control against anticipated agony. Patients expected health professionals to listen to and respect their experiences. Emerging hypotheses included the following: (a) patients try to balance life time and anticipated agony, and the perception of time is distressing in this balancing act; (b) anticipated images of agony and suffering in the dying process occur frequently and are experienced by patients as intrusive; (c) patients expressing a desire to hasten death are in need of more information about the dying process; and (d) patients wanted their caregivers to listen to and respect their wish to hasten death, and they did not expect the caregivers to understand this as an order to actually hasten their death. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Tending the Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    City, Elizabeth A.; Dolly, Danique A.

    2017-01-01

    Part of being an effective school leader is helping staff and students deal with situations related to inequity and race--helping the fire of emotion that accompanies such issues energize your school rather than becoming a wildfire. Danique Dolly faced this challenge as principal of Baltimore's City Neighbors High School during the time riots…

  4. Ensaio uniaxial de tração dos tendões dos músculos grácil e semitendinoso humanos Uniaxial traction test on human gracilis and semitendinous tendon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Rocha Piedade

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso de tendões humanos, de forma isolada ou associada, em reconstruções ligamentares do joelho é uma prática usual. A utilização desses enxertos (tendão patelar, duplo semitendinoso associado ao duplo grácil apresenta evolução pós-operatória diferente, quando analisados os parâmetros : perda mínima da extensão, deslocamento ântero-posterior (artrômetro KT-2000, retorno as atividades esportivas. A presente pesquisa tem por objetivo analisar o comportamento mecânico de tendões humanos (grácil e semitendinoso, quando submetidos a ensaios uniaxiais de tração, até a ruptura. Como parâmetros mecânicos para análise e confronto foram considerados: tensão de ruptura (MPa, deformação relativa, módulo de elasticidade (MPa, energia de ruptura (N.mm e velocidade de carregamento (mm/s. Os resultados permitiram concluir que: - o tendão do músculo semitendinoso é mais resistente que o tendão do músculo grácil; apresenta menores deformações relativas; acumula maior energia de ruptura; - a utilização destes tendões como enxerto único, impõe uma análise mecânica mais detalhada, pois apresentam comportamento mecânico distinto e são materiais história e tempo - dependentes (viscoelásticos.The use of isolated human tendons as well as in associated forms on knee reconstrution has become na usual practice. The literature reveals that the use of implants of patellar tendon as well as the double semitendinous tendon associated to the double gracilis tendon exhibits different post surgical evolution related to the minimal extension loss, anterior-posterior displacement (KT-1000 artrometer, as well as to the sport activities. This research work aim to analyze the mechanical behavior of human tendons (gracilis and semitendinous subject to uniaxial traction to failure. The mechanical parameters considered includes: stress at failure (MPa, strain energy at failure (N.mm and strain rate (mm/mm. Results induced to the

  5. When does a human being die?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schofield, G M; Urch, C E; Stebbing, J; Giamas, G

    2015-01-01

    .... With modern medical advances, however, more precise answers are looked for. For a definition of death to succeed is important that it is a universal definition and that under it, all human beings are correctly identified as alive or dead...

  6. Human Resource Management should be more strategic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢存宇; 梅凯

    2010-01-01

    Today’s business environment is placing unparalleled demands on organizations to discover ways to operate more efficiently,while quickly responding to changing needs and demands in business and environment. Both new approaches and techniques are needed to meet these demands (Dangayach,2001). So,human resource management needs a long-term strategy and to be corresponding with a company’s business strategy. In other words,human resource management should be more strategic.

  7. Human Being: the Next Space Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, J.

    2002-01-01

    Since forty years and after the (mythical) speech of John F Kennedy, space offers a new frontier for the human odyssey. But, for this enterprise itself, the human person constitutes without any doubt a frontier as delicate to approach than necessary to cross, if we plan to give a continuation to the Apollo missions and the permanent occupation of a station in terrestrial orbit. Without neglecting the impact of the future space programs on philosophies and cultures of the humanity which stays on Earth, we have to pay a special attention to the consequences for the astronauts of long-time and far from Earth missions of exploration. These consequences are in connection with three types of human relation: - First, the relations of the human being with the Earth. How an inhabitant of the Earth will - Then, the relations of the crew members among themselves. Today, we do not know yet - Finally, the relations of the human persons with themselves. How to manage this singular To these three types of question, we are today able to give only partial answers. However, they would not have to be drawn aside : we are conscious of the human responsibility in the success or the failure of the future missions, inhabited or not. In addition, the answers which will offer search on inhabited flights of long duration and at long distance will be able also to help to live better together on the Earth.

  8. Human transcription factor genes involved in neuronal development tend to have high GC content and CpG elements in the proximal promoter region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Sheng Long; Jia-Ming Qin; Tao Su; Qi-Hua Zhao; Yong-Hong Yi; Wei-Ping Liao

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) play critical roles in the development of the nervous system, but the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of these genes are poorly understood. Here we analyzed 5-kb of the 5' flanking genomic DNA sequences of 41 TF genes involved in neuronal development. The results showed that the TF genes tend to have higher GC contents in the proximal region and most of the TF genes have at least one proximal GC-rich (GC content > 60%) promoter with a CpG island. The promoter distribution analysis showed that the GC-poor promoters were sporadically distributed within the 5-kb flanking genomic sequence (FGS); however, more than half (37 of 70) of the GC-rich promoters were located in the proximal region between nucleotides -1 and -500. Luciferase assays showed that partial GC-rich promoters increased gene expression in SH-SY5Y cells and that CpG methylation repressed the promoter activity. This study suggests a potential general mechanism for regulation of TF expression.

  9. The science of unitary human beings and interpretive human science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, F

    1993-01-01

    Natural science and human science are identified as the bases of most nursing theories and research programs. Natural science has been disclaimed by Martha Rogers as the philosophy of science that undergirds her work. The question remains, is the science of unitary human beings an interpretive human science? The author explores the works of Rogers through a dialectic with two human scientists' works. Wilhelm Dilthey's works represent the founding or traditional view, and Jurgen Habermas' works represent a contemporary, reconstructionist view. The ways Rogerian thought contributes to human studies but is distinct from traditional and reconstructionist human sciences are illuminated.

  10. Being skeptical about the medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Joanna

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the author challenges the prevailing view that contemporary writing in the medical humanities is serving the needs of the various health care disciplines. The current medical humanities literature assumes that physicians are the appropriate target group. This is most notably the case within health care ethics literature. There appears to be an unexamined assumption that physician-centric approaches to clinical ethical decision-making are the standard by which appropriate ethical practice is judged. The author challenges this assumption and addresses the problems that this approach engenders. The medical humanities literature appears to reinforce hierarchical, patriarchal arrangements which are themselves not morally neutral.

  11. Recognizing the trafficking in human beings victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeunović-Patić Biljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of relative prevalence of trafficking in human beings issues in the expert and general public discourse in recent years, recognition of victimization by various specialists that may come across with victims still is being estimated as unsatisfactory. Stereotypes about victims of trafficking in human beings are just one factor that imperils correct and prompt recognition of victims, i.e. victims' identification, as principal prerequisite of their protection and support. Today, there are various efforts to overcome that problem - primarily through the training of professionals and creating the identification guidelines, i.e. lists of indicators of trafficking in human beings victimization; however, these resolves only one part of the problem and reveal some new challenges at the same time.

  12. Does Globalization Affect Human Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang

    2007-01-01

    The prevailing theorizing of globalization's influence of human well-being suggests to assess both the favorable and unfavorable outcomes. This study formulates a dialectical model, adopts a comprehensive globalization measure and uses a three-wave panel data during 1980-2000 to empirically test direct and indirect effects of global flows' human…

  13. Does Globalization Affect Human Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang

    2007-01-01

    The prevailing theorizing of globalization's influence of human well-being suggests to assess both the favorable and unfavorable outcomes. This study formulates a dialectical model, adopts a comprehensive globalization measure and uses a three-wave panel data during 1980-2000 to empirically test direct and indirect effects of global flows' human…

  14. 浅析“肾苦燥,急食辛以润之”%A brief analysis of “The kidney tends to suffer from dryness,which can be moistened by pungent flavor ”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕艳; 刘微英; 李晓君

    2015-01-01

    “The kidney tends to suffer from dryness,which can be moistened by pungent flavor”comes from Discussion on the Association of the Visceral Qi with the Four Seasons of Plain Questions.In the au-thor’s view,“the dryness of kidney”is the pathological condition which is caused by the deficiency of kidney yang,failing in transformation of qi,so the fluid in the body cannot be generated and transported normally.The pungent flavor can contribute to the running of qi and opening the barrier of the skin,so that it can scatter enough water to moisten the dryness due to poor running of qi and body fluid natural transportation obstacle.%“肾苦燥,急食辛以润之”出自《素问·脏气法时论篇》。“肾燥”,是肾阳虚蒸腾气化失常,津液不得布散、运行不畅所致的病理状态。辛味(药物等)可以通达气机,宣发腠理,布津敷液,以治气机运行不畅、津液输布障碍之“燥”。

  15. How not to Imitate a Human Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellen, Luke

    Will a computer ever be able to convince someone that it is human and so pass the Turing Test? Programs that attempt to directly model high-level psychological processes are too rigid and lack flexibility and power. Current programs that attempt to pass the Turing Test work primarily by extracting keywords from user input and regurgitating preprogrammed responses. These programs can hardly be called "intelligent". A much lower-level approach is required in which the goal is not to emulate a human, but to emulate intelligence. Such an approach would attempt to model low-level biological components of the brain using techniques such as feedback, recursion, artificial life, and genetic algorithms.

  16. Human nature: neither material nor spiritually being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alba Martínez Amorós

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The idea of «human nature» defended by Ortega y Gasset is as original as opposite to what is usually understood. We are making a mistake if the starting point is to conceive Man as one living being among others. Neither science nor philosophy, while remaining in the Eleatic tradition, can give a clear explanation. Science, because if we look at Man, as he is presented to us, it is impossible to distinguish in him materially from spiritually; his body and his psyche. Philosophy, because the concept of «human nature» is an invention of our reason, a fantasy. That nature doesn’t exist because the being of man is so strange and different from other beings that its consistency is just going to be what it never manages to be. Therefore, it is what happens, a journey, a history that is running within a circumstance. This is my life, and that of everyone.

  17. Human Being and the Philosophical Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Arsith

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis from which we start our approach is the one according to which the philosophicaldiscourse is a specific way of communicating the reality. The base of the philosophical communication issurprise, doubt, uncertainty, anxiety, all generated by the fundamental interrogations of Kantian origin: Howmuch am I able to know? What do I have to do? What am I allowed to hope? The answers to all thesequestions were set up in philosophical concepts and visions, all of them leading to communication, trying toexpress themselves and make themselves understood. Communicability is the very essence of thephilosophical approach. Actually, communication is a fundamental philosophical attitude as I, in my capacityof human being, live only with the other, in full interaction. On my own I am nothing. Throughout this paperwe find arguments for the idea according to which the philosophical discourse subordinates an art ofgenuinely living and communicating about balance and avoidance of excess, about the ability to assume andovercome, about lucidity and wisdom, about credibility, certainty and truth, about freedom and limitation,about the meaning and value of the human condition.

  18. Will human populations be limited by food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    Historical examples of demographic change, in China, Italy, Nigeria, Utah, the Philippines, and elsewhere, together with simple mathematics and biological principles, show that stabilizing world population before it is limited by food supply will be more difficult than is generally appreciated. United Nations population projections are based on a logical fallacy in that they assume, in spite of the absence of necessary negative feedbacks, that all nations will converge rapidly to replacement-level fertility and thereafter remain at that level. The benign projections that have resulted from this assumption may have hindered efforts to make availability of birth-control a priority in development-aid. Education of women and provision of contraceptives have caused dramatic reductions in fertility, but many groups, including some that are well-educated, maintain high fertility. Small groups with persistent high fertility can grow to supplant low-fertility groups, resulting in continued growth of the total population. The global average fertility rate could rise even if each country's fertility rate is falling. In some low-fertility European countries where deaths exceed births, the population continues to grow because of immigration. Producing more than two offspring is normal for all animal species with stable populations, because their populations are limited by resources or predation rather than birth control. It may therefore be appropriate to view the growth of human population as the result not of excess fertility but rather of excess food. Even if the fertility rate is maintained far in excess of 2, the population cannot grow if food is limiting. Without the agricultural advances of the 20thcentury, world population could not have grown as it did from 1.7 billion in 1900 to 6 billion in 2000. The food supply may be enhanced in the future by genetic engineering and other innovations, but it may be limited by water shortage, climate change, pollution, and energy

  19. Should human beings have sex? Sexual dimorphism and human enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Robert

    2010-07-01

    Since the first sex reassignment operations were performed, individual sex has come to be, to some extent at least, a technological artifact. The existence of sperm sorting technology, and of prenatal determination of fetal sex via ultrasound along with the option of termination, means that we now have the power to choose the sex of our children. An influential contemporary line of thought about medical ethics suggests that we should use technology to serve the welfare of individuals and to remove limitations on the opportunities available to them. I argue that, if these are our goals, we may do well to move towards a "post sex" humanity. Until we have the technology to produce genuine hermaphrodites, the most efficient way to do this is to use sex selection technology to ensure that only girl children are born. There are significant restrictions on the opportunities available to men, around gestation, childbirth, and breast-feeding, which will be extremely difficult to overcome via social or technological mechanisms for the foreseeable future. Women also have longer life expectancies than men. Girl babies therefore have a significantly more "open" future than boy babies. Resisting the conclusion that we should ensure that all children are born the same sex will require insisting that sexual difference is natural to human beings and that we should not use technology to reshape humanity beyond certain natural limits. The real concern of my paper, then, is the moral significance of the idea of a normal human body in modern medicine.

  20. Are (Should) Human Rights (Be) Universal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rhoda E.

    1998-01-01

    Believes that the purpose of human rights is to change many culturally ingrained habits and customs that violate the dignity of the individual. Expounds the differences between cultural relativism and cultural absolutism. States that "weak" cultural relativism is sometimes an appropriate response to human-rights violations. (CMK)

  1. THE ACCOUSTICAL ENVIRONMENT OF HUMAN BEING

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Grzesik

    2010-01-01

    The author describes the importance of environmental factors stimulating the development of human senses. The article draws reader’s attention to the evolution of senses evolving human organism as a biological response to some existing environmental factors. In particular the impact of information transmitted by environmental stimuli to the brain and their consequences on the individual life and lasting of species is emphasized. The main purpose of the article is...

  2. THE ACCOUSTICAL ENVIRONMENT OF HUMAN BEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grzesik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The author describes the importance of environmental factors stimulating the development of human senses. The article draws reader’s attention to the evolution of senses evolving human organism as a biological response to some existing environmental factors. In particular the impact of information transmitted by environmental stimuli to the brain and their consequences on the individual life and lasting of species is emphasized. The main purpose of the article is to convince the reader that sounds picked up by his ears especially sounds of human speech, are not only broad his awareness but have also a positive effect on our personality, play an important role in the development of mankind’s civilization and influence our cultural creativity

  3. Sheep May Not Be as Stupid as Humans Think

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄佩颍

    2001-01-01

    英国科学家通过实验为“羊”平反:羊不笨,羊比我们想象的要聪明得多!羊有着惊人的记忆力:they could remember 50 faces for up to two years!文章披露了这个事实的同时,有些议论极其精彩,富有哲理,值得回味。比如,羊为 什么有一种dim-witted reputation(汉语很难翻译dim-witted这个形容词!): 1/hours of seemingly mindless grazing may not be so mindless after all. 2/ they live inlarge groups and do not appear to have much individuality (个体的特点) 3/ theyare scared of just about everything. Any animal, including humans, once they arescared, they don’t tend to show signs of intelligent behavior.

  4. Making Human Beings Human: Bioecological Perspectives on Human Development. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    To a greater extent than any other species, human beings create the environments that, in turn, shape their own development. This book endeavors to demonstrate that human beings can also develop those environments to optimize their most constructive genetic potentials. What makes human beings human, therefore, is both the potential to shape their…

  5. Novas tendências, velhas atitudes: as distâncias entre valores humanísticos e inter-relações observadas em um espaço docente e assistencial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Cristina Binz

    Full Text Available Historicamente, a medicina, enquanto arte e ciência, esteve ligada a bases humanísticas. Após se distanciar destes valores no século 19, tende, atualmente, a recuperar estas origens. Às escolas médicas cabe formar profissionais comprometidos com todos os determinantes do processo saúde-doença. Analisaram-se qualitativamente dados de observações realizadas nos cenários coletivos de um ambiente docente e assistencial de uma escola médicado Sul do Brasil.Os objetos de estudo foram os espaços físicos, em suas possibilidades e limitações, e as ações e atitudes de usuários, docentes, funcionários e, especialmente, de alunos em atividades práticas nos ambientes da unidade, ao se detalharem aspectos de comunicação entre os grupos, instrumentos de empoderamento e diferenças na estruturação de cinco ambulatórios de especialidades médicas. Em 40 horas de observações, vínculos superficiais, raras atitudes de acolhimento e de respeito como outro, distanciamento na produção de cuidado em saúde e comportamentos inoportunos entre colegas marcaram vivências cotidianas ainda distantes dos ideais de humanização. Pretende-se contribuir para revalorizar a dimensão humana dos processos de ensino e aprendizagem desta escola médica, no sentido de preparar egressos instrumentalizados para conhecer, entender e atuar de maneira comprometida, afetiva e efetiva nas novas tendências e demandas do setor saúde.

  6. On the Necessity of Being Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Reney

    Typically, students justify their pursuit of a college education as being necessary for a well-paying job, rather than as a tool for themselves as individuals. Often college curricula are responsible for turning students away from knowledge for its own sake. But should an education be merely useful? The description of the Alphas in Aldous Huxley's…

  7. The Human Being – He is Still ... the Living Resource of the Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Dumitrana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Almost every day, and quite often, we hear about how important the data, the informationor the knowledge at work is. The saying "The one who has information, also has control” is morecurrent than ever; it provides reliability, it awakens passion and determines you to store everything.We almost become machines, systems of these universal keys represented by knowledge. We tend toappreciate this ambulant knowledge, these bearers of knowledge and we lose sight of the essence - thehuman being. But isn’t he, the human being, who brought us to this moment? Isn’t it that all hisneeds, which became more and more refined, stricter, and more precise that caused thistransformation? We believe that this may continue,at least in accounting, far beyond the momentwhen the great economists labelled the human beingas a factor of production that advances towardsthe human being who brings performance then towardsthe possible ... human being as an asset,equity, debt. Perhaps, as in the case of great denials which have become truths, if not absolute, at leastthere will come a day when we are able to compressthe time ... the space ...., a day when we have thenecessary instruments to trade equity, assets and human liabilities... But until then, with yourpermission, we will deal with the human factor thatbrings performance, which is, we will be presentboth in reality and especially in thought, having the cliché of the transcendality of the human beingtowards new horizons of knowledge.

  8. [BODY AND CORPORALITY IN THE HUMAN BEING: SOME INTERDISCIPLINARY REFLECTIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez Amaya, JosÉ Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of this contribution is to illustrate some differential aspects between the human and the animal bodies, in order to understand the main distinctive characteristic of the human being: his or her rationality. Thus, we firstly deal with some considerations about the general anthropological framework in which the human body is going to be analysed. Next, we briefly explain the importance of the body for an adequate understanding of the intimacy and the biographical perspectives of the person. Here we show some examples of the altered human corporality to stress the importance of the relation to oneself and others as a key and fundamental aspect to look at our rational corporality.

  9. [Dignity of human beings as regulatory principle in bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J

    2000-01-01

    New discoveries and advances in biotechnology are producing new social realities which must be appraised properly from the ethical point of view. Vitally important in this task is the principle of human dignity, which is examined here by the author. Human dignity is crucial in seeking to resolve the conflicts that might arise as a result of the new possibilities opened up by modern biotechnology, such as embryo research, predictive diagnosis, gene therapy, human cloning or the issue of xenotransplants.

  10. Agency, Values, and Well-Being: A Human Development Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, Christian; Inglehart, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that feelings of agency are linked to human well-being through a sequence of adaptive mechanisms that promote human development, once existential conditions become permissive. In the first part, we elaborate on the evolutionary logic of this model and outline why an evolutionary perspective is helpful to understand changes in…

  11. Communicating in Fighting the Trafficking of Human Beings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irina Pop

    2013-01-01

      Romania's progress in adopting the laws in fighting THB assessed in the First European Reports in applying the Warsaw Convention in Fighting Trafficking in Human Beings In 2012, 31 of May, the Group...

  12. Elongamento do enxerto de tendões do músculo grácial e semitendinoso humanos: estudo realizado em cadáveres de adultos jovens Graft semitendinosus and gracilis human muscle tendons elongation: a study carried out on young adult human cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Rocha Piedade

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Na cirurgia de reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior do joelho, os enxertos de tendões autólogos são a principal opção como substitutos ligamentares. Entretanto, uma das razões da falha da reconstrução ligamentar com tecidos moles é o estiramento ou elongamento do enxerto com o tempo. Neste trabalho, foram ensaiados oito tendões do músculo grácil e oito do músculo semitendinoso humanos, obtidos de quatro cadáveres do sexo masculino, com idade média de 24,5 anos. Cada tendão foi submetido a uma deformação relativa constante de 2,5% durante 600 s, com registro contínuo do relaxamento de força. A seguir, o tendão retornava ao seu comprimento inicial e era mantido num período de repouso de 300 s. Após este intervalo, um segundo ensaio, semelhante ao primeiro, era realizado. A velocidade de carregamento empregada foi de 10% do comprimento inicial do corpo de prova por segundo. Foram obtidos valores de força inicial, com 300 s e 600 s nos dois ensaios. A análise estatística sugere um comportamento mecânico mais uniforme para o tendão do músculo semitendinoso quando comparado ao tendão do músculo grácil.In the anterior cruciate ligament knee surgery reconstruction, autologous tendons graft remains as a main option as substitutive ligaments. However time effect on graft elongation is the main reason of ligament reconstruction failure. Traction tests have been performed on eight gracilis as well as on eight semitendinosus human muscles tendons obtained from four male cadavers at an average of 24.5 years. Each tendon specimen has been submitted to a deformation of 2.5% of its initial length for a time interval of 600 s with continuous recording of the corresponding force relaxation. The tendon specimen was then kept at rest for 300 s as soon as it returned to its initial length. The same specimen was then submitted to a similar test. Deformation rate for both tests was 10% of its initial length per second. Initial

  13. Human factors/ergonomics as a systems discipline? "The human use of human beings" revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Discussions of the possible future of Human factors/ergonomics (HFE) usually take the past for granted in the sense that the future of HFE is assumed to be more of the same. This paper argues that the nature of work in the early 2010s is so different from the nature of work when HFE was formulated...

  14. Universality of Man as a Cultural and Historical Human Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On the grounds of theoretical synthesis, the paper reveals the phenomenon of human being in its creative dimension. The present research is aimed at exploring the prospective opportunities for academic processes. The basics of universal essence of man as a cultural historic being with unlimited potential of self- development are defined; the man being mirrored by the basic philosophic concepts: naturalistic, orthodox-oriented, bio-social or bio-socio-cultural. There are two opposing views on human nature: the anthropological essentialism holding that individuality is predetermined by essence; and the anthropological existentialism claiming the opposite – human existence precedes the essentiality, the latter being constituted by the acts of choice, self-development and self-responsibility for personal choice and projecting. In the first case, the subjective side of human existence is ignored, while in the second – the objective socially conditioned side is left behind. Both theories are antihistorical as it is the history that conditions the essence of man according to the ancestral determination, the latter being modified by way of human activity and communication in a particular historical period. The components of human universal essence are defined as follows: possession of organic body, social heritage, free will, self-activity, creativity, social and rational human nature, absence of antagonistic programs of social behavior. According to the author, for the adequate realization of human universality, it is necessary to move from the profit oriented speculative market economy to the creative one oriented on social effectiveness, quality of life and reproduction of wholesome individuals. The research output can be used for devising the methodology of philosophic and pedagogic anthropology, as well as pedagogic practices of teaching philosophy and pedagogic theory in higher school. 

  15. "I" as Most Important Motivation of Human Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Navali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article entitled" "I" as most important motivation of Human being" want to consider the main source of all human behaviors. This article aims to answer the question that what causes values or anti-values and also new ideas, giving meanings and human attitudes to be created? Where is the source of human activity and inactivity? Despite the diversity of human behaviors and actions of various origins it seems that one and same origin for all of them can be considered and it is self-preservation. Of course, self-preservation is a general principle for all living creatures.Calling it "self-preservation" in this writing, therefore I say that it is most important motivation of human behavior (whether active or passive behavior. Therefore, "I" is present everywhere with us and that is the creator of happiness and sadness. Thus, all our social and cultural behaviors in our society emanate from it and there will be always "selfishness" in society.

  16. [Human nature and the enhancement of human beings in the light of the transhumanist program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffi, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    There are three main approaches about the question of Human Nature. essentialists consider that there exists a permanent Human Nature, shared by every human being. Existentialists consider that there is no such thing as human nature, but inescapable modes of being in the world. A moderate approach would consider that Human Nature can be modified within the limits of anthropological invariants. Transhumanists are conservative in that they think that there is a Human Nature; but they are radical in that they believe that it can (and must) be transcended by bio-technnologies and computer technologies. This project is evaluated as a caricature of suitable human enhancement.

  17. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieling, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias; Pirker, Heidemarie;

    2014-01-01

    Human well-being is tightly linked to the natural environment. Although this notion is well-established, it remains difficult to assess how the biophysical features of a specific area contribute towards the well-being of the people attached to it. We explore this topic using the case of four areas...... in Germany and Austria by performing open, single-question interviews with 262 respondents. Data reveal an outstanding relevance of nonmaterial values. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being are tied to specific features of the material environment but, likewise, practices and experiences play...... to engage with their natural surroundings should be considered a strategy for fostering human well-being. ...

  18. Designing coastal conservation to deliver ecosystem and human well-being benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, Douglas R.; Kahl, Katherine J.; Washburn, Erika L.; May, Christopher A.; Franks Taylor, Rachael; Cole, James B.; Ewert, David N.; Game, Edward T.; Doran, Patrick J.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation scientists increasingly recognize that incorporating human values into conservation planning increases the chances for success by garnering broader project acceptance. However, methods for defining quantitative targets for the spatial representation of human well-being priorities are less developed. In this study we employ an approach for identifying regionally important human values and establishing specific spatial targets for their representation based on stakeholder outreach. Our primary objective was to develop a spatially-explicit conservation plan that identifies the most efficient locations for conservation actions to meet ecological goals while sustaining or enhancing human well-being values within the coastal and nearshore areas of the western Lake Erie basin (WLEB). We conducted an optimization analysis using 26 features representing ecological and human well-being priorities (13 of each), and included seven cost layers. The influence that including human well-being had on project results was tested by running five scenarios and setting targets for human well-being at different levels in each scenario. The most important areas for conservation to achieve multiple goals are clustered along the coast, reflecting a concentration of existing or potentially restorable coastal wetlands, coastal landbird stopover habitat and terrestrial biodiversity, as well as important recreational activities. Inland important areas tended to cluster around trails and high quality inland landbird stopover habitat. Most concentrated areas of importance also are centered on lands that are already conserved, reflecting the lower costs and higher benefits of enlarging these conserved areas rather than conserving isolated, dispersed areas. Including human well-being features in the analysis only influenced the solution at the highest target levels. PMID:28241018

  19. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieling, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias; Pirker, Heidemarie

    2014-01-01

    Human well-being is tightly linked to the natural environment. Although this notion is well-established, it remains difficult to assess how the biophysical features of a specific area contribute towards the well-being of the people attached to it. We explore this topic using the case of four areas...... in Germany and Austria by performing open, single-question interviews with 262 respondents. Data reveal an outstanding relevance of nonmaterial values. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being are tied to specific features of the material environment but, likewise, practices and experiences play...

  20. Common Social Values of Human Being Reflected in Cinderella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳凤霞

    2012-01-01

      By an investigation of various versions of Cinderella, it can be found that although the details in these stories are different, they carry with the same theme. With its various versions, Cinderella reflected the common social values of human being based on a patriarchal society.

  1. Trafficking in human beings, enslavement, crimes against humanity: unravelling the concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wilt, H.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the conceptual relationship between trafficking in human beings, enslavement and crimes against humanity. The analysis of case law of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the European Court on Human Rights reveals that, while trafficking in human

  2. Individual differences in the learning potential of human beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Elsbeth

    2017-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the genetic foundations that guide human brain development have not changed fundamentally during the past 50,000 years. However, because of their cognitive potential, humans have changed the world tremendously in the past centuries. They have invented technical devices, institutions that regulate cooperation and competition, and symbol systems, such as script and mathematics, that serve as reasoning tools. The exceptional learning ability of humans allows newborns to adapt to the world they are born into; however, there are tremendous individual differences in learning ability among humans that become obvious in school at the latest. Cognitive psychology has developed models of memory and information processing that attempt to explain how humans learn (general perspective), while the variation among individuals (differential perspective) has been the focus of psychometric intelligence research. Although both lines of research have been proceeding independently, they increasingly converge, as both investigate the concepts of working memory and knowledge construction. This review begins with presenting state-of-the-art research on human information processing and its potential in academic learning. Then, a brief overview of the history of psychometric intelligence research is combined with presenting recent work on the role of intelligence in modern societies and on the nature-nurture debate. Finally, promising approaches to integrating the general and differential perspective will be discussed in the conclusion of this review.

  3. Human factors/ergonomics as a systems discipline? "The human use of human beings" revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Discussions of the possible future of Human factors/ergonomics (HFE) usually take the past for granted in the sense that the future of HFE is assumed to be more of the same. This paper argues that the nature of work in the early 2010s is so different from the nature of work when HFE was formulated 60-70 years ago that a critical reassessment of the basis for HFE is needed. If HFE should be a systems discipline, it should be a soft systems rather than a hard systems discipline. It is not enough for HFE to seek to improve performance and well-being through systems design, since any change to the work environment in principle alters the very basis for the change. Instead HFE should try to anticipate how the nature of work will change so that it can both foresee what work will be and propose what work should be.

  4. The Future Human Being – What is it like?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusevych Tetiana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Realization of permanent transformational transitions has brought to necessity to apprehend complex ontological issues of a new reality for development of a complex strategy for adequate opposition to challenges faced by the humanity. Understanding the role of education in the formation and development of a future human being ranks first among these issues. In this article I have analyzed modern directions of futuristic apprehension of a sense of transformational changes of a man (transhumanism, theory of androgyny, represented a key role of the philosophy of education in development of an image of the future human being, and determined main characteristics of a personality of planetary-cosmic type, system of his personal, local and global interactions.

  5. Tendências de gerenciamento de unidades de saúde e de pessoas Tendencias de gerenciamiento de unidades de salud y de personas Health care units and human resources management trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria André

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar que fatores produzem novas tendências no gerenciamento das unidades básicas de saúde e mudanças nos modelos de gestão. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo com dez gestores de unidades de saúde e dez especialistas da área de saúde de São Paulo, SP, em 2010. Foi adotada a metodologia Delphi. Foram utilizadas quatro rodadas para a coleta de dados, três quantitativas e a quarta qualitativa. Nas três primeiras foram levantadas as tendências de mudança nos modelos de gestão; no perfil do gestor e nas competências requeridas para a função, foi utilizado o teste estatístico de Mann Whitney. A quarta rodada ocorreu por meio de um painel com os envolvidos, tendo sido escolhida a análise temática. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados os principais fatores que estão impulsionando o gerenciamento das unidades básicas de saúde, como as mudanças nos modelos de gestão. Foi consenso de que as dificuldades no gerenciamento das equipes e nas políticas influemciam nesse processo. Verificou-se que os gestores estão a par das tendências do macrocontexto com o advento das organizações sociais de saúde, mas ainda não estão se antecipando nas ações institucionais. CONCLUSÕES: A formação acadêmica deve ser revista não só quanto aos conteúdos, mas quanto ao desenvolvimento desses profissionais. O recrutamento, a seleção, o desenvolvimento e a avaliação devem ser norteados por essas competências alinhadas à missão, à visão, aos valores e aos modelos de gestão das organizações no contexto do Sistema Único de Saúde.OBJETIVO: Identificar los factores que producen nuevas tendencias en el gerenciamiento de las unidades básicas de salud y cambios en los modelos de gestión. MÉTODOS: Estudio prospectivo con diez gestores de unidades de salud y diez especialistas del área de salud de Sao Paulo, SP- Brasil, en 2010. Se adoptó la metodología Delphi. Se utilizaron cuatro circulaciones para la colecta de datos

  6. ETHOS OF MUSIC ART AND HUMAN WELL-BEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN COZMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available What does make the ground of the authentic works of music art crossing the centuries and what does move the human soul any time and anywhere? Which is the support of music art – generally speaking – beyond its aesthetic dimension? How could we explain and understand, in a better and in a more efficient way, the powerful influence of musical artistic creation upon the human well-being? These are merely part of the interrogations challenging our interest in finding and revealing the profound link between ethical values, music art and human health (in its integrality. The purpose of this essay is to emphasize the foundation of human equilibrium considering the offer of the harmony carried by music art, exploring the significance of a nucleus-concept of the Greek philosophers that has been acknowledged as kalokagatheia – the self-fulfilled cultivation of body and soul, as a micro-cosmos living within the macro-cosmos. In terms of a philosophical hermeneutics of art, we reach to disclose part of the salutogenic function of music art concerning the human well-being in nowadays.

  7. Revitalizing urban waterfronts: identifying indicators for human well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Nam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Waterfront cities worldwide have begun the process of regenerating and developing their formerly industrial waterfronts into land uses that reflect a post-industrial economic vision of mixed urban uses supporting a diverse economy and wide range of infrastructure. These revitalization projects require distinct planning and management tactics to determine project-defined successes inclusive of economic, ecological, and human well-being perspectives. While empirically developed templates for economic and ecological measures exist, the multi-dimensionality and subjective nature of human well-being is more difficult to assess. Through an extensive review of indicator frameworks and expert interviews, our research proposes an organizational, yet adaptable, human well-being indicators framework for the management and development of urban waterfront revitalization projects. We analyze the framework through the lens of two waterfront projects in the Puget Sound region of the United States and identify several key factors necessary to developing project-specific human well-being indicator frameworks for urban waterfront revitalization projects. These factors include: initially specify goals and objectives of a given project, acknowledge contextual conditions including prospective land uses and projected users, identify the stage of development or management to use appropriate indicators for that stage, and develop and utilize data sources that are at a similar scale to the size of the project.

  8. On Becoming Better Human Beings: Six Stories to Live by

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wivestad, Stein M.

    2013-01-01

    What are the conditions required for becoming better human beings? What are our limitations and possibilities? I understand "becoming better" as a combined improvement process bringing persons "up from" a negative condition and "up to" a positive one. Today there is a tendency to understand improvement in a one-sided way as a movement up to the…

  9. The Teacher/Writer: Model, Learner, Human Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Geraldine Lee

    1984-01-01

    Describes observations of classrooms in which the teachers participated with the students in writing exercises. Discusses the three teacher/writer roles that emerged during the class--teacher/writer as model, teacher/writer as learner, and teacher/writer as human being--and the bond of understanding that developed as the teachers as students…

  10. Funding Agencies Rarely Tend to Risk Their Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Andrea

    Complexity science is for sure a challenging interdisciplinary field of research which will provide new useful perspectives and novel tools for a more efficient participatory society in the next years. Groundbreaking discoveries and innovation are the results of the interplay of many different factors which emerge in a nonlinear and often unpredictable complex way from the fruitful bottom-up mixing of different disciplines. This fact, however, although advocated by many, is unfortunately very rarely fostered and put in practice. Nowadays, funding agencies, often forgetting that research means working at the edge of human knowledge and can be also unsuccessful, rarely tend to risk their money in unconventional proposals regarding complexity. They are more inclined to support scientists, projects, and ideas that have a well settled successful past and operate within well established and more conventional fields of research. This is certainly not a good policy for promoting innovative results. As stigmatized in a recent editorial by Nature (Take more risk, 528, 8/2015), such policies stimulate a conservative and not very efficient behavior, which discourage young scientists and force them to a scientific conformism. The same happens for careers. Today it is not easy for a scientist in complex systems to get a permanent job...

  11. Belonging, occupation, and human well-being: an exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, Karen R Whalley

    2014-02-01

    Researchers identify the importance of belonging to human well-being and provide evidence-based support for occupation as a medium for expressing and achieving a sense of belonging and connectedness. The purpose of this article is to highlight the imperative for occupational therapy theory and practice to address occupations concerned with belonging needs. Dominant occupational therapy models emphasise doing self-care, productive, and leisure occupations, thereby ignoring occupations undertaken to contribute to the well-being of others, occupations that foster connections to nature and ancestors, collaborative occupations, and those valued for their social context and potential to strengthen social roles. Belonging, connectedness, and interdependence are positively correlated with human well-being, are prioritized by the majority of the world's people, and inform the meanings attributed to and derived from the occupations of culturally diverse people. If occupational therapy is to address meaningful occupations, attention should be paid to occupations concerned with belonging, connecting, and contributing to others.

  12. Presence of Beryllium (Be) in urban soils: human health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Gonzalez, M. J.; Lobo, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Berylium (Be) is, together with As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Ti, one of the trace elements more toxic for human being (Vaessen) and Szteke, 2000; Yaman and Avci, 2006), but in spite of the exponential increment of its applications during the last decades, surprisingly there isn't hardly information about its presence and environmental distribution. The aim of this work is to evaluate the presence of Beryllium in urban soils in Alcala de Henares, (Madrid Spain).

  13. Bibliotecas escolares: tendências globais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Cristine Gonçalves Dias Gasque

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda as transformações do processo de ensinoaprendizagem e das tecnologias e o impacto dessas nas bibliotecas escolares, especificamente, na formação do acervo, na configuração do espaço e no papel dos bibliotecários. A análise da literatura mostra tendência à adoção de modelos de aprendizagem baseados na construção colaborativa do conhecimento, com ênfase na aprendizagem compreensiva e atividades de ensino em ambientes diversificados. As bibliotecas escolares podem acolher e subsidiar atividades de ensino variadas, transformando-se em locais não apenas de apropriação da informação, mas também de produção do conhecimento por meio de atividades colaborativas, conectadas e diversificadas. O bibliotecário precisa fortalecer o domínio de tecnologias para obtenção, gerenciamento, produção e compartilhamento de informações. O fomento à leitura continua a ser importante, mas precisa ser ampliado para diferentes suportes e formatos.

  14. Minority workers or minority human beings? A European dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove; Phillipson, Robert

    1996-07-01

    "European" identities may be politonymic, toponymic, ethnomyic or linguonymic (Bromley 1984). Each dimension may affect whether migrant minorities are treated as "European", and influence their schooling, integration and rights. Treatment and terminology vary in different states and periods of migration. However, the position for immigrated minorities is that they are still largely seen as workers rather than human beings with equal rights. Lack of success in schools is blamed on the migrants themselves rather than the educational system. This construction of migrants as being deficient is parallel to educational practice which falls within a UN definition of linguistic genocide, and contributes to mis-education. If current efforts in international bodies to codify educational linguistic human rights were to lead to greater support for minorities, this could assist in a redefinition of national identities and a reduction of racism and conflict.

  15. Forensic medical examination of victims of trafficking in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alempijevic, Djordie; Jecmenica, Dragan; Pavlekic, Snezana; Savic, Slobodan; Aleksandric, Branimir

    2007-01-01

    Trafficking in human beigns (THB) is recognized as a global public health issue as well as a violation of human rights. Trafficking has been identified to be associated with several health risks including psychological trauma, injuries from violence, and substance misuse. Public and media reports suggest that the morbidity and mortality associated with trafficking are substantial. The need of medico-legal healthcare for THB victims is being neglected. Forensic medical examination, as specific intervention, is a highly desirable element of ermegency health care provided for victims of tracking. Acting in such a way, the investigation should establish the facts related to the allegatation of trafficking, thereby assisting in identifying those responsible, but also contributing to the procedures designed to obtain redress for the victims. Local anti-trafficking policies and interventions, however, have not acknowledged these needs. Therefore, the agenda of anti-trafficking policies needs to be redrawn to include forensic medical assessment of victims for legal purposes.

  16. [Culpability and the problem of the human genome. Between being and having to be].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donna, Edgardo

    2011-01-01

    In a liberal-democratic system, there is no possibility of a criminal liability charge without a minimum of freedom. Nevertheless, since a long time ago and, nowadays, with the advancement of science in the human genome, understanding it as a closed system--farm theory--is intended to demonstrate that the genome is a destination, thus criminal liability will be void, giving rise to security measures.

  17. Can biodiversity, human wellbeing and sustainable development indicators be linked?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Mainka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A mission to reduce the rate of loss of biodiversity as a contribution to poverty reduction was agreed as part of the Strategic Plan for the Convention on Biological Diversity, adopted by the Conference of the Parties in 2002. As 2010 draws to a close it is clear that this target will not be met. To continue and build on momentum generated by the 2010 target, the conservation community has been discussing a potential post-2010 framework that again includes explicit reference to the link between human wellbeing and conservation, and also considers the links with human wellbeing and sustainable development. Given this agreement, we reviewed several human wellbeing and sustainable development indicators compared to existing biodiversity status and trends indicators to determine if clear correlations can be found that could be used to track progress in a new framework. We undertook this review at both the global and continental levels. The indicators for protected area and forest cover showed significant positive correlation across all continents. We found a significant negative correlation between changes in protected area (PA cover and tonnage of greenhouse gas emissions released (GHGe between 1990 and 2005 for all the continents. At the global level we found no other correlation across the indicators reviewed. However, we found that correlations between the biodiversity and human wellbeing and sustainable development indicators varied across continents. As the only indicators for which global level correlations exist, we suggest that either protected area coverage or forest cover may be relevant biodiversity indicators for global analyses of biodiversity-human wellbeing or sustainable development relationships, and that the relationship between protected area cover and greenhouse gases could be one indicator for links between biodiversity and sustainable development. More research is needed to better understand factors involved in the

  18. Colloquium paper: the difference of being human: morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco J

    2010-05-11

    In The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, published in 1871, Charles Darwin wrote: "I fully ... subscribe to the judgment of those writers who maintain that of all the differences between man and the lower animals the moral sense or conscience is by far the most important." I raise the question of whether morality is biologically or culturally determined. The question of whether the moral sense is biologically determined may refer either to the capacity for ethics (i.e., the proclivity to judge human actions as either right or wrong), or to the moral norms accepted by human beings for guiding their actions. I propose that the capacity for ethics is a necessary attribute of human nature, whereas moral codes are products of cultural evolution. Humans have a moral sense because their biological makeup determines the presence of three necessary conditions for ethical behavior: (i) the ability to anticipate the consequences of one's own actions; (ii) the ability to make value judgments; and (iii) the ability to choose between alternative courses of action. Ethical behavior came about in evolution not because it is adaptive in itself but as a necessary consequence of man's eminent intellectual abilities, which are an attribute directly promoted by natural selection. That is, morality evolved as an exaptation, not as an adaptation. Moral codes, however, are outcomes of cultural evolution, which accounts for the diversity of cultural norms among populations and for their evolution through time.

  19. [AIDS: ethics and scientific investigation on human beings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedj, R

    2008-04-01

    The experimentation on human beings of one or several therapeutic molecules discovered in laboratory is necessary and important because it helps to find new treatments or new diagnostic methods. But, it presents serious ethical problems. In this article we are analysing the example of the HIV infection. We are succinctly describing the research methods in laboratory for therapeutic molecules, first the experimentation on animals and then on human being in clinical trials. We will then try to show, with several examples, how during these last 25 years of HIV infection, the research of new molecules has not always respected the ethical rules set out in Helsinki declaration, "Code de la santé publique" or "Guide de bonnes pratiques cliniques-ICH" etc. We are discussing here the way to avoid these irregularities.

  20. Strategies of functional food for cancer prevention in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ya-Wen; Yang, Jia-Zheng; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Du, Juan; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shu-Ming; Zhu, Wei-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Functional food for prevention of chronic diseases is one of this century's key global challenges. Cancer is not only the first or second leading cause of death in China and other countries across the world, but also has diet as one of the most important modifiable risk factors. Major dietary factors now known to promote cancer development are polished grain foods and low intake of fresh vegetables, with general importance for an unhealthy lifestyle and obesity. The strategies of cancer prevention in human being are increased consumption of functional foods like whole grains (brown rice, barley, and buckwheat) and by-products, as well some vegetables (bitter melon, garlic, onions, broccoli, and cabbage) and mushrooms (boletes and Tricholoma matsutake). In addition some beverages (green tea and coffee) may be protective. Southwest China (especially Yunnan Province) is a geographical area where functional crop production is closely related to the origins of human evolution with implications for anticancer influence.

  1. Trafficking in Human Beings in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Hughes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the intersection of gender, trafficking for sexual exploitation, and use of digital communication technologies are analyzed based on data from the European Union (EU. Over the past two decades, an increase in trafficking in human beings in the EU has been accompanied by an increase in the development and availability of digital communication technologies. The first statistical analysis of trafficking in human beings (2008-2010 carried out by the European Commission found 23,632 victims of human trafficking in the reporting member states. Eighty percent of victims were women and girls; 20% were men and boys. The majority of the victims (62% were trafficked for sexual exploitation. Digital communication technologies are widely used for trafficking for sexual exploitation, and more rarely for trafficking for forced labor. This article concludes that the combination of gender, trafficking for sexual exploitation, and use of digital communication technologies has created a nexus of victimization for women and girls. Based on this analysis and other sources of information, the European region is the world’s leading region for trafficking for sexual exploitation.

  2. Dynamics of energy harvesting backpack with human being interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yue; Zuo, Lei

    2016-04-01

    In last ten years, a lot of researchers have begun to look into obtaining electricity from the movement between human and their backpack that occurs during walking. In this paper, an innovative, elastically-suspended backpack with mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) based energy harvester is developed to generate electricity with high efficiency and reliability. Up to 28 Watts peak electrical power can be produced by the MMR based backpack energy harvester. A dynamic model for the system is presented along with experimental results. Three dual mass models for different distinct harvesters: pure viscous, non MMR, and MMR, are proposed, and a comparison in the output power and human comfort between the three models is discussed.

  3. HUMAN BEINGS TRAFFICKING IN THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS CASE-LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Cristiana SPĂTARU-NEGURĂ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available After last year’s analysis regarding the European Union’s commitment to fight against the human beings trafficking, we have considered to further explore the human beings trafficking approach in the European Court of Human Rights case-law, the most developped regional jurisdiction on human rights. Surprisingly, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms does not make an express reference to the human beings trafficking. However, we have to bear in mind that the Convention is a living instrument, its interpretation being made in the light of the present-day conditions. Thus, taking into consideration the global threat of this phenomenon, it is more obvious than ever that the Convention could not neglect this issue.

  4. Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Human Beings In Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Maria Rita Garbi; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Objective Diagnose ethical conduct in research involving human beings in Brazil and the last 10 years of activity by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Health Department - Federal District - CEP/SES/DF. Methods This work was based on a documentary research, descriptive and retrospective. It examined the database containing records of cases brought before the CEP/SES/DF, corresponding the period of June 1997 to December 2007. Results were generated in Excel program, version 2007. Results CEP/SES/DF has presented increasing number of research projects submitted to appreciation (n = 1129), composing: 90.4% approved 1.7% disapproved, 7.4% removed/filed and 0.5% excluded. Of these projects, 83% belonged to Group III, 18% multi-centered projects and 10% protocols with foreign participation. Time for approval has decreased over the years (30 to 60 days). Frequent pendencies: End of Free and Informed Consent (30%), Cover Sheet (25%), Methodology (20%), Curriculum vitae (12%), Budget (9%), and Others (4%). Conclusion The assessment of the CEP/SES/DF activities, during a ten-year period has shown its commitment to the legitimacy of research ethics review and scientific production SES/DF. There were some weaknesses such as difficulty in monitoring the accompaniment of the research; interruption of works due to adverse drug reaction; gaps or errors in the protocol submitted by the researcher. These situations are the achieving targets for the elaboration of specific criteria. PMID:20981277

  5. Trends in research involving human beings in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ricardo Eccard da; Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho; Pastor, Elza Martínez; Barragan, Elena; Amato, Angélica Amorim

    2015-02-01

    Developing countries have experienced a dramatic increase in the number of clinical studies in the last decades. The aim of this study was to describe 1) the number of clinical trials submitted to the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, Anvisa) from 2007 to 2012 and the number of human-subject research projects approved by research ethics committees (RECs) and the National Research Ethics Committee (Comissão Nacional de Ética em Pesquisa, CONEP) in Brazil from 2007 to 2011 and 2) the diseases most frequently studied in Brazilian states in clinical trials approved in the country from 2009 to 2012, based on information from an Anvisa databank. Two databases were used: 1) the National Information System on Research Ethics Involving Human Beings (Sistema Nacional de Informação Sobre Ética em Pesquisa envolvendo Seres Humanos, SISNEP) and 2) Anvisa's Clinical Research Control System (Sistema de Controle de Pesquisa Clínica, SCPC). Data from the SCPC indicated an increase of 32.7% in the number of clinical trials submitted to Anvisa, and data from the SISNEP showed an increase of 69.9% in those approved by RECs and CONEP (from 18 160 in 2007 to 30 860 in 2011). Type 2 diabetes (26.0%) and breast cancer (20.5%)-related to the main causes of mortality in Brazil-were the two most frequently studied diseases. The so-called “neglected diseases,” such as dengue fever, were among the least studied diseases in approved clinical trials, despite their significant impact on social, economic, and health indicators in Brazil. Overall, the data indicated 1) a clear trend toward more research involving human beings in Brazil, 2) good correspondence between diseases most studied in clinical trials approved by Anvisa and the main causes of death in Brazil, and 3) a low level of attention to neglected diseases, an issue that should be considered in setting future research priorities, given their socioeconomic and health effects.

  6. When less equal is less human: Intragroup (dis)respect and the experience of being human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renger, Daniela; Mommert, Alex; Renger, Sophus; Simon, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated that equality-based respect is an important antecedent of positive social interaction and group-serving behavior. In the present research we tested whether intragroup equality-based respect affects perceptions of being treated as a human as well as self-dehumanization. In Experiment 1, we found that high respect received from fellow work group members heightens group members' sense of being treated as a human being, while low respect diminishes it. In Experiment 2, we secured evidence that (dis)respect also affected recipients' self-views in terms of self-dehumanization. More specifically, if respect was withheld by other ingroup members, fewer human nature and human uniqueness traits, as well as secondary positive emotions, were attributed to the self. This increase in self-infrahumanization was further related to higher endorsement of unethical behavior. We discuss the importance of equality-based respect for (de-)humanization processes in social groups.

  7. Telomere shortening may be associated with human keloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Robert R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Keloids are benign skin tumors that are the effect of a dysregulated wound-healing process in genetically predisposed patients. They are inherited with an autosomal dominant mode with incomplete clinical penetrance and variable expression. Keloids are characterized by formation of excess scar tissue beyond the boundaries of the wound. The exact etiology is still unknown and there is currently no appropriate treatment for keloid disease. Methods We analyzed sample tissues were obtained from 20 patients with keloid skin lesions and normal skin was obtained from 20 healthy donors. The telomeres were measured by Terminal Restriction Fragment (TRF analysis and Real-Time PCR assay. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR analysis of hTERT gene expression was performed and intracellular ROS generation was measured. Results In this study, we determined whether telomeric shortening and the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT occurs in keloid patients. Using Terminal Restriction Fragment (TRF analysis and Real-Time PCR assay, we detected a significant telomere shortening of 30% in keloid specimens compared to normal skin. Using quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR, telomerase activity was found absent in the keloid tissues. Moreover, an increase in ROS generation was detected in fibroblasts cell cultures from keloid specimens as more time elapsed compared to fibroblasts from normal skin. Conclusion Telomere shortening has been reported in several metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We found that telomere shortening can also be associated with human keloids. Chronic oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathophysiology of several chronic inflammatory diseases. Here we found increased ROS generation in fibroblasts from keloid fibroblasts cell cultures when compared to normal skin fibroblasts. Hence we conclude that oxidative stress might be an important modulator of telomere loss in keloid because of the absence of active

  8. Health as a basic human need: would this be enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Thana Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Although the value of health is universally agreed upon, its definition is not. Both the WHO and the UN define health in terms of well-being. They advocate a globally shared responsibility that all of us - states, international organizations, pharmaceutical corporations, civil society, and individuals - bear for the health (that is, the well-being) of the world's population. In this paper I argue that this current well-being conception of health is troublesome. Its problem resides precisely in the fact that the well-being conception of health, as an all-encompassing label, does not properly distinguish between the different realities of health and the different demands of justice, which arise in each case. In addressing responsibilities related to the right to health, we need to work with a more differentiated vocabulary, which can account for these different realities. A crucial distinction to bear in mind, for the purposes of moral deliberation and the crafting of political and legal institutions, is the difference between basic and non-basic health needs. This distinction is crucial because we have presumably more stringent obligations and rights in relation to human needs that are basic, as they justify stronger moral claims, than those grounded on non-basic human needs. It is important to keep this moral distinction in mind because many of the world's problems regarding the right to health relate to basic health needs. By conflating these needs with less essential ones, we risk confusing different types of moral claims and weakening the overall case for establishing duties regarding the right to health. There is, therefore, a practical need to reevaluate the current normative conception of health so that it distinguishes, within the broad scope of well-being, between what is basic and what is not. My aim here is to shed light onto this distinction and to show the need for this differentiation. I do so, first, by providing, on the basis of David Miller

  9. Tending the tensions in co-creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Louise Jane

    -creation as a process of mutual learning to be valued at least as much as the outcome AND the neoliberal instrumentalisation of creativity in the service of social innovation and economic growth. The papers build on the themes of Knowledge and Power in Collaborative Research: A Reflexive Approach (Phillips, Kristiansen...

  10. Tending the tensions in co-creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Professor MSO Louise; Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Pedersen, Lektor Christina Hee;

    2013-01-01

    -creation as a process of mutual learning to be valued at least as much as the outcome AND the neoliberal instrumentalisation of creativity in the service of social innovation and economic growth. The papers build on the themes of Knowledge and Power in Collaborative Research: A Reflexive Approach (Phillips, Kristiansen...

  11. Human endothelial senescence can be induced by TNF-α

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    TNF-α is one of the most important proinfiammatory cytokines in mediating multiple physio-pathological functions during immunological responses. Vascular endothelial cells, when stimulated by TNF-α2 can increase the expression of multiple cytokines and cellular adhesion molecules and, in turn, actively promote the inflammatory responses by recruiting and activating of leukocytes to the inflammatory site. In addition to endothelial death induced by TNF-α2 we found for the first time that TNF-α can also induce the human endothelial cells senescence. The induced senescent endothelial cells will display SA-β-Gal staining and they were arrested in G0-G1 phase. We found that Aψm would always be up-regulated in response to TNF-α stimulation at early time but when the cells become senescent, A ψmshows a tendency to decrease. It may reflect the sthenic function of mitochondria at early time in response to TNF-αstimulation and decay when the endothelial cells were induced senescent. ROS fluctuates at early time and also decreases when the endothelial cells become senescent. Our results show that the change of mitochondrial function may be related to the senescent process.``

  12. Tendências do pensamento brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Ianni

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo da história do Brasil, intérpretes brasileiros e estrangeiros interrogam continuamente a sociedade nacional, construindo e reconstruindoproblemas históricos e teóricos. Apesar da diversidade das análises, é possível ordená-las segundo orientações, linhagens ou "famílias" de intelectuais delineando, assim, temas e perspectivas de futuro que se revelam recorrentes na história das interpretações sobre cultura, sociedade, economia e política no Brasil. Finalmente, considerado de uma perspectiva ampla, o diversificado conjunto de interpretações pode ser visto como uma complexa narrativa ficcional que combina a busca de esclarecimento e a criação de significados.All along Brazilian history, Brazilian and foreign interpreters have questioned national society, building and rebuilding historical and theoretical issues. In spite of the diversity of the analyses, it is possible to rank them according to their points of view, their intellectual or family lineage, thus profiling themes and future perspectives that are recurrent in the history of the interpretations of culture, society, economy and politics in Brazil. Finally, from a wide point of view, the diversified group of interpretations can be seen as a complex fictional narrative that combines the search for clarity and the construction of meanings.

