WorldWideScience

Sample records for human beings research

  1. Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Human Beings In Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Maria Rita Garbi; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Objective Diagnose ethical conduct in research involving human beings in Brazil and the last 10 years of activity by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Health Department - Federal District - CEP/SES/DF. Methods This work was based on a documentary research, descriptive and retrospective. It examined the database containing records of cases brought before the CEP/SES/DF, corresponding the period of June 1997 to December 2007. Results were generated in Excel program, version 2007. Results CEP/SES/DF has presented increasing number of research projects submitted to appreciation (n = 1129), composing: 90.4% approved 1.7% disapproved, 7.4% removed/filed and 0.5% excluded. Of these projects, 83% belonged to Group III, 18% multi-centered projects and 10% protocols with foreign participation. Time for approval has decreased over the years (30 to 60 days). Frequent pendencies: End of Free and Informed Consent (30%), Cover Sheet (25%), Methodology (20%), Curriculum vitae (12%), Budget (9%), and Others (4%). Conclusion The assessment of the CEP/SES/DF activities, during a ten-year period has shown its commitment to the legitimacy of research ethics review and scientific production SES/DF. There were some weaknesses such as difficulty in monitoring the accompaniment of the research; interruption of works due to adverse drug reaction; gaps or errors in the protocol submitted by the researcher. These situations are the achieving targets for the elaboration of specific criteria. PMID:20981277

  2. Trends in research involving human beings in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ricardo Eccard da; Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho; Pastor, Elza Martínez; Barragan, Elena; Amato, Angélica Amorim

    2015-02-01

    Developing countries have experienced a dramatic increase in the number of clinical studies in the last decades. The aim of this study was to describe 1) the number of clinical trials submitted to the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, Anvisa) from 2007 to 2012 and the number of human-subject research projects approved by research ethics committees (RECs) and the National Research Ethics Committee (Comissão Nacional de Ética em Pesquisa, CONEP) in Brazil from 2007 to 2011 and 2) the diseases most frequently studied in Brazilian states in clinical trials approved in the country from 2009 to 2012, based on information from an Anvisa databank. Two databases were used: 1) the National Information System on Research Ethics Involving Human Beings (Sistema Nacional de Informação Sobre Ética em Pesquisa envolvendo Seres Humanos, SISNEP) and 2) Anvisa's Clinical Research Control System (Sistema de Controle de Pesquisa Clínica, SCPC). Data from the SCPC indicated an increase of 32.7% in the number of clinical trials submitted to Anvisa, and data from the SISNEP showed an increase of 69.9% in those approved by RECs and CONEP (from 18 160 in 2007 to 30 860 in 2011). Type 2 diabetes (26.0%) and breast cancer (20.5%)-related to the main causes of mortality in Brazil-were the two most frequently studied diseases. The so-called “neglected diseases,” such as dengue fever, were among the least studied diseases in approved clinical trials, despite their significant impact on social, economic, and health indicators in Brazil. Overall, the data indicated 1) a clear trend toward more research involving human beings in Brazil, 2) good correspondence between diseases most studied in clinical trials approved by Anvisa and the main causes of death in Brazil, and 3) a low level of attention to neglected diseases, an issue that should be considered in setting future research priorities, given their socioeconomic and health effects.

  3. [Experience of a research Ethics Committee and the challenges of the new Chilean legislation on research in human beings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún G, Manuel; Pinto C, María Eugenia; Raineri B, Gina G; Amigo, Hugo; Cifuentes O, Lucía; González, María Julieta; Horwitz, Nina; Marshall F, Claudia; Orellana V, Gricel

    2014-07-01

    The welfare of research participants must be guaranteed by international ethical standards. This article communicates the procedures of the Research Ethics Committee of the School of Medicine, University of Chile (CEISH). The new Chilean legislation on research in human beings is also discussed. Law 20.120: "On scientific research in human beings, its genome and forbidding human cloning" establishes the ethical principles that must be accomplished in every research involving human beings. Article 28 of the Law 20.584 "Regulation of the rights and duties of health care users", forbids the participation of handicapped people who cannot express their will in scientific research. Article 13 states that people not related directly with patient care cannot have access to his clinical records (with the exception of people with notarial authorization by the patient). CEISH proposes that, in case of people with intellectual deficiency, the decision to approve a scientific research should be analyzed on an individual basis. If the person is capable of expressing his or her will or has stated his or her consent beforehand, the research can be authorized. If the person cannot express his or her will, the scientific research cannot take place. In prospective studies, a consent from the patient and an authorization of the health authority should be required to access clinical records. In retrospective studies, consent should be obtained from the patient when personal information is going to be used. If the information is nameless, the consent can be disregarded.

  4. Ethics and methods for biological rhythm research on animals and human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaluppi, Francesco; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan

    2010-10-01

    This article updates the ethical standards and methods for the conduct of high-quality animal and human biological rhythm research, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. The editors of Chronobiology International adhere to and endorse the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE), which encourages communication of such updates at regular intervals in the journal. The journal accepts papers representing original work, no part of which was previously submitted for publication elsewhere, except as brief abstracts, as well as in-depth reviews. The majority of research papers published in Chronobiology International entails animal and human investigations. The editors and readers of the journal expect authors of submitted manuscripts to have made an important contribution to the research of biological rhythms and related phenomena using ethical methods/procedures and unbiased, accurate, and honest reporting of findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to declare all potential conflicts of interest. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of investigators to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, relating to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals, and the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, relating to the conduct of ethical research on human beings. The peer review of manuscripts by Chronobiology International thus includes judgment as to whether or not the protocols and methods conform to ethical standards. Authors are expected to show mastery of the basic methods and procedures of biological rhythm research and proper statistical assessment of data, including the appropriate application of time series data analyses, as briefly reviewed in this article. The journal editors strive to consistently achieve

  5. Ethics education in research involving human beings in undergraduate medicine curriculum in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Maria Rita Garbi; Guilhem, Dirce; Barragan, Elena; Mennin, Stewart

    2013-12-01

    The Brazilian national curriculum guidelines for undergraduate medicine courses inspired and influenced the groundwork for knowledge acquisition, skills development and the perception of ethical values in the context of professional conduct. The evaluation of ethics education in research involving human beings in undergraduate medicine curriculum in Brazil, both in courses with active learning processes and in those with traditional lecture learning methodologies. Curricula and teaching projects of 175 Brazilian medical schools were analyzed using a retrospective historical and descriptive exploratory cohort study. Thirty one medical schools were excluded from the study because of incomplete information or a refusal to participate. Active research for information from institutional sites and documents was guided by terms based on 69 DeCS/MeSH descriptors. Curriculum information was correlated with educational models of learning such as active learning methodologies, tutorial discussions with integrated curriculum into core modules, and traditional lecture learning methodologies for large classes organized by disciplines and reviewed by occurrence frequency of ethical themes and average hourly load per semester. Ninety-five medical schools used traditional learning methodologies. The ten most frequent ethical themes were: 1--ethics in research (26); 2--ethical procedures and advanced technology (46); 3--ethic-professional conduct (413). Over 80% of schools using active learning methodologies had between 50 and 100 hours of scheduled curriculum time devoted to ethical themes whereas more than 60% of traditional learning methodology schools devoted less than 50 hours in curriculum time to ethical themes. The data indicates that medical schools that employ more active learning methodologies provide more attention and time to ethical themes than schools with traditional discipline-based methodologies. Given the importance of ethical issues in contemporary medical

  6. Human Beings And Water

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The writer of this paper on this writing is talking about the human beings and water. Water is one of the very fundamentally things that human beings need to keep their lives. Human beings sometimes do not realise that the water is very important for them because they actually cannot live their lives without the present of water. Human beings can keep their lives without rice, but cannot without water. For instances the use of water for human beings are domestic use, cooking, washing, bathing...

  7. Emerging issues in urban ecology: implications for research, social justice, human health, and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniece Jennings; Myron F. Floyd; Danielle Shanahan; Christopher Coutts; Alex Sinykin

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization affects landscape structure and the overall human condition in numerous ways. Green spaces include vegetated land cover (e.g., urban forests, trees, riparian zones, parks) which play a distinctive role in urban ecology. This article reviews emergent literature on the linkages between urban green spaces, social justice, and human health. We explore this...

  8. We Are Human Beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine Jeff McMahan’s arguments for his claim that we are not human organisms, and the arguments of Derek Parfit to the same effect in a recent paper. McMahan uses these arguments to derive conclusions concerning the moral status of embryos and permanent vegetative state (PVS) patients. My claim will be that neither thinker has successfully shown that we are not human beings, and therefore these arguments do not establish the ethical conclusions that McMahan has sought to draw from the arguments in respect of the moral status of embryos and PVS patients. PMID:26810918

  9. Learning to Be Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmurray, John

    2012-01-01

    This article presents "Learning to be Human", which John Macmurray delivered on 5 May 1958 as the annual public lecture at Moray House College of Education, now part of Edinburgh University. The key themes of the paper are ones to which Macmurray returned again and again in both his educational and his philosophical writing for over 40 years and…

  10. Can research be visual?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Kristian Moltke

    2014-01-01

    Short film interviews with for instance researchers Birger Lindberg Møller and Andreas Roepstorff and film directors Phie Ambo, Janus Metz and Joshua Oppenheimer, about the collaboration between documentary and research: http://vimeo.com/99909839...

  11. Can research be visual?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Kristian Moltke

    2014-01-01

    Short film interviews with for instance researchers Birger Lindberg Møller and Andreas Roepstorff and film directors Phie Ambo, Janus Metz and Joshua Oppenheimer, about the collaboration between documentary and research: http://vimeo.com/99909839...

  12. Could a zygote be a human being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, John

    2010-02-01

    This paper re-examines the question of whether quirks of early human foetal development tell against the view (conceptionism) that we are human beings at conception. A zygote is capable of splitting to give rise to identical twins. Since the zygote cannot be identical with either human being it will become, it cannot already be a human being. Parallel concerns can be raised about chimeras in which two embryos fuse. I argue first that there are just two ways of dealing with cases of fission and fusion and both seem to be available to the conceptionist. One is the Replacement View according to which objects cease to exist when they fission or fuse. The other is the Multiple Occupancy View - both twins may be present already in the zygote and both persist in a chimera. So, is the conceptionist position tenable after all? I argue that it is not. A zygote gives rise not only to a human being but also to a placenta - it cannot already be both a human being and a placenta. Neither approach to fission and fusion can help the conceptionist with this problem. But worse is in store. Both fission and fusion can occur before and after the development of the inner cell mass of the blastocyst - the entity which becomes the embryo proper. The idea that we become human beings with the arrival of the inner cell mass leads to bizarre results however we choose to accommodate fission and fusion.

  13. Children Are Human Beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossard, James H. S.

    2017-01-01

    The basic assumption underlying this article is that the really significant changes in human history are those that occur, not in the mechanical gadgets which men use nor in the institutionalized arrangements by which they live, but in their attitudes and in the values which they accept. The revolutions of the past that have had the greatest…

  14. To be human is to be creative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2013-01-01

    We will assert than in the era of Ubiquitous Technology to be human is to be creative. Small children are experimental and creative actors. The socialisation process in modern societies, both at home and at educational institutions, does not enhance and develop their creativity. On the contrary...

  15. 'Human Beings in the Round'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Norman; Kaspersen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    In this introduction we highlight Norbert Elias’s bold attempt to build a general model of the human sciences, integrating the social and natural sciences. We point to a range of different disciplines, emphasizing how he rarely developed a consistent critique of individual disciplines, though he...... often made some very fruitful suggestions about they should be reconceptualized in a relational and more integrative way. Based on our own research on survival units and the contributions to this special issue, we discuss the innovative potential of his ambition for transdisciplinary research, while...

  16. 'Human Beings in the Round'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Norman; Kaspersen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    In this introduction we highlight Norbert Elias’s bold attempt to build a general model of the human sciences, integrating the social and natural sciences. We point to a range of different disciplines, emphasizing how he rarely developed a consistent critique of individual disciplines, though he...... often made some very fruitful suggestions about they should be reconceptualized in a relational and more integrative way. Based on our own research on survival units and the contributions to this special issue, we discuss the innovative potential of his ambition for transdisciplinary research, while...

  17. Indicators and Methods for Constructing a U.S. Human Well-being Index (HWBI) for Ecosystem Services Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humans are dependent upon the services provided by nature, and unless we effectively account for the range of values from ecosystems in our efforts to protect the environment, we cannot sustain human well-being. In light of this dependence, a national measure of well-being is nee...

  18. Indicators and Methods for Evaluating Economic, Ecosystem and Social Services Provisioning: A Human Well-being Index (HWBI) Research Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Human Well-being Index (HWBI) is a composite measure that incorporates economic, environmental, and societal well-being elements through the eight domains of connection to nature, cultural fulfillment, education, health, leisure time, living standards, safety and securit...

  19. Being There & Getting Back Again: Half a Century of Deep Ocean Research & Discovery with the Human Occupied Vehicle "Alvin"

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C. R.; Fornari, D. J.; Fryer, P.; Girguis, P. R.; Humphris, S. E.; Kelley, D. S.; Tivey, M.; Van Dover, C. L.; Von Damm, K.

    2012-12-01

    In 2013, Alvin returns to service after significant observational and operational upgrades supported by the NSF, NAVSEA & NOAA. Here we review highlights of the first half-century of deep submergence science conducted by Alvin, describe some of the most significant improvements for the new submarine and discuss the importance of these new capabilities for 21st century ocean science and education. Alvin has a long history of scientific exploration, discovery and intervention at the deep seafloor: in pursuit of hypothesis-driven research and in response to human impacts. One of Alvin's earliest achievements, at the height of the Cold War, was to help locate & recover an H-bomb in the Mediterranean, while the last dives completed, just ahead of the current refit, were to investigate the impacts of the Deep Water Horizon oil spill. Alvin has excelled in supporting a range of Earth & Life Science programs including, in the late 1970s, first direct observations and sampling of deep-sea hydrothermal vents and the unusual fauna supported by microbial chemosynthesis. The 1980s saw expansion of Alvin's dive areas to newly discovered hot-springs in the Atlantic & NE Pacific, Alvin's first dives to the wreck of RMS Titanic and its longest excursions away from WHOI yet, via Loihi Seamount (Hawaii) to the Mariana Trench. The 1990s saw Alvin's first event-response dives to sites where volcanic eruptions had just occurred at the East Pacific Rise & Juan de Fuca Ridge while the 2000s saw Alvin discover novel off-axis venting at Lost City. Observations from these dives fundamentally changed our views of volcanic and microbial processes within young ocean crust and even the origins of life! In parallel, new deep submergence capabilities, including manipulative experiments & sensor development, relied heavily on testing using Alvin. Recently, new work has focused on ocean margins where fluid flow from the seafloor results in the release of hydrocarbons and other chemical species that

  20. Being Human Beings: The Domains and a Human Realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    evolutionary step to highlight the human component in conflict. As Francis Bacon said, “It would be an unused fancy and self-contradictory to expect that...Special Operations Command, Special Operations White Paper, 1. 50 Francis Bacon , “The New Organon or True Directions Concerning the Interpretation of...Nature,” 1620, http://www.constitution.org/ bacon /nov_org.htm, (accessed February 24, 2013). 51 Mark E. Redden and Michael P. Hughes, “Global

  1. Reflexiones sobre los principios éticos en investigación biomedica en seres humanos Ethical principles in biomedical research involving human beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANNE GAUDLITZ H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación biomedica en seres humanos plantea problemas valóneos. Una investigación científica debe ir de la mano de una serie de requisitos para que sea una investigación ética. La trayectoria de la investigación en el mundo occidental no ha estado libre de abusos. Las normas éticas internacionales han aparecido después de las transgresiones. La protección de los probandos que participan libre y voluntariamente en una investigación biomedica es una obligación ética, la dignidad de éstos está por sobre el progreso de la ciencia y el bienestar que éste acarrearíaBiomedical research involving human subjects present valoric problems. A scientific research must go hand in hand with several requisites to be ethic. Human experimentation through its history in the occidental world has not been exempt from abuses. Ethic international rules have appeared after the transgressions. The protection of the human beings that freely and willingly participate in a biomedical research is an ethic obligation. The dignity of the human beings is above the progress of science and the wealth it carries with it

  2. The science of unitary human beings and interpretive human science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, F

    1993-01-01

    Natural science and human science are identified as the bases of most nursing theories and research programs. Natural science has been disclaimed by Martha Rogers as the philosophy of science that undergirds her work. The question remains, is the science of unitary human beings an interpretive human science? The author explores the works of Rogers through a dialectic with two human scientists' works. Wilhelm Dilthey's works represent the founding or traditional view, and Jurgen Habermas' works represent a contemporary, reconstructionist view. The ways Rogerian thought contributes to human studies but is distinct from traditional and reconstructionist human sciences are illuminated.

  3. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  4. Can human populations be stabilized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Stephen G.

    2015-02-01

    Historical examples of demographic change, in China, Italy, Nigeria, Utah, Easter Island, and elsewhere, together with simple mathematics and biological principles, show that stabilizing world population before it is limited by food supply will be more difficult than is generally appreciated. United Nations population projections are wrong because they assume, in spite of the absence of necessary feedbacks, that all nations will converge rapidly to replacement-level fertility and thereafter remain at that level. Education of women and provision of contraceptives have caused dramatic reductions in fertility, but many groups, including some that are well-educated, maintain high fertility. Small groups with persistent high fertility can grow to supplant low-fertility groups, resulting in continued growth of the total population. The global average fertility rate could rise even if each country's fertility rate is falling. In some low-fertility European countries where deaths exceed births, the population continues to grow because of immigration. Producing more than two offspring is normal for all animal species with stable populations because their populations are limited by resources or predation rather than birth control. It may therefore be appropriate to view the growth of human population as the result not of excess fertility but rather of excess food.

  5. Research about Medical Experiments Investigation Ethics on Human beings in China%我国医学人体试验伦理审查问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建莹; 何强

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of Chinese medicine these years, a growing number of research projects involving human subjects. Human trial is an irreplaceable means and the double impacts it brings also attracted attention of the whole society. Ethical review of human subjects in medical research for the development of the whole has a vital role. At present, China has been on a preliminary human trials of medical ethics review of the concept, but understanding of the nature and functions of the ethics review is not enough, and regulatory aspects of the formation of the ethics committee is also prob-lematic. Our country does not have a special law to regulate human trials of medical ethics review, and the relevant laws and regulations are not perfect. Here’s some main problems we still need to work on, how to improve our medical experi-ments investigation on human beings, human subjects under protected, guaranteeing medical experiments way to right.%随着我国近年来医学事业的迅猛发展,人体试验的科研项目越来越多。人体试验是我国医学科研发展中不可替代的必要手段之一,它带给人类的双重影响也引起了全社会的高度重视。对我国医学人体试验进行伦理审查至关重要,它不仅保护受试者的合法权益,对我国医学科研的健康发展也起到了积极作用。尽管我国对医学人体试验伦理审查已有了初步的概念,但是对伦理审查的职能、性质不够规范;伦理委员会组建和监管方面存在问题;医学人体试验伦理审查的相关法律并不完善等。如何改善我国医学人体试验伦理审查,保护受试者合法权益不受侵犯,保障医学科研健康发展都是本文将要探讨研究的主要问题。

  6. Human Research Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strategically, the HRP conducts research and technology development that: 1) enables the development or modification of Agency-level human health and performance...

  7. Ethics in research with human beings: some issues about Psychology Ética em pesquisa com seres humanos: alguns tópicos sobre a psicologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Helena Koller

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some ethical issues in research with human beings, especially addressing the area of Psychology, such as the use of ethical codes; minimum risk; informed consent; debriefing; confidentiality; and ethical committees. It suggests ways for researchers to increase understanding and the proper use of the ethical codes, to guarantee their own protection, and to avoid abuses of power. Special attention is given to methodological issues related to ethics.Este artigo examina alguns aspectos éticos em pesquisa com seres humanos, especialmente endereçando a área da Psicologia, tais como o uso de resoluções éticas; risco mínimo; consentimento livre e esclarecido; decepção; confidencialidade e atuação de comitês de ética. Sugere caminhos aos pesquisadores para incrementar o entendimento e o uso apropriado de códigos de ética, para garantir sua própria proteção e evitar abuso de poder. Atenção especial é dada a assuntos metodológicos relacionados à ética.

  8. Research progress in human immunodeficiency virus vaccines (to be continued)%人类免疫缺陷病毒疫苗研究进展(待续)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑霓

    2013-01-01

    开发安全有效的人类免疫缺陷病毒(human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)疫苗可为人类进一步控制HIV流行带来希望.自20世纪80年代后期以来,人们已开发出许多候选疫苗,包括DNA疫苗、亚单位疫苗、重组活疫苗,这些疫苗在非人灵长类动物中能诱导不同程度的保护性应答,其中4种候选疫苗已在人类志愿者中进行效力测定,并获得了有希望的结果.值得关注的是,人们建立了不同的初免-加强免疫策略,以增强机体对HIV疫苗的免疫应答.此文介绍了有关HIV疫苗的开发进展.%Development of safe and effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines provides hope for further control of HIV pandemic.Since the late 1980s,many candidate HIV vaccines have been developed,including DNA vaccines,subunit vaccines and live recombinant vaccines.These candidate vaccines can induce varying degrees of protective responses in nonhuman primate models.Four of candidate vaccines have been tested for efficacy in human volunteers,and promising results were obtained.It is noteworthy that various prime-boost immunization strategies have been developed to enhance immune responses to HIV vaccines.This article introduces research progress in development of HIV vaccines.

  9. Human Tissue Research: Who Owns the Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Allen B.

    1987-01-01

    Ownership issues in the results of research generally and of human tissue research specifically are explored. While acknowledging some uncertainty in the law, it is found that human tissue may be lawfully accessed for research and that use of human tissue does not modify the general allocation of interests. (MSE)

  10. The Existence Form of Human-being As the Starting Point of Teaching Research%教学研究的起点:人的存在方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长吉; 徐德华

    2011-01-01

    传统的教学论研究起点观是决定论的起点观,从决定论自身的局限性以及作为教学论研究起点的适切性来看,决定论起点观存在明显的缺陷。教学论研究起点应定位在人的存在方式上,这一定位及其意蕴可以在一定程度上解决教学论研究中的方法论难题。%The starting point of the traditional teaching research is based on the determinism which isbeing gradually abandoned for its no longer being fit for the starting point of teaching research. In fact, teaching research is closely related to the factors of

  11. National Human Genome Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Director Organization Reports & Publications Español The National Human Genome Research Institute conducts genetic and genomic research, funds ... Landscape Social Media Videos Image Gallery Fact Sheets Human Genome Project Clinical Studies Genomic Careers DNA Day Calendar ...

  12. Aspectos Éticos de la Investigación Clínica en seres humanos Clinic research in human beings: Ethical aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Albornoz López del Castillo

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available La ética de la experimentación con seres humanos no es sólo una de las áreas fundamentales de la bioética, sino también una de las problemáticas que le dieron origen. Se describen en este trabajo algunas implicaciones éticas de la experimentación en seres humanos; se analizan el origen y evolución de la bioética, los aspectos regulatorios para la realización de ensayos clínicos y su valoración moral, los tipos de experimentación; la realidad mundial y cubana en cuanto a investigación clínica y tecnología y el consentimiento informado. Se concluye que el criterio ético fundamental de las investigaciones en seres humanos es su disposición al servicio del hombreThe ethics of experimentation with human beings is not only one of the fundamental areas of bioethics, but also one of the problems that originated this field. In this work some ethical implications of experimentation in human beings are described; the origin and evolution of bioethics are analyzed, the regulatory aspects for the realization of clinical trials and their moral valuation, the experimentation types; international and Cuban reality as for clinical investigation and technology and the informed consent. It is assumed that the fundamental ethical approach of the investigations with human beings is its disposition to serve mankind

  13. When does a human being die?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schofield, G M; Urch, C E; Stebbing, J; Giamas, G

    2015-01-01

    .... With modern medical advances, however, more precise answers are looked for. For a definition of death to succeed is important that it is a universal definition and that under it, all human beings are correctly identified as alive or dead...

  14. Human Resource Management should be more strategic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢存宇; 梅凯

    2010-01-01

    Today’s business environment is placing unparalleled demands on organizations to discover ways to operate more efficiently,while quickly responding to changing needs and demands in business and environment. Both new approaches and techniques are needed to meet these demands (Dangayach,2001). So,human resource management needs a long-term strategy and to be corresponding with a company’s business strategy. In other words,human resource management should be more strategic.

  15. Scenario research: Can the future be predicted?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Julia; Sonne, Anne-Mette

    2000-01-01

    whether the shopping situation described will become a reality, but attempts can be made to come up with qualified indications on possible development directions. In connection with a scenario research project, researchers from MAPP and the Danish Technological University have looked into the future...... possible futures. In the process of creating the scenarios, researchers at MAPP and the Danish Technical University formulated mini scenarios based on their research. The scenarios were used as inspiration in discussions with experts from industry, trade organisations, authorities etc. and later discussed...... and supplemented at workshops - one for each of the four sectors. Experts from industry, trade organisations, retailing, authorities and other interested parties participated....

  16. Human Being: the Next Space Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, J.

    2002-01-01

    Since forty years and after the (mythical) speech of John F Kennedy, space offers a new frontier for the human odyssey. But, for this enterprise itself, the human person constitutes without any doubt a frontier as delicate to approach than necessary to cross, if we plan to give a continuation to the Apollo missions and the permanent occupation of a station in terrestrial orbit. Without neglecting the impact of the future space programs on philosophies and cultures of the humanity which stays on Earth, we have to pay a special attention to the consequences for the astronauts of long-time and far from Earth missions of exploration. These consequences are in connection with three types of human relation: - First, the relations of the human being with the Earth. How an inhabitant of the Earth will - Then, the relations of the crew members among themselves. Today, we do not know yet - Finally, the relations of the human persons with themselves. How to manage this singular To these three types of question, we are today able to give only partial answers. However, they would not have to be drawn aside : we are conscious of the human responsibility in the success or the failure of the future missions, inhabited or not. In addition, the answers which will offer search on inhabited flights of long duration and at long distance will be able also to help to live better together on the Earth.

  17. Stroke Rehabilitation: What Research is Being Done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Stroke Rehabilitation What Research is Being Done? Past Issues / Spring ... Table of Contents To Find Out More MedlinePlus: Stroke Rehabilitation medlineplus.gov/strokerehabilitation.html National Institute of Neurological ...

  18. Should biomedical research be like Airbnb?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazzi, Vivien R; Bourne, Philip E

    2017-04-01

    The thesis presented here is that biomedical research is based on the trusted exchange of services. That exchange would be conducted more efficiently if the trusted software platforms to exchange those services, if they exist, were more integrated. While simpler and narrower in scope than the services governing biomedical research, comparison to existing internet-based platforms, like Airbnb, can be informative. We illustrate how the analogy to internet-based platforms works and does not work and introduce The Commons, under active development at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and elsewhere, as an example of the move towards platforms for research.

  19. Being skeptical about the medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Joanna

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the author challenges the prevailing view that contemporary writing in the medical humanities is serving the needs of the various health care disciplines. The current medical humanities literature assumes that physicians are the appropriate target group. This is most notably the case within health care ethics literature. There appears to be an unexamined assumption that physician-centric approaches to clinical ethical decision-making are the standard by which appropriate ethical practice is judged. The author challenges this assumption and addresses the problems that this approach engenders. The medical humanities literature appears to reinforce hierarchical, patriarchal arrangements which are themselves not morally neutral.

  20. Recognizing the trafficking in human beings victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeunović-Patić Biljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of relative prevalence of trafficking in human beings issues in the expert and general public discourse in recent years, recognition of victimization by various specialists that may come across with victims still is being estimated as unsatisfactory. Stereotypes about victims of trafficking in human beings are just one factor that imperils correct and prompt recognition of victims, i.e. victims' identification, as principal prerequisite of their protection and support. Today, there are various efforts to overcome that problem - primarily through the training of professionals and creating the identification guidelines, i.e. lists of indicators of trafficking in human beings victimization; however, these resolves only one part of the problem and reveal some new challenges at the same time.

  1. The forms trafficking in human beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijalković Saša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking in human beings is an illegal act which interferes with the order foreseen by international regulations and national laws and endangers the values vital to society. However, all forms of human trafficking are not of the same danger to society and therefore do not represent the same risk, threat or danger to the safety of the state, society or individuals. In this paper, the author tends to classify the existing forms and aspects of trafficking in human beings as a manifestation in security practice in accordance with the level of social endangerment, geographical level of implementation, bio-physical characteristics of the victims, relation of the victim toward the position in which he/she finds himself/herself and the form of exploitation of the victim, including a short description of their most significant characteristics.

  2. [Network Research on Human Papillomavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Paniagua, Ramón; Furuya, María ElenaYuriko

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the research in important health questions at a national and institutional levels, the Human Papillomavirus Research Network of the Health Research Coordination of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social offers this supplement with the purpose of assisting patients that daily look for attention due to the human papillomavirus or to cervical cancer.

  3. Does Globalization Affect Human Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang

    2007-01-01

    The prevailing theorizing of globalization's influence of human well-being suggests to assess both the favorable and unfavorable outcomes. This study formulates a dialectical model, adopts a comprehensive globalization measure and uses a three-wave panel data during 1980-2000 to empirically test direct and indirect effects of global flows' human…

  4. Does Globalization Affect Human Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang

    2007-01-01

    The prevailing theorizing of globalization's influence of human well-being suggests to assess both the favorable and unfavorable outcomes. This study formulates a dialectical model, adopts a comprehensive globalization measure and uses a three-wave panel data during 1980-2000 to empirically test direct and indirect effects of global flows' human…

  5. Being a researcher for one night

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    On 24 September from 5 p.m. to 1 a.m., European Researchers Night will give some 100 young students from local schools the opportunity to sit side by side with scientists and operators in the LHC control rooms. At the same time, a live webcast will connect CERN with various institutes around Europe participating in the Being a European Scientist Today (BEST) project. You are all invited to take part!   Copyright Frascati Scienza The European Researchers Night is an EU initiated and funded initiative, which aims at highlighting the appeal of being a researcher. Meeting scientists in a ‘fun’ and festive context gives the public, especially the young, the opportunity to get to know the job better and be inspired to pursue a career in research. “CERN scientists already took part in last year’s event, but only through a web connection with Frascati in Italy”, explains Paola Catapano, a member of the Communication group and organiser of the activities t...

  6. [Dignity of human beings as regulatory principle in bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J

    2000-01-01

    New discoveries and advances in biotechnology are producing new social realities which must be appraised properly from the ethical point of view. Vitally important in this task is the principle of human dignity, which is examined here by the author. Human dignity is crucial in seeking to resolve the conflicts that might arise as a result of the new possibilities opened up by modern biotechnology, such as embryo research, predictive diagnosis, gene therapy, human cloning or the issue of xenotransplants.

  7. Human Performance Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Biochemistry:Improvements in energy metabolism, muscular strength and endurance capacity have a basis in biochemical and molecular adaptations within the human body....

  8. How not to Imitate a Human Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellen, Luke

    Will a computer ever be able to convince someone that it is human and so pass the Turing Test? Programs that attempt to directly model high-level psychological processes are too rigid and lack flexibility and power. Current programs that attempt to pass the Turing Test work primarily by extracting keywords from user input and regurgitating preprogrammed responses. These programs can hardly be called "intelligent". A much lower-level approach is required in which the goal is not to emulate a human, but to emulate intelligence. Such an approach would attempt to model low-level biological components of the brain using techniques such as feedback, recursion, artificial life, and genetic algorithms.

  9. Human nature: neither material nor spiritually being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alba Martínez Amorós

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The idea of «human nature» defended by Ortega y Gasset is as original as opposite to what is usually understood. We are making a mistake if the starting point is to conceive Man as one living being among others. Neither science nor philosophy, while remaining in the Eleatic tradition, can give a clear explanation. Science, because if we look at Man, as he is presented to us, it is impossible to distinguish in him materially from spiritually; his body and his psyche. Philosophy, because the concept of «human nature» is an invention of our reason, a fantasy. That nature doesn’t exist because the being of man is so strange and different from other beings that its consistency is just going to be what it never manages to be. Therefore, it is what happens, a journey, a history that is running within a circumstance. This is my life, and that of everyone.

  10. Researching Human Rights in Prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Naylor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines two issues: the author’s recent research on the capacity of prisons to incorporate human rights considerations into their routine management; and the methods employed in this research in prisons in two Australian jurisdictions. The first element examines the impact of formal human rights instruments on prison management and on the lived experiences of prisoners, and the potential for the practical application of human rights obligations in this environment. The second gives closer analysis to the specific use of qualitative methodologies in carrying out this research, and the potential implications of methodology for subsequent acceptance of research findings by governments.

  11. Human Research Program Integrated Research Plan. Revision A January 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Research Plan (IRP) describes the portfolio of Human Research Program (HRP) research and technology tasks. The IRP is the HRP strategic and tactical plan for research necessary to meet HRP requirements. The need to produce an IRP is established in HRP-47052, Human Research Program - Program Plan, and is under configuration management control of the Human Research Program Control Board (HRPCB). Crew health and performance is critical to successful human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Human Research Program (HRP) is essential to enabling extended periods of space exploration because it provides knowledge and tools to mitigate risks to human health and performance. Risks include physiological and behavioral effects from radiation and hypogravity environments, as well as unique challenges in medical support, human factors, and behavioral or psychological factors. The Human Research Program (HRP) delivers human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. Without HRP results, NASA will face unknown and unacceptable risks for mission success and post-mission crew health. This Integrated Research Plan (IRP) describes HRP s approach and research activities that are intended to address the needs of human space exploration and serve HRP customers and how they are integrated to provide a risk mitigation tool. The scope of the IRP is limited to the activities that can be conducted with the resources available to the HRP; it does not contain activities that would be performed if additional resources were available. The timescale of human space exploration is envisioned to take many decades. The IRP illustrates the program s research plan through the timescale of early lunar missions of extended duration.

  12. Research groups: How big should they be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Cook

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between scientific productivity and research group size is important for deciding how science should be funded. We have investigated the relationship between these variables in the life sciences in the United Kingdom using data from 398 principle investigators (PIs. We show that three measures of productivity, the number of publications, the impact factor of the journals in which papers are published and the number of citations, are all positively correlated to group size, although they all show a pattern of diminishing returns—doubling group size leads to less than a doubling in productivity. The relationships for the impact factor and the number of citations are extremely weak. Our analyses suggest that an increase in productivity will be achieved by funding more PIs with small research groups, unless the cost of employing post-docs and PhD students is less than 20% the cost of a PI. We also provide evidence that post-docs are more productive than PhD students both in terms of the number of papers they produce and where those papers are published.

  13. Uterus transplantation: animal research and human possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, Mats; Diaz-Garcia, Cesar; Hanafy, Ash; Olausson, Michael; Tzakis, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Uterus transplantation research has been conducted toward its introduction in the human as a treatment of absolute uterine-factor infertility, which is considered to be the last frontier to conquer for infertility research. In this review we describe the patient populations that may benefit from uterus transplantation. The animal research on uterus transplantation conducted during the past two decades is summarized, and we describe our views regarding a future research-based human attempt.

  14. Being Brave: Writing Environmental Education Research Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; Burt, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Explores some of the headwork that goes into textwork in environmental education research. Reflects upon some of the institutional and epistemological issues associated with writing social science research texts. (Contains 26 references.) (Author/YDS)

  15. Human Being and the Philosophical Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Arsith

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis from which we start our approach is the one according to which the philosophicaldiscourse is a specific way of communicating the reality. The base of the philosophical communication issurprise, doubt, uncertainty, anxiety, all generated by the fundamental interrogations of Kantian origin: Howmuch am I able to know? What do I have to do? What am I allowed to hope? The answers to all thesequestions were set up in philosophical concepts and visions, all of them leading to communication, trying toexpress themselves and make themselves understood. Communicability is the very essence of thephilosophical approach. Actually, communication is a fundamental philosophical attitude as I, in my capacityof human being, live only with the other, in full interaction. On my own I am nothing. Throughout this paperwe find arguments for the idea according to which the philosophical discourse subordinates an art ofgenuinely living and communicating about balance and avoidance of excess, about the ability to assume andovercome, about lucidity and wisdom, about credibility, certainty and truth, about freedom and limitation,about the meaning and value of the human condition.

  16. Will human populations be limited by food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    Historical examples of demographic change, in China, Italy, Nigeria, Utah, the Philippines, and elsewhere, together with simple mathematics and biological principles, show that stabilizing world population before it is limited by food supply will be more difficult than is generally appreciated. United Nations population projections are based on a logical fallacy in that they assume, in spite of the absence of necessary negative feedbacks, that all nations will converge rapidly to replacement-level fertility and thereafter remain at that level. The benign projections that have resulted from this assumption may have hindered efforts to make availability of birth-control a priority in development-aid. Education of women and provision of contraceptives have caused dramatic reductions in fertility, but many groups, including some that are well-educated, maintain high fertility. Small groups with persistent high fertility can grow to supplant low-fertility groups, resulting in continued growth of the total population. The global average fertility rate could rise even if each country's fertility rate is falling. In some low-fertility European countries where deaths exceed births, the population continues to grow because of immigration. Producing more than two offspring is normal for all animal species with stable populations, because their populations are limited by resources or predation rather than birth control. It may therefore be appropriate to view the growth of human population as the result not of excess fertility but rather of excess food. Even if the fertility rate is maintained far in excess of 2, the population cannot grow if food is limiting. Without the agricultural advances of the 20thcentury, world population could not have grown as it did from 1.7 billion in 1900 to 6 billion in 2000. The food supply may be enhanced in the future by genetic engineering and other innovations, but it may be limited by water shortage, climate change, pollution, and energy

  17. Biological Databases for Human Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Zou; Lina Ma; Jun Yu; Zhang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The completion of the Human Genome Project lays a foundation for systematically studying the human genome from evolutionary history to precision medicine against diseases. With the explosive growth of biological data, there is an increasing number of biological databases that have been developed in aid of human-related research. Here we present a collection of human-related biological databases and provide a mini-review by classifying them into different categories according to their data types. As human-related databases continue to grow not only in count but also in volume, challenges are ahead in big data storage, processing, exchange and curation.

  18. Biological Databases for Human Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dong; Ma, Lina; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The completion of the Human Genome Project lays a foundation for systematically studying the human genome from evolutionary history to precision medicine against diseases. With the explosive growth of biological data, there is an increasing number of biological databases that have been developed in aid of human-related research. Here we present a collection of human-related biological databases and provide a mini-review by classifying them into different categories according to their data types. As human-related databases continue to grow not only in count but also in volume, challenges are ahead in big data storage, processing, exchange and curation. PMID:25712261

  19. Integrated Extravehicular Activity Human Research Plan: 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA as well as industry and academia fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Human Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Human Research Plan will be conducted annually. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the preliminary Integrated EVA Human Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of: physiological and performance capabilities; suit design parameters; EVA human health and performance modeling; EVA tasks and concepts of operations; EVA informatics; human-suit sensors; suit

  20. Individual differences in the learning potential of human beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Elsbeth

    2017-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the genetic foundations that guide human brain development have not changed fundamentally during the past 50,000 years. However, because of their cognitive potential, humans have changed the world tremendously in the past centuries. They have invented technical devices, institutions that regulate cooperation and competition, and symbol systems, such as script and mathematics, that serve as reasoning tools. The exceptional learning ability of humans allows newborns to adapt to the world they are born into; however, there are tremendous individual differences in learning ability among humans that become obvious in school at the latest. Cognitive psychology has developed models of memory and information processing that attempt to explain how humans learn (general perspective), while the variation among individuals (differential perspective) has been the focus of psychometric intelligence research. Although both lines of research have been proceeding independently, they increasingly converge, as both investigate the concepts of working memory and knowledge construction. This review begins with presenting state-of-the-art research on human information processing and its potential in academic learning. Then, a brief overview of the history of psychometric intelligence research is combined with presenting recent work on the role of intelligence in modern societies and on the nature-nurture debate. Finally, promising approaches to integrating the general and differential perspective will be discussed in the conclusion of this review.