  13. Healty lifestyles a fundamental rigth on human being life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Salas Cabrera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the impact of certain lifestyles in our daily lives, and to reference some of them, among which are a sedentary lifestyle, diet, physical activity, social and family support, and the impact they have on people’ quality of life. It is clear that as a human beings, the developments in everyday life are addressed by duties and rights that affect our way of living, hence all individuals should enjoy the right to a better quality of life; to achieve this, it is necessary to maintain healthy lifestyle habits that create mechanisms to protect people against the development of chronic degenerative diseases. Historically it has been shown that people who have unhealthy life habits develop over time no only hypokinetic diseases, but also neurological ones such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Under this scenario this paper is intended to present clear and concise information about what lifestyles represent to people and their importance as a right for everyone who decides to adapt them to their daily lives.

  14. Tick-borne ehrlichiosis infection in human beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ganguly

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne infectious disease transmitted by several tick species, especially Amblyomma spp caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis. E. chaffeensis is an obligatory intracellular, tick-transmitted bacterium that is maintained in nature in a cycle involving at least one and perhaps several vertebrate reservoir hosts. Two additional Ehrlichia spp, Anaplasma (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophila (the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis [HGE] and E. ewingii (a cause of granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs act as human pathogens. Human E. chaffeensis infections have generally been reported in North America, Asia and Europe, but recently human cases have been reported in Brazil only. Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is diagnosed by demonstration of a four-fold or greater change in antibody titer to E. chaffeensis antigen by IFA in paired serum samples, or a positive PCR assay and confirmation of E. chaffeensis DNA, or identification of morulae in leukocytes and a positive IFA titer to E. chaffeensis antigen, or immunostaining of E. chaffeensis antigen in a biopsy or autopsy sample, or culture of E. chaffeensis from a clinical specimen.

  15. Analysis on Forest Tending Subsidies Policy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The shortage of forest tending funds in China has caused the retarded thinning for those forests that need urgently the tending thinning, which in turn has a negative impact on the implementation of forest management activities and results in the poor state of forest quality, function and healthy. This paper analyzed the necessity to implement forest tending subsidies, concluded the experience abroad, and proposed some policy recommendations on how to implement forest tending subsidies in China. It was indi...

  16. Can a Human-Induced Climate Disaster be Avoided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R.

    2012-12-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) are one of the greatest threats to our future prosperity. World emissions are currently around 50 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide-equivalent per annum and are growing rapidly. Atmospheric concentrations of GHG emissions in the atmosphere have increased, to over 400ppm of CO2e today, even after taking the offsetting radiative effects of aerosols into account, and are increasing at a rate of around 2.5ppm per year. The world's current lack of "adequate" commitments to reduce emissions are consistent with at least a 3oC rise (50-50 chance) in temperature: a temperature not seen on the planet for around 3 million years, with serious risks of 5oC rise: a temperature not seen on the planet for around 30 million years. So what are the implications of a 3-5oC rise in temperature, with associated changes in, rising sea levels, retreating mountain glaciers, melting of the Greenland ice cap, shrinking Arctic Sea ice, especially in summer, increasing frequency of extreme weather events, such as heat waves, floods, and droughts, and intensification of cyclonic events, such as hurricanes in the Atlantic. Even a 2oC increase in mean surface temperatures will adversely affect freshwater, food and fiber, natural ecosystems, coastal systems and low-lying areas, human health and social systems, especially in developing countries. The impacts of 3-5oC will be extensive, predominantly negative, undermine development and poverty alleviation goals and cut across most sectors. To address human-induced climate change requires a transition to a low carbon economy, which will require rapid technological evolution in the efficiency of energy use, environmentally sound low-carbon renewable energy sources and carbon capture and storage. The longer we wait to transition to a low carbon economy the more we are locked into a high carbon energy system with consequent environmental damage to ecological and socio-economic systems. Unfortunately the political will

  17. Seres humanos, trabalho e utopias Human beings, work and utopias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iúri Novaes Luna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio teórico expõe visões de autores selecionados, em períodos históricos distintos, sobre os seres humanos e suas relações sociais e indica como algumas dessas visões ajudam a explicar e legitimar a existência e o desenvolvimento do modo de produção capitalista, enquanto outras levantam possibilidades de transformação social. Em seguida, apresenta as idealizações de modelos sociais de Platão, em "A República", de Thomas More, em "A Utopia", e de Saint-Simon, Owen e Fourier, denominados "socialistas utópicos". A compreensão das diferentes concepções de homem e dos projetos sociais nelas fundamentados, pode enriquecer e localizar historicamente pesquisas sobre a atual configuração do mundo do trabalho e a situação dos trabalhadores.The present theoretical essay presents the views of selected authors from distinct historical periods, about human beings and their social relations and indicates how some of theses views help to explain and legitimate the existence and the development of the capitalist way of production, while others raise possibilities for social transformation. It presents the idealizations of social models of Plato in "The Republic", Thomas More in "The Utopia", and the "utopian socialists" Saint-Simon, Owen and Fourier. The comprehension of the different concepts of man and of the social projects based on them can enrich and historically locate researches on the current configuration of the world of labor and the situation of workers.

  18. Psychological aspects of human cloning and genetic manipulation: the identity and uniqueness of human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, N M

    2009-01-01

    Human cloning has become one of the most controversial debates about reproduction in Western civilization. Human cloning represents asexual reproduction, but the critics of human cloning argue that the result of cloning is not a new individual who is genetically unique. There is also awareness in the scientific community, including the medical community, that human cloning and the creation of clones are inevitable. Psychology and other social sciences, together with the natural sciences, will need to find ways to help the healthcare system, to be prepared to face the new challenges introduced by the techniques of human cloning. One of those challenges is to help the healthcare system to find specific standards of behaviour that could be used to help potential parents to interact properly with cloned babies or children created through genetic manipulation. In this paper, the concepts of personality, identity and uniqueness are discussed in relationship to the contribution of twin studies in these areas. The author argues that an individual created by human cloning techniques or any other type of genetic manipulation will not show the donor's characteristics to the extent of compromising uniqueness. Therefore, claims to such an effect are needlessly alarmist.

  19. Haptic Guidance Needs to Be Intuitive Not Just Informative to Improve Human Motor Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugge, Winfred; Kuling, Irene A.; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B. J.

    2016-01-01

    Humans make both random and systematic errors when reproducing learned movements. Intuitive haptic guidance that assists one to make the movements reduces such errors. Our study examined whether any additional haptic information about the location of the target reduces errors in a position reproduction task, or whether the haptic guidance needs to be assistive to do so. Holding a haptic device, subjects made reaches to visible targets without time constraints. They did so in a no-guidance condition, and in guidance conditions in which the direction of the force with respect to the target differed, but the force scaled with the distance to the target in the same way. We examined whether guidance forces directed towards the target would reduce subjects’ errors in reproducing a prior position to the same extent as do forces rotated by 90 degrees or 180 degrees, as it might because the forces provide the same information in all three cases. Without vision of the arm, both the accuracy and precision were significantly better with guidance directed towards the target than in all other conditions. The errors with rotated guidance did not differ from those without guidance. Not surprisingly, the movements tended to be faster when guidance forces directed the reaches to the target. This study shows that haptic guidance significantly improved motor performance when using it was intuitive, while non-intuitively presented information did not lead to any improvements and seemed to be ignored even in our simple paradigm with static targets and no time constraints. PMID:26982481

  20. Sound Effects on Human Beings Fom a Religous Point View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rabbani

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Sounds are the creatures of God which are found in nature in diverse forms. In addition to sounds naturally exist in the environment there are artificial sounds that is hand-maid and we experience them in our daily life. Industrialization has had detrimental effect on manufacturing such sounds in the environment which in turn can affect our mental and physical state. The current article is taking sound from a religious point of view into account. We want to discuss the role of sounds in perceiving the meanings of related concepts and also will have an overall look on the devastating effects of noise and irritating sounds on human life and the human mental and physical health.

  1. Do perfume additives termed human pheromones warrant being termed pheromones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winman, Anders

    2004-09-30

    Two studies of the effects of perfume additives, termed human pheromones by the authors, have conveyed the message that these substances can promote an increase in human sociosexual behaviour [Physiol. Behav. 75 (2003) R1; Arch. Sex. Behav. 27 (1998) R2]. The present paper presents an extended analysis of this data. It is shown that in neither study is there a statistically significant increase in any of the sociosexual behaviours for the experimental groups. In the control groups of both studies, there are, however, moderate but statistically significant decreases in the corresponding behaviour. Most notably, there is no support in data for the claim that the substances increase the attractiveness of the wearers of the substances to the other sex. It is concluded that more research using matched homogenous groups of participants is needed.

  2. Differentiation of trophoblast cells from human embryonic stem cells: to be or not to be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R Michael; Loh, Kyle M; Amita, Mitsuyoshi; Bernardo, Andreia S; Adachi, Katsuyuki; Alexenko, Andrei P; Schust, Danny J; Schulz, Laura C; Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V L; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Pedersen, Roger A

    2014-05-01

    It is imperative to unveil the full range of differentiated cell types into which human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can develop. The need is twofold: it will delimit the therapeutic utility of these stem cells and is necessary to place their position accurately in the developmental hierarchy of lineage potential. Accumulated evidence suggested that hPSC could develop in vitro into an extraembryonic lineage (trophoblast (TB)) that is typically inaccessible to pluripotent embryonic cells during embryogenesis. However, whether these differentiated cells are truly authentic TB has been challenged. In this debate, we present a case for and a case against TB differentiation from hPSCs. By analogy to other differentiation systems, our debate is broadly applicable, as it articulates higher and more challenging standards for judging whether a given cell type has been genuinely produced from hPSC differentiation.

  3. Nature is far more imaginative than human beings!

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Is today’s science fiction really tomorrow’s science fact (*)? If you remember the Star Trek TV series, you will have noticed that extra-dimensions are becoming more plausible than you could have imagined when Captain Kirk was leading the Enterprise. Lawrence Krauss, author of "The Physics of Star Trek", visited CERN on 28 August and told us how the LHC inspires him both as a scientist and as a writer.Wearing his cosmologist’s hat, Lawrence Krauss met the CERN audience in the Main Auditorium and gave a colloquium entitled "Cosmology as Science? From Inflation to Eternity". Wearing his other hat of bestselling writer, he told us that he finds the LHC a very inspiring human adventure. "The LHC and its experiments", he says, "represent how science can span and bridge human cultures and interests, focusing for an incredibly intense period on questions which may seem esoteric but in some way will give us insights into our place in the Universe". CERN science has inspired ...

  4. The Riddle of a Human Being: A Human Singularity of Co-evolutionary Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena N. Knyazeva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: #39;Times New Roman#39;"The theory of self-organization of complex systems studies laws of sustainable co-evolutionary development of structures having different speeds of development as well as laws of assembling of a complex evolutionary whole from parts when some elements of ldquo;memoryrdquo; (the biological memory, i.e. DNA, the memory of culture, i.e. the cultural and historical traditions, etc. must be included. The theory reveals general rules of nonlinear synthesis of complex evolutionary structures. The most important and paradoxical consequences of the holistic view, including an approach to solving the riddle of human personality, are as follows: 1 the explanation why and under what conditions a part (a human can be more complex than a whole (society; 2 in order to reconstruct society it is necessary to change an individual but not by cutting off the supposed undesirable past, since a human being as a microcosm is the synthesis of all previous stages of evolution, and as a result of repression of, it would seem, the wild past one can extinguish a ldquo;divine sparkrdquo; in his soul; 3 in the physical sense, singularity denotes a moment of instability, phase transition; one can talk about the human singularity of co-evolutionary processes, since in such a moment of instability individual actions of a human can play a key role in determining a channel of further development as well as in appearance of a new pattern of collective behavior in society; 4 as the models of nonlinear dynamics, elaborated at the Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, show, there is a possibility of a direct influence of the future and even a touch of an infinitely remote future in certain evolutionary regimes and under rigorously definite conditions, more over, it turns out that such a possibility exists only for a human (admittedly, through a specific state of being

  5. Being human: The role of pluripotent stem cells in regenerative medicine and humanizing Alzheimer's disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproul, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have the capacity to revolutionize medicine by allowing the generation of functional cell types such as neurons for cell replacement therapy. However, the more immediate impact of PSCs on treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) will be through improved human AD model systems for mechanistic studies and therapeutic screening. This review will first briefly discuss different types of PSCs and genome-editing techniques that can be used to modify PSCs for disease modeling or for personalized medicine. This will be followed by a more in depth analysis of current AD iPSC models and a discussion of the need for more complex multicellular models, including cell types such as microglia. It will finish with a discussion on current clinical trials using PSC-derived cells and the long-term potential of such strategies for treating AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. "You are a number, not a human being": Israeli breast cancer patients' experiences with the medical establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sered, S; Tabory, E

    1999-06-01

    In the course of interviews with Israeli women who had recently been treated for breast cancer, we found that our informants tended to offer us "treatment narratives" rather than, or sometimes in addition to, the "illness narratives" made famous by Arthur Kleinman. For the women we interviewed, treatment narratives constitute verbal platforms on which to explore what it means to be human during a period in which one's body, spirit, and social identity are undergoing intense transformations. A central theme in these narratives is the Hebrew word yachas, loosely translated as "attitude," "attention," or "relationship." The women consistently contrasted the good yachas of medical staff who treated them "like humans" or like "real friends" with the bad yachas of staff who treated them like numbers, machines, or strangers. We argue that the women used language (in various contexts) as a means of resisting the medical culture's pattern of treating patients as "nonhumans."

  7. Being Human or Being a Citizen? Rethinking Human Rights and Citizenship Education in the Light of Agamben and Merleau-Ponty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ruyu

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues against a trend of human rights education, where human rights are taught in the form of citizenship education. In my view, citizenship education and human rights education cannot be taken as replaceable for each other. Underpinning the idea of citizenship is a distinction between "politically qualified" and "politically…

  8. Being Human or Being a Citizen? Rethinking Human Rights and Citizenship Education in the Light of Agamben and Merleau-Ponty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ruyu

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues against a trend of human rights education, where human rights are taught in the form of citizenship education. In my view, citizenship education and human rights education cannot be taken as replaceable for each other. Underpinning the idea of citizenship is a distinction between "politically qualified" and "politically…

  9. Quality Education for Social Development and Human Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    Education as a phenomenon is rather complex which makes it difficult to define its quality. Definitions of quality must be open to change and evolution based on information, changing contexts, and new understandings of the nature of education's challenges. The main objective of the paper is to find out the significance of quality education for…

  10. [Should the human smallpox virus (variola) be destroyed?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, Morten

    2004-10-21

    Smallpox, caused by variola virus, was a terror for civilizations around the world for more than 3000 years. Although the disease is eradicated, hundreds of variola virus isolates are kept in two WHO-collaborating facilities, one in USA and one in Russia. In spite of several agreements on destruction, it is now doubtful that these virus isolates will be destroyed. Variola virus may exist in other places and may be used as a biological weapon in war or for terror. Further research on variola virus is thus essential in order to achieve a better understanding of the pathogenicity of the virus and to develop new anti-variola virus vaccines and antiviral drugs.

  11. [The right to human reproduction. Should surrogate maternity be allowed?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral García, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Is addressed in this work if you can accept that in Spain a reproductive rights through the use of assisted reproductive techniques, especially when the client is a single woman and when the baby has undergone a substitution pregnancy or surrogacy, regardless of those who have come to this possibility, which still continues to be considered without any efficacy in the rules governing the matter.

  12. Institutions fighting Trafficking in Human Beings in the Contemporary Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Pop

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last approximately 15 years, mainly in the last decade, Romania made substantial efforts to establish the institutions fighting THB according with the EU’s Directive 38 /2011’s requirements and the recommendation assumed by the International Treaties signed and ratified in this area. The plethora of institutions were founded, but they are not functioning yet as a system because of the absence of the independent assessing institution. That is why, it must be, immediately, created. Beside, the institutional system needs, as a unavoidable complement the launching of Cultural Strategy in tabooing for good, the THB in Romania.

  13. Sardar Patel: A Great human Being and Statesman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2006-01-01

    Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel died 53 years ago. But still he is alive in social and Political Fields of India. It is but natural. It is the outcome of achievements which Sardar Patel acquired for the nation and the society. On one hand, he is considered to be a practical person like Mahatma Gandhi...... to accession, Law and order, exchange of population, and made arrangements for rehabilitation of crores of refugees. To make the Bureaucracy fully responsible Vallabhbhai raised two services-Indian Administrative and Indian Police Service. All these works of Sardar Patel were so great and unique that no person...

  14. Human Alveolar Macrophages May Not Be Susceptible to Direct Infection by a Human Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettensohn, David B; Frampton, Mark W; Nichols, Joan E; Roberts, Norbert J

    2016-12-01

    The current studies were undertaken to determine the susceptibility of human alveolar macrophages (AMs) to influenza A virus (IAV) infection in comparison with autologous peripheral blood-derived monocytes-macrophages (PBMs). AMs and PBMs were exposed to IAV in vitro and examined for their ability to bind and internalize IAV, and synthesize viral proteins and RNA. PBMs but not AMs demonstrated binding and internalization of the virus, synthesizing viral proteins and RNA. Exposure of AMs in the presence of a sialidase inhibitor or anti-IAV antibody resulted in viral protein synthesis by the cells. Exposure of AMs to fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled IAV in the presence of anti-fluorescein isothiocyanate antibody also resulted in viral protein synthesis. Thus, human AMs are apparently not susceptible to direct infection by a human IAV but are likely to be infected indirectly in the setting of exposure in the presence of antibody that binds the challenging strain of IAV. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Therapeutic Value of the Human Being-Animal Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Samfira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors try to open a window towards the emotional, psychological and social benefits of a new form of therapy – the zoo-therapy (the therapy intermediated by animals. The strong relationship between men and animals as well as its material advantages are very well known but their impact on the conditions, on the stress decrease, on the prevention of some types of cancer, on the rise of self-esteem or school performance is still little known. The emotional and medical benefits can be successfully obtained in old people, children, chronic patients, or children with autism – even in people who are not the animals’ owners. Thanks to this information, farmers can choose new alternatives for their work with the animals, in the treatment of different kinds of diseases and helped by specialists.

  16. Numerical displacements of the creation myth of human being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مالمیر مالمیر

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mind, language and literature of all people, there are some significant numbers like three, thirty, six, nine, twelve, forty, one hundred and one thousand that are called numbers of perfection. Sometimes one digit is added to these numbers (and the result is seven, thirteen, ten and one thousand and one or is subtracted from them (and the result is five, ninety nine or eleven and the outcome becomes very significant. It seems that these cases have mythological base. Referring to the myth of creation, the writer of the article believes that the number of perfection is another form of death and termination that causes recreation. The continuation of life is shown by subtracting from the numbers of perfection, which means, the cycle has not terminated yet, and even if a cycle is terminated, another is being created. Recreation is shown through adding a figure to the numbers of perfection. The significance of all these numbers has not been in presenting the myth but in defeating the time.

  17. Being a Modern Human: essentialist and hierarchical approaches to the emergence of 'modern human behaviour'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Hopkinson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the modern human mind and modern human behaviour is a prominent issue in palaeolithic archaeology. The consensus has been that modernity, understood in terms of increased rates of innovation and the emergence of symbolism, is enabled by a heritable neurophysiology unique to Homo sapiens. This consensus is characterised as biological essentialist in that it understands modernity as genotypically specified and unique to Homo sapiens. 'Archaic' hominins such as the Neanderthals are understood to have lacked the modern neuroanatomical genotype and therefore to have been innately incapable of modern cognition and behaviour. The biological-essentialist programme, however, is facing a serious challenge as evidence for innovation and symbolism is found in the archaeological records of the Eurasian Middle Palaeolithic and the African Middle Stone Age. An alternative programme is emerging that understands modern human behaviour as an emergent property of social, demographic and ecological dynamics. It is argued that this programme is currently inadequate since it cannot explain the emergence of symbolically charged material culture and relies on inexorable long-term population growth. It is suggested here that the problem is better understood in terms of hierarchy theory, a body of ideas concerned with systems organised on multiple scales. Palaeolithic behaviour is reconceptualised as social practice emerging from a multi-scale knowledge system. It is shown that enhancements in the rate at which knowledgeable practices disseminate through social fields – the social transmission of knowledge - will have the effect of increasing the likelihood that novel practices will be incorporated into long-term structuring principles and thus become persistent practices. They will also effect a scalar convergence of domains of knowledgeability such that technical practices become incorporated into the construction of personhood as meaningful or

  18. Evaluation of working conditions of workers engaged in tending horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Nowakowicz-Dębek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. A growing interest in the horse business has resulted in the increased engagement of many people in this area, and the health problems occurring among workers create the need to search for prophylactic measures. [b]objective[/b]. The objective of the study was evaluation of the level of exposure to air pollution in a stable, and estimation of the degree of work load among workers engaged in tending horses. [b]material and methods[/b]. The study was conducted twice, during the winter season, in a stable maintaining race horses, and in a social room. In order to evaluate workers’ exposure, air samples were collected by the aspiration method. After the incubation of material, the total number of bacteria and fungi in the air was determined, as well as the number of aerobic mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, expressed as the number of colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m[sup]3[/sup]. The measurement of total dust concentration in the air was also performed, simultaneously with the measurement of microclimatic parameters. The study of work load also covered the measurement of energy expenditure, evaluation of static physical load, and monotony of movements performed. [b]conclusions[/b]. The stable may be considered as a workplace with considerable risk of the occurrence of unfavourable health effects.

  19. To what extent can human and non-human radiation protection frameworks be integrated?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, C.; Stark, Karolina [Stockholm University (Sweden); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hinton, Thomas [Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire - IRSN (France); Beresford, Nicholas A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology - CEH (United Kingdom); Brown, Justin; Dowdall, Mark; Hosseini, Ali; Liland, Astrid [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena; Robles, Beatriz [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); Oughton, Deborah [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - UMB (Norway); Steiner, Martin [Federal Office for Radiation Protection - BfS (Germany); Sweeck, Lieve; Vives I Batlle, Jordi [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The first radiation protection frameworks were initiated in the early 20. century and focused on the protection of humans. Protection frameworks for non-human species were developed later, based on the human protection system as well as that used to protect the environment from adverse effects of chemicals. These two radiation protection frameworks have to some degree developed quite separately from each other over the last few decades, and it is a source of debate as to what extent the integration of the two is possible. This presentation critically reviews some of the key aspects of integrating human and non-human assessment frameworks, including both conceptual and practical issues, and focuses on five main topics: 1) the conceptual consideration of humans as part of ecosystems, rather than a separate entity; 2) the consistency and potential harmonisation of underlying data and transfer model parameters; 3) consideration of different life stages and life histories in radiation protection and the implications for exposure, dose and effects; 4) calculation of doses, including modelling approaches, spatial and temporal variability and biokinetic modelling; and 5) benchmarks and screening values. Similarities and differences between the two existing frameworks are highlighted and the feasibility of integrating the two discussed. Our recommendations on how to further integrate, where achievable and warranted, are given. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  20. 30 CFR 56.7012 - Tending drills in operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tending drills in operation. 56.7012 Section 56.7012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and...

  1. 30 CFR 57.7012 - Tending drills in operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tending drills in operation. 57.7012 Section 57.7012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling...

  2. Temas e enfoques contemporâneos nas Ciências Sociais e Humanas no Brasil: expressões e tendências refletidas no V congresso da área Contemporary themes and approaches in social and human sciences in Brazil: manifestations and trends in the field's fifth national congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny Alves Bonfim Trad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O V Congresso de Ciências Sociais e Humanas em Saúde da ABRASCO (São Paulo, Brasil, 2011 teve como tema central O Lugar das Ciências Sociais na Saúde Coletiva e propiciou um amplo processo de reflexão acerca da abrangência e importância das contribuições desta área ao campo da Saúde Coletiva. Este artigo discutirá a produção científica do evento, procurando, oportunamente, traçar tendências e perspectivas contemporâneas da área. No conjunto da programação científica, deter-me-ei na produção veiculada nos Grupos Temáticos (GT, metodologia que por primeira vez foi experimentada em congressos da ABRASCO, e que se constituiu no eixo central da programação científica do evento. A principal estratégia metodológica adotada foi a análise documental, apoiada nas seguintes fontes: os Anais do V Congresso de Ciências Sociais e Humanas em Saúde; o relatório final do evento. A análise comparada com os achados de revisão recente sobre a produção da área revelou permanência em termos de temas dominantes. Evidenciou-se também um incremento significativo das microanálises.The central theme of the 5th National Congress on Social and Human Sciences in Health held by ABRASCO in São Paulo, Brazil, in 2011 was The Place of Social Sciences in Public Health, fostering a broad process of reflection on the scope and importance of this area's contributions to the field of public health. The article discusses the event's scientific output, seeking to outline contemporary trends and perspectives in the area. Within the event's scientific program, the author focuses on the work produced by the Thematic Groups, a methodology tested for the first time in ABRASCO congresses and which has become the program's central thrust. The principal methodological strategy was document analysis, drawing on the proceedings of the 5th National Congress on Social and Human Sciences in Health and the event's final report. A comparison with the

  3. One Kind of Human Being: MACOS, the Human Sciences, and Governmentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivens, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary reform movements have roots in post-World War II changes. Back then, social reformers in the United States targeted education as a field for the human sciences to intervene and impart a new kind of knowledge into daily life. These experts developed Man: A Course of Study (MACOS), a science-based curriculum, steeped in biological and…

  4. Believe it or not: Moving non-biological stimuli believed to have human origin can be represented as human movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, E; Bolton, E; Poliakoff, E

    2016-01-01

    Does our brain treat non-biological movements (e.g. moving abstract shapes or robots) in the same way as human movements? The current work tested whether the movement of a non-biological rectangular object, believed to be based on a human action is represented within the observer's motor system. A novel visuomotor priming task was designed to pit true imitative compatibility, due to human action representation against more general stimulus response compatibility that has confounded previous belief experiments. Stimulus response compatibility effects were found for the object. However, imitative compatibility was found when participants repeated the object task with the belief that the object was based on a human finger movement, and when they performed the task viewing a real human hand. These results provide the first demonstration that non-biological stimuli can be represented as a human movement if they are believed to have human agency and have implications for interactions with technology and robots.

  5. The Role of Social and Intergenerational Equity in Making Changes in Human Well-Being Sustainable

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably and without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Human well-being is described by four primary elements—basic human needs, economic needs, environmental needs, and subjective well-bein...

  6. The Role of Social and Intergenerational Equity in Making Changes in Human Well-Being Sustainable

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably and without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Human well-being is described by four primary elements—basic human needs, economic needs, environmental needs, and subjective well-bein...

  7. [Ecosystem services supply and consumption and their relationships with human well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Shang; Zheng, Hua; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun

    2013-06-01

    Sustainable ecosystem services supply is the basis of regional sustainable development, and human beings can satisfy and improve their well-being through ecosystem services consumption. To understand the relationships between ecosystem services supply and consumption and human well-being is of vital importance for coordinating the relationships between the conservation of ecosystem services and the improvement of human well-being. This paper summarized the diversity, complexity, and regionality of ecosystem services supply, the diversity and indispensability of ecosystem services consumption, and the multi-dimension, regionality, and various evaluation indices of human well-being, analyzed the uncertainty and multi-scale correlations between ecosystem services supply and consumption, and elaborated the feedback and asynchronous relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being. Some further research directions for the relationships between ecosystem services supply and consumption and human well-being were recommended.

  8. The supermarket model with arrival rate tending to one

    CERN Document Server

    Brightwell, Graham

    2012-01-01

    In the supermarket model, there are $n$ queues, each with a single server. Customers arrive in a Poisson process with arrival rate $\\lambda n$, where $\\lambda = \\lambda (n) \\in (0,1)$. Upon arrival, a customer selects $d=d(n)$ servers uniformly at random, and joins the queue of a least-loaded server amongst those chosen. Service times are independent exponentially distributed random variables with mean~1. In this paper, we analyse the behaviour of the supermarket model in a regime where $\\lambda(n)$ tends to~1, and $d(n)$ tends to infinity, as $n \\to \\infty$. For suitable triples $(n,d,\\lambda)$, we identify a subset ${\\cal N}$ of the state space where the process remains for a long time in equilibrium. We further show that the process is rapidly mixing when started in ${\\cal N}$, and give bounds on the speed of mixing for more general initial conditions.

  9. To Be "as" Not to Be: In Search of an Alternative Humanism in the Light of Early Daoism and Deconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ruyu

    2015-01-01

    Humanism and humanistic education have been recognised as an issue of the utmost importance, whether in the East or in the West. Underpinning the Eastern and Western humanism is a common belief that there is an essence or essences of humanness. In the Confucian tradition, the core of humanity lies in the idea of "ren"; in the Platonic…

  10. To Be "as" Not to Be: In Search of an Alternative Humanism in the Light of Early Daoism and Deconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ruyu

    2015-01-01

    Humanism and humanistic education have been recognised as an issue of the utmost importance, whether in the East or in the West. Underpinning the Eastern and Western humanism is a common belief that there is an essence or essences of humanness. In the Confucian tradition, the core of humanity lies in the idea of "ren"; in the Platonic…

  11. Designing a Top-Level Ontology of Human Beings: A Multi-Perspective Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田雯; 顾芳; 曹存根

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge about human beings is an integral part of any intelligent agent ofconsiderable significance. Delimiting, modeling and acquiring such knowledge are the centraltopics of this paper. Because of the tremendous complexity in knowledge of human beings, weintroduce a top-level ontology of human beings from the perspectives of psychology, sociology,physiology and pathology. This ontology is not only an explicit conceptualization of humanbeings, but also an efficient way of acquiring and organizing relevant knowledge.

  12. Aprendizagem e tecnologias: Tendências e desafios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isolina Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital technologies are designed to lead to learning and, in this sense, are increasingly adopted; however, its incorporation into daily practice and teaching-learning processes does not follow as quickly as one would expect. In turn, there seems to be a growing movement for investing more in the use of technologies than in encouraging change practices of teachers. This article intends to contribute to debate about challenges related to the use of digital technologies in people's lives and their relationship to new ways of learning. Analyzes trends in education, based on empirical evidence, emphasizing the use of digital technologies and seeks to situate them in the field of dialogical perspectives. These assume the dialogue as central concept in learning and research on practices and interactions in the new learning scenarios. As tecnologias digitais são projetadas como propiciadoras de aprendizagem e, neste sentido, são cada vez mais adotadas; no entanto, a sua incorporação nas práticas diárias e nos processos de ensino-aprendizagem não decorre tão rapidamente como se esperaria. Por sua vez, parece haver um movimento crescente no sentido de perspectivar o futuro para a aprendizagem investindo mais no uso das tecnologias do que no incentivo à mudança de práticas dos professores. Este artigo pretende contribuir para o debate em torno dos desafios suscitados com a naturalização das tecnologias digitais na vida das pessoas e sua relação com novos modos de aprender. Analisa tendências em educação, baseadas em evidências empíricas, enfatizando o uso das tecnologias digitais e procura situá-las no campo das perspectivas dialógicas que assumem o conceito de diálogo como central na aprendizagem e na investigação sobre práticas e interações nos novos cenários de aprendizagem.

  13. Ensino do cuidado humanizado: evolução e tendências da produção científica Enseñanza del cuidado humanizado: evaluación y tendencias de la producción cientifica Teaching of the humanized care: evaluation and trends of the scientific production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Caldas de Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde a divulgação das Diretrizes Curriculares de Enfermagem os cursos de graduação têm missão de formar enfermeiros generalistas, críticos, reflexivos e humanistas, o que requer esforços das instituições formadoras na busca de estratégias que viabilizem desenvolvimento dessas habilidades. Estudo descritivo, exploratório de natureza bibliográfica, teve objetivo de analisar a produção cientifica em periódicos nacionais sobre ensino do cuidado humanizado na graduação em enfermagem entre 1990/2008. A ocorrência dessa produção nos periódicos estudados sinaliza tendência de expansão do ensino do cuidado humanizado na formação do enfermeiro. Na análise identificamos a contribuição das Diretrizes Curriculares, além de estratégias facilitadoras no ensino do cuidado humanizado. Para o desenvolvimento dessa competência é fundamental ênfase nessa dimensão na formação acadêmica e a educação permanente.Desde la divulgación de los Directorios Curriculares de Enfermería los cursos de graduación tienen la misión de formar el enfermero generalista, crítico, reflexivo y humanista, lo que pide esfuerzos de las instituciones de educación en la búsqueda de estrategias que hacen posible el desarrollo de esas habilidades. La ocurrencia de esta en los periódicos estudiados señaliza una tendencia de expansión de la enseñanza del cuidado humanizado en la formación del enfermero. En el análisis nosotros identificamos la contribución de los Directorios Curriculares, además de las estrategias que facilitan la enseñanza del cuidado humanizado. Para el desarrollo de esa competencia es fundamental énfasis en esa dimensión en la formación académica y la educación permanente.From the divulgation of the Curricular Directories of Nursing the degree courses have the mission of to form generalist, critical, reflexive and humanist nurse, what requests efforts of the education institutions in the search of strategies that

  14. Robotic Nudges: The Ethics of Engineering a More Socially Just Human Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Jason; Arkin, Ron

    2016-02-01

    Robots are becoming an increasingly pervasive feature of our personal lives. As a result, there is growing importance placed on examining what constitutes appropriate behavior when they interact with human beings. In this paper, we discuss whether companion robots should be permitted to "nudge" their human users in the direction of being "more ethical". More specifically, we use Rawlsian principles of justice to illustrate how robots might nurture "socially just" tendencies in their human counterparts. Designing technological artifacts in such a way to influence human behavior is already well-established but merely because the practice is commonplace does not necessarily resolve the ethical issues associated with its implementation.

  15. Orlando, ou a tendência social da androginia

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarenga,Nízia Maria

    1997-01-01

    Este artigo analisa o filme Orlando por ser expressão de uma das tendências que vêm despontando no processo atual de mudanças sociais no conjunto das sociedades capitalistas ocidentais. A dimensão simbólica destas sociedades abrange representações tais como racionalidade, objetividade, pragmatismo, impessoalidade, utilitarismo, disciplina e neutralidade afetiva, que constituem o cerne do sistema de valores sociais predominantes. Uma alteração desta dimensão significa uma revolução em seu modo...

  16. A Theory of Human Needs Should Be Human-Centered, Not Animal-Centered: Commentary on Kenrick et al. (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesebir, Selin; Graham, Jesse; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2010-05-01

    Kenrick et al. (2010, this issue) make an important contribution by presenting a theory of human needs within an evolutionary framework. In our opinion, however, this framework bypasses the human uniqueness that Maslow intended to capture in his theory. We comment on the unique power of culture in shaping human motivation at the phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and proximate levels. We note that culture-gene coevolution may be a more promising lead to a theory of human motivation than a mammalcentric evolutionary perspective. © The Author(s) 2010.

  17. Why Does Environmental Policy in Representative Democracies Tend to Be Inadequate? A Preliminary Public Choice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kollmann

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread consensus among the most important players in developed countries (voters, politicians, producers, traditional and green interest groups and bureaucracies that a shift towards an eco-social market economy is essential for sustainable growth. Nevertheless, market-based instruments have not as yet been implemented satisfactorily in environmental policy. To identify the reasons for this insufficient implementation over the past decade, the Public Choice theory is used. The players’ behavior is analyzed in order to show that their incentives for implementing market-based instruments in environmental policy, instead of command-and-control measures, are surprisingly weak. Knowing the obstacles to implementing market-based instruments provides valuable insight into how to overcome them.

  18. EV Tends to be More Intelligent%让电动车更加智能化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    大陆集团

    2011-01-01

    @@ 为了让适合日常使用的电动车尽快投产,德国大陆集团致力于研发用于电动车的驱动部件、能量存储系统及控制单元.大陆集团希望推动电动车与周围环境联网,促进电动车通信基础设施的建设.

  19. Can Plant Viruses Cross the Kingdom Border and Be Pathogenic to Humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Balique

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytoviruses are highly prevalent in plants worldwide, including vegetables and fruits. Humans, and more generally animals, are exposed daily to these viruses, among which several are extremely stable. It is currently accepted that a strict separation exists between plant and vertebrate viruses regarding their host range and pathogenicity, and plant viruses are believed to infect only plants. Accordingly, plant viruses are not considered to present potential pathogenicity to humans and other vertebrates. Notwithstanding these beliefs, there are many examples where phytoviruses circulate and propagate in insect vectors. Several issues are raised here that question if plant viruses might further cross the kingdom barrier to cause diseases in humans. Indeed, there is close relatedness between some plant and animal viruses, and almost identical gene repertoires. Moreover, plant viruses can be detected in non-human mammals and humans samples, and there are evidence of immune responses to plant viruses in invertebrates, non-human vertebrates and humans, and of the entry of plant viruses or their genomes into non-human mammal cells and bodies after experimental exposure. Overall, the question raised here is unresolved, and several data prompt the additional extensive study of the interactions between phytoviruses and non-human mammals and humans, and the potential of these viruses to cause diseases in humans.

  20. Simulation and signal processing of through wall UWB radar for human being's periodic motions detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Fengshan; Xu, Penglong; Zeng, Zhaofa

    2013-05-01

    The human's Micro-Doppler signatures resulting from breathing, arm, foot and other periodic motion can provide valuable information about the structure of the moving parts and may be used for identification and classification purposes. In this paper, we carry out simulate with FDTD method and through wall experiment with UWB radar for human being's periodic motion detection. In addition, Advancements signal processing methods are presented to classify and to extract the human's periodic motion characteristic information, such as Micro-Doppler shift and motion frequency. Firstly, we apply the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with singular value decomposition (SVD) to denoise and extract the human motion signal. Then, we present the results base on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and the S transform to classify and to identify the human's micro-Doppler shift characteristics. The results demonstrate that the combination of UWB radar and various processing methods has potential to detect human's Doppler signatures effectively.

  1. Focal Areas for Measuring the Human Well-Being Impacts of a Conservation Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sanjayan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Within conservation, the need to measure the impacts on people from conservation initiatives such as projects and programs is growing, but understanding and measuring the multidimensional impacts on human well-being from conservation initiatives is complex. To understand the constituent components of human well-being and identify which components of well-being are most common, we analyzed 31 known indices for measuring human well-being. We found 11 focal areas shared by two or more indices for measuring human well-being, and the focal areas of living standards, health, education, social cohesion, security, environment, and governance were in at least 14 of the 31 human well-being indices. We examined each of the common focal areas and assessed its relevance to measuring the human well-being impacts of a conservation initiative. We then looked for existing indices that include the relevant focal areas and recommend the use of Stiglitz et al. (2009—a framework designed to measure economic performance and social progress—as a starting place for understanding and selecting human well-being focal areas suitable for measuring the impacts on people from a conservation initiative.

  2. Tendências da ética profissional na modernidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizete Silva Passos

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Identifica-se no momento presente uma crise de valores morais, fazendo com que os cidadãos clamem por justiça, respeitabilidade e compromisso social. Também os profissionais refletem essa situação e passam a investir na criação de valores que possam regulamentar as suas relações. Tal situação decorre da importância que a subjetividade passou a ter a partir da Modernidade, assim como, de algumas alterações ocorridas nas esferas política, econômica e social, fazendo com que os homens ganhassem uma grande confiança em si mesmos, a ponto de negarem a necessidade de seguirem valores estabelecidos socialmente. Assim, a ética na modernidade estrutura-se, basicamente, em três direções: uma de tradição teológica, outra que reconhece a situação de crise e tem consciência que precisa modificá-la, e a última que nega a necessidade de qualquer código moral. Em consonância com os valores vividos na sociedade, também, os códigos de ética profissional seguem tendências divergentes. Podemos identificá-los ora como um mero exercício tautológico, comprometido em sacramentar as práticas exercidas, ora como um falso enfrentamento das práticas cristalizadas e em outros momentos como uma tendência questionadora, voltada para a superação do egoísmo, do individualismo e do corporativismo. Acreditamos que esta última deveria ser a tendência a ser seguida, pois caracteriza-se como uma verdadeira orientação deontológica e não como subterfúgio de práticas desonestas e comportamentos moralmente inadequados.

  3. "The human use of human beings": Interdisciplinarity, transdisciplinarity and all that in biophysics and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Marco Elio; Termini, Settimo

    2017-10-01

    Biophysics, just by looking at its name, indicates an interdisciplinary scientific activity, although the notion of interdisciplinarity, as such, seems to be not widely or specifically discussed by biophysicists. The same seems to have happened as well in the early stages of the development of cybernetics, notably in Norbert Wiener's writings. This situation seems to contrast with what has happened in subsequent developments of cybernetics ideas, notably in general system theory and cognitive sciences. After a few general reflections on the notion of interdisciplinarity, its sophisticated variants and the path leading to the birth of cognitive science, we shall refer to Wiener's thought to extracts aspects and indications that could be useful today, also for what concerns the social responsibility of scientists, which could be seen as stemming from a very general form of interdisciplinarity. After a few general reflections on the notion of interdisciplinarity, its sophisticated variants and the path leading to the birth of cognitive science, we shall refer to Wiener's thought to extracts aspects and indications that could be useful today, also for what concerns the social responsibility of scientists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gastronomia Molecular: Desconstruindo 20 anos de Uma Tendência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Pellerano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A gastronomia molecular gera interesse e controvérsia desde que foi criada, em 1992, nos workshops de Erice, na Itália. Da curiosidade dos cientistas Nicholas Kurti e Hervé This, que desenvolveram a disciplina, à aplicação prática encontrada por chefs de todo o mundo, a gastronomia molecular é perseguida por parecer ser mais complicada do que realmente é: o estudo meticuloso dos alimentos. O objetivo desse artigo é descrever o seu surgimento e o que trouxe ao cenário contemporâneo enquanto tendência gastronômica. Para tanto, foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica em livros e citações na imprensa estrangeira, o que permitiu descrever os motivos para que essa forma de cozinhar cause tanta polêmica.

  5. Estrutura de mercado e tendências da atividade comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Mariano

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo busca realizar uma caracterização do setor comercial, com ênfase na RMSP, destacando o processo de concentração, evidenciado principalmente no segmento de hiper e supermercados. Na primeira seção, busca-se ilustrar o processo de concentração em alguns segmentos do comércio varejista, à luz das teorias de estrutura de mercado. Na segunda, apresenta se um painel com o perfil dessa atividade econômica, com informações agregadas para Brasil, Estado de São Paulo e Região Metropolitana de São Paulo. Na terceira, são apontadas as tendências e perspectivas do setor.

  6. Tendências atuais da pesquisa na escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Eliza Dalmazo Afonso de André

    Full Text Available O presente texto procura mostrar que o interesse dos pesquisadores pela etnografia, no final dos anos 70, está relacionado com o estudo das questões de integração na sala de aula e com os novos metodos de avaliação educacional. Em seguida o texto destaca alguns propósitos e contribuições do uso da etnografia em educação e aponta as principais críticas que vem sendo feitas aos estudos que focalizem a vida escolar cotidiana. Na última parte do texto são discutidos os principais dilemas trazidos pelo uso da abordagem etnográfica em educação e a novas tendências para tentar superar esses dilemas.

  7. Humanity as a Contested Concept: Relations between Disability and ‘Being Human’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul van Trigt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This editorial presents the theme and approach of the themed issue “Humanity as a Contested Concept: Relations between Disability and ‘Being Human’”. The way in which the concept of humanity is or must be related to disability is critically investigated from different disciplinary perspectives in the themed issue, which is, moreover, situated in the field of disability studies and related to discussions about posthumanism. The argument is made that humanity is a concept that needs to be constantly reflected upon from a disability studies perspective. Finally, the contributions of the themed issue are briefly outlined.

  8. [Elderly human being with ostomy and environments of care: reflection on the perspective of complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Edaiane Joana Lima; Santos, Silvana Sidney Costa; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Lunardi Filho, Wilson Danilo

    2012-01-01

    This is discussion about the relationship between elderly human beings with ostomy and their environments care, under the perspective of Complexity Edgar Morin. An axis holds the reflection: environments of care for elderly humans with ostomy. In this sense, we present three types of environment that surround the context of elderly humans with ostomy: home environment, group environment and hospital environment. This brings, as a social contribution, a new look about resizing caring of elderly humans with ostomy in their environment. It is considered that the environment hosting this human being contains a diversity of feelings, emotions, experiences; it binds multiple meanings, from the Complexity perspective, about the relationship between the environment and the caring process.

  9. TO BE IS NOT-TO-BE: NIHILISM, IDEOLOGY AND THE QUESTION OF BEING IN HEIDEGGER’S POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY PART II: TRUTH, HUMANISM AND TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai NOVAC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Allegedly, Heidegger never quite finished Being and Time: his initial intention had consisted in the determination of the meaning of Being as such, apart from Dasein’s own existentiality. Afterwards, however, and despite the growing public excitement revolving around the published unfinished version of his project, his preoccupations, thematic conceptuality and very language, apparently started to shift away towards a strange and unfamiliar stance which he would never leave. Quite surely, his Nazi flirtation and subsequent withdrawal did not help in bringing clarity over this. On the other hand, this was not necessarily unexpected (although not necessarily to be expected, as well. What I mean to say is that for someone reading Being and time in spirit and not in law, the possibility of such a substantive rethought of his initial scheme is present throughout the work. One’s changing one’s mind with respect to oneself is, after all, one of the basic possibilities conveyed by Dasein’s achieved resoluteness [Entschlossenheit]. Furthermore, despite his apparent reorientation, I think we can speak of some sort of attitudinal unity between Heidegger’s initial and later work, conceptually mediated by the relationship between Dasein’s Being-unto-death [Sein-zum-Tode] and the so called concealedness [Verborgenheit] of Being.. That is precisely what I aim to lay bare through this conceptual reconstruction of some of his later works: (i On the Essence of Truth (1930 and (ii Letter on Humanism (1946. Basically, I will try to show that if in Being and Time he tried to come to Being from Dasein, in his later work he tries to get to Da-sein from Being, fact which unsurprisingly brought along some reconsiderations but that, broadly speaking, essentially amounts to what he set out to do in his initial ontological project. Surprisingly, the most concrete instance of this pendulation between Dasein and Being is to be found, at least to my knowledge, in

  10. Indicators to Identify Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Jong, Jessica; Ambagtsheer, Frederike

    2016-01-01

    ... for the purpose of organ removal. It outlines the legal and illegal service providers that facilitate trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and guides the reader through the following criminal process...

  11. Tendências em medicina laboratorial Trends in laboratory medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Aguiar Campana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A patologia clínica/medicina laboratorial é uma especialidade direcionada à realização de exames complementares no auxílio ao diagnóstico, com impacto nos diferentes estágios da cadeia de saúde: prevenção, diagnóstico, prognóstico e acompanhamento terapêutico. Diversos elementos apontam para maior utilização da medicina diagnóstica no futuro. Para discutirmos as principais tendências na medicina laboratorial, descrevemos os fatores que colaboram e são fundamentais para o crescimento desse mercado denominados, neste estudo, drivers de crescimento. As principais tendências que terão forte impacto na medicina laboratorial, e que serão descritas neste artigo, são: ferramentas de gestão, inserção de novos testes no mercado e rol de procedimentos, qualidade dos serviços em medicina diagnóstica, modelos de operação, automação, consolidação e integração, tecnologia da informação, medicina personalizada e genética. Sabemos que a medicina diagnóstica demonstra sua importância ao participar de 70% das decisões clínicas, absorvendo uma pequena parte dos custos em saúde (cerca de 10%. Todas as tendências analisadas neste trabalho apontam para um crescimento na utilização dos exames laboratoriais e também para sua importância na cadeia de saúde. Esse novo posicionamento, somado às novas expectativas de alta resolubilidade, pressiona o mercado e as companhias que o compõem a buscar mudanças e novas estratégias de atuação.Clinical pathology/laboratory medicine, a specialty focused on performing complementary tests to aid diagnosis, has impact upon several stages of health care: prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic management. There are several factors that will foster the use of laboratory medicine in the future. In order to discuss the main trends in laboratory medicine, this article describes the major factors that have promoted growth in this market, which herein are referred to as growth

  12. Could be the swine responsible of transmission to the humans of Dientamoeba fragilis infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dientamoeba fragilis, atypical protozoon because “flagellate without flagella” but amoeba-like, of whom we know only the trophozoitic stage (an so its brittleness outside intestinal tract, is a frequent responsible of intestinal human infections, worldwide, and some authors relate that D. fragilis is the most frequent protozoon and parasite that can infects humans. Actually we don’t know a sure potential “reservoir” in animals who are strictly in contact with humans, and it is difficult to understand its epidemiological chain, otherwise the transmissions to humans and from humans to humans. For all these reasons we performed another study on subjects of swine breedings, and among people who work in these breedings, that are in direct contact or not with pigs. Using standardized methodologies, we analyzed 224 faecal specimens of swine and 15 human specimens.We use for identification of D. fragilis the Giemsa stain.These were the results: D. fragilis was observed in 50.9% of pigs and 20% among humans (30% in workers strictly in contact with breedings and pigs, 0% in familiars or other without a closed contact with swines. Other commensal protozoa were observed with variable associations, but in this article we want to analyze the possible transmission from this pigs to humans (and for us this protozoon is undoubtedly a “reservoir” of D. fragilis for humans, and underline two aspects: for the research of this protozoon, standard procedures area mandatory, with a permanent stain, as Giemsa stain, is necessary, and in all humans with various intestinal infections or troubles, particularly “irritable bowel syndrome” (or similar ones, the specimens must be analyzed for D. fragilis. At least we think that in the near future molecular studies are important for confirming this our observations, and for verifying eventual and probable differences inside genotypes of this very suggestive protozoon, that until now present not rarely

  13. [The spirit of humanism should be cultivated in the nursing profession].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Mei-Yu; Lee, Sheuan

    2011-10-01

    As nursing is an art that emphasizes the nature of caring it should have humanistic attributes. Humanistic education of a nursing professional should emphasize a person-centered perspective in order to foster cultivation of the humanities and infuse the spirit of humane care into medical practice. Cultivation of humanism refers to the emotional level of personal-affective experience that blends humanistic science and aesthetic experience to enhance nurse observational abilities. The ability generated by self-awareness and reflection can trigger deep empathy and empathetic performance, which is ideal humanistic-nursing behavior in nursing staff. Traditional nursing education focuses on acquiring professional knowledge and largely ignores the cultivation of a humanist spirit. To help nurses adjust to the rapidly changing environment of nursing care and demonstrate a professional and humane character, in addition to advocating for a humane medical environment, the six Es of humanistic-nursing education (Example, Explanation, Exhortation, Environment, Experience, Expectation) should be promoted. The six Es are essential to building a framework to cultivate humanistic education strategies and strengthen humanist content in nursing education. In order to instill deeply the spirit of humanistic care in nursing and make the nursing-care process more humane, these ideals must be emphasized in nursing education to raise the level of humanism.

  14. Causes of Infectious Diseases Which Tend to Get Into Febrile Convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Blouki Moghaddam; Bidabadi; Hassanzadeh Rad; Dalili

    2015-01-01

    Background Febrile convulsions are seizures associated with fever during childhood. They generally have excellent prognosis. However, as they may signify a serious underlying acute infectious disease, each case must be carefully examined and appropriately investigated. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of infectious diseases, which tend to get into febrile convulsion in patients hospitalized in 17th Sh...

  15. The Development of a Human Well-Being Index for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a human well-being index (HWBI) that assesses the over-all well-being of its population at the county level. The HWBI contains eight domains and represents social, economic and environmental well-being. These domains inc...

  16. Humanity Must Be Defended: War, Politics and Humanitarian Relief in Iraq, 1990-2004

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Iraq was the first political and humanitarian crisis to be described as a "complex emergency." Contested claims about human suffering there -- beginning shortly after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990 and continuing for over a decade under UN sanctions -- became the justification for multiple forms of engagement and intervention by religious and secular NGOs, human rights organizations, journalists, political activists and foreign military forces. This dissertation explores how the internatio...

  17. Ethical issues of transplanting organs from transgenic animals into human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human's body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal's organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven.

  18. Antibiotic resistance - the interplay between antibiotic use in animals and human beings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singer, R.S.; Finch, R.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    meant the problem of antibiotic resistance is fast escalating into a global health crisis. There is no doubt that misuse of these drugs in human beings has contributed to the increasing rates of resistance, but recently the use of antibiotics in food animals and its consequent effect on resistance...... of antibiotics in animals-whether therapeutic or as growth promoters-pales by comparison with human use, and that efforts should be concentrated on the misuse of antibiotics in people. Others warn of the dangers of unregulated and unnecessary use of antibiotics, especially growth promoters in animal husbandry....... There is a growing concern over the transmission of resistant bacteria via the food chain. Many questions will be difficult to resolve, such as how do you distinguish the fraction of resistance in human beings that originated from animals? If we wait to see evidence that a significant amount of antibiotic resistance...

  19. [Correlation between PMI and DNA degradation of costicartilage and dental pulp cells in human being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ren; Wang, Wei-ping; Xiong, Ping

    2005-08-01

    To probe the correlation between the postmortem interval (PMI) and the DNA degradation of costicartilage and dental pulp cells in human being after death, and to seek a new method for estimating PMI. The image cytometry was used to measure the DNA degradation under different ambient temperatures (30-35 degrees C, 15-20 degrees C) in 0-15 days after death. The average DNA content of two kinds of tissue was degradated with the prolongation of PMI. But there was a plateau period of 0-4 days for dental pulp cells of human being in 15-20 degrees C. There was a high negative correlativity PPMI. PMI could be estimated accurately according to the DNA degradation of costicartilage and dental pulp cells in human being after death.

  20. Accounting for the impact of conservation on human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Gulland, E J; McGregor, J A; Agarwala, M; Atkinson, G; Bevan, P; Clements, T; Daw, T; Homewood, K; Kumpel, N; Lewis, J; Mourato, S; Palmer Fry, B; Redshaw, M; Rowcliffe, J M; Suon, S; Wallace, G; Washington, H; Wilkie, D

    2014-10-01

    Conservationists are increasingly engaging with the concept of human well-being to improve the design and evaluation of their interventions. Since the convening of the influential Sarkozy Commission in 2009, development researchers have been refining conceptualizations and frameworks to understand and measure human well-being and are starting to converge on a common understanding of how best to do this. In conservation, the term human well-being is in widespread use, but there is a need for guidance on operationalizing it to measure the impacts of conservation interventions on people. We present a framework for understanding human well-being, which could be particularly useful in conservation. The framework includes 3 conditions; meeting needs, pursuing goals, and experiencing a satisfactory quality of life. We outline some of the complexities involved in evaluating the well-being effects of conservation interventions, with the understanding that well-being varies between people and over time and with the priorities of the evaluator. Key challenges for research into the well-being impacts of conservation interventions include the need to build up a collection of case studies so as to draw out generalizable lessons; harness the potential of modern technology to support well-being research; and contextualize evaluations of conservation impacts on well-being spatially and temporally within the wider landscape of social change. Pathways through the smog of confusion around the term well-being exist, and existing frameworks such as the Well-being in Developing Countries approach can help conservationists negotiate the challenges of operationalizing the concept. Conservationists have the opportunity to benefit from the recent flurry of research in the development field so as to carry out more nuanced and locally relevant evaluations of the effects of their interventions on human well-being. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  1. INTERACTION BETWEEN HUMAN BEING AND URBAN CULTURE SPACE: ONE OF THE MOTIVATIONS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION INTERNATIONALISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Liang Cai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the objective of this paper is to deeply and clearly explain the internationalisation of higher education from the aspect of the integration of human being with urban cultural space. Materials and Methods: the methods used in the research are mainly analytical and descriptive ones enabling to show how the integration of human being and urban cultural space promote and influence the internationalisation of higher education. Results: the motivation for the internationalisation of higher education is closely interrelated with that of urbanisation. Besides the economic and political incentives, modern urban culture, caused by globalisation, also plays a very important role in encouraging higher education internationalisation. Discussion and Conclusions: the appearance of higher education internationalisation is mediated by the alteration of the existing environment of urban culture space against the background of city internationalisation. Human beings’ need for self-assurance in urban culture space helps to stimulate the internationalisation of higher education, and human beings promote the development of modern culture space and their separation in urban culture space accelerates the development of higher education. From the perspective of higher education internationalisation, to sort out the cultural motivation for higher education and find its suitable form for the city’s internationalisation is crucial for adjusting the orientation and guaranteeing the efficacy of higher education internationalisation. From the aspect of human beings’ development, the separation between urban space and human beings caused by the city’s ongoing internationalisation is a pressing problem to be solved. From the aspect of the construction of urban culture space, as an important means of retaining human beings’ equilibrium, urban culture promotes the internationalisation of higher education.