  1. Should human beings have sex? Sexual dimorphism and human enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Robert

    2010-07-01

    Since the first sex reassignment operations were performed, individual sex has come to be, to some extent at least, a technological artifact. The existence of sperm sorting technology, and of prenatal determination of fetal sex via ultrasound along with the option of termination, means that we now have the power to choose the sex of our children. An influential contemporary line of thought about medical ethics suggests that we should use technology to serve the welfare of individuals and to remove limitations on the opportunities available to them. I argue that, if these are our goals, we may do well to move towards a "post sex" humanity. Until we have the technology to produce genuine hermaphrodites, the most efficient way to do this is to use sex selection technology to ensure that only girl children are born. There are significant restrictions on the opportunities available to men, around gestation, childbirth, and breast-feeding, which will be extremely difficult to overcome via social or technological mechanisms for the foreseeable future. Women also have longer life expectancies than men. Girl babies therefore have a significantly more "open" future than boy babies. Resisting the conclusion that we should ensure that all children are born the same sex will require insisting that sexual difference is natural to human beings and that we should not use technology to reshape humanity beyond certain natural limits. The real concern of my paper, then, is the moral significance of the idea of a normal human body in modern medicine.

  2. Are (Should) Human Rights (Be) Universal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rhoda E.

    1998-01-01

    Believes that the purpose of human rights is to change many culturally ingrained habits and customs that violate the dignity of the individual. Expounds the differences between cultural relativism and cultural absolutism. States that "weak" cultural relativism is sometimes an appropriate response to human-rights violations. (CMK)

  3. Should Tobacco Researchers Be Selected as Academicians?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On Deccmber 8,2011,the Chinese cademy of Engineering (CAE)lected 54 academicians.Xic Jianping,whose research focuses on adding Chinese herbal medicine to cigarettes to reduce tar content,was on the list.Xie,52,is widely known for his research on low-tar cigarettes and serves as the deputy head of a tobacco research institute under China National Tobacco Corp.,China's tobacco monopoly and the world's largest cigarette company.Xie's election has ignited great controversy.Supporters say people shouldn't discriminate against researchers in controversial fields.Xie does not encourage smoking but has done his best to reduce its harm.The tobacco industry is a big one and China cannot eliminate it now.

  4. Human Subjects Research and the Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubitskey, Beth W.; Thomsen, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Physics Education Research is a form of social science research in that it uses human subjects. As physicists we need to be aware of the ethical and legal ramifications of performing this research, taking into account the fundamental differences between working with substances and working with people. For several decades, the federal government…

  5. Human Research Program Integrated Research Plan. Revision C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Crew health and performance are critical to successful human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Human Research Program (HRP) is essential to enabling extended periods of space exploration because it provides knowledge and tools to mitigate risks to human health and performance. Risks include physiological effects from radiation and hypogravity environments, as well as unique challenges in medical support, human factors, and behavioral or psychological factors. The Human Research Program (HRP) delivers human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. Without HRP results, NASA will face unknown and unacceptable risks for mission success and post-mission crew health. This Integrated Research Plan (IRP) describes (1) HRP's approach and research activities that are intended to address the needs of human space exploration and serve HRP customers and (2) the method of integration for risk mitigation. The scope of the IRP is limited to the activities that can be conducted with the resources available to the HRP; it does not contain activities that would be performed if additional resources were available. The timescale of human space exploration is envisioned to take many decades. The IRP illustrates the program s research plan through the timescale of early lunar missions of extended duration.

  6. THE ACCOUSTICAL ENVIRONMENT OF HUMAN BEING

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Grzesik

    2010-01-01

    The author describes the importance of environmental factors stimulating the development of human senses. The article draws reader’s attention to the evolution of senses evolving human organism as a biological response to some existing environmental factors. In particular the impact of information transmitted by environmental stimuli to the brain and their consequences on the individual life and lasting of species is emphasized. The main purpose of the article is...

  7. Universality of Man as a Cultural and Historical Human Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On the grounds of theoretical synthesis, the paper reveals the phenomenon of human being in its creative dimension. The present research is aimed at exploring the prospective opportunities for academic processes. The basics of universal essence of man as a cultural historic being with unlimited potential of self- development are defined; the man being mirrored by the basic philosophic concepts: naturalistic, orthodox-oriented, bio-social or bio-socio-cultural. There are two opposing views on human nature: the anthropological essentialism holding that individuality is predetermined by essence; and the anthropological existentialism claiming the opposite – human existence precedes the essentiality, the latter being constituted by the acts of choice, self-development and self-responsibility for personal choice and projecting. In the first case, the subjective side of human existence is ignored, while in the second – the objective socially conditioned side is left behind. Both theories are antihistorical as it is the history that conditions the essence of man according to the ancestral determination, the latter being modified by way of human activity and communication in a particular historical period. The components of human universal essence are defined as follows: possession of organic body, social heritage, free will, self-activity, creativity, social and rational human nature, absence of antagonistic programs of social behavior. According to the author, for the adequate realization of human universality, it is necessary to move from the profit oriented speculative market economy to the creative one oriented on social effectiveness, quality of life and reproduction of wholesome individuals. The research output can be used for devising the methodology of philosophic and pedagogic anthropology, as well as pedagogic practices of teaching philosophy and pedagogic theory in higher school. 

  8. Research in the Humanities: Ideals and Idols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombrich, E. H.

    1973-01-01

    Research in the humanities should be done in areas of interest, under circumstances conducive to intellectual study and should not be undertaken for the purposes of gathering all information on a subject, for the purpose of seeking the novel, in order to apply the latest research tools, or totally because the subject is being taught and…

  9. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 ... courtesy of NIGMS Neuroscientist Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough ...

  10. THE ACCOUSTICAL ENVIRONMENT OF HUMAN BEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grzesik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The author describes the importance of environmental factors stimulating the development of human senses. The article draws reader’s attention to the evolution of senses evolving human organism as a biological response to some existing environmental factors. In particular the impact of information transmitted by environmental stimuli to the brain and their consequences on the individual life and lasting of species is emphasized. The main purpose of the article is to convince the reader that sounds picked up by his ears especially sounds of human speech, are not only broad his awareness but have also a positive effect on our personality, play an important role in the development of mankind’s civilization and influence our cultural creativity

  11. Protecting human subjects in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orticio, Lily P

    2009-01-01

    The quest for advancing scientific knowledge through human experimentations using vulnerable groups is traced back to ancient history, when Herophilus performed vivisections on prisoners. The violation of the rights of human subjects through the 20th century led to the formulation of the Nuremberg Code in 1947 and the Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. In the United States, the most infamous was the Tuskegee public health study that resulted in the enactment of the National Research Act that authorized the creation of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects in Biomedical and Behavioral Research in 1974. In spite of existing federal regulations, the system of protecting human subjects is still flawed. Transparency of conflict ofinterest, clarity, and strict adherence to institutional guidelines are critical in safeguarding the rights and safety of human subjects and the integrity of research. Education on ethics and emerging complex ethical issues, global awareness, and governmental cooperation and sanctions are important steps in addressing the inadequacies in protecting the most vulnerable populations in experimentations worldwide. Investigators must always remember that the primary safeguards of protecting human life rest in their hands.

  12. Ethical Guidelines for Computer Security Researchers: "Be Reasonable"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassaman, Len

    For most of its existence, the field of computer science has been lucky enough to avoid ethical dilemmas by virtue of its relatively benign nature. The subdisciplines of programming methodology research, microprocessor design, and so forth have little room for the greater questions of human harm. Other, more recently developed sub-disciplines, such as data mining, social network analysis, behavioral profiling, and general computer security, however, open the door to abuse of users by practitioners and researchers. It is therefore the duty of the men and women who chart the course of these fields to set rules for themselves regarding what sorts of actions on their part are to be considered acceptable and what should be avoided or handled with caution out of ethical concerns. This paper deals solely with the issues faced by computer security researchers, be they vulnerability analysts, privacy system designers, malware experts, or reverse engineers.

  13. Making Human Beings Human: Bioecological Perspectives on Human Development. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    To a greater extent than any other species, human beings create the environments that, in turn, shape their own development. This book endeavors to demonstrate that human beings can also develop those environments to optimize their most constructive genetic potentials. What makes human beings human, therefore, is both the potential to shape their…

  14. [AIDS: ethics and scientific investigation on human beings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedj, R

    2008-04-01

    The experimentation on human beings of one or several therapeutic molecules discovered in laboratory is necessary and important because it helps to find new treatments or new diagnostic methods. But, it presents serious ethical problems. In this article we are analysing the example of the HIV infection. We are succinctly describing the research methods in laboratory for therapeutic molecules, first the experimentation on animals and then on human being in clinical trials. We will then try to show, with several examples, how during these last 25 years of HIV infection, the research of new molecules has not always respected the ethical rules set out in Helsinki declaration, "Code de la santé publique" or "Guide de bonnes pratiques cliniques-ICH" etc. We are discussing here the way to avoid these irregularities.

  15. Research on disaster prevention by human factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Kang, Sun Duck; Jo, Young Do [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Mining, by its very nature, requires workers and technology to function in an unpredictable environment that can not easily be engineered to accommodate human factors. Miners' physical and cognitive capabilities are sometimes stretched to the point that 'human error' in performance result. Mine safety researchers estimate that 50-85% of all mining injuries are due, in large part, to human error. Further research suggests that the primary causes of these errors in performance lie outside the individual and can be minimized by improvements in equipment design, work environments, work procedures and training. The human factors research is providing the science needed to determine which aspects of the mining environment can be made more worker-friendly and how miners can work more safely in environments that can not be improved. Underground mines have long been recognized as an innately hazardous and physically demanding work environment. Recently, mining is becoming a more complicated process as more sophisticated technologies are introduced. The more complicated or difficult the tasks to be performed, the more critical it is to have a systematic understanding of the humans, the technology, the environments, and how they interact. Human factors is a key component in solving most of today's mine safety and health problems. Human factors research primarily centered around solving problems in the following four areas: 1) How mining methods and equipment affect safety, 2) Evaluating the fit between miner's physical capabilities and the demands of their job, 3) Improving miner's ability to perceive and react to hazards, 4) Understanding how organizational and managerial variables influence safety. Human factor research was begun during the World war II. National Coal Board (British Coal) of Great Britain commenced ergonomics in 1969, and Bureau of Mine of United States started human factor researches in same year. Japan has very short history

  16. When less equal is less human: Intragroup (dis)respect and the experience of being human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renger, Daniela; Mommert, Alex; Renger, Sophus; Simon, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated that equality-based respect is an important antecedent of positive social interaction and group-serving behavior. In the present research we tested whether intragroup equality-based respect affects perceptions of being treated as a human as well as self-dehumanization. In Experiment 1, we found that high respect received from fellow work group members heightens group members' sense of being treated as a human being, while low respect diminishes it. In Experiment 2, we secured evidence that (dis)respect also affected recipients' self-views in terms of self-dehumanization. More specifically, if respect was withheld by other ingroup members, fewer human nature and human uniqueness traits, as well as secondary positive emotions, were attributed to the self. This increase in self-infrahumanization was further related to higher endorsement of unethical behavior. We discuss the importance of equality-based respect for (de-)humanization processes in social groups.

  17. On the Necessity of Being Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Reney

    Typically, students justify their pursuit of a college education as being necessary for a well-paying job, rather than as a tool for themselves as individuals. Often college curricula are responsible for turning students away from knowledge for its own sake. But should an education be merely useful? The description of the Alphas in Aldous Huxley's…

  18. Belonging, occupation, and human well-being: an exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, Karen R Whalley

    2014-02-01

    Researchers identify the importance of belonging to human well-being and provide evidence-based support for occupation as a medium for expressing and achieving a sense of belonging and connectedness. The purpose of this article is to highlight the imperative for occupational therapy theory and practice to address occupations concerned with belonging needs. Dominant occupational therapy models emphasise doing self-care, productive, and leisure occupations, thereby ignoring occupations undertaken to contribute to the well-being of others, occupations that foster connections to nature and ancestors, collaborative occupations, and those valued for their social context and potential to strengthen social roles. Belonging, connectedness, and interdependence are positively correlated with human well-being, are prioritized by the majority of the world's people, and inform the meanings attributed to and derived from the occupations of culturally diverse people. If occupational therapy is to address meaningful occupations, attention should be paid to occupations concerned with belonging, connecting, and contributing to others.

  19. Integrated Extravehicular Activity Human Research Plan: 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Norcross, Jason R.; Chappell, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Human Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Human Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Report is will also continue at a frequency determined by HRP management. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Human Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of

  20. Revitalizing urban waterfronts: identifying indicators for human well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Nam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Waterfront cities worldwide have begun the process of regenerating and developing their formerly industrial waterfronts into land uses that reflect a post-industrial economic vision of mixed urban uses supporting a diverse economy and wide range of infrastructure. These revitalization projects require distinct planning and management tactics to determine project-defined successes inclusive of economic, ecological, and human well-being perspectives. While empirically developed templates for economic and ecological measures exist, the multi-dimensionality and subjective nature of human well-being is more difficult to assess. Through an extensive review of indicator frameworks and expert interviews, our research proposes an organizational, yet adaptable, human well-being indicators framework for the management and development of urban waterfront revitalization projects. We analyze the framework through the lens of two waterfront projects in the Puget Sound region of the United States and identify several key factors necessary to developing project-specific human well-being indicator frameworks for urban waterfront revitalization projects. These factors include: initially specify goals and objectives of a given project, acknowledge contextual conditions including prospective land uses and projected users, identify the stage of development or management to use appropriate indicators for that stage, and develop and utilize data sources that are at a similar scale to the size of the project.

  1. 48 CFR 207.172 - Human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compliance with 32 CFR Part 219, Protection of Human Subjects; and (b) Must have a Human Research Protection... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human research. 207.172... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Acquisition Plans 207.172 Human research. Any...

  2. Integrating Spaceflight Human System Risk Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Anton, Wilma; Havenhill, Maria; Shelhamer, Mark; Canga, Michael

    2016-01-01

    NASA is working to increase the likelihood of human health and performance success during exploration missions as well as to maintain the subsequent long-term health of the crew. To manage the risks in achieving these goals, a system modelled after a Continuous Risk Management framework is in place. "Human System Risks" (Risks) have been identified, and approximately 30 are being actively addressed by NASA's Human Research Program (HRP). Research plans for each of HRP's Risks have been developed and are being executed. Inter-disciplinary ties between the research efforts supporting each Risk have been identified; however, efforts to identify and benefit from these connections have been mostly ad hoc. There is growing recognition that solutions developed to address the full set of Risks covering medical, physiological, behavioural, vehicle, and organizational aspects of exploration missions must be integrated across Risks and disciplines. This paper discusses how a framework of factors influencing human health and performance in space is being applied as the backbone for bringing together sometimes disparate information relevant to the individual Risks. The resulting interrelated information enables identification and visualization of connections between Risks and research efforts in a systematic and standardized manner. This paper also discusses the applications of the visualizations and insights into research planning, solicitation, and decision-making processes.

  3. Dynamics of energy harvesting backpack with human being interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yue; Zuo, Lei

    2016-04-01

    In last ten years, a lot of researchers have begun to look into obtaining electricity from the movement between human and their backpack that occurs during walking. In this paper, an innovative, elastically-suspended backpack with mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) based energy harvester is developed to generate electricity with high efficiency and reliability. Up to 28 Watts peak electrical power can be produced by the MMR based backpack energy harvester. A dynamic model for the system is presented along with experimental results. Three dual mass models for different distinct harvesters: pure viscous, non MMR, and MMR, are proposed, and a comparison in the output power and human comfort between the three models is discussed.

  4. Human Factors Research and Nuclear Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, Neville P., Ed.; Huey, Beverly M., Ed.

    The Panel on Human Factors Research Needs in Nuclear Regulatory Research was formed by the National Research Council in response to a request from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC asked the research council to conduct an 18-month study of human factors research needs for the safe operation of nuclear power plants. This report…

  5. Can biodiversity, human wellbeing and sustainable development indicators be linked?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Mainka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A mission to reduce the rate of loss of biodiversity as a contribution to poverty reduction was agreed as part of the Strategic Plan for the Convention on Biological Diversity, adopted by the Conference of the Parties in 2002. As 2010 draws to a close it is clear that this target will not be met. To continue and build on momentum generated by the 2010 target, the conservation community has been discussing a potential post-2010 framework that again includes explicit reference to the link between human wellbeing and conservation, and also considers the links with human wellbeing and sustainable development. Given this agreement, we reviewed several human wellbeing and sustainable development indicators compared to existing biodiversity status and trends indicators to determine if clear correlations can be found that could be used to track progress in a new framework. We undertook this review at both the global and continental levels. The indicators for protected area and forest cover showed significant positive correlation across all continents. We found a significant negative correlation between changes in protected area (PA cover and tonnage of greenhouse gas emissions released (GHGe between 1990 and 2005 for all the continents. At the global level we found no other correlation across the indicators reviewed. However, we found that correlations between the biodiversity and human wellbeing and sustainable development indicators varied across continents. As the only indicators for which global level correlations exist, we suggest that either protected area coverage or forest cover may be relevant biodiversity indicators for global analyses of biodiversity-human wellbeing or sustainable development relationships, and that the relationship between protected area cover and greenhouse gases could be one indicator for links between biodiversity and sustainable development. More research is needed to better understand factors involved in the

  6. Ethical Considerations in Human Movement Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Steve

    1995-01-01

    Highlights ethical issues for human subject research, identifying principles that form the construct of a code of research ethics and evaluating against this construct past human experimentation and current research in human movement studies. The efficacy of legislation and self-regulation is examined. Particular attention is given to the context…

  7. Integrating spaceflight human system risk research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Anton, Wilma; Havenhill, Maria; Shelhamer, Mark; Canga, Michael

    2017-10-01

    NASA is working to increase the likelihood of exploration mission success and to maintain crew health, both during exploration missions and long term after return to Earth. To manage the risks in achieving these goals, a system modelled after a Continuous Risk Management framework is in place. ;Human System Risks; (Risks) have been identified, and 32 are currently being actively addressed by NASA's Human Research Program (HRP). Research plans for each of HRP's Risks have been developed and are being executed. Inter-disciplinary ties between the research efforts supporting each Risk have been identified; however, efforts to identify and benefit from these connections have been mostly ad hoc. There is growing recognition that solutions developed to address the full set of Risks covering medical, physiological, behavioural, vehicle, and organizational aspects of exploration missions must be integrated across Risks and disciplines. This paper discusses how a framework of factors influencing human health and performance in space is being applied as the backbone for bringing together sometimes disparate information relevant to the individual Risks. The resulting interrelated information enables identification and visualization of connections between Risks and research efforts in a systematic and standardized manner. This paper also discusses the applications of the visualizations and insights into research planning, solicitation, and decision-making processes.

  8. Usability: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina L.

    2009-01-01

    The Usability project addresses the need for research in the area of metrics and methodologies used in hardware and software usability testing in order to define quantifiable and verifiable usability requirements. A usability test is a human-in-the-loop evaluation where a participant works through a realistic set of representative tasks using the hardware/software under investigation. The purpose of this research is to define metrics and methodologies for measuring and verifying usability in the aerospace domain in accordance with FY09 focus on errors, consistency, and mobility/maneuverability. Usability metrics must be predictive of success with the interfaces, must be easy to obtain and/or calculate, and must meet the intent of current Human Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR). Methodologies must work within the constraints of the aerospace domain, be cost and time efficient, and be able to be applied without extensive specialized training.

  9. [Ethical principles in human scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Coke, R

    1994-07-01

    Hippocrates was the first physician to use the scientific method to find rational and not religious or mythic causes, for the etiology of diseases. Hippocrates and Aristoteles did not dare to dissect the human body. Afterwards however, many scientists such as Herophilus, Erasitastrus, Vesalus and Fallopio, performed experiments in human beings using vivisection. According to that age's ideas, there was no cruelty in performing vivisection in criminals, since useful knowledge for the progress of medicine and relief of diseases was obtained. Only during the nineteenth century and with Claude Bernard (1865), the ethical principles of systematic scientific research in humans were defined. These principles were violated by nazi physicians during Hitler's dictatorship in Germany (1933-1945). As a response to these horrors, the Ethical Codes of Nuremberg (1947) and Geneva (1948), that reestablished all the strength of Hippocratic principles, were dictated. The Nuremberg rules enact that a research subject must give a voluntary consent, that the experiment must by necessary and exempt of death risk, that the research must be qualified and that the experiment must be discontinued if there is a risk for the subject. The Geneva statement is a modernized hippocratic oath that protects patient's life above all. These classical rules, in force at the present time, are the essential guides that must be applied by physicians and researchers.

  10. Human Subjects Issues in AIDS Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Six articles are presented on the use of human subjects in research on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Topics include the ethics of human experimentation, female and pediatric AIDS patients, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS among correctional inmates, community-based AIDS research, and clinical trials of HIV…

  11. Smartphones Could Be a Boon to Heart Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162544.html Smartphones Could Be a Boon to Heart Health Research ... 14, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Dec. 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smartphones might revolutionize cardiac research by giving instant, accurate ...

  12. Social justice and research using human biological material: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    commercial medical research that uses human biological material, such as blood samples or other ... and provide that a person from whose body human biological material is withdrawn for .... part of investigators and institutions. This could be ...

  13. Research on Chinese Visible Human Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangShaoxiang

    2003-01-01

    “Visible Human Project (VHP)” was initiated by US National Library of Medicine in 1989, and in August 1991, the library signed a contract with Health Science Center of the University of Col-orado to formally carry out the project. According-ly, research team at the University of Colorado col-lected a structural data set of human body after obtaining successive sectiona/ images. A digital image data set of a complete human male cadaver was acquired and made available for public use in November 1994, which aroused worldwide enthu-siasm in this field, and remarkable social and eco-nomic benefit has been gained. Thereafter, some countries initiated their visible human project one after another. Korea started 5-year“Visible Kore-an Human (VKH)” project (Mar. 2000--Feb.2005) in 2000, and the first data set derived from apatient with cerebroma was acquired in 2001. Chi-na began its project in 1999. The first data set of Chinese visible human was obtained at The Third Military Medical University in October 2002. Before that, by utilizing data made public by US VHP, Chi-nese scientists in informatics had exerted them-selves on preliminary work to pave the way for fur-ther achievement. Now that VHP research is such a promising scientific field to meet the need of digital era and will be increasingly common in many areas related with structure and function of human body,the deployment of Chinese Visible Human Project(CVHP) is of great strategic significance with re-gard to science and technology.

  14. 75 FR 45130 - Guidance for Industry and Researchers on the Radioactive Drug Research Committee: Human Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Researchers on the Radioactive Drug Research Committee: Human Research Without an Investigational New Drug Application; Availability... the availability of a draft guidance for industry and researchers entitled ``The Radioactive...

  15. International Space Station Research Benefits for Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Johnson-Green, Perry; Buckley, Nicole; Karabadzhak, George; Nakamura, Tai; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Fuglesang, Christer; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The ISS partnership has seen a substantial increase in research accomplished, crew efforts devoted to research, and results of ongoing research and technology development. The ISS laboratory is providing a unique environment for research and international collaboration that benefits humankind. Benefits come from the engineering development, the international partnership, and from the research results. Benefits can be of three different types: scientific discovery, applications to life on Earth, and applications to future exploration. Working across all ISS partners, we identified key themes where the activities on the ISS improve the lives of people on Earth -- not only within the partner nations, but also in other nations of the world. Three major themes of benefits to life on earth emerged from our review: benefits to human health, education, and Earth observation and disaster response. Other themes are growing as use of the ISS continues. Benefits to human health range from advancements in surgical technology, improved telemedicine, and new treatments for disease. Earth observations from the ISS provide a wide range of observations that include: marine vessel tracking, disaster monitoring and climate change. The ISS participates in a number of educational activities aimed to inspire students of all ages to learn about science, technology, engineering and mathematics. To date over 63 countries have directly participated in some aspect of ISS research or education. In summarizing these benefits and accomplishments, ISS partners are also identifying ways to further extend the benefits to people in developing countries for the benefits of humankind.

  16. [BODY AND CORPORALITY IN THE HUMAN BEING: SOME INTERDISCIPLINARY REFLECTIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez Amaya, JosÉ Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of this contribution is to illustrate some differential aspects between the human and the animal bodies, in order to understand the main distinctive characteristic of the human being: his or her rationality. Thus, we firstly deal with some considerations about the general anthropological framework in which the human body is going to be analysed. Next, we briefly explain the importance of the body for an adequate understanding of the intimacy and the biographical perspectives of the person. Here we show some examples of the altered human corporality to stress the importance of the relation to oneself and others as a key and fundamental aspect to look at our rational corporality.

  17. IT Research and Development: should there be control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Weckert

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Two views are prevalent with respect to suitable topics for scientific research. One, typically held by researchers, is that any topic of research is fair game for the researcher. The result of research is knowledge, and knowledge in itself is neither good nor bad, therefore there can be no moral reasons for restricting research in any area. The proviso of course is that the research is undertaken in an appropriate manner. The other view is that science, even pure science, should serve the needs of the broader society, and therefore the society should have a say in what scientific research is conducted. Some should be avoided or even forbidden because it is harmful or will most likely be put to some harmful uses, because it is useless and therefore a waste of public assets, or because other research is more important. This debate rests on a tangled web of theories, reasoning and assumptions. This paper will explore some of these underlying issues and examine the responsibilities of professional researchers, with particular reference to research in artificial intelligence.

  18. Agency, Values, and Well-Being: A Human Development Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, Christian; Inglehart, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that feelings of agency are linked to human well-being through a sequence of adaptive mechanisms that promote human development, once existential conditions become permissive. In the first part, we elaborate on the evolutionary logic of this model and outline why an evolutionary perspective is helpful to understand changes in…

  19. Genetic Modification of Preimplantation Embryos: Toward Adequate Human Research Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo mo...

  20. Should mental health assessments be integral to domestic violence research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Veena A; Chandra, Prabha S

    2009-01-01

    Research on sensitive issues such as abuse and violence in vulnerable populations poses several ethical dilemmas. An important aspect is the impact of such enquiries on one's mental health. This paper discusses specific ethical issues related to mental health based on violence research conducted and reviewed by the authors. Research on violence among women includes the possibility that some revelations are occurring for the first time and are likely to be emotionally charged. Further, the very act of disclosure may involve emotional risks for the respondent. Psychological distress may be present prior to, during, or following the study. Hence assessing mental health parameters becomes essential and integral to research of this nature. Several issues in methodology are also important in mitigating the level of distress. Research on sensitive issues should either use measures developed in the same culture or those with adequate adaptation. The order of questions, language and method of termination of the interview may often make a difference to its psychological impact. While focus group discussions and semi structured interview schedules are most suited, questionnaires with a less structured and rigid approach may also be used. Preludes may be introduced to facilitate transition between different sections of an interview schedule and to provide a rationale for further enquiry. Obtaining informed consent in violence research should be a process rather than a one-time formality. Reports of adverse events are likely in violence research and hence such studies must include mental health intervention, ongoing follow up, documentation and appropriate referral services. Finally, since the researcher and the subject of the research are both affected in a study of this nature, adequate sensitisation, ongoing training and supervision of research staff are essential. Based on findings from ongoing research on violence and from review of other studies done in India, the paper

  1. When should potentially false research findings be considered acceptable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Djulbegovic

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Ioannidis estimated that most published research findings are false, but he did not indicate when, if at all, potentially false research results may be considered as acceptable to society. We combined our two previously published models to calculate the probability above which research findings may become acceptable. A new model indicates that the probability above which research results should be accepted depends on the expected payback from the research (the benefits and the inadvertent consequences (the harms. This probability may dramatically change depending on our willingness to tolerate error in accepting false research findings. Our acceptance of research findings changes as a function of what we call "acceptable regret," i.e., our tolerance of making a wrong decision in accepting the research hypothesis. We illustrate our findings by providing a new framework for early stopping rules in clinical research (i.e., when should we accept early findings from a clinical trial indicating the benefits as true?. Obtaining absolute "truth" in research is impossible, and so society has to decide when less-than-perfect results may become acceptable.

  2. When should potentially false research findings be considered acceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Hozo, Iztok

    2007-02-01

    Ioannidis estimated that most published research findings are false, but he did not indicate when, if at all, potentially false research results may be considered as acceptable to society. We combined our two previously published models to calculate the probability above which research findings may become acceptable. A new model indicates that the probability above which research results should be accepted depends on the expected payback from the research (the benefits) and the inadvertent consequences (the harms). This probability may dramatically change depending on our willingness to tolerate error in accepting false research findings. Our acceptance of research findings changes as a function of what we call "acceptable regret," i.e., our tolerance of making a wrong decision in accepting the research hypothesis. We illustrate our findings by providing a new framework for early stopping rules in clinical research (i.e., when should we accept early findings from a clinical trial indicating the benefits as true?). Obtaining absolute "truth" in research is impossible, and so society has to decide when less-than-perfect results may become acceptable.

  3. Communicating in Fighting the Trafficking of Human Beings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irina Pop

    2013-01-01

      Romania's progress in adopting the laws in fighting THB assessed in the First European Reports in applying the Warsaw Convention in Fighting Trafficking in Human Beings In 2012, 31 of May, the Group...

  4. Basic Science Research and the Protection of Human Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiseman, Elisa

    2001-03-01

    Technological advances in basic biological research have been instrumental in recent biomedical discoveries, such as in the understanding and treatment of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and heart disease. However, many of these advances also raise several new ethical challenges. For example, genetic research may pose no physical risk beyond that of obtaining the initial blood sample, yet it can pose significant psychological and economic risks to research participants, such as stigmatization, discrimination in insurance and employment, invasion of privacy, or breach of confidentiality. These harms may occur even when investigators do not directly interact with the person whose DNA they are studying. Moreover, this type of basic research also raises broader questions, such as what is the definition of a human subject, and what kinds of expertise do Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) need to review the increasingly diverse types of research made possible by these advances in technology. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), a presidentially appointed federal advisory committee, has addressed these and other ethical, scientific and policy issues that arise in basic science research involving human participants. Two of its six reports, in particular, have proposed recommendations in this regard. "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical and Policy Guidance" addresses the basic research use of human tissues, cells and DNA and the protection of human participants in this type of research. In "Ethical and Policy Issues in the Oversight of Human Research" NBAC proposes a definition of research involving human participants that would apply to all scientific disciplines, including physical, biological, and social sciences, as well as the humanities and related professions, such as business and law. Both of these reports make it clear that the protection of research participants is key to conducting ethically sound research. By ensuring that all participants in

  5. Forensic uses of research biobanks: should donors be informed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranseika, Vilius; Piasecki, Jan; Waligora, Marcin

    2016-03-01

    Occasional reports in the literature suggest that biological samples collected and stored for scientific research are sometimes accessed and used for a variety of forensic purposes. However, donors are almost never informed about this possibility. In this paper we argue that the possibility of forensic access may constitute a relevant consideration at least to some potential research subjects in deciding whether to participate in research. We make the suggestion that if some type of forensic access to research collections is likely to be perceived by the subjects as a reason against donating their biological materials, there are good ethical reasons to make this type of access impossible or at least severely restricted. We also provide an ethical argument for the claim that, if a total ban on this type of forensic access cannot be achieved, potential research subjects should be informed about the extent to which this type of forensic access is possible.

  6. Human subject research for engineers a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    de Winter, Joost C F

    2017-01-01

    This Brief introduces engineers to the main principles in ethics, research design, statistics, and publishing of human subject research. In recent years, engineering has become strongly connected to disciplines such as biology, medicine, and psychology. Often, engineers (and engineering students) are expected to perform human subject research. Typical human subject research topics conducted by engineers include human-computer interaction (e.g., evaluating the usability of software), exoskeletons, virtual reality, teleoperation, modelling of human behaviour and decision making (often within the framework of ‘big data’ research), product evaluation, biometrics, behavioural tracking (e.g., of work and travel patterns, or mobile phone use), transport and planning (e.g., an analysis of flows or safety issues), etc. Thus, it can be said that knowledge on how to do human subject research is indispensable for a substantial portion of engineers. Engineers are generally well trained in calculus and mechanics, but m...

  7. Human factors/ergonomics as a systems discipline? "The human use of human beings" revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Discussions of the possible future of Human factors/ergonomics (HFE) usually take the past for granted in the sense that the future of HFE is assumed to be more of the same. This paper argues that the nature of work in the early 2010s is so different from the nature of work when HFE was formulated...

  8. Genetic modification of preimplantation embryos: toward adequate human research policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects.

  9. Human Research and Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, James

    2008-01-01

    The disavowal of positivist science by many educational researchers has resulted in a deepening polarization of research agendas and an epistemological divide that appears increasingly difficult to span. Despite a turning away from science altogether by some, and thus toward various forms of poststructuralist inquiry, this has not held back the…

  10. Research on Human-Robot Joint System for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei

    The lunar exploration in China is in progress. In order to reduce human workload and costs, and conduct researches more effectively and efficiently, human-robot joint systems are necessary for lunar exploration. The concept of human-robot joint system for lunar exploration is studied in this paper. The possible collaborative ways between human and robots and the collaborative activities which can be conducted for lunar exploration are discussed. Moreover, the preliminary configuration of a human-robot joint system is presented.

  11. Mapping Frontier Research in the Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whereas the classical sciences were organized around academic disciplines, knowledge production today is increasingly interdisciplinary and distributed across a variety of societal sectors. Classical disciplines have not only specialized and multiplied; they are increasingly interacting with extra...... of impact and styles of reasoning, both in classical and interdisciplinary fields of the humanities. From this perspective, a more composite picture of human culture, language and history can emerge from humanities research. It goes beyond the picture of rational agents, and situates human interaction...

  12. "I" as Most Important Motivation of Human Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Navali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article entitled" "I" as most important motivation of Human being" want to consider the main source of all human behaviors. This article aims to answer the question that what causes values or anti-values and also new ideas, giving meanings and human attitudes to be created? Where is the source of human activity and inactivity? Despite the diversity of human behaviors and actions of various origins it seems that one and same origin for all of them can be considered and it is self-preservation. Of course, self-preservation is a general principle for all living creatures.Calling it "self-preservation" in this writing, therefore I say that it is most important motivation of human behavior (whether active or passive behavior. Therefore, "I" is present everywhere with us and that is the creator of happiness and sadness. Thus, all our social and cultural behaviors in our society emanate from it and there will be always "selfishness" in society.

  13. [Human nature and the enhancement of human beings in the light of the transhumanist program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffi, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    There are three main approaches about the question of Human Nature. essentialists consider that there exists a permanent Human Nature, shared by every human being. Existentialists consider that there is no such thing as human nature, but inescapable modes of being in the world. A moderate approach would consider that Human Nature can be modified within the limits of anthropological invariants. Transhumanists are conservative in that they think that there is a Human Nature; but they are radical in that they believe that it can (and must) be transcended by bio-technnologies and computer technologies. This project is evaluated as a caricature of suitable human enhancement.

  14. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieling, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias; Pirker, Heidemarie;

    2014-01-01

    Human well-being is tightly linked to the natural environment. Although this notion is well-established, it remains difficult to assess how the biophysical features of a specific area contribute towards the well-being of the people attached to it. We explore this topic using the case of four areas...... in Germany and Austria by performing open, single-question interviews with 262 respondents. Data reveal an outstanding relevance of nonmaterial values. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being are tied to specific features of the material environment but, likewise, practices and experiences play...... to engage with their natural surroundings should be considered a strategy for fostering human well-being. ...

  15. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieling, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias; Pirker, Heidemarie

    2014-01-01

    Human well-being is tightly linked to the natural environment. Although this notion is well-established, it remains difficult to assess how the biophysical features of a specific area contribute towards the well-being of the people attached to it. We explore this topic using the case of four areas...... in Germany and Austria by performing open, single-question interviews with 262 respondents. Data reveal an outstanding relevance of nonmaterial values. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being are tied to specific features of the material environment but, likewise, practices and experiences play...

  16. Common Social Values of Human Being Reflected in Cinderella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳凤霞

    2012-01-01

      By an investigation of various versions of Cinderella, it can be found that although the details in these stories are different, they carry with the same theme. With its various versions, Cinderella reflected the common social values of human being based on a patriarchal society.

  17. Trafficking in human beings, enslavement, crimes against humanity: unravelling the concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wilt, H.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the conceptual relationship between trafficking in human beings, enslavement and crimes against humanity. The analysis of case law of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the European Court on Human Rights reveals that, while trafficking in human

  18. Do perfume additives termed human pheromones warrant being termed pheromones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winman, Anders

    2004-09-30

    Two studies of the effects of perfume additives, termed human pheromones by the authors, have conveyed the message that these substances can promote an increase in human sociosexual behaviour [Physiol. Behav. 75 (2003) R1; Arch. Sex. Behav. 27 (1998) R2]. The present paper presents an extended analysis of this data. It is shown that in neither study is there a statistically significant increase in any of the sociosexual behaviours for the experimental groups. In the control groups of both studies, there are, however, moderate but statistically significant decreases in the corresponding behaviour. Most notably, there is no support in data for the claim that the substances increase the attractiveness of the wearers of the substances to the other sex. It is concluded that more research using matched homogenous groups of participants is needed.

  19. Seres humanos, trabalho e utopias Human beings, work and utopias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iúri Novaes Luna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio teórico expõe visões de autores selecionados, em períodos históricos distintos, sobre os seres humanos e suas relações sociais e indica como algumas dessas visões ajudam a explicar e legitimar a existência e o desenvolvimento do modo de produção capitalista, enquanto outras levantam possibilidades de transformação social. Em seguida, apresenta as idealizações de modelos sociais de Platão, em "A República", de Thomas More, em "A Utopia", e de Saint-Simon, Owen e Fourier, denominados "socialistas utópicos". A compreensão das diferentes concepções de homem e dos projetos sociais nelas fundamentados, pode enriquecer e localizar historicamente pesquisas sobre a atual configuração do mundo do trabalho e a situação dos trabalhadores.The present theoretical essay presents the views of selected authors from distinct historical periods, about human beings and their social relations and indicates how some of theses views help to explain and legitimate the existence and the development of the capitalist way of production, while others raise possibilities for social transformation. It presents the idealizations of social models of Plato in "The Republic", Thomas More in "The Utopia", and the "utopian socialists" Saint-Simon, Owen and Fourier. The comprehension of the different concepts of man and of the social projects based on them can enrich and historically locate researches on the current configuration of the world of labor and the situation of workers.

  20. Human factors/ergonomics as a systems discipline? "The human use of human beings" revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Discussions of the possible future of Human factors/ergonomics (HFE) usually take the past for granted in the sense that the future of HFE is assumed to be more of the same. This paper argues that the nature of work in the early 2010s is so different from the nature of work when HFE was formulated 60-70 years ago that a critical reassessment of the basis for HFE is needed. If HFE should be a systems discipline, it should be a soft systems rather than a hard systems discipline. It is not enough for HFE to seek to improve performance and well-being through systems design, since any change to the work environment in principle alters the very basis for the change. Instead HFE should try to anticipate how the nature of work will change so that it can both foresee what work will be and propose what work should be.

  1. The Future Human Being – What is it like?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusevych Tetiana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Realization of permanent transformational transitions has brought to necessity to apprehend complex ontological issues of a new reality for development of a complex strategy for adequate opposition to challenges faced by the humanity. Understanding the role of education in the formation and development of a future human being ranks first among these issues. In this article I have analyzed modern directions of futuristic apprehension of a sense of transformational changes of a man (transhumanism, theory of androgyny, represented a key role of the philosophy of education in development of an image of the future human being, and determined main characteristics of a personality of planetary-cosmic type, system of his personal, local and global interactions.

  2. ETHOS OF MUSIC ART AND HUMAN WELL-BEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN COZMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available What does make the ground of the authentic works of music art crossing the centuries and what does move the human soul any time and anywhere? Which is the support of music art – generally speaking – beyond its aesthetic dimension? How could we explain and understand, in a better and in a more efficient way, the powerful influence of musical artistic creation upon the human well-being? These are merely part of the interrogations challenging our interest in finding and revealing the profound link between ethical values, music art and human health (in its integrality. The purpose of this essay is to emphasize the foundation of human equilibrium considering the offer of the harmony carried by music art, exploring the significance of a nucleus-concept of the Greek philosophers that has been acknowledged as kalokagatheia – the self-fulfilled cultivation of body and soul, as a micro-cosmos living within the macro-cosmos. In terms of a philosophical hermeneutics of art, we reach to disclose part of the salutogenic function of music art concerning the human well-being in nowadays.

  3. Human embryonic stem cell research: ethical and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J A

    2001-01-01

    The use of human embryonic stem cells to replace damaged cells and tissues promises future hope for the treatment of many diseases. However, many countries now face complex ethical and legal questions as a result of the research needed to develop these cell-replacement therapies. The challenge that must be met is how to permit research on human embryonic tissue to occur while maintaining respect for human life generally.

  4. [Ecosystem services supply and consumption and their relationships with human well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Shang; Zheng, Hua; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun

    2013-06-01

    Sustainable ecosystem services supply is the basis of regional sustainable development, and human beings can satisfy and improve their well-being through ecosystem services consumption. To understand the relationships between ecosystem services supply and consumption and human well-being is of vital importance for coordinating the relationships between the conservation of ecosystem services and the improvement of human well-being. This paper summarized the diversity, complexity, and regionality of ecosystem services supply, the diversity and indispensability of ecosystem services consumption, and the multi-dimension, regionality, and various evaluation indices of human well-being, analyzed the uncertainty and multi-scale correlations between ecosystem services supply and consumption, and elaborated the feedback and asynchronous relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being. Some further research directions for the relationships between ecosystem services supply and consumption and human well-being were recommended.

  5. Can Psychological Expectation Models Be Adapted for Placebo Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, Winfried; Petrie, Keith J

    2016-01-01

    Placebo responses contribute substantially to the effect and clinical outcome of medical treatments. Patients' expectations have been identified as one of the major mechanisms contributing to placebo effects. However, to date a general theoretical framework to better understand how patient expectations interact with features of medical treatment has not been developed. In this paper we outline an expectation model that can be used as framework for experimental studies on both placebo and nocebo mechanisms. This model is based on psychological concepts of expectation development, expectation maintenance, and expectation change within the typical paradigms used in placebo research. This theoretical framework reflects the dynamic aspects of the interaction between expectations and medical treatment, and offers a platform to combine psychological and neurophysiological research activities. Moreover, this model can be used to identify important future research questions. For example, we argue that the dynamic processes of expectation maintenance vs. expectation changes are not sufficiently addressed in current research on placebo mechanisms. Therefore, the question about how to change and optimize patients' expectations prior to treatment should be a special focus of future clinical research.

  6. Can Research on the Genetics of Intelligence Be "Socially Neutral"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    The history of research on the genetics of intelligence is fraught with social bias. During the eugenics era, the hereditary theory of intelligence justified policies that encouraged the proliferation of favored races and coercively stemmed procreation by disfavored ones. In the 1970s, Berkeley psychologist Arthur Jensen argued that black students' innate cognitive inferiority limited the efficacy of federal education programs. The 1994 controversial bestseller The Bell Curve, by Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray, rehashed the claim that race and class disparities stem from immutable differences in inherited intelligence, which could not be eliminated through social interventions. Today most scientists studying the genetics of intelligence distance themselves from this history of social bias by arguing that their research need not investigate intellectual differences between social groups. Rather, they argue, examining the heritability of intelligence can be socially neutral and may even help to reduce social inequities. I argue, however, that research on the genetics of intelligence cannot be socially neutral. Even if we divorce the heritability of intelligence from a eugenicist mission, measuring intelligence remains useful only as a gage of individuals' appropriate positions in society. Research into the genetics of intelligence ultimately helps to determine individuals' inherited capacity for particular social positions, even when researchers aim to modify the effects of inheritance.

  7. On Becoming Better Human Beings: Six Stories to Live by

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wivestad, Stein M.

    2013-01-01

    What are the conditions required for becoming better human beings? What are our limitations and possibilities? I understand "becoming better" as a combined improvement process bringing persons "up from" a negative condition and "up to" a positive one. Today there is a tendency to understand improvement in a one-sided way as a movement up to the…

  8. The Teacher/Writer: Model, Learner, Human Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Geraldine Lee

    1984-01-01

    Describes observations of classrooms in which the teachers participated with the students in writing exercises. Discusses the three teacher/writer roles that emerged during the class--teacher/writer as model, teacher/writer as learner, and teacher/writer as human being--and the bond of understanding that developed as the teachers as students…

  9. Updating freeze: Aligning animal and human research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, M.A.; Oitzl, M.S.; Roelofs, K.

    2014-01-01

    Freezing is widely used as the main outcome measure for fear in animal studies. Freezing is also getting attention more frequently in human stress research, as it is considered to play an important role in the development of psychopathology. Human models on defense behavior are largely based on anim

  10. Educational Research: The Importance of the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2015-01-01

    It is one sign of the lack of understanding of the value of the humanities, to educational research and inquiry as well as to our world more widely, that such justifications of them as are offered frequently take a crudely instrumental form. The humanities (which in this essay are not distinguished from the arts) are welcomed insofar as they are…

  11. [Why should clinicians be engaged in research and publication?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoka, Sumio

    2015-01-01

    Why should clinicians be engaged in research and publication? The reason is that they have to deliver comprehensive medical care for patients. Clinicians endeavor to improve their clinical skills by learning updated medical knowledge and new techniques in order to save lives. By taking part in research and publications, clinicians are able to contribute actively to the progress in medicine contrary to passive involvement in it without research and publications. Mission of Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists (JSA), clearly mention that JSA aims to advance high quality research and developing new methods in medicine. JSA also necessitates, as a minimum requirement for Board Certified Anesthesiologists, presentations in annual meeting of JSA or related society meetings and also publications in Journal of Anesthesia, an official journal of JSA, or other related anesthesia journals. By experiencing research and publications, clinicians can obtain knowledge, skills as well as attitudes, which are also useful in everyday clinical work, such as logical way of thinking, how to write papers to be understood, tolerance to peer review and objective evaluation, and maintaining spirit of enterprise in their career.

  12. Human research ethics committees in technical universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepsell, David; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Pont, Sylvia

    2014-07-01

    Human research ethics has developed in both theory and practice mostly from experiences in medical research. Human participants, however, are used in a much broader range of research than ethics committees oversee, including both basic and applied research at technical universities. Although mandated in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia, non-medical research involving humans need not receive ethics review in much of Europe, Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Our survey of the top 50 technical universities in the world shows that, where not specifically mandated by law, most technical universities do not employ ethics committees to review human studies. As the domains of basic and applied sciences expand, ethics committees are increasingly needed to guide and oversee all such research regardless of legal requirements. We offer as examples, from our experience as an ethics committee in a major European technical university, ways in which such a committee provides needed services and can help ensure more ethical studies involving humans outside the standard medical context. We provide some arguments for creating such committees, and in our supplemental article, we provide specific examples of cases and concerns that may confront technical, engineering, and design research, as well as outline the general framework we have used in creating our committee.

  13. Marriage and Child Well-Being: Research and Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the linkages between marriage and child well-being have attracted the attention of researchers and policy makers alike. Children's living arrangements have become increasingly diverse and unstable, which raises important questions about how and why family structure and stability are related to child outcomes. This article…

  14. Talking about Happiness: Interview Research and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In addition to teaching research and writing skills, First-Year Composition classes are well situated to help students develop strategies for managing stress and increasing well-being. I describe an assignment sequence in which students interview others from three generations about topics related to happiness and wellbeing, analyze shared…

  15. The Mindful Teacher: Translating Research into Daily Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva, Amy L.; Thayer, Natalie M.

    2017-01-01

    This article features a stress management approach that is becoming increasingly influential in schools: mindfulness-based stress reduction. The authors describe what it is, provide research-based evidence of its usefulness, and highlight mindfulness resources that educators can use to manage stress and improve their well-being (including…

  16. Marriage and Child Well-Being: Research and Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the linkages between marriage and child well-being have attracted the attention of researchers and policy makers alike. Children's living arrangements have become increasingly diverse and unstable, which raises important questions about how and why family structure and stability are related to child outcomes. This article…

  17. The Mindful Teacher: Translating Research into Daily Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva, Amy L.; Thayer, Natalie M.

    2017-01-01

    This article features a stress management approach that is becoming increasingly influential in schools: mindfulness-based stress reduction. The authors describe what it is, provide research-based evidence of its usefulness, and highlight mindfulness resources that educators can use to manage stress and improve their well-being (including…

  18. Presence of Beryllium (Be) in urban soils: human health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Gonzalez, M. J.; Lobo, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Berylium (Be) is, together with As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Ti, one of the trace elements more toxic for human being (Vaessen) and Szteke, 2000; Yaman and Avci, 2006), but in spite of the exponential increment of its applications during the last decades, surprisingly there isn't hardly information about its presence and environmental distribution. The aim of this work is to evaluate the presence of Beryllium in urban soils in Alcala de Henares, (Madrid Spain).

  19. Selecting measures for human factors research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantowitz, B H

    1992-08-01

    Selecting measures is a necessary component of human factors research. Proper selection must take into account the representation problem (how is the assignment of numbers to objects or phenomena justified?) and the uniqueness problem (to what degree is this assignment unique?). Other key human factors measurement issues include subject representativeness, variable representativeness, and setting representativeness. It is difficult to create a single measure that captures essential characteristics of complex systems. Several examples illustrate how theory can guide measurement selection in such diverse human factors research as vigilance, turning off warning alarms, information requirements for military command centers, subjective workload, heart-rate signal analysis, and heat stress in nuclear power plants.

  20. Human Experimentation: Impact on Health Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacalis, T. Demetri; Griffis, Kathleen

    1980-01-01

    The problems of the use of humans as subjects of medical research and the protection of their rights are discussed. Issues include the use of informed consent, the evaluation of risks and benefits, and the review of research plans by a committee. (JD)

  1. Minority workers or minority human beings? A European dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove; Phillipson, Robert

    1996-07-01

    "European" identities may be politonymic, toponymic, ethnomyic or linguonymic (Bromley 1984). Each dimension may affect whether migrant minorities are treated as "European", and influence their schooling, integration and rights. Treatment and terminology vary in different states and periods of migration. However, the position for immigrated minorities is that they are still largely seen as workers rather than human beings with equal rights. Lack of success in schools is blamed on the migrants themselves rather than the educational system. This construction of migrants as being deficient is parallel to educational practice which falls within a UN definition of linguistic genocide, and contributes to mis-education. If current efforts in international bodies to codify educational linguistic human rights were to lead to greater support for minorities, this could assist in a redefinition of national identities and a reduction of racism and conflict.

  2. Forensic medical examination of victims of trafficking in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alempijevic, Djordie; Jecmenica, Dragan; Pavlekic, Snezana; Savic, Slobodan; Aleksandric, Branimir

    2007-01-01

    Trafficking in human beigns (THB) is recognized as a global public health issue as well as a violation of human rights. Trafficking has been identified to be associated with several health risks including psychological trauma, injuries from violence, and substance misuse. Public and media reports suggest that the morbidity and mortality associated with trafficking are substantial. The need of medico-legal healthcare for THB victims is being neglected. Forensic medical examination, as specific intervention, is a highly desirable element of ermegency health care provided for victims of tracking. Acting in such a way, the investigation should establish the facts related to the allegatation of trafficking, thereby assisting in identifying those responsible, but also contributing to the procedures designed to obtain redress for the victims. Local anti-trafficking policies and interventions, however, have not acknowledged these needs. Therefore, the agenda of anti-trafficking policies needs to be redrawn to include forensic medical assessment of victims for legal purposes.

  3. [Culpability and the problem of the human genome. Between being and having to be].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donna, Edgardo

    2011-01-01

    In a liberal-democratic system, there is no possibility of a criminal liability charge without a minimum of freedom. Nevertheless, since a long time ago and, nowadays, with the advancement of science in the human genome, understanding it as a closed system--farm theory--is intended to demonstrate that the genome is a destination, thus criminal liability will be void, giving rise to security measures.

  4. What’s Wrong with Human/Nonhuman Chimera Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Insoo

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is poised to lift its funding moratorium on research involving chimeric human/nonhuman embryos, pending further consideration by an NIH steering committee. The kinds of ethical concerns that seem to underlie this research and chimera research more generally can be adequately addressed. PMID:27574863

  5. Research Dissemination in Creative Arts, Humanities and the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazeley, Pat

    2006-01-01

    An ethnographic case study of issues related to research performance and promotion of research was conducted within the Creative and Performing Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences (AHSS) disciplines of a regional university. The purpose of the study was to explore a variety of ways in which the research work of those disciplines could be made…

  6. Human Research Program: 2010 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    2010 was a year of solid performance for the Human Research Program in spite of major changes in NASA's strategic direction for Human Spaceflight. Last year, the Program completed the final steps in solidifying the management foundation, and in 2010 we achieved exceptional performance from all elements of the research and technology portfolio. We transitioned from creating building blocks to full execution of the management tools for an applied research and technology program. As a team, we continue to deliver the answers and technologies that enable human exploration of space. While the Agency awaits strategic direction for human spaceflight, the Program is well positioned and critically important to helping the Agency achieve its goals.

  7. Colloquium paper: the difference of being human: morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco J

    2010-05-11

    In The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, published in 1871, Charles Darwin wrote: "I fully ... subscribe to the judgment of those writers who maintain that of all the differences between man and the lower animals the moral sense or conscience is by far the most important." I raise the question of whether morality is biologically or culturally determined. The question of whether the moral sense is biologically determined may refer either to the capacity for ethics (i.e., the proclivity to judge human actions as either right or wrong), or to the moral norms accepted by human beings for guiding their actions. I propose that the capacity for ethics is a necessary attribute of human nature, whereas moral codes are products of cultural evolution. Humans have a moral sense because their biological makeup determines the presence of three necessary conditions for ethical behavior: (i) the ability to anticipate the consequences of one's own actions; (ii) the ability to make value judgments; and (iii) the ability to choose between alternative courses of action. Ethical behavior came about in evolution not because it is adaptive in itself but as a necessary consequence of man's eminent intellectual abilities, which are an attribute directly promoted by natural selection. That is, morality evolved as an exaptation, not as an adaptation. Moral codes, however, are outcomes of cultural evolution, which accounts for the diversity of cultural norms among populations and for their evolution through time.

  8. Strategies of functional food for cancer prevention in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ya-Wen; Yang, Jia-Zheng; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Du, Juan; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shu-Ming; Zhu, Wei-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Functional food for prevention of chronic diseases is one of this century's key global challenges. Cancer is not only the first or second leading cause of death in China and other countries across the world, but also has diet as one of the most important modifiable risk factors. Major dietary factors now known to promote cancer development are polished grain foods and low intake of fresh vegetables, with general importance for an unhealthy lifestyle and obesity. The strategies of cancer prevention in human being are increased consumption of functional foods like whole grains (brown rice, barley, and buckwheat) and by-products, as well some vegetables (bitter melon, garlic, onions, broccoli, and cabbage) and mushrooms (boletes and Tricholoma matsutake). In addition some beverages (green tea and coffee) may be protective. Southwest China (especially Yunnan Province) is a geographical area where functional crop production is closely related to the origins of human evolution with implications for anticancer influence.

  9. The ethics of cloning and human embryo research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Madeleine

    2002-01-01

    The successful cloning experiments that led to Dolly in 1997 have raised many ethical and policy questions. This paper will focus on cloning research in human embryonic cells. The possible gains of the research will be judged against the moral issues of doing research on a person. This paper concludes that while the embryo has some moral status, its moral status is outweighed by the multitude of benefits that embryonic stem cell research will bring to humanity. Policy suggestions are given for dealing with this new and developing field of stem cell research.

  10. The preparation for being a researcher in Romania today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pămîntaş Eugen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher technical education in Romania is organized in three cycles: Bachelor, Masters and PhD. Theoretically, the powers provided by the three levels of education should be in correspondence with the requirements of COR (ISCO-88-COM European Community and the UN: ISCO 88 for generic jobs, specified in previous herewith: production engineer, research engineer, and researcher. This paper explores the last two aspects in order to see to what extent the names of study disciplines and especially their content gives the graduate competences and skills of research. We are looking for causes for which young graduates of master and doctoral especially not find appropriate jobs in the labor market preparation. From the position of academics with experience in teaching the final year of Bachelor and Master levels, trying to answer to the questions: What should we teach, How should we teach? Who should we teach? We train for right people? The answers are tasks for interdisciplinary collective of teachers, researchers and employers. Therefore, without claiming an exhaustive treatment of the matter under discussion, the paper is intended as a call a call to quickly find viable solutions. Where answers are not appropriate, will have to find solutions but the decision in their choice and then their implementation in the short time it is a governmental task.

  11. How can the operating environment for nutrition research be improved in sub-Saharan Africa? The views of African researchers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Van Royen

    Full Text Available Optimal nutrition is critical for human development and economic growth. Sub-Saharan Africa is facing high levels of food insecurity and only few sub-Saharan African countries are on track to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Effective research capacity is crucial for addressing emerging challenges and designing appropriate mitigation strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. A clear understanding of the operating environment for nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa is a much needed prerequisite. We collected data on the barriers and requirements for conducting nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa through semi-structured interviews with 144 participants involved in nutrition research in 35 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 133 interviews were retained for coding. The main barriers identified for effective nutrition research were the lack of funding due to poor recognition by policymakers of the importance of nutrition research and under-utilisation of research findings for developing policy, as well as an absence of research priority setting from within Africa. Current research topics were perceived to be mainly determined by funding bodies from outside Africa. Nutrition researchers argued for more commitment from policymakers at national level. The low capacity for nutrition research was mainly seen as a consequence of insufficient numbers of nutrition researchers, limited skills and a poor research infrastructure. In conclusion, African nutrition researchers argued how research priorities need to be identified by African stakeholders, accompanied by consensus building to enable creating a problem-driven national research agenda. In addition, it was considered necessary to promote interactions among researchers, and between researchers and policymakers. Multidisciplinary research and international and cross-African collaboration were seen as crucial to build capacity in sub-Saharan nutrition research.

  12. Trafficking in Human Beings in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Hughes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the intersection of gender, trafficking for sexual exploitation, and use of digital communication technologies are analyzed based on data from the European Union (EU. Over the past two decades, an increase in trafficking in human beings in the EU has been accompanied by an increase in the development and availability of digital communication technologies. The first statistical analysis of trafficking in human beings (2008-2010 carried out by the European Commission found 23,632 victims of human trafficking in the reporting member states. Eighty percent of victims were women and girls; 20% were men and boys. The majority of the victims (62% were trafficked for sexual exploitation. Digital communication technologies are widely used for trafficking for sexual exploitation, and more rarely for trafficking for forced labor. This article concludes that the combination of gender, trafficking for sexual exploitation, and use of digital communication technologies has created a nexus of victimization for women and girls. Based on this analysis and other sources of information, the European region is the world’s leading region for trafficking for sexual exploitation.

  13. Be Bold : An Alternative Plan for Fusion Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurden, Glen Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Government sponsored magnetic fusion energy research in the USA has been on downward trajectory since the early 1990’s. The present path is unsustainable. Indeed, our research community and national research facilities are withering from old-age and lack of investment. The present product (tokamak-centric production of electricity) does not yet work, will not be economic, and is clearly not valued or needed by our society. Even if a prototype existed at any cost, DT-based fusion energy would come too late to significantly impact the reduction of CO2 emissions in this century. This white paper outlines what “being bold” could mean with respect to the invention and application of nuclear fusion technologies, and how the USA could once again set a visionary example for the world. I present the discussion in two parts, reflecting on the NAS panel two-part assignment of a plan “with” and “without” ITER.

  14. Ethics, standards, and procedures of animal and human chronobiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, Yvan; Smolensky, Michael H; Portaluppi, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    The majority of research papers published in Chronobiology International report the findings of investigations conducted on laboratory animals and human beings. The editors and the readers of the journal expect the authors of submitted manuscripts to have made an important contribution to biological rhythm and related research through the ethical conduct of investigations and unbiased and accurate reporting of findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to disclose any potential conflict of interest. The journal accepts only papers that are original work, no part of which has been submitted for publication elsewhere, except as brief abstracts. The journal and its editors endorse the compliance of investigators to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on human beings, and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals. The peer review of manuscripts by Chronobiology International thus includes judgment as to whether or not the investigative methods conform to the standards of good research practice. This article updates the ethical policies, standards, and procedures for manuscripts submitted to Chronobiology International that involve human and animal biological rhythm research, both from the perspective of the criteria of quality chronobiology investigation and from the perspective of humane and ethical research on human beings and animals.

  15. Justice in human research ethics. A conceptual and practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Ian; Thomson, Colin J H

    2013-03-01

    One of the core values to be applied by a body reviewing the ethics of human research is justice. The inclusion of justice as a requirement in the ethical review of human research is relatively recent and its utility had been largely unexamined until debates arose about the conduct of international biomedical research in the late 1990s. The subsequent amendment of authoritative documents in ways that appeared to shift the meaning of conceptions of justice generated a great deal of controversy. Another difficulty has been that both the theory and the substance of justice that are applied by researchers or reviewers can be frequently seen to be subjective. Both the concept of justice--hether distributive or commutative--and what counts as a just distribution or exchange--are given different weight and meanings by different people. In this paper, the origins and more recent debates about the requirement to consider justice as a criterion in the ethical review of human research are traced, relevant conceptions of justice are distinguished, and the manner in which they can be applied meaningfully in the ethical review of all human research is identified. We also explain the way that these concepts are articulated in, and the intent and function of, specific paragraphs of the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research (2007). The National Statement identifies a number of issues that should be considered when a human research ethics committee is reviewing the justice aspects of an application. We provide guidance to researchers as to how they can show that there is a fair distribution of burdens and benefits in the participant experience and the research outcomes. We also provide practical guidance to researches on how to think through issues of justice so that they can demonstrate that the design of their research projects meets this ethical requirement.

  16. Human-Robot Interaction Directed Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, Ernest V., II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2014-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces and command modalities affect the human's ability to perform tasks accurately, efficiently, and effectively when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. This DRP concentrates on three areas associated with interfaces and command modalities in HRI which are applicable to NASA robot systems: 1) Video Overlays, 2) Camera Views, and 3) Command Modalities. The first study focused on video overlays that investigated how Augmented Reality (AR) symbology can be added to the human-robot interface to improve teleoperation performance. Three types of AR symbology were explored in this study, command guidance (CG), situation guidance (SG), and both (SCG). CG symbology gives operators explicit instructions on what commands to input, whereas SG symbology gives operators implicit cues so that operators can infer the input commands. The combination of CG and SG provided operators with explicit and implicit cues allowing the operator to choose which symbology to utilize. The objective of the study was to understand how AR symbology affects the human operator's ability to align a robot arm to a target using a flight stick and the ability to allocate attention between the symbology and external views of the world. The study evaluated the effects type of symbology (CG and SG) has on operator tasks performance and attention allocation during teleoperation of a robot arm. The second study expanded on the first study by evaluating the effects of the type of

  17. EL SER HUMANO COMO CONSUMIDOR: APLICACIÓN A INVESTIGACIÓN DE MERCADO DE GUAYABA EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DEL ATLÁNTICO - THE HUMAN BEING AS A CONSUMER: APPLICATION TO MARKETING RESEARCH OF GUAVA IN THE DEPARTAMENTO OF ATLANTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HILDA ESTRADA LÓPEZ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available From the consumer’s perspective, this article shows the results of two marketing researches which take part in a project funded by private and public companies to support small enterprises. For the former, 127 surveys were made to people responsible for shopping at hotels, grocery stores and other grocery dealers. For the latter, 64 final customers were surveyed. The information gathered was used to evaluate the way consumers receive the products made by the manufacturer and trading company, Profrutal, located in Palmar de Varela, Atlantico; this fact gave rise to a marketing plan. The process presented may be an example to stimulate managerial abilities of other small artisanal companies, thus increasing its capacity to create new employment opportunities.ResumenEste artículo presenta, desde la perspectiva del consumidor, los resultados de dos investigaciones de mercado y hacen parte de un proyecto financiado por entidades privadas y públicas para apoyar a la microempresa. Para la primera, se hicieron 127 encuestas a losresponsables de las compras en hoteles, tiendas de barrio y otros distribuidores. Para la segunda, se tomaron 64 compradores finales. La información recopilada permitió evaluar la forma como los consumidores perciben los productos elaborados por la empresa procesadora y comercializadora de frutas Profrutal, ubicada en Palmar de Varela, Atlántico, lo que dio origen a un plan de mercadeo. El proceso presentado puede servir de ejemplo para otras microempresas artesanales al incrementar su capacidad de gestión y, en consecuencia, su potencial de generación de empleo.

  18. HUMAN BEINGS TRAFFICKING IN THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS CASE-LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Cristiana SPĂTARU-NEGURĂ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available After last year’s analysis regarding the European Union’s commitment to fight against the human beings trafficking, we have considered to further explore the human beings trafficking approach in the European Court of Human Rights case-law, the most developped regional jurisdiction on human rights. Surprisingly, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms does not make an express reference to the human beings trafficking. However, we have to bear in mind that the Convention is a living instrument, its interpretation being made in the light of the present-day conditions. Thus, taking into consideration the global threat of this phenomenon, it is more obvious than ever that the Convention could not neglect this issue.

  19. Collaborative Research in the Digital Humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration within digital humanities is both a pertinent and a pressing topic as the traditional mode of the humanist, working alone in his or her study, is supplemented by explicitly co-operative, interdependent and collaborative research. This is particularly true where computational methods are employed in large-scale digital humanities projects. This book, which celebrates the contributions of Harold Short to this field, presents fourteen essays by leading authors in the digital humanities. It addresses several issues of collaboration, from the multiple perspectives of institutions, pro

  20. Human embryonic stem cell research debates: a confucian argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, D F-C

    2005-11-01

    Human embryonic stem cell research can bring about major biomedical breakthroughs and thus contribute enormously to human welfare, yet it raises serious moral problems because it involves using human embryos for experiment. The "moral status of the human embryo" remains the core of such debates. Three different positions regarding the moral status of the human embryo can be categorised: the "all" position, the "none" position, and the "gradualist" position. The author proposes that the "gradualist" position is more plausible than the other two positions. Confucius's moral principle of jen, which proposes a unique theory of "love of gradation", and the principle of yi, which advocates "due treatment for persons", are then explored. The author then argues that our moral obligations to do good to other living organisms, persons, and our families are different. Putting together the "gradualist" position on the human embryo, and Confucius's theories of "love of gradation" and "due treatment for persons", the author concludes that the early embryo has less ethical significance than the later fetus and adult human. The moral obligation we have toward persons is clearer and stronger than that which we have toward human embryos. Embryo research is justifiable if it brings enormous welfare to human persons that cannot be otherwise achieved. The "love of gradation" requires us, however, to extend love and respect towards other entities according to their different status. We should therefore be very cautious in using human embryos for research, acknowledging the gradualist nature of their moral status.

  1. Scientific Merit Review of Directed Research Tasks Within the NASA Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.

    2010-01-01

    The Human Research Program is instrumental in developing and delivering research findings, health countermeasures, and human systems technologies for spacecraft. :HRP is subdivided into 6 research entities, or Elements. Each Element is charged with providing the Program with knowledge and capabilities to conduct research to address the human health and performance risks as well as advance the readiness levels of technology and countermeasures. Project: An Element may be further subdivided into Projects, which are defined as an integrated set of tasks undertaken to deliver a product or set of products

  2. Nutritional research may be useful in treating tendon injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Luke

    2016-06-01

    Tendon injures cause a great deal of disability and pain, and increase medical costs. However, relatively little is known about tendon biology and healing. Many tendon-related surgical procedures are not very successful and leave the patient with essentially a chronic injury. New therapeutic approaches for tendon injury are needed. Preliminary evidence suggests that various nutrients such as proteins, amino acids (leucine, arginine, glutamine), vitamins C and D, manganese, copper, zinc, and phytochemicals may be useful in improving tendon growth and healing. More research on nutrition and tendon health is needed. Because many nutrients are required for tendon health, nutritional interventions involving multiple nutrients may be more effective than single-nutrient strategies. In the future, ideal treatment regimens for tendon injuries may include a multifaceted "bundle" of nutrition, drugs, biologic products, extracellular matrix therapies, exercise/physical therapy, and possibly surgery.

  3. Interior Design Research: A Human Ecosystem Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Denise A.

    1992-01-01

    The interior ecosystems model illustrates effects on the human organism of the interaction of the natural, behavioral, and built environment. Examples of interior lighting and household energy consumption show the model's flexibility for organizing study variables in interior design research. (SK)

  4. Interior Design Research: A Human Ecosystem Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Denise A.

    1992-01-01

    The interior ecosystems model illustrates effects on the human organism of the interaction of the natural, behavioral, and built environment. Examples of interior lighting and household energy consumption show the model's flexibility for organizing study variables in interior design research. (SK)

  5. Human memory research: Current hypotheses and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Jaeger

    Full Text Available Abstract Research on human memory has increased significantly in the last few decades. Inconsistencies and controversies inherent to such research, however, are rarely articulated on published reports. The goal of the present article is to present and discuss a series of open questions related to major topics on human memory research that can be addressed by future research. The topics covered here are visual working memory, recognition memory, emotion and memory interaction, and methodological issues of false memories studies. Overall, the present work reveals a series of open questions and alternative analysis which could be useful for the process of hypothesis generation, and consequently for the design and implementation of future research on human memory.

  6. Promoting translational research in human and veterinary medical virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Wei

    2013-07-26

    Translational research serves as a bench-to-field "translation" of basic scientific research into practical diagnostic procedures and therapies useful in human and veterinary clinical services. The productivity of translational research involving infectious diseases relevant to both human and animal health (e.g., influenza diagnosis and epidemiology using emerging molecular detection and identification methods) can be maximized when both human and veterinary medical virology disciplines are integrated. Influenza viruses are continually evolving through site-specific mutation and segment reassortment, and these processes occur in all potential carrier species - including birds, humans, and many agriculturally important animals. This evolutionary plasticity occasionally allows "novel" influenzas to move from animal hosts to humans, potentially causing destructive pandemics; therefore, a rapid laboratory technique that can detect and identify "novel" influenza viruses is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. A technique-focused translational research approach is pursued to enhance detection and characterization of emerging influenza viruses circulating in both humans and other animal hosts. The PLEX-ID System, which incorporates multi-locus PCR and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry, uses deliberately nonspecific primers that amplify all known variants (all H/N subtypes) of influenza virus, including human, other mammalian, and avian influenzas, and is therefore likely to generate analyzable amplicons from any novel influenza that might emerge in any host. Novel technology development and implementation such as the PLEX-ID System forms a key component of human and veterinary medical virology translational research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Demystifying the IRB: Human Subjects Research in Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, Maura A.

    2010-01-01

    Many academic librarians are interested in pursuing research studies that involve students, faculty, and other library patrons; these projects must be approved by an institutional review board (IRB). This article reviews federal requirements and regulations for human subjects research and explains the IRB application process. The author discusses…

  8. The Impact and Future of Arts and Humanities Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul; Gulbrandsen, Magnus; Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on original international research by a cross-European social science team, this book makes an important contribution to the discussion about the future of arts and humanities research. It explores the responses of these fields to the growing range of questions being asked about the value, i

  9. Telomere shortening may be associated with human keloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Robert R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Keloids are benign skin tumors that are the effect of a dysregulated wound-healing process in genetically predisposed patients. They are inherited with an autosomal dominant mode with incomplete clinical penetrance and variable expression. Keloids are characterized by formation of excess scar tissue beyond the boundaries of the wound. The exact etiology is still unknown and there is currently no appropriate treatment for keloid disease. Methods We analyzed sample tissues were obtained from 20 patients with keloid skin lesions and normal skin was obtained from 20 healthy donors. The telomeres were measured by Terminal Restriction Fragment (TRF analysis and Real-Time PCR assay. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR analysis of hTERT gene expression was performed and intracellular ROS generation was measured. Results In this study, we determined whether telomeric shortening and the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT occurs in keloid patients. Using Terminal Restriction Fragment (TRF analysis and Real-Time PCR assay, we detected a significant telomere shortening of 30% in keloid specimens compared to normal skin. Using quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR, telomerase activity was found absent in the keloid tissues. Moreover, an increase in ROS generation was detected in fibroblasts cell cultures from keloid specimens as more time elapsed compared to fibroblasts from normal skin. Conclusion Telomere shortening has been reported in several metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We found that telomere shortening can also be associated with human keloids. Chronic oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathophysiology of several chronic inflammatory diseases. Here we found increased ROS generation in fibroblasts from keloid fibroblasts cell cultures when compared to normal skin fibroblasts. Hence we conclude that oxidative stress might be an important modulator of telomere loss in keloid because of the absence of active

  10. The value of respect in human research ethics: a conceptual analysis and a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, I J; Thomson, C J H

    2014-01-01

    In order to continue to maintain public trust and confidence in human research, participants must be treated with respect. Researchers and Human Research Ethics Committee members need to be aware that modern considerations of this value include: the need for a valid consenting process, the protection of participants who have their capacity for consent compromised; the promotion of dignity for participants; and the effects that human research may have on cultures and communities. This paper explains the prominence of respect as a value when considering the ethics of human research and provides practical advice for both researchers and Human Research Ethics Committee members in developing respectful research practices.

  11. Scientific research can be prone to bubbles too – neuroscience risks being the next one

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2014-01-01

    Science, like any other field that attracts investment, is prone to bubbles. Overly optimistic investments in scientific fields, research methods and technologies generate episodes comparable to those experienced by financial markets prior to crashing. Assessing the toxic intellectual debt...... that builds up when too much liquidity is concentrated on too few assets is an important task if research funders want to avoid going short on overvalued research....

  12. 75 FR 46951 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting... hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. The meeting will be...: National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. Date: September 13-14, 2010. Open: September 13,...

  13. Health as a basic human need: would this be enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Thana Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Although the value of health is universally agreed upon, its definition is not. Both the WHO and the UN define health in terms of well-being. They advocate a globally shared responsibility that all of us - states, international organizations, pharmaceutical corporations, civil society, and individuals - bear for the health (that is, the well-being) of the world's population. In this paper I argue that this current well-being conception of health is troublesome. Its problem resides precisely in the fact that the well-being conception of health, as an all-encompassing label, does not properly distinguish between the different realities of health and the different demands of justice, which arise in each case. In addressing responsibilities related to the right to health, we need to work with a more differentiated vocabulary, which can account for these different realities. A crucial distinction to bear in mind, for the purposes of moral deliberation and the crafting of political and legal institutions, is the difference between basic and non-basic health needs. This distinction is crucial because we have presumably more stringent obligations and rights in relation to human needs that are basic, as they justify stronger moral claims, than those grounded on non-basic human needs. It is important to keep this moral distinction in mind because many of the world's problems regarding the right to health relate to basic health needs. By conflating these needs with less essential ones, we risk confusing different types of moral claims and weakening the overall case for establishing duties regarding the right to health. There is, therefore, a practical need to reevaluate the current normative conception of health so that it distinguishes, within the broad scope of well-being, between what is basic and what is not. My aim here is to shed light onto this distinction and to show the need for this differentiation. I do so, first, by providing, on the basis of David Miller

  14. 3 CFR - Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of July 30, 2009 Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research..., scientifically worthy human stem cell research, including human embryonic stem cell research, to the extent...

  15. Human Hallucinogen Research: Guidelines for Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W.; Richards, William A.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2010-01-01

    There has recently been a renewal of human research with classical hallucinogens (psychedelics). This paper first briefly discusses the unique history of human hallucinogen research, and then reviews the risks of hallucinogen administration and safeguards for minimizing these risks. Although hallucinogens are relatively safe physiologically and are not considered drugs of dependence, their administration involves unique psychological risks. The most likely risk is overwhelming distress during drug action (“bad trip”), which could lead to potentially dangerous behavior such as leaving the study site. Less common are prolonged psychoses triggered by hallucinogens. Safeguards against these risks include the exclusion of volunteers with personal or family history of psychotic disorders or other severe psychiatric disorders, establishing trust and rapport between session monitors and volunteer before the session, careful volunteer preparation, a safe physical session environment, and interpersonal support from at least two study monitors during the session. Investigators should probe for the relatively rare hallucinogen persisting perception disorder in follow up contact. Persisting adverse reactions are rare when research is conducted along these guidelines. Incautious research may jeopardize participant safety and future research. However, carefully conducted research may inform the treatment of psychiatric disorders, and may lead to advances in basic science. PMID:18593734

  16. [Should the human smallpox virus (variola) be destroyed?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, Morten

    2004-10-21

    Smallpox, caused by variola virus, was a terror for civilizations around the world for more than 3000 years. Although the disease is eradicated, hundreds of variola virus isolates are kept in two WHO-collaborating facilities, one in USA and one in Russia. In spite of several agreements on destruction, it is now doubtful that these virus isolates will be destroyed. Variola virus may exist in other places and may be used as a biological weapon in war or for terror. Further research on variola virus is thus essential in order to achieve a better understanding of the pathogenicity of the virus and to develop new anti-variola virus vaccines and antiviral drugs.

  17. Differential network analysis in human cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ryan; Datta, Somnath; Datta, Susmita

    2014-01-01

    A complex disease like cancer is hardly caused by one gene or one protein singly. It is usually caused by the perturbation of the network formed by several genes or proteins. In the last decade several research teams have attempted to construct interaction maps of genes and proteins either experimentally or reverse engineer interaction maps using computational techniques. These networks were usually created under a certain condition such as an environmental condition, a particular disease, or a specific tissue type. Lately, however, there has been greater emphasis on finding the differential structure of the existing network topology under a novel condition or disease status to elucidate the perturbation in a biological system. In this review/tutorial article we briefly mention some of the research done in this area; we mainly illustrate the computational/statistical methods developed by our team in recent years for differential network analysis using publicly available gene expression data collected from a well known cancer study. This data includes a group of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a group with acute myeloid leukemia. In particular, we describe the statistical tests to detect the change in the network topology based on connectivity scores which measure the association or interaction between pairs of genes. The tests under various scores are applied to this data set to perform a differential network analysis on gene expression for human leukemia. We believe that, in the future, differential network analysis will be a standard way to view the changes in gene expression and protein expression data globally and these types of tests could be useful in analyzing the complex differential signatures.

  18. Accounting for the impact of conservation on human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Gulland, E J; McGregor, J A; Agarwala, M; Atkinson, G; Bevan, P; Clements, T; Daw, T; Homewood, K; Kumpel, N; Lewis, J; Mourato, S; Palmer Fry, B; Redshaw, M; Rowcliffe, J M; Suon, S; Wallace, G; Washington, H; Wilkie, D

    2014-10-01

    Conservationists are increasingly engaging with the concept of human well-being to improve the design and evaluation of their interventions. Since the convening of the influential Sarkozy Commission in 2009, development researchers have been refining conceptualizations and frameworks to understand and measure human well-being and are starting to converge on a common understanding of how best to do this. In conservation, the term human well-being is in widespread use, but there is a need for guidance on operationalizing it to measure the impacts of conservation interventions on people. We present a framework for understanding human well-being, which could be particularly useful in conservation. The framework includes 3 conditions; meeting needs, pursuing goals, and experiencing a satisfactory quality of life. We outline some of the complexities involved in evaluating the well-being effects of conservation interventions, with the understanding that well-being varies between people and over time and with the priorities of the evaluator. Key challenges for research into the well-being impacts of conservation interventions include the need to build up a collection of case studies so as to draw out generalizable lessons; harness the potential of modern technology to support well-being research; and contextualize evaluations of conservation impacts on well-being spatially and temporally within the wider landscape of social change. Pathways through the smog of confusion around the term well-being exist, and existing frameworks such as the Well-being in Developing Countries approach can help conservationists negotiate the challenges of operationalizing the concept. Conservationists have the opportunity to benefit from the recent flurry of research in the development field so as to carry out more nuanced and locally relevant evaluations of the effects of their interventions on human well-being. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  19. Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research Past ... the forefront of human health research today are clinical trials—studies that use human volunteers to help medical ...