  2. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura might be an early hematologic manifestation of undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Hsien-Feng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2017-03-01

    Little research focuses on the association between immune thrombocytopenic purpura and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Taiwan. This study investigated whether immune thrombocytopenic purpura might be an early hematologic manifestation of undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus infection in Taiwan. We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using data of individuals enrolled in Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 5472 subjects aged 1-84 years with a new diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenic purpura as the purpura group since 1998-2010 and 21,887 sex-matched and age-matched, randomly selected subjects without immune thrombocytopenic purpura as the non-purpura group. The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection at the end of 2011 was measured in both groups. We used the multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model to measure the hazard ratio and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for the association between immune thrombocytopenic purpura and human immunodeficiency virus infection. The overall incidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection was 6.47-fold higher in the purpura group than that in the non-purpura group (3.78 vs. 0.58 per 10,000 person-years, 95 % CI 5.83-7.18). After controlling for potential confounding factors, the adjusted HR of human immunodeficiency virus infection was 6.3 (95 % CI 2.58-15.4) for the purpura group, as compared with the non-purpura group. We conclude that individuals with immune thrombocytopenic purpura are 6.47-fold more likely to have human immunodeficiency virus infection than those without immune thrombocytopenic purpura. We suggest not all patients, but only those who have risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus infection should receive testing for undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus infection when they develop immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

  3. Ethical leadership, employee well-being, and helping: the moderating role of human resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalshoven, K.; Boon, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this multi-source study, we examined the link between ethical leadership, human resource management (HRM), employee well-being, and helping. Based on the Conservation of Resources Theory, we proposed a mediated moderation model linking ethical leadership to helping, which includes well-being as

  4. Ethical leadership, employee well-being, and helping: the moderating role of human resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalshoven, K.; Boon, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this multi-source study, we examined the link between ethical leadership, human resource management (HRM), employee well-being, and helping. Based on the Conservation of Resources Theory, we proposed a mediated moderation model linking ethical leadership to helping, which includes well-being as a

  5. Computational Characterization of Exogenous MicroRNAs that Can Be Transferred into Human Circulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Shu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have been long considered synthesized endogenously until very recent discoveries showing that human can absorb dietary microRNAs from animal and plant origins while the mechanism remains unknown. Compelling evidences of microRNAs from rice, milk, and honeysuckle transported to human blood and tissues have created a high volume of interests in the fundamental questions that which and how exogenous microRNAs can be transferred into human circulation and possibly exert functions in humans. Here we present an integrated genomics and computational analysis to study the potential deciding features of transportable microRNAs. Specifically, we analyzed all publicly available microRNAs, a total of 34,612 from 194 species, with 1,102 features derived from the microRNA sequence and structure. Through in-depth bioinformatics analysis, 8 groups of discriminative features have been used to characterize human circulating microRNAs and infer the likelihood that a microRNA will get transferred into human circulation. For example, 345 dietary microRNAs have been predicted as highly transportable candidates where 117 of them have identical sequences with their homologs in human and 73 are known to be associated with exosomes. Through a milk feeding experiment, we have validated 9 cow-milk microRNAs in human plasma using microRNA-sequencing analysis, including the top ranked microRNAs such as bta-miR-487b, miR-181b, and miR-421. The implications in health-related processes have been illustrated in the functional analysis. This work demonstrates the data-driven computational analysis is highly promising to study novel molecular characteristics of transportable microRNAs while bypassing the complex mechanistic details.

  6. Pluripotency can be rapidly and efficiently induced in human amniotic fluid-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunliang; Zhou, Junmei; Shi, Guilai; Ma, Yu; Yang, Ying; Gu, Junjie; Yu, Hongyao; Jin, Shibo; Wei, Zhe; Chen, Fang; Jin, Ying

    2009-11-15

    Direct reprogramming of human somatic cells into pluripotency has broad implications in generating patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells for disease modeling and cellular replacement therapies. However, the low efficiency and safety issues associated with generation of human iPS cells have limited their usage in clinical settings. Cell types can significantly influence reprogramming efficiency and kinetics. To date, human iPS cells have been obtained only from a few cell types. Here, we report for the first time rapid and efficient generation of iPS cells from human amniotic fluid-derived cells (hAFDCs) via ectopic expression of four human factors: OCT4/SOX2/KLF4/C-MYC. Significantly, typical single iPS cell colonies can be picked up 6 days after viral infection with high efficiency. Eight iPS cell lines have been derived. They can be continuously propagated in vitro and express pluripotency markers such as AKP, OCT4, SOX2, SSEA4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81, maintaining the normal karyotype. Transgenes are completely inactivated and the endogenous OCT4 promoter is adequately demethylated in the established iPS cell lines. Moreover, various cells and tissues from all three germ layers are found in embryoid bodies and teratomas, respectively. In addition, microarray analysis demonstrates a high correlation coefficient between hAFDC-iPS cells and human embryonic stem cells, but a low correlation coefficient between hAFDCs and hAFDC-iPS cells. Taken together, these data identify an ideal human somatic cell resource for rapid and efficient generation of iPS cells, allowing us to establish human iPS cells using more advanced approaches and possibly to establish disease- or patient-specific iPS cells.

  7. Sero-prevalence of brucellosis in occupationally exposed human beings of Himachal Pradesh (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalmali; Panda, Ashok Kumar; Chahota, Rajesh

    2012-06-01

    The chief objective of respective study was to investigate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among occupationally exposed human beings in Himachal Pradesh. A total of 165 serum samples that were obtained from human beings from various regions of the state were screened through a battery of serological tests which included RBPT, STAT, 2-MET, dot-ELISA and indirect-ELISA. 165 of human sera samples included 42 from veterinarians, 40 shepherds, 35 livestock owners, 20 workers at veterinary hospitals/clinics, 16 abattoir workers and 12 veterinary pharmacists. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis among occupationally exposed human beings was observed to be 6.66% showing highest in abattoir workers (18.75%) followed by pharmacists (8.33%), veterinarians (7.14%), and livestock owners (5.71%) and shepherds (5.00%). In humans it is prevalent as an occult infection or under diagnosed disease, especially; in case of abattoir workers the highest seropositivity for brucella agglutinins was observed. Indirect-ELISA and Dot-ELISA proved best in the diagnosis of brucellosis.

  8. Protection of Human Beings Trafficked for the Purpose of Organ Removal: Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascalev, Assya; Van Assche, Kristof; Sándor, Judit; Codreanu, Natalia; Naqvi, Anwar; Gunnarson, Martin; Frunza, Mihaela; Yankov, Jordan

    2016-02-01

    This report presents a comprehensive set of recommendations for protection of human beings who are trafficked for the purpose of organ removal or are targeted for such trafficking. Developed by an interdisciplinary group of international experts under the auspices of the project Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal (also known as the HOTT project), these recommendations are grounded in the view that an individual who parts with an organ for money within an illegal scheme is ipso facto a victim and that the crime of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal (THBOR) intersects with the crime of trafficking in organs. Consequently, the protection of victims should be a priority for all actors involved in antitrafficking activities: those combating organ-related crimes, such as health organizations and survivor support services, and those combating trafficking in human beings, such as the criminal justice sectors. Taking into account the special characteristics of THBOR, the authors identify 5 key stakeholders in the protection of human beings trafficked for organ removal or targeted for such trafficking: states, law enforcement agencies and judiciary, nongovernmental organizations working in the areas of human rights and antitrafficking, transplant centers and health professionals involved in transplant medicine, and oversight bodies. For each stakeholder, the authors identify key areas of concern and concrete measures to identify and protect the victims of THBOR. The aim of the recommendations is to contribute to the development of a nonlegislative response to THBOR, to promote the exchange of knowledge and best practices in the area of victim protection, and to facilitate the development of a policy-driven action plan for the protection of THBOR victims in the European Union and worldwide.

  9. Trafficking in human beings as a specific form of women's migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrvić-Petrović Nataša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The author is analyzing trafficking in human beings as a specific form of women's (illegal migration. The author is presenting detailed analysis of the international standards and recent activities of different international organizations (UN, Council of Europe, European Community, OSCE, concerning prevention of trafficking in human beings, regulation of foreign migrants' status and protection of victims of trafficking. Starting from the analysis of international documents and national legislations dealing with migration and prostitution, the author is proposing changes of existing domestic laws concerning movement and residence of foreigners. The aim of such changes is to harmonize our legislation with international standards and obligations accepted by signing the Palermo Convention.

  10. Les flux migratoires et la traite d’êtres humains / Migration and trade in human being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farsédakis Jacques

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the relationship between the migration and the trade in human beings – it is a global phenomenon which affects both industrial and developing countries – involving people in the process of the soliticing of clients to the places of exploitation ( roadways, homes of prostitution, bar, night clubs, etc.,.Then, the author examines the international, European and national juridical instruments of the repression of the trafficking.Finally, an action-research methodology is proposed in order to prevent the trade in human beings.

  11. Ethical Issues of Transplanting Organs from Transgenic Animals into Human Beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Behnam Manesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human’s body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action. The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal’s organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven.

  12. Can the silkworm (Bombyx mori) be used as a human disease model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabunoki, Hiroko; Bono, Hidemasa; Ito, Katsuhiko; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    Bombyx mori (silkworm) is the most famous lepidopteran in Japan. B. mori has long been used in the silk industry and also as a model insect for agricultural research. In recent years, B. mori has attracted interest in its potential for use in pathological analysis of model animals. For example, the human macular carotenoid transporter was discovered using information of B. mori carotenoid transporter derived from yellow-cocoon strain. The B. mori carotenoid transport system is useful in human studies. To develop a human disease model, we characterized the human homologs of B. mori, and by constructing KAIKO functional annotation pipeline, and to analyze gene expression profile of a unique B. mori mutant strain using microarray analysis. As a result, we identified a novel molecular network involved in Parkinson's disease. Here we describe the potential use of a spontaneous mutant silkworm strain as a human disease model. We also summarize recent progress in the application of genomic information for annotation of human homologs in B. mori. The B. mori mutant will provide a clue to pathological mechanisms, and the findings will be helpful for the development of therapies and for medical drug discovery.

  13. The big challenges in modeling human and environmental well-being [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shripad Tuljapurkar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a selective review of quantitative research, historical and prospective, that is needed to inform sustainable development policy. I start with a simple framework to highlight how demography and productivity shape human well-being. I use that to discuss three sets of issues and corresponding challenges to modeling: first, population prehistory and early human development and their implications for the future; second, the multiple distinct dimensions of human and environmental well-being and the meaning of sustainability; and, third, inequality as a phenomenon triggered by development and models to examine changing inequality and its consequences. I conclude with a few words about other important factors: political, institutional, and cultural.

  14. Emotion work and well-being of human resource personnel in a mining industry / T. Beyneveldt

    OpenAIRE

    Beyneveldt, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    Human Resource personnel as part of their daily jobs provide a service to other employees within a mining industry. These service workers may experience dissonance between their actual feelings and the feelings they are expected to display. For these service workers to be more engaged at work, emotional intelligence and social support is vital. If these factors are not in place, their well-being may be in jeopardy. The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between E...

  15. The Earth Sciences, Human Well-Being, and the Reduction of Global Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, John C.

    2005-04-01

    Poverty is not solely a social or political matter, nor is it caused simply by population pressures as Thomas Malthus postulated in 1798. A new understanding of poverty is emerging in which natural and environmental drivers, together with social, political, and demographic causes, underpin livelihoods. The Earth sciences, therefore, play a critical role in identifying the deep causes of human suffering and in identifying solutions. The State of the Planet: Why Are So Many So Poor? For far too many, the state of human well-being is bleak. Around one in six human beings-1 billion people-live in extreme poverty, struggling to survive on less than $1 a day; another one sixth of humanity ekes out existence on $2 per day (U.N. Development Programme (UNDP) Human Development Report, 2004; http://hdr.undp.org/2004/). The extreme poor lack all normal attributes of a decent, dignified life: adequate food, housing, sanitation, health care, education, and employment. Some 800 million people lack sufficient nourishment almost every day. It stunts their mental and physical development and shortens their lives, making them susceptible to common illnesses that attack their hunger-weakened bodies. Poor nutrition in mothers and infants is the leading cause of reduced disability-adjusted life years in poor countries [ Economist, 2004].

  16. Why religious human beings need evolutionary epistemology! A theological and evolutionary viewpoint of 'why humans need to embrace evolutionary epistemology'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan A. van Rooyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available I put forward an understanding of evolutionary epistemology that rescues something of the old and venerable idea of freedom, and it means that we as theologians should grasp our very nature realistically, beyond any illusionism and utopian dreams. The author feels that scholars, especially theologians, should firstly take evolution seriously and secondly regard evolutionary epistemology as important as evolution itself, the reason being theologians should know that it is of paramount importance for their systematic-theological intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications, which is embarking on a way of thinking that regards evolutionary epistemology as a friend in their accommodation of their respective theological fields of interest. This accommodation is substantial as it will enhance their respective theological disciplines as �an exhilarating vision of God�. Evolutionary epistemology takes a pragmatic view of humans. Evolutionary epistemologists question how humans really behave and what the true origin of their behaviour is. In contrast to this programme, many conceptions of humans are based on an idealisation of our species.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Evolutionary epistemology takes a pragmatic view of humans. Evolutionary epistemologists question how humans really behave and what the true origin of their behaviour is. In contrast to this programme, many conceptions of humans are based on an idealisation of our species. I then put forward my own understanding of evolutionary epistemology and conclude that evolutionary epistemology recues something of the old and venerable idea of freedom, and it means that we should grasp our very nature realistically, beyond any illusionism and utopian dreams.Keywords: Evolutionary epistemology

  17. Meteoric 10Be as a tool to investigate human induced soil fluxes: a conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campforts, Benjamin; Govers, Gerard; Vanacker, Veerle; De Vente, Joris; Boix-Fayos, Carolina; Minella, Jean; Baken, Stijn; Smolders, Erik

    2014-05-01

    The use of meteoric 10Be as a tool to understand long term landscape behavior is becoming increasingly popular. Due its high residence time, meteoric 10Be allows in principle to investigate in situ erosion rates over time scales exceeding the period studied with classical approaches such as 137Cs. The use of meteoric 10Be strongly contributes to the traditional interpretation of sedimentary archives which cannot be unequivocally coupled to sediment production and could provide biased information over longer time scales (Sadler, 1981). So far, meteoric 10Be has successfully been used in geochemical fingerprinting of sediments, to date soil profiles, to assess soil residence times and to quantify downslope soil fluxes using accumulated 10Be inventories along a hill slope. However, less attention is given to the potential use of the tracer to directly asses human induced changes in soil fluxes through deforestation, cultivation and reforestation. A good understanding of the processes governing the distribution of meteoric 10Be both within the soil profile and at landscape scale is essential before meteoric 10Be can be successfully applied to assess human impact. We developed a spatially explicit 2D-model (Be2D) in order to gain insight in meteoric 10Be movement along a hillslope that is subject to human disturbance. Be2D integrates both horizontal soil fluxes and vertical meteoric 10Be movement throughout the soil prolife. Horizontal soil fluxes are predicted using (i) well studied geomorphical laws for natural erosion and soil formation as well as (ii) human accelerated water and tillage erosion. Vertical movement of meteoric 10Be throughout the soil profile is implemented by inserting depth dependent retardation calculated using experimentally determined partition coefficients (Kd). The model was applied to different environments such as (i) the Belgian loess belt, characterized by aeolian deposits enriched in inherited meteoric 10Be, (ii) highly degraded and stony

  18. Ecosystem Services and Human Well-Being: a Participatory Study in a Mountain Community in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Miguel Pereira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services are essential for human well-being, but the links between ecosystem services and human well-being are complex, diverse, context-dependent, and complicated by the need to consider different spatial and temporal scales to assess them properly. We present the results of a study in the rural community of Sistelo in northern Portugal that formed part of the Portugal Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. The main purpose of our study was to assess the linkages between human well-being and ecosystem services at the local level, as perceived by the community. We used a range of tools that included participatory rural appraisal and rapid rural appraisal as well as other field methods such as direct observation, familiarization and participation in activities, semistructured interviews, trend lines, well-being ranking, and other ranking and scoring exercises. Sistelo has a unique landscape of agricultural terraces that are now being abandoned because of the depopulation of the region, a common trend in mountainous rural areas of Europe. From the community perspective, some components of well-being such as material well-being have been improving, whereas some ecosystem services, e.g., food production, have been declining. Although a few of the local criteria for well-being are closely related to local ecosystem services, most of them are not. People recognize many of the services provided by ecosystems, in particular, provisioning, cultural, and regulating services, although they feel that provisioning services are the most important for well-being. It is apparent that, for the Sistelo community, there is an increasing disconnect between local well-being and at least some local ecosystem services. This disconnect is associated with greater freedom of choice at the local level, which gives the local inhabitants the power to find substitutes for ecosystem services. The consequences of land abandonment for human well-being and ecosystem services

  19. Antibiotic resistance - the interplay between antibiotic use in animals and human beings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singer, R.S.; Finch, R.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were first identified in the 1940s, but while new antibiotics were being discovered at a steady rate, the consequences of this phenomenon were slow to be appreciated. Today, the excessive use of antibiotics compounded by the paucity of new agents on the market has...... meant the problem of antibiotic resistance is fast escalating into a global health crisis. There is no doubt that misuse of these drugs in human beings has contributed to the increasing rates of resistance, but recently the use of antibiotics in food animals and its consequent effect on resistance....... There is a growing concern over the transmission of resistant bacteria via the food chain. Many questions will be difficult to resolve, such as how do you distinguish the fraction of resistance in human beings that originated from animals? If we wait to see evidence that a significant amount of antibiotic resistance...

  20. Human resource management in the project-oriented organization: Employee well-being and ethical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, R.; Huemann, M.; Keegan, A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a wider study into human resource management (HRM) practices in project-oriented organizations, we investigated the issue of employee well-being. Project-oriented organizations adopt temporary work processes to deliver products and services to clients. This creates a dynamic work environm

  1. Human resource management in the project-oriented organization: Employee well-being and ethical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, R.; Huemann, M.; Keegan, A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a wider study into human resource management (HRM) practices in project-oriented organizations, we investigated the issue of employee well-being. Project-oriented organizations adopt temporary work processes to deliver products and services to clients. This creates a dynamic work

  2. Impacts of Community Forest Management on human economic well-being across Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasolofoson, Ranaivo Andriarilala; Ferraro, Paul J.; Ruta, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Community Forest Management (CFM) devolves forest management to local communities to achieve conservation and human well-being goals. Yet, the evidence for CFM's impacts is mixed and difficult to interpret because of inadequate attention to rival explanations for the observed empirical patterns. ...

  3. Environmental Quality and Human Well-being. Outcomes of a workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp I van; Hollander AEM den; Staatsen BAM; Poll R van; MGO

    2003-01-01

    In April 2002 an international workshop on environmental quality and human well-being was held at Utrecht, the Netherlands. The workshop was aimed at obtaining consensus on basic principles and assumptions underlying conceptual models concerning environmental quality (EQ) and quality of life (QoL) a

  4. Human Well Being: A Decile Group Analysis on Indian Household Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saswati

    2008-01-01

    This is an attempt to measure human well being across different sections of the society in India over time where sections have been made in terms of ten decile groups of income. In this context, the extent to which rural sector is lagging behind the urban sector is another dimension of the study. The study uses grouped household data, collected…

  5. Consequences of residential development for biodiversity and human well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liba Pejchar; Sarah E. Reed; Patrick Bixler; Lindsay Ex; Miranda H. Mockrin

    2015-01-01

    Residential development is a leading driver of land-use change, with important implications for biodiversity, ecosystem processes, and human well-being. We reviewed over 500 published scientific articles on the biophysical, economic, and social effects of residential development and open space in the US. We concluded that current knowledge of the effects of this type...

  6. Trafficking in human beings: a modern form of slavery or a transnational crime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wilt, H.

    2014-01-01

    Trafficking in human beings is often qualified as a modern form of slavery, with the obvious intention to stress the seriousness of the crime and to bring it within the jurisdictional scope of the International Criminal Court. This article critically assesses this position. The author argues that,

  7. Being Human Today: A Digital Storytelling Pedagogy for Transcontinental Border Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kristian; Gachago, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a collaborative digital storytelling project titled "Being Human Today," a multimodal curricular initiative that was implemented simultaneously in both a South African and an American university classroom in 2015. By facilitating dialogue and the sharing of digital stories by means of a closed…

  8. Indirect effects of tending ants on holm oak volatiles and acorn quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Carolina I; Llusia, Joan; Peñuelas, Josep

    2011-04-01

    The indirect effect of ants on plants through their mutualism with honeydew-producing insects has been extensively investigated. Honeydew-producing insects that are tended by ants impose a cost on plant fitness and health by reducing seed production and/or plant growth. This cost is associated with sap intake and virus transmissions but may be overcompesated by tending ants if they deter or prey on hebivorous insects. The balance between cost and benefits depends on the tending ant species. In this study we report other indirect effects on plants of the mutualism between aphids and ants. We have found that two Lasius ant species, one native and the other invasive, may change the composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the holm oak (Quercus ilex) blend when they tend the aphid Lachnus roboris. The aphid regulation of its feeding and honeydew production according to the ant demands was proposed as a plausible mechanism that triggers changes in VOCs. Additionally, we now report here that aphid feeding, which is located most of the time on acorns cap or petiole, significantly increased the relative content of linolenic acid in acorns from holm oak colonized by the invasive ant. This acid is involved in the response of plants to insect herbivory as a precursor or jasmonic acid. No effect was found on acorn production, germination or seedlings quality. These results suggest that tending-ants may trigger the physiological response of holm oaks involved in plant resistance toward aphid herbivory and this response is ant species dependant.

  9. Bridging the Gap between Non-Symbolic and Symbolic Processing: How Could Human Being Acquire Language?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Setsuo Ohsuga

    2006-01-01

    Information plays various roles for supporting human activity. Its basic role is to describe objects in the world. Form of representation is first decided, then method of its processing can be defined on its basis. Thus an information processing paradigm is defined. As human activity gets more and more complicated, information also becomes more and more sophisticated. Form of representation and processing method become the more complicated. Sometime in human history symbolic language has been developed. It facilitated representation of things. With the progress of language, information became the more sophisticated one. Development of variety of paradigms became possible by means of language. Each of which has a specific scope of applications There is a lot of information, however, that cannot be captured by symbolic language. Representation and processing of information unable to be symbolized, that is, non-symbolic information processing paradigm is very different from any of symbolic information processing paradigms. These two groups of paradigms divide the whole information world. Most applications have been done within either one of them so far. Progress of human activity requires a paradigm with a larger scope. If any of existing single paradigms cannot satisfy this requirement, a new paradigm must be developed. Integration of different paradigms is becoming a very important approach. However conversion between paradigms is necessary for the purpose and conversion between substantially different paradigms, such as between symbol processing and non-symbol processing,is very difficult. Bridging the gap between these two paradigms is becoming an important issue and is attracting much interest of researchers. Discovery and data mining is one of such issues. There is an interest in the more basic question such as "how could human being acquire language?" To discuss these issues is the major objective of this talk.

  10. The use of live vaccine for vaccination of human beings against brucellosis in the USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VERSHILOVA, P A

    1961-01-01

    The great majority of human brucellosis cases in the USSR are caused by contact with infected sheep and goats. Extensive action has been taken to prevent human infection and to reduce the incidence among farm animals, the main prophylactic measure in recent years being vaccination with live brucellosis vaccine. The author summarizes the steps leading to the development of a satisfactory vaccine and gives a brief description of the method of preparation. Discussing the results obtained, she states that there has been a nearly 60% reduction in the number of human cases over the period 1952-58.The subcutaneous route of administration is usually resorted to, but preliminary figures suggest that cutaneous vaccination is equally effective immunogenically, although in persons who have suffered from active brucellosis it causes strong reactions and may lead to exacerbation of the disease. Research is going forward into the development of a cutaneous vaccine capable of general use.

  11. Are typical human serum BPA concentrations measurable and sufficient to be estrogenic in the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeguarden, Justin; Hanson-Drury, Sesha; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Doerge, Daniel R

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian estrogen receptors modulate many physiological processes. Chemicals with structural features similar to estrogens can interact with estrogen receptors to produce biological effects similar to those caused by endogenous estrogens in the body. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a structural analogue of estrogen that binds to estrogen receptors. Exposure to BPA in humans is virtually ubiquitous in industrialized societies, but BPA is rapidly detoxified by metabolism and does not accumulate in the body. Whether or not serum concentrations of BPA in humans are sufficiently high to disrupt normal estrogen-related biology is the subject of intense political and scientific debate. Here we show a convergence of robust methods for measuring or calculating serum concentrations of BPA in humans from 93 published studies of more than 30,000 individuals in 19 countries across all life stages. Typical serum BPA concentrations are orders of magnitude lower than levels measurable by modern analytical methods and below concentrations required to occupy more than 0.0009% of Type II Estrogen Binding Sites, GPR30, ERα or ERβ receptors. Occupancies would be higher, but ≤0.04%, for the highest affinity receptor, ERRγ. Our results show limited or no potential for estrogenicity in humans, and question reports of measurable BPA in human serum.

  12. National well-being policy and a weighted approach to human feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Gus; Oswald, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Governments are becoming interested in the concept of human well-being and how truly to assess it. As an alternative to traditional economic measures, some nations have begun to collect information on citizens' happiness, life satisfaction, and other psychological scores. Yet how could such data actually be used? This paper is a cautious attempt to contribute to thinking on that question. It suggests a possible weighting method to calculate first-order changes in society's well-being, discusses some of the potential principles of democratic 'well-being policy', and (as an illustrative example) reports data on how sub-samples of citizens believe feelings might be weighted.

  13. Public Health Aspects of Trafficking in Human Beings – Health Promotion and Prevention Tasks and Possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Szilard, Istvan; Barath, Arpad

    2008-01-01

    In the last decades trafficking in human being has become one of the most lucrative criminal enterprises all over the world, with strong links to other illegal activities, such as money laundering, drug trafficking, document forgery, and smuggling. The US Justice Department estimated that annually some 700,000 women and children are bought, sold, transported and held in slavery-like conditions for sexual and labour exploitation. IOM estimates that around 120,000 women and children are being t...

  14. Postnatal Human Genetic Enhancement – A Consideration of Children’s Right to Be Genetically Enhanced

    OpenAIRE

    Tamir, Sivan

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers children’s rights with respect to genetic enhancement (GE). It is focused on the futuristic prospect of postnatal GE, namely, genetic modifications, in vivo, of actual existing individuals. More specifically, the paper examines whether, in a future reality where pre- and postnatal human GE is safely and prevalently practiced, a child would have a right to be genetically enhanced by her parents or guardians, as well as the right not to be genetically enhanced. It is in fac...

  15. The BMA's guidance on conscientious objection may be contrary to human rights law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenitire, John Olusegun

    2017-04-01

    It is argued that the current policy of the British Medical Association (BMA) on conscientious objection is not aligned with recent human rights developments. These grant a right to conscientious objection to doctors in many more circumstances than the very few recognised by the BMA. However, this wide-ranging right may be overridden if the refusal to accommodate the conscientious objection is proportionate. It is shown that it is very likely that it is lawful to refuse to accommodate conscientious objections that would result in discrimination of protected groups. It is still uncertain, however, in what particular circumstances the objection may be lawfully refused, if it poses risks to the health and safety of patients. The BMA's policy has not caught up with these human rights developments and ought to be changed.

  16. Polanyi’s Criticisms on Modern Economics’ Conception of the Human Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seriyye Akan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discipline of economics, who already assimilated the mathematical and technical tools as a base for the expression of theory is almost lost its identity as a social science. This process has become visible through some historical breakups. These breakups have scientific, social and economic faces. While the developments in natural sciences had led the economists to imitate physics - since it uses more certain methods as a science; the market society which established after the industrial revolution separated humans from the economic understanding of the past eras. Rationality, which indeed a philosophical concept, purified from its philosophical context and integrated to economics. On the other hand, the mainstream economics which accepts the maximisation of interest as one of the components of human nature prevailed the economics literature. The modern economics’ conception of human had shaped via the steps which we briefly mentioned above. Karl Polanyi (1886-1964 had criticized the human conception of modern economics by using social anthropological methods. He had claimed that market system did not emerged spontaneously, the nature of human did not change throughout history, and primitive economics was totally different from today’s market society since the economic relations were embedded in the other social relations. In this article, we tried to analyse Polanyi’s criticisms on modern economics’ human conception. For this reason, we firstly argued the term rationality in the economic context, since it would be a basis for our subject. Then we emphasized the thesis of “uncahged nature of human” which highlighted by Polanyi, discussions on primitive economies, and the market society which established parallel to the industrial revolution respectively.

  17. Zoonotic tuberculosis in human beings caused by Mycobacterium bovis-a call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Muwonge, Adrian; Perera, Alejandro; Dean, Anna S; Mumford, Elizabeth; Erlacher-Vindel, Elisabeth; Forcella, Simona; Silk, Benjamin J; Ditiu, Lucica; El Idrissi, Ahmed; Raviglione, Mario; Cosivi, Ottorino; LoBue, Philip; Fujiwara, Paula I

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is recognised as the primary cause of human tuberculosis worldwide. However, substantial evidence suggests that the burden of Mycobacterium bovis, the cause of bovine tuberculosis, might be underestimated in human beings as the cause of zoonotic tuberculosis. In 2013, results from a systematic review and meta-analysis of global zoonotic tuberculosis showed that the same challenges and concerns expressed 15 years ago remain valid. These challenges faced by people with zoonotic tuberculosis might not be proportional to the scientific attention and resources allocated in recent years to other diseases. The burden of zoonotic tuberculosis in people needs important reassessment, especially in areas where bovine tuberculosis is endemic and where people live in conditions that favour direct contact with infected animals or animal products. As countries move towards detecting the 3 million tuberculosis cases estimated to be missed annually, and in view of WHO's end TB strategy endorsed by the health authorities of WHO Member States in 2014 to achieve a world free of tuberculosis by 2035, we call on all tuberculosis stakeholders to act to accurately diagnose and treat tuberculosis caused by M bovis in human beings. Copyright © 2017 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd/Inc/BV. All rights reserved. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The contribution of animals to human well-being: a veterinary family practice perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Richard P

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that humans can benefit both physically and emotionally from a relationship with companion animals, a phenomenon known as the human-animal bond (HAB). This has not only increased the demand for veterinary services to meet the needs of these non-human family members and their owners, but it has also transformed the nature of those services from reactive medicine and surgery to proactive prevention and wellness. The emotional component of the HAB requires the veterinarian to have a solid understanding of the nature of the attachment between client and pet, and an ability to educate the client about proper care of the animal in order to optimize the relationship. Paying attention to the relationship between client and patient also positions the veterinary family practitioner to refer the client to appropriate community resources for physical, emotional, or other needs of the client that may become apparent during the veterinarian-client interaction. By achieving physical and mental health objectives for patients and collaborating with human health care services, the veterinary family practitioner contributes to the well-being of both patient and client. This new face of veterinary family practice requires research and education in fields that have not traditionally been a part of veterinary training.

  19. Urban planning with respect to environmental quality and human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Thomas; González Duque, José Antonio; Bostenaru Dan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The cities of today present requirements that are dissimilar to those of the past. There are cities where the industrial and service sectors are in decline, and there are other cities that are just beginning their journey into the technological and industrial sectors. In general, the political and social realms have been restructured in terms of economics, which has resulted in an entirely different shape to the primitive structures of civilization. As people begin to understand the dynamic nature of landscapes, they stop seeing landscapes as a static scene. Sustainable cities must be simultaneously economically viable, socially just, politically well managed and ecologically sustainable to maximize human comfort. The present research suggests a multi-disciplinary approach for attaining a holistic understanding of urban environmental quality and human well-being in relation to sustainable urban development.

  20. Human Being as a Communication Portal: The Construction of the Profile on Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Canavilhas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incorporation of mobile phones in the daily life of human being not only alters space and time dimensions, but it also changes the perception and the way we relate with the ecosystem. Methodology. The state of the art is analyzed from the technological concept of intimacy, used by Boyce and Hancock, which describes the levels of interaction between man and technology. Then, a methodology to explore issues increasingly pressing is proposed, especially, concerning the delimitation of public and private spheres and the interaction in the common space. Results and conclusions. Following in particular the theories of Castells, Heidegger, Meyrowitz and Habermas; a set of categories for deepening the concepts of spatialization, willingness and profile are articulated. These concepts are identified as key elements in this first stage of the project for the analysis of the human being as a communication portal.

  1. "She ain't no human being": le rock anglais chante sa reine

    OpenAIRE

    Chastagner, Claude

    1995-01-01

    The Beatles, The Smiths and The Sex Pistols have all sung the Queen, to celebrate or denigrate her. But in all cases, it is the sacrificial victim more than the human being or the official figure that is put forward.; The Beatles, The Smiths et The Sex Pistols ont tous les trois chanté la reine, une reine vilipendée ou célébrée mais toujours posée comme une victime sacrificielle.

  2. Effective nonvaccine interventions to be considered alongside human papilloma virus vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindin, Michelle J; Bloem, Paul; Ferguson, Jane

    2015-01-01

    World Health Organization recommends that girls, ages 9-13 years, get the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. Global Alliance for Vaccines Initiative, which provides low-cost vaccine to eligible countries, requires that an additional intervention to be offered alongside the vaccine. We systematically searched and assessed the published literature in lower- and middle-income countries to identify effective interventions. We conducted systematic searches of four databases: PubMed, EMBASE, Global Index Medicus Regional Databases, and Cochrane Reviews for effective adolescent health interventions that could be delivered with the HPV vaccine in the following areas: (1) iron and folic acid supplementation (iron alone or with folic acid); (2) voucher delivery and cash transfer programs; (3) hand washing and soap provision; (4) vision screening; (5) promotion of physical activity/exercise; (6) menstrual hygiene education; (7) sexual and reproductive health education; (8) human immunodeficiency virus prevention activities; and (9) condom promotion, condom use skill building, and demonstration. We found limited evidence of consistent positive impact. Iron supplementation reduced iron-deficiency anemia and raised serum ferritin levels. Promotion of physical activity lowered blood pressure and reduced weight gain. Sexual and reproductive health and human immunodeficiency virus interventions improved adolescent communication with adults but did not influence behavioral outcomes. Countries should consider locally relevant and proven interventions to be offered alongside the HPV vaccine. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Toxicovigilance: a new approach for the hazard identification and risk assessment of toxicants in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descotes, Jacques; Testud, François

    2005-09-01

    The concept of toxicovigilance encompasses the active detection, validation and follow-up of clinical adverse events related to toxic exposures in human beings. Poison centers are key players in this function as poisoning statistics are essential to define the cause, incidence and severity of poisonings occurring in the general population. In addition, the systematic search for unexpected shifts in the recorded causes of poisonings, e.g., following the introduction of a new product, or change in the formulation or recommended use of an old product, allows for a rapid detection of potential adverse health consequences and the implementation of preventive or corrective measures. However, toxicovigilance is genuinely a medical and not only a statistical approach of human toxicity issues. In contrast to epidemiology, toxicovigilance is based on the in-depth medical assessment of acute or chronic intoxications on an individual basis, which requires detailed information that poison centers can rarely obtain via emergency telephone calls and that epidemiologists cannot collect or process. Validation of this medical information must primarily be based on toxicological expertise to help identify causal links between otherwise unexplained pathological conditions and documented toxic exposures. Thus, toxicovigilance can contribute to hazard identification and risk assessment by providing medically validated data which are often overlooked in the process of risk assessment. So far, very few structured toxicovigilance systems have been set up and hopefully national and international initiatives will bridge this gap in our knowledge of the toxicity of many chemicals and commercial products in human beings.

  4. Can biosemiotics be a "science" if its purpose is to be a bridge between the natural, social and human sciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brier, Søren

    2015-12-01

    Central to the attempt to develop a biosemiotics has been the discussion of what it means to be scientific. In Marcello Barbieri's latest argument for leaving Peircean biosemiotics and creating an alternative code-biology the definition of what it means to be scientific plays a major role. For Barbieri "scientific knowledge is obtained by building machine-like models of what we observe in nature". Barbieri interestingly claims that - in combination with the empirical and experimental basis - mechanism is virtually equivalent to the scientific method. The consequences of this statement seem to be that the optimal type of knowledge science can produce about living system is to model them as machines. But the explicit goal of a Peircean semiotically based biosemiotics is (also) to model living systems as cognitive and communicative systems working on the basis of meaning and signification. These two concepts are not part of the mechanistic models of natural science today, not even of cognitive science. Barbieri tries to solve this problem by introducing a new concept of biological meaning that is separate from the Peircean biosemiotics and then add Peirce's semiotics on top. This article argues why this view is inconsistent on the grounds that Peirce's semiotic paradigm only gives meaning in its pragmaticist conception of a fallibilist view of science, which again is intrinsic connected to its non-mechanistic metaphysics of Tychism, Synechism and Agapism. The core of the biosemiotic enterprise is to establish another type of trans- and interdisciplinary wissenschaft than the received view of "science".

  5. Elasticity in ecosystem services: exploring the variable relationship between ecosystems and human well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim M. Daw

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although ecosystem services are increasingly recognized as benefits people obtain from nature, we still have a poor understanding of how they actually enhance multidimensional human well-being, and how well-being is affected by ecosystem change. We develop a concept of "ecosystem service elasticity" (ES elasticity that describes the sensitivity of human well-being to changes in ecosystems. ES Elasticity is a result of complex social and ecological dynamics and is context dependent, individually variable, and likely to demonstrate nonlinear dynamics such as thresholds and hysteresis. We present a conceptual framework that unpacks the chain of causality from ecosystem stocks through flows, goods, value, and shares to contribute to the well-being of different people. This framework builds on previous conceptualizations, but places multidimensional well-being of different people as the final element. This ultimately disaggregated approach emphasizes how different people access benefits and how benefits match their needs or aspirations. Applying this framework to case studies of individual coastal ecosystem services in East Africa illustrates a wide range of social and ecological factors that can affect ES elasticity. For example, food web and habitat dynamics affect the sensitivity of different fisheries ecosystem services to ecological change. Meanwhile high cultural significance, or lack of alternatives enhance ES elasticity, while social mechanisms that prevent access can reduce elasticity. Mapping out how chains are interlinked illustrates how different types of value and the well-being of different people are linked to each other and to common ecological stocks. We suggest that examining chains for individual ecosystem services can suggest potential interventions aimed at poverty alleviation and sustainable ecosystems while mapping out of interlinkages between chains can help to identify possible ecosystem service trade-offs and winners and

  6. Martha C. Nussbaum – Another Approach for the Defense of the Human Being and the Human Rights of Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Monereo Atienza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper confronts the advantagesand disadvantages of Nussbaum´s theory inseeking equality for women. Nussbaum under-stands that people in general and women in par-ticular have a number of common capabilitiesbecause they are ends in themselves. You cannot treat another person as a mere object, andthis deserves a cross-cultural consensus on whatis the human being. The universal concept ofthe subject that she offers, based on a minimumcommon to all, open to dialogue and politicalconsensus, is very interesting. However, we cannot forget other approaches like the discourse ofrights.

  7. Being Professional and Being Human. Professional’s Sensemaking in the Context of Close and Frequent Interactions with Citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte Sommer Harrits

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In classic theories on professions and professionalism, the relationship between professionals and citizens are typically seen as based on formal, scientific knowledge and expertise and thus as functionally specific. This conception may, however, be too simplistic for professionals working in close and frequent interactions with citizens. The article therefore theoretically discusses the assumption of a functional specific relationship and the possibility of other ways (e.g., personal and emotional that professionals can relate to citizens. Further, the article explores the professional-citizen relationship seen from the side of welfare professionals, by exploring sensemaking with regard to professional identities, roles, and discretion making. The analysis demonstrate how most professionals combine a logic based on formal knowledge and training with a personal, relational, and emotion-based logic when describing their work and the relationship to citizens. Implications for our theoretical and normative understanding of professionalism are discussed.

  8. Prices of Rare Earth Products Tend to Rise(Continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    8. Ji Daiyu, General Manager of Baotou Xinyuan RareEarth Hi-Tech Materials Co. LtdControl gross to stabilize prices. Chinese rare earth is precious strategic resource. The more it is exploit, the less it will be. The State has put forward rare earth policy of "strengthen management, protect resource, develop scientifically and face international". Chinese rare earth

  9. Tending a Virtual Garden: Exploring Connectivity between Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakanen, Minna; Polli, Anna Maria; Lee, Stella

    2013-01-01

    their waiting time. ‘Virtual Garden’ creates the experience of ‘being connected’ by providing users with the possibility to ‘grow’ a collaborative garden using a smartphone and natural gestures as the control interaction. Lo-fi prototypes were used to gather user feedback which informed the design...... of the 'Virtual Garden'....

  10. Modeling additional solar constraints on a human being inside a room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thellier, Francoise; Monchoux, Francoise; Bonnis-Sassi, Michel; Lartigue, Berengere [Laboratoire Physique de l' Homme Appliquee a Son Environnement (PHASE), Universite Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2008-04-15

    Sun fluxes induce additional heterogeneous thermal constraints in buildings and may also lead to discomfort for the inhabitant. To calculate the local thermal sensation of a human being totally or partially situated in the sunlight, the solar radiation inside a room and its detailed distribution on parts of the human body are modeled. The present study focuses on the solar gains part of a complete modeling tool simulating an occupied building. The irradiated areas are calculated with a ray tracing method taking shadow into account. Solar fluxes are computed. Fluxes can be absorbed by each surface or reflected. The reflected fluxes are then absorbed at the next impact. A multi-node thermoregulation model (MARCL) represents the thermal behavior of the human body and all its heat exchanges with the environment. The thermal transient simulation of the whole occupied building is performed in TRNSYS simulation software. In the case presented here, the results show that, when a person is inside the building, the skin and clothing temperatures of the irradiated segments increase more or less depending on the segments but the global thermal equilibrium of the body is maintained thanks to strong physiological reactions. (author)

  11. Fourier series analysis of the electrophysiological pattern of fatigue in healthy human beings, after curare administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatine, J J; Shochina, M; Mahler, Y; Gonen, B; Magora, A

    1991-08-01

    Real time computer analysis of the electrophysiological development of muscular fatigue after small doses of d-tubocurarine (TC), has been examined in anesthetized human beings. As compared to a decrease of frequency in the control measurements, previous studies have shown an increase of the frequency of spikes after TC administration. The present experiments were carried out on the biceps brachii of 8 healthy human volunteers maintained in isometric contraction against a constant counter load until complete fatigue occurred. The Fourier spectrum analysis showed a statistically significant shift to lower frequencies before, and a milder statistically non significant shift after TC. These results may indicate that under mild curarization the early phase of muscular contraction requires a higher number of large motor units and thus, at a later stage of the contraction the pool of available large motor units becomes smaller. This conclusion supports the hypothesis that mild curarization causes a state of initial muscular fatigue.

  12. Human Factors Effecting Forensic Decision Making: Workplace Stress and Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanguenat, Amy M; Dror, Itiel E

    2017-05-02

    Over the past decade, there has been a growing openness about the importance of human factors in forensic work. However, most of it focused on cognitive bias, and neglected issues of workplace wellness and stress. Forensic scientists work in a dynamic environment that includes common workplace pressures such as workload volume, tight deadlines, lack of advancement, number of working hours, low salary, technology distractions, and fluctuating priorities. However, in addition, forensic scientists also encounter a number of industry-specific pressures, such as technique criticism, repeated exposure to crime scenes or horrific case details, access to funding, working in an adversarial legal system, and zero tolerance for "errors". Thus, stress is an important human factor to mitigate for overall error management, productivity and decision quality (not to mention the well-being of the examiners themselves). Techniques such as mindfulness can become powerful tools to enhance work and decision quality. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Biodiversity redistribution under climate change: Impacts on ecosystems and human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecl, Gretta T; Araújo, Miguel B; Bell, Johann D; Blanchard, Julia; Bonebrake, Timothy C; Chen, I-Ching; Clark, Timothy D; Colwell, Robert K; Danielsen, Finn; Evengård, Birgitta; Falconi, Lorena; Ferrier, Simon; Frusher, Stewart; Garcia, Raquel A; Griffis, Roger B; Hobday, Alistair J; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Jarzyna, Marta A; Jennings, Sarah; Lenoir, Jonathan; Linnetved, Hlif I; Martin, Victoria Y; McCormack, Phillipa C; McDonald, Jan; Mitchell, Nicola J; Mustonen, Tero; Pandolfi, John M; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Popova, Ekaterina; Robinson, Sharon A; Scheffers, Brett R; Shaw, Justine D; Sorte, Cascade J B; Strugnell, Jan M; Sunday, Jennifer M; Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Vergés, Adriana; Villanueva, Cecilia; Wernberg, Thomas; Wapstra, Erik; Williams, Stephen E

    2017-03-31

    Distributions of Earth's species are changing at accelerating rates, increasingly driven by human-mediated climate change. Such changes are already altering the composition of ecological communities, but beyond conservation of natural systems, how and why does this matter? We review evidence that climate-driven species redistribution at regional to global scales affects ecosystem functioning, human well-being, and the dynamics of climate change itself. Production of natural resources required for food security, patterns of disease transmission, and processes of carbon sequestration are all altered by changes in species distribution. Consideration of these effects of biodiversity redistribution is critical yet lacking in most mitigation and adaptation strategies, including the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Can visual information encoded in cortical columns be decoded from magnetoencephalography data in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Radoslaw Martin; Ramirez, Fernando Mario; Pantazis, Dimitrios

    2015-11-01

    It is a principal open question whether noninvasive imaging methods in humans can decode information encoded at a spatial scale as fine as the basic functional unit of cortex: cortical columns. We addressed this question in five magnetoencephalography (MEG) experiments by investigating a columnar-level encoded visual feature: contrast edge orientation. We found that MEG signals contained orientation-specific information as early as approximately 50 ms after stimulus onset even when controlling for confounds, such as overrepresentation of particular orientations, stimulus edge interactions, and global form-related signals. Theoretical modeling confirmed the plausibility of this empirical result. An essential consequence of our results is that information encoded in the human brain at the level of cortical columns should in general be accessible by multivariate analysis of electrophysiological signals.

  15. Problems with measuring peripheral oxytocin: can the data on oxytocin and human behavior be trusted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Michael E; Churchland, Patricia Smith; Mendez, Armando J

    2013-09-01

    Research on the neurobiological and behavioral effects of oxytocin (OT), as well as on its possible therapeutic applications, has intensified in the past decade. Accurate determination of peripheral OT levels is essential to reach meaningful conclusions and to motivate, support and inform clinical interventions. Different, but concordant, methods for measuring plasma OT have been developed over the past four decades, but since 2004 several commercially available methods have been favored in research with humans. Evaluation of these methods reveals that they lack reliability when used on unextracted samples of human fluids, and that they tag molecules in addition to OT, yielding estimates that are wildly discrepant with an extensive body of earlier findings that were obtained using methods that are well validated, but more laborious. An accurate, specific, and readily available method for measuring OT that can be adopted as the standard in the field is urgently needed for advances in our understanding of OT's roles in cognition and behavior.

  16. Societal and Economic Elements of Trafficking in Human Beings into the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Wong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU is an early signatory of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. During the past decade, the EU has been undertaking various measures to conform to the "Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons". The mitigating strategy has been largely based on the enforcement of existing and new laws, inside as well as outside of the EU. To date, the results have been largely ineffective. Addressing the societal and economic elements of home and host countries could be a more enduring means to alleviate the problem of trafficking in human beings.

  17. National well-being policy and a weighted approach to human feelings☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Donnell, Gus; Oswald, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Governments are becoming interested in the concept of human well-being and how truly to assess it. As an alternative to traditional economic measures, some nations have begun to collect information on citizens’ happiness, life satisfaction, and other psychological scores. Yet how could such data actually be used? This paper is a cautious attempt to contribute to thinking on that question. It suggests a possible weighting method to calculate first-order changes in society’s well-being, discusses some of the potential principles of democratic ‘well-being policy’, and (as an illustrative example) reports data on how sub-samples of citizens believe feelings might be weighted. PMID:28798536

  18. Study on Tending Operations to Control over Harm of Pine Scale in Urban Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGJinshui; KEYuzhu; TANGQiliang; ZHONGJinghui; YEJianxiong

    2004-01-01

    The change of pine scale (Hemiberlesia pitysophila Takagi) population density on pine forest in urban park between treatment (tending operations) and CK (no tending operations) was researched in this paper. The results were shown as follows: population density declined to 0.63 head per bundle from 2.61 heads per bundle when crown density of pine in urban park had become 0.5 or so by means of cultivation activities such as felling, pruning and thinning and so on, and drop got to 75.86 percent. The pinewoods would soon get revived once using these cultivation activities, so tending operations was main measures controlling over harm of pine scale in urban park; At the same time, population density of pine scale on pinewoods in the sunny slope was more than that in the somber slope and it had become less and less from sunny slope to somber slope. Therefore, tree species must be chosen in the planning and design of urban park for preventing harm and happening of pine scale.

  19. Tending for Cattle: Traditional Fire Management in Ethiopian Montane Heathlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria U. Johansson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fire has long been a principal tool for manipulating ecosystems, notably for pastoralist cultures, but in modern times, fire use has often been a source of conflicts with state bureaucracies. Despite this, traditional fire management practices have rarely been examined from a perspective of fire behavior and fire effects, which hampers dialogue on management options. In order to analyze the rationale for fire use, its practical handling, and ecological effects in high-elevation ericaceous heathlands in Ethiopia, we used three different information sources: interviews with pastoralists, field observations of fires, and analysis of vegetation age structure at the landscape level. The interviews revealed three primary reasons for burning: increasing the grazing value, controlling a toxic caterpillar, and reducing predator attacks. Informants were well aware of critical factors governing fire behavior, such as slope, wind, vertical and horizontal fuel structure, and fuel moisture. Recent burns (1-4 years since fire were used as firebreaks to control the size of individual burns, which resulted in a mosaic of vegetation of different ages. The age structure indicated an average fire return interval of ~10 years. At these elevations (> 3500 m, the dry period is unreliable, with occasional rains. Of all observed fires, 83% were ignited during very high Fire Weather Index levels, reached during only 11% of all days of the year. Burning is illegal, but if this ban was respected, our data suggest that the Erica shrubs would grow out of reach of cattle within a few years only, creating a dense and continuous canopy. This would also create a risk of large high-intensity wildfires since the landscape is virtually devoid of natural fuel breaks. Under the present management regime, this heathland ecosystem should be quite resilient to degradation by fire due to a relatively slow fuel buildup (limiting fire intervals and an effective regrowth of Erica shoots

  20. Tending a Virtual Garden: Exploring Connectivity between Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakanen, Minna; Polli, Anna Maria; Lee, Stella

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new experience-driven design concept to public spaces, such as bus stops, to strengthen connections between cities and their citizens. With the prototype described here we are provoking inquiry into whether the "technology" that is a bus stop, with high tech augmentations...... their waiting time. ‘Virtual Garden’ creates the experience of ‘being connected’ by providing users with the possibility to ‘grow’ a collaborative garden using a smartphone and natural gestures as the control interaction. Lo-fi prototypes were used to gather user feedback which informed the design...... of the 'Virtual Garden'....

  1. Human beings' adaptability to extreme environmental changes from medical and physical points of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarova, Olga; Ragulskaya, Maria; Dimitrova, Svetla; Safaraly-Oghlu Babayev, Elchin; Samsonov, Sergey; Med. Dimitry Markov, Of; Nazarova, Of Med. Olga N.; Rudenchik, Evgeny

    The question about features of human reaction on the sharp environmental physical activity (EPA) changes is considered by international group of physicists and physicians on the base of results of monitoring of human health state in different cities spread on latitude and longitude. The typical reaction of human body on the influences, exceeding the organisms' ability to adaptation, is of stress-reaction character. From medical point of view there is no significant difference for human body -what external (EPA) agent shocked an organism (emotional or some physical threats). First attempt of the organism to restore its homeostasis is stress-reaction, being universal for many stress-factors. Its main stages (such as alarm, resistance, and exhaustion) are detectable by different medical equipments, but we tried to find universal, non-traumatic method of daily measurements, enough sensitive and appropriate for observation of people reaction both on weather and space weather (geomagnetic activity) changes. The experiment was based on a method of electrical conductivity measurements of biologically active (acupunctural) points of human skin. The used method (electroacupunctural method by Dr. R.Voll) is very sensitive to current state of an organism and characterize the functional condition of different organs and systems of human body and allows to express so-called "group's health status" in the units, suitable for comparison with meteorological and heliogeophysical parameters. We conduct the parallel investigations as a part of collaborative study in different geographic latitudes-longitudes (Baku:40° 23'43"N -49° 52'56"E, Troitsk (Moscow region): 55° 28'40"N -37° 18'42"E, Yakutsk: 62° 02'00"N -129° 44'00"E). Measurements were carried out on daily basis with permanent group of functionally healthy persons (Moscow -19, Yakutsk -22, CityBaku -12 volunteers). Daily monitoring of nervous, endocrinological, lymphatic systems, blood, lungs, thick and thin intestine

  2. Tecnologia M\\'ovel: Uma Tend\\^encia, Uma Realidade

    CERN Document Server

    Alcantara, Carlos Augusto Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Currently, mobility presents itself as a major innovation in historic technological revolution. From the first decade of this century, nothing compares to what happened in the field of Information Technology (IT), which is adding to market a range of news relating to infrastructure such as mobile computing hardware, software, computer networks, etc.. From a handheld as a wireless device, iPad, Smartphone, you can connect to the digital world, people, customers, business partners, etc.. Given the infinite range of information, services and resources available in the electronic world, it is considered that few are those, markets and people who want to be left behind. The interest in this channel of communication becomes not only a new strategy of marketing and communications. Mobile devices are becoming more sophisticated and allows access to the web. Thinking in this context is that manufacturers of electronic components face each other in a war over the disputed technology to a competitive environment that is...

  3. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius can be misdiagnosed as Staphylococcus aureus in humans with dog bite wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börjesson, S; Gómez-Sanz, E; Ekström, K; Torres, C; Grönlund, U

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether S. pseudintermedius is misdiagnosed as S. aureus by clinical laboratories when isolated from humans with dog bite wounds. In addition, we attempted to determine whether S. pseudintermedius isolates related to dog bite wounds share phenotypic and genotypic traits. S. pseudintermedius was identified by PCR targeting the nuc gene. Isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility using VetMIC GP-mo microdilution panels. The occurrence of genes encoding leukocidins, exfoliatins, pyrogenic toxin superantigens and enterotoxins was determined by PCR. The relatedness of S. pseudintermedius isolates was investigated using Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Out of 101 isolates defined as S. aureus by human clinical microbiology laboratories, 13 isolates were re-identified as S. pseudintermedius and one isolate was confirmed to carry the mecA gene, i.e. methicillin-resistant (MRSP). The MRSP isolate was also defined as multi-resistant. Two methicillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius isolates were also multi-resistant and five were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the exception of three S. pseudintermedius isolates belonging to multi locus sequence type (MLST) 158, all the isolates belonged to unique STs. All isolates contained lukS/F-I, siet and se-int, and expA were identified in two isolates and expB and sec canine-sel in one isolate respectively. S. pseudintermedius is frequently misdiagnosed as S. aureus from humans with dog bite wounds showing that it can act as an opportunistic pathogen in humans. No common phenotypic and genotypic traits shared by the S. pseudintermedius isolates could be identified.