  20. Governing the postmortem procurement of human body material for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, Kristof; Capitaine, Laura; Pennings, Guido; Sterckx, Sigrid

    2015-03-01

    Human body material removed post mortem is a particularly valuable resource for research. Considering the efforts that are currently being made to study the biochemical processes and possible genetic causes that underlie cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, it is likely that this type of research will continue to gain in importance. However, post mortem procurement of human body material for research raises specific ethical concerns, more in particular with regard to the consent of the research participant. In this paper, we attempt to determine which consent regime should govern the post mortem procurement of body material for research. In order to do so, we assess the various arguments that could be put forward in support of a duty to make body material available for research purposes after death. We argue that this duty does in practice not support conscription but is sufficiently strong to defend a policy of presumed rather than explicit consent.

  1. When is surgery research? Towards an operational definition of human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margo, C E

    2001-02-01

    The distinction between clinical practice and surgical research may seem trivial, but this distinction can become a complex issue when innovative surgeries are substituted for standard care without patient knowledge. Neither the novelty nor the risk of a new surgical procedure adequately defines surgical research. Some institutions tacitly allow the use of new surgical procedures in series of patients without informing individuals that they are participating in a scientific study, as long as no written protocol or hypothesis exists. Institutions can justify this practice by viewing human research in narrow terms as an activity outlined in a formal protocol. Application of limited definitions, however, erodes patients' rights and risks losing public confidence in how biomedical research is conducted. I propose an operational definition of human research also be recognised. Enforcing more rigid and less ambiguous guidelines of human research may curtail enrolment into some studies, but it will also protect patients from being used as subjects without their knowledge.

  2. 78 FR 13688 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be Approved for Use in NIH Funded Research SUMMARY: In compliance with... Information Collection: The form is used by applicants to request that human embryonic stem cell lines be... within 60 days of the date of this publication. Proposed Collection: Request for Human Embryonic Stem...

  3. Researchers Argue Boredom May Be "A Flavor of Stress"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    Students may say a teacher's lesson is boring, a researcher says, when frustration is really what they feel. While boredom is a perennial student complaint, emerging research shows it is more than students' not feeling entertained, but rather a "flavor of stress" that can interfere with their ability to learn and even their health. An…

  4. 75 FR 51828 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... for Human Genome Research. The meetings will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance..., PhD, Director for Extramural Research, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane...: National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. Date: May 16-17, 2011. Open: May 16, 2011, 8:30...

  5. Human endothelial senescence can be induced by TNF-α

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    TNF-α is one of the most important proinfiammatory cytokines in mediating multiple physio-pathological functions during immunological responses. Vascular endothelial cells, when stimulated by TNF-α2 can increase the expression of multiple cytokines and cellular adhesion molecules and, in turn, actively promote the inflammatory responses by recruiting and activating of leukocytes to the inflammatory site. In addition to endothelial death induced by TNF-α2 we found for the first time that TNF-α can also induce the human endothelial cells senescence. The induced senescent endothelial cells will display SA-β-Gal staining and they were arrested in G0-G1 phase. We found that Aψm would always be up-regulated in response to TNF-α stimulation at early time but when the cells become senescent, A ψmshows a tendency to decrease. It may reflect the sthenic function of mitochondria at early time in response to TNF-αstimulation and decay when the endothelial cells were induced senescent. ROS fluctuates at early time and also decreases when the endothelial cells become senescent. Our results show that the change of mitochondrial function may be related to the senescent process.``

  6. Scientific research can be prone to bubbles too – neuroscience risks being the next one

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2014-01-01

    Science, like any other field that attracts investment, is prone to bubbles. Overly optimistic investments in scientific fields, research methods and technologies generate episodes comparable to those experienced by financial markets prior to crashing. Assessing the toxic intellectual debt...

  7. Promotion of research in human reproduction: global needs and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathalla, M F

    1988-01-01

    The WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction was established in 1972, to respond to a global expansion in research needs in human reproduction, especially in the area of fertility regulation. The Programme's limited resources come from voluntary contributions by governments and international agencies. The emphasis is always on the needs of developing countries. The Programme has to keep the field under continuous review, and to direct its limited resources to the major unmet needs. This paper presents, from a global perspective, the needs and priorities in the promotion of research in human reproduction. It is emphasized that research has to be backed up by political commitment and resources if it is to have an impact on reproductive health. The role of determinants of health, other than and beyond the medical services, has also to be recognized. Promotion of research in human reproduction, to serve developing country needs, has to move into two directions. One is the mobilization of a global effort to develop and test technologies, where the available technologies are not satisfactory to meet the needs and where the research is slackening. The second is the strengthening of in-country resources for research to deal with country-specific problems and to enable countries to utilize, to the best, available technologies.

  8. Future directions in human-environment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Emilio F; Lopez, Maria Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Human-environment research in the 21st century will need to change in major ways. It will need to integrate the natural and the social sciences; it will need to engage stakeholders and citizens in the design of research and in the delivery of science for the benefit of society; it will need to address ethical and democratic goals; and it will need to address a myriad of important theoretical and methodological challenges that continue to impede progress in the advance of sustainability science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. RESEARCH ON HUMAN RESOURCES MOTIVATION AND SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan-Bela FARKAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many research studies on the human resources performance of the educational system have proved that pupils/students’ educational success depends, to a high degree, on the level of human resource motivation, as well as on their degree of professional satisfaction. Teachers’ who show a high level of motivation, both intrinsic and extrinsic, invest more into their activity, are more creative and more efficient in problem solving. The paper debates the results of an empirical study regarding the influence of pre-university teachers’ motivation and satisfaction regarding the general work conditions on their work performance by measuring the present motivation and satisfaction level. Furthermore, the determinant factors of their satisfaction with the work place are determined and analyzed. Finally, based on the statistical data process we will conclude and debate on the research hypothesis validation and the empirical model related to motivation – satisfaction – performance interdependences.

  10. 38 CFR 16.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.120 Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research... will evaluate all applications and proposals involving human subjects submitted to the department...

  11. 45 CFR 690.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal department or agency. 690.120 Section 690... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.120 Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research... evaluate all applications and proposals involving human subjects submitted to the department or...

  12. Healty lifestyles a fundamental rigth on human being life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Salas Cabrera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the impact of certain lifestyles in our daily lives, and to reference some of them, among which are a sedentary lifestyle, diet, physical activity, social and family support, and the impact they have on people’ quality of life. It is clear that as a human beings, the developments in everyday life are addressed by duties and rights that affect our way of living, hence all individuals should enjoy the right to a better quality of life; to achieve this, it is necessary to maintain healthy lifestyle habits that create mechanisms to protect people against the development of chronic degenerative diseases. Historically it has been shown that people who have unhealthy life habits develop over time no only hypokinetic diseases, but also neurological ones such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Under this scenario this paper is intended to present clear and concise information about what lifestyles represent to people and their importance as a right for everyone who decides to adapt them to their daily lives.

  13. Sheep May Not Be as Stupid as Humans Think

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄佩颍

    2001-01-01

    英国科学家通过实验为“羊”平反:羊不笨,羊比我们想象的要聪明得多!羊有着惊人的记忆力:they could remember 50 faces for up to two years!文章披露了这个事实的同时,有些议论极其精彩,富有哲理,值得回味。比如,羊为 什么有一种dim-witted reputation(汉语很难翻译dim-witted这个形容词!): 1/hours of seemingly mindless grazing may not be so mindless after all. 2/ they live inlarge groups and do not appear to have much individuality (个体的特点) 3/ theyare scared of just about everything. Any animal, including humans, once they arescared, they don’t tend to show signs of intelligent behavior.

  14. What should be done in glaucoma research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jian

    2007-01-01

    @@ Glaucoma research in China has been booming in recent years. The research involves from gene mapping and functional assessment to surgical treatment using phaco alone, trabeculectomy or phacotrabeculectomy in angle closure glaucoma.1,2 The Panel of Glaucoma of the Chinese Ophthalmological Society has established the diagnosis and classification system for glaucoma with reference to the Preferred Practice Pattern (PPP) introduced by the American Academy of Ophthalmology in 2005.

  15. NASA Research Being Shared Through Live, Interactive Video Tours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ruth A.; Zona, Kathleen A.

    2001-01-01

    On June 2, 2000, the NASA Glenn Research Center Learning Technologies Project (LTP) coordinated the first live remote videoconferencing broadcast from a Glenn facility. The historic event from Glenn's Icing Research Tunnel featured wind tunnel technicians and researchers performing an icing experiment, obtaining results, and discussing the relevance to everyday flight operations and safety. After a brief overview of its history, students were able to "walk through" the tunnel, stand in the control room, and observe a live icing experiment that demonstrated how ice would grow on an airplane wing in flight through an icing cloud. The tour was interactive, with a spirited exchange of questions and explanations between the students and presenters. The virtual tour of the oldest and largest refrigerated icing research tunnel in the world was the second of a series of videoconferencing connections with the AP Physics students at Bay Village High School, Bay Village, Ohio. The first connection, called Aircraft Safety and Icing Research, introduced the Tailplane Icing Program. In an effort to improve aircraft safety by reducing the number of in-flight icing events, Glenn's Icing Branch uses its icing research aircraft to conduct flight tests. The presenter engaged the students in discussions of basic aircraft flight mechanics and the function of the horizontal tailplane, as well as the effect of ice on airfoil (wing or tail) surfaces. A brief video of actual flight footage provided a view of the pilot's actions and reactions and of the horizon during tailplane icing conditions.

  16. 40 CFR 26.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... applications and proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 26.120... SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.120 Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

  17. 45 CFR 46.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 46.120 Section 46.120... SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.120 Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. (a)...

  18. Tick-borne ehrlichiosis infection in human beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ganguly

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne infectious disease transmitted by several tick species, especially Amblyomma spp caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis. E. chaffeensis is an obligatory intracellular, tick-transmitted bacterium that is maintained in nature in a cycle involving at least one and perhaps several vertebrate reservoir hosts. Two additional Ehrlichia spp, Anaplasma (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophila (the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis [HGE] and E. ewingii (a cause of granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs act as human pathogens. Human E. chaffeensis infections have generally been reported in North America, Asia and Europe, but recently human cases have been reported in Brazil only. Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is diagnosed by demonstration of a four-fold or greater change in antibody titer to E. chaffeensis antigen by IFA in paired serum samples, or a positive PCR assay and confirmation of E. chaffeensis DNA, or identification of morulae in leukocytes and a positive IFA titer to E. chaffeensis antigen, or immunostaining of E. chaffeensis antigen in a biopsy or autopsy sample, or culture of E. chaffeensis from a clinical specimen.

  19. On The Research of Foreign and Domestic Human Capital Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fuzhu

    2005-01-01

    Human Capital Theory came into being in the middle and later periods of the 20th century.A lot of achievements have been made on the research in its connotation, measures of the value, investment and income, function mechanism and so on, by foreign scholars. In recent 10 years of the new Millennium ahernation, the "steal business effect" and the structure of human capital on the mechanism of economic rise has become the two emphasis in current foreign Human Capital Theory's research. On the basis of foreign researches and Chinese situations, domestic scholars have enriched and developed it, but there are many disparities in its methods, aspects and levels between foreign and domestic researches.

  20. Humanism and its critiques in nursing research literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Michael

    2009-07-01

    This paper raises for debate the issue of how humanist ideas have been taken up by nurse scholars, particularly in research literature. Many nurses from the mid-1970s onwards have described and promoted humanism as an appropriate philosophical basis for nursing practice and research. This has been partly in an attempt to sharply differentiate the profession from medicine, and later, managerialism, which have been represented as reductionist and failing to adequately respond to the whole patient. A summary of definitions of humanism and critiques of humanism in broad philosophical literature is followed by an examination and critique of literature appearing in PubMed published within nursing scholarship from 1976 to 2007 which discusses or promotes humanism in nursing practice or research. Writers have attempted to enhance the importance of nursing by associating it with the humanistic project of accepting responsibility for realizing our human potential. They have promoted a version of research which is qualitative and centres on understanding individual lifeworlds of research participants because of a strong valuing of the experiences and perspectives of the individual. Much of the literature on this topic describes this humanism in dualistic contrast to medico-scientific reductionism and objectivity. Some of the presentations of humanistic nursing lack rigour and can be seen as doing little more than reproducing professional ideology. Scholars and others in the field of nursing could take the trouble to submit these ideologies to proper scrutiny.

  1. Can a Human-Induced Climate Disaster be Avoided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R.

    2012-12-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) are one of the greatest threats to our future prosperity. World emissions are currently around 50 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide-equivalent per annum and are growing rapidly. Atmospheric concentrations of GHG emissions in the atmosphere have increased, to over 400ppm of CO2e today, even after taking the offsetting radiative effects of aerosols into account, and are increasing at a rate of around 2.5ppm per year. The world's current lack of "adequate" commitments to reduce emissions are consistent with at least a 3oC rise (50-50 chance) in temperature: a temperature not seen on the planet for around 3 million years, with serious risks of 5oC rise: a temperature not seen on the planet for around 30 million years. So what are the implications of a 3-5oC rise in temperature, with associated changes in, rising sea levels, retreating mountain glaciers, melting of the Greenland ice cap, shrinking Arctic Sea ice, especially in summer, increasing frequency of extreme weather events, such as heat waves, floods, and droughts, and intensification of cyclonic events, such as hurricanes in the Atlantic. Even a 2oC increase in mean surface temperatures will adversely affect freshwater, food and fiber, natural ecosystems, coastal systems and low-lying areas, human health and social systems, especially in developing countries. The impacts of 3-5oC will be extensive, predominantly negative, undermine development and poverty alleviation goals and cut across most sectors. To address human-induced climate change requires a transition to a low carbon economy, which will require rapid technological evolution in the efficiency of energy use, environmentally sound low-carbon renewable energy sources and carbon capture and storage. The longer we wait to transition to a low carbon economy the more we are locked into a high carbon energy system with consequent environmental damage to ecological and socio-economic systems. Unfortunately the political will

  2. Emotion work and well-being of human resource personnel in a mining industry / T. Beyneveldt

    OpenAIRE

    Beyneveldt, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    Human Resource personnel as part of their daily jobs provide a service to other employees within a mining industry. These service workers may experience dissonance between their actual feelings and the feelings they are expected to display. For these service workers to be more engaged at work, emotional intelligence and social support is vital. If these factors are not in place, their well-being may be in jeopardy. The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between E...

  3. Steps towards an organizational study on human communication and relations: contributions to the ergonomic research on human well-being; Per uno studio della comunicazione e delle relazioni in un sistema organizzato: Contributo alla ricerca ergonomica del benessere dell`individuo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salerno, Silvana [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Guglielmino, Sabrina [Comune di Roma, Rome (Italy); Valerio, Camillo; Valitutti, Carlo [Centro Studi Sistemi e Relazioni, Rome (Italy)

    1997-02-01

    Human relations and communication have always been studied by bio-disciplines interested in family pathology. Organized work has tied relations with family environment that is the reason why it is possible to project new work environment taking into account the theory of organizational action and the theory of human communication. This preliminary study underlines the theory linkage and show how it is possible the application of techniques used in family relations and communication to work environment. The analysis of human communication, the application of the map of the structure, the test of cohesion and adaptability examples in this direction. The results are really interesting and open new panorama on ergonomic of the human well-being in all organized context.

  4. Challenges of Research and Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwe, Christian K.; Ogidi, Reuben C.; Nwachukwu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discussed the challenges of research and human capital development in Nigeria. Research and human capital development are critical to the development of any nation. Research facilitates human capital development. A high rating in human capital development indices places a country among the leading countries of the world. The paper…

  5. Atmospheric Renewable-Energy Research. Volume 1 (Background: To BE or Not to BE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric Research 13 6.1 WFIP 13 6.2 Solar Power Forecasting —IBM Project 18 6.3 Solar Power Forecasting —UCAR Project 19 iv 7. Atmospheric R-E...of Tables Table US energy consumption by source, 2012: examples of nonrenewable and renewable energy resources (NEED 2014...cell produces electricity whenever photons of sunlight hit the surface. • Wind energy is actually an indirect form of solar energy. When the sun

  6. Psychological aspects of human cloning and genetic manipulation: the identity and uniqueness of human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, N M

    2009-01-01

    Human cloning has become one of the most controversial debates about reproduction in Western civilization. Human cloning represents asexual reproduction, but the critics of human cloning argue that the result of cloning is not a new individual who is genetically unique. There is also awareness in the scientific community, including the medical community, that human cloning and the creation of clones are inevitable. Psychology and other social sciences, together with the natural sciences, will need to find ways to help the healthcare system, to be prepared to face the new challenges introduced by the techniques of human cloning. One of those challenges is to help the healthcare system to find specific standards of behaviour that could be used to help potential parents to interact properly with cloned babies or children created through genetic manipulation. In this paper, the concepts of personality, identity and uniqueness are discussed in relationship to the contribution of twin studies in these areas. The author argues that an individual created by human cloning techniques or any other type of genetic manipulation will not show the donor's characteristics to the extent of compromising uniqueness. Therefore, claims to such an effect are needlessly alarmist.

  7. Research on Dynamic Model of the Human Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-lin; WANG Guang-quan; LU Dun-yong

    2005-01-01

    After summarizing the current situation of the research on human body modeling, a new dynamic model containing 5 equivalent masses has been proposed and the corresponding dynamic equations has been deduced too. By using this new model, more detailed information about the situation of the human body under impact and vibration can be obtained. The new model solves the problem that transmission functions of forces inside the human body can't be deduced by using 3-equivalent-mass model. It will find its usage in many applications.

  8. Can outstanding research be done under less than ideal conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igić Rajko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Great scientific discoveries rarely originate from small and poor countries. However, the lives and achievements of three Yugoslav scientists who were active in the biomedical sciences, Laza K. Lazarević (1851-1891, Ivan Djaja (1884-1957, and Pavao Stern (1913-1976, serve as an example of success in this environment. These scientists, as well as the majority of other successful investigators in small and poor countries, were trained in foreign and developed countries and, upon return, were given the freedom to start a self dependent research program. They overcame many obstacles, including wars and civil unrests, to contribute significantly to certain medical fields. It is interesting that although a Jew, Stern was allowed to work during the World War II in Zagreb, which became capital of the so-called Independent State of Croatia, a puppet state under German control. Perhaps his good name among pharmacologists helped him to keep position during this tough period. Nowadays, new technologies requiring for biomedical research are rather expensive, and poor countries cannot afford to finance many scientists. Thus, selection of the most productive researchers is the challenge for those who finance scientific work.

  9. Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element Management Plan: Human Research Program. Revision B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsk, Peter; Baumann, David

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) is an applied research and technology program within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) that addresses human health and performance risk mitigation strategies in support of exploration missions. The HRP research and technology development is focused on the highest priority risks to crew health and safety with the goal of ensuring mission success and maintaining long-term crew health. Crew health and performance standards, defined by the NASA Chief Health and Medical Officer (CHMO), set the acceptable risk level for exploration missions. The HRP conducts research to inform these standards as well as provide deliverables, such as countermeasures, that ensure standards can be met to maximize human performance and mission success. The Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element was formed as part of the HRP to develop a scientifically-based, integrated approach to understanding and mitigating the health risks associated with human spaceflight. These health risks have been organized into four research portfolios that group similar or related risks. A fifth portfolio exists for managing technology developments and infrastructure projects. The HHC Element portfolios consist of: a) Vision and Cardiovascular; b) Exercise and Performance; c) Multisystem; d) Bone; and e) Technology and Infrastructure. The HHC identifies gaps associated with the health risks and plans human physiology research that will result in knowledge required to more fully understand risks and will result in validated countermeasures to mitigate risks.

  10. Research report on human media; Human media no chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The human multimedia technology corresponding to users` subjective characteristics was researched to realize information environment producing a sense of unity with human. The human media technology realizes a human sensitive information processing model and a common database easily acceptable sensitively by various users. This technology also should be able to fairly accept and transmit individual`s information and knowledge as multimedia information, and in addition it is required to supply a virtual space with presence. In fiscal 1995, the research committee studied the concrete developmental issue for integrating these advanced fundamental technologies, and as practical images planned the prototype systems such as human media interactive plant operation, supply of environment supporting personal intelligent activities, and virtual medical center. The research committee also discussed development of space mobile media to secure energy-saving and safety of automobiles, and an environment simulation system with participation of many people. 34 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Les flux migratoires et la traite d’êtres humains / Migration and trade in human being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farsédakis Jacques

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the relationship between the migration and the trade in human beings – it is a global phenomenon which affects both industrial and developing countries – involving people in the process of the soliticing of clients to the places of exploitation ( roadways, homes of prostitution, bar, night clubs, etc.,.Then, the author examines the international, European and national juridical instruments of the repression of the trafficking.Finally, an action-research methodology is proposed in order to prevent the trade in human beings.

  12. Challenging research on human subjects: justice and uncompensated harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Stephen

    2013-02-01

    Ethical challenges to certain aspects of research on human subjects are not uncommon; examples include challenges to first-in-human trials (Chapman in J Clin Res Bioethics 2(4):1-8, 2011), certain placebo controlled trials (Anderson in J Med Philos 31:65-81, 2006; Anderson and Kimmelman in Kennedy Inst Ethics J 20(1):75-98, 2010) and "sham" surgery (Macklin in N Engl J Med 341:992-996, 1999). To date, however, there are few challenges to research when the subjects are competent and the research is more than minimal risk with no promise of direct benefit. The principal reason given for allowing research that is more than minimal risk without benefit is that we should respect the autonomy of competent subjects. I argue that though the moral intuitions informing respect for autonomy are sound, there is another set of intuitions regarding what we take to be just treatment of another when one agent knowingly causes or allows suffering on another agent. I argue that concerns generated by commutative justice serve as limitations on permissible research. I highlight our intuitions informing this notion of justice by appealing to work done on theodicy; what counts as a morally sufficient reason for God to allow suffering in humans is applicable also to the researcher-subject relationship. I conclude that all human subjects who are exposed to more than minimal risk research should enjoy the same actual protections (e.g., subpart D) as those given subjects who cannot consent.

  13. Bioinformatics Approaches for Human Gut Microbiome Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The human microbiome has received much attention because many studies have reported that the human gut microbiome is associated with several diseases. The very large datasets that are produced by these kinds of studies means that bioinformatics approaches are crucial for their analysis. Here, we systematically reviewed bioinformatics tools that are commonly used in microbiome research, including a typical pipeline and software for sequence alignment, abundance profiling, enterotype determination, taxonomic diversity, identifying differentially abundant species/genes, gene cataloging, and functional analyses. We also summarized the algorithms and methods used to define metagenomic species and co-abundance gene groups to expand our understanding of unclassified and poorly understood gut microbes that are undocumented in the current genome databases. Additionally, we examined the methods used to identify metagenomic biomarkers based on the gut microbiome, which might help to expand the knowledge and approaches for disease detection and monitoring.

  14. Hijacked by the project? Research which demands to be done.

    OpenAIRE

    Sikes, Pat

    2015-01-01

    In every edition of Research in Teacher Education we publish a contribution from a guest writer who has links with the Cass School of Education and Communities. Currently Pro Vice-Chancellor at Victoria University, Australia, Pat Sikes is Professor of Qualitative Inquiry at the School of Education, University of Sheffield. Pat is currently directing an Alzheimer’s Society-funded project ‘The Perceptions and Experiences of Children and Young People who Have a Parent with Dementia’. Her in-proc...

  15. Using non-human primates to benefit humans: research and organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David; Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido

    2014-11-01

    Emerging biotechnology may soon allow the creation of genetically human organs inside animals, with non-human primates (henceforth simply "primates") and pigs being the best candidate species. This prospect raises the question of whether creating organs in primates in order to then transplant them into humans would be more (or less) acceptable than using them for research. In this paper, we examine the validity of the purported moral distinction between primates and other animals, and analyze the ethical acceptability of using primates to create organs for human use.

  16. Applying the community partnership approach to human biology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscroft, Julia; Schell, Lawrence M; Cole, Tewentahawih'tha'

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary human biology research employs a unique skillset for biocultural analysis. This skillset is highly appropriate for the study of health disparities because disparities result from the interaction of social and biological factors over one or more generations. Health disparities research almost always involves disadvantaged communities owing to the relationship between social position and health in stratified societies. Successful research with disadvantaged communities involves a specific approach, the community partnership model, which creates a relationship beneficial for researcher and community. Paramount is the need for trust between partners. With trust established, partners share research goals, agree on research methods and produce results of interest and importance to all partners. Results are shared with the community as they are developed; community partners also provide input on analyses and interpretation of findings. This article describes a partnership-based, 20 year relationship between community members of the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation and researchers at the University at Albany. As with many communities facing health disparity issues, research with Native Americans and indigenous peoples generally is inherently politicized. For Akwesasne, the contamination of their lands and waters is an environmental justice issue in which the community has faced unequal exposure to, and harm by environmental toxicants. As human biologists engage in more partnership-type research, it is important to understand the long term goals of the community and what is at stake so the research circle can be closed and 'helicopter' style research avoided.

  17. Sound Effects on Human Beings Fom a Religous Point View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rabbani

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Sounds are the creatures of God which are found in nature in diverse forms. In addition to sounds naturally exist in the environment there are artificial sounds that is hand-maid and we experience them in our daily life. Industrialization has had detrimental effect on manufacturing such sounds in the environment which in turn can affect our mental and physical state. The current article is taking sound from a religious point of view into account. We want to discuss the role of sounds in perceiving the meanings of related concepts and also will have an overall look on the devastating effects of noise and irritating sounds on human life and the human mental and physical health.

  18. [Which zoonoses should the general population be more awareness of ? Qualitative research targeted at veterinarians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Itsuko; Ishikawa, Naoko; Feng, Qiaolian; Kigawa, Mika; Marui, Eiji

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which zoonoses should the general population be more aware of. We conducted qualitative research (Delphi method) on thirty veterinarians who were selected from the whole country. Twenty-four diseases were selected. The reasons for their selection were classified into three categories: "Amount of knowledge, attitude and behavior", "Clinicoepidemiologic characteristics" and "Social characteristics". More than half of the top ten zoonoses are those that are not transmitted from humans to humans, with rabies in the first place, avian influenza (with its high pathogenicity) in the second place and psittacosis in the third place. From the top ten diseases, it is considered that the prevention of animal-to-human transmission should be emphasized. In addition, from the reasons for the selection, it is suggested that it is necessary to review social characteristics, such as the inadequacy of quarantine and the insufficiencies of legal systems. As for the zoonoses that are transmitted from humans to humans, it will be indispensable in the future to widely spread information on zoonoses and enlighten the general population about them. It is thought that this survey can be a basis for selecting a zoonosis that should be given priority in enlightening the general population.

  19. Could be the swine responsible of transmission to the humans of Dientamoeba fragilis infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dientamoeba fragilis, atypical protozoon because “flagellate without flagella” but amoeba-like, of whom we know only the trophozoitic stage (an so its brittleness outside intestinal tract, is a frequent responsible of intestinal human infections, worldwide, and some authors relate that D. fragilis is the most frequent protozoon and parasite that can infects humans. Actually we don’t know a sure potential “reservoir” in animals who are strictly in contact with humans, and it is difficult to understand its epidemiological chain, otherwise the transmissions to humans and from humans to humans. For all these reasons we performed another study on subjects of swine breedings, and among people who work in these breedings, that are in direct contact or not with pigs. Using standardized methodologies, we analyzed 224 faecal specimens of swine and 15 human specimens.We use for identification of D. fragilis the Giemsa stain.These were the results: D. fragilis was observed in 50.9% of pigs and 20% among humans (30% in workers strictly in contact with breedings and pigs, 0% in familiars or other without a closed contact with swines. Other commensal protozoa were observed with variable associations, but in this article we want to analyze the possible transmission from this pigs to humans (and for us this protozoon is undoubtedly a “reservoir” of D. fragilis for humans, and underline two aspects: for the research of this protozoon, standard procedures area mandatory, with a permanent stain, as Giemsa stain, is necessary, and in all humans with various intestinal infections or troubles, particularly “irritable bowel syndrome” (or similar ones, the specimens must be analyzed for D. fragilis. At least we think that in the near future molecular studies are important for confirming this our observations, and for verifying eventual and probable differences inside genotypes of this very suggestive protozoon, that until now present not rarely

  20. 78 FR 47715 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting... hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. The meeting will be... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Human...

  1. Differentiation of trophoblast cells from human embryonic stem cells: to be or not to be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R Michael; Loh, Kyle M; Amita, Mitsuyoshi; Bernardo, Andreia S; Adachi, Katsuyuki; Alexenko, Andrei P; Schust, Danny J; Schulz, Laura C; Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V L; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Pedersen, Roger A

    2014-05-01

    It is imperative to unveil the full range of differentiated cell types into which human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can develop. The need is twofold: it will delimit the therapeutic utility of these stem cells and is necessary to place their position accurately in the developmental hierarchy of lineage potential. Accumulated evidence suggested that hPSC could develop in vitro into an extraembryonic lineage (trophoblast (TB)) that is typically inaccessible to pluripotent embryonic cells during embryogenesis. However, whether these differentiated cells are truly authentic TB has been challenged. In this debate, we present a case for and a case against TB differentiation from hPSCs. By analogy to other differentiation systems, our debate is broadly applicable, as it articulates higher and more challenging standards for judging whether a given cell type has been genuinely produced from hPSC differentiation.

  2. Nature is far more imaginative than human beings!

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Is today’s science fiction really tomorrow’s science fact (*)? If you remember the Star Trek TV series, you will have noticed that extra-dimensions are becoming more plausible than you could have imagined when Captain Kirk was leading the Enterprise. Lawrence Krauss, author of "The Physics of Star Trek", visited CERN on 28 August and told us how the LHC inspires him both as a scientist and as a writer.Wearing his cosmologist’s hat, Lawrence Krauss met the CERN audience in the Main Auditorium and gave a colloquium entitled "Cosmology as Science? From Inflation to Eternity". Wearing his other hat of bestselling writer, he told us that he finds the LHC a very inspiring human adventure. "The LHC and its experiments", he says, "represent how science can span and bridge human cultures and interests, focusing for an incredibly intense period on questions which may seem esoteric but in some way will give us insights into our place in the Universe". CERN science has inspired ...

  3. Ser um professor pesquisador/Be a researcher-teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Scola Klein

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O Projeto "ESCOLA SINGULAR: AÇÕES PLURAIS", realizado na nossa unidade escolar, tem trazido a discussão e a reflexão para as nossas reuniões, compreensão de atitudes dos adolescentes e nossas enquanto profissionais. Trabalhar em grupo e viver com as diversidades é um grande desafio e também uma grande aprendizagem. Esta diversidade ocorre entre os colegas de trabalho e na própria sala de aula. Refletir sobre nossas ações nos traz a figura do professor-pesquisador. Realizamos diversas atividades na escola que trouxeram a todos uma maior participação nos espaços escolares, contato com a arte, com a pesquisa, com a observação. Estes processos ocorreram entre os alunos e com a equipe docente também. Participo de reuniões semanais, com os professores de 5ª a 8ª séries para trocas de idéias, estudo e discussões de textos e temas. Ouvir e participar das discussões com os diversos profissionais do Projeto sobre as teorias de aprendizagem, diversidades de estratégias utilizadas nas aulas ou formas de aquisição de conhecimento foi muito importante para o nosso trabalho. Interdisciplinaridade é o tema do subgrupo que participo e inicialmente o interessante do trabalho em grupo é realmente o fortalecimento de cada pessoa e a percepção de uma atitude interdisciplinar. Debatemos os conceitos de Interdisciplinaridade e planejamos algumas ações de forma interdisciplinar para aplicá-las com os alunos. The “Singular school: Plural actions” project, created at our school unity, has been brought the discussion and reflection to our reunions, comprehension of teenage and ourselves attitudes, while professionals. Work in group and to live with these difficulties it´s a great challenge and a great learning. This diversity it happens among the co-workers and at the classroom itself. Reflect about our actions bring us the image of the researcher-teacher. We did many activities at the school that brought to all a bigger

  4. Narratives in Teaching and Research for Justice and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Audrey; Zhu, Juanjuan

    2011-01-01

    Throughout history individual and collective narratives have been used in struggles for justice. We draw on Sen's theory of justice to examine the potential of narratives in teaching and researching for social justice. Human rights are presented as powerful ethical claims that can be critically examined by learners to consider their rights and…

  5. Neuroscience in ergonomics and human factors research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Brouwer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the possible application of neuroscientific knowledge in human factors research and pratice. Can this knowledge be implemented to improve the design and evaluation of systems and functional environments? Or - to take it one step further - could it bring about the integration of

  6. Narratives in Teaching and Research for Justice and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Audrey; Zhu, Juanjuan

    2011-01-01

    Throughout history individual and collective narratives have been used in struggles for justice. We draw on Sen's theory of justice to examine the potential of narratives in teaching and researching for social justice. Human rights are presented as powerful ethical claims that can be critically examined by learners to consider their rights and…

  7. Problematizing Digital Research Evaluation using DOIs in Practice-Based Arts, Humanities and Social Science Research

    OpenAIRE

    Muriel Swijghuisen Reigersberg

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores emerging practices in research data management in the arts, humanities and social sciences (AHSS). It will do so vis-à-vis current citation conventions and impact measurement for research in AHSS. Case study findings on research data inventoried at Goldsmiths’, University of London will be presented. Goldsmiths is a UK research-intensive higher education institution which specialises in arts, humanities and social science research. The paper’s aim is to raise awareness of ...

  8. The Riddle of a Human Being: A Human Singularity of Co-evolutionary Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena N. Knyazeva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: #39;Times New Roman#39;"The theory of self-organization of complex systems studies laws of sustainable co-evolutionary development of structures having different speeds of development as well as laws of assembling of a complex evolutionary whole from parts when some elements of ldquo;memoryrdquo; (the biological memory, i.e. DNA, the memory of culture, i.e. the cultural and historical traditions, etc. must be included. The theory reveals general rules of nonlinear synthesis of complex evolutionary structures. The most important and paradoxical consequences of the holistic view, including an approach to solving the riddle of human personality, are as follows: 1 the explanation why and under what conditions a part (a human can be more complex than a whole (society; 2 in order to reconstruct society it is necessary to change an individual but not by cutting off the supposed undesirable past, since a human being as a microcosm is the synthesis of all previous stages of evolution, and as a result of repression of, it would seem, the wild past one can extinguish a ldquo;divine sparkrdquo; in his soul; 3 in the physical sense, singularity denotes a moment of instability, phase transition; one can talk about the human singularity of co-evolutionary processes, since in such a moment of instability individual actions of a human can play a key role in determining a channel of further development as well as in appearance of a new pattern of collective behavior in society; 4 as the models of nonlinear dynamics, elaborated at the Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, show, there is a possibility of a direct influence of the future and even a touch of an infinitely remote future in certain evolutionary regimes and under rigorously definite conditions, more over, it turns out that such a possibility exists only for a human (admittedly, through a specific state of being

  9. The big challenges in modeling human and environmental well-being [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shripad Tuljapurkar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a selective review of quantitative research, historical and prospective, that is needed to inform sustainable development policy. I start with a simple framework to highlight how demography and productivity shape human well-being. I use that to discuss three sets of issues and corresponding challenges to modeling: first, population prehistory and early human development and their implications for the future; second, the multiple distinct dimensions of human and environmental well-being and the meaning of sustainability; and, third, inequality as a phenomenon triggered by development and models to examine changing inequality and its consequences. I conclude with a few words about other important factors: political, institutional, and cultural.

  10. Being human: The role of pluripotent stem cells in regenerative medicine and humanizing Alzheimer's disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproul, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have the capacity to revolutionize medicine by allowing the generation of functional cell types such as neurons for cell replacement therapy. However, the more immediate impact of PSCs on treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) will be through improved human AD model systems for mechanistic studies and therapeutic screening. This review will first briefly discuss different types of PSCs and genome-editing techniques that can be used to modify PSCs for disease modeling or for personalized medicine. This will be followed by a more in depth analysis of current AD iPSC models and a discussion of the need for more complex multicellular models, including cell types such as microglia. It will finish with a discussion on current clinical trials using PSC-derived cells and the long-term potential of such strategies for treating AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Research on Colorant Systems Whose Characteristics May Be Reversed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    electrochromic display devices . Other similar c:ompounds have also been used for slmilar usege, and Jince they are of different. colors according to the...problem was not a profitable one. In view of the successful operation of other devices described in this report, the pursuance of the... viologen dibromide that gives a purple color. Since the dark blue color deposits on the electrode, the viologen derivatives can be used either as

  12. [Research on humans suffering from dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmchen, H

    2015-09-01

    The urgent necessity for dementia research is justified by the prevalence and increase in dementia associated with the demographic changes, for which no causal treatment is available; however, during the progressive course dementia destroys the capacity for self-determination of persons affected and thereby an essential prerequisite for participation in research, i.e. a valid consent to a research intervention. Accordingly, not only sufficient information about all issues which are relevant for decision making by potential participants but also a flawless assessment of the capacity to consent are important; however, currently this is not satisfactorily possible. This article attempts to answer questions associated with these problems, such as how consent can be established, including that of a surrogate for consent of potential research participants by whom consent is no longer possible. In a second section the benefit-risk evaluation, which is also underdeveloped, will be dealt with using two concrete research examples, a diagnostic and a therapeutic research intervention for patients with dementia.

  13. A Framework for Human Microbiome Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    microbiome ) exist throughout the human body, with fundamental roles in human health and disease . The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Human...roles in human health and disease . The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Human Microbiome Project Consortium has established a population...human health and disease . The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Human Microbiome Project Consortium has established a population-scale

  14. 28 CFR 46.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... applications and proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 46.120....120 Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or supported... and proposals involving human subjects submitted to the department or agency through such officers...

  15. 16 CFR 1028.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 1028.120... SUBJECTS § 1028.120 Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted... applications and proposals involving human subjects submitted to the department or agency through such...

  16. 15 CFR 27.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applications and proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 27.120... § 27.120 Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or... applications and proposals involving human subjects submitted to the department or agency through such...

  17. 14 CFR 1230.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 1230.120... SUBJECTS § 1230.120 Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted... applications and proposals involving human subjects submitted to the department or agency through such...

  18. 32 CFR 219.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 219.120 Section 219...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.120 Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. (a) The department...

  19. INTERACTION BETWEEN HUMAN BEING AND URBAN CULTURE SPACE: ONE OF THE MOTIVATIONS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION INTERNATIONALISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Liang Cai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the objective of this paper is to deeply and clearly explain the internationalisation of higher education from the aspect of the integration of human being with urban cultural space. Materials and Methods: the methods used in the research are mainly analytical and descriptive ones enabling to show how the integration of human being and urban cultural space promote and influence the internationalisation of higher education. Results: the motivation for the internationalisation of higher education is closely interrelated with that of urbanisation. Besides the economic and political incentives, modern urban culture, caused by globalisation, also plays a very important role in encouraging higher education internationalisation. Discussion and Conclusions: the appearance of higher education internationalisation is mediated by the alteration of the existing environment of urban culture space against the background of city internationalisation. Human beings’ need for self-assurance in urban culture space helps to stimulate the internationalisation of higher education, and human beings promote the development of modern culture space and their separation in urban culture space accelerates the development of higher education. From the perspective of higher education internationalisation, to sort out the cultural motivation for higher education and find its suitable form for the city’s internationalisation is crucial for adjusting the orientation and guaranteeing the efficacy of higher education internationalisation. From the aspect of human beings’ development, the separation between urban space and human beings caused by the city’s ongoing internationalisation is a pressing problem to be solved. From the aspect of the construction of urban culture space, as an important means of retaining human beings’ equilibrium, urban culture promotes the internationalisation of higher education.

  20. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Research (AIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-15

    Polonis V, Corts K, Hoc"en-Lewis C, Eddy G. Production of functionally defective HIV-l reverse transcriptase can be initiated by a human peripheral blood... Interamericana , Mexico-Buenos Aires - Madrid. 1989. Ruiz Manuscript 1989 Ruiz NM, Ramirez-Rhonda CH. Tratamiento quirurjico de endocarditis. Chapter in...M.D.; Editorial Interamericana , Mexico-Buenos Aires - Madrid, 1989. Ruiz Manuscript 1989 Rivera G, Ruiz NM. Principios generales en el tratemiento

  1. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura might be an early hematologic manifestation of undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Hsien-Feng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2017-03-01

    Little research focuses on the association between immune thrombocytopenic purpura and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Taiwan. This study investigated whether immune thrombocytopenic purpura might be an early hematologic manifestation of undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus infection in Taiwan. We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using data of individuals enrolled in Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 5472 subjects aged 1-84 years with a new diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenic purpura as the purpura group since 1998-2010 and 21,887 sex-matched and age-matched, randomly selected subjects without immune thrombocytopenic purpura as the non-purpura group. The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection at the end of 2011 was measured in both groups. We used the multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model to measure the hazard ratio and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for the association between immune thrombocytopenic purpura and human immunodeficiency virus infection. The overall incidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection was 6.47-fold higher in the purpura group than that in the non-purpura group (3.78 vs. 0.58 per 10,000 person-years, 95 % CI 5.83-7.18). After controlling for potential confounding factors, the adjusted HR of human immunodeficiency virus infection was 6.3 (95 % CI 2.58-15.4) for the purpura group, as compared with the non-purpura group. We conclude that individuals with immune thrombocytopenic purpura are 6.47-fold more likely to have human immunodeficiency virus infection than those without immune thrombocytopenic purpura. We suggest not all patients, but only those who have risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus infection should receive testing for undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus infection when they develop immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

  2. EPM - The European Facility for human physiology research on ISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieschel, Mats; Nasca, Rosario; Junk, Peter; Gerhard, Ingo

    2002-07-01

    The European Physiology Modules (EPM) Facility is one of the four major Space Station facilities being developed within the framework of ESA's Microgravity Facilities for Columbus (MFC) programme. In order to allow a wide spectrum of physiological studies in weightlessness conditions, the facility provides the infrastructure to accommodate a variable set of scientific equipment. The initial EPM configuration supports experiments in the fields of neuroscience, bone & muscle research, cardiovascular research and metabolism. The International Space Life Science Working Group (ISLSWG) has recommended co-locating EPM with the 2 NASA Human Research Facility racks.

  3. Problems with measuring peripheral oxytocin: can the data on oxytocin and human behavior be trusted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Michael E; Churchland, Patricia Smith; Mendez, Armando J

    2013-09-01

    Research on the neurobiological and behavioral effects of oxytocin (OT), as well as on its possible therapeutic applications, has intensified in the past decade. Accurate determination of peripheral OT levels is essential to reach meaningful conclusions and to motivate, support and inform clinical interventions. Different, but concordant, methods for measuring plasma OT have been developed over the past four decades, but since 2004 several commercially available methods have been favored in research with humans. Evaluation of these methods reveals that they lack reliability when used on unextracted samples of human fluids, and that they tag molecules in addition to OT, yielding estimates that are wildly discrepant with an extensive body of earlier findings that were obtained using methods that are well validated, but more laborious. An accurate, specific, and readily available method for measuring OT that can be adopted as the standard in the field is urgently needed for advances in our understanding of OT's roles in cognition and behavior.

  4. Can the silkworm (Bombyx mori) be used as a human disease model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabunoki, Hiroko; Bono, Hidemasa; Ito, Katsuhiko; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    Bombyx mori (silkworm) is the most famous lepidopteran in Japan. B. mori has long been used in the silk industry and also as a model insect for agricultural research. In recent years, B. mori has attracted interest in its potential for use in pathological analysis of model animals. For example, the human macular carotenoid transporter was discovered using information of B. mori carotenoid transporter derived from yellow-cocoon strain. The B. mori carotenoid transport system is useful in human studies. To develop a human disease model, we characterized the human homologs of B. mori, and by constructing KAIKO functional annotation pipeline, and to analyze gene expression profile of a unique B. mori mutant strain using microarray analysis. As a result, we identified a novel molecular network involved in Parkinson's disease. Here we describe the potential use of a spontaneous mutant silkworm strain as a human disease model. We also summarize recent progress in the application of genomic information for annotation of human homologs in B. mori. The B. mori mutant will provide a clue to pathological mechanisms, and the findings will be helpful for the development of therapies and for medical drug discovery.

  5. The use of live vaccine for vaccination of human beings against brucellosis in the USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VERSHILOVA, P A

    1961-01-01

    The great majority of human brucellosis cases in the USSR are caused by contact with infected sheep and goats. Extensive action has been taken to prevent human infection and to reduce the incidence among farm animals, the main prophylactic measure in recent years being vaccination with live brucellosis vaccine. The author summarizes the steps leading to the development of a satisfactory vaccine and gives a brief description of the method of preparation. Discussing the results obtained, she states that there has been a nearly 60% reduction in the number of human cases over the period 1952-58.The subcutaneous route of administration is usually resorted to, but preliminary figures suggest that cutaneous vaccination is equally effective immunogenically, although in persons who have suffered from active brucellosis it causes strong reactions and may lead to exacerbation of the disease. Research is going forward into the development of a cutaneous vaccine capable of general use.

  6. Being Human or Being a Citizen? Rethinking Human Rights and Citizenship Education in the Light of Agamben and Merleau-Ponty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ruyu

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues against a trend of human rights education, where human rights are taught in the form of citizenship education. In my view, citizenship education and human rights education cannot be taken as replaceable for each other. Underpinning the idea of citizenship is a distinction between "politically qualified" and "politically…

  7. Being Human or Being a Citizen? Rethinking Human Rights and Citizenship Education in the Light of Agamben and Merleau-Ponty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ruyu

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues against a trend of human rights education, where human rights are taught in the form of citizenship education. In my view, citizenship education and human rights education cannot be taken as replaceable for each other. Underpinning the idea of citizenship is a distinction between "politically qualified" and "politically…

  8. Quality Education for Social Development and Human Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    Education as a phenomenon is rather complex which makes it difficult to define its quality. Definitions of quality must be open to change and evolution based on information, changing contexts, and new understandings of the nature of education's challenges. The main objective of the paper is to find out the significance of quality education for…

  9. [The right to human reproduction. Should surrogate maternity be allowed?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral García, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Is addressed in this work if you can accept that in Spain a reproductive rights through the use of assisted reproductive techniques, especially when the client is a single woman and when the baby has undergone a substitution pregnancy or surrogacy, regardless of those who have come to this possibility, which still continues to be considered without any efficacy in the rules governing the matter.

  10. Automotive Technology and Human Factors Research: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyuki Akamatsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the history of automotive technology development and human factors research, largely by decade, since the inception of the automobile. The human factors aspects were classified into primary driving task aspects (controls, displays, and visibility, driver workspace (seating and packaging, vibration, comfort, and climate, driver’s condition (fatigue and impairment, crash injury, advanced driver-assistance systems, external communication access, and driving behavior. For each era, the paper describes the SAE and ISO standards developed, the major organizations and conferences established, the major news stories affecting vehicle safety, and the general social context. The paper ends with a discussion of what can be learned from this historical review and the major issues to be addressed. A major contribution of this paper is more than 180 references that represent the foundation of automotive human factors, which should be considered core knowledge and should be familiar to those in the profession.

  11. Institutions fighting Trafficking in Human Beings in the Contemporary Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Pop

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last approximately 15 years, mainly in the last decade, Romania made substantial efforts to establish the institutions fighting THB according with the EU’s Directive 38 /2011’s requirements and the recommendation assumed by the International Treaties signed and ratified in this area. The plethora of institutions were founded, but they are not functioning yet as a system because of the absence of the independent assessing institution. That is why, it must be, immediately, created. Beside, the institutional system needs, as a unavoidable complement the launching of Cultural Strategy in tabooing for good, the THB in Romania.

  12. Sardar Patel: A Great human Being and Statesman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2006-01-01

    Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel died 53 years ago. But still he is alive in social and Political Fields of India. It is but natural. It is the outcome of achievements which Sardar Patel acquired for the nation and the society. On one hand, he is considered to be a practical person like Mahatma Gandhi...... to accession, Law and order, exchange of population, and made arrangements for rehabilitation of crores of refugees. To make the Bureaucracy fully responsible Vallabhbhai raised two services-Indian Administrative and Indian Police Service. All these works of Sardar Patel were so great and unique that no person...

  13. Information Presentation: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability, Space Human Factors Engineering Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kristina L.; Sandor, Aniko; Thompson, Shelby G.; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Godfroy, M.; Stone, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers atJohnson Space Center and Ames Research Center. T

  14. An integrated approach to rotorcraft human factors research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Hartzell, E. James; Voorhees, James W.; Bucher, Nancy M.; Shively, R. Jay

    1988-01-01

    As the potential of civil and military helicopters has increased, more complex and demanding missions in increasingly hostile environments have been required. Users, designers, and manufacturers have an urgent need for information about human behavior and function to create systems that take advantage of human capabilities, without overloading them. Because there is a large gap between what is known about human behavior and the information needed to predict pilot workload and performance in the complex missions projected for pilots of advanced helicopters, Army and NASA scientists are actively engaged in Human Factors Research at Ames. The research ranges from laboratory experiments to computational modeling, simulation evaluation, and inflight testing. Information obtained in highly controlled but simpler environments generates predictions which can be tested in more realistic situations. These results are used, in turn, to refine theoretical models, provide the focus for subsequent research, and ensure operational relevance, while maintaining predictive advantages. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of research are described along with examples of experimental results.

  15. Human Alveolar Macrophages May Not Be Susceptible to Direct Infection by a Human Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettensohn, David B; Frampton, Mark W; Nichols, Joan E; Roberts, Norbert J

    2016-12-01

    The current studies were undertaken to determine the susceptibility of human alveolar macrophages (AMs) to influenza A virus (IAV) infection in comparison with autologous peripheral blood-derived monocytes-macrophages (PBMs). AMs and PBMs were exposed to IAV in vitro and examined for their ability to bind and internalize IAV, and synthesize viral proteins and RNA. PBMs but not AMs demonstrated binding and internalization of the virus, synthesizing viral proteins and RNA. Exposure of AMs in the presence of a sialidase inhibitor or anti-IAV antibody resulted in viral protein synthesis by the cells. Exposure of AMs to fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled IAV in the presence of anti-fluorescein isothiocyanate antibody also resulted in viral protein synthesis. Thus, human AMs are apparently not susceptible to direct infection by a human IAV but are likely to be infected indirectly in the setting of exposure in the presence of antibody that binds the challenging strain of IAV. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Therapeutic Value of the Human Being-Animal Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Samfira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors try to open a window towards the emotional, psychological and social benefits of a new form of therapy – the zoo-therapy (the therapy intermediated by animals. The strong relationship between men and animals as well as its material advantages are very well known but their impact on the conditions, on the stress decrease, on the prevention of some types of cancer, on the rise of self-esteem or school performance is still little known. The emotional and medical benefits can be successfully obtained in old people, children, chronic patients, or children with autism – even in people who are not the animals’ owners. Thanks to this information, farmers can choose new alternatives for their work with the animals, in the treatment of different kinds of diseases and helped by specialists.

  17. Tissue-engineered models of human tumors for cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante, Aranzazu; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Drug toxicity often goes undetected until clinical trials, which are the most costly and dangerous phase of drug development. Both the cultures of human cells and animal studies have limitations that cannot be overcome by incremental improvements in drug-testing protocols. A new generation of bioengineered tumors is now emerging in response to these limitations, with potential to transform drug screening by providing predictive models of tumors within their tissue context, for studies of drug safety and efficacy. An area that could greatly benefit from these models is cancer research. Areas covered In this review, the authors first describe the engineered tumor systems, using Ewing's sarcoma as an example of human tumor that cannot be predictably studied in cell culture and animal models. Then, they discuss the importance of the tissue context for cancer progression and outline the biomimetic principles for engineering human tumors. Finally, they discuss the utility of bioengineered tumor models for cancer research and address the challenges in modeling human tumors for use in drug discovery and testing. Expert opinion While tissue models are just emerging as a new tool for cancer drug discovery, they are already demonstrating potential for recapitulating, in vitro, the native behavior of human tumors. Still, numerous challenges need to be addressed before we can have platforms with a predictive power appropriate for the pharmaceutical industry. Some of the key needs include the incorporation of the vascular compartment, immune system components, and mechanical signals that regulate tumor development and function. PMID:25662589

  18. Examining the Social Benefits Principle in Research with Human Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2016-07-04

    The idea that research with human participants should benefit society has become firmly entrenched in various regulations, policies, and guidelines, but there has been little in-depth analysis of this ethical principle in the bioethics literature. In this paper, I distinguish between strong and weak versions and the social benefits principle and examine six arguments for it. I argue that while it is always ethically desirable for research with human subjects to offer important benefits to society (or the public), the reasonable expectation of substantial public benefit should be a necessary condition for regarding research as ethical only when (a) it imposes more than minimal risks on non-consenting subjects; or (b) it is supported by public resources.

  19. Numerical displacements of the creation myth of human being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مالمیر مالمیر

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mind, language and literature of all people, there are some significant numbers like three, thirty, six, nine, twelve, forty, one hundred and one thousand that are called numbers of perfection. Sometimes one digit is added to these numbers (and the result is seven, thirteen, ten and one thousand and one or is subtracted from them (and the result is five, ninety nine or eleven and the outcome becomes very significant. It seems that these cases have mythological base. Referring to the myth of creation, the writer of the article believes that the number of perfection is another form of death and termination that causes recreation. The continuation of life is shown by subtracting from the numbers of perfection, which means, the cycle has not terminated yet, and even if a cycle is terminated, another is being created. Recreation is shown through adding a figure to the numbers of perfection. The significance of all these numbers has not been in presenting the myth but in defeating the time.

  20. Community engagement and the human infrastructure of global health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Katherine F; Kolopack, Pamela; Merritt, Maria W; Lavery, James V

    2014-12-13

    Biomedical research is increasingly globalized with ever more research conducted in low and middle-income countries. This trend raises a host of ethical concerns and critiques. While community engagement (CE) has been proposed as an ethically important practice for global biomedical research, there is no agreement about what these practices contribute to the ethics of research, or when they are needed. In this paper, we propose an ethical framework for CE. The framework is grounded in the insight that relationships between the researcher and the community extend beyond the normal bounds of the researcher-research participant encounter and are the foundation of meaningful engagement. These relationships create an essential "human infrastructure" - a web of relationships between researchers and the stakeholder community-i.e., the diverse stakeholders who have interests in the conduct and/or outcomes of the research. Through these relationships, researchers are able to address three core ethical responsibilities: (1) identifying and managing non-obvious risks and benefits; (2) expanding respect beyond the individual to the stakeholder community; and (3) building legitimacy for the research project. By recognizing the social and political context of biomedical research, CE offers a promising solution to many seemingly intractable challenges in global health research; however there are increasing concerns about what makes engagement meaningful. We have responded to those concerns by presenting an ethical framework for CE. This framework reflects our belief that the value of CE is realized through relationships between researchers and stakeholders, thereby advancing three distinct ethical goals. Clarity about the aims of researcher-stakeholder relationships helps to make engagement programs more meaningful, and contributes to greater clarity about when CE should be recommended or required.

  1. Alberta's new health research paradigms: Are graduate students being prepared for interdisciplinary team research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Katherine; Riddell, Meghan; Weller, Carol; Coltan, Lavinia I; Benzies, Karen; Olson, David M

    2010-06-01

    Strategic prioritization of research agendas to address health problems with a large social and economic burden has increased the demand for interdisciplinary research. Universities have addressed the need for interdisciplinary research in their strategic documents. However, research training to equip graduates for careers in interdisciplinary research teams has not kept pace. We offer recommendations to graduate students, universities, health services organizations, and health research funders designed to increase the capacity for interdisciplinary research team training, and provide an example of an existing training program.

  2. How informative is the mouse for human gut microbiota research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Loan Anh; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Liston, Adrian; Raes, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota of the human gut is gaining broad attention owing to its association with a wide range of diseases, ranging from metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and type 2 diabetes) to autoimmune diseases (such as inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes), cancer and even neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). Having been increasingly used in biomedical research, mice have become the model of choice for most studies in this emerging field. Mouse models allow perturbations in gut microbiota to be studied in a controlled experimental setup, and thus help in assessing causality of the complex host-microbiota interactions and in developing mechanistic hypotheses. However, pitfalls should be considered when translating gut microbiome research results from mouse models to humans. In this Special Article, we discuss the intrinsic similarities and differences that exist between the two systems, and compare the human and murine core gut microbiota based on a meta-analysis of currently available datasets. Finally, we discuss the external factors that influence the capability of mouse models to recapitulate the gut microbiota shifts associated with human diseases, and investigate which alternative model systems exist for gut microbiota research.

  3. How informative is the mouse for human gut microbiota research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Loan Anh Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbiota of the human gut is gaining broad attention owing to its association with a wide range of diseases, ranging from metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and type 2 diabetes to autoimmune diseases (such as inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes, cancer and even neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism. Having been increasingly used in biomedical research, mice have become the model of choice for most studies in this emerging field. Mouse models allow perturbations in gut microbiota to be studied in a controlled experimental setup, and thus help in assessing causality of the complex host-microbiota interactions and in developing mechanistic hypotheses. However, pitfalls should be considered when translating gut microbiome research results from mouse models to humans. In this Special Article, we discuss the intrinsic similarities and differences that exist between the two systems, and compare the human and murine core gut microbiota based on a meta-analysis of currently available datasets. Finally, we discuss the external factors that influence the capability of mouse models to recapitulate the gut microbiota shifts associated with human diseases, and investigate which alternative model systems exist for gut microbiota research.

  4. Paternalism and utilitarianism in research with human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2015-03-01

    In this article I defend a rule utilitarian approach to paternalistic policies in research with human participants. Some rules that restrict individual autonomy can be justified on the grounds that they help to maximize the overall balance of benefits over risks in research. The consequences that should be considered when formulating policy include not only likely impacts on research participants, but also impacts on investigators, institutions, sponsors, and the scientific community. The public reaction to adverse events in research (such as significant injury to participants or death) is a crucial concern that must be taken into account when assessing the consequences of different policy options, because public backlash can lead to outcomes that have a negative impact on science, such as cuts in funding, overly restrictive regulation and oversight, and reduced willingness of individuals to participate in research. I argue that concern about the public reaction to adverse events justifies some restrictions on the risks that competent, adult volunteers can face in research that offers them no significant benefits. The paternalism defended here is not pure, because it involves restrictions on the rights of investigators in order to protect participants. It also has a mixed rationale, because individual autonomy may be restricted not only to protect participants from harm but also to protect other stakeholders. Utility is not the sole justification for paternalistic research policies, since other considerations, such as justice and respect for individual rights/autonomy, must also be taken into account.

  5. Review of human hand microbiome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds-Wilson, Sarah L; Nurinova, Nilufar I; Zapka, Carrie A; Fierer, Noah; Wilson, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Recent advances have increased our understanding of the human microbiome, including the skin microbiome. Despite the importance of the hands as a vector for infection transmission, there have been no comprehensive reviews of recent advances in hand microbiome research or overviews of the factors that influence the composition of the hand microbiome. A comprehensive and systematic database search was conducted for skin microbiome-related articles published from January 1, 2008 to April 1, 2015. Only primary research articles that used culture-independent, whole community analysis methods to study the healthy hand skin microbiome were included. Eighteen articles were identified containing hand microbiome data. Most focused on bacteria, with relatively little reported on fungi, viruses, and protozoa. Bacteria from four phyla were found across all studies of the hand microbiome (most to least relative abundance): Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes. Key factors that impacted the hand microbiome composition included temporal and biogeographical dynamics, as well as intrinsic (age, gender) and extrinsic (product use, cohabitants, pet-ownership) variables. There was more temporal variability in the composition of the hand microbiome than in other body sites, making identification of the "normal" microbiome of the hands challenging. The microbiome of the hands is in constant flux as the hands are a critical vector for transmitting microorganisms between people, pets, inanimate objects and our environments. Future studies need to resolve methodological influences on results, and further investigate factors which alter the hand microbiome including the impact of products applied to hands. Increased understanding of the hand microbiome and the skin microbiome in general, will open the door to product development for disease prevention and treatment, and may lead to other applications, including novel diagnostic and forensic approaches.

  6. Human dimensions in cyber operations research and development priorities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, James Chris; Silva, Austin Ray; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Bradshaw, Jeffrey [Institute for Human and Machine Cognition

    2012-11-01

    Within cyber security, the human element represents one of the greatest untapped opportunities for increasing the effectiveness of network defenses. However, there has been little research to understand the human dimension in cyber operations. To better understand the needs and priorities for research and development to address these issues, a workshop was conducted August 28-29, 2012 in Washington DC. A synthesis was developed that captured the key issues and associated research questions. Research and development needs were identified that fell into three parallel paths: (1) human factors analysis and scientific studies to establish foundational knowledge concerning factors underlying the performance of cyber defenders; (2) development of models that capture key processes that mediate interactions between defenders, users, adversaries and the public; and (3) development of a multi-purpose test environment for conducting controlled experiments that enables systems and human performance measurement. These research and development investments would transform cyber operations from an art to a science, enabling systems solutions to be engineered to address a range of situations. Organizations would be able to move beyond the current state where key decisions (e.g. personnel assignment) are made on a largely ad hoc basis to a state in which there exist institutionalized processes for assuring the right people are doing the right jobs in the right way. These developments lay the groundwork for emergence of a professional class of cyber defenders with defined roles and career progressions, with higher levels of personnel commitment and retention. Finally, the operational impact would be evident in improved performance, accompanied by a shift to a more proactive response in which defenders have the capacity to exert greater control over the cyber battlespace.

  7. Urban planning with respect to environmental quality and human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Thomas; González Duque, José Antonio; Bostenaru Dan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The cities of today present requirements that are dissimilar to those of the past. There are cities where the industrial and service sectors are in decline, and there are other cities that are just beginning their journey into the technological and industrial sectors. In general, the political and social realms have been restructured in terms of economics, which has resulted in an entirely different shape to the primitive structures of civilization. As people begin to understand the dynamic nature of landscapes, they stop seeing landscapes as a static scene. Sustainable cities must be simultaneously economically viable, socially just, politically well managed and ecologically sustainable to maximize human comfort. The present research suggests a multi-disciplinary approach for attaining a holistic understanding of urban environmental quality and human well-being in relation to sustainable urban development.

  8. Are Sciences Essential and Humanities Elective? Disentangling Competing Claims for Humanities' Research Public Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos-Peñuela, Julia; Benneworth, Paul; Castro-Martínez, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Recent policy discourse suggests that arts and humanities research is seen as being less useful to society than other disciplines, notably in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. The paper explores how this assumption's construction has been built and whether it is based upon an unfair prejudice: we argue for a prima facie case…

  9. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Resnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.

  10. Bridging the Gap between Non-Symbolic and Symbolic Processing: How Could Human Being Acquire Language?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Setsuo Ohsuga

    2006-01-01

    Information plays various roles for supporting human activity. Its basic role is to describe objects in the world. Form of representation is first decided, then method of its processing can be defined on its basis. Thus an information processing paradigm is defined. As human activity gets more and more complicated, information also becomes more and more sophisticated. Form of representation and processing method become the more complicated. Sometime in human history symbolic language has been developed. It facilitated representation of things. With the progress of language, information became the more sophisticated one. Development of variety of paradigms became possible by means of language. Each of which has a specific scope of applications There is a lot of information, however, that cannot be captured by symbolic language. Representation and processing of information unable to be symbolized, that is, non-symbolic information processing paradigm is very different from any of symbolic information processing paradigms. These two groups of paradigms divide the whole information world. Most applications have been done within either one of them so far. Progress of human activity requires a paradigm with a larger scope. If any of existing single paradigms cannot satisfy this requirement, a new paradigm must be developed. Integration of different paradigms is becoming a very important approach. However conversion between paradigms is necessary for the purpose and conversion between substantially different paradigms, such as between symbol processing and non-symbol processing,is very difficult. Bridging the gap between these two paradigms is becoming an important issue and is attracting much interest of researchers. Discovery and data mining is one of such issues. There is an interest in the more basic question such as "how could human being acquire language?" To discuss these issues is the major objective of this talk.

  11. Proceeding of human exoskeleton technology and discussions on future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Xie, Hanxing; Li, Weilin; Yao, Zheng

    2014-05-01

    After more than half a century of intense efforts, the development of exoskeleton has seen major advances, and several remarkable achievements have been made. Reviews of developing history of exoskeleton are presented, both in active and passive categories. Major models are introduced, and typical technologies are commented on. Difficulties in control algorithm, driver system, power source, and man-machine interface are discussed. Current researching routes and major developing methods are mapped and critically analyzed, and in the process, some key problems are revealed. First, the exoskeleton is totally different from biped robot, and relative studies based on the robot technologies are considerably incorrect. Second, biomechanical studies are only used to track the motion of the human body, the interaction between human and machines are seldom studied. Third, the traditional developing ways which focused on servo-controlling have inborn deficiency from making portable systems. Research attention should be shifted to the human side of the coupling system, and the human ability to learn and adapt should play a more significant role in the control algorithms. Having summarized the major difficulties, possible future works are discussed. It is argued that, since a distinct boundary cannot be drawn in such strong-coupling human-exoskeleton system, the more complex the control system gets, the more difficult it is for the user to learn to use. It is suggested that the exoskeleton should be treated as a simple wearable tool, and downgrading its automatic level may be a change toward a brighter research outlook. This effort at simplification is definitely not easy, as it necessitates theoretical supports from fields such as biomechanics, ergonomics, and bionics.

  12. Human-Computer Interaction and Information Management Research Needs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — In a visionary future, Human-Computer Interaction HCI and Information Management IM have the potential to enable humans to better manage their lives through the use...

  13. Protections for Subjects in Human Research with Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    All pesticide research using human subjects must meet our strict protective standards before we would consider using them in evaluating pesticides. EPA's regulation “Protections for Subjects in Human Research” was promulgated in 2006 and amended in 2013.

  14. Integrating human factors research and surgery: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouhed, Daniel; Gewertz, Bruce; Wiegmann, Doug; Catchpole, Ken

    2012-12-01

    To provide a review of human factors research within the context of surgery. We searched PubMed for relevant studies published from the earliest available date through February 29, 2012. The search was performed using the following keywords: human factors, surgery, errors, teamwork, communication, stress, disruptions, interventions, checklists, briefings, and training. Additional articles were identified by a manual search of the references from the key articles. As 2 human factors specialists, a senior clinician, and a junior clinician, we carefully selected the most appropriate exemplars of research findings with specific relevance to surgical error and safety. Seventy-seven articles of relevance were selected and reviewed in detail. Opinion pieces and editorials were disregarded; the focus was solely on articles based on empirical evidence, with a particular emphasis on prospectively designed studies. The themes that emerged related to the development of human factors theories, the application of those theories within surgery, a specific interest in the concept of flow, and the theoretical basis and value of human-related interventions for improving safety and flow in surgery. Despite increased awareness of safety, errors routinely continue to occur in surgical care. Disruptions in the flow of an operation, such as teamwork and communication failures, contribute significantly to such adverse events. While it is apparent that some incidence of human error is unavoidable, there is much evidence in medicine and other fields that systems can be better designed to prevent or detect errors before a patient is harmed. The complexity of factors leading to surgical errors requires collaborations between surgeons and human factors experts to carry out the proper prospective and observational studies. Only when we are guided by this valid and real-world data can useful interventions be identified and implemented.

  15. Research priorities for Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a review and analysis of the research landscape for three diseases - Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis - that disproportionately afflict poor and remote populations with limited access to health services. It represents the work of the disease reference group on Chagas Disease, Human African Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis (DRG3) which was established to identify key research priorities through review of research evidence and input from stakeholders' consultations. The diseases, which are caused by related protozoan parasites, are described in terms of their epidemiology and diseases burden, clinical forms and pathogenesis, HIV coinfection, diagnosis, drugs and drug resistance, vaccines, vector control, and health-care interventions. Priority areas for research are identified based on criteria such as public health relevance, benefit and impact on poor populations and equity, and feasibility. The priorities are found in the areas of diagnostics, drugs, vector control, asymptomatic infection, economic analysis of treatment and vector control methods, and in some specific issues such as surveillance methods or transmission-blocking vaccines for particular diseases. This report will be useful to researchers, policy and decision-makers, funding bodies, implementation organizations, and civil society. This is one of ten disease and thematic reference group reports that have come out of the TDR Think Tank, all of which have contributed to the development of the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty, available at: www.who.int/tdr/stewardship/global_report/en/index.html.

  16. Cooperative research for human factors review of advanced control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2000-12-01

    This project has been performed as cooperative research between KAERI and USNRC. Human factors issues related to soft controls, which is one of key features of advanced HSI, are identified in this project. The issues are analyzed for the evaluation approaches in either experimental or analytical ways. Also, issues requiring additional researches for the evaluation of advanced HSI are identified in the areas of advanced information systems design, computer-based procedure systems, soft controls, human systems interface and plant modernization process, and maintainability of digital systems. The issues are analyzed to discriminate the urgency of researches on it to high, medium, and low levels in consideration of advanced HSI development status in Korea, and some of the issues that can be handled by experimental researches are identified. Additionally, an experimental study is performed to compare operator's performance on human error detection in advanced control rooms vs. in conventional control rooms. It is found that advanced control rooms have several design characteristics hindering operator's error detection performance compared to conventional control rooms.

  17. How should we be determining background and baseline antibiotic resistance levels in agroecosystem research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although historically antibiotic resistance has occurred naturally in environmental bacteria, many questions remain regarding the specifics of how humans and animals contribute to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems. Additional research is necessary to completely u...

  18. Integrating social sciences and humanities in interdisciplinary research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz

    2016-01-01

    Recent attempts to integrate the social sciences and humanities (SSH) in funding for interdisciplinary research have been challenged by a number of barriers. In funding programmes, such as the EU Horizon 2020, the SSH are absent in most calls for contributions. This article revisits the main policy...... drivers for embedding SSH research in interdisciplinary research. By analysing recent policy initiatives, the article shows how policymakers across the world continue to be ambivalent regarding the role of the SSH. While many stakeholders acknowledge the need to integrate SSH research in solving key...... societal challenges, such as climate change, migration or national security, funding for SSH is limited and tends to focus on strategic interventions and instrumental solutions. By accounting for the diversity of interdisciplinary collaborations the article recommends a more context-sensitive approach...

  19. Effect of technology innovation and spillovers on the carbon intensity of human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jifang; Yuan, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    In order to enhance sustainability, it is necessary to reduce the carbon intensity of human well-being (CIWB). In this paper, we analyze the impact of technology innovation and spillovers on CIWB using panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2005 to 2010. We find that increasing research and development (R&D) intensity and interregional R&D spillovers can decrease CIWB; R&D intensity has a nonlinear effect on CIWB without incorporating interregional R&D spillovers; economic development has positive effect on CIWB, while manufacturing has negative effect on CIWB.

  20. Computer science security research and human subjects: emerging considerations for research ethics boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Elizabeth; Aycock, John; Dexter, Scott; Dittrich, David; Hvizdak, Erin

    2011-06-01

    This paper explores the growing concerns with computer science research, and in particular, computer security research and its relationship with the committees that review human subjects research. It offers cases that review boards are likely to confront, and provides a context for appropriate consideration of such research, as issues of bots, clouds, and worms enter the discourse of human subjects review.

  1. Human Research Program Science Management: Overview of Research and Development Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of research and development activities of NASA's Human Research Science Management Program is presented. The topics include: 1) Human Research Program Goals; 2) Elements and Projects within HRP; 3) Development and Maintenance of Priorities; 4) Acquisition and Evaluation of Research and Technology Proposals; and 5) Annual Reviews

  2. Bringing humanity into view: action research with Qatar's ambulance service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Gill; Wiggins, Liz

    2017-08-21

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to argue for the widening of attention in healthcare improvement efforts, to include an awareness of the humanity of people who work in the sector and an appreciation of the part human connection plays in engagement around good quality work. Theoretical frameworks and research approaches which draw on action-based, interpretive and systemic thinking are proposed, as a complement to current practices. Design/methodology/approach The paper describes the early stages of an action research (AR) project, which used the appreciative inquiry "4D" framework to conduct participative inquiry in Hamad Medical Corporation's ambulance service in Qatar, in which staff became co-researchers. Findings The co-researchers were highly motivated to work with improvement goals as a result of their participation in the AR. They, and their managers, saw each other and the work in new ways and discovered that they had much to offer. Research limitations/implications This was a small-scale pilot project, from which findings must be considered tentative. The challenges of establishing good collaboration across language, culture and organisational divides are considerable. Practical implications Appreciative and action-oriented inquiry methods can serve not only to find things out, but also to highlight and give value to aspects of humanity in the workplace that are routinely left invisible in formal processes. This, in turn, can help with quality improvement. Originality/value This paper is a challenge to the orthodox way of viewing healthcare organisations, and improvement processes within them, as reliant on control rather than empowerment. An alternative is to actively include the agency, sense-making capacity and humanity of those involved.

  3. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  4. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  5. The contribution of animals to human well-being: a veterinary family practice perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Richard P

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that humans can benefit both physically and emotionally from a relationship with companion animals, a phenomenon known as the human-animal bond (HAB). This has not only increased the demand for veterinary services to meet the needs of these non-human family members and their owners, but it has also transformed the nature of those services from reactive medicine and surgery to proactive prevention and wellness. The emotional component of the HAB requires the veterinarian to have a solid understanding of the nature of the attachment between client and pet, and an ability to educate the client about proper care of the animal in order to optimize the relationship. Paying attention to the relationship between client and patient also positions the veterinary family practitioner to refer the client to appropriate community resources for physical, emotional, or other needs of the client that may become apparent during the veterinarian-client interaction. By achieving physical and mental health objectives for patients and collaborating with human health care services, the veterinary family practitioner contributes to the well-being of both patient and client. This new face of veterinary family practice requires research and education in fields that have not traditionally been a part of veterinary training.

  6. Being a Modern Human: essentialist and hierarchical approaches to the emergence of 'modern human behaviour'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Hopkinson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the modern human mind and modern human behaviour is a prominent issue in palaeolithic archaeology. The consensus has been that modernity, understood in terms of increased rates of innovation and the emergence of symbolism, is enabled by a heritable neurophysiology unique to Homo sapiens. This consensus is characterised as biological essentialist in that it understands modernity as genotypically specified and unique to Homo sapiens. 'Archaic' hominins such as the Neanderthals are understood to have lacked the modern neuroanatomical genotype and therefore to have been innately incapable of modern cognition and behaviour. The biological-essentialist programme, however, is facing a serious challenge as evidence for innovation and symbolism is found in the archaeological records of the Eurasian Middle Palaeolithic and the African Middle Stone Age. An alternative programme is emerging that understands modern human behaviour as an emergent property of social, demographic and ecological dynamics. It is argued that this programme is currently inadequate since it cannot explain the emergence of symbolically charged material culture and relies on inexorable long-term population growth. It is suggested here that the problem is better understood in terms of hierarchy theory, a body of ideas concerned with systems organised on multiple scales. Palaeolithic behaviour is reconceptualised as social practice emerging from a multi-scale knowledge system. It is shown that enhancements in the rate at which knowledgeable practices disseminate through social fields – the social transmission of knowledge - will have the effect of increasing the likelihood that novel practices will be incorporated into long-term structuring principles and thus become persistent practices. They will also effect a scalar convergence of domains of knowledgeability such that technical practices become incorporated into the construction of personhood as meaningful or

  7. Robotics for recombinant DNA and human genetics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beugelsdijk, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    In October of 1989, molecular biologists throughout the world formally embarked on ultimately determining the set of genetic instructions for a human being. Called by some the Manhattan Project'' a molecular biology, pursuit of this goal is projected to require approximately 3000 man years of effort over a 15-year period. The Humane Genome Initiative is a worldwide research effort that has the goal of analyzing the structure of human deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and determining the location of all human genes. The Department of Energy (DOE) has designated three of its national laboratories as centers for the Human Genome Project. These are Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). These laboratories are currently working on different, but complementary technology development areas in support of the Human Genome Project. The robotics group at LANL is currently working at developing the technologies that address the problems associated with physical mapping. This article describes some of these problems and discusses some of the robotics approaches and engineering tolls applicable to their solution. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN SPERMATOZOA: POTENTIAL FOR INFERTILITY RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Research Conference: Mammalian Gametogenesis and Embryogenesis New London, CT, July 1-6, 2000Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility ResearchDavid Miller 1, David Dix2, Robert Reid 3, Stephen A Krawetz 3 1Reproductive ...

  9. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN SPERMATOZOA: POTENTIAL FOR INFERTILITY RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Research Conference: Mammalian Gametogenesis and Embryogenesis New London, CT, July 1-6, 2000Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility ResearchDavid Miller 1, David Dix2, Robert Reid 3, Stephen A Krawetz 3 1Reproductive ...

  10. Why aging research? The moral imperative to retard human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Colin

    2010-06-01

    The American philosopher John Rawls describes a fair system of social cooperation as one that is both rational and reasonable. Is it rational and reasonable for societies that (1) are vulnerable to diverse risks of morbidity (e.g., cancer, heart disease) and mortality and (2) are constrained by limited medical resources, to prioritize aging research? In this paper I make the case for answering "yes" on both accounts. Focusing on a plausible example of an applied gerontological intervention (i.e., an antiaging pharmaceutical), I argue that the goal of decelerating the rate of human aging would be a more effective strategy for extending the human health span than the current strategy of just tackling each specific disease of aging. Furthermore, the aspiration to retard human aging is also a reasonable aspiration, for the principle that underlies it (i.e., the duty to prevent harm) is one that no one could reasonably reject.

  11. Canadian Library Human Resources Short‐Term Supply and Demand Crisis Is Averted, But a Significant Long‐Term Crisis Must Be Addressed. A review of: 8Rs Research Team. The Future of Human Resources in Canadian Libraries February 2005. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta. 21 February 2007 .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie McKenna

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To examine the human resources environment in Canadian libraries in order to assess readiness to accommodate change and to identify opportunities for human resources planning. The “8Rs” of the study were defined as recruitment, retirement, retention, remuneration, repatriation, rejuvenation, re‐accreditation, and restructuring.Design – This study was undertaken in three phases over nearly three years through the use a variety of methods including literature review, analyses of existing data (Statistics Canada and library school graduate data, telephone interviews (with senior library administrators, focus groups (with representatives from Canadian Association of Research Libraries, Canadian Urban Libraries Council and Alberta Association of Library Technicians, print surveys (library institutions and web‐based surveys (of professional librarians and paraprofessional library staff.Setting – Canadian libraries that are not component branches of a system, and that employ professional librarians.Subjects – Stage I: 17 senior library administrators participated in telephone interviews and three focus groups were conducted. Stage II: Surveyed library administrators representing institutions. A multi‐stage stratified random sampling technique was used to ensure geographical representation from each of Canada’s provinces and territories. Full census participation was conducted for members of the Canadian Association of Research Libraries and the Canadian Urban Libraries Council. The print survey instrument was distributed to 1,357 subjects; 461 completed surveys were returned (response rate of 34% with results for the total sample accurate within plus or minus 3.8 per centage points, 95 times out of 100. Stage III: Surveyed professional librarians and paraprofessional staff. Multi‐stage random sampling was used to ensure representation of library staff from all library sectors and sufficient sub‐sample sizes. Of the

  12. Local Signaling Environments and Human Male Infertility: What Can Be Learned from Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalam, Roopa L.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Infertility is one of the most prevalent public health problems facing young adult males in today’s society. A clear, treatable cause of infertility cannot be determined in a large number of these patients, and a growing body of evidence suggests that infertility in many of these men may be due to genetic causes. Studies utilizing animal models, and most importantly, mouse knockout technology, have been integral not only for the study of normal spermatogenesis but also for identifying proteins essential for this process, which in turn are candidate genes for causing human male infertility. Successful spermatogenesis depends on a delicate balance of local signaling factors, and this review focuses specifically on the genes that encode these factors. Normal functioning of all testicular cell types is not only essential for normal fertility but, as recently hypothesized, may also be crucial to prevent germ cell oncogenesis. Analysis of these processes using mouse models in vivo has provided investigators with an invaluable tool to effectively translate basic science research to the research of human disease and infertility. PMID:20456819

  13. Accounting for natural resources and environmental sustainability: linking ecosystem services to human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Stephen J; Hayes, Sharon E; Yoskowitz, David; Smith, Lisa M; Summers, J Kevin; Russell, Marc; Benson, William H

    2010-03-01

    One of society's greatest challenges is to sustain natural resources while promoting economic growth and quality of life. In the face of this challenge, society must measure the effectiveness of programs established to safeguard the environment. The impetus for demonstrating positive results from government-sponsored research and regulation in the United States comes from Congress (General Accountability Office; GAO) and the Executive Branch (Office of Management and Budget; OMB). The message is: regulatory and research programs must demonstrate outcomes that justify their costs. Although the concept is simple, it is a complex problem to demonstrate that environmental research, policies, and regulations cause measurable changes in environmental quality. Even where changes in environmental quality can be tracked reliably, the connections between government actions and environmental outcomes seldom are direct or straightforward. In this article, we describe emerging efforts (with emphasis on the role of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; EPA) to frame and measure environmental outcomes in terms of ecosystem services and values-societally and ecologically meaningful metrics for gauging how well we manage environmental resources. As examples of accounting for outcomes and values, we present a novel, low-cost method for determining relative values of multiple ecosystem services, and describe emerging research on indicators of human well-being.