  4. Ligand binding strategies of human serum albumin: how can the cargo be utilized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Ankita; Sen, Priyankar; Ahmad, Ejaz; Rehan, Mohd; Subbarao, Naidu; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA), being the most abundant carrier protein in blood and a modern day clinical tool for drug delivery, attracts high attention among biologists. Hence, its unfolding/refolding strategies and exogenous/endogenous ligand binding preference are of immense use in therapeutics and clinical biochemistry. Among its fellow proteins albumin is known to carry almost every small molecule. Thus, it is a potential contender for being a molecular cargo/or nanovehicle for clinical, biophysical and industrial purposes. Nonetheless, its structure and function are largely regulated by various chemical and physical factors to accommodate HSA to its functional purpose. This multifunctional protein also possesses enzymatic properties which may be used to convert prodrugs to active therapeutics. This review aims to highlight current overview on the binding strategies of protein to various ligands that may be expected to lead to significant clinical applications.

  5. Tendências da gestão social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislau Dowbor

    1999-02-01

    .Capitalism is a good system when production is concerned, but not good enough a system if we want adequate distribution. And a system that produces well, but does not distribute accordingly, is structurally unbalanced. We need alternatives. What we have had up to now are not alternatives, but simplifications, with statism on one side, and liberalism on the other, redemption being expected to come either from the bourgeoisie or from the proletariat, depending on the political views. This debate will continue, but reality has changed. Economic growth is obviously not sufficient, assuming it exists. No modern economic activity can be stimulated if we do not have the corresponding investment in people, through health, education, culture, leisure and so on. Social activities are no longer a complement to banking and industry. They have become central to the economy itself. In the U.S., the new economic locomotive is not the car industry, but health, representing 14% of GDP. While social services have become central in modern economies, they still have to find their management paradigm. Huge, centralized state burocracies are not responsive enough, while privatization has led to dramatic abuse. The lack of specific management responses to the new demands of social services has become a key problem both in avanced and developing economies.

  6. [Pulmonary cystic disease may be a rare complication to recurrent respiratory human papilloma virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurberg, Peter Thaysen; Weinreich, Ulla M Øller

    2014-12-01

    A 19-year-old woman with a history of juvenile laryngeal papillomatosis (JLP), treated since childhood with multiple resections, was admitted with symptoms of pneumonia. A chest X-ray and CAT-scan revealed multiple lung cysts and a bronchoalveolar lavage detected human papilloma virus 11. The patient responded well to antibiotics. A body plethysmography showed small lung volumes and low diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide, but normal volume diffusion capacity divided by alveolar volume. Pulmonary cystic disease should be considered when patients with JLP have symptoms of pneumonia.

  7. Indicators to Identify Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jessica; Ambagtsheer, Frederike

    2016-02-01

    This article presents indicators to support transplant professionals, judicial and law enforcement authorities and victim support workers with the identification of trafficking in persons for the purpose of organ removal. It outlines the legal and illegal service providers that facilitate trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and guides the reader through the following criminal process: recruitment, transport, entrance, documents, housing, transplant, aftercare, and finance. Identification of illegal transplant activities by transplant professionals can support police and judiciary with the investigation, disruption, and prosecuting of trafficking networks.

  8. Carbapenem resistance in a human clinical isolate identified to be closely related to Acinetobacter indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnin, Rémy A; Poirel, Laurent; van der Reijden, Tanny J K; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Lescat, Mathilde; Nordmann, Patrice

    2014-10-01

    Here we report a case of carbapenem resistance in a human clinical isolate that was found to be closely related to the newly described environmental species Acinetobacter indicus. This strain harboured the blaOXA-23 carbapenemase gene located on a conjugative plasmid. Partial sequencing of 16S rDNA and rpoB genes, together with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis, showed that this strain was distantly related to the Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex and was closely related to A. indicus.

  9. Effect of technology innovation and spillovers on the carbon intensity of human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jifang; Yuan, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    In order to enhance sustainability, it is necessary to reduce the carbon intensity of human well-being (CIWB). In this paper, we analyze the impact of technology innovation and spillovers on CIWB using panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2005 to 2010. We find that increasing research and development (R&D) intensity and interregional R&D spillovers can decrease CIWB; R&D intensity has a nonlinear effect on CIWB without incorporating interregional R&D spillovers; economic development has positive effect on CIWB, while manufacturing has negative effect on CIWB.

  10. Local Signaling Environments and Human Male Infertility: What Can Be Learned from Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalam, Roopa L.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Infertility is one of the most prevalent public health problems facing young adult males in today’s society. A clear, treatable cause of infertility cannot be determined in a large number of these patients, and a growing body of evidence suggests that infertility in many of these men may be due to genetic causes. Studies utilizing animal models, and most importantly, mouse knockout technology, have been integral not only for the study of normal spermatogenesis but also for identifying proteins essential for this process, which in turn are candidate genes for causing human male infertility. Successful spermatogenesis depends on a delicate balance of local signaling factors, and this review focuses specifically on the genes that encode these factors. Normal functioning of all testicular cell types is not only essential for normal fertility but, as recently hypothesized, may also be crucial to prevent germ cell oncogenesis. Analysis of these processes using mouse models in vivo has provided investigators with an invaluable tool to effectively translate basic science research to the research of human disease and infertility. PMID:20456819

  11. Explanation of Security Factors that Affect Upon Investors Tend to Migaration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal koohi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction capital and security are the two wings of bird and always have interaction and capital can not be understood without security. because of this fact, owners of capital have been strong supporters of security.so, we can say that police security components are considered one of the main factors strengthening and weakening of investor absorption and excretion in a Society. East Azarbaijan provinces is considered one of the most migrant-exporting provinces in country and immigrant transmission rates of East Azarbaijan provinces has been Most of the Seen war provinces such as Illam and Khuzestan provinces. general population and housing censuses results of decades of 60, 70 and 80 confirm the above claims. in this context, the present paper has been developed for reviews the components of the security Police on investors tend to migrate from East Azarbaijan province. Matherial and Methods Research was done through survey method and the population study investors of East Azarbaijan that is approximately 8794 person. research was done through survey method with 390 samples. sampling method was stratified random and by questionnaires collected necessary information investors of East Azarbaijan. the present study tested the hypothesis such as "increased in satisfaction rate of police performance leads to reduce the tendency of investors to migrate." ,"increased in investors psychological security, leads to reduce the tendency of investors to migrate."increased in police security, leads to reduce the tendency of investors to migrate." And"maintain and protect the social status of investor in provences, leads to reduce the tendency of investors to migrate". also, the reliability test results of variables show that Items designed to measure the variables are good items because, reliability is at all appropriate levels. for preliminary analysis of data is used SPSS version 21 is used and for modelling the causes of security factors that affect

  12. Assessing the Relationship Between Human Well-being and Ecosystem Services: A Review of Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Agarwala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the most impoverished populations, we critically review and synthesise key themes from dominant frameworks for assessing the relationship between well-being and ecosystem services in developing countries. This requires a differentiated approach to conceptualising well-being that appropriately reflects the perspectives of the poorest-those most directly dependent on ecosystem services, and their vulnerability to external and policy-driven environmental change. The frameworks analysed draw upon environmental sciences, economics, psychology, sociology, and anthropology, and were selected on the basis of their demonstrated or potential ability to illustrate the relationship between environmental change and human well-being, as well as their prevalence in real world applications. Thus, the synthesis offered here is informed by the various theoretical, methodological, and hermeneutical contributions from each field to the notion of well-being. The review highlights several key dimensions that should be considered by those interested in understanding and assessing the impact of environmental change on the well-being of the world′s poorest people: the importance of interdisciplinary consideration of well-being, the need for frameworks that integrate subjective and objective aspects of well-being, and the central importance of context and relational aspects of well-being. The review is of particular interest to those engaged in the post-2015 development agenda.

  13. Reservoirs and human well being: new challenges for evaluating impacts and benefits in the neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JG. Tundisi

    Full Text Available As in many other continents, neotropical ecosystems are impacted by the construction of reservoirs. These artificial ecosystems change considerably the natural terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and their biodiversity. The multiple uses of reservoirs promote benefits for the human beings in terms of economic development, income, jobs and employment. Services of reservoirs are important assets for the regional ecosystem. Evaluation of ecosystem services produced by artificial reservoirs, are new challenges to the understanding of the cost/benefit relationships of reservoir construction in the neotropics. Regulating and other services promoted by reservoirs lead to new trends for "green technology" and the implementation of ecohydrological and ecotechnological developments. This approach can be utilized with better success as a substitute for the usual impact/benefit evaluation of the reservoirs. Better and diversified services can be achieved with "green technology" applied to the construction.

  14. Human amnion epithelial cells can be induced to differentiate into functional insulin-producing cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanan Hou; Qin Huang; Tianjin Liu; Lihe Guo

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation has demonstrated that long-term insulin independence may be achieved in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus type 1. However, limited availability of islet tissue means that new sources of insulinproducing cells that are responsive to glucose are required. Here, we show that human amnion epithelial cells (HAEC) can be induced to differentiate into functional insulinproducing cells in vitro. After induction of differentiation, HAEC expressed multiple pancreatic --cell genes, including insulin, pancreas duodenum homeobox-1, paired box gene 6,NK2 transcription factor-related locus 2, Islet 1, glucokinase,and glucose transporter-2, and released C-peptide in a glucose-regulated manner in response to other extracellular stimulations. The transplantation of induced HAEC into streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57 mice reversed hyperglycemia, restored body weight, and maintained euglycemia for 30 d. These findings indicated that HAEC may be a new source for cell replacement therapy in type 1 diabetes.

  15. Ethics and methods for biological rhythm research on animals and human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaluppi, Francesco; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan

    2010-10-01

    This article updates the ethical standards and methods for the conduct of high-quality animal and human biological rhythm research, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. The editors of Chronobiology International adhere to and endorse the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE), which encourages communication of such updates at regular intervals in the journal. The journal accepts papers representing original work, no part of which was previously submitted for publication elsewhere, except as brief abstracts, as well as in-depth reviews. The majority of research papers published in Chronobiology International entails animal and human investigations. The editors and readers of the journal expect authors of submitted manuscripts to have made an important contribution to the research of biological rhythms and related phenomena using ethical methods/procedures and unbiased, accurate, and honest reporting of findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to declare all potential conflicts of interest. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of investigators to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, relating to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals, and the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, relating to the conduct of ethical research on human beings. The peer review of manuscripts by Chronobiology International thus includes judgment as to whether or not the protocols and methods conform to ethical standards. Authors are expected to show mastery of the basic methods and procedures of biological rhythm research and proper statistical assessment of data, including the appropriate application of time series data analyses, as briefly reviewed in this article. The journal editors strive to consistently achieve

  16. 78 FR 13688 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be Approved for Use in NIH Funded Research SUMMARY: In compliance with... Information Collection: The form is used by applicants to request that human embryonic stem cell lines be... within 60 days of the date of this publication. Proposed Collection: Request for Human Embryonic Stem...

  17. Will the damage be done before we feel the heat? Infectious disease emergence and human response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, R A

    2013-12-01

    The global political economy is facing extreme challenges against a backdrop of large-scale expansion of human and domestic animal populations and related impacts on the biosphere. Significant global socio-ecological changes have occurred in the period of a single lifetime, driven by increased technology and access to physical and biological resources through open markets and globalization. Current resource consumption rates are not sustainable and ecological tipping points are being reached and one of the indicators of these may be a changing balance between hosts and pathogens. A period of extraordinary progress in reducing infection risk and disease impact on humans and domestic animals in the 20th Century is reversing in the 21st, but not always and not everywhere. Drivers for this shift are discussed in terms of demographics, agroecology, biodiversity decline and loss of resilience in ecosystems, climate change and increasing interconnectedness between species globally. Causality of disease emergence remains highly speculative, but patterns and data are emerging to commend a precautionary approach, while reassessing our global political, social and economic systems.

  18. Inequalities in Human Well-Being in the Urban Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Szabo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The recently endorsed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs agenda unanimously agrees on the need to focus on inclusive development, the importance of eradicating extreme poverty and managing often complex human well-being impacts of rapid urban growth. Sustainable and inclusive urbanisation will accelerate progress towards the SDGs and contribute to eradicating extreme poverty. In tropical delta regions, such as the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna delta region, urban growth and resulting intra-urban inequalities are accelerated by the impact of environmental and climate change. In this context, the present study uses the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey to analyse the extent of wealth-based inequalities in human well-being in the urban delta region and the determinants of selected welfare measures. The results suggest that the extent of intra-urban inequalities is greatest in educational attainment and access to postnatal healthcare and relatively low in the occurrence of gastric disease. The paper concludes by providing policy recommendations to reduce increasing wealth inequalities in urban areas, thus contributing to sustainable development of the region.

  19. Stimulus-triggered Fate Conversion of Somatic Cells into Pluripotency in Chronic Wounds in Human Beings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavraj S. Nagoba

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone-marrow derived stem cells are multi potential or totipotent and are able to differentiate into numerous cell types. Their application is indicated in various reconstructive and restorative surgeries for rapid healing. A technique for creating cells that have the embryonic ability to turn into almost any cell type in the mammalian body has been reported. Recently, an unexpected phenomenon of somatic cell reprogramming into pluripotent cells by exposing to sublethal stimuli such as citrate based acidic medium has been reported. With the concept of creating acidic environment in chronic infected wounds to make a condition unsuitable for growth and multiplication of bacteria using 3% citric acid has been reported. It would be interesting to study whether the phenomenon of pluripotency takes place in chronic infected wounds in human beings following the application of 3% citric acid and plays an important role in formation of healthy granulation tissue.

  20. Current demographics suggest future energy supplies will be inadequate to slow human population growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P DeLong

    Full Text Available Influential demographic projections suggest that the global human population will stabilize at about 9-10 billion people by mid-century. These projections rest on two fundamental assumptions. The first is that the energy needed to fuel development and the associated decline in fertility will keep pace with energy demand far into the future. The second is that the demographic transition is irreversible such that once countries start down the path to lower fertility they cannot reverse to higher fertility. Both of these assumptions are problematic and may have an effect on population projections. Here we examine these assumptions explicitly. Specifically, given the theoretical and empirical relation between energy-use and population growth rates, we ask how the availability of energy is likely to affect population growth through 2050. Using a cross-country data set, we show that human population growth rates are negatively related to per-capita energy consumption, with zero growth occurring at ∼13 kW, suggesting that the global human population will stop growing only if individuals have access to this amount of power. Further, we find that current projected future energy supply rates are far below the supply needed to fuel a global demographic transition to zero growth, suggesting that the predicted leveling-off of the global population by mid-century is unlikely to occur, in the absence of a transition to an alternative energy source. Direct consideration of the energetic constraints underlying the demographic transition results in a qualitatively different population projection than produced when the energetic constraints are ignored. We suggest that energetic constraints be incorporated into future population projections.

  1. Why Robots Should Be Social: Enhancing Machine Learning through Social Human-Robot Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim de Greeff

    Full Text Available Social learning is a powerful method for cultural propagation of knowledge and skills relying on a complex interplay of learning strategies, social ecology and the human propensity for both learning and tutoring. Social learning has the potential to be an equally potent learning strategy for artificial systems and robots in specific. However, given the complexity and unstructured nature of social learning, implementing social machine learning proves to be a challenging problem. We study one particular aspect of social machine learning: that of offering social cues during the learning interaction. Specifically, we study whether people are sensitive to social cues offered by a learning robot, in a similar way to children's social bids for tutoring. We use a child-like social robot and a task in which the robot has to learn the meaning of words. For this a simple turn-based interaction is used, based on language games. Two conditions are tested: one in which the robot uses social means to invite a human teacher to provide information based on what the robot requires to fill gaps in its knowledge (i.e. expression of a learning preference; the other in which the robot does not provide social cues to communicate a learning preference. We observe that conveying a learning preference through the use of social cues results in better and faster learning by the robot. People also seem to form a "mental model" of the robot, tailoring the tutoring to the robot's performance as opposed to using simply random teaching. In addition, the social learning shows a clear gender effect with female participants being responsive to the robot's bids, while male teachers appear to be less receptive. This work shows how additional social cues in social machine learning can result in people offering better quality learning input to artificial systems, resulting in improved learning performance.

  2. Tracking human activity and well-being in natural environments using wearable sensors and experience sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Sean T; Lemieux, Christopher J; Canally, Culum

    2014-04-01

    A growing range of studies have begun to document the health and well-being benefits associated with contact with nature. Most studies rely on generalized self-reports following engagement in the natural environment. The actual in-situ experience during contact with nature, and the environmental features and factors that evoke health benefits have remained relatively unexplored. Smartphones offer a new opportunity to monitor and interact with human subjects during everyday life using techniques such as Experience Sampling Methods (ESM) that involve repeated self-reports of experiences as they occur in-situ. Additionally, embedded sensors in smartphones such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and accelerometers can accurately trace human activities. This paper explores how these techniques can be combined to comprehensively explore the perceived health and well-being impacts of contact with nature. Custom software was developed to passively track GPS and accelerometer data, and actively prompt subjects to complete an ESM survey at regular intervals throughout their visit to a provincial park in Ontario, Canada. The ESM survey includes nine scale questions concerning moods and emotions, followed by a series of open-ended experiential questions that subjects provide recorded audio responses to. Pilot test results are used to illustrate the nature, quantity and quality of data obtained. Participant activities were clearly evident from GPS maps, including especially walking, cycling and sedate activities. From the ESM surveys, participants reported an average of 25 words per question, taking an average of 15 s to record them. Further qualitative analysis revealed that participants were willing to provide considerable insights into their experiences and perceived health impacts. The combination of passive and interactive techniques is sure to make larger studies of this type more affordable and less burdensome in the future, further enhancing the ability to understand

  3. Why Robots Should Be Social: Enhancing Machine Learning through Social Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greeff, Joachim; Belpaeme, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Social learning is a powerful method for cultural propagation of knowledge and skills relying on a complex interplay of learning strategies, social ecology and the human propensity for both learning and tutoring. Social learning has the potential to be an equally potent learning strategy for artificial systems and robots in specific. However, given the complexity and unstructured nature of social learning, implementing social machine learning proves to be a challenging problem. We study one particular aspect of social machine learning: that of offering social cues during the learning interaction. Specifically, we study whether people are sensitive to social cues offered by a learning robot, in a similar way to children's social bids for tutoring. We use a child-like social robot and a task in which the robot has to learn the meaning of words. For this a simple turn-based interaction is used, based on language games. Two conditions are tested: one in which the robot uses social means to invite a human teacher to provide information based on what the robot requires to fill gaps in its knowledge (i.e. expression of a learning preference); the other in which the robot does not provide social cues to communicate a learning preference. We observe that conveying a learning preference through the use of social cues results in better and faster learning by the robot. People also seem to form a "mental model" of the robot, tailoring the tutoring to the robot's performance as opposed to using simply random teaching. In addition, the social learning shows a clear gender effect with female participants being responsive to the robot's bids, while male teachers appear to be less receptive. This work shows how additional social cues in social machine learning can result in people offering better quality learning input to artificial systems, resulting in improved learning performance.

  4. 人体弓形虫病 人体弓形虫病%Toxoplasmosis in human being

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林军; 武建国

    2001-01-01

    弓形虫病是全球广泛分布、对人类造成严重危害的人兽共患病。近年来,由于与宠物接触增多,我国弓形虫病发病率有增高趋势。鉴于本病临床表现缺乏特异性,一旦确诊,治疗效果显著。本文从发病机制、病理改变、临床表现、实验室诊断、治疗等几个方面对本病进行了简要的评述,以期引起广大临床医务人员的重视。%Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease which affects both human and animals.It distributes all over the world and makes great harm to human beings.In recent years,the morbidity of toxoplasmosis in our country increased because of contacting with pets.Toxoplasmosis has no specific clinical manifestations and responds well to correct treatment.In order to raise clinicians' notice to toxoplasmosis,this article will review the disease from the aspects of etiology,epidemiology,clinical manifestation and experimental diagnosis.

  5. Relations between urban bird and plant communities and human well-being and connection to nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Gary W; Davidson, Penny; Boxall, Dianne; Smallbone, Lisa

    2011-08-01

    By 2050, 70% of the world's population will live in urban areas. In many cases urbanization reduces the richness and abundance of native species. Living in highly modified environments with fewer opportunities to interact directly with a diversity of native species may adversely affect residents' personal well-being and emotional connection to nature. We assessed the personal well-being, neighborhood well-being (a measure of a person's satisfaction with their neighborhood), and level of connection to nature of over 1000 residents in 36 residential neighborhoods in southeastern Australia. We modeled these response variables as a function of natural features of each neighborhood (e.g., species richness and abundance of birds, density of plants, and amount of vegetation cover) and demographic characteristics of surveyed residents. Vegetation cover had the strongest positive relations with personal well-being, whereas residents' level of connection to nature was weakly related to variation in species richness and abundance of birds and density of plants. Demographic characteristics such as age and level of activity explained the greatest proportion of variance in well-being and connection to nature. Nevertheless, when controlling for variation in demographic characteristics (examples were provided above), neighborhood well-being was positively related to a range of natural features, including species richness and abundance of birds, and vegetation cover. Demographic characteristics and how well-being was quantified strongly influenced our results, and we suggest demography and metrics of well-being must be considered when attempting to determine relations between the urban environment and human well-being. © 2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Time, human being and mental health care: an introduction to Gilles Deleuze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Marc

    2005-07-01

    The French philosopher, Gilles Deleuze, is emerging as one of the most important and influential philosophers of the 20th century, having published widely on philosophy, literature, language, psychoanalysis, art, politics, and cinema. However, because of the 'experimental' nature of certain works, combined with the manner in which he draws upon a variety of sources from various disciplines, his work can seem difficult, obscure, and even 'willfully obstructive'. In an attempt to resist such impressions, this paper will seek to provide an accessible introduction to Deleuze's work, and to begin to discuss how it can be employed to provide a significant critique and reconceptualization of the theoretical foundations and therapeutic practices of psychiatry, psychotherapy, and mental health nursing. In order to do this, the paper will focus upon Deleuze's masterwork, and the cornerstone to his philosophy as a whole, Difference and Repetition; in particular, it will discuss how his innovative and challenging account of time can be employed to provide a conception of human life as a 'continuity', rather than as a series of distinct 'moments' or 'events'. As well as discussing the manner in which his work can provide us with an understanding of how life is different and significant for each human being, this paper will also highlight the potential importance of Deleuze's work for logotherapy, for the recent 'turn' to 'narrative' as a psychotherapeutic approach and for contemporary mental health care's growing interest in 'social constructionism'. As such, this paper also seeks to stimulate further discussion and research into the importance and the relevance of Deleuze's work for the theory and practice of psychiatry, psychotherapy, and mental health nursing.

  7. Neogenin expression may be inversely correlated to the tumorigenicity of human breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sung-Won

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neogenin is expressed in cap cells that have been suggested to be mammary stem or precursor cells. Neogenin is known to play an important role in mammary morphogenesis; however its relationship to tumorigenesis remains to be elucidated. Methods To compare the expression levels of neogenin in cells with different tumorigenicity, the expression levels in M13SV1, M13SV1R2 and M13SV1R2N1 cells, which are immortalized derivatives of type I human breast epithelial cells, were evaluated. Then we measured the expression level of neogenin in paired normal and cancer tissues from eight breast cancer patients. Tissue array analysis was performed for 54 human breast tissue samples with different histology, and the results were divided into four categories (none, weak, moderate, strong by a single well-trained blinded pathologist and statistically analyzed. Results The nontumorigenic M13SV1 cells and normal tissues showed stronger expression of neogenin than the M13SV1R2N1 cells and the paired cancer tissues. In the tissue array, all (8/8 of the normal breast tissues showed strong neogenin expression, while 93.5% (43/46 of breast cancer tissues had either no expression or only moderate levels of neogenin expression. There was a significant difference, in the expression level of neogenin, in comparisons between normal and infiltrating ductal carcinoma (p Conclusion Neogenin may play a role in mammary carcinogenesis as well as morphogenesis, and the expression may be inversely correlated with mammary carcinogenicity. The value of neogenin as a potential prognostic factor needs further evaluation.

  8. From the terrible loneliness to the wonderful agreement of human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Arno

    2008-03-01

    What would be the "terrible loneliness" and what would be the "wonderful agreement" in the present paper? The "terrible loneliness" is the only reality that a person perceives and/or thinks during the now going on. For the person, an enormous quantity of occurrences is in the present moment absent. A very small quantity of occurrences is present. The person is the only being in having this. And, this is only during a little moment. The person never thinks about his loneliness in this moment. On the contrary, he thinks he is plenty of people and full of occurrences. But, if he were thinking about reality, he would live in a terrible loneliness. How does he escape himself from this loneliness? He thinks that the probable occurrences are real occurrences. He may be right in a plenty of times. Going through what I call opening hypotheses--basic hypotheses and non-basic but important hypotheses--and going through what I call simply hypotheses he is able to sanction a wonderful agreement of human beings about the known parts of the Universe. However, they are hypotheses, not absolute realities.

  9. Predictors of the Sexual Well-being of Individuals Diagnosed with Herpes and Human Papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Lyndsay R; Byers, E Sandra

    2016-02-01

    Research suggests that having a sexually transmitted infection (STI) such as genital herpes and human papillomavirus (HPV) can negatively affect sexual well-being. However, there is little research examining factors associated with poorer sexual well-being among individuals with a STI. This study investigated the extent to which stigma experiences, individual characteristics, and STI characteristics were associated with multiple aspects of sexual well-being among individuals diagnosed with herpes and/or HPV. Participants were an average of 36 years old (SD = 11.58) and included 188 individuals with herpes and/or HPV who completed measures of sexual activity, sexual problems, and sexual cognitive-affective factors. The results showed that experiences of stigmatization were the most important predictors of sexual well-being. Participants who perceived were stigmatized by others as well as those who internalized negative social attitudes to a greater extent reported poorer sexual well-being across all dimensions, over and above individual and STI characteristics. The implications of these findings for sexual health professionals are discussed.

  10. Accounting for the Impact of Conservation on Human Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Gulland, EJ; Mcgregor, JA; Agarwala, M; Atkinson, G; Bevan, P; Clements, T; Daw, T; Homewood, K; Kumpel, N; Lewis, J; Mourato, S; Palmer Fry, B; Redshaw, M; Rowcliffe, JM; Suon, S; Wallace, G; Washington, H; Wilkie, D

    2014-01-01

    Conservationists are increasingly engaging with the concept of human well-being to improve the design and evaluation of their interventions. Since the convening of the influential Sarkozy Commission in 2009, development researchers have been refining conceptualizations and frameworks to understand and measure human well-being and are starting to converge on a common understanding of how best to do this. In conservation, the term human well-being is in widespread use, but there is a need for guidance on operationalizing it to measure the impacts of conservation interventions on people. We present a framework for understanding human well-being, which could be particularly useful in conservation. The framework includes 3 conditions; meeting needs, pursuing goals, and experiencing a satisfactory quality of life. We outline some of the complexities involved in evaluating the well-being effects of conservation interventions, with the understanding that well-being varies between people and over time and with the priorities of the evaluator. Key challenges for research into the well-being impacts of conservation interventions include the need to build up a collection of case studies so as to draw out generalizable lessons; harness the potential of modern technology to support well-being research; and contextualize evaluations of conservation impacts on well-being spatially and temporally within the wider landscape of social change. Pathways through the smog of confusion around the term well-being exist, and existing frameworks such as the Well-being in Developing Countries approach can help conservationists negotiate the challenges of operationalizing the concept. Conservationists have the opportunity to benefit from the recent flurry of research in the development field so as to carry out more nuanced and locally relevant evaluations of the effects of their interventions on human well-being. Consideración del Impacto de la Conservación sobre el Bienestar Humano Resumen

  11. Diploid, but not haploid, human embryonic stem cells can be derived from microsurgically repaired tripronuclear human zygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yong; Li, Rong; Huang, Jin; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie

    2013-01-15

    Human embryonic stem cells have shown tremendous potential in regenerative medicine, and the recent progress in haploid embryonic stem cells provides new insights for future applications of embryonic stem cells. Disruption of normal fertilized embryos remains controversial; thus, the development of a new source for human embryonic stem cells is important for their usefulness. Here, we investigated the feasibility of haploid and diploid embryo reconstruction and embryonic stem cell derivation using microsurgically repaired tripronuclear human zygotes. Diploid and haploid zygotes were successfully reconstructed, but a large proportion of them still had a tripolar spindle assembly. The reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage, although the loss of chromosomes was observed in these zygotes. Finally, triploid and diploid human embryonic stem cells were derived from tripronuclear and reconstructed zygotes (from which only one pronucleus was removed), but haploid human embryonic stem cells were not successfully derived from the reconstructed zygotes when two pronuclei were removed. Both triploid and diploid human embryonic stem cells showed the general characteristics of human embryonic stem cells. These results indicate that the lower embryo quality resulting from abnormal spindle assembly contributed to the failure of the haploid embryonic stem cell derivation. However, the successful derivation of diploid embryonic stem cells demonstrated that microsurgical tripronuclear zygotes are an alternative source of human embryonic stem cells. In the future, improving spindle assembly will facilitate the application of triploid zygotes to the field of haploid embryonic stem cells.

  12. Pesquisa acadêmica sobre humanização do parto no Brasil: tendências e contribuições Investigaciones académicas sobre Humanización del Parto en Brasil: tendencias y contribuciones Academic research studies on humanization of childbirth in Brazil: trends and contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lenho de Figueiredo Pereira

    2007-06-01

    encontradas 26 tesis de maestría y 4 tesis de doctorado en el período de 1987 al 2004. La mayoría (20; 66,7% fue desarrollada en programas de postgrado de la región sudeste. Más de la mitad (16; 53,3% del total fue realizada en programas de postgrado de enfermería. La metodología cualitativa fue la más utilizada (25; 80%. Los aspectos ético-políticos de la asistencia predominaron (20; 66,7% sobre los aspectos técnicos en las síntesis de los resultados y conclusiones de las investigaciones estudiadas. CONCLUSIÓN: Las investigaciones de postgrado proponen cambios de paradigma técnico-científico, en la formación profesional, en la actitud profesional frente a los derechos humanos y sociales, y una redefinición de los papeles profesionales de las enfermeras y parteras.OBJECTIVES: To conduct a survey among Brazilian academic research studies on humanization of childbirth, to identify timing, location, topic, and methodological approaches, and to determine whether or not these academic research studies contributed to nursing practice. METHODS: This was an exploratory descriptive study. Abstracts of doctoral dissertations and master's theses were retrieved from two databases: Virtual Health Library (BIREME - OPAS/OMS and Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES of the Brazilian Ministry of Education. RESULTS: 26 dissertations and 4 theses were found in the period of 1987 the 2004. The majority (20; 66.7% of these academic research studies were conducted on graduate programs of Southeast Brazil. More than a half of theses studies (16; 53.3% were conducted in graduate programs in nursing. The majority of the studies (24; 80% used qualitative methodology. Ethical-political aspects of health care were the most common topics or themes (20; 66.7%. CONCLUSION: Graduate research studies propose technician-scientific paradigm change, professional education, professional attitude towards the social and human rights, and redefinition of

  13. β-Cell Generation: Can Rodent Studies Be Translated to Humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Carlotti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available β-cell replacement by allogeneic islet transplantation is a promising approach for patients with type 1 diabetes, but the shortage of organ donors requires new sources of β cells. Islet regeneration in vivo and generation of β-cells ex vivo followed by transplantation represent attractive therapeutic alternatives to restore the β-cell mass. In this paper, we discuss different postnatal cell types that have been envisaged as potential sources for future β-cell replacement therapy. The ultimate goal being translation to the clinic, a particular attention is given to the discrepancies between findings from studies performed in rodents (both ex vivo on primary cells and in vivo on animal models, when compared with clinical data and studies performed on human cells.

  14. A specialized isotope mass spectrometer for noninvasive diagnostics of Helicobacter pylori infection in human beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashenkov, N. M.; Sheshenya, E. S.; Solov'ev, S. M.; Sachenko, V. D.; Gall, L. N.; Zarutskii, I. V.; Gall, N. R.

    2013-05-01

    A specialized isotope mass spectrometer for noninvasive diagnostics of Helicobacter pylori infection in human beings based on the carbon-13 isotope breath test has been designed and constructed. Important stages of the work included (i) calculating a low-aberration mass analyzer, (ii) manufacturing and testing special gas inlet system, and (iii) creating a small-size collector of ions. The proposed instrument ensures 13C/12C isotopic ratio measurement to within 1.7‰ (pro mille) accuracy, which corresponds to requirements for a diagnostic tool. Preliminary medical testing showed that the mass spectrometer is applicable to practical diagnostics. The instrument is also capable of measuring isotopic ratios of other light elements, including N, O, B (for BF2+ ions), Ar, Cl, and S.

  15. View of human problems to be addressed for long-duration space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the principal physiological changes seen in space flight, and discussion of various countermeasures which may prove to be useful in combating these changes in long-term space flight. A number of transient changes seen in Apollo astronauts following space flights are discussed, including cardiovascular and hemodynamic responses to weightlessness, musculoskeletal changes, changes in fluid and electrolyte balance, microbiological changes, and vestibular effects. A number of countermeasures to the effects of space flight on man are cited, including exercise, medication, diet, lower-body negative pressure, gradient positive pressure, venous occlusion cuffs, and others. A detailed review is then made of a number of psychological factors bearing on the ability of the human organism to withstand the rigors of long space flights.

  16. Deep human genealogies reveal a selective advantage to be on an expanding wave front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Claudia; Bhérer, Claude; Vézina, Hélène; Jomphe, Michèle; Labuda, Damian; Excoffier, Laurent

    2011-11-25

    Since their origin, human populations have colonized the whole planet, but the demographic processes governing range expansions are mostly unknown. We analyzed the genealogy of more than one million individuals resulting from a range expansion in Quebec between 1686 and 1960 and reconstructed the spatial dynamics of the expansion. We find that a majority of the present Saguenay Lac-Saint-Jean population can be traced back to ancestors having lived directly on or close to the wave front. Ancestors located on the front contributed significantly more to the current gene pool than those from the range core, likely due to a 20% larger effective fertility of women on the wave front. This fitness component is heritable on the wave front and not in the core, implying that this life-history trait evolves during range expansions.

  17. First-pass metabolism of ethanol in human beings: effect of intravenous infusion of fructose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Billinger, MH; Schäfer, C.

    2004-01-01

    Intravenous infusion of fructose has been shown to enhance reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reoxidation and, thereby, to enhance the metabolism of ethanol. In the current study, the effect of fructose infusion on first-pass metabolism of ethanol was studied in human volunteers....... A significantly higher first-pass metabolism of ethanol was obtained after administration of fructose in comparison with findings for control experiments with an equimolar dose of glucose. Because fructose is metabolized predominantly in the liver and can be presumed to have virtually no effects in the stomach......, results of the current study support the assumption that only a negligible part of first-pass metabolism of ethanol occurs in the stomach....

  18. Aedes albopictus may not be vector of dengue virus in human epidemics in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degallier Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 60,500 dengue cases were reported in the state of Espírito Santo (ES, Brazil, between 1995 and 1998. The study's purpose was to identify whether Aedes albopictus was transmitting the dengue virus during an epidemic in the locality of Vila Bethânia (Viana County,Vitória, ES. From April 3 to 9, 1998, blood and serum samples were collected daily for virus isolation and serological testing. Four autochthonous cases were confirmed through DEN 1 virus isolation and two autochthonous cases through MAC ELISA testing. Of 37 Ae. aegypti and 200 Ae. albopictus adult mosquitoes collected and inoculated, DEN1 virus was isolated only from a pool of two Ae. aegypti female mosquitoes. The study results suggest that Ae. albopictus still cannot be considered an inter-human vector in dengue epidemics in Brazil.

  19. Treating Clostridium difficile infections: Should fecal microbiota transplantation be reclassified from investigational drug to human tissue?

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    Mark Stuntz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT has emerged as a highly effective treatment for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI, the most frequent cause of hospital-acquired infectious diarrhea in developed countries and the cause of nearly 30,000 annual deaths in the US. FMT is proving to be more effective at treating CDI than traditional antibacterial therapy, and reduces the exposure of valuable antibiotics to potential resistance. A systematic review to assess the efficacy of FMT for CDI treatment showed that across all studies for recurrent CDI, symptom resolution was observed in 85% of patients. The United States Food and Drug Administration currently classifies FMT as an investigational drug, which imparts overly restrictive regulations that are impossible to apply to FMT in the same manner as conventional drugs. Reclassification of FMT to a human cell, tissue, and cellular and tissue-based product could potentially expand access to this important treatment while maintaining rigorous safety standards.

  20. Using Social Science to Ensure Sustainable Development Centered on Human Well-being in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, C. A.; Durham, W. H.; Gaffikin, L.

    2012-12-01

    When then president José Figueres Ferrer invited the world to use Costa Rica as a "laboratory for sustainable development" in 1997, the country's fame as a biodiversity mecca was firmly established. Yet despite vast investment, conservation-related interventions in the cantons of Osa and Golfito along the country's southern Pacific coast have been seen as overly conservation-oriented and carried out "with its back to the communities." By ignoring human well-being, these interventions have been unable to overcome the region's vast disparities in access to resources and general state of underdevelopment despite investments of many millions of dollars in recent decades. With the country's third international airport and Central America's largest hydroelectric project proposed for the region, as well as other infrastructure-driven development currently underway, the region is poised to undergo rapid change. This presentation first describes the Osa-Golfito Initiative (INOGO), an interdisciplinary effort facilitated by the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment to development a long term strategic action plan that ensures a development trajectory focused on human and environmental well-being. Whereas a concurrent presentation will focus on biophysical components of INOGO, the focus here is on the often-overlooked contributions of social science for ensuring the region's future sustainability. An anthropological approach is taken to assess the assets and resources of the region's residents, and the obstacles and challenges as they perceive them. This groundwork provides a crucial link between individual and local realities, and the regional and national political economy, and thus provides greater probability of sustainable development occurring with its "face to the communities.";

  1. Outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in human beings and animal/ Surtos de toxoplasmose em seres humanos e animais

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    Roberta Lemos Freire

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is one of the biggest wild world zoonosis and it can attack blood warmed animals from many species. Outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals are not related frequently and it could be due to either weak or asymptomatic characteristics. So, there are difficulties in the clinical characterization of this pathology with laboratorial confirmation and posterior notification. This review emphasizes the informed outbreaks in humans and animals, its sources of infection and ways of transmission that vary in accordance with local habits and sanitary conditions. It still approaches the genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii strains and prevention methods.A toxoplasmose é uma zoonoses de distribuição mundial e acomete animais de sangue quente das mais variadas espécies. Os surtos de toxoplasmose em seres humanos e animais freqüentemente não são relatados. Isto ocorre, possivelmente, em função desta infecção caracterizar-se por sintomas ausentes ou brandos tanto em humanos quanto em animais. Desta maneira, existem dificuldades na caracterização clínica desta patologia com confirmação laboratorial e posterior notificação. Esta revisão enfatiza os surtos de toxoplasmose notificados em humanos e animais, suas fontes de infecção e vias de transmissão que variam de acordo com os hábitos locais e as condições sanitárias de cada região. Aborda ainda a caracterização genética de cepas de Toxoplasma gondii e métodos de prevenção.

  2. Diseases of Poverty and Lifestyle, Well-Being and Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2008-01-01

    The problems of the haves differ substantially from those of the have-nots. Individuals in developing societies have to fight mainly against infectious and communicable diseases, while in the developed world the battles are mainly against lifestyle diseases. Yet, at a very fundamental level, the problems are the same-the fight is against distress, disability, and premature death; against human exploitation and for human development and self-actualisation; against the callousness to critical concerns in regimes and scientific power centres. While there has been great progress in the treatment of individual diseases, human pathology continues to increase. Sicknesses are not decreasing in number, they are only changing in type. The primary diseases of poverty like TB, malaria, and HIV/AIDS-and the often co-morbid and ubiquitous malnutrition-take their toll on helpless populations in developing countries. Poverty is not just income deprivation but capability deprivation and optimism deprivation as well. While life expectancy may have increased in the haves, and infant and maternal mortality reduced, these gains have not necessarily ensured that well-being results. There are ever-multiplying numbers of individuals whose well-being is compromised due to lifestyle diseases. These diseases are the result of faulty lifestyles and the consequent crippling stress. But it serves no one's purpose to understand them as such. So, the prescription pad continues to prevail over lifestyle-change counselling or research. The struggle to achieve well-being and positive health, to ensure longevity, to combat lifestyle stress and professional burnout, and to reduce psychosomatic ailments continues unabated, with hardly an end in sight. We thus realise that morbidity, disability, and death assail all three societies: the ones with infectious diseases, the ones with diseases of poverty, and the ones with lifestyle diseases. If it is bacteria in their various forms that are the culprit in

  3. Diseases of Poverty and Lifestyle, Well-Being and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of the haves differ substantially from those of the have-nots. Individuals in developing societies have to fight mainly against infectious and communicable diseases, while in the developed world the battles are mainly against lifestyle diseases. Yet, at a very fundamental level, the problems are the same-the fight is against distress, disability, and premature death; against human exploitation and for human development and self-actualisation; against the callousness to critical concerns in regimes and scientific power centres.While there has been great progress in the treatment of individual diseases, human pathology continues to increase. Sicknesses are not decreasing in number, they are only changing in type.The primary diseases of poverty like TB, malaria, and HIV/AIDS-and the often co-morbid and ubiquitous malnutrition-take their toll on helpless populations in developing countries. Poverty is not just income deprivation but capability deprivation and optimism deprivation as well. While life expectancy may have increased in the haves, and infant and maternal mortality reduced, these gains have not necessarily ensured that well-being results. There are ever-multiplying numbers of individuals whose well-being is compromised due to lifestyle diseases. These diseases are the result of faulty lifestyles and the consequent crippling stress. But it serves no one's purpose to understand them as such. So, the prescription pad continues to prevail over lifestyle-change counselling or research. The struggle to achieve well-being and positive health, to ensure longevity, to combat lifestyle stress and professional burnout, and to reduce psychosomatic ailments continues unabated, with hardly an end in sight.We thus realise that morbidity, disability, and death assail all three societies: the ones with infectious diseases, the ones with diseases of poverty, and the ones with lifestyle diseases. If it is bacteria in their various forms that

  4. Diseases of poverty and lifestyle, well-being and human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A

    2008-01-01

    The problems of the haves differ substantially from those of the have-nots. Individuals in developing societies have to fight mainly against infectious and communicable diseases, while in the developed world the battles are mainly against lifestyle diseases. Yet, at a very fundamental level, the problems are the same-the fight is against distress, disability, and premature death; against human exploitation and for human development and self-actualisation; against the callousness to critical concerns in regimes and scientific power centres.While there has been great progress in the treatment of individual diseases, human pathology continues to increase. Sicknesses are not decreasing in number, they are only changing in type.The primary diseases of poverty like TB, malaria, and HIV/AIDS-and the often co-morbid and ubiquitous malnutrition-take their toll on helpless populations in developing countries. Poverty is not just income deprivation but capability deprivation and optimism deprivation as well.While life expectancy may have increased in the haves, and infant and maternal mortality reduced, these gains have not necessarily ensured that well-being results. There are ever-multiplying numbers of individuals whose well-being is compromised due to lifestyle diseases. These diseases are the result of faulty lifestyles and the consequent crippling stress. But it serves no one's purpose to understand them as such. So, the prescription pad continues to prevail over lifestyle-change counselling or research.The struggle to achieve well-being and positive health, to ensure longevity, to combat lifestyle stress and professional burnout, and to reduce psychosomatic ailments continues unabated, with hardly an end in sight.WE THUS REALISE THAT MORBIDITY, DISABILITY, AND DEATH ASSAIL ALL THREE SOCIETIES: the ones with infectious diseases, the ones with diseases of poverty, and the ones with lifestyle diseases. If it is bacteria in their various forms that are the culprit in

  5. Biodiversity and human well-being: an essential link for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazdon, Robin; Duffy, J. Emmett; Prager, Case; Worm, Boris

    2016-01-01

    As society strives to transition towards more sustainable development pathways, it is important to properly conceptualize the link between biodiversity (i.e. genes, traits, species and other dimensions) and human well-being (HWB; i.e. health, wealth, security and other dimensions). Here, we explore how published conceptual frameworks consider the extent to which the biodiversity–HWB links are being integrated into public discourse and scientific research and the implications of our findings for sustainable development. We find that our understanding has gradually evolved from seeing the value of biodiversity as an external commodity that may influence HWB to biodiversity as fundamental to HWB. Analysis of the literature trends indicates increasing engagement with the terms biodiversity, HWB and sustainable development in the public, science and policy spheres, but largely as independent rather than linked terms. We suggest that a consensus framework for sustainable development should include biodiversity explicitly as a suite of internal variables that both influence and are influenced by HWB. Doing so will enhance clarity and help shape coherent research and policy priorities. We further suggest that the absence of this link in development can inadvertently lead to a ratcheting down of biodiversity by otherwise well-meaning policies. Such biotic impoverishment could lock HWB at minimum levels or lead to its decline and halt or reverse progress in achieving sustainable development. PMID:27928039

  6. Accounting for natural resources and environmental sustainability: linking ecosystem services to human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Stephen J; Hayes, Sharon E; Yoskowitz, David; Smith, Lisa M; Summers, J Kevin; Russell, Marc; Benson, William H

    2010-03-01

    One of society's greatest challenges is to sustain natural resources while promoting economic growth and quality of life. In the face of this challenge, society must measure the effectiveness of programs established to safeguard the environment. The impetus for demonstrating positive results from government-sponsored research and regulation in the United States comes from Congress (General Accountability Office; GAO) and the Executive Branch (Office of Management and Budget; OMB). The message is: regulatory and research programs must demonstrate outcomes that justify their costs. Although the concept is simple, it is a complex problem to demonstrate that environmental research, policies, and regulations cause measurable changes in environmental quality. Even where changes in environmental quality can be tracked reliably, the connections between government actions and environmental outcomes seldom are direct or straightforward. In this article, we describe emerging efforts (with emphasis on the role of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; EPA) to frame and measure environmental outcomes in terms of ecosystem services and values-societally and ecologically meaningful metrics for gauging how well we manage environmental resources. As examples of accounting for outcomes and values, we present a novel, low-cost method for determining relative values of multiple ecosystem services, and describe emerging research on indicators of human well-being.

  7. TSPO PIGA Ligands Promote Neurosteroidogenesis and Human Astrocyte Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Da Pozzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The steroidogenic 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO is an emerging, attractive therapeutic tool for several pathological conditions of the nervous system. Here, 13 high affinity TSPO ligands belonging to our previously described N,N-dialkyl-2-phenylindol-3-ylglyoxylamide (PIGA class were evaluated for their potential ability to affect the cellular Oxidative Metabolism Activity/Proliferation index, which is used as a measure of astrocyte well-being. The most active PIGA ligands were also assessed for steroidogenic activity in terms of pregnenolone production, and the values were related to the metabolic index in rat and human models. The results showed a positive correlation between the increase in the Oxidative Metabolism Activity/Proliferation index and the pharmacologically induced stimulation of steroidogenesis. The specific involvement of steroid molecules in mediating the metabolic effects of the PIGA ligands was demonstrated using aminoglutethimide, a specific inhibitor of the first step of steroid biosynthesis. The most promising steroidogenic PIGA ligands were the 2-naphthyl derivatives that showed a long residence time to the target, in agreement with our previous data. In conclusion, TSPO ligand-induced neurosteroidogenesis was involved in astrocyte well-being.

  8. Could periodic patterns in human mortality be sensitive to solar activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Díaz-Sandoval

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal behaviour of human diseases have been observed and reported in the literature for years. Although the Sun plays an essential role in the origin and evolution of life on Earth, it is barely taken into account in biological processes for the development of a specific disease. Higher mortality rates occur during the winter season in the Northern Hemisphere for several diseases, particularly diseases of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. This increment has been associated with seasonal and social causes. However, is there more behind these correlations, in particular in terms of solar variability? In this paper we attempt to make a first step towards answering this question. A detailed wavelet analysis of periodicities for diseases from England and Wales seem to reveal that mortality periodicities (3 days to half a year could be due to the Earth's position around the Sun. Moreover, crosswavelet and wavelet coherence analysis show common features between medical diseases and solar proxies around solar maximum activity suggesting that this relation, if any, has to be searched in times of high solar activity.

  9. Biodiversity and human well-being: an essential link for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Shahid; Chazdon, Robin; Duffy, J Emmett; Prager, Case; Worm, Boris

    2016-12-14

    As society strives to transition towards more sustainable development pathways, it is important to properly conceptualize the link between biodiversity (i.e. genes, traits, species and other dimensions) and human well-being (HWB; i.e. health, wealth, security and other dimensions). Here, we explore how published conceptual frameworks consider the extent to which the biodiversity-HWB links are being integrated into public discourse and scientific research and the implications of our findings for sustainable development. We find that our understanding has gradually evolved from seeing the value of biodiversity as an external commodity that may influence HWB to biodiversity as fundamental to HWB. Analysis of the literature trends indicates increasing engagement with the terms biodiversity, HWB and sustainable development in the public, science and policy spheres, but largely as independent rather than linked terms. We suggest that a consensus framework for sustainable development should include biodiversity explicitly as a suite of internal variables that both influence and are influenced by HWB. Doing so will enhance clarity and help shape coherent research and policy priorities. We further suggest that the absence of this link in development can inadvertently lead to a ratcheting down of biodiversity by otherwise well-meaning policies. Such biotic impoverishment could lock HWB at minimum levels or lead to its decline and halt or reverse progress in achieving sustainable development.

  10. Readiness of Malaysian human resource professionals to be a strategic partner Readiness of Malaysian human resource professionals to be a strategic partner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Khairuzzaman Wan Ismail

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ulrich’s HRM Four-Role Model is used in this study. The various roles that are examined are strategic partner, change agent, administrative expert and employee champion. All these roles will be tested whether or not they are significantly related to a firm’s performance. This study also examines the potential barriers that hinder the HR professional from being a strategic partner in an organisation. The sample employed here consists of HR professionals from Malaysian manufacturing companies in the southernmost state of Malaysia, Johor. The total number of firms involve in this study are 89 respondents. This study uses quantitative method such as spearmen rho correlation and multiple regression analysis to test the variables. The finding shows that the role of an administrative expert and employee champion obtained highest score in this study. All HR roles are tested and are significantly related to firm performance. Furthermore, it is found that role of strategic partner and change agent contributes most to firm performance. This study also found that the main barrier that hinders HR professional to play strategic roles in an organisation is they have no time to address both administrative and strategic issues.The Ulrich’s HRM Four-Role Model is used in this study. The various roles that are examined are strategic partner, change agent, administrative expert and employee champion. All these roles will be tested whether or not they are significantly related to a firm’s performance. This study also examines the potential barriers that hinder the HR professional from being a strategic partner in an organisation. The sample employed here consists of HR professionals from Malaysian manufacturing companies in the southernmost state of Malaysia, Johor. The total number of firms involve in this study are 89 respondents. This study uses quantitative method such as spearmen rho correlation and multiple regression analysis to test the variables

  11. Divergent Fates of the Medical Humanities in Psychiatry and Internal Medicine: Should Psychiatry Be Rehumanized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Bret R.; Hellerstein, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the degree to which the medical humanities have been integrated into the fields of internal medicine and psychiatry, the authors assessed the presence of medical humanities articles in selected psychiatry and internal medicine journals from 1950 to 2000. Methods: The journals searched were the three highest-ranking…

  12. Emerging issues in urban ecology: implications for research, social justice, human health, and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniece Jennings; Myron F. Floyd; Danielle Shanahan; Christopher Coutts; Alex Sinykin

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization affects landscape structure and the overall human condition in numerous ways. Green spaces include vegetated land cover (e.g., urban forests, trees, riparian zones, parks) which play a distinctive role in urban ecology. This article reviews emergent literature on the linkages between urban green spaces, social justice, and human health. We explore this...

  13. Marginal biotin deficiency can be induced experimentally in humans using a cost-effective outpatient design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Shawna L; Henrich, Cindy L; Matthews, Nell I; Bogusiewicz, Anna; Dawson, Amanda M; Horvath, Thomas D; Owen, Suzanne N; Boysen, Gunnar; Moran, Jeffery H; Mock, Donald M

    2012-01-01

    To date, marginal, asymptomatic biotin deficiency has been successfully induced experimentally by the use of labor-intensive inpatient designs requiring rigorous dietary control. We sought to determine if marginal biotin deficiency could be induced in humans in a less expensive outpatient design incorporating a self-selected, mixed general diet. We sought to examine the efficacy of three outpatient study designs: two based on oral avidin dosing and one based on a diet high in undenatured egg white for a period of 28 d. In study design 1, participants (n = 4; 3 women) received avidin in capsules with a biotin binding capacity of 7 times the estimated dietary biotin intake of a typical self-selected diet. In study design 2, participants (n = 2; 2 women) received double the amount of avidin capsules (14 times the estimated dietary biotin intake). In study design 3, participants (n = 5; 3 women) consumed egg-white beverages containing avidin with a biotin binding capacity of 7 times the estimated dietary biotin intake. Established indices of biotin status [lymphocyte propionyl-CoA carboxylase activity; urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid, 3-hydroxyisovaleryl carnitine (3HIA-carnitine), and biotin; and plasma concentration of 3HIA-carnitine] indicated that study designs 1 and 2 were not effective in inducing marginal biotin deficiency, but study design 3 was as effective as previous inpatient study designs that induced deficiency by egg-white beverage. Marginal biotin deficiency can be induced experimentally by using a cost-effective outpatient design by avidin delivery in egg-white beverages. This design should be useful to the broader nutritional research community.

  14. Why human evolution should be a basic science for medicine and psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano

    2016-06-20

    Based on our teaching experience in medicine and psychology degree programs, we examine different aspects of human evolution that can help students to understand how the human body and mind work and why they are vulnerable to certain diseases. Three main issues are discussed: 1) the necessity to consider not only the mechanisms, i.e. the "proximate causations", implicated in biological processes but also why these mechanisms have evolved, i.e. the "ultimate causations" or "adaptive significance", to understand the functioning and malfunctioning of human body and mind; 2) examples of how human vulnerabilities to disease are caused by phylogenetic constraints, evolutionary tradeoffs reflecting the combined actions of natural and sexual selection, and/or mismatch between past and present environment (i.e., evolution of the eye, teeth and diets, erect posture and their consequences); 3) human pair-bonding and parent-offspring relationships as the result of socio-sexual selection and evolutionary compromises between cooperation and conflict. These psychobiological mechanisms are interwoven with our brain developmental plasticity and the effects of culture in shaping our behavior and mind, and allow a better understanding of functional (normal) and dysfunctional (pathological) behaviors. Thus, because the study of human evolution offers a powerful framework for clinical practice and research, the curriculum studiorum of medical and psychology students should include evolutionary biology and human phylogeny.

  15. Stimulus Control: The Sought or Unsought Influence of the Objects We Tend To

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Bargh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Does the mere presence of the things we have tended to influence our actions systematically, in ways that escape our awareness? For example, while entering a tool shed, does perceiving objects that we once tended to (e.g., tools, musical instruments influence how we then execute a simple action (e.g., flicking the shed¿s light switch? Ancient traditions (e.g., feng shui and contemporary approaches to action production (e.g., continuous flow and cascade models hypothesize that the answer is yes. Although relevant to several fields (e.g., motor cognition, social cognition, for various reasons this hypothesis cannot be tested by traditional choiceresponse time interference paradigms, which involve more complex processes than our tool shed scenario. Using new paradigms that resemble detection tasks, three studies demonstrated that "very incidental" actionrelated distracters systematically interfere with simple, repeated actions that involve minimal response selection and decision-making processes. In Study 2, incidental musical notation interfered more with the simple actions of expert sight-readers than with the same actions of non-musicians. A similar pattern of effects was obtained with a fully experimental design. The implications for theories of action production, environmentally-driven automaticity, and social cognition are discussed.

  16. Stimulus Control: The sought or Unsought influence of the Objects we tend to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Bargh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Does the mere presence of the things we have tended to influence our actions systematically, in ways that escape our awareness? For example, while entering a tool shed, does perceiving objects that we once tended to (e.g., tools, musical instruments influence how we then execute a simple action (e.g., flicking the shed¿s light switch? Ancient traditions (e.g., feng shui and contemporary approaches to action production (e.g., continuous flow and cascade models hypothesize that the answer is yes. Although relevant to several fields (e.g., motor cognition, social cognition, for various reasons this hypothesis cannot be tested by traditional choiceresponse time interference paradigms, which involve more complex processes than our tool shed scenario. Using new paradigms that resemble detection tasks, three studies demonstrated that 'very incidental' actionrelated distracters systematically interfere with simple, repeated actions that involve minimal response selection and decision-making processes. In Study 2, incidental musical notation interfered more with the simple actions of expert sight-readers than with the same actions of non-musicians. A similar pattern of effects was obtained with a fully experimental design. The implications for theories of action production, environmentally-driven automaticity, and social cognition are discussed.

  17. Major West Indies MRSA clones in human beings: do they travel with their hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chroboczek, Tomasz; Boisset, Sandrine; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Meugnier, Helene; Akpaka, Patrick E; Nicholson, Alison; Nicolas, Muriel; Olive, Claude; Bes, Michele; Vandenesch, François; Laurent, Frederic; Etienne, Jerome; Tristan, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Descriptions of the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have seldom been produced in the Caribbean, which is a major tourism destination. Using DNA microarrays and spa typing, we characterized 85 MRSA isolates from human skin and soft-tissue infections from five different islands. In the French West Indies (n = 72), the most frequently isolated clones were the same clones that are specifically isolated from mainland France [Lyon (n = 35) and Geraldine (n = 11) clones], whereas the clones that were most frequently isolated from the other islands (n = 13) corresponded with clones that have a worldwide endemic spread [Vienna/Hungarian/Brazilian (n = 5), Panton Valentine leukocidin-positive USA300 (n = 4), New York/Japan (n = 2), and pediatric (n = 1) clones]. The distribution of the major MRSA clones in the French (Guadeloupe and Martinique) and non-French West Indies (Jamaica, Trinidad, and Tobago) is different, and the clones most closely resemble those found in the home countries of the travelers who visit the islands most frequently. The distribution might be affected by tourist migration, which is specific to each island. © 2013 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  18. Salivary Alpha Amylase Activity in Human Beings of Different Age Groups Subjected to Psychological Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-01-01

    ... in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip...

  19. Whole Animal Experiments Should Be More Like Human Randomized Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The quality of reporting of animal studies lags behind that of human randomized controlled trials but a series of additions to the ARRIVE guidelines will help ensure that the standards are comparable.

  20. Primary human papillomavirus DNA screening for cervical cancer prevention: Can the screening interval be safely extended?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Margaretha A; Bogaards, Johannes A; Meijer, Chris J L M; Berkhof, Johannes

    2015-07-15

    Cytological screening has substantially decreased the cervical cancer incidence, but even better protection may be achieved by primary high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) screening. In the Netherlands, five-yearly cytological screening for women aged 30-60 years will be replaced by primary hrHPV screening in 2016. The new screening guidelines involve an extension of the screening interval from 5 to 10 years for hrHPV-negative women aged 40 or 50 years. We investigated the impact of this program change on the lifetime cancer risks in women without an hrHPV infection at age 30, 35, 40, 45 or 50 years. The time to cancer was estimated using 14-year follow-up data from a population-based screening intervention trial and the nationwide database of histopathology reports. The new screening guidelines are expected to lead to a reduced cervical cancer risk for all age groups. The average risk reduction was 34% and was smallest (25%) among women aged 35 years. The impact of hrHPV screening on the cancer risk was sensitive to the duration from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (CIN2/3) to cancer; a small increase in the cancer risk was estimated for women aged 35 or 40 years in case a substantial proportion of CIN2/3 showed fast progression to cancer. Our results indicate that primary hrHPV screening with a ten-yearly interval for hrHPV-negative women of age 40 and beyond will lead to a further reduction in lifetime cancer risk compared to five-yearly cytology, provided that precancerous lesions progress slowly to cancer.

  1. Taking Up the Mantle of Human Trafficking Education: Who Should Be Responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Carrie A; Calhoun, Aaron W; Mittel, Olivia F

    2017-01-01

    Human trafficking is a global human rights issue with long-range health consequences about which physicians are largely uneducated. Medical schools are uniquely positioned to address this gap. All future physicians, regardless of specialty, must learn to identify victims and refer them to trauma-informed treatment. Research and advocacy are needed to address the lack of rigorously evaluated curricula in this area, impact policy, and improve services for victims of this heinous form of exploitation.

  2. Forelimb preferences in human beings and other species: multiple models for testing hypotheses on lateralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eVersace

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Consistent preferences in the use of right/left forelimbs are not exclusively present in humans. Functional asymmetries in forelimb use have been widely documented in a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species. A matter of debate is whether non-human species exhibit a degree and consistency of functional forelimb asymmetries comparable to human handedness. The comparison is made difficult by the variability in hand use in humans and the few comparable studies conducted on other species. In spite of this, interesting continuities appear in functions such as feeding, object manipulation and communicative gestures. Studies on invertebrates show how widespread forelimb preferences are among animals, and the importance of experience for the development of forelimb asymmetries. Vertebrate species have been extensively investigated to clarify the origins of forelimb functional asymmetries: comparative evidence shows that selective pressures for different functions have likely driven the evolution of human handedness. Evidence of a complex genetic architecture of human handedness is in line with the idea of multiple evolutionary origins of this trait.

  3. Zoonotic Babesia: possibly emerging pathogens to be considered for tick-infested humans in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunfeld, K P; Brade, V

    2004-04-01

    The three host-tick Ixodes (I.) ricinus is regarded as an important vector of tick-borne microorganisms pathogenic for humans in central Europe and is primarily known as the main vector of Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi and the virus causing tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), the most clinically relevant tick transmitted pathogens for humans in European countries. Furthermore, it is now well established that I. ricinus also transmits Ehrlichia (E.) phagocytophila, Babesia (Ba.) divergens, and Ba. microti, all agents of zoonotic infections in dear, sheep, cattle, dogs, and horses. In addition to their known zoonotic potential, recent molecular-epidemiological and seroepidemiological surveys as well as increasingly reported clinical cases of infections caused by these tick-borne organisms other than B. burgdorferi (TOBB) also strongly suggest a possible relevance of Babesia, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia for humans at risk in Europe. However, there are few medical microbiological investigations and epidemiological data on the distribution and relevance of Babesia for humans in our part of the northern hemisphere. There is also very little diagnostic and clinical knowledge on human babesiosis in many regions of Europe. Furthermore, sophisticated diagnostic tools designed for the reliable detection of the underlying pathogens, are not yet generally available to the microbiological laboratory. This review aims to provide basic information on human babesiosis and the most relevant causative pathogens of the disease in Europe and to draw attention to this parasitic infection as a possibly emerging and probably under-diagnosed disease in this part of the northern hemisphere.

  4. Traditional Chinese medicine and the positive correlation with homeostatic evolution of human being: based on medical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-Hua

    2012-08-01

    Adaptation is an eternal theme of biological evolution. The paper aims at exploring the conception of positive correlation between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and human homeostatic evolution based on medical perspective. Discussions mainly involve TCM conforming to natural laws and natural evolution of life, spontaneous harmonization of yin and yang and operating system of human self-healing, modern human immunology and human endogenous immune function in TCM, self-homeostasis of human micro-ecological state and balance mechanism on regulating base in TCM, as well as adaptation-eternal theme of biological evolution and safeguarding adaptability-value of TCM. In perspective of medicine, theory and practice of TCM are in positive correlation with human homeostatic evolution, and what TCM tries to maintain is human intrinsic adaptive capability to disease and nature. Therefore, it is the core value of TCM, which is to be further studied, explored, realized and known to the world.

  5. Indicators and Methods for Constructing a U.S. Human Well-being Index (HWBI) for Ecosystem Services Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humans are dependent upon the services provided by nature, and unless we effectively account for the range of values from ecosystems in our efforts to protect the environment, we cannot sustain human well-being. In light of this dependence, a national measure of well-being is nee...

  6. Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells or Estrogen may be Beneficial in Treating Heatstroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hsien Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This current review summarized animal models of heatstroke experimentation that promote our current knowledge of therapeutic effects on cerebrovascular dysfunction, coagulopathy, and/or systemic inflammation with human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBCs or estrogen in the setting of heatstroke. Accumulating evidences have demonstrated that HUCBCs provide a promising new therapeutic method against neurodegenerative diseases, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury as well as blood disease. More recently, we have also demonstrated that postor pretreatment by HUCBCs may resuscitate heatstroke rats with by reducing circulatory shock, and cerebral nitric oxide overload and ischemic injury. Moreover, CD34+ cells sorted from HUCBCs may improve survival by attenuating inflammatory, coagulopathy, and multiorgan dysfunction during experimental heatstroke. Many researchers indicated pro(e.g. tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and anti-inflammatory (e.g. interleukin-10 [IL-10] cytokines in the peripheral blood stream correlate with severity of circulatory shock, cerebral ischemia and hypoxia, and neuronal damage occurring in heatstroke. It has been shown that intravenous administration of CD34+ cells can secrete therapeutic molecules, such as neurotrophic factors, and attenuate systemic inflammatory reactions by decreasing serum TNF-α but increasing IL-10 during heatstroke. Another line of evidence has suggested that estrogen influences the severity of injury associated with cerebrovascular shock. Recently, we also successfully demonstrated estrogen resuscitated heatstroke rats by ameliorating systemic inflammation. Conclusively, HUCBCs or estrogen may be employed as a beneficial therapeutic strategy in prevention and repair of cerebrovascular dysfunction, coagulopathy, and/or systemic inflammation during heatstroke.

  7. Ethics education in research involving human beings in undergraduate medicine curriculum in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Maria Rita Garbi; Guilhem, Dirce; Barragan, Elena; Mennin, Stewart

    2013-12-01

    The Brazilian national curriculum guidelines for undergraduate medicine courses inspired and influenced the groundwork for knowledge acquisition, skills development and the perception of ethical values in the context of professional conduct. The evaluation of ethics education in research involving human beings in undergraduate medicine curriculum in Brazil, both in courses with active learning processes and in those with traditional lecture learning methodologies. Curricula and teaching projects of 175 Brazilian medical schools were analyzed using a retrospective historical and descriptive exploratory cohort study. Thirty one medical schools were excluded from the study because of incomplete information or a refusal to participate. Active research for information from institutional sites and documents was guided by terms based on 69 DeCS/MeSH descriptors. Curriculum information was correlated with educational models of learning such as active learning methodologies, tutorial discussions with integrated curriculum into core modules, and traditional lecture learning methodologies for large classes organized by disciplines and reviewed by occurrence frequency of ethical themes and average hourly load per semester. Ninety-five medical schools used traditional learning methodologies. The ten most frequent ethical themes were: 1--ethics in research (26); 2--ethical procedures and advanced technology (46); 3--ethic-professional conduct (413). Over 80% of schools using active learning methodologies had between 50 and 100 hours of scheduled curriculum time devoted to ethical themes whereas more than 60% of traditional learning methodology schools devoted less than 50 hours in curriculum time to ethical themes. The data indicates that medical schools that employ more active learning methodologies provide more attention and time to ethical themes than schools with traditional discipline-based methodologies. Given the importance of ethical issues in contemporary medical

  8. Allowing for Psychosis to be Approachable and Understandable as a Human Experience: A Role for the Humanities in Psychotherapy Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Bethany L; Hamm, Jay A; Fogley, Rebecca L; Buck, Kelly D; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatry and related mental health fields, in particular psychotherapy, have a long history of close ties with the humanities. That bond has weakened, however, over the last few decades as medicalized views of mental health and treatment have emerged. In this paper, we explore the potential of the reintroduction of the humanities, specifically novels and related literary genre, into the supervision of student clinicians working with clients who have psychosis. We believe that incorporation of novels and related literary genre into supervision can lead to unique and deepened understanding of the experience of psychosis, and can create an opportunity for a working therapeutic alliance. The potential mechanisms that create these unique opportunities to understand psychopathology are explored, and considerations for the implications for treatment, training, and future research are presented.

  9. The emergence of human coronavirus EMC: how scared should we be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Renee W Y; Poon, Leo L M

    2013-04-09

    A novel betacoronavirus, human coronavirus (HCoV-EMC), has recently been detected in humans with severe respiratory disease. Further characterization of HCoV-EMC suggests that this virus is different from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) because it is able to replicate in multiple mammalian cell lines and it does not use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 as a receptor to achieve infection. Additional research is urgently needed to better understand the pathogenicity and tissue tropism of this virus in humans. In their recent study published in mBio, Kindler et al. shed some light on these important topics (E. Kindler, H. R. Jónsdóttir, M. Muth, O. J. Hamming, R. Hartmann, R. Rodriguez, R. Geffers, R. A. Fouchier, C. Drosten, M. A. Müller, R. Dijkman, and V. Thiel, mBio 4[1]:e00611-12, 2013). These authors report the use of differentiated pseudostratified human primary airway epithelial cells, an in vitro model with high physiological relevance to the human airway epithelium, to characterize the cellular tropism of HCoV-EMC. More importantly, the authors demonstrate the potential use of type I and type III interferons (IFNs) to control viral infection.

  10. Human and rhesus macaque hematopoietic stem cells cannot be purified based only on SLAM family markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larochelle, Andre; Savona, Michael; Wiggins, Michael; Anderson, Stephanie; Ichwan, Brian; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Morrison, Sean J; Dunbar, Cynthia E

    2011-02-03

    Various combinations of antibodies directed to cell surface markers have been used to isolate human and rhesus macaque hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). These protocols result in poor enrichment or require multiple complex steps. Recently, a simple phenotype for HSCs based on cell surface markers from the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors has been reported in the mouse. We examined the possibility of using the SLAM markers to facilitate the isolation of highly enriched populations of HSCs in humans and rhesus macaques. We isolated SLAM (CD150(+)CD48(-)) and non-SLAM (not CD150(+)CD48(-)) cells from human umbilical cord blood CD34(+) cells as well as from human and rhesus macaque mobilized peripheral blood CD34(+) cells and compared their ability to form colonies in vitro and reconstitute immune-deficient (nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency/interleukin-2 γc receptor(null), NSG) mice. We found that the CD34(+) SLAM population contributed equally or less to colony formation in vitro and to long-term reconstitution in NSG mice compared with the CD34(+) non-SLAM population. Thus, SLAM family markers do not permit the same degree of HSC enrichment in humans and rhesus macaques as in mice.

  11. The right to be born: surrogacy and the legal control of human fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, M L

    1989-01-01

    South African law, in common with many other legal systems, has exercised a strong measure of control over the fertility of its citizens via the sanction of illegitimacy and the prohibition of marriage (and hence legitimate children) between certain persons, e.g. those who fall within the so-called prohibited degrees of relationship. Until last year, when the Mixed Marriages Act was abolished, marriage across the colour line was prohibited in South Africa. The requirement of a valid consent by both prospective spouses in order to enter into marriage further excludes certain categories of persons from procreating legitimate children, e.g. the insane and mentally feeble, while the requirement of consummation will exclude certain categories of paraplegics from solemnizing a valid marriage. Age restrictions on marriages and the requirement of parental consent for minors are further factors limiting the individual's freedom to procreate. These restrictions have a well-established historical basis extending over many hundreds of years. They can be broadly categorised as having as their objective the preservation of the family unit. The above provisions were formulated at a time when the law never contemplated the spectacular advances in human biology that have produced the numerous artificial forms of conception, such as AID, IVF and surrogacy. The legislature, both in South Africa and elsewhere, at first adopted a neutral approach to this new fertility revolution and watched the courts struggle to adapt outmoded principles to the new technology. Legislation relating to AID and IVF eventually appeared in many jurisdictions; as a result of its delayed introduction public opinion had been educated to accept the new techniques and the legislation is by and large favourable to these new techniques. Not so, however, as far as surrogacy is concerned. South Africa, England and Australia have produced essentially negative legislation on this subject. Certain American states

  12. STUDY OF INJURY PATTERN IN HUMAN BEINGS IN ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS INVOLVING TWO WHEELERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seethalakshmi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available India experienced very rapid population growth from 48 million to 1.2 billion in a span of decades. In India rapid urbanization, industrialization, population explosion and migration of people in past two decades r esults in enormous growth in the field of road transportation. This resulted in increasing amount of the road traffic leading to increased risk for occurrence of road traffic accidents. In India road traffic injuries will be third leading cause of death by 2020 with the increase in the use of two wheelers and congestion and environmental pollution this mortality rate will continue to rise. Considering the preciousness of human lives, this study has been undertaken to analyse the pattern of injuries in Road Traffic Accidents Involving Two Wheelers to create awareness among the law enforcing authorities, transport authorities and public regarding two wheeler fatalities. A sincere attempt has been made in this study to analyse the distribution of the pattern of injuries sustained by two wheeler travellers, so that appropriate interventional strategies can be evolved at various levels and by different agencies. 147 Two wheeler Accident victims were randomly selected from 1063 road traffic accident cases brought t o the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Madras Medical College Chennai - 3 for routine medico legal examination. Preliminary data were collected from the medico legal documents such as history of the case, Inquest form, First Information Report, Accident Regis ter, Death Report, Clinical data submitted by the investigating officer at the time of medico legal examination. During autopsy, on external exami nation, nature of injury, size, number were measured in all cases. Internal organ injuries were recorded. Caus e of death was arrived at based on the findings made out during autopsy. Totally 147 motorcyclist victims were included in this study in which demographic factors such as age, sex, time of accident, manner of collision

  13. Tendências na assistência hospitalar Trends in hospital care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Vecina Neto

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as tendências observadas na assistência hospitalar brasileira, no que diz respeito ao cenário, situação atual, desafios e ao que necessita ser feito, tendo em vista os itens anteriores. As variáveis com as quais se trabalhou o cenário geral foram a demografia, o perfil epidemiológico, os recursos humanos, a tecnologia, a medicalização, os custos, a revisão do papel do cidadão, a legislação, a eqüidade, o hospitalocentrismo e a regionalização, o fracionamento do cuidado e a oferta de leitos. O cenário nacional foi estudado mediante o modelo empregado na assistência médica supletiva, o financiamento e a cadeia de produção na área de serviços de saúde. A situação atual apresenta os modelos de avaliação externa, a terceirização, o relacionamento público-privado, a desospitalização e o financiamento. Os desafios a serem enfrentados analisam a necessidade de se olhar o longo prazo, a busca por novos modelos jurídicos para o "negócio", o uso da informação e a informatização, o controle de custos e a necessidade do aumento da eficiência e do cumprimento dos ditames legais, de garantia de acesso e de integralidade na assistência, a incorporação da prevenção primária ao processo de atenção, a integração entre os setores público e privado e a incorporação do médico na solução dos problemas.This paper analyses trends in the delivery of hospital services in Brazil, considering the setting, the current situation and its challenges, examining what still remains to be done. The variables studied for the analysis of the setting are: demography, epidemiological profile, human resources, technology, medicalization, costs, review of the role of the citizen, legislation, equity, hospital-centricity and regionalization, care fractioning and bed availability. The Brazilian setting was studied through the supplementary healthcare model, financing and the healthcare area production chain. The

  14. Young and Old Pavlovian Fear Memories Can Be Modified with Extinction Training during Reconsolidation in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfurth, Elisa C. K.; Kanen, Jonathan W.; Raio, Candace M.; Clem, Roger L.; Huganir, Richard L.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Extinction training during reconsolidation has been shown to persistently diminish conditioned fear responses across species. We investigated in humans if older fear memories can benefit similarly. Using a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm we compared standard extinction and extinction after memory reactivation 1 d or 7 d following acquisition.…

  15. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Reperant (Leslie); I.H. Brown (Ian); Haenen, O.L.; M.D. de Jong (Menno); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Papa (Anna); Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.-F.; T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCompanion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, litt

  16. Should Humanism Approach Be Applied in English as a Second Language (ESL) Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lee Yi; Jin, Ng Yu; Tong, Chong Seng; Tarmizi, Mohd. Ariff

    2014-01-01

    In the process of learning, many elements fall into place wholly in order to enhance effectiveness. These elements include not only environmental factors but also learners' mentality which involves their feelings, needs and interests. Humanism approach is one which caters these elements required by learners' learning process through emphasis on…

  17. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reperant, L.A.; Brown, I.H.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Jong, de M.D.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Papa, A.; Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.F.; Kuiken, T.

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known

  18. Young and Old Pavlovian Fear Memories Can Be Modified with Extinction Training during Reconsolidation in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfurth, Elisa C. K.; Kanen, Jonathan W.; Raio, Candace M.; Clem, Roger L.; Huganir, Richard L.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Extinction training during reconsolidation has been shown to persistently diminish conditioned fear responses across species. We investigated in humans if older fear memories can benefit similarly. Using a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm we compared standard extinction and extinction after memory reactivation 1 d or 7 d following acquisition.…

  19. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reperant, L.A.; Brown, I.H.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Jong, de M.D.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Papa, A.; Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.F.; Kuiken, T.

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known

  20. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Reperant (Leslie); I.H. Brown (Ian); Haenen, O.L.; M.D. de Jong (Menno); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Papa (Anna); Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.-F.; T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCompanion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society,

  1. Heritability of Tpeak-Tend Interval and T-wave Amplitude: A Twin Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarmark, Christian; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Vedel-Larsen, Esben;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Tpeak-Tend interval (TpTe) and T-wave amplitude (Tamp) carry diagnostic and prognostic information regarding cardiac morbidity and mortality. Heart rate and QT interval are known to be heritable traits. The heritability of T-wave morphology parameters such as TpTe and Tamp is unknown....... TpTe and Tamp were evaluated in a large sample of twins. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Twins from the GEMINAKAR study (611 pairs, 246 monozygotic, 365 dizygotic, aged 38±11 years, 49 % men) who had an ECG performed during 1997-2000 were included. Tamp was measured in leads V1 and V5. Duration variables (RR...... are heritable ECG parameters....

  2. From 'human being' to 'social subject': "unfreezing" ergonomics and the implications for understanding and intervening health-disease process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Karen Lange; García-Acosta, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomics has been successful in increasing productivity and comfort in the work arena. It has also contributed to reducing occupational accidents. Despite this, ergonomics is frequently limited to understanding the health-disease process related to human-technology interactions, as this process is more complex than what can be understood from an ergonomic evaluation. Recognising this limit, this work ontologically and epistemologically contrasts the notions of 'human being' and 'social subject', and concludes that the study object of ergonomics, or human-technology interaction, greatly depends on social aspects that nowadays are not tackled explicitly: route (history), project, structure, agency, motivations and power. It also analyses how participatory ergonomics tacitly includes many of these aspects, including some implications that the change of notion, from 'human being' to 'social subject', brings to the understanding of the health-disease process and the reduction of associated risks during human activities.

  3. Myocardial enzyme activities of black bears and comparison with those of human beings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Wan-ru; LUO Fei-li; HU Zhi-ping

    2005-01-01

    According to the principle of enzyme reaction rate, healthy pent black bears' myocardial enzyme activity is assayed by visual colorimetry and compared with that of healthy human beings. The determination at 37℃ and the statistic analysis of the experimental data work out the following findings. For male black bears, the average CK activity is 163.20U/L, the confidence interval of its expected value (127.70 to 198.70)U/L, and the coefficient of variation 39.2%; the average CK-MB activity 21.62U/L, the confidential interval (17.72 to 25.51)U/L, and the coefficient of variation 34.26%; the average LDH activity 604.20U/L, the confidence interval (524.56 to 683.83)U/L, and the coefficient of variation 23.80%; the average HBDH activity 516.70U/L, the confidence interval (453.06 to 580.34)U/L, and the coefficient of variation 22.24%; the average GOT activity 69.70U/L, the confidence interval (60.21 to 79.19)U/L, and the coefficient of variation 24.59%. For female black bears, the average CK activity is 145.50U/L, the confidence interval (114.59 to 176.21)U/L, and the coefficient of variation 38.27%; the average CK-MB activity 18.84U/L, the confidence interval (14.64 to 23.04)U/L, and the coefficient of variation 40.34%; the average LDH activity 563.70U/L, the confidence interval (473.80 to 652.60)U/L, and the coefficient of variation 28.80%; the average of HBDH activity 475.50U/L, the confidence interval (412.10 to 538.40)U/L, and the coefficient of variation 24.07%; the average of GOT activity is 62.37U/L, the confidential interval (52.54 to 72.20)U/L, and the coefficient of variation 28.46%. The male black bear's average myocardium enzyme activities are slightly higher than those of the female. But the statistical results indicate that the difference is not significant.

  4. Education for Personal Life: John MacMurray on Why Learning to Be Human Requires Emotional Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllister, James

    2014-01-01

    In this article I discuss the philosophy of John MacMurray, and in particular, his little-examined writings on discipline and emotion education. It is argued that discipline is a vital element in the emotion education MacMurray thought central to learning to be human, because for him it takes concerted effort to overcome the human tendency toward…

  5. Hard times and European youth : The effect of economic insecurity on human values, social attitudes and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeskens, T.; Vandecasteele, Leen

    2017-01-01

    While economic downturns have adverse effects on young people's life chances, empirical studies examining whether and to what extent human values, social attitudes and well-being indicators respond to sudden economic shocks are scarce. To assess the claim that human values are less affected by

  6. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment can be separated from lipofuscin accumulation in aged human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hütter, Eveline; Skovbro, Mette; Lener, Barbara;

    2007-01-01

    According to the free radical theory of aging, reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as a driving force of the aging process, and it is generally believed that mitochondrial dysfunction is a major source of increased oxidative stress in tissues with high content of mitochondria, such as muscle or brain....... However, recent experiments in mouse models of premature aging have questioned the role of mitochondrial ROS production in premature aging. To address the role of mitochondrial impairment and ROS production for aging in human muscles, we have analyzed mitochondrial properties in muscle fibres isolated...... from the vastus lateralis of young and elderly donors. Mitochondrial respiratory functions were addressed by high-resolution respirometry, and ROS production was analyzed by in situ staining with the redox-sensitive dye dihydroethidium. We found that aged human skeletal muscles contain fully functional...

  7. Possibilities of collecting evidences about crime act of sexual exploitation in human beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijalković Saša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Collecting evidences about organized crime act of sexual exploitation in human begins often is very difficult because of high level of organization, secrecy ant precaution taken during committing prostitution, pornography, sex tourism and human trafficking. On the other side, high illegal profit enable criminals to engage "expensive" and experienced lawyers, whose often make values and reliability of collected evidences questionable, appealing to irregularities during police collecting procedure. Among traditional criminalities methods and proofing activities, in the study, modern tendencies in special investigative measures and techniques are considered. After that, there is pointing at specificity, meaning and value of material tracks and objects, which are essential for proofing crime act or perpetrator’s guiltiness. On the end, there is pointing at importance of victims’ cooperation in collecting evidences about their sexual exploitation.

  8. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (ACARI: IXODIDAE) BITING A HUMAN BEING IN PORTOALEGRE CITY, RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENTZ, Márcia Bohrer; TROMBKA, Marcelo; da SILVA, Guilherme Liberato; SILVA, Carlos Eugênio

    2016-01-01

    We report the finding of a female brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) on the scalp of a male patient in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Human parasitism by this tick is rare and has seldomly been reported in the literature, despite its recognized importance since it can act as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of spotted fever. PMID:27074329

  9. Experimental mouse tumour models: what can be learnt about human cancer immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranoff, Glenn

    2011-12-02

    The recent demonstration that cancer immunotherapy extends patient survival has reinvigorated interest in elucidating the role of immunity in tumour pathogenesis. Experimental mouse tumour models have provided key mechanistic insights into host antitumour immune responses, and these have guided the development of novel treatment strategies. To accelerate the translation of these findings into clinical benefits, investigators need to gain a better understanding of the strengths and limitations of mouse model systems as tools for deciphering human antitumour immune responses.

  10. [Ethical and legal principles for the activities of bioprospection in relation to human beings and the human genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2012-01-01

    During recent decades, bioprospecting has become an important field of research, which looks for development alternatives, entry into global (environmental) markets, and the subsequent obtention of benefits under sustainable development principles. However, there is still so much to discuss regarding the social and environmental impacts produced by this activity, as well as its main limitations. To this end, the Forum/round-table discussion, entitled "Bioprospección, Etica y Sociedad" was organised to take place on 28 March 2012 at the National University of Colombia. Its main objective was to enrich our knowledge on bioprospecting considering the ethical considerations that involve society. The presentation given by Professor ROMEO CASABONA, regarding the connection between bioprospecting and the human genome deserves special attention and is presented below.

  11. Phenolic compounds alone or in combination may be involved in propolis effects on human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Eliza de Oliveira; Conti, Bruno José; Santiago, Karina Basso; Conte, Fernanda Lopes; Oliveira, Lucas Pires Garcia; Hernandes, Rodrigo Tavanelli; Golim, Marjorie de Assis; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2017-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product with a complex chemical composition. Its isolated compounds exert biological activities; however, its synergistic effects are unknown. The involvement of phenolic acids (caffeic - Caf, dihydrocinnamic - Cin and p-coumaric - Cou) alone or in combination was investigated in the action of propolis in human monocytes. Cell viability was analysed by MTT assay; TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); cell markers expression by flow cytometry; colony-forming units were counted to assess the microbicidal activity; and H2 O2 production was analysed by colorimetric assay. Treatments did not affect monocytes viability. Propolis and combinations containing Caf enhanced TNF-α production by resting cells. Propolis, Cin, Cou and Caf + Cin stimulated IL-6 production. All treatments upregulated IL-10. In LPS-stimulated cells, treatments downregulated IL-6 and maintained TNF-α and IL-10 production. A lower TLR-2 expression was seen than propolis. Caf + Cin enhanced TLR-4 expression. Propolis, Caf and Caf + Cin stimulated H2 O2 production, whereas propolis, Cin, Cou, and Caf + Cin + Cou induced a higher fungicidal activity. Cin and Cin + Cou increased the bactericidal activity of human monocytes. Propolis activated human monocytes, and acids were involved differently in propolis activity. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. [Legislative and legal security of supervisory activities in the sphere of protection of consumers' rights and human well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiantsev, G I; Kutsenko, G I; Polesskiĭ, V A

    2007-01-01

    Sanitary legislation plays an important role in supervisory activities ensuring the protection of consumers' rights and human well-being. The paper considers the basic laws and standard acts allowing for legal regulation in this sphere of activities.

  13. Impacts of Community Forest Management and Strictly Protected Areas on Deforestation and Human Well-Being in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasolofoson, Ranaivo Andriarilala

    -dimensional nature of human well-being. In this thesis, I aim to investigate the impacts of different conservation interventions on environmental and human well-being outcomes while addressing the challenges to conservation impact evaluation discussed above. My case studies are CFM and strict protection......Protected areas and Community Forest Management (CFM) are among the most widespread interventions to conserve forests in tropical countries. In addition to their impacts on forests and the biodiversity they contain, these interventions also affect human well-being, particularly that of the local...... they contain) and human well-being. However, while scientifically rigorous impact evaluation of programs is well advanced in fields such as development, health and education, it is rare in nature conservation. The rare existing studies focus mostly on protected areas and other interventions, such as CFM...

  14. Pheromone signal transduction in humans: what can be learned from olfactory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivanka; Hedén-Blomqvist, Ebba; Berglund, Hans

    2009-09-01

    Because humans seem to lack neuronal elements in the vomeronasal organ (VNO), many scientists believe that humans are unable to detect pheromones. This view is challenged by the observations that pheromone-like compounds, 4,16-androstadien-3-one (AND) and oestra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol (EST), activate the human hypothalamus. Whether these activations are mediated via VNO, venous blood or olfactory mucosa is presently unknown. To disentangle between the three alternatives, we conducted activation studies in 12 heterosexual males with chronic anosmia because of nasal polyps. Polyposis hampers signal transduction via the olfactory mucosa without interfering with the VNO or the pheromone transport via venous blood. Twelve healthy men served as controls. Subjects were investigated with (15)O-H(2)O PET during smelling of odorless air (base line), AND, EST, vanillin, and acetone. Smelling of EST activated the anterior hypothalamus in controls, but not anosmics. Neither did the anosmics display cerebral activations with AND or vanillin. Clusters were detected only with the trigeminal odorant acetone, and only in the thalamus, brainstem, the anterior cingulate, and parts of the sensorimotor cortex. Direct comparisons with controls (controls-anosmics) showed clusters in the olfactory cortex (amygdala and piriform cortex) with AND, vanillin, and acetone, and in the anterior hypothalamus with EST. The observed absence of olfactory and presence of trigeminal activations in anosmics indicates that polyposis primarily affected signal processing via the olfactory mucosa. The anosmics inability to activate the hypothalamus with EST, therefore, suggests that in healthy men EST signals were primarily transmitted via the olfactory system.

  15. Should we clone human beings? Cloning as a source of tissue for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, J

    1999-01-01

    The most publicly justifiable application of human cloning, if there is one at all, is to provide self-compatible cells or tissues for medical use, especially transplantation. Some have argued that this raises no new ethical issues above those raised by any form of embryo experimentation. I argue that this research is less morally problematic than other embryo research. Indeed, it is not merely morally permissible but morally required that we employ cloning to produce embryos or fetuses for the sake of providing cells, tissues or even organs for therapy, followed by abortion of the embryo or fetus. PMID:10226910

  16. Being human in a technological age : A study of the impacts of smart technology usage

    OpenAIRE

    Brulin, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Today humans are using a large amount of smart technology to support their daily activities, for instance smartphones, tablets and computers. The relationship towards technology is changing, and with the change comes questions. In this thesis a qualitative interview study was used to deepen the understanding of humans’ daily use of technology and its impacts on their daily life. The study has shown that humans’ technology usage has both positive and negative impacts on their daily life. For i...

  17. Should we clone human beings? Cloning as a source of tissue for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, J

    1999-04-01

    The most publicly justifiable application of human cloning, if there is one at all, is to provide self-compatible cells or tissues for medical use, especially transplantation. Some have argued that this raises no new ethical issues above those raised by any form of embryo experimentation. I argue that this research is less morally problematic than other embryo research. Indeed, it is not merely morally permissible but morally required that we employ cloning to produce embryos or fetuses for the sake of providing cells, tissues or even organs for therapy, followed by abortion of the embryo or fetus.

  18. Panpsychism, pan-consciousness and the non-human turn: Rethinking being as conscious matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel du Toit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is not surprising that in a time of intensified ecological awareness a new appreciation of nature and the inanimate world arises. Two examples are panpsychism (the extension of consciousness to the cosmos and deep incarnation (the idea that God was not only incarnated in human form but also in the non-human world. Consciousness studies flourish and are related to nature, the animal world and inorganic nature. A metaphysics of consciousness emerges, of which panpsychism is a good example. Panpsychism or panconsciousness or speculative realism endows all matter with a form of consciousness, energy and experience. The consciousness question is increasingly linked to the quantum world, which offers some option in bridging mind and reality, consciousness and matter. In this regard Kauffman’s notion of ‘triad’ is referred to as well as the implied idea of cosmic mind. This is related to the notion of ‘deep incarnation’ as introduced by Gregersen. Some analogical links are made between panpsychism and deep incarnation.

  19. EUROPEAN UNION’S COMMITMENT TO FIGHT AGAINST THE HUMAN BEINGS TRAFFICKING, THE MODERN FORM OF SLAVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Cristiana SPĂTARU-NEGURĂ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious threats to the European Union is the organised crime. The EU is continuously adapting its response in order to best respond to the situation. Among different types of organised crime, human beings trafficking is one of the most seriously crimes worldwide, representing also a gross violation of human rights. Very often behind the human beings trafficking is the organised crime because is one of the most profitable criminal activities in the world. The numbers are very scary because it is estimated that the trafficked people to or within the EU are reaching several hundred thousands a year. The present study is intending to discover how the European Union intends to fight against the human beings trafficking, since there is a need to have a coherent action at the European level because of the criminals can easily operate across border.

  20. Keeping it simple: flowering plants tend to retain, and revert to, simple leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeta, R; Dávalos, Liliana M; Levy, André; Bohs, Lynn; Lavin, Mathew; Mummenhoff, Klaus; Sinha, Neelima; Wojciechowski, Martin F

    2012-01-01

    • A wide range of factors (developmental, physiological, ecological) with unpredictable interactions control variation in leaf form. Here, we examined the distribution of leaf morphologies (simple and complex forms) across angiosperms in a phylogenetic context to detect patterns in the directions of changes in leaf shape. • Seven datasets (diverse angiosperms and six nested clades, Sapindales, Apiales, Papaveraceae, Fabaceae, Lepidium, Solanum) were analysed using maximum likelihood and parsimony methods to estimate asymmetries in rates of change among character states. • Simple leaves are most frequent among angiosperm lineages today, were inferred to be ancestral in angiosperms and tended to be retained in evolution (stasis). Complex leaves slowly originated ('gains') and quickly reverted to simple leaves ('losses') multiple times, with a significantly greater rate of losses than gains. Lobed leaves may be a labile intermediate step between different forms. The nested clades showed mixed trends; Solanum, like the angiosperms in general, had higher rates of losses than gains, but the other clades had higher rates of gains than losses. • The angiosperm-wide pattern could be taken as a null model to test leaf evolution patterns in particular clades, in which patterns of variation suggest clade-specific processes that have yet to be investigated fully.

  1. Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Xeroxing Human Beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Paul A.

    1972-01-01

    If the aim of new research is to improve the genetic inheritance of future generations, then decisions regarding who should decide what research should be done needs to be established. Positive and negative eugenics need to be considered thoroughly. (PS)

  2. Is there a human right to be assisted in dying? [Temos um direito humano a ser assistido na morte?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Tonetto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on the issue of whether it is plausible to think about a human right to be assisted in dying. The right to be assisted in dying cannot be considered just a right of non-interference. It is better understood as a claim right because it demands assistance and positive actions. I will argue that the principles of individual autonomy and Kant’s notion of dignity taken independently cannot be considered plausible justification for the human right to be assisted in dying. Griffin’s personhood account points out that principles of liberty, minimum provision and autonomy must be taken together to justify human rights. Based on his theory, I will argue that a person with a terminal disease who was aware of her imminent death or who suffered from an intractable, incurable, irreversible disease may waive the right to life and choose death. Therefore, the right to life would not restrict the human right to be assisted in dying and a state that allowed the practice of assisted dying would not be disrespecting the human right to life. This article will defend that the personhood account is able to protect vulnerable people from making decisions under pressure and avoid the slippery slope objection.

  3. Current status of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in animals & humans in India: What needs to be done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Vir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP has emerged as a major health problem for domestic livestock and human beings. Reduced per animal productivity of domestic livestock seriously impacts the economics of dairy farming globally. High to very high bioload of MAP in domestic livestock and also in the human population has been reported from north India. Presence of live MAP bacilli in commercial supplies of raw and pasteurized milk and milk products indicates its public health significance. MAP is not inactivated during pasteurization, therefore, entering into human food chain daily. Recovery of MAP from patients with inflammatory bowel disease or Crohn's disease and animal healthcare workers suffering with chronic gastrointestinal problems indicate a close association of MAP with a number of chronic and other diseases affecting human health. Higher bioload of MAP in the animals increases the risk of exposure to the human population with MAP. This review summarizes the current status of MAP infection in animals as well as in human beings and also highlights the prospects of effective management and control of disease in animals to reduce the risk of exposure to human population.

  4. Whose landscape? - An anthropological perspective on landscape perception in reindeer tending (In Swedish with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Järpe

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available When we talk publicly about landscape and land use, both in legal and in popular contexts, the evaluation of our natural environment is usually based on an industrial concept of land and landscape. "Nature" is seen as a resource to be used or managed in different ways. My research originates in a questioning of this assumption: can we take for granted that the same perceptions and evaluations are shared by all concerned parties? In this article, I will use an ecologic anthropological perspective to consider the livelihood of reindeer tending and suggest an alternative to what can be called a scientific understanding of the world. I maintain that the relations that people have with their environment, and the values that they ascribe to it, are perceptions that are shaped and affected in our interactions with the surrounding world, and that these perceptions vary between different groups of people. Land use, land rights, access to fishing waters, and who gets to hunt what; these are not only questions about how we should manage the landscape, but also about whose landscape we are managing. Arguing that the reindeer tenders' landscape is a shifting mosaic of varying conditions that they must relate to rather than an object to be used and controlled by human interests, I want to show how anthropological research can provide an insight into the different perspectives and modes of understanding that we need to consider in the formulation of future policies and laws. At least if we want to resolve land use conflicts in contested areas fairly and on a sustainable long-term basis.

  5. Integrating Sustainability Science with the Sciences of Human Well-being to Inform Design and Planning in an Urbanizing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, M.; Graumlich, L. J.; Frumkin, H.; Friedman, D.

    2012-12-01

    A sustainable human future requires both healthy ecosystems and communities in which people thrive, with opportunities for health, well-being, happiness, economic prosperity, and equity. To make progress towards this goal, two largely disparate communities of scholars and practitioners must come together: sustainability science needs to be integrated with the sciences of human health and well-being. The opportunity for such integration is particularly ripe for urbanizing regions which not only dominate energy and resource use but also increasingly represent the human habitat. We present a conceptual framework that integrates sustainability science with the sciences of human health and well-being to explicitly articulate testable hypotheses on the relationships between humans and their habitat. We are interested in human behaviors and metrics of health and well-being in relationship to the characteristics of the built environment at various scales from buildings to metro regions. Focusing on the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) as a testbed, we are building on our current empirical studies on urban sprawl and ecosystem function including biodiversity, air quality, hydrological, biogeochemical, and human health to develop formal hypotheses on how alternative urban design and development patterns may influence health outcomes and well-being. The PNW is an ideal setting for this work because of the connected metropolitan areas within a region characterized by a spectacular diversity of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and deeply held cultural and political aspirations towards sustainability. The framework also highlights opportunities for translation of knowledge to practice in the design and planning of built environments. For example, understanding these associations is critical to assessing tradeoffs in design and planning strategies and exploring potential synergies that optimize both sustainability and human well-being. In complex systems such as cities, managers

  6. Evidence for a midlife crisis in great apes consistent with the U-shape in human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; King, James E; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Oswald, Andrew J

    2012-12-04

    Recently, economists and behavioral scientists have studied the pattern of human well-being over the lifespan. In dozens of countries, and for a large range of well-being measures, including happiness and mental health, well-being is high in youth, falls to a nadir in midlife, and rises again in old age. The reasons for this U-shape are still unclear. Present theories emphasize sociological and economic forces. In this study we show that a similar U-shape exists in 508 great apes (two samples of chimpanzees and one sample of orangutans) whose well-being was assessed by raters familiar with the individual apes. This U-shaped pattern or "midlife crisis" emerges with or without use of parametric methods. Our results imply that human well-being's curved shape is not uniquely human and that, although it may be partly explained by aspects of human life and society, its origins may lie partly in the biology we share with great apes. These findings have implications across scientific and social-scientific disciplines, and may help to identify ways of enhancing human and ape well-being.

  7. [Experience of a research Ethics Committee and the challenges of the new Chilean legislation on research in human beings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún G, Manuel; Pinto C, María Eugenia; Raineri B, Gina G; Amigo, Hugo; Cifuentes O, Lucía; González, María Julieta; Horwitz, Nina; Marshall F, Claudia; Orellana V, Gricel

    2014-07-01

    The welfare of research participants must be guaranteed by international ethical standards. This article communicates the procedures of the Research Ethics Committee of the School of Medicine, University of Chile (CEISH). The new Chilean legislation on research in human beings is also discussed. Law 20.120: "On scientific research in human beings, its genome and forbidding human cloning" establishes the ethical principles that must be accomplished in every research involving human beings. Article 28 of the Law 20.584 "Regulation of the rights and duties of health care users", forbids the participation of handicapped people who cannot express their will in scientific research. Article 13 states that people not related directly with patient care cannot have access to his clinical records (with the exception of people with notarial authorization by the patient). CEISH proposes that, in case of people with intellectual deficiency, the decision to approve a scientific research should be analyzed on an individual basis. If the person is capable of expressing his or her will or has stated his or her consent beforehand, the research can be authorized. If the person cannot express his or her will, the scientific research cannot take place. In prospective studies, a consent from the patient and an authorization of the health authority should be required to access clinical records. In retrospective studies, consent should be obtained from the patient when personal information is going to be used. If the information is nameless, the consent can be disregarded.

  8. Why religious human beings need evolutionary epistemology! A theological and evolutionary viewpoint of 'why humans need to embrace evolutionary epistemology'

    OpenAIRE

    Johan A. van Rooyen

    2016-01-01

    I put forward an understanding of evolutionary epistemology that rescues something of the old and venerable idea of freedom, and it means that we as theologians should grasp our very nature realistically, beyond any illusionism and utopian dreams. The author feels that scholars, especially theologians, should firstly take evolution seriously and secondly regard evolutionary epistemology as important as evolution itself, the reason being theologians should know that it is of paramount importan...

  9. Expression of human transferrin can be regulated effectively by rabbit transferrin regulatory elements in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jingbin; Gong, Xiuli; Pan, Shubiao; Guo, Xinbing; Ren, Zhaorui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-06-01

    Human transferrin (hTF) belongs to the iron-binding glycoprotein family. It plays an important role in iron transport throughout the body. Transgenic mice are a good model to study how to produce functional hTF on a large-scale. We have improved the expression of hTF and investigated its regulatory mechanism in transgenic mice. Three expression constructs were prepared in which hTF expression was controlled by different regulatory cassettes of rabbit transferrin (rTF). hTF was secreted into serum of transgenic mice when its expression was controlled by the rTF promoter and enhancer, whereas the rTF enhancer in tandem with the rTF promoter repressed hTF secretion into milk. A significant inverse relationship between methylation of the rTF promoter and hTF expression was observed in liver, heart, mammary gland, and muscle of transgenic mice. The highest concentration of hTF was 700 μg/ml in milk.

  10. Further genetic characterization of the two Trypanosoma cruzi Berenice strains (Be-62 and Be-78) isolated from the first human case of Chagas disease (Chagas, 1909).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, R E; Macedo, A M; Barnabé, C; Freitas, J M; Chiari, E; Veloso, V M; Carneiro, C M; Bahia, M T; Tafuri, Washington L; Lana, M

    2006-03-01

    We describe here an extension of a previous genetic characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi strains (Be-62 and Be-78) isolated from the patient Berenice, the first human case of Chagas disease [Chagas, C., 1909. Nova Tripanomíase humana. Estudos sobre morfologia e o ciclo evolutivo do Schizotrypanum cruzi, n. gen., n. sp., agente etiolójico da nova entidade morbida do homem. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 1, 159-218]. We wanted to verify the composition of T. cruzi populations originated from these two isolates. In the present work, 22 enzymatic loci (MLEE), nine RAPD primers and 7 microsatellite loci were analyzed. Clones from both strains were also characterized to verify whether these strains are mono or polyclonal. Be-62 and Be-78 strains were different in 3 out of 22 enzymatic systems, in 3 out of 9 RAPD primers tested and in all microsatellite loci investigated. However, our data suggests that both strains are phylogenetically closely related, belonging to genetic group 32 from Tibayrenc and Ayala [Tibayrenc, M., Ayala, F.J., 1988. Isoenzime variability in Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease: genetical, taxonomical, and epidemiological significance. Evolution 42, 277-292], equivalent to zymodeme 2 and T. cruzi II major lineage which, in Brazil, comprises parasites from the domestic cycle of the disease. Microsatellite analyses showed differences between the parental strains but suggested that both populations are monoclonal since each strain and their respective clones showed the same amplification products.

  11. Indicators and Methods for Evaluating Economic, Ecosystem and Social Services Provisioning: A Human Well-being Index (HWBI) Research Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Human Well-being Index (HWBI) is a composite measure that incorporates economic, environmental, and societal well-being elements through the eight domains of connection to nature, cultural fulfillment, education, health, leisure time, living standards, safety and securit...

  12. Well-Being and Human-Animal Interactions in Schools: The Case of "Dog Daycare Co-Op"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth; Foulkes, Donna

    2015-01-01

    This study draws on Martha Nussbaum's (2000) account of the nature of human well-being in order to explore the role of animals in formal education settings. Nussbaum's capabilities approach identifies the ability "to have concern for and live with other animals, plants and the environment" (p. 80) as a necessary component for well-being.…

  13. Why human health and health ethics must be central to climate change deliberations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Amir Singh

    Full Text Available Jerome Singh argues that health ethics principles must be afforded equal status to economics principles in climate change deliberations, and that the health community must play more of a leadership role.

  14. Metastatic canine mammary carcinomas can be identified by a gene expression profile that partly overlaps with human breast cancer profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hummel Michael

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Similar to human breast cancer mammary tumors of the female dog are commonly associated with a fatal outcome due to the development of distant metastases. However, the molecular defects leading to metastasis are largely unknown and the value of canine mammary carcinoma as a model for human breast cancer is unclear. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression signatures associated with mammary tumor metastasis and asked for parallels with the human equivalent. Methods Messenger RNA expression profiles of twenty-seven lymph node metastasis positive or negative canine mammary carcinomas were established by microarray analysis. Differentially expressed genes were functionally characterized and associated with molecular pathways. The findings were also correlated with published data on human breast cancer. Results Metastatic canine mammary carcinomas had 1,011 significantly differentially expressed genes when compared to non-metastatic carcinomas. Metastatic carcinomas had a significant up-regulation of genes associated with cell cycle regulation, matrix modulation, protein folding and proteasomal degradation whereas cell differentiation genes, growth factor pathway genes and regulators of actin organization were significantly down-regulated. Interestingly, 265 of the 1,011 differentially expressed canine genes are also related to human breast cancer and, vice versa, parts of a human prognostic gene signature were identified in the expression profiles of the metastatic canine tumors. Conclusions Metastatic canine mammary carcinomas can be discriminated from non-metastatic carcinomas by their gene expression profiles. More than one third of the differentially expressed genes are also described of relevance for human breast cancer. Many of the differentially expressed genes are linked to functions and pathways which appear to be relevant for the induction and maintenance of metastatic progression and may represent new therapeutic

  15. Local Signaling Environments and Human Male Infertility: What Can Be Learned from Mouse Models

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Infertility is one of the most prevalent public health problems facing young adult males in today’s society. A clear, treatable cause of infertility cannot be determined in a large number of these patients, and a growing body of evidence suggests that infertility in many of these men may be due to genetic causes. Studies utilizing animal models, and most importantly, mouse knockout technology, have been integral not only for the study of normal spermatogenesis but also for identifying protein...

  16. Evaluating taboo trade-offs in ecosystems services and human well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, Sarah; Cheung, William W. L.; Brown, Katrina; Abunge, Caroline; Galafassi, Diego; Peterson, Garry D.; McClanahan, Tim R.; Omukoto, Johnstone O.; Munyi, Lydiah

    2015-01-01

    Managing ecosystems for multiple ecosystem services and balancing the well-being of diverse stakeholders involves different kinds of trade-offs. Often trade-offs involve noneconomic and difficult-to-evaluate values, such as cultural identity, employment, the well-being of poor people, or particular species or ecosystem structures. Although trade-offs need to be considered for successful environmental management, they are often overlooked in favor of win-wins. Management and policy decisions demand approaches that can explicitly acknowledge and evaluate diverse trade-offs. We identified a diversity of apparent trade-offs in a small-scale tropical fishery when ecological simulations were integrated with participatory assessments of social–ecological system structure and stakeholders’ well-being. Despite an apparent win-win between conservation and profitability at the aggregate scale, food production, employment, and well-being of marginalized stakeholders were differentially influenced by management decisions leading to trade-offs. Some of these trade-offs were suggested to be “taboo” trade-offs between morally incommensurable values, such as between profits and the well-being of marginalized women. These were not previously recognized as management issues. Stakeholders explored and deliberated over trade-offs supported by an interactive “toy model” representing key system trade-offs, alongside qualitative narrative scenarios of the future. The concept of taboo trade-offs suggests that psychological bias and social sensitivity may exclude key issues from decision making, which can result in policies that are difficult to implement. Our participatory modeling and scenarios approach has the potential to increase awareness of such trade-offs, promote discussion of what is acceptable, and potentially identify and reduce obstacles to management compliance. PMID:26038547

  17. Evaluating taboo trade-offs in ecosystems services and human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Tim M; Coulthard, Sarah; Cheung, William W L; Brown, Katrina; Abunge, Caroline; Galafassi, Diego; Peterson, Garry D; McClanahan, Tim R; Omukoto, Johnstone O; Munyi, Lydiah

    2015-06-02

    Managing ecosystems for multiple ecosystem services and balancing the well-being of diverse stakeholders involves different kinds of trade-offs. Often trade-offs involve noneconomic and difficult-to-evaluate values, such as cultural identity, employment, the well-being of poor people, or particular species or ecosystem structures. Although trade-offs need to be considered for successful environmental management, they are often overlooked in favor of win-wins. Management and policy decisions demand approaches that can explicitly acknowledge and evaluate diverse trade-offs. We identified a diversity of apparent trade-offs in a small-scale tropical fishery when ecological simulations were integrated with participatory assessments of social-ecological system structure and stakeholders' well-being. Despite an apparent win-win between conservation and profitability at the aggregate scale, food production, employment, and well-being of marginalized stakeholders were differentially influenced by management decisions leading to trade-offs. Some of these trade-offs were suggested to be "taboo" trade-offs between morally incommensurable values, such as between profits and the well-being of marginalized women. These were not previously recognized as management issues. Stakeholders explored and deliberated over trade-offs supported by an interactive "toy model" representing key system trade-offs, alongside qualitative narrative scenarios of the future. The concept of taboo trade-offs suggests that psychological bias and social sensitivity may exclude key issues from decision making, which can result in policies that are difficult to implement. Our participatory modeling and scenarios approach has the potential to increase awareness of such trade-offs, promote discussion of what is acceptable, and potentially identify and reduce obstacles to management compliance.

  18. Human Resource Management (HRM) strategies and the impact on well-being of employees in Danish private and public firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Nielsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    that management give employees discretion in the work organization (human resources are seen as an investment), that motivate and involve employees and create well-being among employees. So, management practices commitment strategies shape well-being among employees. This idea of management challenges the ability......, typically within a complex social context (HRM system). This voluntaristic decision is in keen opposition to the philosophy of the hard core of HRM that emphasizes strategic orientation in a detailed controlled deployment of human resources. This paper present a view of human resources deployment......The management in Danish firms mainly takes voluntaristic decisions in their HRM practice i.e. following pragmatically, both economic and social oriented goals and strategies. Being voluntaristic, the decisions about HRM-related issues are based on a mix of control and commitment strategies...

  19. THOMAS AQUINAS’ PHILOSOPHY OF BEING AS THE BASIS FOR WOJTYLA’S CONCEPT AND COGNITION OF HUMAN PERSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Jalocho-Palicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article makes a claim that Thomas Aquinas’ philosophy of being plays a fundamental role in Karol Wojtyła’s concept of person presented in his major anthropological work Osoba i czyn (known in English as The Acting person. Aquinas discovered that every being is composed of existence (being, esse and essence (essentia. Wojtyła builds his philosophy of personhood within this framework of esse (being, existence and essentia (essence. The moral and rational essence of human person, according to Wojtyła, is best revealed by specifically human, free and conscious, actions. That is why Wojtyła analyzes human person through his actions and discovers such essential structures of human reason and free will as self-cognition, self-knowledge, self-owning, self-ruling which make the ontic basis for selfgovernance. The immediate ground for Wojtyła’s analysis of person through his actions is the act and potency theory, developed by Aristotle and redefined by Thomas Aquinas in the light of the composition of being from esse and essentia. Every act reveals a correlated potency which otherwise would remain hidden and unknown. Potency-act theory characterizes not only two real states of every being, but also it is the adequate tool to describe every being’s becoming. It is not becoming out of nothingness, but on the ground and within the limits of already existing potency. A specifically human action (actus humanus discloses a specifically human potency-essence. Through his actions a man becomes good or bad as a man, depending on the moral quality of the actions. All these insights into man’s essence presented by Wojtyła emphasize the absolute primacy of a man’s existence (being, esse over his actions and over his becoming. Being (esse precedes acting and becoming. Without being (esse there would be no acting and no becoming (operari sequitur esse—first something must exist and only then it can act. Thus, as a contingent being, a man does

  20. Science, Spirituality and Truth: Acknowledging Difference for Spiritual Dialogue and Human Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to explain why spiritual education must be clear about the nature of spiritual knowledge and truth and how it differs from the knowledge and truth generated by science. The author argues this is important in order that spirituality and science are equally valued, and in order that spiritual pedagogy appropriately reflects the…

  1. Data and models for exploring sustainability of human well-being in global environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deffuant, G.; Alvarez, I.; Barreteau, O.; Vries, de B.; Edmonds, B.; Gilbert, N.; Gotts, N.; Jabot, F.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Hilden, M.; Kolditz, O.; Murray-Rust, D.; Rouge, C.; Smits, P.