  14. Space Human Factors: Research to Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Human Factors has been instrumental in preventing potential on-orbit hazards and increasing overall crew safety. Poor performance & operational learning curves on-orbit are mitigated. Human-centered design is applied to optimize design and minimize potentially hazardous conditions, especially with larger crew sizes and habitat constraints. Lunar and Mars requirements and design developments are enhanced, based on ISS Lessons Learned.

  15. Research of Human Postural Balance Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Griškevičius

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In present article postural balance between subjects with stroke and healthy subjects, is being investigated with eyes opened and eyes closed. In the research participated 30 healthy subjects and 15 subjects with stroke. At the same time two experimental measurements were performed – postural balance was measured using balance platform and oscillations of the centre of mass were observed using two-axial accelerometer. It was noted, that amplitudes of subjects with stroke were larger almost two times than control group’s of healthy subjects. It was find out, that ratios of pressure distribution on both left and right legs are in range from 1 to 0.9 for healthy subjects, and ratios below 0.9 are common for subjects with stroke. When subjects were standing with eyes closed, sway amplitudes were higher and the ratios of load distribution on left and right legs were lower.Article in Lithuanian

  16. Where's the emotion? How sport psychology can inform research on emotion in human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, David W; Ward, Paul; Woodman, Tim; Janelle, Christopher M; Le Scanff, Christine; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Castanier, Carole; Coombes, Stephen A

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate how research on emotion in sport psychology might inform the field of human factors. Human factors historically has paid little attention to the role of emotion within the research on human-system relations. The theories, methods, and practices related to research on emotion within sport psychology might be informative for human factors because fundamentally, sport psychology and human factors are applied fields concerned with enhancing performance in complex, real-world domains. Reviews of three areas of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology are presented, and the relevancy of each area for human factors is proposed: (a) emotional preparation and regulation for performance, (b) an emotional trait explanation for risk taking in sport, and (c) the link between emotion and motor behavior. Finally, there are suggestions for how to continue cross-talk between human factors and sport psychology about research on emotion and related topics in the future. The relevance of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology for human factors is demonstrated. The human factors field and, in particular, research on human-system relations may benefit from a consideration of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology. Theories, methods, and practices from sport psychology might be applied usefully to human factors.

  17. 76 FR 58023 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial Review Group; Genome Research Review... Review, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892,...

  18. 76 FR 28056 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial Review Group, Genome Research Review... Scientific Review, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda,...

  19. 77 FR 28888 - National Human Genome Research Institute Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial Review Group; Genome Research Review... applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 3635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, ] Rockville,...

  20. Reimagining Human Research Protections for 21st Century Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietz, Matthew; Bae, Deborah; Bigby, Barbara; Devereaux, Mary; Fowler, James; Waldo, Ann; Weibel, Nadir; Patrick, Kevin; Klemmer, Scott; Melichar, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Background Evolving research practices and new forms of research enabled by technological advances require a redesigned research oversight system that respects and protects human research participants. Objective Our objective was to generate creative ideas for redesigning our current human research oversight system. Methods A total of 11 researchers and institutional review board (IRB) professionals participated in a January 2015 design thinking workshop to develop ideas for redesigning the IRB system. Results Ideas in 5 major domains were generated. The areas of focus were (1) improving the consent form and process, (2) empowering researchers to protect their participants, (3) creating a system to learn from mistakes, (4) improving IRB efficiency, and (5) facilitating review of research that leverages technological advances. Conclusions We describe the impetus for and results of a design thinking workshop to reimagine a human research protections system that is responsive to 21st century science. PMID:28007687

  1. Canadian Library Human Resources Short‐Term Supply and Demand Crisis Is Averted, But a Significant Long‐Term Crisis Must Be Addressed. A review of: 8Rs Research Team. The Future of Human Resources in Canadian Libraries February 2005. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta. 21 February 2007 .

    OpenAIRE

    Julie McKenna

    2007-01-01

    Objective – To examine the human resources environment in Canadian libraries in order to assess readiness to accommodate change and to identify opportunities for human resources planning. The “8Rs” of the study were defined as recruitment, retirement, retention, remuneration, repatriation, rejuvenation, re‐accreditation, and restructuring.Design – This study was undertaken in three phases over nearly three years through the use a variety of methods including literature review, analyses of exi...

  2. The Trustworthiness Deficit in Postgenomic Research on Human Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Sarah S

    2015-01-01

    In the past, work on racial and ethnic variation in brain and behavior was marginalized within genetics. Against the backdrop of genetics' eugenic legacy, wide consensus held such research to be both ethically problematic and methodologically controversial. But today it is finding new opportunistic venues in a global, transdisciplinary, data-rich postgenomic research environment in which such a consensus is increasingly strained. The postgenomic sciences display worrisome deficits in their ability to govern and negotiate standards for making postgenomic claims in the transdisciplinary space between human population variation research, studies of intelligence, neuroscience, and evolutionary biology. Today some researchers are pursuing the genomics of intelligence on a newly grand scale. They are sequencing large numbers of whole genomes of people considered highly intelligent (by varying empirical and social measures) in the hope of finding gene variants predictive of intelligence. Troubling and at times outlandish futurist claims accompany this research. Scientists involved in this research have openly discussed the possibility of marketing prenatal tests for intelligence, of genetic engineering or selective embryo implantation to increase the likelihood of a high-IQ child, and of genotyping children to guide their education. In this permissive and contested environment, what would trustworthy research on the genomics of high intelligence look like?

  3. To what extent can human and non-human radiation protection frameworks be integrated?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, C.; Stark, Karolina [Stockholm University (Sweden); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hinton, Thomas [Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire - IRSN (France); Beresford, Nicholas A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology - CEH (United Kingdom); Brown, Justin; Dowdall, Mark; Hosseini, Ali; Liland, Astrid [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena; Robles, Beatriz [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); Oughton, Deborah [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - UMB (Norway); Steiner, Martin [Federal Office for Radiation Protection - BfS (Germany); Sweeck, Lieve; Vives I Batlle, Jordi [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The first radiation protection frameworks were initiated in the early 20. century and focused on the protection of humans. Protection frameworks for non-human species were developed later, based on the human protection system as well as that used to protect the environment from adverse effects of chemicals. These two radiation protection frameworks have to some degree developed quite separately from each other over the last few decades, and it is a source of debate as to what extent the integration of the two is possible. This presentation critically reviews some of the key aspects of integrating human and non-human assessment frameworks, including both conceptual and practical issues, and focuses on five main topics: 1) the conceptual consideration of humans as part of ecosystems, rather than a separate entity; 2) the consistency and potential harmonisation of underlying data and transfer model parameters; 3) consideration of different life stages and life histories in radiation protection and the implications for exposure, dose and effects; 4) calculation of doses, including modelling approaches, spatial and temporal variability and biokinetic modelling; and 5) benchmarks and screening values. Similarities and differences between the two existing frameworks are highlighted and the feasibility of integrating the two discussed. Our recommendations on how to further integrate, where achievable and warranted, are given. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  4. NAS Human Factors Safety Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts an integrated program of research on the relationship of factors concerning individuals, work groups, and organizations as employees perform...

  5. Eli Lilly and Company's bioethics framework for human biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Current ethics and good clinical practice guidelines address various aspects of pharmaceutical research and development, but do not comprehensively address the bioethical responsibilities of sponsors. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company developed and implemented a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research to guide ethical decisions. (See our companion article that describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique of its usefulness and limitations.) This paper presents the actual framework that serves as a company resource for employee education and bioethics deliberations. The framework consists of four basic ethical principles and 13 essential elements for ethical human biomedical research and resides within the context of our company's mission, vision and values. For each component of the framework, we provide a high-level overview followed by a detailed description with cross-references to relevant well regarded guidance documents. The principles and guidance described should be familiar to those acquainted with research ethics. Therefore the novelty of the framework lies not in the foundational concepts presented as much as the attempt to specify and compile a sponsor's bioethical responsibilities to multiple stakeholders into one resource. When such a framework is employed, it can serve as a bioethical foundation to inform decisions and actions throughout clinical planning, trial design, study implementation and closeout, as well as to inform company positions on bioethical issues. The framework is, therefore, a useful tool for translating ethical aspirations into action - to help ensure pharmaceutical human biomedical research is conducted in a manner that aligns with consensus ethics principles, as well as a sponsor's core values.

  6. Resident Research Fundamentals Course Human Research Curves in the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-27

    Division may pay for your basic journal publishing charges (to include costs for tables and black and white photos). We cannot pay for reprints. If you...SGS R&D: Tri-Service Nursing Research Program (TSNRP): Defense Medical Research & Development Program (DMROP): NIH; Congressionally Directed...30 days before final clearance Is required to publish/present your materials. If you have any questions or concerns. please contact the S9 CRD

  7. Animal Models and Bone Histomorphometry: Translational Research for the Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of animal models to research and inform bone morphology, in particular relating to human research in bone loss as a result of low gravity environments. Reasons for use of animal models as tools for human research programs include: time-efficient, cost-effective, invasive measures, and predictability as some model are predictive for drug effects.

  8. White Researchers Conducting Multicultural Counseling Research: Can Their Efforts Be "Mo Betta"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Thomas A.

    1993-01-01

    Responds to earlier article by Mio and Iwamasa (1993) on white researchers investigating ethnic-minority populations and other cross-cultural issues. Presents remarks on symposium summarized by Mio and Iwamasa in framework of movies produced by Spike Lee and reviews author's own participation in the symposium and the interpretation of his comments…

  9. Field and laboratory methods in human milk research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth M; Aiello, Marco O; Fujita, Masako; Hinde, Katie; Milligan, Lauren; Quinn, E A

    2013-01-01

    Human milk is a complex and variable fluid of increasing interest to human biologists who study nutrition and health. The collection and analysis of human milk poses many practical and ethical challenges to field workers, who must balance both appropriate methodology with the needs of participating mothers and infants and logistical challenges to collection and analysis. In this review, we address various collection methods, volume measurements, and ethical considerations and make recommendations for field researchers. We also review frequently used methods for the analysis of fat, protein, sugars/lactose, and specific biomarkers in human milk. Finally, we address new technologies in human milk research, the MIRIS Human Milk Analyzer and dried milk spots, which will improve the ability of human biologists and anthropologists to study human milk in field settings.

  10. Predictors of the Sexual Well-being of Individuals Diagnosed with Herpes and Human Papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Lyndsay R; Byers, E Sandra

    2016-02-01

    Research suggests that having a sexually transmitted infection (STI) such as genital herpes and human papillomavirus (HPV) can negatively affect sexual well-being. However, there is little research examining factors associated with poorer sexual well-being among individuals with a STI. This study investigated the extent to which stigma experiences, individual characteristics, and STI characteristics were associated with multiple aspects of sexual well-being among individuals diagnosed with herpes and/or HPV. Participants were an average of 36 years old (SD = 11.58) and included 188 individuals with herpes and/or HPV who completed measures of sexual activity, sexual problems, and sexual cognitive-affective factors. The results showed that experiences of stigmatization were the most important predictors of sexual well-being. Participants who perceived were stigmatized by others as well as those who internalized negative social attitudes to a greater extent reported poorer sexual well-being across all dimensions, over and above individual and STI characteristics. The implications of these findings for sexual health professionals are discussed.

  11. Heterogeneity of Human Research Ethics Committees and Research Governance Offices across Australia: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smit, Elisabeth; Kearns, Lisa S; Clarke, Linda; Dick, Jonathan; Hill, Catherine L; Hewitt, Alex W

    2016-01-01

    Conducting ethically grounded research is a fundamental facet of all investigations. Nevertheless, the administrative burdens of current ethics review are substantial, and calls have been made for a reduction in research waste. To describe the heterogeneity in administration and documentation required by Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs) and Research Governance Offices (RGOs) across Australia. In establishing a nationwide study to investigate the molecular aetiology of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA), for which archived pathological specimens from around Australia are being recruited, we identified variation across separate HREC and RGO requirements. Submission paperwork and correspondence from each collaborating site and its representative office for research were reviewed. This data was interrogated to evaluate differences in current guidelines. Twenty-five pathology departments across seven Australian States collaborated in this study. All states, except Victoria, employed a single ethics review model. There was discrepancy amongst HRECs as to which application process applied to our study: seven requested completion of a "National Ethics Application Form" and three a "Low Negligible Risk" form. Noticeable differences in guidelines included whether electronic submission was sufficient. There was variability in the total number of documents submitted (range five to 22) and panel review turnaround time (range nine to 136 days). We demonstrate the challenges and illustrate the heavy workload involved in receiving widespread ethics and governance approval across Australia. We highlight the need to simplify, homogenise, and nationalise human ethics for non-clinical trial studies. Reducing unnecessary administration will enable investigators to achieve research aims more efficiently.

  12. Patient Preferences May Be Indicative of Normative Issues in Dementia Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlini, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Robillard and Feng highlight incongruence between patient preferences and the procedural aspects of research ethics as they relate to protocols for dementia research. Their findings break ground for a reassessment of how research ethics, researchers, and participants (including patients and caregivers) approach participation in dementia research. However, it is unclear whether patient preferences may also herald a normative gap between how dementia research is being conducted and how it should be done. This response uses one of Robillard and Feng's findings to illustrate how descriptive empirical data might be reinterpreted into normative questions that reframe current practices in the context of dementia research.

  13. Research Workshop on Expert Judgment, Human Error, and Intelligent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Barry G.

    1993-01-01

    This workshop brought together 20 computer scientists, psychologists, and human-computer interaction (HCI) researchers to exchange results and views on human error and judgment bias. Human error is typically studied when operators undertake actions, but judgment bias is an issue in thinking rather than acting. Both topics are generally ignored by the HCI community, which is interested in designs that eliminate human error and bias tendencies. As a result, almost no one at the workshop had met...

  14. How consumer physical activity monitors could transform human physiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen P; Hall Brown, Tyish S; Collier, Scott R; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2017-03-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity are well-established risk factors for chronic disease and adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is enormous interest in measuring physical activity in biomedical research. Many consumer physical activity monitors, including Basis Health Tracker, BodyMedia Fit, DirectLife, Fitbit Flex, Fitbit One, Fitbit Zip, Garmin Vivofit, Jawbone UP, MisFit Shine, Nike FuelBand, Polar Loop, Withings Pulse O2, and others have accuracies similar to that of research-grade physical activity monitors for measuring steps. This review focuses on the unprecedented opportunities that consumer physical activity monitors offer for human physiology and pathophysiology research because of their ability to measure activity continuously under real-life conditions and because they are already widely used by consumers. We examine current and potential uses of consumer physical activity monitors as a measuring or monitoring device, or as an intervention in strategies to change behavior and predict health outcomes. The accuracy, reliability, reproducibility, and validity of consumer physical activity monitors are reviewed, as are limitations and challenges associated with using these devices in research. Other topics covered include how smartphone apps and platforms, such as the Apple ResearchKit, can be used in conjunction with consumer physical activity monitors for research. Lastly, the future of consumer physical activity monitors and related technology is considered: pattern recognition, integration of sleep monitors, and other biosensors in combination with new forms of information processing.

  15. NASA Human Research Wiki - An Online Collaboration Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Y. R.; Rasbury, J.; Johnson, J.; Barsten, K.; Saile, L.; Watkins, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    In preparation for exploration-class missions, the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) has compiled a large evidence base, which previously was available only to persons within the NASA community. The evidence base is comprised of several types of data, for example: information on more than 80 medical conditions which could occur during space flight, derived from several sources (including data on incidence and potential outcomes of these medical conditions, as captured in the Integrated Medical Model's Clinical Finding Forms). In addition, approximately 35 gap reports are included in the evidence base, identifying current understanding of the medical challenges for exploration, as well as any gaps in knowledge and/or technology that would need to be addressed in order to provide adequate medical support for these novel missions. In an effort to make the ExMC information available to the general public and increase collaboration with subject matter experts within and outside of NASA, ExMC has developed an online collaboration tool, very similar to a wiki, titled the NASA Human Research Wiki. The platform chosen for this data sharing, and the potential collaboration it could generate, is a MediaWiki-based application that would house the evidence, allow "read only" access to all visitors to the website, and editorial access to credentialed subject matter experts who have been approved by the Wiki's editorial board. Although traditional wikis allow users to edit information in real time, the NASA Human Research Wiki includes a peer review process to ensure quality and validity of information. The wiki is also intended to be a pathfinder project for other HRP elements that may want to use this type of web-based tool. The wiki website will be released with a subset of the data described and will continue to be populated throughout the year.

  16. Development and Evaluation of a Study Design Typology for Human Research

    OpenAIRE

    Carini, Simona; Pollock, Brad H.; Lehmann, Harold P.; Bakken, Suzanne; Barbour, Edward M.; Gabriel, Davera; Hagler, Herbert K.; Harper, Caryn R.; Mollah, Shamim A.; Nahm, Meredith; Nguyen, Hien H.; Scheuermann, Richard H.; Sim, Ida

    2009-01-01

    A systematic classification of study designs would be useful for researchers, systematic reviewers, readers, and research administrators, among others. As part of the Human Studies Database Project, we developed the Study Design Typology to standardize the classification of study designs in human research. We then performed a multiple observer masked evaluation of active research protocols in four institutions according to a standardized protocol. Thirty-five protocols were classified by thre...

  17. Research on automatic human chromosome image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Delie; Tian, Jinwen; Liu, Jian

    2007-11-01

    Human chromosome karyotyping is one of the essential tasks in cytogenetics, especially in genetic syndrome diagnoses. In this thesis, an automatic procedure is introduced for human chromosome image analysis. According to different status of touching and overlapping chromosomes, several segmentation methods are proposed to achieve the best results. Medial axis is extracted by the middle point algorithm. Chromosome band is enhanced by the algorithm based on multiscale B-spline wavelets, extracted by average gray profile, gradient profile and shape profile, and calculated by the WDD (Weighted Density Distribution) descriptors. The multilayer classifier is used in classification. Experiment results demonstrate that the algorithms perform well.

  18. Stem Cells: A Renaissance in Human Biology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-16

    The understanding of human biology and how it relates to that of other species represents an ancient quest. Limited access to human material, particularly during early development, has restricted researchers to only scratching the surface of this inherently challenging subject. Recent technological innovations, such as single cell "omics" and human stem cell derivation, have now greatly accelerated our ability to gain insights into uniquely human biology. The opportunities afforded to delve molecularly into scarce material and to model human embryogenesis and pathophysiological processes are leading to new insights of human development and are changing our understanding of disease and choice of therapy options.

  19. Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Xeroxing Human Beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Paul A.

    1972-01-01

    If the aim of new research is to improve the genetic inheritance of future generations, then decisions regarding who should decide what research should be done needs to be established. Positive and negative eugenics need to be considered thoroughly. (PS)

  20. Human dignity and consent in research biobanking

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... Research biobanking raises numerous ethical questions.1 This ... ethical and legal reflections on the notion of informed consent in ... Faculty of Theology and Philosophy, Australian Catholic University, Brisbane, Australia.

  1. One Kind of Human Being: MACOS, the Human Sciences, and Governmentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivens, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary reform movements have roots in post-World War II changes. Back then, social reformers in the United States targeted education as a field for the human sciences to intervene and impart a new kind of knowledge into daily life. These experts developed Man: A Course of Study (MACOS), a science-based curriculum, steeped in biological and…

  2. The Hoops, Hopes, and Hypes of Human Microbiome Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bik, Elisabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in sequencing methods and bioinformatics analysis tools have greatly enabled the culture-independent analysis of complex microbial communities associated with environmental samples, plants, and animals. This has led to a spectacular increase in the number of studies on both membership and functionalities of these hitherto invisible worlds, in particular those of the human microbiome. The wide variety in available microbiome tools and platforms can be overwhelming, and making sound conclusions from scientific research can be challenging. Here, I will review 1) the methodological and analytic hoops a good microbiome study has to jump through, including DNA extraction and choice of bioinformatics tools, 2) the hopes this field has generated for diseases such as autism and inflammatory bowel diseases, and 3) some of the hypes that it has created, e.g., by confusing correlation and causation, and the recent pseudoscientific commercialization of microbiome research. PMID:27698620

  3. Believe it or not: Moving non-biological stimuli believed to have human origin can be represented as human movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, E; Bolton, E; Poliakoff, E

    2016-01-01

    Does our brain treat non-biological movements (e.g. moving abstract shapes or robots) in the same way as human movements? The current work tested whether the movement of a non-biological rectangular object, believed to be based on a human action is represented within the observer's motor system. A novel visuomotor priming task was designed to pit true imitative compatibility, due to human action representation against more general stimulus response compatibility that has confounded previous belief experiments. Stimulus response compatibility effects were found for the object. However, imitative compatibility was found when participants repeated the object task with the belief that the object was based on a human finger movement, and when they performed the task viewing a real human hand. These results provide the first demonstration that non-biological stimuli can be represented as a human movement if they are believed to have human agency and have implications for interactions with technology and robots.

  4. The national research project MURST/CNR-ENEA on the protection of the human being and environment from electromagnetic pollution; Il progetto nazionale di ricerca MURST/CNR-ENEA su Salvaguardia dell'uomo e dell'ambiente dalle emissioni elettromagnetiche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musella, D. [Ministero delle Comunicazioni, Istituto Superiore delle Comunicazioni e delle Tecnologie dell' Informazione, Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields interact with the human body and other biological systems through a number of physical mechanisms. People are continually exposed to electric and magnetic fields arising from a wide variety of sources that use electrical energy at various frequencies and levels. At the same time, a great deal of speculation and research has occurred concerning possible health risks arising from exposure to electric and magnetic fields and to take the appropriate steps. Especially in the latest years, Italy has been very careful in the electromagnetic pollution problem. The Italian Environment Ministry has enacted the decree 381/98 on safety in electromagnetic fields (exposure limits and quality targets) related to communication systems. The Italian Senate is discussing about a new framework law to reorganize all the subject. On the scientific level a new project of research, called Project 5%, on the protection of the human being and environment has been planned. This paper offers an overview on Project 5%. [Italian] I campi elettrici, magnetici ed elettromagnetici interagiscono con il corpo umano e con altri sistemi biologici secondo alcuni fenomeni fisici. La popolazione e' continuamente esposta a tali campi emessi da una moltitudine di sorgenti di diversa natura che utilizzano l'energia elettromagnetica in varia misura e compresa in un largo spettro di frequenze. Ne consegue la necessita' di studiare i possibili rischi per la salute umana e le contromisure adottabili. L'Italia, soprattutto negli ultimi anni, si e' dimostrata particolarmente sensibile al problema dell'inquinamento EM. Il Ministero dell'ambiente, con il decreto 381/98 ha definito i limiti di esposizione e gli obiettivi di qualita' dei sistemi di telecomunicazione. Al Senato e' in discussione una nuova legge quadro nazionale mirante al riordino della materia. Sul piano scientifico e' recentemente partito un nuovo

  5. The Role of Social and Intergenerational Equity in Making Changes in Human Well-Being Sustainable

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably and without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Human well-being is described by four primary elements—basic human needs, economic needs, environmental needs, and subjective well-bein...

  6. The Role of Social and Intergenerational Equity in Making Changes in Human Well-Being Sustainable

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably and without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Human well-being is described by four primary elements—basic human needs, economic needs, environmental needs, and subjective well-bein...

  7. Ethical Issues in the Use of Humans for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashaw, W. L.

    The APA Ethical Principles, the University of Georgia policy, standard research texts, and research literature on specific methodologies, all in relation to ethical issues in human research, are discussed. The 10 APA principles state, in essence, that the investigator is responsible for what happens, that confidentiality and the protection of the…

  8. Human genome program report. Part 2, 1996 research abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report contains Part 2 of a two-part report to reflect research and progress in the US Department of Energy Human Genome Program from 1994 through 1996, with specified updates made just before publication. Part 2 consists of 1996 research abstracts. Attention is focused on the following: sequencing; mapping; informatics; ethical, legal, and social issues; infrastructure; and small business innovation research.

  9. Human Genome Program Report. Part 2, 1996 Research Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report contains Part 2 of a two-part report to reflect research and progress in the US Department of Energy Human Genome Program from 1994 through 1996, with specified updates made just before publication. Part 2 consists of 1996 research abstracts. Attention is focused on the following: sequencing; mapping; informatics; ethical, legal, and social issues; infrastructure; and small business innovation research.

  10. EVALUACIÓN DE LA PERCEPCIÓN DE LOS ALUMNOS BRASILEÑOS DE POSGRADO ACERCA DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN CON SERES HUMANOS AVALIAÇÃO DA PERCEPÇÃO DOS ALUNOS BRASILEIROS DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO ACERCA DA PESQUISA COM SERES HUMANOS EVALUATION OF THE PERCEPTION TOWARDS RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN BEINGS IN BRASILEAN POST DEGREE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En Brasil, la investigación con seres humanos debe obedecer las directrices éticas previstas por la Resolución 196/96 del Consejo Nacional de Salud del Ministerio de Salud. Este artículo da cuenta de una evaluación sobre el conocimiento de los alumnos de posgrado en Odontología sobre algunos conceptos y reglas establecidas por la resolución. Se concluye que, a pesar de la divulgación e importancia de ésta, una gran parte de los estudiantes no tiene conocimiento de ella. En la misma situación se encuentran los que trabajan en investigacionesNo Brasil, a pesquisa com seres humanos deve obedecer as diretrizes éticas previstas pela Resolução 196/96 do Conselho Nacional de Saúde do Ministério da Saúde. Este artigo trata da avaliação sobre o conhecimento dos alunos de pós-graduação em Odontologia sobre alguns conceitos e regras estabelecidas pela Resolução. Concluiu-se que apesar da divulgação e importância desta Resolução, grande parte dos estudantes a desconhecem. Na mesma situação encontram-se os que trabalham em pesquisasIn Brazil, research involving human beings must obey to ethical norms foresaw by the 196/96 National Health Council Resolution of the Ministry of Health. This paper gives account of a knowledge evaluation about some concepts and rules established by the resolution by Dental post degree students. It is concluded that in spite of the spreading and importance of the resolution most students do not know about it. In the same situation are those who work in research

  11. Prostitutas, "traficadas" e pânicos morais: uma análise da produção de fatos em pesquisas sobre o "tráfico de seres humanos" Prostitutes, victims of trafficking and moral panics: an analysis of how facts are produced in research regarding "trafficking of human beings"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula da Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O crescente pânico moral acerca do "tráfico de seres humanos" tem criado uma situação na qual os agentes que tratam do tema, ao tentar oferecer informações concretas sobre o fenômeno, muitas vezes, transformam termos de denúncias em categorias analíticas. Esse artigo analisa a produção recente nessa área, buscando recuperar e problematizar as fontes originais acerca do "tráfico", no sentido de evidenciar como dados contraditórios são transformados em "fatos" no processo de produção de saberes, no qual a militância política pode se confundir com a pesquisa científica.A growing sense of moral panic regarding the trafficking of human beings has led to a situation in which the agents who deal with this theme often transform accusations into analytical categories in their attempts to offer solid information regarding the phenomenon. Here, we will analyze a recently published article in this field. We will attempt to recover and problematize its original sources and show how contradictory data are transformed into facts in a process of knowledge production were political militancy becomes confused with scientific research

  12. MARINE ACCIDENTS RESEARCHED THROUGH HUMAN FACTOR PRISMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav M Ćorović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We are aware of a large number of marine accidents that result in numerous casualties and even deaths and substantial negative environmental effects. The objective of this paper is to indicate factors that contribute to human errors which is identified as the most frequent cause to marine accidents. Despite rapid technological development and safety legislation, this paper identifies the human factor as the waekest link in maritime safety system. This analysis could lead to decrease of vessel accidents. In addition, starting from the European Maritime Safety Agency data and by linear regression model application, we have obtained the trend of number of ships involved in marine accidents as well as the trend of lives lost in marine accidents  in and around European Union waters.

  13. Adult human brain cell culture for neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Hannah M; Dragunow, Mike

    2010-06-01

    Studies of the brain have progressed enormously through the use of in vivo and in vitro non-human models. However, it is unlikely such studies alone will unravel the complexities of the human brain and so far no neuroprotective treatment developed in animals has worked in humans. In this review we discuss the use of adult human brain cell culture methods in brain research to unravel the biology of the normal and diseased human brain. The advantages of using adult human brain cells as tools to study human brain function from both historical and future perspectives are discussed. In particular, studies using dissociated cultures of adult human microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons are described and the applications of these types of study are evaluated. Alternative sources of human brain cells such as adult neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and slice cultures of adult human brain tissue are also reviewed. These adult human brain cell culture methods could benefit basic research and more importantly, facilitate the translation of basic neuroscience research to the clinic for the treatment of brain disorders. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Research on Normal Human Plantar Pressure Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available FSR400 pressure sensor, nRF905 wireless transceiver and MSP40 SCM are used to design the insole pressure collection system, LabVIEW is used to make HMI of data acquisition, collecting a certain amount of normal human foot pressure data, statistical analysis of pressure distribution relations about five stages of swing phase during walking, using the grid closeness degree to identify plantar pressure distribution pattern recognition, and the algorithm simulation, experimental results demonstrated this method feasible.

  15. To Be "as" Not to Be: In Search of an Alternative Humanism in the Light of Early Daoism and Deconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ruyu

    2015-01-01

    Humanism and humanistic education have been recognised as an issue of the utmost importance, whether in the East or in the West. Underpinning the Eastern and Western humanism is a common belief that there is an essence or essences of humanness. In the Confucian tradition, the core of humanity lies in the idea of "ren"; in the Platonic…

  16. To Be "as" Not to Be: In Search of an Alternative Humanism in the Light of Early Daoism and Deconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ruyu

    2015-01-01

    Humanism and humanistic education have been recognised as an issue of the utmost importance, whether in the East or in the West. Underpinning the Eastern and Western humanism is a common belief that there is an essence or essences of humanness. In the Confucian tradition, the core of humanity lies in the idea of "ren"; in the Platonic…

  17. Walnuts (Juglans regia) Chemical Composition and Research in Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David; Angove, Michael J; Tucci, Joe; Dennis, Christina

    2016-06-10

    Walnuts are among the most widely consumed commercially grown tree nuts in the world. Many health benefits have been claimed for the consumption of these, including reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, type II diabetes treatment, and prevention and treatment of certain cancers, and the lessening of symptoms attributed to age-related and other neurological disorders. The health-promoting benefits of walnut consumption are ascribed to its fatty acid profile, which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids with a particularly high ω3:ω6 ratio-the highest among all the tree nuts. The content of polyphenols and other phytochemicals in walnuts, with their claimed cytotoxic properties, also make them an attractive candidate for research for the prevention of free radical-induced nucleic acid damage. Research of walnut consumption in humans and animals employing a range of data sets and statistical methods suggest that walnuts may be considered a safe potential nutraceutical or possibly pharmaceutical substance. Nevertheless, few reviews of scientific research on the proposed benefits of these nuts exist, in spite of the numerous claims attributed to them in the lay media. This brief review article attempts to disseminate much of the information surrounding walnut consumption, and human health benefits, to other scientists and the interested general reader.

  18. Designing a Top-Level Ontology of Human Beings: A Multi-Perspective Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田雯; 顾芳; 曹存根

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge about human beings is an integral part of any intelligent agent ofconsiderable significance. Delimiting, modeling and acquiring such knowledge are the centraltopics of this paper. Because of the tremendous complexity in knowledge of human beings, weintroduce a top-level ontology of human beings from the perspectives of psychology, sociology,physiology and pathology. This ontology is not only an explicit conceptualization of humanbeings, but also an efficient way of acquiring and organizing relevant knowledge.

  19. 75 FR 10488 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NHGRI MAP Review... Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; LRP 2010 Teleconference. Date: April 7,...

  20. 77 FR 61770 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Genomic Medicine RFAs..., Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) ] Dated: October 4, 2012. David...

  1. 78 FR 20933 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel Loan Repayment Program... applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, Room 3055, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rockville,...

  2. 76 FR 35223 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Sequencing Centers...D, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research...

  3. 77 FR 60706 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed.... Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Special Emphasis... Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of...

  4. 75 FR 52538 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel. Date: November 19-20..., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute,...

  5. 75 FR 8374 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Revolutionary..., National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076,...

  6. 78 FR 68856 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes... of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes...

  7. 78 FR 14806 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel: Clinically Relevant... grant applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 4th Floor Conference Room,...

  8. Taking Up the Mantle of Human Trafficking Education: Who Should Be Responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Carrie A; Calhoun, Aaron W; Mittel, Olivia F

    2017-01-01

    Human trafficking is a global human rights issue with long-range health consequences about which physicians are largely uneducated. Medical schools are uniquely positioned to address this gap. All future physicians, regardless of specialty, must learn to identify victims and refer them to trauma-informed treatment. Research and advocacy are needed to address the lack of rigorously evaluated curricula in this area, impact policy, and improve services for victims of this heinous form of exploitation.

  9. Brazilian legal and bioethical approach about donation for research and patents of human body parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Márcia Santana; Silla, Lúcia; Goldim, José Roberto; Martins-Costa, Judith

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain why the Brazilian legal system does not accept commercialization or commodification of human body parts, including genes or cells. As a consequence, in Brazil, the donation of human body parts for research-including basic or translational-must be made altruistically. For the same reason, the Brazilian patent system cannot be applied to human parts, cells or genes. Here, we present a qualitative analysis of juridical, bioethical, and social reasoning related to the legal status of human body parts especially in biobanks, as well as a description of the Brazilian legal system for clarification. Our aim is to discuss the responsibility of researchers for making available the scientific information resulting from scientific research and biobank storage of human body parts and to ensure the free utilization of knowledge in human health research.

  10. An evaluation of human factors research for ultrasonic inservice inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pond, D.J.; Donohoo, D.T.; Harris, R.V. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    This work was undertaken to determine if human factors research has yielded information applicable to upgrading requirements in ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI, improving methods and techniques in Section V, and/or suggesting relevant research. A preference was established for information and recommendations which have become accepted and standard practice. Manual Ultrasonic Testing/Inservice Inspection (UT/ISI) is a complex task subject to influence by dozens of variables. This review frequently revealed equivocal findings regarding effects of environmental variables as well as repeated indications that inspection performance may be more, and more reliably, influenced by the workers` social environment, including managerial practices, than by other situational variables. Also of significance are each inspector`s relevant knowledge, skills, and abilities, and determination of these is seen as a necessary first step in upgrading requirements, methods, and techniques as well as in focusing research in support of such programs, While understanding the effects and mediating mechanisms of the variables impacting inspection performance is a worthwhile pursuit for researchers, initial improvements in industrial UTASI performance may be achieved by implementing practices already known to mitigate the effects of potentially adverse conditions. 52 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Biodiversity and human well-being: an essential link for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazdon, Robin; Duffy, J. Emmett; Prager, Case; Worm, Boris

    2016-01-01

    As society strives to transition towards more sustainable development pathways, it is important to properly conceptualize the link between biodiversity (i.e. genes, traits, species and other dimensions) and human well-being (HWB; i.e. health, wealth, security and other dimensions). Here, we explore how published conceptual frameworks consider the extent to which the biodiversity–HWB links are being integrated into public discourse and scientific research and the implications of our findings for sustainable development. We find that our understanding has gradually evolved from seeing the value of biodiversity as an external commodity that may influence HWB to biodiversity as fundamental to HWB. Analysis of the literature trends indicates increasing engagement with the terms biodiversity, HWB and sustainable development in the public, science and policy spheres, but largely as independent rather than linked terms. We suggest that a consensus framework for sustainable development should include biodiversity explicitly as a suite of internal variables that both influence and are influenced by HWB. Doing so will enhance clarity and help shape coherent research and policy priorities. We further suggest that the absence of this link in development can inadvertently lead to a ratcheting down of biodiversity by otherwise well-meaning policies. Such biotic impoverishment could lock HWB at minimum levels or lead to its decline and halt or reverse progress in achieving sustainable development. PMID:27928039

  12. Biodiversity and human well-being: an essential link for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Shahid; Chazdon, Robin; Duffy, J Emmett; Prager, Case; Worm, Boris

    2016-12-14

    As society strives to transition towards more sustainable development pathways, it is important to properly conceptualize the link between biodiversity (i.e. genes, traits, species and other dimensions) and human well-being (HWB; i.e. health, wealth, security and other dimensions). Here, we explore how published conceptual frameworks consider the extent to which the biodiversity-HWB links are being integrated into public discourse and scientific research and the implications of our findings for sustainable development. We find that our understanding has gradually evolved from seeing the value of biodiversity as an external commodity that may influence HWB to biodiversity as fundamental to HWB. Analysis of the literature trends indicates increasing engagement with the terms biodiversity, HWB and sustainable development in the public, science and policy spheres, but largely as independent rather than linked terms. We suggest that a consensus framework for sustainable development should include biodiversity explicitly as a suite of internal variables that both influence and are influenced by HWB. Doing so will enhance clarity and help shape coherent research and policy priorities. We further suggest that the absence of this link in development can inadvertently lead to a ratcheting down of biodiversity by otherwise well-meaning policies. Such biotic impoverishment could lock HWB at minimum levels or lead to its decline and halt or reverse progress in achieving sustainable development.

  13. Shades of green: Measuring the ecology of urban green space in the context of human health and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Jorgensen; Paul H. Gobster

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review and analyze the recent research literature on urban green space and human health and well-being, with an emphasis on studies that attempt to measure biodiversity and other green space concepts relevant to urban ecological restoration. We first conduct a broad scale assessment of the literature to identify typologies of urban green space and...

  14. Unfinished business: ongoing ethical exceptionalism in the oversight of human pluripotent stem cell research in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Françoise; Downie, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we critically examine the arguments for and against the exceptional status given human pluripotent stem cell research in Canada (through the latest [December 2010] revision of the Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans), and conclude that this exceptionalism is unwarranted and ethically unsound. In our view, the three federal research granting agencies should honor their longstanding commitment that researchers, research sponsors, and Research Ethics Boards in Canada have access to "a single reference document for all research involving humans conducted under the auspices of institutions eligible for Agency funding." As well, responsibility for the development, interpretation, and implementation of Canada's research ethics guidelines should be under the authority of a single oversight body that is independent of the federal research granting Agencies.

  15. Robotic Nudges: The Ethics of Engineering a More Socially Just Human Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Jason; Arkin, Ron

    2016-02-01

    Robots are becoming an increasingly pervasive feature of our personal lives. As a result, there is growing importance placed on examining what constitutes appropriate behavior when they interact with human beings. In this paper, we discuss whether companion robots should be permitted to "nudge" their human users in the direction of being "more ethical". More specifically, we use Rawlsian principles of justice to illustrate how robots might nurture "socially just" tendencies in their human counterparts. Designing technological artifacts in such a way to influence human behavior is already well-established but merely because the practice is commonplace does not necessarily resolve the ethical issues associated with its implementation.

  16. Weather conditions: a neglected factor in human salivary cortisol research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milas, Goran; Šupe-Domić, Daniela; Drmić-Hofman, Irena; Rumora, Lada; Klarić, Irena Martinović

    2017-09-01

    There is ample evidence that environmental stressors such as extreme weather conditions affect animal behavior and that this process is in part mediated through the elevated activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which results in an increase in cortisol secretion. This relationship has not been extensively researched in humans, and weather conditions have not been analyzed as a potential confounder in human studies of stress. Consequently, the goal of this paper was to assess the relationship between salivary cortisol and weather conditions in the course of everyday life and to test a possible moderating effect of two weather-related variables, the climate region and timing of exposure to outdoors conditions. The sample consisted of 903 secondary school students aged 18 to 21 years from Mediterranean and Continental regions. Cortisol from saliva was sampled in naturalistic settings at three time points over the course of a single day. We found that weather conditions are related to salivary cortisol concentration and that this relationship may be moderated by both the specific climate and the anticipation of immediate exposure to outdoors conditions. Unpleasant weather conditions are predictive for the level of salivary cortisol, but only among individuals who anticipate being exposed to it in the immediate future (e.g., in students attending school in the morning shift). We also demonstrated that isolated weather conditions or their patterns may be relevant in one climate area (e.g., Continental) while less relevant in the other (e.g., Mediterranean). Results of this study draw attention to the importance of controlling weather conditions in human salivary cortisol research.

  17. Ethical consideration of experimentation using living human embryos: the Catholic Church's position on human embryonic stem cell research and human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, N

    2003-01-01

    Although the potential applications of human embryonic stem cells and therapeutic cloning hold promise for the alleged medical benefits, these technologies have posed profound ethical issues because they necessitate the destruction of human embryos. A fundamental point in the issues is the concept of the moral status of human embryos. The Catholic Church has held that human life begins at the moment of conception and therefore, has defended the dignity, inviolable right to life and integrity of human embryos. The Catholic Church has opposed human embryonic stem cell research and any kind of human cloning because they are contrary to the dignity of procreation, of conjugal union and of human embryos. Moreover, these techniques have the risk of creating a sub-category of human beings that are destined basically for the convenience of others. In conclusion, science and technology can never be independent of the criterion of morality, since technology exists for man and must respect his finality.

  18. A Theory of Human Needs Should Be Human-Centered, Not Animal-Centered: Commentary on Kenrick et al. (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesebir, Selin; Graham, Jesse; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2010-05-01

    Kenrick et al. (2010, this issue) make an important contribution by presenting a theory of human needs within an evolutionary framework. In our opinion, however, this framework bypasses the human uniqueness that Maslow intended to capture in his theory. We comment on the unique power of culture in shaping human motivation at the phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and proximate levels. We note that culture-gene coevolution may be a more promising lead to a theory of human motivation than a mammalcentric evolutionary perspective. © The Author(s) 2010.

  19. Accounting for the Impact of Conservation on Human Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Gulland, EJ; Mcgregor, JA; Agarwala, M; Atkinson, G; Bevan, P; Clements, T; Daw, T; Homewood, K; Kumpel, N; Lewis, J; Mourato, S; Palmer Fry, B; Redshaw, M; Rowcliffe, JM; Suon, S; Wallace, G; Washington, H; Wilkie, D

    2014-01-01

    Conservationists are increasingly engaging with the concept of human well-being to improve the design and evaluation of their interventions. Since the convening of the influential Sarkozy Commission in 2009, development researchers have been refining conceptualizations and frameworks to understand and measure human well-being and are starting to converge on a common understanding of how best to do this. In conservation, the term human well-being is in widespread use, but there is a need for guidance on operationalizing it to measure the impacts of conservation interventions on people. We present a framework for understanding human well-being, which could be particularly useful in conservation. The framework includes 3 conditions; meeting needs, pursuing goals, and experiencing a satisfactory quality of life. We outline some of the complexities involved in evaluating the well-being effects of conservation interventions, with the understanding that well-being varies between people and over time and with the priorities of the evaluator. Key challenges for research into the well-being impacts of conservation interventions include the need to build up a collection of case studies so as to draw out generalizable lessons; harness the potential of modern technology to support well-being research; and contextualize evaluations of conservation impacts on well-being spatially and temporally within the wider landscape of social change. Pathways through the smog of confusion around the term well-being exist, and existing frameworks such as the Well-being in Developing Countries approach can help conservationists negotiate the challenges of operationalizing the concept. Conservationists have the opportunity to benefit from the recent flurry of research in the development field so as to carry out more nuanced and locally relevant evaluations of the effects of their interventions on human well-being. Consideración del Impacto de la Conservación sobre el Bienestar Humano Resumen

  20. Human Research Program Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichansky, Anna; Badler, Norman; Butler, Keith; Cummings, Mary; DeLucia, Patricia; Endsley, Mica; Scholtz, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP) evaluated 22 gaps and 39 tasks in the three risk areas assigned to the SHFE Project. The area where tasks were best designed to close the gaps and the fewest gaps were left out was the Risk of Reduced Safety and Efficiency dire to Inadequate Design of Vehicle, Environment, Tools or Equipment. The areas where there were more issues with gaps and tasks, including poor or inadequate fit of tasks to gaps and missing gaps, were Risk of Errors due to Poor Task Design and Risk of Error due to Inadequate Information. One risk, the Risk of Errors due to Inappropriate Levels of Trust in Automation, should be added. If astronauts trust automation too much in areas where it should not be trusted, but rather tempered with human judgment and decision making, they will incur errors. Conversely, if they do not trust automation when it should be trusted, as in cases where it can sense aspects of the environment such as radiation levels or distances in space, they will also incur errors. This will be a larger risk when astronauts are less able to rely on human mission control experts and are out of touch, far away, and on their own. The SRP also identified 11 new gaps and five new tasks. Although the SRP had an extremely large quantity of reading material prior to and during the meeting, we still did not feel we had an overview of the activities and tasks the astronauts would be performing in exploration missions. Without a detailed task analysis and taxonomy of activities the humans would be engaged in, we felt it was impossible to know whether the gaps and tasks were really sufficient to insure human safety, performance, and comfort in the exploration missions. The SRP had difficulty evaluating many of the gaps and tasks that were not as quantitative as those related to concrete physical danger such as excessive noise and vibration. Often the research tasks for cognitive risks that accompany poor task or

  1. Learning to Be Researchers in Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy: The Perspectives of Doctoral Students and Early Career Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Michalis; Enright, Eimear; Hogan, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Numerous academics have argued that if a field is to progress, attention needs to be paid to how future generations of researchers are being prepared. To date, data generated on research training in physical education and sport pedagogy (PESP) have primarily focused on students undertaking doctoral programmes with a formal coursework component,…

  2. The future of human embryonic stem cell research: addressing ethical conflict with responsible scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, David M

    2004-05-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have almost unlimited regenerative capacity and can potentially generate any body tissue. Hence they hold great promise for the cure of degenerative human diseases. But their derivation and the potential for misuse have raised a number of ethical issues. These ethical issues threaten to paralyze pubic funding for ES cell research, leaving experimentation in the hands of the private sector and precluding the public's ability to monitor practices, research alternatives, and effectively address the very ethical issues that are cause for concern in the first place. With new technology being inevitable, and the potential for abuse high, government must stay involved if the public is to play a role in shaping the direction of research. In this essay, I will define levels of ethical conflict that can be delineated by the anticipated advances in technology. From the urgent need to derive new ES cell lines with existing technology, to the most far-reaching goal of deriving genetically identical tissues from an adult patients cells, technology-specific ethical dilemmas can be defined and addressed. This staged approach provides a solid ethical framework for moving forward with ES cell research. Moreover, by anticipating the moral conflicts to come, one can predict the types of scientific advances that could overcome these conflicts, and appropriately direct federal funding toward these goals to offset potentially less responsible research directives that will inevitably go forward via private or foreign funding.

  3. Can Plant Viruses Cross the Kingdom Border and Be Pathogenic to Humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Balique

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytoviruses are highly prevalent in plants worldwide, including vegetables and fruits. Humans, and more generally animals, are exposed daily to these viruses, among which several are extremely stable. It is currently accepted that a strict separation exists between plant and vertebrate viruses regarding their host range and pathogenicity, and plant viruses are believed to infect only plants. Accordingly, plant viruses are not considered to present potential pathogenicity to humans and other vertebrates. Notwithstanding these beliefs, there are many examples where phytoviruses circulate and propagate in insect vectors. Several issues are raised here that question if plant viruses might further cross the kingdom barrier to cause diseases in humans. Indeed, there is close relatedness between some plant and animal viruses, and almost identical gene repertoires. Moreover, plant viruses can be detected in non-human mammals and humans samples, and there are evidence of immune responses to plant viruses in invertebrates, non-human vertebrates and humans, and of the entry of plant viruses or their genomes into non-human mammal cells and bodies after experimental exposure. Overall, the question raised here is unresolved, and several data prompt the additional extensive study of the interactions between phytoviruses and non-human mammals and humans, and the potential of these viruses to cause diseases in humans.

  4. Experience Exchange Group (EEG) Approach as a Means for Research to be rooted in Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to clarify if and how an Experience Exchange Group(EEG) can be involved in a research process in the area of industrial management. For exemplification of the topic an ongoing research in global manufacturing is referred to. In this research it was after a series...

  5. Still Human: A Call for Increased Focus on Ethical Standards in Cadaver Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Michelle C

    2016-12-01

    Research on human cadavers is an important mechanism of scientific progress and comprises a large industry in the United States. However, despite its importance and influence, there is little ethical or regulatory oversight of cadaver-based research. This lack of transparency raises important ethical questions. Thus, this paper serves as a call for ethicists and regulators to pay increased attention to cadaver research. I argue that cadaver research ought to be considered a subset of human subjects research and held accountable to higher ethical standards. After describing current practices, I argue that oversight of cadaver research as a form of human subjects research is appropriate because cadaver research is similar to other types of human research, participants in cadaver research incur risks of harm, and a current lack of oversight has allowed the cadaver industry to entice research participation through ethically questionable practices. This paper urges greater dialogue among human subjects research ethicists and regulators about what constitutes appropriate protections for participants in cadaver research.

  6. Recent technology products from Space Human Factors research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, James P.

    1991-01-01

    The goals of the NASA Space Human Factors program and the research carried out concerning human factors are discussed with emphasis given to the development of human performance models, data, and tools. The major products from this program are described, which include the Laser Anthropometric Mapping System; a model of the human body for evaluating the kinematics and dynamics of human motion and strength in microgravity environment; an operational experience data base for verifying and validating the data repository of manned space flights; the Operational Experience Database Taxonomy; and a human-computer interaction laboratory whose products are the display softaware and requirements and the guideline documents and standards for applications on human-computer interaction. Special attention is given to the 'Convoltron', a prototype version of a signal processor for synthesizing the head-related transfer functions.

  7. Simulation and signal processing of through wall UWB radar for human being's periodic motions detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Fengshan; Xu, Penglong; Zeng, Zhaofa

    2013-05-01

    The human's Micro-Doppler signatures resulting from breathing, arm, foot and other periodic motion can provide valuable information about the structure of the moving parts and may be used for identification and classification purposes. In this paper, we carry out simulate with FDTD method and through wall experiment with UWB radar for human being's periodic motion detection. In addition, Advancements signal processing methods are presented to classify and to extract the human's periodic motion characteristic information, such as Micro-Doppler shift and motion frequency. Firstly, we apply the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with singular value decomposition (SVD) to denoise and extract the human motion signal. Then, we present the results base on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and the S transform to classify and to identify the human's micro-Doppler shift characteristics. The results demonstrate that the combination of UWB radar and various processing methods has potential to detect human's Doppler signatures effectively.

  8. Researching Human Experience: video intervention/prevention assessment (VIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Patashnick

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Human experience is a critical subject for research. By discussing Video Intervention/Prevention Assessment (VIA, a patient-centered health research method where patients teach their clinicians about living with a chronic condition through the creation of visual illness narratives, this paper examines the value of qualitative inquiry and why human experience rarely is investigated directly. An analysis of a sample VIA data is presented to demonstrate how, by utilizing grounded theory and qualitative analysis, one can derive rich and unique information from human experience.

  9. Time, human being and mental health care: an introduction to Gilles Deleuze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Marc

    2005-07-01

    The French philosopher, Gilles Deleuze, is emerging as one of the most important and influential philosophers of the 20th century, having published widely on philosophy, literature, language, psychoanalysis, art, politics, and cinema. However, because of the 'experimental' nature of certain works, combined with the manner in which he draws upon a variety of sources from various disciplines, his work can seem difficult, obscure, and even 'willfully obstructive'. In an attempt to resist such impressions, this paper will seek to provide an accessible introduction to Deleuze's work, and to begin to discuss how it can be employed to provide a significant critique and reconceptualization of the theoretical foundations and therapeutic practices of psychiatry, psychotherapy, and mental health nursing. In order to do this, the paper will focus upon Deleuze's masterwork, and the cornerstone to his philosophy as a whole, Difference and Repetition; in particular, it will discuss how his innovative and challenging account of time can be employed to provide a conception of human life as a 'continuity', rather than as a series of distinct 'moments' or 'events'. As well as discussing the manner in which his work can provide us with an understanding of how life is different and significant for each human being, this paper will also highlight the potential importance of Deleuze's work for logotherapy, for the recent 'turn' to 'narrative' as a psychotherapeutic approach and for contemporary mental health care's growing interest in 'social constructionism'. As such, this paper also seeks to stimulate further discussion and research into the importance and the relevance of Deleuze's work for the theory and practice of psychiatry, psychotherapy, and mental health nursing.

  10. The NASA Human Research Wiki - An Online Collaboration Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Yael; Rasbury, Jack; Johnson, Jordan; Barstend, Kristina; Saile, Lynn; Watkins, Sharmi

    2012-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element is one of six elements of the Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC is charged with decreasing the risk of: "Inability to adequately recognize or treat an ill or injured crew member" for exploration-class missions In preparation for exploration-class missions, ExMC has compiled a large evidence base, previously available only to persons within the NASA community. ExMC has developed the "NASA Human Research Wiki" in an effort to make the ExMC information available to the general public and increase collaboration within and outside of NASA. The ExMC evidence base is comprised of several types of data, including: (1)Information on more than 80 medical conditions which could occur during space flight (a)Derived from several sources (b)Including data on incidence and potential outcomes, as captured in the Integrated Medical Model s (IMM) Clinical Finding Forms (CliFFs). (2)Approximately 25 gap reports (a)Identify any "gaps" in knowledge and/or technology that would need to be addressed in order to provide adequate medical support for these novel missions.

  11. Naturalistic Cognition: A Research Paradigm for Human-Centered Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Storkerson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Naturalistic thinking and knowing, the tacit, experiential, and intuitive reasoning of everyday interaction, have long been regarded as inferior to formal reason and labeled primitive, fallible, subjective, superstitious, and in some cases ineffable. But, naturalistic thinking is more rational and definable than it appears. It is also relevant to design. Inquiry into the mechanisms of naturalistic thinking and knowledge can bring its resources into focus and enable designers to create better, human-centered designs for use in real-world settings. This article makes a case for the explicit, formal study of implicit, naturalistic thinking within the fields of design. It develops a framework for defining and studying naturalistic thinking and knowledge, for integrating them into design research and practice, and for developing a more integrated, consistent theory of knowledge in design. It will (a outline historical definitions of knowledge, attitudes toward formal and naturalistic thinking, and the difficulties presented by the co-presence of formal and naturalistic thinking in design, (b define and contrast formal and naturalistic thinking as two distinct human cognitive systems, (c demonstrate the importance of naturalistic cognition in formal thinking and real-world judgment, (d demonstrate methods for researching naturalistic thinking that can be of use in design, and (e briefly discuss the impact on design theory of admitting naturalistic thinking as valid, systematic, and knowable.

  12. Crowds for Clouds : Recent Trends in Humanities Research Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristel, Conny; Blanke, Tobias; Romary, Laurent; Benardou, Agiati; Champion, Erik; Dallas, Costis; Hughes, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    Humanities have convincingly argued that they need transnational research opportunities and through the digital transformation of their disciplines also have the means to proceed with it on an up to now unknown scale. The digital transformation of research and its resources means that many of the ar

  13. Teaching and Learning Children's Human Rights: A Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantefors, Lotta; Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The study presented in this paper is a research synthesis examining how issues relating to the teaching and learning of children's human rights have been approached in educational research. Drawing theoretically on the European Didaktik tradition, the purpose of the paper is to map and synthesise the educational interest in children's rights…

  14. An Emerging Theoretical Perspective for Research in Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    The emergence of a new theoretical framework for research in human development is discussed. The theoretical perspective is contrasted with the classical laboratory experiment, which produces ecologically invalid research because of the restrictions of the artificial laboratory environment. The emerging framework enhances ecological validity by…

  15. Crowds for Clouds : Recent Trends in Humanities Research Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristel, Conny; Blanke, Tobias; Romary, Laurent; Benardou, Agiati; Champion, Erik; Dallas, Costis; Hughes, Lorna

    2015-01-01

    Humanities have convincingly argued that they need transnational research opportunities and through the digital transformation of their disciplines also have the means to proceed with it on an up to now unknown scale. The digital transformation of research and its resources means that many of the ar

  16. Ethical and Legal Considerations in Dental Caries Research Using Human Subjects: Conference Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Joanna

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research are discussed. It is concluded that dentistry must not uncritically accept guidelines meant for a broader class of research, that guidelines can be misapplied, and that researchers must educate themselves on the Commission…

  17. Heterogeneity of Human Research Ethics Committees and Research Governance Offices across Australia: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth De Smit

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Conducting ethically grounded research is a fundamental facet of all investigations. Nevertheless, the administrative burdens of current ethics review are substantial, and calls have been made for a reduction in research waste. Aims To describe the heterogeneity in administration and documentation required by Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs and Research Governance Offices (RGOs across Australia. Methods In establishing a nationwide study to investigate the molecular aetiology of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA, for which archived pathological specimens from around Australia are being recruited, we identified variation across separate HREC and RGO requirements. Submission paperwork and correspondence from each collaborating site and its representative office for research were reviewed. This data was interrogated to evaluate differences in current guidelines. Results Twenty-five pathology departments across seven Australian States collaborated in this study. All states, except Victoria, employed a single ethics review model. There was discrepancy amongst HRECs as to which application process applied to our study: seven requested completion of a “National Ethics Application Form” and three a “Low Negligible Risk” form. Noticeable differences in guidelines included whether electronic submission was sufficient. There was variability in the total number of documents submitted (range five to 22 and panel review turnaround time (range nine to 136 days. Conclusion We demonstrate the challenges and illustrate the heavy workload involved in receiving widespread ethics and governance approval across Australia. We highlight the need to simplify, homogenise, and nationalise human ethics for non-clinical trial studies. Reducing unnecessary administration will enable investigators to achieve research aims more efficiently

  18. Focal Areas for Measuring the Human Well-Being Impacts of a Conservation Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sanjayan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Within conservation, the need to measure the impacts on people from conservation initiatives such as projects and programs is growing, but understanding and measuring the multidimensional impacts on human well-being from conservation initiatives is complex. To understand the constituent components of human well-being and identify which components of well-being are most common, we analyzed 31 known indices for measuring human well-being. We found 11 focal areas shared by two or more indices for measuring human well-being, and the focal areas of living standards, health, education, social cohesion, security, environment, and governance were in at least 14 of the 31 human well-being indices. We examined each of the common focal areas and assessed its relevance to measuring the human well-being impacts of a conservation initiative. We then looked for existing indices that include the relevant focal areas and recommend the use of Stiglitz et al. (2009—a framework designed to measure economic performance and social progress—as a starting place for understanding and selecting human well-being focal areas suitable for measuring the impacts on people from a conservation initiative.

  19. Why human evolution should be a basic science for medicine and psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano

    2016-06-20

    Based on our teaching experience in medicine and psychology degree programs, we examine different aspects of human evolution that can help students to understand how the human body and mind work and why they are vulnerable to certain diseases. Three main issues are discussed: 1) the necessity to consider not only the mechanisms, i.e. the "proximate causations", implicated in biological processes but also why these mechanisms have evolved, i.e. the "ultimate causations" or "adaptive significance", to understand the functioning and malfunctioning of human body and mind; 2) examples of how human vulnerabilities to disease are caused by phylogenetic constraints, evolutionary tradeoffs reflecting the combined actions of natural and sexual selection, and/or mismatch between past and present environment (i.e., evolution of the eye, teeth and diets, erect posture and their consequences); 3) human pair-bonding and parent-offspring relationships as the result of socio-sexual selection and evolutionary compromises between cooperation and conflict. These psychobiological mechanisms are interwoven with our brain developmental plasticity and the effects of culture in shaping our behavior and mind, and allow a better understanding of functional (normal) and dysfunctional (pathological) behaviors. Thus, because the study of human evolution offers a powerful framework for clinical practice and research, the curriculum studiorum of medical and psychology students should include evolutionary biology and human phylogeny.

  20. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistrian, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) reviewed and discussed the specific gaps and tasks for the Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element related to nutrition identified in the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan. There was general consensus that the described gaps and proposed tasks were critical to future NASA mission success. The SRP acknowledged the high scientific quality of the work currently being undertaken by the Nutritional Biochemistry group under the direction of Dr. Scott Smith. In review of the entire HRP, four new gaps were identified that complement the Element's existing research activities. Given the limitations of ground-based analogs for many of the unique physiological and metabolic alterations in space, future studies are needed to quantify nutritional factors that change during actual space flight. In addition, future tasks should seek to better evaluate the time course of physiological and metabolic alterations during flight to better predict alterations during longer duration missions. Finally, given the recent data suggesting a potential role for increased inflammatory responses during space flight, the role of inflammation needs to be explored in detail, including the development of potential countermeasures and new ground based analogs, if this possibility is confirmed.

  1. "The human use of human beings": Interdisciplinarity, transdisciplinarity and all that in biophysics and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Marco Elio; Termini, Settimo

    2017-10-01

    Biophysics, just by looking at its name, indicates an interdisciplinary scientific activity, although the notion of interdisciplinarity, as such, seems to be not widely or specifically discussed by biophysicists. The same seems to have happened as well in the early stages of the development of cybernetics, notably in Norbert Wiener's writings. This situation seems to contrast with what has happened in subsequent developments of cybernetics ideas, notably in general system theory and cognitive sciences. After a few general reflections on the notion of interdisciplinarity, its sophisticated variants and the path leading to the birth of cognitive science, we shall refer to Wiener's thought to extracts aspects and indications that could be useful today, also for what concerns the social responsibility of scientists, which could be seen as stemming from a very general form of interdisciplinarity. After a few general reflections on the notion of interdisciplinarity, its sophisticated variants and the path leading to the birth of cognitive science, we shall refer to Wiener's thought to extracts aspects and indications that could be useful today, also for what concerns the social responsibility of scientists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Human Research Program Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusek, Gail; Lewandowski, Beth; Nall, Marsha; Norsk, Peter; Linnehan, Rick; Baumann, David

    2015-01-01

    Exercise countermeasures provide benefits that are crucial for successful human spaceflight, to mitigate the spaceflight physiological deconditioning which occurs during exposure to microgravity. The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) is managing next generation Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) requirements development and candidate technology maturation to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7 (ground prototyping and flight demonstration) for all exploration mission profiles from Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Exploration Missions (up to 21 day duration) to Mars Transit (up to 1000 day duration) missions. These validated and optimized exercise countermeasures systems will be provided to the ISS Program and MPCV Program for subsequent flight development and operations. The International Space Station (ISS) currently has three major pieces of operational exercise countermeasures hardware: the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), the second-generation (T2) treadmill, and the cycle ergometer with vibration isolation system (CEVIS). This suite of exercise countermeasures hardware serves as a benchmark and is a vast improvement over previous generations of countermeasures hardware, providing both aerobic and resistive exercise for the crew. However, vehicle and resource constraints for future exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit will require that the exercise countermeasures hardware mass, volume, and power be minimized, while preserving the current ISS capabilities or even enhancing these exercise capabilities directed at mission specific physiological functional performance and medical standards requirements. Further, mission-specific considerations such as preservation of sensorimotor function, autonomous and adaptable operation, integration with medical data systems, rehabilitation, and in-flight monitoring and feedback are being developed for integration with the exercise

  3. From Research Assistant to Researcher: Being Wakeful in a Mentorship Journey About Methodology, Poverty, and Deficit Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Grenville

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how insights and new knowledge were incorporated about narrative inquiry methodology, poverty, and deficit ways of thinking through a journey of mentorship. The experiences of a graduate student, as she journeys through the roles of a research assistant and graduate researcher, all the while being part of a positive mentorship experience, are relayed. The article describes the journey of an evolving researcher who becomes wakeful through the narrative inquiry methodology while engaged as a research assistant as well as a graduate student alongside her supervisor.

  4. To a Question of Research Team’s Human Capital Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Aivazyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The approach based on the concept of stochastic frontier, to assessing of research team’s human capital, performing research with the financial support of the Science Foundation. The relevance of the problem is determined by the expansion of the use of competitive basis funding for research. As an estimate of research team’s human capital accepted the potential size of the financing in terms of effective use of research team’s human capital. Presents an econometric model, allowed to obtain estimates of the efficiency of research team’s human capital, have received financial support fund for scientific research. As a measure of efficiency is considered matching the size of the financial support of his research team characteristics of human capital. Formulated statistical hypothesis, test results which can be used to improve the competitive application forms and expert profiles, used the fund. It is noted, that when checking the hypothesis of no inefficiency of research team’s human capital, should be used the machine of copula functions, expanding the scope of the stochastic frontier methodology at the expense of rejection of the assumption of independence of the random components of the econometric model and allowing a correct estimates of the efficiency in terms of their dependence.

  5. Humanity as a Contested Concept: Relations between Disability and ‘Being Human’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul van Trigt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This editorial presents the theme and approach of the themed issue “Humanity as a Contested Concept: Relations between Disability and ‘Being Human’”. The way in which the concept of humanity is or must be related to disability is critically investigated from different disciplinary perspectives in the themed issue, which is, moreover, situated in the field of disability studies and related to discussions about posthumanism. The argument is made that humanity is a concept that needs to be constantly reflected upon from a disability studies perspective. Finally, the contributions of the themed issue are briefly outlined.

  6. [Clinical research XXIV. From clinical judgment to ethics in research on humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Marcela; Palacios-Cruz, Lino; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Talavera, Juan O

    2014-01-01

    Bioethics in research is an essential part of the structured review process of an article and it is based on three fundamental principles: respect for persons, beneficence and justice. In addition to not providing valid knowledge, a research with inadequate design, execution and statistical analysis is not ethical either, since these methodological deficiencies will produce information that will not be useful and, therefore, the risks that the participants were exposed to will have been in vain. Beyond scientific validity, there are other aspects that outline if an investigation is ethical, such as the clinical and social value of a study, a fair selection of participants, favorable risk-benefit balance, an independent review, the informed consent and respect for participants and potential participants. Throughout the article here presented, the documents that profile the behavior of investigators to protect the participants, such as the Declaration of Helsinki, the national regulations that rule us and the differences between research without risk, with minimal risk and with greater than minimal risk are discussed. That like in daily life, behavior in research involving human participants must be self-regulated, ie, people with knowledge of the existence of the law discover that the man is outside the realm of nature where work is done under the necessity of natural causality, and falls within the scope of the will; only if the man is free to decide their actions may be a law regulating their action.

  7. 75 FR 62738 - Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... as a result of a settlement agreement resolving a judicial challenge to the promulgation of these... considerations to be addressed in EPA science and ethics reviews of proposed and completed human research...

  8. [Elderly human being with ostomy and environments of care: reflection on the perspective of complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Edaiane Joana Lima; Santos, Silvana Sidney Costa; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Lunardi Filho, Wilson Danilo

    2012-01-01

    This is discussion about the relationship between elderly human beings with ostomy and their environments care, under the perspective of Complexity Edgar Morin. An axis holds the reflection: environments of care for elderly humans with ostomy. In this sense, we present three types of environment that surround the context of elderly humans with ostomy: home environment, group environment and hospital environment. This brings, as a social contribution, a new look about resizing caring of elderly humans with ostomy in their environment. It is considered that the environment hosting this human being contains a diversity of feelings, emotions, experiences; it binds multiple meanings, from the Complexity perspective, about the relationship between the environment and the caring process.

  9. The Human Being – He is Still ... the Living Resource of the Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Dumitrana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Almost every day, and quite often, we hear about how important the data, the informationor the knowledge at work is. The saying "The one who has information, also has control” is morecurrent than ever; it provides reliability, it awakens passion and determines you to store everything.We almost become machines, systems of these universal keys represented by knowledge. We tend toappreciate this ambulant knowledge, these bearers of knowledge and we lose sight of the essence - thehuman being. But isn’t he, the human being, who brought us to this moment? Isn’t it that all hisneeds, which became more and more refined, stricter, and more precise that caused thistransformation? We believe that this may continue,at least in accounting, far beyond the momentwhen the great economists labelled the human beingas a factor of production that advances towardsthe human being who brings performance then towardsthe possible ... human being as an asset,equity, debt. Perhaps, as in the case of great denials which have become truths, if not absolute, at leastthere will come a day when we are able to compressthe time ... the space ...., a day when we have thenecessary instruments to trade equity, assets and human liabilities... But until then, with yourpermission, we will deal with the human factor thatbrings performance, which is, we will be presentboth in reality and especially in thought, having the cliché of the transcendality of the human beingtowards new horizons of knowledge.

  10. The Human Communication Research Centre dialogue database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A H; Garrod, S C; Clark, A; Boyle, E; Mullin, J

    1992-10-01

    The HCRC dialogue database consists of over 700 transcribed and coded dialogues from pairs of speakers aged from seven to fourteen. The speakers are recorded while tackling co-operative problem-solving tasks and the same pairs of speakers are recorded over two years tackling 10 different versions of our two tasks. In addition there are over 200 dialogues recorded between pairs of undergraduate speakers engaged on versions of the same tasks. Access to the database, and to its accompanying custom-built search software, is available electronically over the JANET system by contacting liz@psy.glasgow.ac.uk, from whom further information about the database and a user's guide to the database can be obtained.

  11. 76 FR 65204 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Genomic Resource...: Rudy O. Pozzatti, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human...

  12. Ethical issues of the research on human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Yoshitaro

    2008-09-01

    This paper examines the debate on human embryonic stem cell (hES) research. In Japan, as in many Western countries, the moral status of the human embryo has been the main focus. There is a dichotomy between the advocates of research on hES cells and the advocates of the dignity of the embryos. Advocates of research on hES cells claim that the act of abandoning the embryo and the act of using it for research have the same moral status. Critics of research using embryos reject this position, claiming that the embryo has a status incommensurable with other values. This paper points out that the standpoint of the woman providing the embryos has been overlooked in this discussion.

  13. TO BE IS NOT-TO-BE: NIHILISM, IDEOLOGY AND THE QUESTION OF BEING IN HEIDEGGER’S POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY PART II: TRUTH, HUMANISM AND TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai NOVAC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Allegedly, Heidegger never quite finished Being and Time: his initial intention had consisted in the determination of the meaning of Being as such, apart from Dasein’s own existentiality. Afterwards, however, and despite the growing public excitement revolving around the published unfinished version of his project, his preoccupations, thematic conceptuality and very language, apparently started to shift away towards a strange and unfamiliar stance which he would never leave. Quite surely, his Nazi flirtation and subsequent withdrawal did not help in bringing clarity over this. On the other hand, this was not necessarily unexpected (although not necessarily to be expected, as well. What I mean to say is that for someone reading Being and time in spirit and not in law, the possibility of such a substantive rethought of his initial scheme is present throughout the work. One’s changing one’s mind with respect to oneself is, after all, one of the basic possibilities conveyed by Dasein’s achieved resoluteness [Entschlossenheit]. Furthermore, despite his apparent reorientation, I think we can speak of some sort of attitudinal unity between Heidegger’s initial and later work, conceptually mediated by the relationship between Dasein’s Being-unto-death [Sein-zum-Tode] and the so called concealedness [Verborgenheit] of Being.. That is precisely what I aim to lay bare through this conceptual reconstruction of some of his later works: (i On the Essence of Truth (1930 and (ii Letter on Humanism (1946. Basically, I will try to show that if in Being and Time he tried to come to Being from Dasein, in his later work he tries to get to Da-sein from Being, fact which unsurprisingly brought along some reconsiderations but that, broadly speaking, essentially amounts to what he set out to do in his initial ontological project. Surprisingly, the most concrete instance of this pendulation between Dasein and Being is to be found, at least to my knowledge, in

  14. Diseases of Poverty and Lifestyle, Well-Being and Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2008-01-01

    The problems of the haves differ substantially from those of the have-nots. Individuals in developing societies have to fight mainly against infectious and communicable diseases, while in the developed world the battles are mainly against lifestyle diseases. Yet, at a very fundamental level, the problems are the same-the fight is against distress, disability, and premature death; against human exploitation and for human development and self-actualisation; against the callousness to critical concerns in regimes and scientific power centres. While there has been great progress in the treatment of individual diseases, human pathology continues to increase. Sicknesses are not decreasing in number, they are only changing in type. The primary diseases of poverty like TB, malaria, and HIV/AIDS-and the often co-morbid and ubiquitous malnutrition-take their toll on helpless populations in developing countries. Poverty is not just income deprivation but capability deprivation and optimism deprivation as well. While life expectancy may have increased in the haves, and infant and maternal mortality reduced, these gains have not necessarily ensured that well-being results. There are ever-multiplying numbers of individuals whose well-being is compromised due to lifestyle diseases. These diseases are the result of faulty lifestyles and the consequent crippling stress. But it serves no one's purpose to understand them as such. So, the prescription pad continues to prevail over lifestyle-change counselling or research. The struggle to achieve well-being and positive health, to ensure longevity, to combat lifestyle stress and professional burnout, and to reduce psychosomatic ailments continues unabated, with hardly an end in sight. We thus realise that morbidity, disability, and death assail all three societies: the ones with infectious diseases, the ones with diseases of poverty, and the ones with lifestyle diseases. If it is bacteria in their various forms that are the culprit in

  15. Diseases of Poverty and Lifestyle, Well-Being and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of the haves differ substantially from those of the have-nots. Individuals in developing societies have to fight mainly against infectious and communicable diseases, while in the developed world the battles are mainly against lifestyle diseases. Yet, at a very fundamental level, the problems are the same-the fight is against distress, disability, and premature death; against human exploitation and for human development and self-actualisation; against the callousness to critical concerns in regimes and scientific power centres.While there has been great progress in the treatment of individual diseases, human pathology continues to increase. Sicknesses are not decreasing in number, they are only changing in type.The primary diseases of poverty like TB, malaria, and HIV/AIDS-and the often co-morbid and ubiquitous malnutrition-take their toll on helpless populations in developing countries. Poverty is not just income deprivation but capability deprivation and optimism deprivation as well. While life expectancy may have increased in the haves, and infant and maternal mortality reduced, these gains have not necessarily ensured that well-being results. There are ever-multiplying numbers of individuals whose well-being is compromised due to lifestyle diseases. These diseases are the result of faulty lifestyles and the consequent crippling stress. But it serves no one's purpose to understand them as such. So, the prescription pad continues to prevail over lifestyle-change counselling or research. The struggle to achieve well-being and positive health, to ensure longevity, to combat lifestyle stress and professional burnout, and to reduce psychosomatic ailments continues unabated, with hardly an end in sight.We thus realise that morbidity, disability, and death assail all three societies: the ones with infectious diseases, the ones with diseases of poverty, and the ones with lifestyle diseases. If it is bacteria in their various forms that

  16. Diseases of poverty and lifestyle, well-being and human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A

    2008-01-01

    The problems of the haves differ substantially from those of the have-nots. Individuals in developing societies have to fight mainly against infectious and communicable diseases, while in the developed world the battles are mainly against lifestyle diseases. Yet, at a very fundamental level, the problems are the same-the fight is against distress, disability, and premature death; against human exploitation and for human development and self-actualisation; against the callousness to critical concerns in regimes and scientific power centres.While there has been great progress in the treatment of individual diseases, human pathology continues to increase. Sicknesses are not decreasing in number, they are only changing in type.The primary diseases of poverty like TB, malaria, and HIV/AIDS-and the often co-morbid and ubiquitous malnutrition-take their toll on helpless populations in developing countries. Poverty is not just income deprivation but capability deprivation and optimism deprivation as well.While life expectancy may have increased in the haves, and infant and maternal mortality reduced, these gains have not necessarily ensured that well-being results. There are ever-multiplying numbers of individuals whose well-being is compromised due to lifestyle diseases. These diseases are the result of faulty lifestyles and the consequent crippling stress. But it serves no one's purpose to understand them as such. So, the prescription pad continues to prevail over lifestyle-change counselling or research.The struggle to achieve well-being and positive health, to ensure longevity, to combat lifestyle stress and professional burnout, and to reduce psychosomatic ailments continues unabated, with hardly an end in sight.WE THUS REALISE THAT MORBIDITY, DISABILITY, AND DEATH ASSAIL ALL THREE SOCIETIES: the ones with infectious diseases, the ones with diseases of poverty, and the ones with lifestyle diseases. If it is bacteria in their various forms that are the culprit in

  17. Experience Exchange Group (EEG) Approach as a Means for Research to be rooted in Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to clarify if and how an Experience Exchange Group(EEG) can be involved in a research process in the area of industrial management. For exemplification of the topic an ongoing research in global manufacturing is referred to. In this research it was after a series...... of preliminary studies found interesting to set up an EEG composed of representatives from industry and a researcher. In the paper some general research methods pertinent to the area industrial management are discussed. The EEG concept is introduced and characterised in comparison with the other methods. EEG...... activities are described and a tentative coupling to the phases in a research process is proposed. Following this is a discussion of methodological and quality requirements. It is considered how EEG activities could possibly contribute to an industrial rooted research. The paper ends up looking at future...

  18. The politics of risk: a human rights paradigm for children's environmental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Maura A

    2006-10-01

    A human rights paradigm for environmental health research makes explicit the relationship between poor health and poverty, inequality, and social and political marginalization, and it aims at civic problem solving. In so doing, it incorporates support for community-based, participatory research and takes seriously the social responsibilities of researchers. For these reasons, a human rights approach may be better able than conventional bioethics to address the unique issues that arise in the context of pediatric environmental health research, particularly the place of environmental justice standards in research. At the same time, as illustrated by disagreements over the ethics of research into lead abatement methods, bringing a human rights paradigm to bear in the context of environmental health research requires resolving important tensions at its heart, particularly the inescapable tension between ethical ideals and political realities.

  19. Indicators to Identify Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Jong, Jessica; Ambagtsheer, Frederike

    2016-01-01

    ... for the purpose of organ removal. It outlines the legal and illegal service providers that facilitate trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and guides the reader through the following criminal process...

  20. Hepcidin modulation in human diseases: From research to clinic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto Piperno; Raffaella Mariani; Paola Trombini; Domenico Girelli

    2009-01-01

    By modulating hepcidin production, an organism controls intestinal iron absorption, iron uptake and mobilization from stores to meet body iron need. In recent years there has been important advancement in our knowledge of hepcidin regulation that also has implications for understanding the physiopathology of some human disorders. Since the discovery of hepcidin and the demonstration of its pivotal role in iron homeostasis, there has been a substantial interest in developing a reliable assay of the hormone in biological fluids. Measurement of hepcidin in biological fluids can improve our understanding of iron diseases and be a useful tool for diagnosis and clinical management of these disorders. We reviewed the literature and our own research on hepcidin to give an updated status of the situation in this rapidly evolving field.