    2012-01-01

    This position paper proposes a vision for the research activity about sustainability in global environmental change (GEC) taking place in the FuturICT flagship project. This activity will be organised in an "Exploratory", gathering a core network of European scientists from ICT, social simulation,

  2. EnviroAtlas Connects Urban Ecosystem Services and Human Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem services in urban areas can improve public health and well-being by mitigating natural and anthropogenic pollution, and by promoting healthy lifestyles that include engagement with nature and enhanced opportunities for physical activity and social interaction. EPA&rsqu...

  3. Science, Spirituality and Truth: Acknowledging Difference for Spiritual Dialogue and Human Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to explain why spiritual education must be clear about the nature of spiritual knowledge and truth and how it differs from the knowledge and truth generated by science. The author argues this is important in order that spirituality and science are equally valued, and in order that spiritual pedagogy appropriately reflects the…

  4. A soluble form of the transcobalamin receptor CD320 can be detected in human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Berg; Quadros, Edward V.; Christensen, Anna Lisa;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recently, the cell-surface receptor involved in the internalisation of the cobalamin(vitamin B12, Cbl) transporting protein, transcobalamin(TC), was described, and was found to be CD320(1). So far, it remains unsolved whether CD320 is present in a soluble form (sCD320) in serum. Our aim...

  5. Human well-being values of environmental flows enhancing social equity in integrated water resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation discusses how the importance of river flow-sustained ecosystems for local communities can be quantified for the purpose of balancing water supply and demand in Integrated Water Resources Management. Due to the development of water resources, for example through the construction of

  6. Biomonitoring studies should be used by regulatory agencies to assess human exposure levels and safety of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Laura N; Chahoud, Ibrahim; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Paumgartten, Francisco J R; Schoenfelder, Gilbert

    2010-08-01

    Within the past 3 years, four major evaluations of bisphenol A (BPA) safety have been undertaken. However, these assessments have arrived at quite different conclusions regarding the safety of BPA at current human exposure levels. We compared the reasons provided by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) BPA risk assessment panel for their conclusion that human exposures are negligible with the conclusions reached by the other panels, with all panels having the same body of literature at their disposal. The EFSA panel dismissed > or = 80 biomonitoring studies that documented significant levels of BPA exposure in humans, including internal exposures to unconjugated BPA, on the basis that they did not match a model of BPA metabolism. Instead, the EFSA panel relied on two toxicokinetic studies-conducted in 15 adults administered BPA-to draw conclusions about exposure levels in the population, including exposures of neonates. As with all exposure assessments, models should be developed to explain actual data that are collected. In the case of BPA, samples from a large number of human subjects clearly indicate that humans are internally exposed to unconjugated BPA. The dismissal of these biomonitoring studies simply because their results do not conform to a model violates scientific principles. Expert panels should evaluate all data-including human biomonitoring studies-to make informed risk assessments.

  7. Tendências empreendedoras dos enfermeiros de um hospital universitário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Gallo Costa

    Full Text Available Estudo quantitativo que objetivou identificar tendências empreendedoras dos enfermeiros de um hospital universitário e relacioná-las com idade, tempo de trabalho e conclusão do curso de enfermagem. Estudo quantitativo, transversal contemporâneo realizado em 2010. Todos os 60 enfermeiros responderam ao questionário "Tendência Empreendedora Geral", com cinco categorias. Na categoria "criatividade", um enfermeiro obteve dois pontos, em "necessidade de realização", um enfermeiro somou 12 pontos; em "impulso e determinação", quatro enfermeiros alcançaram maior pontuação; em "riscos calculados/moderados", a maior pontuação foi 10 pontos; em "autonomia/independência", nove enfermeiras obtiveram um ponto. Idades entre 27 e 33 anos mostraram maior tendência empreendedora. Existe decréscimo da tendência empreendedora dos enfermeiros com idades superiores a 43 até 56 anos, com mais de 17 anos de conclusão de curso e com maior tempo de trabalho. São necessárias ações que estimulem enfermeiros na faixa etária em declínio da tendência empreendedora e aqueles com maior tempo de formação e trabalho.

  8. Natural history and the formation of the human being: Kant on active forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldow, Anik

    2016-08-01

    In his 1785-review of the Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit, Kant objects to Herder's conception of nature as being imbued with active forces. This attack is usually evaluated against the background of Kant's critical project and his epistemological concern to caution against the "metaphysical excess" of attributing immanent properties to matter. In this paper I explore a slightly different reading by investigating Kant's pre-critical account of creation and generation. The aim of this is to show that Kant's struggle with the forces of matter has a long history and revolves around one central problem: that of how to distinguish between the non-purposive forces of nature and the intentional powers of the mind. Given this history, the epistemic stricture that Kant's critical project imposes on him no longer appears to be the primary reason for his attack on Herder. It merely aggravates a problem that Kant has been battling with since his earliest writings.

  9. Sex Differences in Energy Metabolism Need to Be Considered with Lifestyle Modifications in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty N. Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Women have a higher proportion of body fat compared to men. However, women consume fewer kilojoules per kilogram lean mass and burn fat more preferentially during exercise compared with men. During gestation, women store even greater amounts of fat that cannot be solely attributed to increased energy intake. These observations suggest that the relationship between kilojoules consumed and kilojoules utilised is different in men and women. The reason for these sex differences in energy metabolism is not known; however, it may relate to sex steroids, differences in insulin resistance, or metabolic effects of other hormones such as leptin. When considering lifestyle modifications, sex differences in energy metabolism should be considered. Moreover, elucidating the regulatory role of hormones in energy homeostasis is important for understanding the pathogenesis of obesity and perhaps in the future may lead to ways to reduce body fat with less energy restriction.

  10. [Biological age as an index of human health level, aging and ecological well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krut'ko, V N; Dontsov, V I; Zakhar'iashcheva, O V; Kuznetsov, I A; Mamikonova, O A; Pyrvu, V V; Smirnova, T M; Sokolova, L A

    2014-01-01

    Methodology of estimating the integral health and aging level is based on the system index of biological age (BA). The paper introduces the reader to the BA principles and structure, search for meaningful aging biomarkers, useful tests, and applications in present-day biomedicine. The concept of BA is directly linked with the theory of organism vitality. BA biomarkers must provide a detailed picture of the process of aging. Number of biomarkers cannot be large, while their changes with aging must be uniform in every population member and fairly distinct though with moderate interindividual variations. Prognosis of the vital trajectory requires estimation of risk factors, i.e. hereditary and acquired factors that affect lifespan, and also longevity factors, i.e. genetic and environmental factors crucial for clinical medicine and gerontological prophylaxis properly. At present, BA gains wide recognition in clinical and preventive medicine, physiology and biology as a method to evaluate the general state of health, ecological well-being, adaptation to extreme factors, as well as the rate and degree of organism aging.

  11. Can natural and virtual environments be used to promote improved human health and wellbeing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depledge, M H; Stone, R J; Bird, W J

    2011-06-01

    Exposure of individuals to natural environments, such as forests and coastlines, can promote stress reduction and assist in mental recovery following intensive cognitive activities. Settings as simple as hospital window views onto garden-like scenes can also be influential in reducing patients' postoperative recovery periods and analgesic requirements. This paper reviews the evidence supporting the exploitation of these restorative natural environments in future healthcare strategies. The paper also describes early research addressing the development of multisensory, computer-generated restorative environments for the benefit of patients with a variety of psychologically related conditions (including depression, attention deficit disorder, pain, and sleep deficit), who may be unable to access and experience real natural environments, such as those in hospices, military rehabilitation centers, and long-term care facilities. The Table of Contents art is a virtual reconstruction of Wembury Bay, in the southwest of the UK, based on imported Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) to provide the topography and a high-resolution aerial image to provide a template for the location of 3D building and vegetation models, rock features, and pathways. The 3D environment is rendered using the Unity 3 Game Development Tool and includes spatial sound effects (waves, wind, birdsong, etc.), physics-based features (such as early morning sea mist), time-of-day cycles, and real-time weather changes. The Village Church of St. Werburgh can also be seen in this image.

  12. [The relationships among occupational and organizational commitment, human relations in the workplace, and well-being in nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Tadayuki

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the relationship among human relations in the workplace, job involvement, affective commitment and continuance commitment with occupational and organizational commitment, and well-being. Questionnaires were completed by 855 female nurses who worked in four public hospitals (mean age = 32.6 years). The results of factor analysis showed that each component of the vocational constructs was distinguishable from the others. Path analysis showed that human relations in the workplace directly influenced job involvement and affective commitment both to the occupation and to the organization. Job involvement in turn directly influenced affective commitment and continuance commitment to the occupation. Job involvement also influenced affective commitment to the organization directly, and indirectly through affective commitment to the occupation. Finally, it was found that human relations in the workplace and affective commitment to the occupation positively influenced well-being; continuance commitment to the occupation was a negative influence. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  13. Data and models for exploring sustainability of human well-being in global environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffuant, G.; Alvarez, I.; Barreteau, O.; de Vries, B.; Edmonds, B.; Gilbert, N.; Gotts, N.; Jabot, F.; Janssen, S.; Hilden, M.; Kolditz, O.; Murray-Rust, D.; Rougé, C.; Smits, P.

    2012-11-01

    This position paper proposes a vision for the research activity about sustainability in global environmental change (GEC) taking place in the FuturICT flagship project. This activity will be organised in an "Exploratory", gathering a core network of European scientists from ICT, social simulation, complex systems, economics, demographics, Earth system science. These research teams will collaborate in building a self-organising network of data sources and models about GEC and in using new facilities fostering stakeholder participation. We develop examples of concrete directions for this research: world wide virtual population with demographic and some economic descriptors, ecosystem services production and distribution, governance systems at various scales.

  14. Biofuels in Africa: Impacts on ecosystem services, biodiversity and human well-being

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gasparatos, A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available aimed at reforming global institutional structures are welcome signs of change. Indeed, the eleventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD-COP11) is seen as an opportunity to streamline various...-offs are inevitable, but in many cases at least part of the negative impact can be mitigated through careful planning. Executive Summary 7 Despite a wealth of literature there are still significant research gaps at the interface of biofuels, ecosystem services...

  15. Can Alice and Bob be random: a study on human playing zero knowledge protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Kulesza, Kamil

    2007-01-01

    The research described in this abstract was initiated by discussions between the author and Giovanni Di Crescenzo in Barcelona in early 2004. It was during Advanced Course on Contemporary Cryptology that Di Crescenzo gave a course on zero knowledge protocols (ZKP), see [1]. After that course we started to play with unorthodox ideas for breaking ZKP, especially one based on graph 3-coloring. It was chosen for investigation because it is being considered as a "benchmark" ZKP, see [2], [3]. At this point we briefly recall such a protocol's description.

  16. Therapeutic Role of Functional Components in Alliums for Preventive Chronic Disease in Human Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuping; Yang, Jiazhen; Pu, Xiaoying; Du, Juan; Yang, Xiaomeng; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shuming

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. Functional components in alliums have long been maintained to play a key role in modifying the major risk factors for chronic disease. To obtain a better understanding of alliums for chronic disease prevention, we conducted a systematic review for risk factors and prevention strategies for chronic disease of functional components in alliums, based on a comprehensive English literature search that was conducted using various electronic search databases, especially the PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI for the period 2007–2016. Allium genus especially garlic, onion, and Chinese chive is rich in organosulfur compounds, quercetin, flavonoids, saponins, and others, which have anticancer, preventive cardiovascular and heart diseases, anti-inflammation, antiobesity, antidiabetes, antioxidants, antimicrobial activity, neuroprotective and immunological effects, and so on. These results support Allium genus; garlic and onion especially may be the promising dietotherapeutic vegetables and organopolysulfides as well as quercetin mechanism in the treatment of chronic diseases. This review may be used as scientific basis for the development of functional food, nutraceuticals, and alternative drugs to improve the chronic diseases. PMID:28261311

  17. Scallop phenylalanine hydroxylase implicates in immune response and can be induced by human TNF-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Mengqiang; Zhang, Huan; Wu, Tiantian; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2011-12-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is an important metabolic enzyme of aromatic amino acids, which is responsible for the irreversible oxidation of phenylalanine to tyrosine. In the present study, the full-length cDNA encoding PAH from Chlamys farreri (designated CfPAH) was cloned by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches and expression sequence tag (EST) analysis. The open reading frame of CfPAH encoded a polypeptide of 460 amino acids, and its sequence shared 64.4-74.2% similarity with those of PAHs from other animals. There were an N-terminal regulatory ACT domain and a C-terminal catalytic Biopterin_H domain in the deduced CfPAH protein. The mRNA transcripts of CfPAH could be detected in all the tested tissues, including adductor muscle, mantle, gill, gonad, haemocytes and hepatopancreas. And its expression level in haemocytes was increased significantly during 3-48 h after bacteria Vibrio anguillarum challenge with the highest level (9.1-fold, P phenylalanine to tyrosine within 1 min (nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein) in vitro. These results indicated collectively that CfPAH, as a homologue of phenylalanine hydroxylase in scallop C. farreri, could be induced by cytokine and involved in the immunomodulation of scallops by supplying the starting material tyrosine for the synthesis of melanin and catecholamines.

  18. Well-being and human-animal interactions in schools: The case of "Dog Daycare Co-Op"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Elizabeth Pinto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on Martha Nussbaum’s account of the nature of human well-being to explore the role of animals in formal education settings. Nussbaum equates well-being with human flourishing, and argues that people live well when engaged in essential functions that are particular capabilities, each a necessary but insufficient contributor to well-being. One of these capabilities is the ability to “to have concern for and live with other animals, plants and the environment.” Yet, this condition of well-being remains largely unexplored among in education. In recent years, the benefits of human-animal interaction in education settings has been researched and discussed in the social sciences, particularly  the use of dogs to aid reluctant readers in literacy development, and the use of therapy dogs in universities during final examination blocks. This paper presents findings of one particular research project of the effects of a unique, Canadian school-based cooperative education program, “Under One Woof,” in which students work with animals.  Based on interviews, students’ own stories of the impact of animal interaction – particularly in light of other challenges they faced academically and socially – appear to support other empirical accounts of positive effects of animals in education settings, and offer insight into the nature and effects of human-animal interaction as an element of well-being.

  19. Tendinopatia patelar: investigando fatores associados à sobrecarga no tendão patelar em atletas

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana de Michelis Mendonça

    2014-01-01

    A aplicação de forças excessivas (magnitude e duração) no tendão patelar estão relacionadas ao mecanismo de desenvolvimento da tendinopatia patelar (TP), uma vez que podem promover processos irritativos no tecido e/ou microtraumas repetitivos no tendão. Fatores locais relacionados à articulação do joelho (local) e à articulação do quadril e ao complexo do pé (não-locais) podem contribuir no mecanismo de lesão do tendão patelar. O varismo excessivo de antepé, a diminuição da força muscular do ...

  20. Electrocardiographic Tpeak-Tend interval and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachmann, Troels N.; Skov, Morten W.; Rasmussen, P. V.;

    2016-01-01

    the association between these groups and the risk of the selected outcomes. RESULTS: Compared with the reference groups (104-115 ms for all-cause mortality and 98-103 ms for all other outcomes), individuals with a Tpeak-Tend interval in lead V5 ...BACKGROUND: The electrocardiographic Tpeak-Tend interval is considered a novel risk marker of cardiac arrhythmias and cardiovascular death; however, results to date have been conflicting. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between this interval and the risk...... of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure, allowing for nonlinear relationships. METHODS: From primary care, 138,404 individuals were included and categorized into seven groups based on Tpeak-Tend interval. Cox regression models were used to describe...

  1. American ginseng supplementation attenuates creatine kinase level induced by submaximal exercise in human beings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Chen Hsu; Min-Chen Ho; Li-Chin Lin; Borcherng Su; Mei-Chich Hsu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether American ginseng (AG, Panax quinquefolium) supplementation was able to improve endurance exercise performance.METHODS: Thirteen physically active male college students were divided into two groups (AG or placebo)and received supplementation for 4 wk, before the exhaustive running exercise. Treadmill speed was increased to a pace equivalent to 80% VO2max of the subject. A 4-wk washout period followed before the subjects crossed over and received the alternate supplement for the next 4 wk.They then completed a second exhaustive running exercise. The physiological variables that were examined included time to exhaustion and oxygen pulse. Moreover,the plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate were measured prior to the exercise, at 15 and 30 min during exercise,immediately after exercise, and 20, 40, 60, and 120 min after exercise.RESULTS: The major finding of this investigation was that the production plasma CK during the exercise significantly decreased for group AG than for group P. Secondary physiological finding was that 80% VO2max running was not improved over a 4-wk AG supplementation regimen.CONCLUSION: Supplementation with AG for 4 wk prior to an exhaustive aerobic treadmill running reduced the leakage of CK during exercise, but did not enhance aerobic work capacity. The reduction of plasma CK may be due to the fact that AG is effective for the decrease of skeletal muscle cell membrane damage, induced by exercise during the high-intensity treadmill run.

  2. The ownership that wasn't meant to be: Yearworth and property rights in human tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostill, Luke David

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the English Court of Appeal's decision in Yearworth v North Bristol NHS Trust that six men had, for the purposes of their claims against the trust, ownership of the sperm they had produced. The case has been discussed by many commentators and most, if not all, of those who have discussed the case have claimed or assumed that the court held that the claimants had property rights in the sperm they had produced. In this paper, I advance an interpretation of the case that does not regard the court as deciding that the men had property rights (in the narrow sense of that term) in the sperm they had produced. On this view, the 'ownership' that the Court of Appeal purported to vest in each of the men was not a right in rem, a right 'binding the world'. If this is so, it is perhaps unsurprising that some scholars, evaluating the success of the court's reasoning as a justification for vesting the claimants with property rights, have found it to be unsatisfactory.

  3. Physicists' approach to studying socio-economic inequalities: Can humans be modelled as atoms?

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    A brief overview of the models and data analyses of income, wealth, consumption distributions by the physicists, are presented here. It has been found empirically that the distributions of income and wealth possess fairly robust features, like the bulk of both the income and wealth distributions seem to reasonably fit both the log-normal and Gamma distributions, while the tail of the distribution fits well to a power law (as first observed by sociologist Pareto). We also present our recent studies of the unit-level expenditure on consumption across multiple countries and multiple years, where it was found that there exist invariant features of consumption distribution: the bulk is log-normally distributed, followed by a power law tail at the limit. The mechanisms leading to such inequalities and invariant features for the distributions of socio-economic variables are not well-understood. We also present some simple models from physics and demonstrate how they can be used to explain some of these findings and ...

  4. The Changing Well-Being of Older Adult Registered Indians: An Analysis Using the Registered Indian Human Development Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Martin; Guimond, Eric; McWhirter, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The demographic aging of the Registered Indian population suggests that the social, economic, and health conditions of older Registered Indians will be increasingly important for communities and policymakers. We have adapted the United Nations Development Program's Human Development Index using data from the Census of Canada and the Indian…

  5. Shades of green: Measuring the ecology of urban green space in the context of human health and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Jorgensen; Paul H. Gobster

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review and analyze the recent research literature on urban green space and human health and well-being, with an emphasis on studies that attempt to measure biodiversity and other green space concepts relevant to urban ecological restoration. We first conduct a broad scale assessment of the literature to identify typologies of urban green space and...

  6. Establishing trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and improving cross-border collaboration in criminal cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, Conny

    2016-01-01

    In this short summary report on the legal definition of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and improving cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, challenges, and recommendations in the areas of defining the crime, criminal investigation and prosecution, and

  7. The Be-WetSpa-Pest modeling approach to simulate human and environmental exposure from pesticide application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Claudia; Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Andreoli, Romano; Diaz, Jaime; Feola, Giuseppe; Wittensoeldner, Moritz; Yang, Jing

    2016-04-01

    This study presents an integrative and spatially explicit modeling approach for analyzing human and environmental exposure from pesticide application of smallholders in the potato producing Andean region in Colombia. The modeling approach fulfills the following criteria: (i) it includes environmental and human compartments; (ii) it contains a behavioral decision-making model for estimating the effect of policies on pesticide flows to humans and the environment; (iii) it is spatially explicit; and (iv) it is modular and easily expandable to include additional modules, crops or technologies. The model was calibrated and validated for the Vereda La Hoya and was used to explore the effect of different policy measures in the region. The model has moderate data requirements and can be adapted relatively easy to other regions in developing countries with similar conditions.

  8. Quality of Life Theory II. Quality of Life as the Realization of Life Potential: A Biological Theory of Human Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents one of the eight theories of the quality of life (QOL used for making the SEQOL (self-evaluation of quality of life questionnaire or the quality of life as realizing life potential. This theory is strongly inspired by Maslow and the review furthermore serves as an example on how to fulfill the demand for an overall theory of life (or philosophy of life, which we believe is necessary for global and generic quality-of-life research.Whereas traditional medical science has often been inspired by mechanical models in its attempts to understand human beings, this theory takes an explicitly biological starting point. The purpose is to take a close view of life as a unique entity, which mechanical models are unable to do. This means that things considered to be beyond the individual's purely biological nature, notably the quality of life, meaning in life, and aspirations in life, are included under this wider, biological treatise. Our interpretation of the nature of all living matter is intended as an alternative to medical mechanism, which dates back to the beginning of the 20th century. New ideas such as the notions of the human being as nestled in an evolutionary and ecological context, the spontaneous tendency of self-organizing systems for realization and concord, and the central role of consciousness in interpreting, planning, and expressing human reality are unavoidable today in attempts to scientifically understand all living matter, including human life.

  9. Dynamic Investigation of Triangles Inscribed in a Circle, Which Tend to an Equilateral Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupel, Moshe; Oxman, Victor; Sigler, Avi

    2017-01-01

    We present a geometrical investigation of the process of creating an infinite sequence of triangles inscribed in a circle, whose areas, perimeters and lengths of radii of the inscribed circles tend to a limit in a monotonous manner. First, using geometrical software, we investigate four theorems that represent interesting geometrical properties,…

  10. 29 CFR 788.7 - “Planting or tending trees.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPlanting or tending trees.â 788.7 Section 788.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED...

  11. Mean dynamical entropy of quantum system tends to infinity in the semiclassical limit

    OpenAIRE

    Slomczynski, Wojciech; Zyczkowski, Karol

    1997-01-01

    We show that the mean dynamical entropy of a quantum map on the sphere is positive and tends logarithmically to infinity in the semiclassical limit. A link between chaotic dynamics of classical systems and the random matrix-like properties of spectra of the corresponding quantum analogues is demonstrated.

  12. The unequal treatment of disabled people by health care plans: a human dignity disparity that must be wiped out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Nader Marta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article addresses the disparity disabled people face when in need of Health Care plans. The entire health care experience is different for them starting from the point that they have to state their disabling condition which is seen as a pre-existing disease, creating a waiting period before they can make proper use of the benefits. The fact that society, in general, is totally unaware of such condition has transformed it into a chronic disease, a social burden and a problem. The stigma of being disabled is outrageous, turning blind, deaf and mentally or physically impaired into both helpless and defenseless human beings entitled to no rights, always coming in last place in the order of things. These marked differences in health status have created demands which, as a consequence, reflect a prejudicial and disrespectful attitude towards these people who in no way whatsoever should be labeled as diseased, thus violating the principle of human dignity.

  13. Orlando, ou a tendência social da androginia Orlando. The social tendency of androginy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nízia Maria Alvarenga

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o filme Orlando por ser expressão de uma das tendências que vêm despontando no processo atual de mudanças sociais no conjunto das sociedades capitalistas ocidentais. A dimensão simbólica destas sociedades abrange representações tais como racionalidade, objetividade, pragmatismo, impessoalidade, utilitarismo, disciplina e neutralidade afetiva, que constituem o cerne do sistema de valores sociais predominantes. Uma alteração desta dimensão significa uma revolução em seu modo de ser social. Orlando sugere uma reconciliação entre razão, sensibilidade, emoções, sentimentos e fantasia, abrindo espaço para uma sociedade andrógina, presidida pelo princípio erótico. A dinâmica produtivista do capitalismo é substituída por uma forma de sociabilidade marcada pela amorosidade e o desfrute da vida.This article analyzes the film Orlando because it is representative of one of the trends which are emerging in the actual process of social changes occurring in the west capitalist societies. The symbolic dimension of these societies comprehends representations such as rationality, objectivity, pragmatism, unpersonalty, utilitarianism, discipline and affective neutrality which constitute the nucleous of the system of predominant social values. A change of this dimension signifies a revolution on the way of social being. Orlando suggests a reconciliation between reason, sensibility, emotions, feelings and phantasy, opening place for a androgynous society presided by the erotic principle. The productive dynamic of the capitalism is substituted by a form of sociability marked by affection and enjoyment of living.

  14. [Re-signification of the human in the context of the "ciborgzation": a look at the human being-machine relationship in intensive care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de O; Meyer, Dagmar Estermann

    2005-06-01

    This study discusses the human being-machine relationship in the process called "cyborgzation" of the nurse who works in intensive care, based on post-structuralist Cultural Studies and highlighting Haraway's concept of cyborg. In it, manuals used by nurses in Intensive Care Units have been examined as cultural texts. This cultural analysis tries to decode the various senses of "human" and "machine", with the aim of recognizing processes that turn nurses into cyborgs. The argument is that intensive care nurses fall into a process of "technology embodiment" that turns the body-professional into a hybrid that makes possible to disqualify, at the same time, notions such as machine and body "proper", since it is the hybridization between one and the other that counts there. Like cyborgs, intensive care nurses learn to "be with" the machine, and this connection limits the specificity of their actions. It is suggested that processes of "cyborgzation" such as this are useful for questioning - and to deal with in different ways - the senses of "human" and "humanity" that support a major part of knowledge/action in health.

  15. Power, trust, and Science of Unitary Human Beings influence political leadership: a celebration of Barrett's power theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barbara W

    2010-01-01

    The importance of nurses' participation in health policy leadership is discussed within the context of Rogers' science of unitary human beings, Barrett's power theory, and one nurse-politician's experience. Nurses have a major role to play in resolving public policy issues that influence the health of people. A brief review of the history of nurses in the political arena is presented. Research related to power and trust is reviewed. Suggested strategies for success in political situations are offered.

  16. Seek and Peruse Nature in Human Being--appreciate the theme in D.H.Lawrence’s works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莲茹; 刘婷婷

    2013-01-01

    In Lawrence ’s writings, it is evident to find that he attempted to reveal the evil capitalization, which damages the natural environment and the harmony relationship, and to emphasize the spiritual crisis, the distorted character under the capitalization society. He was eager for the friendly rela He provoked the idea that only in the harmony relationship between the and the human beings can we obtain healthy development.

  17. O turismo em perspectiva: caracterização e tendências do mercado internacional

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Série II O presente artigo procede a uma caracterização dos fluxos de turismo internacional e apresenta tendências de evolução futura. Começa por analisar o fenómeno turístico, o mercado turístico e o marketing turístico. Os impactos do turismo sobre as envolventes económica, sócio-cultural e ambiental são depois abordados. De seguida, debruça-se sobre o tema central - análise das tendências passadas, presentes e futuras do turismo, nomedamente: o crescimento do turismo internacional nas ú...

  18. Afecção do tendão supra-espinal e afastamento laboral

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Josiane Schadeck de; Carvalho Filho,Guaracy; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo; Lamari,Neuseli Marino; Pastre, Eliane Cristina

    2008-01-01

    As afecções do manguito rotador, dentre elas as relacionadas ao tendão supra-espinal, são problemas comuns na população, sobretudo devido à sobrecarga ocupacional, o que leva a altos índices de afastamento do trabalho. Buscou-se, então, comparar a necessidade de afastamento de trabalho entre os diferentes estados da afecção do tendão supra-espinal e entre cinco diferentes grupos profissionais, tendo a participação de pacientes que apresentavam diagnóstico da afecção. Os indivíduos foram agrup...

  19. The Hague Recommendations: Improving Nonlegislative Responses to Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambagtsheer, Frederike; Weimar, Willem

    2016-02-01

    Over the years, the trade in human organs has become an object of international concern. Since the 1980s, antiorgan trade initiatives have mainly involved the strengthening of legislative responses. Little attention however is given to nonlegislative responses by law enforcement authorities. The HOTT project is a European Union-funded research project titled "trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal." Its objectives are to increase knowledge, raise awareness, and improve the nonlegislative response to the crime. Its consortium organized a "Writers' Conference" in The Hague, The Netherlands at Europol's Headquarters where a group of 40 experts, consisting of transplant professionals, law enforcement officials, and policy makers, formulated recommendations to improve nonlegislative responses. These recommendations, presented hereafter, address the ethical and legal obligations of health care providers, the protection of persons trafficked for the purpose of organ removal, strengthening cross-border collaboration in criminal cases, and stimulating partnerships between transplant professionals and law enforcement. These recommendations offer ways in which transplant professionals can contribute to improving the nonlegislative response to trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal.

  20. From Epicurus to Maslow: Happiness Then and Now and the Place of the Human Being in Social Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Gutenschwager

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protagoras said, "The human being is the measure of all things". This implies, among other things, that language, science and religion are human inventions, as are economics, money, efficiency, race, conflict, etc. As symbol-using animals, we have created these concepts to serve our purposes. But as our societies have increased in size and our concepts have become more abstract, there is a danger that we will forget our authorship and reify these symbols. This inhibits change in the way we name things, so we are always in danger of misunderstanding the reality we are describing. We seem to be at such a stage now as we employ 18th and 19th century theories to describe and, more importantly, create 21st century reality. One such idea has to do with human needs. Influenced by the abstract (economic concepts we use, we have lost our sense of what we truly need. Epicurus and Maslow may help to review and reassess those concepts. Epicurus, by suggesting that our material needs are quite simple but that emotional and spiritual need satisfaction requires a small scale loving community, free from fear, and Maslow, by suggesting that our emotional development is age-related, which, besides therapy, may help in suggesting revisions in socioeconomic theory that would ensure the social conditions that would allow this development to take place successfully.

  1. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen tends to decrease in poorly-differentiated colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Morina Silalahi

    2015-12-01

    This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 40 CRC subjects from July 2012 until May 2013. Determination of serum CEA and CA 19-9 levels and histopathological (cellular differentiation grades in CRC biopsies was done in all subjects. RESULTS The study involved forty CRC patients, consisting of 22 males and 18 females, with mean age of 51.93 ± 11.63 years, CEA levels of 51.93 ± 84.07 ng/ml and CA 19-9 levels of 33.81 ± 62.39 U/ml. Carcino-embryonic antigen levels tended to decrease with decreasing CRC histopathological grade, while CA 19-9 levels increased in well-differentiated CRC. However, both relationships were statistically not significant (with p=0.314 and p=0.787, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA levels tend to decrease with decreasing histopathological grade of CRC, and CA 19-9 levels tend to increase in well-differentiated CRC.

  2. Human Connections and Their Roles in the Occupational Well-being of Healthcare Professionals: A Study on Loneliness and Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Soler-Gonzalez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human connections are key to the promotion of health and prevention of illness; moreover, illness can cause deterioration of human connections. Healthcare professional–patient relationships are key to ensuring the preservation of adequate human connections. It is important for healthcare professionals to develop their ability to foster satisfactory human connections because: (i they represent social support for patients; and (ii they prevent work-related stress. In this study we assessed the relationship between absence (loneliness and presence (empathy of human connections with the occupational well-being of healthcare professionals. The Scale of Collateral Effects, which measures somatization, exhaustion, and work alienation; the Jefferson Scale of Empathy; and the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults, were mailed to 628 healthcare professionals working in Spanish public healthcare institutions. The following explanatory variables were used to evaluate work well-being: (a empathy, as a professional competence; (b loneliness, age, and family burden, as psychological indicators; and (c professional experience, work dedication, and salary, as work indicators. Comparison, correlation, and regression analyses were performed to measure the relationships among these variables and occupational well-being. Of 628 surveys mailed, 433 (69% response rate were returned fully completed. Adequate reliability was confirmed for all instruments. The entire sample was divided into four groups, based on the combined variable, “occupation by sex.” Comparative analyses demonstrated differences among “occupation by sex” groups in collateral effects (p = 0.03 and empathy (p = 0.04, but not loneliness (p = 0.84. Inverse associations between empathy and collateral effects were confirmed for somatization (r = -0.16; p < 0.001, exhaustion (r = -0.14; p = 0.003, and work alienation (r = -0.16; p < 0.001. Furthermore, loneliness was positively

  3. Impacts of Community Forest Management and Strictly Protected Areas on Deforestation and Human Well-Being in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasolofoson, Ranaivo Andriarilala

    , conditional on household proximity to forest and education level. In conclusion, the impacts of CFM vary with household characteristics: some may lose while others may gain. iii) The potential of the Global Person Generated Index (GPGI) for evaluating the perceived impact of conservation interventions...... on subjective well-being (manuscript 3): In this study, we used the GPGI, a subjective and multidimensional well-being instrument, to investigate the relative impacts of strict protection and CFM on human well-being in sites in eastern Madagascar. We used a participatory approach to establish the cause......, these large scale studies may be of limited use for project managers who want to build locally legitimate interventions or those who want a deeper understanding of how conservation interventions affect local people. In the third manuscript, we used a subjective measure of well-being (the GPGI) in combination...

  4. Evaluation of tissue-equivalent materials to be used as human brain tissue substitute in dosimetry for diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, C.C., E-mail: cassio.c.ferreira@gmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Postal Code 353, Sergipe-SE 49100-000 (Brazil); Ximenes Filho, R.E.M., E-mail: raimundoximenes@hotmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Postal Code 353, Sergipe-SE 49100-000 (Brazil); Vieira, J.W., E-mail: jwvieira@br.inter.ne [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Pernambuco (CEFET-PE), Av. Professor Luiz Freire, 500 Curado, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco, Universidade de Pernambuco (EPP/UPE), Rua Benfica, 455, Madalena, CEP 50720-001, Recife (Brazil); Tomal, A., E-mail: alessandratomal@pg.ffclrp.usp.b [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto-SP 14040-90 (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.b [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto-SP 14040-90 (Brazil); Garcia, C.A.B., E-mail: cgarcia@ufs.b [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Postal Code 353, Sergipe-SE 49100-000 (Brazil); Maia, A.F., E-mail: afmaia@ufs.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Postal Code 353, Sergipe-SE 49100-000 (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    Tissue-equivalent materials to be used as substitutes for human brain tissue in dosimetry for diagnostic radiology have been investigated in terms of calculated total mass attenuation coefficient ({mu}/{rho}), calculated mass energy-absorption coefficient ({mu}{sub en}/{rho}) and absorbed dose. Measured linear attenuation coefficients ({mu}) have been used for benchmarking the calculated total mass attenuation coefficient ({mu}/{rho}). The materials examined were bolus, nylon (registered) , orange articulation wax, red articulation wax, PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate), bees wax, paraffin I, paraffin II, pitch and water. The results show that water is the best substitute for brain among the materials investigated. The average percentage differences between the calculated {mu}/{rho} and {mu}{sub en}/{rho} coefficients for water and those for brain were 1.0% and 2.5%, respectively. Absorbed doses determined by Monte Carlo methods confirm water as being the best brain substitute to be used in dosimetry for diagnostic radiology, showing maximum difference of 0.01%. Additionally this study showed that PMMA, a material often used for the manufacturing of head phantoms for computed tomography, cannot be considered to be a suitable substitute for human brain tissue in dosimetry.

  5. Tendência da mortalidade neonatal na cidade de Salvador (Bahia-Brasil, 1996-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelise C. Gonçalves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos:analisar a tendência da mortalidade neonatal, principais causas e potenciais fatores de risco, em Salvador-Bahia, 1996-2012.Métodos:estudo de série temporal tendo como fontes de dados os Sistemas de Informação sobre Mortalidade e sobre Nascidos Vivos/NV e Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saúde. Parâmetros da tendência temporal do coeficiente de mortalidade neonatal/CMN e da proporção de NV segundo características maternas, do recém-nascido e de atenção à saúde foram obtidos mediante Regressão Linear Simples. Coeficiente de Correlação de Spearman avaliou relação entre estas variáveis.Resultados:observou-se declínio de 21,2% no CMN, principalmente devido ao componente precoce (β= - 0,730; p=0,006; R2= 0,423. Acompanhou esta tendência, a proporção de NV de mães adolescentes e sem instrução. A proporção de NV de mães com idade > 35 anos, nascimentos prematuros e de partos cesáreos exibiram crescimento. Predominaram mortes neonatais por Infecções específicas do período perinatal (13,2%, Hipóxia intrauterina/Asfixia ao nascer (8,4% e Transtornos relacionados à prematuridade/baixo peso ao nascer (15,9%, estas últimas com tendência de crescimento (β= 1,319; p=0,006; R2= 0,428.Conclusões:a mortalidade neonatal e potenciais fatores de risco estão decrescendo em Salvador. Iniciativas voltadas para melhoria da atenção ao recém-nascido e das condições de vida da população podem estar contribuindo para esta tendência.

  6. Less charismatic animals are more likely to be “road killed”: human attitudes towards small animals in Brazilian roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. M. D. Mesquita

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Roads are long and intermittent sources of wildlife loss due to their indirect effects, such as fragmentation of habitat, or their direct effects, such as constant mortality by run-over. Thus, some studies indicate that a portion of these run-over incidents may be intentional and could be avoided. We investigated whether various groups of small animals had different run-over rates and how “charisma” affects the survival chances of an animal on the roads. During our experiment, we quantified run-over rates for models of spiders, snakes, chicks, and tree leaves (control on three roads with different traffic volumes. We found out that snakes and spiders were consistently ran over with a higher frequency than chicks and leaves. We also observed that chicks were the only models rescued by human beings. We concluded that the survival chances of chicks are the highest among the models tested and this is due to the charismatic value attributed to them by human beings, when compared to snakes and spiders. We suggest the broadcasting of campaigns in the media to increase public awareness regarding wildlife conservation as a useful tool to solve the problem of intentional run over of small animals.

  7. Less charismatic animals are more likely to be “road killed”: human attitudes towards small animals in Brazilian roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. M. D. Mesquita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n1p85 Roads are long and intermittent sources of wildlife loss due to their indirect effects, such as fragmentation of habitat, or their direct effects, such as constant mortality by run-over. Thus, some studies indicate that a portion of these run-over incidents may be intentional and could be avoided. We investigated whether various groups of small animals had different run-over rates and how “charisma” affects the survival chances of an animal on the roads. During our experiment, we quantified run-over rates for models of spiders, snakes, chicks, and tree leaves (control on three roads with different traffic volumes. We found out that snakes and spiders were consistently ran over with a higher frequency than chicks and leaves. We also observed that chicks were the only models rescued by human beings. We concluded that the survival chances of chicks are the highest among the models tested and this is due to the charismatic value attributed to them by human beings, when compared to snakes and spiders. We suggest the broadcasting of campaigns in the media to increase public awareness regarding wildlife conservation as a useful tool to solve the problem of intentional run over of small animals.

  8. Influence of topography and human activity on apparent in situ 10Be-derived erosion rates in Yunnan, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Amanda H.; Neilson, Thomas B.; Bierman, Paul R.; Rood, Dylan H.; Ouimet, William B.; Sosa Gonzalez, Veronica

    2016-11-01

    In order to understand better if and where erosion rates calculated using in situ 10Be are affected by contemporary changes in land use and attendant deep regolith erosion, we calculated erosion rates using measurements of in situ 10Be in quartz from 52 samples of river sediment collected from three tributaries of the Mekong River (median basin area = 46.5 km2). Erosion rates range from 12 to 209 mm kyr-1 with an area-weighted mean of 117 ± 49 mm kyr-1 (1 standard deviation) and median of 74 mm kyr-1. We observed a decrease in the relative influence of human activity from our steepest and least altered watershed in the north to the most heavily altered landscapes in the south. In the areas of the landscape least disturbed by humans, erosion rates correlate best with measures of topographic steepness. In the most heavily altered landscapes, measures of modern land use correlate with 10Be-estimated erosion rates but topographic steepness parameters cease to correlate with erosion rates. We conclude that, in some small watersheds with high rates and intensity of agricultural land use that we sampled, tillage and resultant erosion has excavated deeply enough into the regolith to deliver subsurface sediment to streams and thus raise apparent in situ 10Be-derived erosion rates by as much as 2.5 times over background rates had the watersheds not been disturbed.

  9. Eggs of Mallada desjardinsi (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) are protected by ants: the role of egg stalks in ant-tended aphid colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masayuki; Nomura, Masashi

    2014-08-01

    In ant-aphid mutualisms, ants usually attack and exclude enemies of aphids. However, larvae of the green lacewing Mallada desjardinsi (Navas) prey on ant-tended aphids without being excluded by ants; these larvae protect themselves from ants by carrying aphid carcasses on their backs. Eggs of M. desjardinsi laid at the tips of stalks have also been observed in ant-tended aphid colonies in the field. Here, we examined whether the egg stalks of M. desjardinsi protect the eggs from ants and predators. When exposed to ants, almost all eggs with intact stalks were untouched, whereas 50-80% of eggs in which stalks had been severed at their bases were destroyed by ants. In contrast, most eggs were preyed upon by larvae of the lacewing Chrysoperla nipponensis (Okamoto), an intraguild predator of M. desjardinsi, regardless of whether their stalks had been severed. These findings suggest that egg stalks provide protection from ants but not from C. nipponensis larvae. To test whether M. desjardinsi eggs are protected from predators by aphid-tending ants, we introduced C. nipponensis larvae onto plants colonized by ant-tended aphids. A significantly greater number of eggs survived in the presence of ants because aphid-tending ants excluded larvae of C. nipponensis. This finding indicates that M. desjardinsi eggs are indirectly protected from predators by ants in ant-tended aphid colonies.

  10. Consequence of nanofluid on peristaltic transport of a hyperbolic tangent fluid model in the occurrence of apt (tending) magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Safia; Nadeem, S.

    2014-05-01

    In the current study, sway of nanofluid on peristaltic transport of a hyperbolic tangent fluid model in the incidence of tending magnetic field has been argued. The governing equations of a nanofluid are first modeled and then simplified under lubrication approach. The coupled nonlinear equations of temperature and nano particle volume fraction are solved analytically using a homotopy perturbation technique. The analytical solution of the stream function and pressure gradient are carried out using perturbation technique. The graphical results of the problem under discussion are also being brought under consideration to see the behavior of various physical parameters.

  11. Trafficking of Human Beings – An Academic Attempt t o Support the EU Actions in the Fight Against It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Pop

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The following lines are describing the core of a European project, in which the Research Centre on Identity and Migration Issues (RCIMI is one of the five beneficiaries. The Project is entitled: The Fight against Trafficking of Human Beings in the EU: promoting legal cooperation and victims protections (THB: COOPtoFIGHT . The project is initiated and coordinated by professor de Suosa from Centro de Estudos Sociasis da Universitate de Coimbra – Portugal and it is financed by the Prevention of and the Fight against Crime Programme of the European Union – Directorate Generale Home Affairs of the European Commission. The duration of the Programme is of 24 months.

  12. How does stress affect human being-a molecular dynamic simulation study on cortisol and its glucocorticoid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Tian, Geng

    2017-03-01

    Stress can be either positive or negative to human beings. Under stressful conditions, the mental and physical conditions of human can be affected. There exists certain relation between stress and illness. The cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind to the same receptor, which is called glucocorticoid receptor. Some evidences indicated that cortisol molecule binding to its glucocorticoid receptor was necessary for the stress response. Up to now, the structure-function relationships between cortisol molecule and its glucocorticoid receptor have not been deliberated from the atomic-level. In order to get a detailed understanding of the structure-function relationships between the cortisol molecule and glucocorticoids receptor, we have carried out molecular dynamic (MD) simulations on glucocorticoid receptor (Apo system) and cortisol with its glucocorticoid receptor complex (HCY system). On the basis of molecular dynamic simulations, a couple of key residues were identified, which were crucial for the binding of cortisol molecule. The results of binding free energy calculations are in good agreement with the experiment data. Our research gives clear insights from atomic-level into the structural-functional aspects of cortisol molecule and its glucocorticoid receptor, and also provides valuable information for the design of drug which can treat stress related illnesses.

  13. Wild type p53 increased chemosensitivity of drug-resistant human hepatocellular carcinoma Be17402 / 5-FU cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-xiuLI; Zhi-binLIN; Huan-ranTAN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of wild type (wt) p53 gene transfection on drug resistant human hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) cells induced by 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). METHODS: The cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs on Be17402 and Be17402/5-FU cells was assessed using SRB assay, p53 expression was detected at its mRNA level by RT-PCR assay and at its protein level Western blot or immunocytochemistry assay in Be17402/5-FU cells transfected with either control vector or wt p53. AnnexinV-FITC/PI double labeled assay was performed to detect apoptosis. The chemosensitivity of Be17402/5-FU cells transfected with wt p53 was assessed using SRB assay. RESULTS: Be17402/5-FU cells exhibited cross-resistance to vincristine, doxorubicin, paclitaxel, and so on. wt p53 gene transfection upregulated the expression of p53 in Be17402/5-FU cells, wt p53 was able to greatly inhibit cell proliferation and significantly induce apoptosis in Be17402/5-FU cells. Moreover, wt p53 gene transfection increased the chemosensitivity of Be17402/5-FU cells to some anticancer drugs. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that the wt p53 gene transfection not only induced suppression of cell growth, but also increased the sensitivity of Be17402/5-FU cells to 5-FU, vincristine, and doxorubicin.

  14. Genotype profiles of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis isolates recovered from animals, commercial milk, and human beings in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S V; Sohal, J S; Singh, P K; Singh, A V

    2009-09-01

    To understand the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) isolates recovered from domestic and wild ruminants, commercial milk, and human beings in North India. Genotyping of MAP isolates (N=117) recovered from animals, commercial milk, and human beings in different regions of North India between 1998 and 2007 was carried out using IS1311 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and short sequence repeat (SSR) typing (G and GGT repeat loci). Of the 117 MAP isolates recovered from North India, bison-type was the predominant (83.8%) genotype followed by cattle-type (16.2%). Bison-type was the exclusive genotype recovered from goats, sheep, buffaloes, and blue bulls. However, both bison-type and cattle-type genotypes were recovered from cattle, humans, and commercial bovine milk samples. The relative distribution of the two genotypes was different in the different regions. Bison-type was the major genotype at the Central Institute for Research on Goats (CIRG), Akos, Ajmer, and Mathura, whereas, cattle-type was the major genotype from New Delhi and Agra. SSR typing of these isolates revealed that all MAP bison-type isolates had an identical profile (7g4ggt) with respect to G and GGT repeat SSR loci. In this study the sheep-type genotype was not found in North India. This study is the first from India to report the presence of two kinds of MAP genotypes (cattle-type and bison-type). However, non-reporting of the sheep-type genotype may not mean that it is absent in North India; the use of multiple culture media to recover MAP from clinical samples for future investigations is advised.

  15. Differential susceptibility of human trophoblastic (BeWo) and uterine cervical (HeLa) cells to Neospora caninum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Julianne V; Alves, Celene M O S; Cardoso, Mariana R D; Mota, Caroline M; Barbosa, Bellisa F; Ferro, Eloísa A V; Silva, Neide M; Mineo, Tiago W P; Mineo, José R; Silva, Deise A O

    2010-12-01

    Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite, closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, and causes abortion and congenital neosporosis in cattle worldwide. Trophoblast cells act in mechanisms of innate immune defense at the fetal-maternal interface and no data are available about the interaction of Neospora with human trophoblasts. Thus, this study aimed to verify the susceptibility of human trophoblastic (BeWo) compared with uterine cervical (HeLa) cell lines to N. caninum. BeWo and HeLa cells were infected with different parasite:cell ratios of N. caninum tachyzoites and analyzed at different times after infection for cell viability using thiazolyl blue tetrazole and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Both cell lines were also evaluated for cytokine production and parasite infection/replication assays when pre-treated or not with Neospora lysate antigen (NLA) or human recombinant IFN-γ. Cell viability was increased up to 48 h of infection in both types of cells, suggesting that infection could inhibit early cell death and/or induce cell proliferation. Neospora infection induced up-regulation of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), mainly in HeLa cells, which was enhanced by cell pre-treatment by NLA or IFN-γ. Conversely, parasite infection induced down-regulation of the transforming growth factor (TGF-β), mostly in BeWo cells, which was decreased with NLA or IFN-γ pre-treatment. HeLa cells were more susceptible to Neospora infection than BeWo cells and IFN-γ pre-treatment resulted in reduced infection indices in both cell lines. Control of parasite growth was mediated by IFN-γ through an indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-dependent mechanism in HeLa cells alone. Based on these results, we concluded that BeWo and HeLa cells are readily infected by N. caninum, although presenting differences in susceptibility to infection, cytokine production and cell viability. Thus, these host cells can be considered in comparative approaches to understand strategies used by N

  16. Orlando, ou a tendência social da androginia Orlando. The social tendency of androginy

    OpenAIRE

    Nízia Maria Alvarenga

    1997-01-01

    Este artigo analisa o filme Orlando por ser expressão de uma das tendências que vêm despontando no processo atual de mudanças sociais no conjunto das sociedades capitalistas ocidentais. A dimensão simbólica destas sociedades abrange representações tais como racionalidade, objetividade, pragmatismo, impessoalidade, utilitarismo, disciplina e neutralidade afetiva, que constituem o cerne do sistema de valores sociais predominantes. Uma alteração desta dimensão significa uma revolução em seu modo...

  17. Leucemia Infantojuvenil No Brasil: Um Estudo Sobre Tendências e Mortalidade

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, F.F.

    2014-01-01

    A leucemia é o tipo de neoplasia mais comum dos cânceres em crianças. Apesar das inúmeras lacunas, tais como grande número de causas mal definidas apresentadas pelo Sistema de Informação Sobre Mortalidade (SIM), ele ainda é a principal fonte de dados para pesquisas epidemiológicas. O objetivo foi estudar a variação de mortalidade por leucemias em crianças e adolescentes e relacioná-las à mortalidade por causas mal definidas bem como a tendência dos óbitos por leucemia no Espírito Santo. Foram...

  18. Rotura bilateral de tendón cuadricipital asociado a tratamiento con atorvastatina.

    OpenAIRE

    Martorell Matoses, S.; Gilabert, E.; Ribas García-Peñuela, J.; López Peris, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    La rotura del tendón del cuádriceps es una lesión relativamente poco frecuente. Puede asociarse a enfermedades sistémicas, trasplante renal, tratamientos crónicos u ocurrir de forma espontánea. Presentamos un caso de rotura bilateral de cuádriceps asociada a tratamiento crónico con atorvastatina. Quadriceps tendon rupture is a relatively rare lesion. It has been associated with chronic systemic diseases, renal transplantation or it may occur spontaneously. We present a case of bil...

  19. Adaptive Communication: Languages with More Non-Native Speakers Tend to Have Fewer Word Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Christian; Verkerk, Annemarie; Kiela, Douwe; Hill, Felix; Buttery, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the diversity of languages across the world is one of the central aims of typological, historical, and evolutionary linguistics. We consider the effect of language contact-the number of non-native speakers a language has-on the way languages change and evolve. By analysing hundreds of languages within and across language families, regions, and text types, we show that languages with greater levels of contact typically employ fewer word forms to encode the same information content (a property we refer to as lexical diversity). Based on three types of statistical analyses, we demonstrate that this variance can in part be explained by the impact of non-native speakers on information encoding strategies. Finally, we argue that languages are information encoding systems shaped by the varying needs of their speakers. Language evolution and change should be modeled as the co-evolution of multiple intertwined adaptive systems: On one hand, the structure of human societies and human learning capabilities, and on the other, the structure of language. PMID:26083380

  20. Adaptive Communication: Languages with More Non-Native Speakers Tend to Have Fewer Word Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Christian; Verkerk, Annemarie; Kiela, Douwe; Hill, Felix; Buttery, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the diversity of languages across the world is one of the central aims of typological, historical, and evolutionary linguistics. We consider the effect of language contact-the number of non-native speakers a language has-on the way languages change and evolve. By analysing hundreds of languages within and across language families, regions, and text types, we show that languages with greater levels of contact typically employ fewer word forms to encode the same information content (a property we refer to as lexical diversity). Based on three types of statistical analyses, we demonstrate that this variance can in part be explained by the impact of non-native speakers on information encoding strategies. Finally, we argue that languages are information encoding systems shaped by the varying needs of their speakers. Language evolution and change should be modeled as the co-evolution of multiple intertwined adaptive systems: On one hand, the structure of human societies and human learning capabilities, and on the other, the structure of language.

  1. Modulation of apoptosis and viral latency - an axis to be well understood for successful cure of human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Uddhav; Gaur, Ritu

    2016-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the causative agent of the deadly disease AIDS, which is characterized by the progressive decline of CD4(+)T-cells. HIV-1-encoded proteins such as envelope gp120 (glycoprotein gp120), Tat (trans-activator of transcription), Nef (negative regulatory factor), Vpr (viral protein R), Vpu (viral protein unique) and protease are known to be effective in modulating host cell signalling pathways that lead to an alteration in apoptosis of both HIV-infected and uninfected bystander cells. Depending on the stage of the virus life cycle and host cell type, these viral proteins act as mediators of pro- or anti-apoptotic signals. HIV latency in viral reservoirs is a persistent phenomenon that has remained beyond the control of the human immune system. To cure HIV infections completely, it is crucial to reactivate latent HIV from cellular pools and to drive these apoptosis-resistant cells towards death. Several previous studies have reported the role of HIV-encoded proteins in apoptosis modulation, but the molecular basis for apoptosis evasion of some chronically HIV-infected cells and reactivated latently HIV-infected cells still needs to be elucidated. The current review summarizes our present understanding of apoptosis modulation in HIV-infected cells, uninfected bystander cells and latently infected cells, with a focus on highlighting strategies to activate the apoptotic pathway to kill latently infected cells.

  2. Trace metals and organometals in selected marine species and preliminary risk assessment to human beings in Thane Creek area, Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S; Bhalke, S; Saradhi, I V; Suseela, B; Tripathi, R M; Pandit, G G; Puranik, V D

    2007-10-01

    Trace metals and organometals were estimated in different types of marine organisms (fish, bivalve, crab and prawn) collected from the Trans-Thane Creek area, Mumbai. Thane Creek area is considered as most polluted area due to industrial discharges. Potential risks associated with consumption of marine organisms collected from this particular area to human beings were assessed. Concentrations of ten trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the edible part of marine organisms were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometer and differential pulse anodic stripping voltametric technique. Methyl mercury and tributyl tin were estimated using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer in combination with solid phase micro extraction (SPME). An assessment of the risk on human beings due to consumption of marine organism was undertaken using toxic reference benchmark, namely the reference dose (RfD). The hazard index (HI), sum of hazard quotients calculated for all the pollutant showed that the risks from consumption of fish and marine organisms as a whole were generally low and are within safe limits.

  3. Study on the Spreading of Environmental Impact of Human Being's Activities and Its Crucial Factors in Upper Minjiang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Hong; Zhao Hong-da

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historical transition of human being's activities and the eco-environment in the upper reaches of Minjiang River. The history is divided into 4 periods, each with its own feature.During the period of nomad immigration, the top-line of the subalpine forest was forced downward by the expanding subalpine meadow. During the period of farming nationality immigration, the bottom-line of middle mountain forest had moved upward forced by the needs for land or timber of the increasing population in the valley basin. During the period of the early exploiting, the focus resource was the timber. The total output was limited, comparing with the later period, because of the bad accessibility.But it was large enough to impact the forest ecosystem of the deforesting area. The recent 50 years is the crucial period of economic development and eco-environment degradation. This paper points out that the impact of human being's activities for environment lies on 3 factors: 1) physical features control the location and tendency eco-environmental change;2) population and productivity control the scale and speed of eco-environmental change; 3) regional accessibility controls the time and location of eco-environmental change.

  4. Valproic acid-mediated transcriptional regulation of human GM3 synthase (hST3Gal V) in SK-N-BE(2)-C human neuroblastoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haw-young KWON; Nam-young KANG; Hyun-mi DAE; Kyoung-sook KIM; Cheorl-ho KIM; Su-il DO; Young-choon LEE

    2008-01-01

    Aim:To investigate whether valproic acid (VPA) modulates human GM3 syn-thase (hST3Gal V) mRNA expression, as a part of ganglioside GM3 biosynthe-sis, in human neuroblastoma cells. Methods: Using RT-PCR and immunofluo-rescent confocal microscopy, we examined hST3Gal V mRNA and GM3 levels during VPA-induced differentiation of human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2)-C cells. We characterized the VPA-inducible promoter region within the hST3-Gal V gene using luciferase constructs carrying 5'-deletions of the hST3Gal V promoter. Results: RT-PCR indicated that VPA-mediated hST3Gal V induction is transcriptionally regulated. Functional analysis of the 5'-flanking region of the hST3Gal V gene demonstrated that the -177 to -83 region, which contains a cAMP-responsive element (CRE) at -143, functions as the VPA-inducible promoter by actively binding CRE binding protein (CREB). In addition, site-directed mutagenesis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay indicated that the CRE at -143 is crucial for the VPA-induced expression of hST3Gal V in SK-N-BE(2)-C cells. Conclusion: Our results isolated the core promoter region in the hST3Gal V promoter, a CRE at -143, and demonstrated that it is essential for transcriptional activation of hST3Gal V in VPA-induced SK-N-BE(2)-C cells. Subsequent CREB binding to this CRE mediates VPA-dependent upregulation of hST3Gal V gene expression.

  5. ["Being with" the person cared for in a rehabilitation context: a profound, therapeutic and transformative human relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Louise; Cara, Chantal

    2010-12-01

    Due to the relational nature of nursing, "being with" the person that is being cared for is an essential phenomenon in the nursing profession. Furthermore, this concept lies at the very core of the philosophy of Caring, which is, according to various authors, the essence of nursing. Using Watson's Human Caring philosophy as the disciplinary perspective, this phenomenological study has explored, with nurses working in rehabilitation (n=17), the meaning of the experience of "being with" the person cared for, as well as the nurses' perception of the contribution of this experience in the rehabilitation of the cared-for person. A total of 51 interviews, three for every participant, were analyzed using the Relational Caring Inquiry phenomenological method developed by Cara (1997). Through data analysis five eidos-themes have emerged; the following four related to the significance of "being with" the cared-for person: the importance of humanistic values at the core of care; the involvement of the nurse and the cared-for person; the reciprocal and relational dimensions of care, and the irreplaceable care experience of contextual complexity. The fifth and last eidos-theme--enhancing the body-soul-spirit harmony of the person cared-for and of the nurse--leads participants to perceive the therapeutic contribution of the experience of "being with" the cared-for person during their rehabilitation process. These results have contributed to the emergence of the meaning of the phenomenon studied: "a deep, therapeutic, and transforming human relationship". All the results lead to innovative implications and suggest possible interventions that can serve as guides to renew the clinical practice of nurses in rehabilitation, as well as the education and research in nursing science.

  6. Transdermal absorption of (-)-linalool induces autonomic deactivation but has no impact on ratings of well-being in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Eva; Redhammer, Sandra; Buchbauer, Gerhard

    2004-10-01

    Essential lavender oil has a long tradition as a mild sedative in herbal medicine. Relaxing effects after inhalation have also been demonstrated for one of its main constituents, (-)-linalool. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the effects of this monoterpenoid alcohol on human physiological parameters (blood oxygen saturation, breathing rate, eye-blink rate, pulse rate, skin conductance, skin temperature, surface electromyogram as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure) and assessments of subjective well-being. (-)-Linalool was applied to 14 healthy subjects by percutaneous administration. Inhalation of the fragrance was prevented by means of breathing masks. (-)-Linalool induced deactivation with respect to physiology, that is, a decrease of systolic blood pressure and a smaller decrease of skin temperature, compared to a corresponding control group receiving a placebo, but had no effects on subjective evaluation of well-being.

  7. Desinserción espontánea y bilateral del tendón cuadricipital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesuan Zordan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available La ruptura espontánea bilateral del tendón cuadricipital es una patología infrecuente (<5% de todas las rupturas cuadricipitales. El mayor número de casos reportados, se asocia a insuficiencia renal crónica,  obesidad, diabetes, lupus eritematoso sistémico, vasculitis e hiperparatiroidismo. Nuestro paciente, de 41 años de edad presenta insuficiencia renal crónica en tratamiento con hemodiálisis desde hace 8 años, asociada a hiperparatiroidismo secundario. Ingresa a nuestro servicio por incapacidad a la extensión de ambos miembros inferiores, tras incorporarse desde una silla, destacando en el examen físico una depresión palpable suprarrotuliana. Se realizan radiografías de ambas rodillas frente y perfil, ecografía de zona suprarrotuliana y resonancia magnética nuclear. Al  constatar lesión bilateral a nivel del tendón cuadricipital, se programa su reparación quirúrgica, la cual se realizó por cuestiones ajenas a nuestro servicio a los 30 días del diagnóstico. Se intervinieron de manera simultánea ambas rodillas utilizando como técnica, tunelización patelar y empleando suturas no reabsorbible. Se obtuvo un resultado excelente en ambos miembros inferiores según el Score Knee Society (S.N.S..

  8. Can Biosemiotics be a “Science” if its Purpose is to be a Bridge between the Natural, Social and Human Sciences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    2015-01-01

    . For Barbieri “scientific knowledge is obtained by building machine-like models of what we observe in nature”. Barbieri interestingly claims that – in combination with the empirical and experimental basis – mechanism is virtually equivalent to the scientific method. The consequences of this statement seem......Central to the attempt to develop a biosemiotics has been the discussion of what it means to be scientific. In Marcello Barbieri's latest argument for leaving Peircean biosemiotics and creating an alternative code-biology the definition of what it means to be scientific plays a major role...

  9. A Pedagogy of Abundance or a Pedagogy to Support Human Beings? Participant Support on Massive Open Online Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Kop

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how emergent technologies could influence the design of learning environments. It will pay particular attention to the roles of educators and learners in creating networked learning experiences on massive open online courses (MOOCs. The research shows that it is possible to move from a pedagogy of abundance to a pedagogy that supports human beings in their learning through the active creation of resources and learning places by both learners and course facilitators. This pedagogy is based on the building of connections, collaborations, and the exchange of resources between people, the building of a community of learners, and the harnessing of information flows on networks. This resonates with the notion of emergent learning as learning in which actors and system co-evolve within a MOOC and where the level of presence of actors on the MOOC influences learning outcomes.

  10. "It's doom alone that counts": can international human rights law be an effective source of rights in correctional conditions litigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, Michael L; Dlugacz, Henry A

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the U.S. judiciary has grown increasingly less receptive to claims by convicted felons as to the conditions of their confinement while in prison. Although courts have not articulated a return to the "hands off" policy of the 1950s, it is clear that it has become significantly more difficult for prisoners to prevail in constitutional correctional litigation. The passage and aggressive implementation of the Prison Litigation Reform Act has been a powerful disincentive to such litigation in many areas of prisoners' rights law. From the perspective of the prisoner, the legal landscape is more hopeful in matters that relate to mental health care and treatment. Here, in spite of a general trend toward more stringent applications of standards of proof and a reluctance to order sweeping, intrusive remedies, some courts have aggressively protected prisoners' rights to be free from "deliberate indifference" to serious medical needs, and to be free from excessive force on the part of prison officials. A mostly hidden undercurrent in some prisoners' rights litigation has been the effort on the part of some plaintiffs' lawyers to look to international human rights doctrines as a potential source of rights, an effort that has met with some modest success. It receives support by the inclination of other courts to turn to international human rights conventions-even in nations where such conventions have not been ratified-as a kind of "best practice" in the area. The recent publication and subsequent ratification (though not, as of yet, by the United States) of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) may add new support to those using international human rights documents as a basis for litigating prisoners' rights claims. To the best of our knowledge, there has, as of yet, been no scholarly literature on the question of the implications of the CRPD on the state of prisoners' rights law in a U.S. domestic context. In this

  11. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  12. Tendências de gerenciamento de unidades de saúde e de pessoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria André

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar que fatores produzem novas tendências no gerenciamento das unidades básicas de saúde e mudanças nos modelos de gestão. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo com dez gestores de unidades de saúde e dez especialistas da área de saúde de São Paulo, SP, em 2010. Foi adotada a metodologia Delphi. Foram utilizadas quatro rodadas para a coleta de dados, três quantitativas e a quarta qualitativa. Nas três primeiras foram levantadas as tendências de mudança nos modelos de gestão; no perfil do gestor e nas competências requeridas para a função, foi utilizado o teste estatístico de Mann Whitney. A quarta rodada ocorreu por meio de um painel com os envolvidos, tendo sido escolhida a análise temática. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados os principais fatores que estão impulsionando o gerenciamento das unidades básicas de saúde, como as mudanças nos modelos de gestão. Foi consenso de que as dificuldades no gerenciamento das equipes e nas políticas influemciam nesse processo. Verificou-se que os gestores estão a par das tendências do macrocontexto com o advento das organizações sociais de saúde, mas ainda não estão se antecipando nas ações institucionais. CONCLUSÕES: A formação acadêmica deve ser revista não só quanto aos conteúdos, mas quanto ao desenvolvimento desses profissionais. O recrutamento, a seleção, o desenvolvimento e a avaliação devem ser norteados por essas competências alinhadas à missão, à visão, aos valores e aos modelos de gestão das organizações no contexto do Sistema Único de Saúde.

  13. Empowering European communities to improve natural resource management for human well-being: the OPPLA web portal & communities of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, M.; Brown, C.; Pérez-Soba, M.; Rounsevell, M.; Verweij, P.; Delbaere, B.; Cojocaru, G.; Saarikoski, H.; Harrison, P.; Zellmer, K.

    2014-12-01

    The ecosystem services concept is seen by many as a useful paradigm to support decision-making at the complex interface between science, policy and practice. However, to be successful, it requires a strong willingness for collaboration and joint understanding. In support of this aspiration, OPPLA is being developed as a web portal to enable European communities to better manage ecosystems for human well-being and livelihoods. OPPLA will provide access to a variety of online resources such as tools, case studies, lessons learned, videos, manuals and training and educational materials. It will also provide expert forums and spaces for discussions between researchers, practitioners and decision makers. Hence a critical aspect of the success of OPPLA is the co-evolution of communities of practice. An example of a community of practice is the recently launched Ecosystem Services Community - Scotland (ESCom-Scotland; escomscotland.wordpress.com). ESCom-Scotland aims to support better management of Scotland's natural resources by helping to establish a community of practice between individuals and groups involved in the science, policy and practice behind sustainable ecosystem management. It aspires to encourage the sharing of ideas, increase collaboration and to initiate a support network for those engaging with the ecosystem services concept and it will use the OPPLA resources to support these activities. OPPLA is currently at the developmental stage and was instigated by two large European Commission funded research projects: OPERAs (www.operas-project.eu) and OpenNESS (www.openness-project.eu), with a combined budget of ca. €24m. These projects aim to improve understanding of how ecosystem services contribute to human well-being in different social-ecological systems. Research will establish whether, how and under what conditions the ecosystem services concept can move beyond the academic domain towards practical implementation in support of sustainable ecosystem

  14. The analysis and design of urban near-home environments according to psycho-social needs and behavior of human beings

    OpenAIRE

    Serpil, Burçak

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1996. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves 129-132. In this study, the design of urban near-home environments is examined considering the social and psychological needs of human beings as well as human spatial behavior. After an introduction to the concepts such as environment, near-home environments, human-e...

  15. Tendências gerenciais que podem levar a enfermagem a percorrer novos caminhos

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães,Ana Maria Müller de; Duarte, Êrica Rosalba Mallmann

    2004-01-01

    As mudanças no contexto econômico e social têm determinado a necessidade de novas estratégias de gestão para as organizações. Na área de serviços, as instituições de Saúde e a Enfermagem têm sofrido o impacto dessas mudanças dentro dos seus processos de trabalho. Buscamos refletir sobre as novas tendências gerenciais e como elas podem influenciar a organização do trabalho de Enfermagem nos serviços de Saúde e as ações dos enfermeiros gerentes em estratégias que atendam aos desafios da profiss...

  16. A Psicologia Social contemporânea: principais tendências e perspectivas nacionais e internacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Ferreira

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho faz um balanço do estado atual da Psicologia Social, no plano nacional e internacional. Para tanto, faz uma revisão inicial das principais tendências que marcaram a evolução da Psicologia Social na América do Norte, para, em seguida, apresentar as características atuais mais relevantes dessa disciplina na América do Norte, na Europa e na América Latina. Em seguida, detém-se na análise da recente produção brasileira em Psicologia Social. À guisa de conclusão, discute os desafios futuros que se colocam à produção nacional na área de Psicologia Social, especialmente no que diz respeito a seu impacto no cenário acadêmico internacional.

  17. Tendências e perspectivas das teorias locacionais no Capitalismo contemporâneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhalf Magalhães Braga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é resgatar o tema das teorias locacionais e assim contribuir para o debate na Geografia, debate este um tanto esquecido atualmente. Destacamos as principais tendências do enfoque locacional: neoclássico, comportamental, sistêmico e marxista. Além disso, abordamos algumas perspectivas atuais, não só na Geografia, como também na Administração, Economia e Sociologia. Notase que as abordagens caminham de um pensamento mais abstrato e generalizante, passando por uma consideração dos problemas sociais até um olhar mais regional e focado no paradigma do capitalismo informacional.

  18. Tendências pedagógicas: conflitos, desafios e perspectivas de docentes de enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica de Alcântara Rodrigues

    Full Text Available O presente estudo trata das tendências pedagógicas que norteiam a prática educativa dos professores de Enfermagem com o objetivo de analisá-las com base nos elementos que constituem a atividade docente. Utilizou-se a pesquisa descritivo-exploratória com abordagem qualitativa do tipo estudo de caso. Os sujeitos do estudo foram professoras de um curso de Enfermagem da Região Nordeste. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de entrevista semiestruturada. Na análise dos dados foi empregada a análise de conteúdo, que gerou três núcleos temáticos: tendência pedagógica: transição e conflito; elementos da atividade docente; as relações pedagógicas: os sujeitos da práxis pedagógica. Revelou-se uma transição de abordagens liberais para progressistas entre os docentes, acarretando um conflito entre metodologias e estratégias de ensino. Embora haja uma aproximação das concepções emancipatórias, ainda não se tem uma conformidade na prática pedagógica. Deste modo, o presente estudo contribui para ampliar o debate que envolve a temática, possibilitando melhor embasamento teórico para a discussão das questões referentes ao ensino de Enfermagem.

  19. Molecular identification of Campylobacter jejuni and coli from chicken, calves and dogs to determine its potential threat on human being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Sonuwara; Sekar, M.; Gunaseelan, L.; Gawande, Monica; Suganya, G.; Malar, P. Annal Selva; Karthikeyan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Campylobacter is an emerging zoonotic pathogen and one of the leading cause of foodborne infection worldwide and it has been isolated from a variety of animal species. The aim of this study was to identify Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from dogs, calves, and poultry using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methodology: A total of 104 number of samples comprising cloacal swab from poultry (38), a rectal swab from dogs (40), and calves (26) were collected for the isolation of thermophilic Campylobacters using conventional culture method. PCR was used for identification of mapA gene for C.jejuni and ceuE for C.coli. Results: The overall presence of Campylobacter was found to be 67(64.42%) from the samples, out of which 6 isolates belongs to C. jejuni species, were 5(18.51%) from chicken and 1(4.17%) from dog was recorded and about 17 isolates belongs to C. coli species were 9(33.33%), 6 (25%), and 1(9.09%) from chicken, dog and calves was recorded. Conclusion: Results suggested that Campylobacter reservoirs chicken, calves and pet dogs can play a role as the source of infection to human beings and PCR can be an ideal tool for molecular confirmation at the species level. PMID:27047055

  20. The EU Legal Framework on Trafficking in Human Beings: Where to from here – the UK Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria O'Neill

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU’s current provisions on the trafficking in human beings (THB are provided for, inter alia, in Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA. The Council of Europe have more recent provisions in this area, which are not yet widely in force. The EU has some major proposals for reform of its legal framework in the Stockholm Programme, to include the appointment of an EU Anti-Trafficking Coordinator. In addition, the focus of EU Justice and Home Affairs is shifting to the external relations of the EU under the Stockholm Programme. A critical examination of the EU legal framework in the area of THB from a law enforcement perspective is therefore timely. THB is a highly contentious and complicated area for regulation, with issues such as the support of the victims of trafficking, the particular needs of under-aged trafficked individuals, and the issues of due process when a witness may not be considered to be reliable during court proceedings, complicating operations and prosecutions. In addition the issue of illegal immigration adds a further layer of complication, with the UK maintaining its opt out from the EU’s illegal immigration provisions. This article will, focus on the illegal trafficking of adults against their will, and the consequences of this crime, in particular, for the UK law enforcement authorities.

  1. Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal and the Ethical and Legal Obligations of Healthcare Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy; Duijst, Wilma; Bos, Mike; Chassis, Iris; Codreanu, Igor; Danovitch, Gabriel; Gill, John; Ivanovski, Ninoslav; Shin, Milbert

    2016-02-01

    Physicians and other health care professionals seem well placed to play a role in the monitoring and, perhaps, in the curtailment of the trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal. They serve as important sources of information for patients and may have access to information that can be used to gain a greater understanding of organ trafficking networks. However, well-established legal and ethical obligations owed to their patients can create challenging policy tensions that can make it difficult to implement policy action at the level of the physician/patient. In this article, we explore the role-and legal and ethical obligations-of physicians at 3 key stages of patient interaction: the information phase, the pretransplant phase, and the posttransplant phase. Although policy challenges remain, physicians can still play a vital role by, for example, providing patients with a frank disclosure of the relevant risks and harms associated with the illegal organ trade and an honest account of the physician's own moral objections. They can also report colleagues involved in the illegal trade to an appropriate regulatory authority. Existing legal and ethical obligations likely prohibit physicians from reporting patients who have received an illegal organ. However, given the potential benefits that may accrue from the collection of more information about the illegal transactions, this is an area where legal reform should be considered.

  2. Setting targets for human resources for eye health in sub-Saharan Africa: what evidence should be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, Paul; Mathenge, Wanjiku; Kello, Amir Bedri; Cook, Colin; Kalua, Khumbo; Lewallen, Susan

    2016-03-16

    With a global target set at reducing vision loss by 25% by the year 2019, sub-Saharan Africa with an estimated 4.8 million blind persons will require human resources for eye health (HReH) that need to be available, appropriately skilled, supported, and productive. Targets for HReH are useful for planning, monitoring, and resource mobilization, but they need to be updated and informed by evidence of effectiveness and efficiency. Supporting evidence should take into consideration (1) ever-changing disease-specific issues including the epidemiology, the complexity of diagnosis and treatment, and the technology needed for diagnosis and treatment of each condition; (2) the changing demands for vision-related services of an increasingly urbanized population; and (3) interconnected health system issues that affect productivity and quality. The existing targets for HReH and some of the existing strategies such as task shifting of cataract surgery and trichiasis surgery, as well as the scope of eye care interventions for primary eye care workers, will need to be re-evaluated and re-defined against such evidence or supported by new evidence.

  3. Tempos anormais e novas fantasias. Novas tendências em direitos humanos, justiça e educação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vilar Estêvão

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After characterizing the current times as abnormal times, with the creation, by the ideology of the market, of new fantasies that promise heaven on earth in terms of well-being, personal fulfillment and justice, the author makes an incursion in the land of human rights, justice, education and school, in order to unveil new interpretations, new myths, new abnormalities that are emerging within it, congruent with the market, understood as metonymy of global capitalism. In this view, rights are seen from a "multiuse" perspective, which makes them "malleable" at will and at the demands of the dominant rationality of the economy; likewise, justice tends to be construed from an individualistic and efficiency perspective, that is, as a factor that effectively contributes to the balance of trade and for maintaining the evenness of the social balance. Finally, education should constitute a sub-sector of the economy, with a functionalist format at the service of social and economic needs that come from the mercantile world.

  4. Could the gene coding for human uteroglobin (clara cell 10 kDa protein) be a candidate gene for atopy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, A.B.; Peri, A.; Miele, L. [SDG, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    It has been proposed that human immune response to allergens is genetically determined. Most of these allergic responses are directed to environmental proteins and are mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE). These allergic disorders (eg. allergic asthma) are commonly known as atopy. IgE activates phospholipase A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2}) which hydrolyzes cell membrane phospholipids generating free fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid (AA). AA is utilized as the substrate for the generation of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and platelet activating factor (PAF). These agents can cause inflammation as well as bronchoconstriction, hallmarks of asthma. IgE-induced mast cell degranulation and accumulation of basophils and eosinophils in the lung are also characteristic immunological processes commonly found in atopic asthma. Recent investigations suggest that a group I PLA{sub 2} may be associated with the secretory granules of these cells. An inverse relationship between the levels of eicosanoids and hUG has been found in the nasopharyngeal lavage fluid of children with viral infections of the upper respiratory tract, often a precipitating factor in asthma. Results of genetic linkage studies mapped a putative atopy gene in human chromosome 11q{sup 13}, the same region in which we localized the hUG gene. Moreover, a genetic linkage between atopic IgE responses and chromosome 11q{sup 13} has been reported. In addition, hUG is: (i) a potent inhibitor of PLA{sub 2} activity, (ii) a potent antiinflammatory/immunomodulatory and antichemotactic protein and has a hitherto undetermined receptor-mediated activity. Taken together, these findings suggest that a mutation either in the hUG or its receptor genes may manifest symptoms characteristic of atopy. Hence, we raise the question whether hUG is a candidate gene for this disease.

  5. Hinge-loop mutation can be used to control 3D domain swapping and amyloidogenesis of human cystatin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlikowska, Marta; Jankowska, Elżbieta; Kołodziejczyk, Robert; Jaskólski, Mariusz; Szymańska, Aneta

    2011-02-01

    Cystatins are natural inhibitors of cysteine proteases, enzymes that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Human cystatin C (hCC) has been also recognized as an aggregating protein directly involved in the formation of pathological amyloid fibrils, and these amyloidogenic properties greatly increase in a naturally occurring L68Q hCC variant. For a long time only dimeric structure of wild-type hCC has been known. The dimer is created through 3D domain swapping process, in which two parts of the cystatin structure become separated from each other and next exchanged between two molecules. Important role in the domain swapping plays the L1 loop, which connects the exchanging segments and, upon dimerization, transforms from a β-turn into a part of a long β-strand. In the very recently published first monomeric structure of human cystatin C (hCC-stab1), dimerization was abrogated due to clasping of the β-strands from the swapping domains by an engineered disulfide bridge. We have designed and constructed another mutated cystatin C with the smallest possible structural intervention, that is a single-point mutation replacing hydrophobic V57 from the L1 loop by polar asparagine, known as a stabilizer of a β-turn motif. V57N hCC mutant occurred to be stable in its monomeric form and crystallized as a monomer, revealing typical cystatin fold with a five-stranded antiparallel β-sheet wrapped around an α-helix. Here we report a 2.04 Å resolution crystal structure of V57N hCC and discuss the architecture of the protein in comparison to chicken cystatin, hCC-stab1 and dimeric hCC.

  6. The microRNAs as potential biomarkers for predicting the onset of aflatoxin exposure in human beings: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Quintana, Rafael; Sánchez-Alarcón, Juana; Tenorio-Arvide, María G.; Deng, Youjun; Montiel-González, José M. R.; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; Flores-Márquez, Ana R.; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The identification of aflatoxins as human carcinogens has stimulated extensive research efforts, which continue to the present, to assess potential health hazards resulting from contamination of the human food supply and to minimize exposure. The use of biomarkers that are mechanistically supported by toxicological studies will be important tools for identifying stages in the progression of development of the health effects of environmental agents. miRNAs are small non-coding mRNAs that regulate post-transcriptional gene expression. Also, they are molecular markers of cellular responses to various chemical agents. Growing evidence has demonstrated that environmental chemicals can induce changes in miRNA expression. miRNAs are good biomarkers because they are well defined, chemically uniform, restricted to a manageable number of species, and stable in cells and in the circulation. miRNAs have been used as serological markers of HCC and other tumors. The expression patterns of different miRNAs can distinguish among HCC-hepatitis viruses related, HCC cirrhosis-derivate, and HCC unrelated to either of them. The main objective of this review is to find unreported miRNAs in HCC related to other causes, so that they can be used as specific molecular biomarkers in populations exposed to aflatoxins and as early markers of exposure, damage/presence of HCC. Until today specific miRNAs as markers for aflatoxins-exposure and their reliability are currently lacking. Based on their elucidated mechanisms of action, potential miRNAs that could serve as possible markers of HCC by exposure to aflatoxins are miR-27a, miR-27b, miR-122, miR-148, miR-155, miR-192, miR-214, miR-221, miR-429, and miR-500. Future validation for all of these miRNAs will be needed to assess their prognostic significance and confirm their relationship with the induction of HCC due to aflatoxin exposure. PMID:24672518

  7. HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPE 16 L1 PROTEIN CAN BE EXPRESSED IN LIVE ATTENUATED SHIGELLA FLEXNERI 5A STRAIN SH42

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Xinzhong; Yang Xiaofeng; Zheng Jin; Wang Kai; Si Lüsheng; Wang Yili

    2005-01-01

    Objective Attenuated strains of Shigella are attractive live vaccine candidates for eliciting mucosal immune responses which is a suitable carrier for the prophylactic human papillomaviruses (HPV) vaccine development, To examine the potential of a live Shigella based prophylactic HPV vaccine, HPV16L1should be expressed in attenuated shigella strain. Methods A Shigella large invasive plasmid (icsA/virG) based prokaryotic expression plasmid pHS3199 was constructed. HPV16L1 gene was inserted into plasmid pHS3199 to form pHS3199-HPV16 L1 construct, and pHS3199-hpv16L1 was electroporated into a live attenuated shigella strain sh42. The expression of HPV16L1 protein was demonstrated by Western blotting with monoclonal antibody to HPV16L1, The genetic stability of recombinant strain sh42-HPV16 L1 was monitored by consecutive passage culture. Invasive ability of sh42-HPV16L1 was evaluated by Hela cell infection assay. Results HPV16 L1 protein can be expressed in recombinant strain sh42-HPV16 L1, and the protein stably expressed over 140 generations. The invasive ability of sh42-HPV16L1 was diminished dramatically compared to its parent strain, but not abolished completely. Conclusion HPV16L1 protein was constitutively expressed in the attenuated strain of shigella flexneri sh42, and maintained partial invasive ability. Our strategy may represent a promising vaccine candidate against genital HPV16 infection.

  8. Vyacheslav (Slava) Klimov (1945-2017): A scientist par excellence, a great human being, a friend, and a Renaissance man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Zharmukhamedov, Sergey K; Rodionova, Margarita V; Shuvalov, Vladimir A; Dismukes, Charles; Shen, Jian-Ren; Barber, James; Samuelsson, Göran; Govindjee

    2017-09-18

    Vyacheslav Vasilevich (V.V.) Klimov (or Slava, as most of us called him) was born on January 12, 1945 and passed away on May 9, 2017. He began his scientific career at the Bach Institute of Biochemistry of the USSR Academy of Sciences (Akademy Nauk (AN) SSSR), Moscow, Russia, and then, he was associated with the Institute of Photosynthesis, Pushchino, Moscow Region, for about 50 years. He worked in the field of biochemistry and biophysics of photosynthesis. He is known for his studies on the molecular organization of photosystem II (PSII). He was an eminent scientist in the field of photobiology, a well-respected professor, and, above all, an outstanding researcher. Further, he was one of the founding members of the Institute of Photosynthesis in Pushchino, Russia. To most, Slava Klimov was a great human being. He was one of the pioneers of research on the understanding of the mechanism of light energy conversion and of water oxidation in photosynthesis. Slava had many collaborations all over the world, and he is (and will be) very much missed by the scientific community and friends in Russia as well as around the World. We present here a brief biography and some comments on his research in photosynthesis. We remember him as a friendly and enthusiastic person who had an unflagging curiosity and energy to conduct outstanding research in many aspects of photosynthesis, especially that related to PSII.

  9. Variability in Human Bitter Taste Sensitivity to Chemically Diverse Compounds Can Be Accounted for by Differential TAS2R Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Eugeni; Aldayyani, Asya; Thavaraj, Pridhuvi; Prakash, Sangeeta; Greenway, Delma; Thomas, Walter G; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Roudnitzky, Natacha; Foster, Simon R

    2015-07-01

    The human population displays high variation in taste perception. Differences in individual taste sensitivity may also impact on nutrient intake and overall appetite. A well-characterized example is the variable perception of bitter compounds such as 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), which can be accounted for at the molecular level by polymorphic variants in the specific type 2 taste receptor (TAS2R38). This phenotypic variation has been associated with influencing dietary preference and other behaviors, although the generalization of PROP/PTC taster status as a predictor of sensitivity to other tastes is controversial. Here, we proposed that the taste sensitivities of different bitter compounds would be correlated only when they activate the same bitter taste receptor. Thirty-four volunteers were exposed to 8 bitter compounds that were selected based on their potential to activate overlapping and distinct repertoires of TAS2Rs. Taste intensity ratings were evaluated using the general Labeled Magnitude Scale. Our data demonstrate a strong interaction between the intensity for bitter substances when they activate common TAS2Rs. Consequently, PROP/PTC sensitivity was not a reliable predictor of general bitter sensitivity. In addition, our findings provide a novel framework to predict taste sensitivity based on their specific T2R activation profile.

  10. Triplet repeat sequences in human DNA can be detected by hybridization to a synthetic (5'-CGG-3')17 oligodeoxyribonucleotide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behn-Krappa, A; Mollenhauer, J; Doerfler, W

    1993-01-01

    The seemingly autonomous amplification of naturally occurring triplet repeat sequences in the human genome has been implicated in the causation of human genetic disease, such as the fragile X (Martin-Bell) syndrome, myotonic dystrophy (Curshmann-Steinert), spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy...

  11. How human-made greenhouse gas emissions can (really) be reduced; Comment (vraiment) reduire les gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    To be efficient, any action undertaken in view of mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions requires that the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions not be confused with energy savings. Indeed, there is strict correlation between the two only if the energy savings achieved lead to fossil fuel savings. If a drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions were not mandatory, the conversion of our energy production and use would be less pressing, the known fossil fuel reserves being sufficient to supply humanity for at least one and a half centuries. Keeping these consideration in mind, under the control of its Scientific Council and with the help of partner organizations, STC has elaborated a set of proposals to reduce the economic activity's carbon content without affecting in any fundamental way the life style of the populations concerned while leaving room for economic growth in developing countries. In this sense, the 'Negatep' scenario put forward by STC is fundamentally different from the 'Negawatt' type scenarios. The options we recommend are ranked according to their economic efficiency. The index that is conventionally used to compare conceivable solutions is known as the 'cost of carbon avoided' for a given action. It consists in estimating the additional cost of the action considered in relation to the amount of carbon whose release to the atmosphere is avoided thanks to the action. The index is measured in Euros per metric ton of carbon avoided. Summary of the actions and recommendations put forward by 'Save the Climate' for energy production and energy efficiency are argued in further detail in this document. (A.L.B.)

  12. Human Urine Derived Stem Cells in Combination with β-TCP Can Be Applied for Bone Regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Guan

    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering requires highly proliferative stem cells that are easy to isolate. Human urine stem cells (USCs are abundant and can be easily harvested without using an invasive procedure. In addition, in our previous studies, USCs have been proved to be able to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Therefore, USCs may have great potential and advantages to be applied as a cell source for tissue engineering. However, there are no published studies that describe the interactions between USCs and biomaterials and applications of USCs for bone tissue engineering. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the interactions between USCs with a typical bone tissue engineering scaffold, beta-Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP, and to determine whether the USCs seeded onto β-TCP scaffold can promote bone regeneration in a segmental femoral defect of rats. Primary USCs were isolated from urine and seeded on β-TCP scaffolds. Results showed that USCs remained viable and proliferated within β-TCP. The osteogenic differentiation of USCs within the scaffolds was demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content. Furthermore, β-TCP with adherent USCs (USCs/β-TCP were implanted in a 6-mm critical size femoral defect of rats for 12 weeks. Bone regeneration was determined using X-ray, micro-CT, and histologic analyses. Results further demonstrated that USCs in the scaffolds could enhance new bone formation, which spanned bone defects in 5 out of 11 rats while β-TCP scaffold alone induced modest bone formation. The current study indicated that the USCs can be used as a cell source for bone tissue engineering as they are compatible with bone tissue engineering scaffolds and can stimulate the regeneration of bone in a critical size bone defect.

  13. Human Urine Derived Stem Cells in Combination with β-TCP Can Be Applied for Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Junjie; Zhang, Jieyuan; Li, Haiyan; Zhu, Zhenzhong; Guo, Shangchun; Niu, Xin; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering requires highly proliferative stem cells that are easy to isolate. Human urine stem cells (USCs) are abundant and can be easily harvested without using an invasive procedure. In addition, in our previous studies, USCs have been proved to be able to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Therefore, USCs may have great potential and advantages to be applied as a cell source for tissue engineering. However, there are no published studies that describe the interactions between USCs and biomaterials and applications of USCs for bone tissue engineering. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the interactions between USCs with a typical bone tissue engineering scaffold, beta-Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP), and to determine whether the USCs seeded onto β-TCP scaffold can promote bone regeneration in a segmental femoral defect of rats. Primary USCs were isolated from urine and seeded on β-TCP scaffolds. Results showed that USCs remained viable and proliferated within β-TCP. The osteogenic differentiation of USCs within the scaffolds was demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content. Furthermore, β-TCP with adherent USCs (USCs/β-TCP) were implanted in a 6-mm critical size femoral defect of rats for 12 weeks. Bone regeneration was determined using X-ray, micro-CT, and histologic analyses. Results further demonstrated that USCs in the scaffolds could enhance new bone formation, which spanned bone defects in 5 out of 11 rats while β-TCP scaffold alone induced modest bone formation. The current study indicated that the USCs can be used as a cell source for bone tissue engineering as they are compatible with bone tissue engineering scaffolds and can stimulate the regeneration of bone in a critical size bone defect.

  14. The thing that should not be: predictive coding and the uncanny valley in perceiving human and humanoid robot actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Chaminade, Thierry; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Driver, Jon; Frith, Chris

    2012-04-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) repetition suppression, we explored the selectivity of the human action perception system (APS), which consists of temporal, parietal and frontal areas, for the appearance and/or motion of the perceived agent. Participants watched body movements of a human (biological appearance and movement), a robot (mechanical appearance and movement) or an android (biological appearance, mechanical movement). With the exception of extrastriate body area, which showed more suppression for human like appearance, the APS was not selective for appearance or motion per se. Instead, distinctive responses were found to the mismatch between appearance and motion: whereas suppression effects for the human and robot were similar to each other, they were stronger for the android, notably in bilateral anterior intraparietal sulcus, a key node in the APS. These results could reflect increased prediction error as the brain negotiates an agent that appears human, but does not move biologically, and help explain the 'uncanny valley' phenomenon.

  15. Protective features of resveratrol on human spermatozoa cryopreservation may be mediated through 5' AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani Nashtaei, M; Amidi, F; Sedighi Gilani, M A; Aleyasin, A; Bakhshalizadeh, Sh; Naji, M; Nekoonam, S

    2017-03-01

    Biochemical and physical modifications during the freeze-thaw process adversely influence the restoration of energy-dependent sperm functions required for fertilization. Resveratrol, a phytoalexin, has been introduced to activate 5' AMP-activated protein kinase which is a cell energy sensor and a cell metabolism regulator. The cryoprotection of resveratrol on sperm cryoinjury via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase also remains to be elucidated. Our aim, thus, was to investigate: (i) the presence and intracellular localization of AMP-activated protein kinase protein; (ii) whether resveratrol may exert a protective effect on certain functional properties of fresh and post-thaw human spermatozoa through modulation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Spermatozoa from normozoospermic men were incubated with or without different concentrations of Compound C as an AMP-activated protein kinase inhibitor or resveratrol as an AMP-activated protein kinase activator for different lengths of time and were then cryopreserved. AMP-activated protein kinase is expressed essentially in the entire flagellum and the post-equatorial region. Viability of fresh spermatozoa was not significantly affected by the presence of Compound C or resveratrol. However, although Compound C caused a potent inhibition of spermatozoa motility parameters, resveratrol did not induce negative effect, except a significant reduction in motility at 25 μm for 1 h. Furthermore, resveratrol significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased reactive oxygen species and apoptosis-like changes in frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Nevertheless, it was not able to compensate decreased sperm viability and motility parameters following cryopreservation. In contrast, Compound C showed opposite effects to resveratrol on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis-like changes, mitochondrial membrane potential, and

  16. Navigating trade-offs in land-use planning: integrating human well-being into objective setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M. Adams

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for development of natural resources, which can be accompanied by environmental degradation. Planning for multiple land uses requires navigating trade-offs between social, economic, and environmental outcomes arising from different possible futures. To explore these trade-offs, we use the Daly River catchment, in Australia's Northern Territory, as a case study. The catchment contains areas of priority for both conservation and development. In response to the challenge of navigating the required trade-offs, the Daly River Management Advisory Committee (DRMAC initiated a land-use plan for the region. Both development and conservation of natural resources in the catchment will affect human well-being and the long-term provisioning of ecosystem services in diverse ways. To understand some of these impacts, an innovative engagement process was designed to elicit the relative importance of key factors to residents' well-being. The process identified 19 well-being factors grouped into four domains: biodiversity, socio-cultural, recreational, and commercial. Overall, the highest-ranked well-being factors were in the social-cultural and biodiversity domains while commercial values were ranked the least important. Respondents reported low satisfaction with commercial factors as well, noting concerns over environmental impacts from existing developments and sustainability of future developments. We identified differences in the reported importance values for several types of stakeholders, most notably between indigenous respondents and those employed in the agricultural sectors. Indigenous respondents placed greater importance on biodiversity and socio-cultural factors. Agricultural respondents placed greater importance on commercial factors. The outcomes of our engagement were integrated into DRMAC's process of objective-setting to ensure that objectives for each domain were included in land-use planning. Our results can also

  17. A European study on alcohol and drug use among young drivers: the TEND by Night study design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siliquini Roberta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young individuals are the age group with the highest risk of car accidents. One of main explanations relies on the use of psychoactive substances (alcohol, illegal and medicinal drugs, which are known to be major risk factors of road accidents, and whose consumption is almost universally more common among younger drivers. Although the correlation between psychoactive substances use and decrease in driving performance has been established in controlled experimental or laboratory settings, few studies were conducted in naturalistic circumstances. The TEND by Night project has been designed to evaluate the relationship between driving performance and psychoactive substances assumption in young drivers enrolled at typical places of consumption. Methods/Design The TEND by Night project, endorsed by the European Commission, is a multidisciplinary, multi-centric, cross-sectional study conducted in six European countries (Italy, Belgium/Netherlands, Bulgaria, Spain, Poland and Latvia. The study population consists of 5000 young drivers aged 16-34 years, attending recreational sites during weekend nights. The intervention is based on the portal survey technique and includes several steps at the entrance and exit of selected sites, including the administration of semi-structured questionnaires, breath alcohol test, several drug assumption test, and measurement of the reaction time using a driving simulator. The main outcome is the difference in reaction time between the entrance and exit of the recreation site, and its correlation with psychoactive substances use. As a secondary outcome it will be explored the relationship between reaction time difference and the amount of consumption of each substance. All analyses will be multivariate. Discussion The project methodology should provide some relevant advantages over traditional survey systems. The main strengths of the study include the large and multicentric sample, the objective

  18. Tendências da desigualdade salarial para coortes de mulheres brancas e negras no Brasil

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    Ana Maria Hermeto Camilo de Oliveira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available É feita uma análise das tendências da desigualdade salarial da força de trabalho feminina no Brasil, segundo a raça, durante as décadas de 1980 e 1990. Crescentes retornos de qualificação e crescente demanda por trabalho qualificado resultam em uma divergência do crescimento salarial entre os trabalhadores com alta e baixa qualificação. Este crescente hiato resulta em um aumento da desigualdade salarial por raça. Com o propósito de interpretar as tendências, são examinadas diferenças por raça nos padrões de casamento, fecundidade, arranjos domiciliares, níveis educacionais, participação na força de trabalho, níveis de qualificação, alocação ocupacional e salários, distinguindo entre medidas de período e coorte. São usados dados provenientes das PNADs 1987-1999 para analisar a importância de mudanças inter e intracoortes para mulheres brancas e negras. Funções salariais são estimadas a partir dos dados agregados da série temporal de cross sections, usando mínimos quadrados ordinários e regressões quantílicas.We analyze trends of wage inequality of the Brazilian female labor force, by race, during the 1980s and 1990s. Increasing returns to skills and increasing demand for skilled labor result in a divergence of wages growth between high and low skilled workers. This increasing gap results in an increase of wage inequality by race. In order to interpret trends, we take into account race differences in marriage patterns, fertility, household arrangements, educational levels, labor market participation, skill levels, occupational location and earnings, distinguishing between period and cohort measures. We use 1987-1999 Brazilian Household Sample Surveys data to examine the importance of within- and between-cohort changes for black and white women. Earnings functions are estimated from the pooled time-series of these cross-section data, using OLS and quantile regressions.

  19. Can Estragole in Fennel Seed Decoctions Really Be Considered a Danger for Human Health? A Fennel Safety Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. mature fruit (commonly known as seeds and essential oil of fennel are widely used as flavoring agents in food products such as liqueurs, bread, cheese, and an ingredient of cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Moreover fennel infusions are the classical decoction for nursing babies to prevent flatulence and colic spasm. Traditionally in Europe and Mediterranean areas fennel is used as antispasmodic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, secretomotor, secretolytic, galactagogue, eye lotion, and antioxidant remedy and integrator. Topically, fennel powder is used as a poultice for snake bites. In Asian cultures fennel was ingested to speed the elimination of poisons. As one of the ancient Saxon people's nine sacred herbs, fennel was credited with the power to cure. Fennel was also valued as a magic herb: in the Middle Ages it was draped over doorways on Midsummer's Eve to protect the household from evil spirits. Recently because of estragole carcinogenicity, fennel has been charged to be dangerous for humans especially if used as decoction for babies. But this allegation do not consider the remedy is prepared as a matrix of substances, and recent researches confirm that pure estragole is inactivated by many substance contained in the decoction.

  20. Can estragole in fennel seed decoctions really be considered a danger for human health? A fennel safety update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, L; Gallo, E; Mascherini, V; Mugelli, A; Vannacci, A; Firenzuoli, F

    2012-01-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) mature fruit (commonly known as seeds) and essential oil of fennel are widely used as flavoring agents in food products such as liqueurs, bread, cheese, and an ingredient of cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Moreover fennel infusions are the classical decoction for nursing babies to prevent flatulence and colic spasm. Traditionally in Europe and Mediterranean areas fennel is used as antispasmodic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, secretomotor, secretolytic, galactagogue, eye lotion, and antioxidant remedy and integrator. Topically, fennel powder is used as a poultice for snake bites. In Asian cultures fennel was ingested to speed the elimination of poisons. As one of the ancient Saxon people's nine sacred herbs, fennel was credited with the power to cure. Fennel was also valued as a magic herb: in the Middle Ages it was draped over doorways on Midsummer's Eve to protect the household from evil spirits. Recently because of estragole carcinogenicity, fennel has been charged to be dangerous for humans especially if used as decoction for babies. But this allegation do not consider the remedy is prepared as a matrix of substances, and recent researches confirm that pure estragole is inactivated by many substance contained in the decoction.

  1. Human hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells can be distinguished by expression of phenotypic markers related to their specialised functions in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PF Lalor; WK Lai; SM Curbishley; S Shetty; DH Adams

    2006-01-01

    The hepatic sinusoids are lined by a unique population of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSEC), which is one of the first hepatic cell populations to come into contact with blood components. However, HSEC are not simply barrier cells that restrict the access of bloodborne compounds to the parenchyma. They are functionally specialised endothelial cells that have complex roles, including not only receptor-mediated clearance of endotoxin, bacteria and other compounds, but also the regulation of inflammation, leukocyte recruitment and host immune responses to pathogens. Thus understandlng the differentiation and function of HSEC is critical for the elucidation of liver biology and pathophysiology. This article reviews methods for isolating and studying human hepatic endothelial cell populations using in vitro models. We also discuss the expression and functions of phenotypic markers, such as the presence of fenestrations and expression of VAP-1, Stabilin-1, L-SIGN, which can be used to identify sinusoidal endothelium and to permit discrimination from vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells.

  2. Creatine synthesis and exchanges between brain cells: What can be learned from human creatine deficiencies and various experimental models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna-El-Daher, Layane; Braissant, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    While it has long been thought that most of cerebral creatine is of peripheral origin, the last 20 years has provided evidence that the creatine synthetic pathway (AGAT and GAMT enzymes) is expressed in the brain together with the creatine transporter (SLC6A8). It has also been shown that SLC6A8 is expressed by microcapillary endothelial cells at the blood-brain barrier, but is absent from surrounding astrocytes, raising the concept that the blood-brain barrier has a limited permeability for peripheral creatine. The first creatine deficiency syndrome in humans was also discovered 20 years ago (GAMT deficiency), followed later by AGAT and SLC6A8 deficiencies, all three diseases being characterized by creatine deficiency in the CNS and essentially affecting the brain. By reviewing the numerous and latest experimental studies addressing creatine transport and synthesis in the CNS, as well as the clinical and biochemical characteristics of creatine-deficient patients, our aim was to delineate a clearer view of the roles of the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers in the transport of creatine and guanidinoacetate between periphery and CNS, and on the intracerebral synthesis and transport of creatine. This review also addresses the question of guanidinoacetate toxicity for brain cells, as probably found under GAMT deficiency.

  3. A Smartphone App Reveals Erratic Diurnal Eating Patterns in Humans that Can Be Modulated for Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Shubhroz; Panda, Satchidananda

    2015-11-03

    A diurnal rhythm of eating-fasting promotes health, but the eating pattern of humans is rarely assessed. Using a mobile app, we monitored ingestion events in healthy adults with no shift-work for several days. Most subjects ate frequently and erratically throughout wakeful hours, and overnight fasting duration paralleled time in bed. There was a bias toward eating late, with an estimated 35% after 6 p.m. "Metabolic jetlag" resulting from weekday/weekend variation in eating pattern akin to travel across time zones was prevalent. The daily intake duration (95% interval) exceeded 14.75 hr for half of the cohort. When overweight individuals with >14 hr eating duration ate for only 10-11 hr daily for 16 weeks assisted by a data visualization (raster plot of dietary intake pattern, "feedogram") that we developed, they reduced body weight, reported being energetic, and improved sleep. Benefits persisted for a year. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Jatropha cultivation in Malawi and Mozambique: impact on ecosystem services, local human well-being, and poverty alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham P. von Maltitz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha-based biofuels have undergone a rapid boom-and-bust cycle in southern Africa. Despite strong initial support by governments, donors, and the private sector, there is a lack of empirical studies that compare the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of Jatropha's two dominant modes of production: large plantations and smallholder-based projects. We apply a rapid ecosystem services assessment approach to understand the impact of two Jatropha projects that are still operational despite widespread project collapse across southern Africa: a smallholder-based project (BERL, Malawi and a large plantation (Niqel, Mozambique. Our study focuses on changes in provisioning ecosystem services such as biofuel feedstock, food, and woodland products that can have important effects on human well-being locally. Qualitative information is provided for other regulating and cultural ecosystem services. Although at this stage no impact is tremendously positive or negative, both projects show some signs of viability and local poverty alleviation potential. However, their long-term sustainability is not guaranteed given low yields, uncertain markets, and some prevailing management practices.

  5. Freezing Nitrogen Ethanol Composite May be a Viable Approach for Cryotherapy of Human Giant Cell Tumor of Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Po-Kuei; Chen, Cheng-Fong; Wang, Jir-You; Chen, Paul Chih-Hsueh; Chang, Ming-Chau; Hung, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Ming

    2017-06-01

    complications were evaluated at a minimum of 19 months followup (mean, 24 months; range, 19-30 months). Freshly prepared freezing nitrogen ethanol composite froze to -136° C and achieved -122° C isotherm across a piece of 10 ± 0.50-mm-thick bone with a freezing rate of -34° C per minute, a temperature expected to meet clinical tumor-killing requirements. Human GCT tissues revealed histologic changes including shrinkage in morphologic features of multinucleated giant cells in the liquid nitrogen (202 ± 45 μm; p = 0.006) and freezing nitrogen ethanol composite groups (169 ± 27.4 μm; p composite-treated samples. Numbers of blood vessels and human origin tumor cells also were decreased by freezing nitrogen ethanol composite and liquid nitrogen treatment in the GCT-grafted chicken chorioallantoic membrane model. Seven patients with GCT treated by curettage and adjuvant cryotherapy by use of freezing nitrogen ethanol composite preparation had no intra- or postoperative complications related to the freezing, and no recurrences during the study surveillance period. These preliminary in vitro and clinical findings suggest that freezing nitrogen ethanol composite may be an effective cryogen showing ex vivo and in vivo tumor cryoablation comparable to liquid nitrogen. The semisolid phase and proper thermal conduction might avoid some of the disadvantages of liquid nitrogen in cryotherapy, but a larger clinical study is needed to confirm these findings. Level IV, therapeutic study.

  6. Key Insights into Hand Biomechanics: Human Grip Stiffness Can Be Decoupled from Force by Cocontraction and Predicted from Electromyography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Höppner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relation between grip force and grip stiffness for the human hand with and without voluntary cocontraction. Apart from gaining biomechanical insight, this issue is particularly relevant for variable-stiffness robotic systems, which can independently control the two parameters, but for which no clear methods exist to design or efficiently exploit them. Subjects were asked in one task to produce different levels of force, and stiffness was measured. As expected, this task reveals a linear coupling between force and stiffness. In a second task, subjects were then asked to additionally decouple stiffness from force at these force levels by using cocontraction. We measured the electromyogram from relevant groups of muscles and analyzed the possibility to predict stiffness and force. Optical tracking was used for avoiding wrist movements. We found that subjects were able to decouple grip stiffness from force when using cocontraction on average by about 20% of the maximum measured stiffness over all force levels, while this ability increased with the applied force. This result contradicts the force–stiffness behavior of most variable-stiffness actuators. Moreover, we found the thumb to be on average twice as stiff as the index finger and discovered that intrinsic hand muscles predominate our prediction of stiffness, but not of force. EMG activity and grip force allowed to explain 72 ± 12% of the measured variance in stiffness by simple linear regression, while only 33 ± 18% variance in force. Conclusively the high signal-to-noise ratio and the high correlation to stiffness of these muscles allow for a robust and reliable regression of stiffness, which can be used to continuously teleoperate compliance of modern robotic hands.

  7. Key Insights into Hand Biomechanics: Human Grip Stiffness Can Be Decoupled from Force by Cocontraction and Predicted from Electromyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höppner, Hannes; Große-Dunker, Maximilian; Stillfried, Georg; Bayer, Justin; van der Smagt, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relation between grip force and grip stiffness for the human hand with and without voluntary cocontraction. Apart from gaining biomechanical insight, this issue is particularly relevant for variable-stiffness robotic systems, which can independently control the two parameters, but for which no clear methods exist to design or efficiently exploit them. Subjects were asked in one task to produce different levels of force, and stiffness was measured. As expected, this task reveals a linear coupling between force and stiffness. In a second task, subjects were then asked to additionally decouple stiffness from force at these force levels by using cocontraction. We measured the electromyogram from relevant groups of muscles and analyzed the possibility to predict stiffness and force. Optical tracking was used for avoiding wrist movements. We found that subjects were able to decouple grip stiffness from force when using cocontraction on average by about 20% of the maximum measured stiffness over all force levels, while this ability increased with the applied force. This result contradicts the force–stiffness behavior of most variable-stiffness actuators. Moreover, we found the thumb to be on average twice as stiff as the index finger and discovered that intrinsic hand muscles predominate our prediction of stiffness, but not of force. EMG activity and grip force allowed to explain 72 ± 12% of the measured variance in stiffness by simple linear regression, while only 33 ± 18% variance in force. Conclusively the high signal-to-noise ratio and the high correlation to stiffness of these muscles allow for a robust and reliable regression of stiffness, which can be used to continuously teleoperate compliance of modern robotic hands. PMID:28588472

  8. TEND-AND-BEFRIEND” : POLA RESPON TERHADAP STRES ALA WANITA

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    Erita Yuliasesti Diahsari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakStres pada wanita dan fenomena  superwoman  pada masa kini bukanlah hal yangasing lagi, karena kenyataan memang menunjukkan kiprah wanita sudah sangat luas danmendalam pada berbagai sektor kehidupan dan pekerjaan. Beberapa dekade terakhir wanitasemakin menunjukkan kontribusi yang luar biasa bagi lingkungan hidupnya. Tidak heranjuga wanita menjadi lebih banyak mengalami stres dibandingkan dengan pria karena peran-peran yang diembannya cenderung lebih banyak menyita waktu, tenaga dan pikirannya. Dalamhal merespon stress yang dialami, ternyata wanita mempunyai cara unik yang relatif  tidakdidapati pada pria, yakni dengan pola yang dinamakan “tend-and-befriend”, suatu pola yangdibangun berdasarkan sistem “caregiving” melalui proses  biobehavioral . Denganmenyalurkan naluri keibuannya, merawat anak-anak dan keluarga, atau melalui relasi sosial,terutama pada sesama wanita, mereka berusaha mencari dukungan untuk mereduksi stresyang dialaminya. Model ini muncul dan dipakai sebagai pendamping model “fight-or-flight”yang selama ini  menjadi kajian respon individu terhadap stres.

  9. Plant chemical defense indirectly mediates aphid performance via interactions with tending ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züst, Tobias; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2017-03-01

    The benefits of mutualistic interactions are often highly context dependent. We studied the interaction between the milkweed aphid Aphis asclepiadis and a tending ant, Formica podzolica. Although this interaction is generally considered beneficial, variation in plant genotype may alter it from mutualistic to antagonistic. Here we link the shift in strength and relative benefit of the ant-aphid interaction to plant genotypic variation in the production of cardenolides, a class of toxic defensive chemicals. In a field experiment with highly variable genotypes of the common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), we show that plant cardenolides, especially polar forms, are ingested by aphids and excreted in honeydew proportionally to plant concentrations without directly affecting aphid performance. Ants consume honeydew, and aphids that excreted high amounts of cardenolides received fewer ant visits, which in turn reduced aphid survival. On at least some plant genotypes, aphid numbers per plant were reduced in the presence of ants to levels lower than in corresponding ant-exclusion treatments, suggesting antagonistic ant behavior. Although cardenolides appear ineffective as direct plant defenses against aphids, the multi-trophic context reveals an ant-mediated negative indirect effect on aphid performance and population dynamics. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Personalidade paterna como fator prognóstico no tratamento da tendência antissocial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Barbieri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A maior parte dos estudos, sobre a importância do ambiente familiar no desenvolvimento emocional e no tratamento psicológico de crianças, busca associar as características da mãe à patologia da criança, em detrimento da figura do pai. Tendo isso em vista, este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as características de personalidade de pais de crianças com tendência antissocial, submetidas ao psicodiagnóstico interventivo, e sua possível relação com os resultados terapêuticos dos filhos. Seis pais de sete crianças foram avaliados pelo Teste de Rorschach, e o follow-up dos casos indicou a ocorrência de cinco sucessos e dois fracassos terapêuticos. As características paternas associadas ao sucesso foram ausência de comprometimentos severos no teste da realidade, controle pulsional e relacionamentos interpessoais, além de uma organização neurótica de personalidade. Sendo assim, os resultados mostram a importância de incluir informações sobre a personalidade paterna na realização de indicação terapêutica de crianças e na proposição de prognósticos.

  11. A transição nutricional no Brasil: tendências regionais e temporais

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    Malaquias Batista Filho

    Full Text Available Tendo como principal fonte de informações três estudos transversais realizados nas décadas de 70, 80 e 90, faz-se uma análise da transição nutricional do Brasil, referenciada no rápido declínio da prevalência de desnutrição em crianças e elevação, num ritmo mais acelerado, da prevalência de sobrepeso/obesidade em adultos. A correção dos déficits de estatura foi de 72% em crianças urbanas e de 54,4% no meio rural, enquanto a ocorrência de obesidade duplicou ou triplicou em homens e mulheres adultos nos extremos da série temporal analisada. Com exceção do Nordeste rural, a prevalência de desnutrição em mulheres adultas declinou para taxas aceitáveis (em torno de 5% a partir de 1989. Inversamente, as anemias continuam com prevalências elevadas e indicações de tendências epidêmicas. Descreve-se a evolução do estado nutricional da população brasileira segundo macrorregiões e distribuição social, analisando-se os prováveis fatores das mudanças ocorridas.

  12. A transição nutricional no Brasil: tendências regionais e temporais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batista Filho Malaquias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendo como principal fonte de informações três estudos transversais realizados nas décadas de 70, 80 e 90, faz-se uma análise da transição nutricional do Brasil, referenciada no rápido declínio da prevalência de desnutrição em crianças e elevação, num ritmo mais acelerado, da prevalência de sobrepeso/obesidade em adultos. A correção dos déficits de estatura foi de 72% em crianças urbanas e de 54,4% no meio rural, enquanto a ocorrência de obesidade duplicou ou triplicou em homens e mulheres adultos nos extremos da série temporal analisada. Com exceção do Nordeste rural, a prevalência de desnutrição em mulheres adultas declinou para taxas aceitáveis (em torno de 5% a partir de 1989. Inversamente, as anemias continuam com prevalências elevadas e indicações de tendências epidêmicas. Descreve-se a evolução do estado nutricional da população brasileira segundo macrorregiões e distribuição social, analisando-se os prováveis fatores das mudanças ocorridas.

  13. Being There & Getting Back Again: Half a Century of Deep Ocean Research & Discovery with the Human Occupied Vehicle "Alvin"

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C. R.; Fornari, D. J.; Fryer, P.; Girguis, P. R.; Humphris, S. E.; Kelley, D. S.; Tivey, M.; Van Dover, C. L.; Von Damm, K.

    2012-12-01

    can sustain chemosynthetic seep ecosystems comparable to, and sometimes sharing species with, hot vents. What will Alvin's next 50 years discover? During 2011-12, Alvin has undergone a transformation, including a larger personnel sphere with more & larger viewports to provide improved overlapping fields of view for the pilot & observers. The new Alvin will be certified for operations to 4500m depth initially, but the new sphere will be 6500m-rated and planned future upgrades will ultimately allow the vehicle to dive that deep, enabling human access to 98% of the global ocean floor. This will allow the study of processes and dynamics of Earth's largest ecosystem (the abyssal plains) as well as margin and ridge environments and the overlying water column. Meantime, the current upgrades to Alvin already include a suite of scientific enhancements including new HD video & still imaging, sophisticated data acquisition systems for seafloor observations and mapping, a new work platform with greater payload capacity and improved observer ergonomics. The new Alvin is poised to play important roles in core Earth and Life science programs and to serve large-scale programs such as the Ocean Observatory Initiative (OOI) and the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP). It will continue to attract, engage and inspire a new generation of scientists & students to explore and study the largest ecosystem on Earth, just as it has done throughout its first half century.

  14. Assessments of ecosystem services and human well-being in Thailand build and create demand for coproductive capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Lebel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of ecosystem services have been proposed as one way of incorporating concerns about environmental change and ecosystem conditions into subnational development planning. In Thailand a policy window for such initiatives is opening because of a transition in national policy toward area-based planning combined with broader political reforms to expand public participation and encourage more evidence-based decision making. We explored three case studies in Thailand in which central and local government agencies and research organizations partnered to engage local communities and other stakeholders in assessments of ecosystem services and human well-being. The analysis focused on the role ecosystem assessments play in building and creating demand for coproductive capacity. By coproductive capacities we mean the ability to combine scientific resources and governance capabilities in ways that bring about informed social change. We found evidence that the assessments built capacities for governance actors to explore scientific and research-based evidence, to consult scientific experts, and then to evaluate existing policies and plans using this newly acquired information. At the same time, scientific experts also learned to explore public policy issues, to consult planners and decision makers in government, and based on this knowledge to evaluate scientific evidence and revise the scope and goals of their research and analytical activities to better meet policy needs and demands. Coproductive capacities were built when various stakeholders jointly engaged in compilation and interpretation of evidence. Doing so helped legitimize the assessment process with positive feedback on both governance and science capacities. We also found evidence, however, of significant cultural and institutional constraints to designing and making better use of ecosystem services assessments. These constraints included insufficient resources for both knowledge making

  15. The thing that should not be: predictive coding and the uncanny valley in perceiving human and humanoid robot actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminade, Thierry; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Driver, Jon; Frith, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) repetition suppression, we explored the selectivity of the human action perception system (APS), which consists of temporal, parietal and frontal areas, for the appearance and/or motion of the perceived agent. Participants watched body movements of a human (biological appearance and movement), a robot (mechanical appearance and movement) or an android (biological appearance, mechanical movement). With the exception of extrastriate body area, which showed more suppression for human like appearance, the APS was not selective for appearance or motion per se. Instead, distinctive responses were found to the mismatch between appearance and motion: whereas suppression effects for the human and robot were similar to each other, they were stronger for the android, notably in bilateral anterior intraparietal sulcus, a key node in the APS. These results could reflect increased prediction error as the brain negotiates an agent that appears human, but does not move biologically, and help explain the ‘uncanny valley’ phenomenon. PMID:21515639

  16. Interaction between Mutualisms: Ant-tended butterflies exploit enemy-free space provided by ant-treehopper associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Lucas A; Freitas, André V L; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2010-09-01

    Although mutualisms have been intensively investigated, demonstration of indirect effects between co-occurring mutualistic systems is rare. For instance, the ecological consequences of co-occurrence of ant-tended insects on a plant have never been examined for survival effects on either trophobiont species. Here, we assess the selective pressures mediating co-occurrence of a facultative ant-tended butterfly (Parrhasius polibetes) with ant-tended treehoppers (Guayaquila xiphias) on Schefflera vinosa shrubs. We evaluated host plant selection and caterpillar survival in P. polibetes in the presence and absence of ant-treehopper associations. Paired trials revealed that butterflies preferably oviposit on branches hosting ant-tended treehoppers when they had a choice between those and branches without this interaction. Presence of ant-tended treehoppers on a branch reduced the abundance of P. polibetes' natural enemies and improved caterpillar survival in both premyrmecophylic and ant-tended phases. Thus ant-tended treehoppers create an enemy-free space on foliage that butterflies exploit to protect larval offspring. These findings connect two widely documented ant-trophobiont mutualisms and highlight the importance of considering multiple interactions for a proper understanding of ant-plant-herbivore systems. Detection of other ant-based mutualisms on oviposition to improve offspring survival may have represented an important evolutionary step in the process of host plant selection in facultative myrmecophilous butterflies.

  17. Retrospectiva e tendência da alfacicultura brasileira Retrospective and trends of Brazilian lettuce crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cesar Sala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A alface é considerada a principal hortaliça folhosa no Brasil. Nas ultimas décadas, houve muitas mudanças quanto aos tipos varietais predominantes no país bem como para a preferência do uso de semente peletizada. O domínio do cultivo da alface lisa foi até a década de 90 com as cultivares do tipo 'manteiga' e 'Regina'. Posteriormente, houve uma mudança para o tipo crespa e que, atualmente, corresponde ao principal segmento cultivado no Brasil. A ausência de formação de cabeça aliada à presença de folhas flabeladas conferiram a esse tipo de alface uma melhor adaptação no cultivo de verão com altas temperaturas e índices de pluviosidade. A preferência brasileira pela alface crespa é um fato único na alfacicultura mundial. A alface americana vem apresentando maiores índices de crescimento e aceitação pelo mercado consumidor. Apesar de apresentar formação de cabeça e que tem limitado seu cultivo no verão, na ausência de cultivo protegido, suas folhas mais espessas têm conferido melhor sabor, crocância e durabilidade pós-colheita na alface americana. Alface com folha espessa é mandatória para o mercado de processamento que apresenta alta tendência de crescimento. Considerações sobre o melhoramento genético para contribuir, pelo menos em parte, com essa situação são discutidas com o surgimento de novos tipos varietais tropicalizados, com a tendência de segmentação de mercado e da necessidade de uma cadeia pós-colheita mais eficiente.Lettuce is considered the main leafy vegetable crop in Brazil. In recent decades, many changes occurred towards the varietal types as well as in the preference for pelleted seeds. Until mid 90 decade, the dominant varieties of looseleaf lettuce were the type 'White Boston' and 'Regina'. Later, there was a change toward the Grand Rapids type which represents the main varietal segment grown in Brazil. The non-head Grand Rapids type with its earliness performed better adaptation

  18. Tendências no processamento de frangos de corte: uso racional da água

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lacava Bailone

    Full Text Available RESUMO Atualmente o uso racional da água vem sendo tema de discussão perante órgãos governamentais e não governamentais ao redor do mundo. Seguindo essa tendência, leis cada vez mais severas devem ser implantadas em relação ao uso desse bem natural. Em um frigorífico de frango, o uso da água ocorre de forma generalizada ao longo de todo o processo industrial. Nesse contexto, o atual estudo teve o objetivo de comparar o consumo de água em um frigorífico brasileiro de frangos de corte (grande porte com modelos já propostos e utilizados em outros países com o intuito de identificar soluções para mitigar perdas provenientes de sua má gestão. Concluiu-se que alterações em alguns pontos-chave do processamento possibilitariam à indústria o uso mais sustentável da água, como substituição da eletronarcose por insensibilização a gás, diminuição da dimensão do tanque de escaldagem ou mudança no processo, substituição do pré-resfriamento por imersão em água por pré-resfriamento a ar, redução da renovação de água nos tanques resfriadores, alterações no sistema de geração do frio em ambientes climatizados, assim como o reúso total ou parcial da água.

  19. [Humanities in medical education: between reduction and integration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Taehee

    2015-09-01

    Reductive logic has been a major reasoning style in development of modern biomedical sciences. However, when "medical humanities" is developed by reductive reasoning, integrative and holistic values of humanities tend to be weakened. In that sense, identity and significance of "medical humanities" continue to be controversial despite of its literal clarity. Humanities in medical education should be established by strengthening humanistic and socialistic aspects of regular medical curriculum as well as developing individual "medical humanities" programs.

  20. Human resource management practices and their impact on employees’ well-being and effectiveness in Danish firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Nielsen, Peter; Pedersen, Louise Møller

    2016-01-01

    The paper contributes to a new perspective on human resource practices in which management gives employees discretion over aspects of their jobs and simultaneously seeks commitment towards changing of work organization. However, the perspective raises an empirical research question: How are HR...

  1. The vaccination of human beings with a live avirulent strain of Trypanosoma cruzi: a new series of volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Menezes

    1973-04-01

    Full Text Available Five human volunteers were vaccinated with a live avirulent strain of Trypanosoma cruzi and followed-up for one year. Except for a few cases of questionable results presented by only one Laboratory, ali the other clinicai, parasitological and serological tests remained negative during that period.

  2. Trafficking in human beings as an enterprise: : Highlighting key questions about data shortage on the business side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraszkiewicz, J.; Watson, H; Wadwa, K.; de Hert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers face a shortage of data on the business side of human trafficking. This inevitably leads to problems when trying to combat this crime. Questions such as: who is involved in trafficking, how do they operate, what is their relationship with organised crime groups (or other

  3. Interactions between Lipids and Human Anti-HIV Antibody 4E10 Can Be Reduced without Ablating Neutralizing Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Hengyu; Song, Likai; Kim, Mikyung; Holmes, Margaret A.; Kraft, Zane; Sellhorn, George; Reinherz, Ellis L.; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Strong, Roland K.

    2010-01-01

    Human 4E10 is one of the broadest-specificity, HIV-1-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies known, recognizing a membrane-proximal linear epitope on gp41. The lipid cross-reactivity of 4E10 has been alternately suggested either to contribute to the apparent rarity of 4E10-like antibody responses in HIV

  4. Trafficking in human beings as an enterprise: : Highlighting key questions about data shortage on the business side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraszkiewicz, J.; Watson, H; Wadwa, K.; de Hert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers face a shortage of data on the business side of human trafficking. This inevitably leads to problems when trying to combat this crime. Questions such as: who is involved in trafficking, how do they operate, what is their relationship with organised crime groups (or other

  5. Differential properties of human ACL and MCL stem cells may be responsible for their differential healing capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Freddie H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human anterior cruciate ligament (hACL and medial collateral ligament (hMCL of the knee joint are frequently injured, especially in athletic settings. It has been known that, while injuries to the MCL typically heal with conservative treatment, ACL injuries usually do not heal. As adult stem cells repair injured tissues through proliferation and differentiation, we hypothesized that the hACL and hMCL contain stem cells exhibiting unique properties that could be responsible for the differential healing capacity of the two ligaments. Methods To test the above hypothesis, we derived ligament stem cells from normal hACL and hMCL samples from the same adult donors using tissue culture techniques and characterized their properties using immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, and flow cytometry. Results We found that both hACL stem cells (hACL-SCs and hMCL stem cells (hMCL-SCs formed colonies in culture and expressed stem cell markers nucleostemin and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4. Moreover, both hACL-SCs and hMCL-SCs expressed CD surface markers for mesenchymal stem cells, including CD44 and CD90, but not those markers for vascular cells, CD31, CD34, CD45, and CD146. However, hACL-SCs differed from hMCL-SCs in that the size and number of hACL-SC colonies in culture were much smaller and grew more slowly than hMCL-SC colonies. Moreover, fewer hACL-SCs in cell colonies expressed stem cell markers STRO-1 and octamer-binding transcription factor-4 (Oct-4 than hMCL-SCs. Finally, hACL-SCs had less multi-differentiation potential than hMCL-SCs, evidenced by differing extents of adipogenesis, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis in the respective induction media. Conclusions This study shows for the first time that hACL-SCs are intrinsically different from hMCL-SCs. We suggest that the differences in their properties contribute to the known disparity in healing capabilities between the two ligaments.

  6. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 - Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 Commerce and... Supplement No. 2 to Part 740—Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian... Equipment for the Handicapped (f) Basic Support Equipment and Supplies Necessary To Operate and Administer...

  7. Considerações sobre a tendência da tuberculose no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Czeresnia Costa

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa os vários aspectos que influenciam no padrão da mortalidade e morbidade da tuberculose: a variação nas condições de vida, os efeitos da quimioterapia e a dinâmica de transmissão da doença. Caracteriza os indicadores utilizados na medida da tuberculose que são construídos a partir de inquéritos de prevalência e dos dados de notificação. Os principais indicadores são: risco de infecção; mortalidade; coeficiente de incidência de meningite tuberculosa; coeficientes de incidência de casos de tuberculose, especialmente os pulmonares bacilíferos, etc. O trabalho analisa dados recentes de incidência de casos pulmonares bacilíferos nos estados do Pará e Rio Grande do Sul e mortalidade por tuberculose nas capitais do Pará, Rio Grande do Sul, Pernambuco e Rio de Janeiro, que revelam uma tendência à queda, ainda que em ritmo diferenciado. Discute-se a maneira que a crise econômica atual do país repercutiria no número de casos e mortes pela doença.This paper analises the various factors which affect the rate of mortality and illness from tuberculosis i.e. the variation in the quality of life of the people affected, the effects o f chemotherapy and the dynamics of the transmission of the disease. It describes the epidemiological indices used to measure the spread of tuberculosis. These indices are built up from inquiries of prevalence of the disease and the number of notified cases. The main indices are: the risk of infection, mortality, the coefficient of the incidence of tubercular meningitis, the coefficient of the incidence of cases of tuberculosis, especially smear positives, etc. The paper also analises recent data of incidence of cases of smear positives in the states of Pará and Rio Grande do Sul and the mortality rate from tuberculosis in the state capitals of Pará, Rio Grande do Sul, Pernambuco and Rio de Janeiro, which reveal a downward trend, thought at different rates. The nature of how the

  8. Should Alzheimer's disease be equated with human brain ageing? A maladaptive interaction between brain evolution and senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, David

    2012-01-01

    In this review Alzheimer's disease is seen as a maladaptive interaction between human brain evolution and senescence. It is predicted to occur in everyone although does not necessarily lead to dementia. The pathological process is initiated in relation to a senescence mediated functional down-regulation in the posteromedial cortex (Initiation Phase). This leads to a loss of glutamatergic excitatory input to layer II entorhinal cortex neurons. A human specific maladaptive neuroplastic response is initiated in these neurons leading to neuronal dysfunction, NFT formation and death. This leads to further loss of glutamatergic excitatory input and propagation of the maladaptive response along excitatory pathways linking evolutionary progressed vulnerable neurons (Propagation Phase). Eventually neurons are affected in many brain areas resulting in dementia. Possible therapeutic approaches include enhancing glutamatergic transmission. The theory may have implications with regards to how Alzheimer's disease is classified.

  9. Confortamos? Lidamos com o humano sem conhecer o que de humano temos dentro de nós Do we comfort? We deal with human beings without being aware of our humanness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carneiro Mussi

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Faço um convite à reflexão propondo um confronto entre o que pensam, esperam e precisam alguns pacientes e familiares quanto ao conforto e comportamentos habituais adotados pelas pessoas do sistema de atendimento nas interações com seus clientes. Se o conforto, na perspectiva dos clientes, está associado a uma prática humanística que comportamentos profissionais podem se constituir em obstáculos para a sua promoção? A reflexão se estende a compreensão de fatores que influenciam os comportamentos profissionais e a identificação de possíveis caminhos para. a promoção de um prática humanística.Reflections are intended to propose a confrontation between patients and families' thoughts, expectation, and needs regarding comfort and the usual behaviors adopted by health care agents during their interactions the clients. If comfort as viewed by patients is seen as a humanistic practice, which professional attitudes can become an obstacle to comfort? Reflections are also associated to factors that determine professional behaviors and the identification of the paths for a more humanistic practice.

  10. THE HUMAN RACHIS: CAN IT BE CONSIDERED A SHOCK ABSORBER (THAT WAS PRODUCED BY EXAPTATION) RATHER THAN A COLUMN?

    OpenAIRE

    Tanga, M; F. Ghelli; Gelati, G.

    2014-01-01

    Our paper is focused on two fundamental points: the first one is a terminological proposal and the second one is a question. Obviously these two things are strictly related one another. The terminological proposal is aimed to name “vertebral shock absorber” the human rachis (globally considered, when it is in physiological conditions) in its most typical function: to sustain static/dynamic stresses, that moreover are directed according to its axial direction, obviously when this coincides wit...

  11. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanovic, Slobodan; Blazevic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    An enterprises human assets or, put more conventionally, its human resources tend to be one the most significant costs for most hospitality enterprises. In most hotels the payroll is the single biggest cost item, whilst in restaurants and bars it is usually second only to material costs. Furthermore, human resources are usually the first point of contact between an enterprise and its customers. The effective management of these human resources is therefore vital to the success of the enter...

  12. GRETA questionnaires as a part of the mechanism for monitoring implementation of the council of Europe convention on action against trafficking in human beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dostić Siniša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Being (GRETA is one of the most important international expert bodies in combatting trafficking in human beings. At the same time, it is the key element in the complex mechanism for monitoring implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, the leading international legal instrument in this area. The basis of this mechanism is the GRETA questionnaires developed for evaluation of the implementation of the Convention, and the so called first and second evaluation round. This paper aims to analyze the content, place and the procedural significance of GRETA questionnaires within the mechanism of evaluation of the implementation of the Convention, as well as the place of collecting the data on victims of trafficking in human beings.

  13. Tendências em experimentação animal Trends in animal experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Monteiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A busca do entendimento de fatores etiológicos, mecanismos e tratamento das doenças tem levado ao desenvolvimento de vários modelos animais nas últimas décadas. OBJETIVO: Esse artigo tem por objetivo discutir aspectos relacionados a modelos animais de experimentação, escolha do animal e tendências atuais nesse campo em nosso país. Além disso, esse estudo buscou avaliar o espaço ocupado por artigos experimentais em revistas médicas. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas cinco revistas brasileiras, indexadas na LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, e recentemente incorporadas pelo Institute for Scientific Information Journal of Citation Reports. Foram selecionados pelo resumo ou abstract todos os artigos publicados nessas revistas, nos anos de 2007 e 2008, que empregaram modelos animais. RESULTADOS: Do total de 832 artigos publicados no período pelas revistas analisadas, foram selecionados 92 (11,1% que empregavam animais de experimentação. O número de artigos experimentais variou de 5,2% a 17,9% do conteúdo global da revista. Nas instruções aos autores de quatro (80% das revistas avaliadas, havia referência explícita aos princípios éticos na condução de estudos com animais. Os modelos animais induzidos representaram 100% dos artigos analisados neste estudo. O rato foi o animal mais empregado nos artigos analisados, sendo utilizado em 78,3% deles. CONCLUSÕES: O presente estudo poderá fornecer subsídios para adoção de políticas editoriais futuras relativas à publicação de artigos originários de pesquisa animal na RBCCV.INTRODUCTION: The search of the understanding of etiological factors, mechanisms and treatment of the diseases has been taking to the development of several animal models in the last decades. OBJECTIVE: To discuss aspects related to animal models of experimentation, animal choice and current trends in this field in our country. In addition, this study evaluated the frequency of experimental articles in

  14. Geographic and taxonomic distribution of a positive interaction: ant-tended homopterans indirectly benefit figs across southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, J Hall; Compton, Stephen G; Zachariades, Costas; Ware, Anthony B; Nefdt, Rory J C; Rashbrook, Vanessa K

    1998-09-01

    Although species pairs and assemblages often occur across geographic regions, ecologists know very little about the outcome of their interactions on such large spatial scales. Here, we assess the geographic distribution and taxonomic diversity of a positive interaction involving ant-tended homopterans and fig trees in the genus Ficus. Previous experimental studies at a few locations in South Africa indicated that Ficus sur indirectly benefited from the presence of a homopteran (Hilda patruelis) because it attracted ants (primarily Pheidole megacephala) that reduced the effects of both pre-dispersal ovule gallers and parasitoids of pollinating wasps. Based on this work, we evaluated three conditions that must be met in order to support the hypothesis that this indirect interaction involves many fig species and occurs throughout much of southern Africa and Madagascar. Data on 429 trees distributed among five countries indicated that 20 of 38 Ficus species, and 46% of all trees sampled, had ants on their figs. Members of the Sycomorus subgenus were significantly more likely to attract ants than those in the Urostigma subgenus, and ant-colonization levels on these species were significantly greater than for Urostigma species. On average, each ant-occupied F.sur tree had 37% of its fig crop colonized by ants, whereas the value was 24% for other Ficus species. H. patruelis was the most common source for attracting ants, although figs were also attacked by a range of other ant-tended homopterans. P. megacephala was significantly more common on figs than other ant species, being present on 58% of sampled trees. Ant densities commonly exceeded 4.5 per fig, which a field experiment indicated was sufficient to provide protection from ovule gallers and parasitoids of pollinators. Forty-nine percent of all colonized F. sur trees sampled had ant densities equal to or greater than 4.5 per fig, whereas this value was 23% for other Ficus species. We conclude that there is

  15. NF-KB downregulation may be involved the depression of tumor cell proliferation mediated by human mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling QIAO; Tie-jun ZHAO; Feng-ze WANG; Chang-liang SHAN; Li-hong YE; Xiao-dong ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Aim:It has been reported that stem cells are able to home to tumorigenesis and inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells.The purpose of our study was to demon-strate the molecular mechanism of the inhibitory proliferation of hepatoma cells and breast cancer cells mediated by human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs).Methods:The proliferation of H7402 human hepatoma cells and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells was measured by the 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorpora-tion assay and flow cytometry assay after the treatment with conditioned media from hMSCs culture,such as Z3 cells or BMMS-03 cells.The role of NF-kB or the phosphorylation of inhibitor kBoα (p-IkBα) in the depression of hepatoma or breast cancer cells treated with conditioned media from Z3 cells or BMMS-03 cells was examined by reporter gene assay,quantitative real-time PCR,and Western blot analysis,respectively.Results:The proliferation of H7402 cells and MCF-7 cells was decreased significantly by the BrdU incorporation assay and flow cytometry assay after treatment.The transcriptional activity and mRNA level of NF-kB were downregulated in the treated cells by reporter gene assay and quantitative real-time PCR in a dose-dependent manner.At the protein level,NF-kB and p-IkBα decreased in the treated cells by Western blot analysis.Conclusion:Conditioned media from hMSCs are able to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells.NF-kB downregulation is one of reasons for the depression of tumor cell proliferation mediated by hMSCs.

  16. 5′ Processing of tRNA Precursors Can Be Modulated by the Human La Antigen Phosphoprotein†

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Hao; Goodier, John L.; Chamberlain, Joel R.; Engelke, David R.; Richard J. Maraia

    1998-01-01

    Eukaryotic precursor (pre)-tRNAs are processed at both ends prior to maturation. Pre-tRNAs and other nascent transcripts synthesized by RNA polymerase III are bound at their 3′ ends at the sequence motif UUUOH [3′ oligo(U)] by the La antigen, a conserved phosphoprotein whose role in RNA processing has been associated previously with 3′-end maturation only. We show that in addition to its role in tRNA 3′-end maturation, human La protein can also modulate 5′ processing of pre-tRNAs. Both the La...

  17. Socioeconomic influences on biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being: a quantitative application of the DPSIR model in Jiangsu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ying; Zhou, Shudong; Burkhard, Benjamin; Müller, Felix

    2014-08-15

    One focus of ecosystem service research is the connection between biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being as well as the socioeconomic influences on them. Despite existing investigations, exact impacts from the human system on the dynamics of biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being are still uncertain because of the insufficiency of the respective quantitative analyses. Our research aims are discerning the socioeconomic influences on biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being and demonstrating mutual impacts between these items. We propose a DPSIR framework coupling ecological integrity, ecosystem services as well as human well-being and suggest DPSIR indicators for the case study area Jiangsu, China. Based on available statistical and surveying data, we revealed the factors significantly impacting biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being in the research area through factor analysis and correlation analysis, using the 13 prefecture-level cities of Jiangsu as samples. The results show that urbanization and industrialization in the urban areas have predominant positive influences on regional biodiversity, agricultural productivity and tourism services as well as rural residents' living standards. Additionally, the knowledge, technology and finance inputs for agriculture also have generally positive impacts on these system components. Concerning regional carbon storage, non-cropland vegetation cover obviously plays a significant positive role. Contrarily, the expansion of farming land and the increase of total food production are two important negative influential factors of biodiversity, ecosystem's food provisioning service capacity, regional tourism income and the well-being of the rural population. Our study provides a promising approach based on the DPSIR model to quantitatively capture the socioeconomic influential factors of biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being for human-environmental systems

  18. Be Tender to Your Feet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋保平

    2005-01-01

    One of the most common mistakes many people make is to wear illfitting shoes. Women in particular tend to be embarrassed b), a Shoe sizethat seems large; in many cultures a small foot is thought to be a sign ofwomanliness.

  19. Individual exposure estimates may be erroneous when spatiotemporal variability of air pollution and human mobility are ignored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoo Min; Kwan, Mei-Po

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to empirically demonstrate the necessity to consider both the spatiotemporal variability of air pollution and individual daily movement patterns in exposure and health risk assessment. It compares four different types of exposure estimates generated by using (1) individual movement data and hourly air pollution concentrations; (2) individual movement data and daily average air pollution data; (3) residential location and hourly pollution levels; and (4) residential location and daily average pollution data. These four estimates are significantly different, which supports the argument that ignoring the spatiotemporal variability of environmental risk factors and human mobility may lead to misleading results in exposure assessment. Additionally, three-dimensional (3D) geovisualization presented in the paper shows how person-specific space-time context is generated by the interactions between air pollution and an individual, and how the different individualized contexts place individuals at different levels of health risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genes involved in complex adaptive processes tend to have highly conserved upstream regions in mammalian genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohane Isaac

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in genome sequencing suggest a remarkable conservation in gene content of mammalian organisms. The similarity in gene repertoire present in different organisms has increased interest in studying regulatory mechanisms of gene expression aimed at elucidating the differences in phenotypes. In particular, a proximal promoter region contains a large number of regulatory elements that control the expression of its downstream gene. Although many studies have focused on identification of these elements, a broader picture on the complexity of transcriptional regulation of different biological processes has not been addressed in mammals. The regulatory complexity may strongly correlate with gene function, as different evolutionary forces must act on the regulatory systems under different biological conditions. We investigate this hypothesis by comparing the conservation of promoters upstream of genes classified in different functional categories. Results By conducting a rank correlation analysis between functional annotation and upstream sequence alignment scores obtained by human-mouse and human-dog comparison, we found a significantly greater conservation of the upstream sequence of genes involved in development, cell communication, neural functions and signaling processes than those involved in more basic processes shared with unicellular organisms such as metabolism and ribosomal function. This observation persists after controlling for G+C content. Considering conservation as a functional signature, we hypothesize a higher density of cis-regulatory elements upstream of genes participating in complex and adaptive processes. Conclusion We identified a class of functions that are associated with either high or low promoter conservation in mammals. We detected a significant tendency that points to complex and adaptive processes were associated with higher promoter conservation, despite the fact that they have emerged

  1. Examination of DNA methylation status of the ELOVL2 marker may be useful for human age prediction in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbieć-Piekarska, Renata; Spólnicka, Magdalena; Kupiec, Tomasz; Makowska, Żanetta; Spas, Anna; Parys-Proszek, Agnieszka; Kucharczyk, Krzysztof; Płoski, Rafał; Branicki, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Age estimation in forensic investigations may complement the prediction of externally visible characteristics and the inference of biogeographical ancestry, thus allowing a better description of an unknown individual. Multiple CpG sites that show linear correlation between age and degree of DNA methylation have been identified in the human genome, providing a selection of candidates for age prediction. In this study, we optimized an assay based on bisulfite conversion and pyrosequencing of 7 CpG sites located in the ELOVL2 gene. Examination of 303 blood samples collected from individuals aged 2-75 years allowed selection of the most informative site, explaining 83% of variation in age. The final linear regression model included two CpG sites in ELOVL2 and enabled age prediction with R(2)=0.859, prediction error=6.85 and mean absolute deviation MAD=5.03. Examination of a testing set of 124 blood samples (MAD=5.75) showed that 68.5% of samples were correctly predicted, assuming that chronological and predicted ages matched ± 7 years. It was found that the ELOVL2 methylation status in bloodstains had not changed significantly after 4 weeks of storage in room temperature conditions. Analysis of 45 bloodstains deposited on tissue paper after 5, 10 and 15 years of storage in room conditions indicated that although a gradual decrease of positive PCR results was observed, the general age prediction success rate remained similar and equaled 60-78%. The obtained results show that the ELOVL2 locus provides a very good source of information about human chronological age based on analysis of blood, including bloodstains, and it may constitute a powerful and reliable predictor in future forensic age estimation models.

  2. Patients with chronic headache tend to have more psychological symptoms than those with sporadic episodes of pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Junqueira Zampieri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are controversial associations between headaches and psychological symptoms. Objective To design a profile of neuroticism, a term that groups variables related to negative personality traits, in patients with chronic daily headache (CDH when compared to episodic migraine (EM patients, applying the Factorial Scale of Emotional Adjustment/Neuroticism (NFS. Method One hundred adult patients with CDH and forty with EM answered the NFS. Results Comorbidities of subtypes of neuroticism (p=0.006 were more common in chronic daily headache patients, with three or more disorders (p=0.0002: dependent personality disorder (p=0.0001, anxiety, reduced concentration and production (p=0.0008, depression (p<0.0001, suicidal ideation (p=0.0008 and hopelessness even without depression (p<0.0001. Conclusion Patients with CDH tend to have dependent personality disorder, low production and concentration, anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation and hopelessness, superimposing two or more psychological disorders. These factors should be pondered for a better resolution in the treatment of CDH.

  3. The sensory histidine kinases TorS and EvgS tend to form clusters in Escherichia coli cells.

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    Erik Sommer

    Full Text Available Microorganisms use multiple two-component sensory systems to detect changes in their environment and elicit physiological responses. Despite their wide spread and importance, the intracellular organization of two-component sensory proteins in bacteria remains little investigated. A notable exception is the well-studied clustering of the chemoreceptor-kinase complexes that mediate chemotaxis behaviour. However, these chemosensory complexes differ fundamentally from other systems, both structurally and functionally. Therefore, studying the organization of typical sensory kinases in bacteria is essential for understanding the general role of receptor clustering in bacterial sensory signalling. Here, by studying mYFP-tagged sensory kinases in Escherichia coli, we show that the tagged TorS and EvgS sensors have a clear tendency for self-association and clustering. These sensors clustered even when expressed at a level of a few hundred copies per cell. Moreover, the mYFP-tagged response regulator TorR showed clear TorS-dependent clustering, indicating that untagged TorS sensors also tend to form clusters. We also provide evidence for the functionality of these tagged sensors. Experiments with truncated TorS or EvgS proteins suggested that clustering of EvgS sensors depends on the cytoplasmic part of the protein, whereas clustering of TorS sensors can be potentially mediated by the periplasmic/transmembrane domain. Overall, these findings support the notion that sensor clustering plays a role in bacterial sensory signalling beyond chemotaxis.

  4. Polycystic ovary syndrome patients with high BMI tend to have functional disorders of androgen excess: a prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chun; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Mao, Yundong; Diao, Feiyang; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Biochemical or clinical changes of hyperandrogenism are important elements of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). There is currently no consensus on the definition and diagnostic criteria of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. The aim of this study was to investigate the complex symptoms of hyperandrogenic disorders and the correlations between metabolism and hyperandrogenism in patients with PCOS from an outpatient reproductive medicine clinic in China. We conducted a case control study of 125 PCOS patients and 130 controls to evaluate differences in body mass index (BMI), total testosterone (TT), modified Ferriman-Gallwey hirsutism score, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and free androgen index (FAI) between PCOS patients and controls and subgroups of PCOS. The prevalence of acne and hirsutism did not differ significantly between the hyperandrogenic and non-hyperandrogenic subgroup. Patients with signs of hyperandrogenism had significantly higher BMI (P < 0.05), but differences in TT, SHBG, FAI and waist/hip ratio were insignificant. The odds ratio of overweight was calculated for all PCOS patients. Our results suggest that PCOS patients with high BMI tend to have functional disorders of androgen excess; therefore, BMI may be a strong predictor of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. PMID:27526961

  5. Do aphid carcasses on the backs of larvae of green lacewing work as chemical mimicry against aphid-tending ants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masayuki; Choh, Yasuyuki; Nakamuta, Kiyoshi; Nomura, Masashi

    2014-06-01

    Ants attack and exclude natural enemies of aphids in ant-aphid mutualisms. However, larvae of the green lacewing, Mallada desjardinsi, prey on the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora, without exclusion by aphid-tending ants. Lacewing larvae are protected from ants by carrying aphid carcasses on their backs. Here, we tested whether cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) of aphid carcasses affected the aggressiveness of aphid-tending ants. Aphid carcasses were washed with n-hexane to remove lipids. Lacewing larvae with washed aphid carcasses were attacked by aphid-tending ants more frequently than those with untreated aphid carcasses. We measured the aggressiveness of aphid-tending ants to lacewing larvae that were either carrying a piece of cotton wool (a dummy aphid carcass) treated with CHCs from aphids or lacewing larvae, or carrying aphid carcasses. The rates of attack by ants on lacewing larvae carrying CHCs of aphids or aphid carcasses were lower than that of attack on lacewing larvae with conspecific CHCs. Chemical analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed similarity of CHCs between aphids and aphid carcasses. These results suggest that aphid carcasses on the backs of lacewing larvae function via chemical camouflage to limit attacks by aphid-tending ants.

  6. THE REPRESENTATION OF THE DIVINE AND HUMAN BEING IMAGERY IN THE ENTITY OF RITUS SA’O NGAZA IN GURU SINA, NGADA, FLORES

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    Watu Yohanes Vianey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation discusses the representation of the Divine and human being imagery in theentity of ritus Sa’o Ngaza in the village of Guru Sina in Ngada Regency, Flores. The empiricproblems of this dissertasion are connected with the marginalized phenomenon of the local religionthat submerged in the entity of ritus Sa’o Ngaza and its ritual practices. This probelm is relevant tobe investigated from the perspectives cultural studies.The problems raised in this study are : 1 the representation of the Divine and human beingimagery in the entity of ritus Sa’o Ngaza, 2 the representation of the relationhip between the Divineand human being in ritual practices of Sa’o Ngaza, and 3 the meaning of the representation of theDivine and human being imagery in the entity of ritus Sa’o Ngaza. This study applies the qualitativemethod and the data collection was done using techniques of intensive interview, participationobservation,and documentation. The data were analyzed using the theory of ritus, the theory ofprocess,the theory of semiotics, and the theory of deconstruction.The findings of the study can be explained as follows. Firstly, the representation of theDivine imagery is dyadic and triadic. In the dyadic imagery representation, The Divine is depicted as’The Giver of an Unlimited Love and at the same time as ’The Unpredictable Taker of Love’. In thetriadic representation, The Divine is depicted as The Sacred, in the attributive as ‘The Beginning’,‘The End’, and ‘The Present Throughout’. In the dyadic imagery, the human being consists of theelements of the body and the soul, and in the triadic imagery, the human being consists of theelements of the body, the psyche, and the spirit.Secondly, the relation between the Divine and human being is representatively revealed inthe ritual practices of legitimating Sa’o Ngaza. This relation centers in the methapor of relationshipbetween the simbolic body dan the religious body, and

  7. Humanity spirit need be strengtheied in modern niversity of China education%中国现代大学教育需强化人文精神

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健

    2016-01-01

    Making widely known humanity spirit to be the essential characteristic of modern university education, and should universally strengthen humanity education in the China university education, person that the sense of morality cultivated student into has in the all-round inherent requirement that will be according to person and beauty apprecia-tion senses, history sense and body and mind was healthy perfect. Science education is laid equal stress on with humani-ty education being the main melody of contemporary university education, one general objective of China college human-ity branch of learning course reformation, and should being strengthening humanity education, and establishing humani-ty education and balance development of science education reason reading. The teaching action of teacher in the mod-ern university education of China should fully embody humanity spirit, and will put into effect in course teaching and transformation of education.%张扬人文精神是现代大学教育的本质特征,中国大学教育中应普遍加强人文教育,要按照人的全面的内在要求,把学生培养成有道德感、审美感、历史感、身心健康完美的人。科学教育与人文教育并重是当代大学教育的主旋律,中国高校人文学科课程改革的一大目标,应该是加强人文教育,确立人文教育与科学教育均衡发展理念。中国现代大学教育中教师的教学行为应充分体现人文精神,要在课程教学和教学改革中实施。

  8. DNA fragmentation of human sperm can be detected by ligation-mediated real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung Jin; Lee, Jin Il; Kim, Dong Hwan; Song, Seung-Hun; Kim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Woo Sik; Lee, Dong Ryul

    2013-12-01

    To determine whether ligation-mediated real-time polymerase chain reaction (LM-RT-PCR), which combines LM-PCR, and RT-PCR, can detect sperm DNA fragmentation (DF) in human semen samples. Three-way comparison of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD), and LM-RT-PCR for detecting sperm DNA fragmentation. University hospital-based research laboratory. Twenty-five men presenting at an infertility clinic. Basic analysis of sperm concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology, with each semen sample equally divided into three aliquots that were evaluated for fragmentation using TUNEL, SCD, and LM-RT-PCR assays. In TUNEL and SCD assays, counts of the number of sperm with tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) red signals or no halo; in LM-RT-PCR results, evaluation of the threshold cycles (Ct) and relative fluorescence unit (RFU) values. The median percentage of sperm with positive results for fragmentation in the TUNEL and SCD assays were 20.5% and 20.7%, respectively. To compare the accuracy of the TUNEL, SCD, and LM-RT-PCR assays, we divided the semen samples into two groups according to the TUNEL results: low and high percentage of sperm fragmentation. In the LM-RT-PCR results, the values of the cycles of threshold (Ct) and relative fluorescence unit (RFU) statistically significantly differed between the low and high percentage of sperm fragmentation groups. Comparisons among the TUNEL, SCD, and LM-RT-PCR assays revealed that the correlation patterns according to DNA fragmentation were similar in both the groups with high and low percentage of DNA fragmentation. Our morphologic analysis indicated that the fragmentation of sperm DNA did not appear to influence sperm morphology. These results indicate that the LM-RT-PCR technique is another useful tool for detecting DNA fragmentation, a parameter of sperm quality in human semen alone or combined with TUNEL or SCD assays. Copyright © 2013 American Society for

  9. Women Tend to Defect in a Social Dilemma Game in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansini, Riccardo; Shi, Lei; Wang, Rui-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation theories assume that interacting individuals can change their strategies under different expected payoffs, depending on their social status or social situations. When looking at sex differences in cooperation, the existing studies have found that the genders cooperate at similar frequencies. However, the majority of the data originate within Western human societies. In this paper, we explore whether there are gender differences in cooperation in China. An Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game with a punishment option was used to gather data about Southwest Chinese subjects in a culture in which men have a hierarchical advantage over women. Results indicate that men invested into partners significantly more than women did (34% ♂ vs. 24% ♀) while women, in turn, were more likely to defect (65% ♀ vs. 50% ♂). In this region, women have customarily held less economic power and they are used to obtain a payoff typically lower than men. We suggest that the women's willingness to invest in cooperation has decreased throughout evolutionary time, providing us with an illustration of a culturally-driven shift towards a disparity in gender cooperation interests.

  10. Human macrophages chronically exposed to LPS can be reactivated by stimulation with MDP to acquire an antimicrobial phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Beltrán, Silvia; Torres, Martha; Arellano, Monserrat; Juárez, Esmeralda

    2017-02-21

    Macrophages are important in host defense and can differentiate into functionally distinct subsets named classically (M1) or alternatively (M2) activated. In several inflammatory disorders, macrophages become tolerized to prevent deleterious consequences. This tolerization reduces the ability of macrophages to respond to bacterial components (e.g., LPS) maintaining a low level of inflammation but compromising the ability of macrophages to mount an effective immune response during subsequent pathogen encounters. In this study, we aimed to reactivate human monocyte-derived macrophages chronically exposed to LPS by re-stimulation with muramyl dipeptide (MDP). We observed an undefined profile of cell surface marker expression during endotoxin tolerance and absence of TNFα production. Stimulating macrophages chronically exposed to LPS with LPS+MDP restored TNFα, production together with an increased production of IL1, IL6, IFNγ, IL4, IL5 and IL10. These results suggest that macrophages chronically exposed to LPS possess a mixed M1-M2 phenotype with sufficient antimicrobial and homeostatic potential.

  11. “An Environment Built to Include Rather than Exclude Me”: Creating Inclusive Environments for Human Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha A. Layton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary discourses which challenge the notion of health as the “absence of disease” are prompting changes in health policy and practice. People with disability have been influential in progressing our understanding of the impact of contextual factors in individual and population health, highlighting the impact of environmental factors on functioning and inclusion. The World Health Organization’s (WHO more holistic definition of health as “wellbeing” is now applied in frameworks and legislation, and has long been understood in occupational therapy theory. In practice, however, occupational therapists and other professionals often address only local and individual environmental factors to promote wellbeing, within systems and societies that limit equity in population health and restrict inclusion in communities. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the supports and accommodations identified by a cohort of individuals (n-100 living with disability. A range of environmental facilitators and barriers were identified in peoples’ experience of “inclusive community environs” and found to influence inclusion and wellbeing. The roles and responsibilities of individuals, professionals, and society to enact change in environments are discussed in light of these findings. Recommendations include a focus on the subjective experience of environments, and application of theory from human rights and inclusive economics to address the multiple dimensions and levels of environments in working towards inclusion and wellbeing.

  12. "An Environment Built to Include Rather than Exclude Me": Creating Inclusive Environments for Human Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Natasha A; Steel, Emily J

    2015-09-08

    Contemporary discourses which challenge the notion of health as the "absence of disease" are prompting changes in health policy and practice. People with disability have been influential in progressing our understanding of the impact of contextual factors in individual and population health, highlighting the impact of environmental factors on functioning and inclusion. The World Health Organization's (WHO) more holistic definition of health as "wellbeing" is now applied in frameworks and legislation, and has long been understood in occupational therapy theory. In practice, however, occupational therapists and other professionals often address only local and individual environmental factors to promote wellbeing, within systems and societies that limit equity in population health and restrict inclusion in communities. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the supports and accommodations identified by a cohort of individuals (n-100) living with disability. A range of environmental facilitators and barriers were identified in peoples' experience of "inclusive community environs" and found to influence inclusion and wellbeing. The roles and responsibilities of individuals, professionals, and society to enact change in environments are discussed in light of these findings. Recommendations include a focus on the subjective experience of environments, and application of theory from human rights and inclusive economics to address the multiple dimensions and levels of environments in working towards inclusion and wellbeing.

  13. Clinical recommendations for the use of recombinant human erythropoietin in patients with hepatitis C virus being treated with ribavirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Morris; Cohen, Lawrence; Cooper, Mary Anne; Elkashab, Magdy; Feinman, Victor; Fletcher, David; Girgrah, Nigel; Heathcote, Jenny; Levstik, Mark; McNaull, William B; Wong, David; Wong, Florence; Yim, Colina

    2006-07-01

    Today, combination antiviral therapy with pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin (RBV) allows many patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) to achieve a sustained virological response, which is equivalent to cure. Data also support the clinical benefit of combination antiviral therapy in patients coinfected with HCV and HIV, and in patients who have received a liver transplant. Antiviral therapy with pegylated interferon-alpha and RBV is, however, associated with a high incidence and significant magnitude of anemia. This anemia may have several mechanisms, including bone marrow suppression and hemolysis. In addition, patients coinfected with HIV may have both pre-existing and RBV-associated anemia. Management of anemia in patients with HCV through RBV dose reduction or treatment discontinuation may compromise the effectiveness of treatment, because studies have demonstrated that treatment adherence or maintenance of antiviral therapy dose is an important predictor of sustained virological response. Anemia associated with combination antiviral therapy in patients with HCV is frequently associated with an inadequate or blunted endogenous erythropoietin response. Accumulating evidence now supports the use of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) to manage anemia in these patients, with the objective of maintaining the RBV dose, but clinical standards are lacking. The present article reviews the data relevant to the use of rHuEpo in this patient population and proposes a set of clinical practice standards to assist clinicians in selecting patients for rHuEpo and in implementing rHuEpo therapy effectively.

  14. Organophosphate-pyrethroid combination pesticides may be associated with increased toxicity in human poisoning compared to either pesticide alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyadurai, R; Peter, J V; Immanuel, S; Begum, A; Zachariah, A; Jasmine, S; Abhilash, K P P

    2014-06-01

    Organophosphate (OP) poisoning results in significant toxicity while pyrethroid poisoning is associated with extremely low fatality. OPs can inhibit the detoxification of pyrethroid and increase the toxicity of the combination. We assessed whether mixed OP-pyrethroid poisoning impacted outcome in human poisoning. Patients were identified from a prospectively collected institutional poisoning database that incorporates demographic and outcome data of patients presenting with poisoning. Of the 1177 poisoned patients admitted over 2 years, 32 presented with OP-pyrethroid (50% chlorpyrifos-5% cypermethrin mixture) poisoning (Group 1), 26 consumed 20% chlorpyrifos (Group 2), and 32 took 15% cypermethrin (Group 3). Seizures occurred in 15.6% (n = 5) with chlorpyrifos-cypermethrin poisoning, 18.8% (n = 6) with cypermethrin poisoning, and 3.9% (n = 1) with chlorpyrifos poisoning. Ventilatory requirements were 53.5% (17/32), 42.3% (11/26), and 15.7% (5/32) in Groups 1-3, respectively. Ventilator-free days (Mean ± SD) was significantly lower (p pesticides alone. Further studies are required comparing patients poisoned by formulations with similar quantities of OP and pyrethroid or with analysis of blood pesticide concentration on admission.

  15. Poor Prognosis Associated With Human Papillomavirus α7 Genotypes in Cervical Carcinoma Cannot Be Explained by Intrinsic Radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, John S.; Iype, Rohan; Armenoult, Lucile S.C. [Translational Radiobiology Group, Institute of Cancer Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Taylor, Janet [Translational Radiobiology Group, Institute of Cancer Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Applied Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Group, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester (United Kingdom); Miller, Crispin J. [Applied Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Group, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester (United Kingdom); Davidson, Susan [Christie National Health Service Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sanjose, Silvia de; Bosch, Xavier [Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Stern, Peter L. [Immunology Group, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester (United Kingdom); West, Catharine M.L., E-mail: Catharine.West@manchester.ac.uk [Translational Radiobiology Group, Institute of Cancer Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype and outcome after radiation therapy and intrinsic radiosensitivity. Methods and Materials: HPV genotyping was performed on cervix biopsies by polymerase chain reaction using SPF-10 broad-spectrum primers, followed by deoxyribonucleic acid enzyme immunoassay and genotyping by reverse hybridization line probe assay (LiPA{sub 25}) (version 1) (n=202). PapilloCheck and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to genotype cervix cancer cell lines (n=16). Local progression-free survival after radiation therapy alone was assessed using log-rank and Cox proportionate hazard analyses. Intrinsic radiosensitivity was measured as surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) using clonogenic assays. Results: Of the 202 tumors, 107 (53.0%) were positive for HPV16, 29 (14.4%) for HPV18, 9 (4.5%) for HPV45, 23 (11.4%) for other HPV genotypes, and 22 (10.9%) were negative; 11 (5.5%) contained multiple genotypes, and 1 tumor was HPV X (0.5%). In 148 patients with outcome data, those with HPVα9-positive tumors had better local progression-free survival compared with α7 patients in univariate (P<.004) and multivariate (hazard ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.11-1.76, P=.021) analyses. There was no difference in the median SF2 of α9 and α7 cervical tumors (n=63). In the cell lines, 9 were α7 and 4 α9 positive and 3 negative. There was no difference in SF2 between α9 and α7 cell lines (n=14). Conclusion: The reduced radioresponsiveness of α7 cervical tumors is not related to intrinsic radiosensitivity.

  16. The role of tending ants in host plant selection and egg parasitism of two facultative myrmecophilous butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bächtold, Alexandra; Alves-Silva, Estevão; Kaminski, Lucas A; Del-Claro, Kleber

    2014-11-01

    Ovipositing adult females of myrmecophilous lycaenids are expected to select plants based on ant presence in order to maximize the survivorship of immature stages. Usually, larvae feed ants with honey-like solutions and, in turn, ants ward off parasitoids. Nonetheless, a rarely investigated approach is whether ant partners can also extend their protective behavior towards lycaenids eggs. Here, we investigated the ant-related oviposition pattern of Allosmaitia strophius and Rekoa marius; then, we compared egg parasitism according to the presence of ants. Lycaenid oviposition and egg parasitism (in percent) were experimentally compared in ant-present and ant-excluded treatments. The study plant, Heteropterys byrsonimifolia, is an extrafloral nectaried shrub which supports several ant species. We sampled 280 eggs, of which 39.65 % belonged to A. strophius and 60.35 % to R. marius. Both lycaenids eggs were significantly more abundant on branches with ants, especially those with Camponotus crassus and Camponotus blandus, two ant species known to attend to lycaenids. A. strophius and R. marius parasitism was 4.5- and 2.4-fold higher, respectively, in ant-present treatments, but the results were not statistically significant. Our study shows that ant-mediated host plant selection in lycaenids might be much more widespread than previously thought, and not restricted to obligate myrmecophilous species. Tending ants may be inefficient bodyguards of lycaenid eggs, because unlike larvae which release sugared liquids, eggs do not offer obvious rewards to ants. Ants can ward off parasitoids of larvae, as observed elsewhere, but our findings show that positive ant-lycaenid interactions are conditional and depend on immature ontogeny.

  17. Subjective well-being and human welfare around the world as reflected in the Gallup World Poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed; Tay, Louis

    2015-03-01

    We present data on well-being and quality of life in the world, including material quality of life such as not going hungry, physical health quality of life such as longevity, social quality of life such as social support, environmental health such as clean water, equality in income and life satisfaction, and levels of subjective well-being (SWB). There are large differences between nations in SWB, and these are predicted not only by economic development, but also by environmental health, equality and freedom in nations. Improving trends in SWB are seen in many countries, but declining SWB is evident in a few. Besides average differences in SWB between nations, there are also large disparities within many countries. We discuss the policy opportunities provided by national accounts of SWB, which are increasingly being adopted by many societies. They provide the opportunity to inform policy deliberations with well-being information that reflects not only economic development, but also other facets of quality of life as well. National accounts of SWB reflect the quality of life in areas such as health, social relationships and the natural environment, and therefore capture a broader view of societal well-being than afforded by measures of economic progress alone.

  18. Cataloguers May Tend to Have Learning Styles Different from Other Library Job Responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamon C. Tewell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether relationships exist between academic librarians’ learning styles and their professional work responsibilities. Design – Self-selecting survey. Setting – Email listservs. Subjects – 1579 academic librarians. Methods – The authors used the Index of Learning Styles questionnaire, based on the Felder-Silverman Learning Styles model consisting of eight dimensions on four scales: Active/Reflective, Sensing/Intuitive, Visual/Verbal, and Sequential/Global. The multiple choice survey was distributed online to 23 email listservs for academic librarians in 2011, and to 14 additional listservs in 2013 targeting technical services librarians. 1579 responses were received in total, which were analyzed using ANOVA with a Tukey-Kramer post-hoc mean separation, and descriptively using observed frequencies. Main Results – In examining the relationship between positions and learning styles, the study revealed there to be five statistically significant p-values when the data were analyzed. Catalogers (n=145 were found to be more reflective learners compared to Administrative (n=321 and Instruction librarians (n=228 at the p = 0.009 level. Administrative, Instruction, and “Other” librarians were found to be more intuitive learners than Catalogers, who are more likely to be sensing learners, at the p = 0.0004 level. Digital librarians (n=40 are more likely to be visual learners and Catalogers more likely to be sequential learners when compared to several other librarian categories, at the p = 0.020 and p = 0.001 levels respectively. Conclusions – The authors concluded that there were some statistically significant differences between librarians’ learning styles scores according to job responsibilities. Catalogers were found to have different learning styles than other types of librarians for three out of four scales. Based on these findings, the authors indicate that further research into how librarians’ work

  19. Networks of conforming or nonconforming individuals tend to reach satisfactory decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramazi, Pouria; Riehl, James Robert; Cao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Binary decisions of agents coupled in networks can often be classified into two types: “coordination,” where an agent takes an action if enough neighbors are using that action, as in the spread of social norms, innovations, and viral epidemics, and “anticoordination,” where too many neighbors taking

  20. [Dementia tends to become an impediment to continued homecare - "staying home until death" even with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Hideo

    2014-12-01

    With the rate of aging rising each year, the number of patients with dementia increases. The latest study released by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare estimated that, as of 2012, there were a total of 3.05 million people with dementia in Japan, with 10% of aged 65 and over, 15% of aged 70 and over, 20% of aged 75 and over, and 40% of aged 85 and over. Dementia includes Alzheimer's disease, which makes up the most cases, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, and cerebrovascular dementia which is caused by a cerebral infarction or cerebral hemorrhage. Hypothyroidism, normal pressure hydrocephalus, and depression also impair cognitive functions, and therefore these pathological conditions are easily mistaken for dementia. Methods that can easily distinguish between these diseases have been devised. Early and accurate diagnoses are very important for patients and their families as there are a number of diseases that can be treated. In addition, although Japan only has medicines that delay the advance of Alzheimer's disease, in recent years, efforts have been made to prevent the onset of Alzheimer's disease through reducing the potential for diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, and depression, quitting smoking, and improving physical and intellectual activities. At the annual meeting last year, we reported the results of a survey at our health counseling center on the quality of life a person wants as dementia progresses. The survey had some surprising results: two-thirds of the people surveyed preferred to be in a group home or an advanced medical center, rather than in their own homes. One-third of the respondents expressed a desire to be at home. The survey showed that if possible, a person diagnosed with dementia will stay at home, however, where this is not possible, they have no choice other than to resign themselves to leaving home. Furthermore, patients with dementia feel that the medication that will allow them to continue their