  1. Well-being and human-animal interactions in schools: The case of "Dog Daycare Co-Op"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Elizabeth Pinto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on Martha Nussbaum’s account of the nature of human well-being to explore the role of animals in formal education settings. Nussbaum equates well-being with human flourishing, and argues that people live well when engaged in essential functions that are particular capabilities, each a necessary but insufficient contributor to well-being. One of these capabilities is the ability to “to have concern for and live with other animals, plants and the environment.” Yet, this condition of well-being remains largely unexplored among in education. In recent years, the benefits of human-animal interaction in education settings has been researched and discussed in the social sciences, particularly  the use of dogs to aid reluctant readers in literacy development, and the use of therapy dogs in universities during final examination blocks. This paper presents findings of one particular research project of the effects of a unique, Canadian school-based cooperative education program, “Under One Woof,” in which students work with animals.  Based on interviews, students’ own stories of the impact of animal interaction – particularly in light of other challenges they faced academically and socially – appear to support other empirical accounts of positive effects of animals in education settings, and offer insight into the nature and effects of human-animal interaction as an element of well-being.

  2. The diversity of experimental organisms in biomedical research may be influenced by biomedical funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erick Peirson, B R; Kropp, Heather; Damerow, Julia; Laubichler, Manfred D

    2017-03-30

    Contrary to concerns of some critics, we present evidence that biomedical research is not dominated by a small handful of model organisms. An exhaustive analysis of research literature suggests that the diversity of experimental organisms in biomedical research has increased substantially since 1975. There has been a longstanding worry that organism-centric funding policies can lead to biases in experimental organism choice, and thus negatively impact the direction of research and the interpretation of results. Critics have argued that a focus on model organisms has unduly constrained the diversity of experimental organisms. The availability of large electronic databases of scientific literature, combined with interest in quantitative methods among philosophers of science, presents new opportunities for data-driven investigations into organism choice in biomedical research. The diversity of organisms used in NIH-funded research may be considerably lower than in the broader biomedical sciences, and may be subject to greater constraints on organism choice.

  3. Human Research Program 2010 Chair Standing Review Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The 13 Human Research Program (HRP) Standing Review Panel (SRP) Chairs, and in some cases one or two additional panel members (see section XIV, roster) referred to as the Chair (+1) SRP throughout this document, met at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) on December 7, 2010 to allow the HRP Elements and Projects to report on their progress over the past year, their current status, and their plans for the upcoming year based on NASA's current goals and objectives for human space exploration. A large focus of the meeting was also used to discuss integration across the HRP scientific disciplines based on a recommendation from the 2009 HRP SRP review. During the one-day meeting, each of the HRP Elements and Projects presented the changes they made to the HRP Integrated Research Plan (IRP Rev. B) over the last year, and what their top three areas of integration are between other HRP Elements/Projects. The Chair (+1) SRP spent sufficient time addressing the panel charge, either as a group or in a separate closed session, and the Chair (+1) SRP and the HRP presenters and observers, in most cases, had sufficient time to discuss during and after the presentations. The SRP made a final debriefing to the HRP Program Scientist, Dr. John B. Charles, prior to the close of the meeting on December 7, 2010. Overall, the Chair (+1) SRP concluded that most of the HRP Elements/Projects did a commendable job during the past year in addressing integration across the HRP scientific disciplines with the available resources. The Chair (+1) SRP agreed that the idea of integration between HRP Elements/Projects is noble, but believes all parties involved should have the same definition of integration, in order to be successful. The Chair (+1) SRP also believes that a key to successful integration is communication among the HRP Elements/Projects which may present a challenge. The Chair (+1) SRP recommends that the HRP have a workshop on program integration (with HRP Element

  4. Should we clone human beings? Cloning as a source of tissue for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, J

    1999-01-01

    The most publicly justifiable application of human cloning, if there is one at all, is to provide self-compatible cells or tissues for medical use, especially transplantation. Some have argued that this raises no new ethical issues above those raised by any form of embryo experimentation. I argue that this research is less morally problematic than other embryo research. Indeed, it is not merely morally permissible but morally required that we employ cloning to produce embryos or fetuses for the sake of providing cells, tissues or even organs for therapy, followed by abortion of the embryo or fetus. PMID:10226910

  5. Should we clone human beings? Cloning as a source of tissue for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, J

    1999-04-01

    The most publicly justifiable application of human cloning, if there is one at all, is to provide self-compatible cells or tissues for medical use, especially transplantation. Some have argued that this raises no new ethical issues above those raised by any form of embryo experimentation. I argue that this research is less morally problematic than other embryo research. Indeed, it is not merely morally permissible but morally required that we employ cloning to produce embryos or fetuses for the sake of providing cells, tissues or even organs for therapy, followed by abortion of the embryo or fetus.

  6. A LARGE HUMAN CENTRIFUGE FOR EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack J.W.A. van Loon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses concepts regarding the development of an Altered Gravity Platform (AGP that will serve as a research platform for human space exploration. Space flight causes a multitude of physiological problems, many of which are due to gravity level transitions. Going from Earth's gravity to microgravity generates fluid shifts, space motion sickness, cardiovascular deconditioning among other changes, and returning to a gravity environment again puts the astronauts under similar stressors. A prolonged stay in microgravity provokes additional deleterious changes such as bone loss, muscle atrophy and loss of coordination or specific psychological stresses. To prepare for future manned space exploration missions, a ground-based research test bed for validating countermeasures against the deleterious effects of g-level transitions is needed. The proposed AGP is a large rotating facility (diameter > 150 m, where gravity levels ranging from 1.1 to 1.5g are generated, covering short episodes or during prolonged stays of weeks or even months. On this platform, facilities are built where a crew of 6 to 8 humans can live autonomously. Adaptation from 1 g to higher g levels can be studied extensively and monitored continuously. Similarly, re-adaptation back to 1 g, after a prolonged period of altered g can also be investigated. Study of the physiological and psychological adaptation to changing g-levels will provide instrumental and predictive knowledge to better define the ultimate countermeasures that are needed for future successful manned space exploration missions to the Moon, Mars and elsewhere. The AGP initiative will allow scientific top experts in Europe and worldwide to investigate the necessary scientific, operational, and engineering inputs required for such space missions. Because so many different physiological systems are involved in adaptation to gravity levels, a multidisciplinary approach is crucial. One of the final and crucial

  7. MORPHIN: a web tool for human disease research by projecting model organism biology onto a human integrated gene network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Eiru; Yang, Sunmo; Marcotte, Edward M; Lee, Insuk

    2014-07-01

    Despite recent advances in human genetics, model organisms are indispensable for human disease research. Most human disease pathways are evolutionally conserved among other species, where they may phenocopy the human condition or be associated with seemingly unrelated phenotypes. Much of the known gene-to-phenotype association information is distributed across diverse databases, growing rapidly due to new experimental techniques. Accessible bioinformatics tools will therefore facilitate translation of discoveries from model organisms into human disease biology. Here, we present a web-based discovery tool for human disease studies, MORPHIN (model organisms projected on a human integrated gene network), which prioritizes the most relevant human diseases for a given set of model organism genes, potentially highlighting new model systems for human diseases and providing context to model organism studies. Conceptually, MORPHIN investigates human diseases by an orthology-based projection of a set of model organism genes onto a genome-scale human gene network. MORPHIN then prioritizes human diseases by relevance to the projected model organism genes using two distinct methods: a conventional overlap-based gene set enrichment analysis and a network-based measure of closeness between the query and disease gene sets capable of detecting associations undetectable by the conventional overlap-based methods. MORPHIN is freely accessible at http://www.inetbio.org/morphin.

  8. Human rights, cultural pluralism, and international health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    In the field of bioethics, scholars have begun to consider carefully the impact of structural issues on global population health, including socioeconomic and political factors influencing the disproportionate burden of disease throughout the world. Human rights and social justice are key considerations for both population health and biomedical research. In this paper, I will briefly explore approaches to human rights in bioethics and review guidelines for ethical conduct in international health research, focusing specifically on health research conducted in resource-poor settings. I will demonstrate the potential for addressing human rights considerations in international health research with special attention to the importance of collaborative partnerships, capacity building, and respect for cultural traditions. Strengthening professional knowledge about international research ethics increases awareness of ethical concerns associated with study design and informed consent among researchers working in resource-poor settings. But this is not enough. Technological and financial resources are also necessary to build capacity for local communities to ensure that research results are integrated into existing health systems. Problematic issues surrounding the application of ethical guidelines in resource-poor settings are embedded in social history, cultural context, and the global political economy. Resolving the moral complexities requires a commitment to engaged dialogue and action among investigators, funding agencies, policy makers, governmental institutions, and private industry.

  9. Designing coastal conservation to deliver ecosystem and human well-being benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, Douglas R.; Kahl, Katherine J.; Washburn, Erika L.; May, Christopher A.; Franks Taylor, Rachael; Cole, James B.; Ewert, David N.; Game, Edward T.; Doran, Patrick J.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation scientists increasingly recognize that incorporating human values into conservation planning increases the chances for success by garnering broader project acceptance. However, methods for defining quantitative targets for the spatial representation of human well-being priorities are less developed. In this study we employ an approach for identifying regionally important human values and establishing specific spatial targets for their representation based on stakeholder outreach. Our primary objective was to develop a spatially-explicit conservation plan that identifies the most efficient locations for conservation actions to meet ecological goals while sustaining or enhancing human well-being values within the coastal and nearshore areas of the western Lake Erie basin (WLEB). We conducted an optimization analysis using 26 features representing ecological and human well-being priorities (13 of each), and included seven cost layers. The influence that including human well-being had on project results was tested by running five scenarios and setting targets for human well-being at different levels in each scenario. The most important areas for conservation to achieve multiple goals are clustered along the coast, reflecting a concentration of existing or potentially restorable coastal wetlands, coastal landbird stopover habitat and terrestrial biodiversity, as well as important recreational activities. Inland important areas tended to cluster around trails and high quality inland landbird stopover habitat. Most concentrated areas of importance also are centered on lands that are already conserved, reflecting the lower costs and higher benefits of enlarging these conserved areas rather than conserving isolated, dispersed areas. Including human well-being features in the analysis only influenced the solution at the highest target levels. PMID:28241018

  10. [Human resources and health work: challenges for a research agenda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Avila; Belisário, Soraya Almeida; Campos, Francisco Eduardo; D'Avila, Luciana Souza

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses several key concepts for human resources policy in health in the context of Latin America's regional integration efforts. The article focuses on different concepts of integration to emphasize the analytical distinction between regional and conceptual integration. It also presents labor and human resources concepts before discussing, in the final analysis, the challenges that a common research agenda faces in the context of current health sector reforms in Latin America. The conclusion emphasizes the need to develop a technology and research system capable of supporting the agenda for exchange between MERCOSUR member countries.

  11. Learning to Be Literate: Insights from Research for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an overview of literacy teaching and learning, based on the author's extensive research and, in particular, the recently revised and extended "Learning to be Literate: Insights from Research for Policy and Practice" (Routledge, 2016). It is set against a background in England in which government policy dictates…

  12. Human Research Program: 2012 Fiscal Year Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenhauser, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Crew health and performance are critical to successful human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Risks to health and performance include physiologic effects from radiation, hypogravity, and planetary environments, as well as unique challenges in medical treatment, human factors, and support of behavioral health. The scientists and engineers of the Human Research Program (HRP) investigate and reduce the greatest risks to human health and performance, and provide essential countermeasures and technologies for human space exploration. In its seventh year of operation, the HRP continued to refine its management architecture of evidence, risks, gaps, tasks, and deliverables. Experiments continued on the International Space Station (ISS), on the ground in analog environments that have features similar to those of spaceflight, and in laboratory environments. Data from these experiments furthered the understanding of how the space environment affects the human system. These research results contributed to scientific knowledge and technology developments that address the human health and performance risks. As shown in this report, HRP has made significant progress toward developing medical care and countermeasure systems for space exploration missions which will ultimately reduce risks to crew health and performance.

  13. [The spirit of humanism should be cultivated in the nursing profession].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Mei-Yu; Lee, Sheuan

    2011-10-01

    As nursing is an art that emphasizes the nature of caring it should have humanistic attributes. Humanistic education of a nursing professional should emphasize a person-centered perspective in order to foster cultivation of the humanities and infuse the spirit of humane care into medical practice. Cultivation of humanism refers to the emotional level of personal-affective experience that blends humanistic science and aesthetic experience to enhance nurse observational abilities. The ability generated by self-awareness and reflection can trigger deep empathy and empathetic performance, which is ideal humanistic-nursing behavior in nursing staff. Traditional nursing education focuses on acquiring professional knowledge and largely ignores the cultivation of a humanist spirit. To help nurses adjust to the rapidly changing environment of nursing care and demonstrate a professional and humane character, in addition to advocating for a humane medical environment, the six Es of humanistic-nursing education (Example, Explanation, Exhortation, Environment, Experience, Expectation) should be promoted. The six Es are essential to building a framework to cultivate humanistic education strategies and strengthen humanist content in nursing education. In order to instill deeply the spirit of humanistic care in nursing and make the nursing-care process more humane, these ideals must be emphasized in nursing education to raise the level of humanism.

  14. Human reliability analysis of the Tehran research reactor using the SPAR-H method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barati Ramin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to cover human reliability analysis of the Tehran research reactor using an appropriate method for the representation of human failure probabilities. In the present work, the technique for human error rate prediction and standardized plant analysis risk-human reliability methods have been utilized to quantify different categories of human errors, applied extensively to nuclear power plants. Human reliability analysis is, indeed, an integral and significant part of probabilistic safety analysis studies, without it probabilistic safety analysis would not be a systematic and complete representation of actual plant risks. In addition, possible human errors in research reactors constitute a significant part of the associated risk of such installations and including them in a probabilistic safety analysis for such facilities is a complicated issue. Standardized plant analysis risk-human can be used to address these concerns; it is a well-documented and systematic human reliability analysis system with tables for human performance choices prepared in consultation with experts in the domain. In this method, performance shaping factors are selected via tables, human action dependencies are accounted for, and the method is well designed for the intended use. In this study, in consultations with reactor operators, human errors are identified and adequate performance shaping factors are assigned to produce proper human failure probabilities. Our importance analysis has revealed that human action contained in the possibility of an external object falling on the reactor core are the most significant human errors concerning the Tehran research reactor to be considered in reactor emergency operating procedures and operator training programs aimed at improving reactor safety.

  15. The Development of a Human Well-Being Index for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a human well-being index (HWBI) that assesses the over-all well-being of its population at the county level. The HWBI contains eight domains and represents social, economic and environmental well-being. These domains inc...

  16. Marginal biotin deficiency can be induced experimentally in humans using a cost-effective outpatient design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Shawna L; Henrich, Cindy L; Matthews, Nell I; Bogusiewicz, Anna; Dawson, Amanda M; Horvath, Thomas D; Owen, Suzanne N; Boysen, Gunnar; Moran, Jeffery H; Mock, Donald M

    2012-01-01

    To date, marginal, asymptomatic biotin deficiency has been successfully induced experimentally by the use of labor-intensive inpatient designs requiring rigorous dietary control. We sought to determine if marginal biotin deficiency could be induced in humans in a less expensive outpatient design incorporating a self-selected, mixed general diet. We sought to examine the efficacy of three outpatient study designs: two based on oral avidin dosing and one based on a diet high in undenatured egg white for a period of 28 d. In study design 1, participants (n = 4; 3 women) received avidin in capsules with a biotin binding capacity of 7 times the estimated dietary biotin intake of a typical self-selected diet. In study design 2, participants (n = 2; 2 women) received double the amount of avidin capsules (14 times the estimated dietary biotin intake). In study design 3, participants (n = 5; 3 women) consumed egg-white beverages containing avidin with a biotin binding capacity of 7 times the estimated dietary biotin intake. Established indices of biotin status [lymphocyte propionyl-CoA carboxylase activity; urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid, 3-hydroxyisovaleryl carnitine (3HIA-carnitine), and biotin; and plasma concentration of 3HIA-carnitine] indicated that study designs 1 and 2 were not effective in inducing marginal biotin deficiency, but study design 3 was as effective as previous inpatient study designs that induced deficiency by egg-white beverage. Marginal biotin deficiency can be induced experimentally by using a cost-effective outpatient design by avidin delivery in egg-white beverages. This design should be useful to the broader nutritional research community.

  17. Can Mary Shelley's Frankenstein be read as an early research ethics text?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, H

    2004-06-01

    The current popular view of the novel Frankenstein is that it describes the horrors consequent upon scientific experimentation; the pursuit of science leading inevitably to tragedy. In reality the importance of the book is far from this. Although the evil and tragedy resulting from one medical experiment are its theme, a critical and fair reading finds a more balanced view that includes science's potential to improve the human condition and reasons why such an experiment went awry. The author argues that Frankenstein is an early and balanced text on the ethics of research upon human subjects and that it provides insights that are as valid today as when the novel was written. As a narrative it provides a gripping story that merits careful analysis by those involved in medical research and its ethical review, and it is more enjoyable than many current textbooks! To support this thesis, the author will place the book in historical, scientific context, analyse it for lessons relevant to those involved in research ethics today, and then draw conclusions.

  18. Power, trust, and Science of Unitary Human Beings influence political leadership: a celebration of Barrett's power theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barbara W

    2010-01-01

    The importance of nurses' participation in health policy leadership is discussed within the context of Rogers' science of unitary human beings, Barrett's power theory, and one nurse-politician's experience. Nurses have a major role to play in resolving public policy issues that influence the health of people. A brief review of the history of nurses in the political arena is presented. Research related to power and trust is reviewed. Suggested strategies for success in political situations are offered.

  19. The emergence of human coronavirus EMC: how scared should we be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Renee W Y; Poon, Leo L M

    2013-04-09

    A novel betacoronavirus, human coronavirus (HCoV-EMC), has recently been detected in humans with severe respiratory disease. Further characterization of HCoV-EMC suggests that this virus is different from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) because it is able to replicate in multiple mammalian cell lines and it does not use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 as a receptor to achieve infection. Additional research is urgently needed to better understand the pathogenicity and tissue tropism of this virus in humans. In their recent study published in mBio, Kindler et al. shed some light on these important topics (E. Kindler, H. R. Jónsdóttir, M. Muth, O. J. Hamming, R. Hartmann, R. Rodriguez, R. Geffers, R. A. Fouchier, C. Drosten, M. A. Müller, R. Dijkman, and V. Thiel, mBio 4[1]:e00611-12, 2013). These authors report the use of differentiated pseudostratified human primary airway epithelial cells, an in vitro model with high physiological relevance to the human airway epithelium, to characterize the cellular tropism of HCoV-EMC. More importantly, the authors demonstrate the potential use of type I and type III interferons (IFNs) to control viral infection.

  20. The Exposome Research Paradigm: an Opportunity to Understand the Environmental Basis for Human Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck Louis, Germaine M; Smarr, Melissa M; Patel, Chirag J

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the exposome research paradigm with particular application to understanding human reproduction and development and its implications for health across a lifespan. The exposome research paradigm has generated considerable discussion about its feasibility and utility for delineating the impact of environmental exposures on human health. Early initiatives are underway, including smaller proof-of-principle studies and larger concerted efforts. Despite the notable challenges underlying the exposome paradigm, analytic techniques are being developed to handle its untargeted approach and correlated and multi-level or hierarchical data structures such initiatives generate, while considering multiple comparisons. The relatively short intervals for critical and sensitive windows of human reproduction and development seem well suited for exposome research and may revolutionize our understanding of later onset diseases. Early initiatives suggest that the exposome paradigm is feasible, but its utility remains to be established with applications to population human health research.

  1. 75 FR 13137 - National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... on a revision to the definition of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in the ``National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research'' (Guidelines). Due to a technical problem, comments... . Comments may also be mailed to: NIH Stem Cell Guidelines, MSC 7997, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland...

  2. Expand and Regularize Federal Funding for Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Smith, Jason; Scott, Christopher Thomas; McCormick, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research has sparked incredible scientific and public excitement, as well as significant controversy. hESCs are pluripotent, which means, in theory, that they can be differentiated into any type of cell found in the human body. Thus, they evoke great enthusiasm about potential clinical applications. They are…

  3. Learning Research as a Human Science: Old Wine in New Bottles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuel, William R.; O'Connor, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Taken as a whole, this volume can be viewed as an argument for reframing learning research as a human science, one focused on interpreting learning situations and organizing for improving learning in ways that put human agency, values, and engagement with social practices at the center. Each chapter illuminates one or more elements of a human…

  4. Expand and Regularize Federal Funding for Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Smith, Jason; Scott, Christopher Thomas; McCormick, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research has sparked incredible scientific and public excitement, as well as significant controversy. hESCs are pluripotent, which means, in theory, that they can be differentiated into any type of cell found in the human body. Thus, they evoke great enthusiasm about potential clinical applications. They are…

  5. Ethical fundamentals in human subjects research : On equipoise and human dignity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf - Verhave, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304821373

    2010-01-01

    In her PhD thesis Rieke van der Graaf has studied how we can ethically justify human subjects research. In particular she has studied two ethical fundamentals that play a key role in the justification process, that of equipoise and human dignity. Equipoise is often taken to mean that

  6. Ethical fundamentals in human subjects research : On equipoise and human dignity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf - Verhave, R.

    2010-01-01

    In her PhD thesis Rieke van der Graaf has studied how we can ethically justify human subjects research. In particular she has studied two ethical fundamentals that play a key role in the justification process, that of equipoise and human dignity. Equipoise is often taken to mean that physician-resea

  7. Allowing for Psychosis to be Approachable and Understandable as a Human Experience: A Role for the Humanities in Psychotherapy Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Bethany L; Hamm, Jay A; Fogley, Rebecca L; Buck, Kelly D; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatry and related mental health fields, in particular psychotherapy, have a long history of close ties with the humanities. That bond has weakened, however, over the last few decades as medicalized views of mental health and treatment have emerged. In this paper, we explore the potential of the reintroduction of the humanities, specifically novels and related literary genre, into the supervision of student clinicians working with clients who have psychosis. We believe that incorporation of novels and related literary genre into supervision can lead to unique and deepened understanding of the experience of psychosis, and can create an opportunity for a working therapeutic alliance. The potential mechanisms that create these unique opportunities to understand psychopathology are explored, and considerations for the implications for treatment, training, and future research are presented.

  8. Humanity Must Be Defended: War, Politics and Humanitarian Relief in Iraq, 1990-2004

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Iraq was the first political and humanitarian crisis to be described as a "complex emergency." Contested claims about human suffering there -- beginning shortly after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990 and continuing for over a decade under UN sanctions -- became the justification for multiple forms of engagement and intervention by religious and secular NGOs, human rights organizations, journalists, political activists and foreign military forces. This dissertation explores how the internatio...

  9. Integrating Sustainability Science with the Sciences of Human Well-being to Inform Design and Planning in an Urbanizing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, M.; Graumlich, L. J.; Frumkin, H.; Friedman, D.

    2012-12-01

    need to make decisions in the face of uncertainty and limited resources and provide essential human services (e.g., clean water, clean air, protection from diseases etc.) to diverse population groups (e.g., vulnerable populations). We believe that research that advances empirical knowledge at the human well-being -- ecosystem interface will be critical to expanding sustainability science and its effective application to practice in designing buildings, neighborhoods and metropolitan regions that are simultaneously healthy and sustainable.

  10. Ethical issues of transplanting organs from transgenic animals into human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human's body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal's organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven.

  11. Evolutionary multi-objective optimization: some current research trends and topics that remain to be explored

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos A. COELLO COELLO

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a short review of some of the main topics in which the current research in evolutionary multi-objective optimization is being focused. The topics discussed include new algorithms, efficiency, relaxed forms of dominance, scalability, and alternative metaheuristics. This discussion motivates some further topics which,from the author's perspective, constitute good potential areas for future research, namely, constraint-handling techniques,incorporation of user's preferences and parameter control,This information is expected to be useful for those interested in pursuing research in this area.

  12. Trust, performance and well-being in Nordic working life and management research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning; Hasle, Peter; Madsen, Christian Uhrenholdt

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades there has been a growing focus in working life and management research on sustainable organizational development that simultaneously improve organizational outcomes such as productivity and quality and employee outcomes such as well-being and job-satisfaction. Research has...... pointed to trust as an important component of participatory management practices having simultaneous positive outcomes for organizational productivity and employee well-being. The aim of this paper is to establish an overview of the results of Nordic working life and man-agement research inquiring...

  13. Development and evaluation of a study design typology for human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, Simona; Pollock, Brad H; Lehmann, Harold P; Bakken, Suzanne; Barbour, Edward M; Gabriel, Davera; Hagler, Herbert K; Harper, Caryn R; Mollah, Shamim A; Nahm, Meredith; Nguyen, Hien H; Scheuermann, Richard H; Sim, Ida

    2009-11-14

    A systematic classification of study designs would be useful for researchers, systematic reviewers, readers, and research administrators, among others. As part of the Human Studies Database Project, we developed the Study Design Typology to standardize the classification of study designs in human research. We then performed a multiple observer masked evaluation of active research protocols in four institutions according to a standardized protocol. Thirty-five protocols were classified by three reviewers each into one of nine high-level study designs for interventional and observational research (e.g., N-of-1, Parallel Group, Case Crossover). Rater classification agreement was moderately high for the 35 protocols (Fleiss' kappa = 0.442) and higher still for the 23 quantitative studies (Fleiss' kappa = 0.463). We conclude that our typology shows initial promise for reliably distinguishing study design types for quantitative human research.

  14. Intervention Research and Its Influence on Nonintervention Research in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunyoung; Chae, Chungil

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify how intervention research weighed in nonintervention research in the field of human resource development (HRD) by examining the number, citation frequency and use of experimental studies in HRD academic journals. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 2,700 articles published between 1990 and 2014…

  15. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: water and human health research in CSIR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Water and Human Health team researches water related science to address the CSIR’s mandate, national priorities and to improve quality of life for all. The overall aim of the research is to achieve a sustainable balance between the use of water...

  16. Antibiotic resistance - the interplay between antibiotic use in animals and human beings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singer, R.S.; Finch, R.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    meant the problem of antibiotic resistance is fast escalating into a global health crisis. There is no doubt that misuse of these drugs in human beings has contributed to the increasing rates of resistance, but recently the use of antibiotics in food animals and its consequent effect on resistance...... of antibiotics in animals-whether therapeutic or as growth promoters-pales by comparison with human use, and that efforts should be concentrated on the misuse of antibiotics in people. Others warn of the dangers of unregulated and unnecessary use of antibiotics, especially growth promoters in animal husbandry....... There is a growing concern over the transmission of resistant bacteria via the food chain. Many questions will be difficult to resolve, such as how do you distinguish the fraction of resistance in human beings that originated from animals? If we wait to see evidence that a significant amount of antibiotic resistance...

  17. [Correlation between PMI and DNA degradation of costicartilage and dental pulp cells in human being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ren; Wang, Wei-ping; Xiong, Ping

    2005-08-01

    To probe the correlation between the postmortem interval (PMI) and the DNA degradation of costicartilage and dental pulp cells in human being after death, and to seek a new method for estimating PMI. The image cytometry was used to measure the DNA degradation under different ambient temperatures (30-35 degrees C, 15-20 degrees C) in 0-15 days after death. The average DNA content of two kinds of tissue was degradated with the prolongation of PMI. But there was a plateau period of 0-4 days for dental pulp cells of human being in 15-20 degrees C. There was a high negative correlativity PPMI. PMI could be estimated accurately according to the DNA degradation of costicartilage and dental pulp cells in human being after death.

  18. Why a True Account of Human Development Requires Exemplar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, William; Colby, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This chapter uses moral psychology to illustrate why exemplar methods are essential for building a valid, complete understanding of key domains of human development. Social psychological, economic, and biological-evolutionary paradigms for studying morality rely on samples drawn from the general population. This research reveals a bleak picture of…

  19. Applying Organizational Commitment and Human Capital Theories to Emigration Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhohlyad, Olga; McLean, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to bring some additional insight into the issue of emigration by establishing a relationship between emigration and psychic return of citizens to their human capital investment in the country. Design/methodology/approach: The article adopts a quantitative research strategy. It applies organizational commitment and human…

  20. Research on Sexual Orientation and Human Development: A Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Bonnie R.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of research over the past 25 years on sexual orientation and its effects on human development, concluding that gay and lesbian interests and behavior appear to result from a complex interplay of genetic, prenatal, and environmental influences. Notes that gender identity develops early, especially for males, and is difficult…

  1. A large human centrifuge for exploration and exploitation research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.W.A. van Loon; J.P. Baeyens; J. Berte; S. Blanc; L. ter Braak; K. Bok; J. Bos; R. Boyle; N. Bravenoer; M. Eekhoff; A. Chouker; G. Clement; P. Cras; E. Cross; M.A. Cusaud; M. De Angelis; C. de Dreu; T. Delavaux; R. Delfos; C. Poelma; P. Denise; D. Felsenberg; K. Fong; C. Fuller; S. Grillner; E. Groen; J. Harlaar; M. Heer; N. Heglund; H. Hinghofer-Szalkay; N. Goswami; M. Hughes-Fulford; S. Iwase; J.M. Karemaker; B. Langdahl; D. Linarsson; C. Lüthen; M. Monici; E. Mulder; M. Narici; P. Norsk; W. Paloski; G.K. Prisk; M. Rutten; P. Singer; D. Stegeman; A. Stephan; G.J.M. Stienen; P. Suedfeld; P. Tesch; O. Ullrich; R. van den Berg; P. Van de Heyning; A. Delahaye; J. Veyt; L. Vico; E. Woodward; L.R. Young; F. Wuyts

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses concepts regarding the development of an Altered Gravity Platform (AGP) that will serve as a research platform for human space exploration. Space flight causes a multitude of physiological problems, many of which are due to gravity level transitions. Going from Earth’s gravity t

  2. Emotional Intelligence Research within Human Resource Development Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnia, Forouzan; Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review and synthesize pertinent emotional intelligence (EI) research within the human resource development (HRD) scholarship. Design/methodology/approach: An integrative review of literature was conducted and multiple electronic databases were searched to find the relevant resources. Using the content…

  3. Applying Organizational Commitment and Human Capital Theories to Emigration Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhohlyad, Olga; McLean, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to bring some additional insight into the issue of emigration by establishing a relationship between emigration and psychic return of citizens to their human capital investment in the country. Design/methodology/approach: The article adopts a quantitative research strategy. It applies organizational commitment and human…

  4. 75 FR 37813 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Human Research Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ..., Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP), or Julia Gorey, J.D., Executive Director, SACHRP; U.S...-8141; fax: 240-453-6909; e-mail address: Julia.Gorey@hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Under the... as sign language interpretation or other reasonable accommodations, should notify the...

  5. Why a True Account of Human Development Requires Exemplar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, William; Colby, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This chapter uses moral psychology to illustrate why exemplar methods are essential for building a valid, complete understanding of key domains of human development. Social psychological, economic, and biological-evolutionary paradigms for studying morality rely on samples drawn from the general population. This research reveals a bleak picture of…

  6. "Knowledge Must Be Contextual": Some Possible Implications of Complexity and Dynamic Systems Theories for Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggis, Tamsin

    2008-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that qualitative and quantitative research traditions, rather than being seen as opposed to or in competition with each other (Hammersley & Atkinson, 1995; Furlong, 2004 ) should be used, where appropriate, in some kind of combination (Bryman & Cramer, 1999; Moore et al., 2003 ). How this combining is to be understood…

  7. Ética em pesquisas com seres humanos: do conhecimento à prática Ética en investigaciones con seres humanos: desde el conocimiento a la práctica Ethics in research with human beings: from knowledge to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Gonçalves de Lima

    2010-09-01

    aprobación por un Comité de Ética en Investigación (CEI. RESULTADOS: Se presentaron 90 TLs. La fuente de datos más utilizada fueron prontuarios médicos (86,8%. Solamente un 23,1% de los TLs fueron sometidos a la evaluación por un CEI y en el 15,4% se utilizó el Formulario de Consentimiento Informado (FCI. Entre los autores cuyos trabajos no se evaluaron por un CEI, el 65,6% afirmó que esta no era una conducta necesaria y el 18% de ellos desconocían la necesidad de llevar a cabo dicha evaluación. La autorización escrita del responsable por la institución donde los TLs fueron realizados no se obtuvo en un 56,6% de las investigaciones. La mayoría (80% de los autores afirmó nunca haber leído la resolución 196/96. La proporción de los TLs sometidos a un CEI fue significativamente mayor entre autores que habían leído la resolución 196/96 (p = 0,005. El diseño de los TLs influenció la no sumisión de los trabajos a un CEI (p BACKGROUND: In Brazil, resolution 196/96 and its amendments regulate the preservation of rights, respect and dignity of human beings involved in research. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the adequacy of Free Communications (FC presented during the XVIII Congresso Pernambucano de Cardiologia to resolution 196/96. METHODS: During a cross-sectional study, interviews were carried out with the authors of the FC presented at the Congress and the abstracts of the studies were assessed in order to identify the need for previous approval by a Research Ethics Committee (REC. RESULTS: A total of 90 FC were presented and, in most of them (86.8%, medical files were the most commonly used source of data. Only 23.1% of the FC were submitted to the assessment of a REC and 15.4% of them used a Free and Informed Consent Form (FICF. Among the authors whose studies were not assessed by a REC, 65.6% stated that this conduct was not necessary and 18% of them were unaware of the need to submit the study to such assessment. The written authorization given by the

  8. Human and animal research guidelines: aligning ethical constructs with new scientific developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsian, Hope

    2011-10-01

    Both human research and animal research operate within established standards and procedures. Although the human research environment has been criticized for its sometimes inefficient and imperfect process, reported abuses of human subjects in research served as the impetus for the establishment of the Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, and the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research and the resulting Belmont Report. No similar, comprehensive and principled effort has addressed the use of animals in research. Although published policies regarding animal research provide relevant regulatory guidance, these policies have not emerged from the process of specifying consistent and reasoned ethical principles. The lack of a fundamental effort to explore the ethical issues and principles regarding the use of animals in research has led to unclear and disparate policies. Recent studies have increased our understanding of animal cognition and emotion, suggesting that animals' potential for experiencing a wide variety of harms, such as pain and fear, is greater than has been previously appreciated. Furthermore, relationships between methods of captivity and certain laboratory procedures and the resulting adverse physical, social and psychological effects have been established. In light of this information, current protections may need to be reconsidered and modified. This paper explores the historical convergence and divergence in the creation of human and animal research guidelines, as well as opportunities to align ethical frameworks with new scientific discoveries.

  9. Human cloning, stem cell research. An Islamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aqeel, Aida I

    2009-12-01

    The rapidly changing technologies that involve human subjects raise complex ethical, legal, social, and religious issues. Recent advances in the field of cloning and stem cell research have introduced new hopes for the treatment of serious diseases. But this promise has raised many complex questions. This field causes debate and challenge, not only among scientists but also among ethicists, religious scholars, governments, and politicians. There is no consensus on the morality of human cloning, even within specific religious traditions. In countries in which religion has a strong influence on political decision making, the moral status of the human embryo is at the center of the debate. Because of the inevitable consequences of reproductive cloning, it is prohibited in Islam. However, stem cell research for therapeutic purposes is permissible with full consideration, and all possible precautions in the pre-ensoulment stages of early fetus development, if the source is legitimate.

  10. The Benefits of Being a Student of Teacher Researchers Experiences (sotre)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, E.; Guinan, E.; Chiste, M.; Lavoie, A.

    2016-02-01

    Being a Student of Teacher Researcher Experiences (SoTRE), gets students excited for science. Eubanks brings real, current science to the classroom because of time spent in Teacher Researcher Experiences (TRE), where she works with researchers in and out of the field. She involves students in many programs including the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Polar TREC (Teachers and Researchers & Exploring & Collaboration), National Science Foundation (NSF) funded researchers, (EARTH) Education and Research: Testing Hypothesis, the RJ Dunlap Marine Conservation Program, C-DEBI (Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations and (STARS) Sending Teachers Aboard Research Ships. Being in these programs gives students special privileges such as understanding unique research ideas, tracking tagged sharks, following daily journals written on location, taking part in cross-continental experiments, tracking real time data, exploring current research via posters or visiting universities. Furthermore, contacts made by a TRE give students an added set of resources. When doing experiments for class or advancing their education or career goals, Mrs. Eubanks helps students connect with scientists. This gives students a unique opportunity to learn from real scientists. Being part of these relationships with NOAA, Polar TREC, EARTH, RJ Dunlap, STARS and NSF funded scientists who are actively working, makes being SoTRE the ultimate learning experience. Many students have felt so strongly about the TRE relationship that they have presented at several local and international science conferences. Their message is to encourage scientists to partner with teachers. The benefits of participation in such conferences have included abstract writing and submission, travel, poster creation, networking and presentation, all tools that they will carry with them for a lifetime.

  11. O modelo bioético principialista para a análise da moralidade da pesquisa científica envolvendo seres humanos ainda é satisfatório? Is the principlist model still satisfactory for the analysis of the morality of the scientific research involving human beings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermin Roland Schramm

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a aplicação do principialismo à pesquisa envolvendo seres humanos a partir da pergunta se o modelo é ainda pertinente na situação de pluralização paradigmática nas ciências e de multiplicação dos modelos de avaliação ética, vigentes nas sociedades complexas contemporâneas. Destaca o fato do desenvolvimento da moderna medicina científica ter-se dado fortemente calcado na experimentação em humanos e que, até meados do século XX, bastava a princípio a boa intenção do pesquisador para que uma pesquisa fosse justificada moralmente, mas que, com a dupla transição paradigmática em Ciência e em Ética, delineou-se uma pluralização e complexificação tanto do campo do saber-fazer científico como do campo da ética aplicada à pesquisa científica, a qual se encontrará na inconfortável situação de ter que lidar, no plano normativo, com uma contestação permanente dos paradigmas científicos e éticos. No campo da ética, outros princípios passam também a orientar as decisões, como o princípio de proteção, aplicável às situações de carência em que se encontram, sobretudo, as populações do Terceiro Mundo. O artigo defende a pertinência do principialismo devido a sua postura filosófica geral e método, mas destaca suas insuficiências quando aplicado à saúde pública e à pesquisa nos países dependentes.This paper discusses the application of principlism to research involving human subjects, starting from the question of its pertinence in the current situation of the paradigmatic pluralization on science and the multiplication of models of ethical evaluation in the complex societies. Highlights that the development of modern scientific medicine depended strongly on human experimentation and that up to the mid 20ieth century the good intention of the researcher was, theoretically, enough to justify a research morally, but that with the twofold paradigmatic transition in Science and in

  12. Ethical leadership, employee well-being, and helping: the moderating role of human resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalshoven, K.; Boon, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this multi-source study, we examined the link between ethical leadership, human resource management (HRM), employee well-being, and helping. Based on the Conservation of Resources Theory, we proposed a mediated moderation model linking ethical leadership to helping, which includes well-being as

  13. Ethical leadership, employee well-being, and helping: the moderating role of human resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalshoven, K.; Boon, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this multi-source study, we examined the link between ethical leadership, human resource management (HRM), employee well-being, and helping. Based on the Conservation of Resources Theory, we proposed a mediated moderation model linking ethical leadership to helping, which includes well-being as a

  14. Computational Characterization of Exogenous MicroRNAs that Can Be Transferred into Human Circulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Shu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have been long considered synthesized endogenously until very recent discoveries showing that human can absorb dietary microRNAs from animal and plant origins while the mechanism remains unknown. Compelling evidences of microRNAs from rice, milk, and honeysuckle transported to human blood and tissues have created a high volume of interests in the fundamental questions that which and how exogenous microRNAs can be transferred into human circulation and possibly exert functions in humans. Here we present an integrated genomics and computational analysis to study the potential deciding features of transportable microRNAs. Specifically, we analyzed all publicly available microRNAs, a total of 34,612 from 194 species, with 1,102 features derived from the microRNA sequence and structure. Through in-depth bioinformatics analysis, 8 groups of discriminative features have been used to characterize human circulating microRNAs and infer the likelihood that a microRNA will get transferred into human circulation. For example, 345 dietary microRNAs have been predicted as highly transportable candidates where 117 of them have identical sequences with their homologs in human and 73 are known to be associated with exosomes. Through a milk feeding experiment, we have validated 9 cow-milk microRNAs in human plasma using microRNA-sequencing analysis, including the top ranked microRNAs such as bta-miR-487b, miR-181b, and miR-421. The implications in health-related processes have been illustrated in the functional analysis. This work demonstrates the data-driven computational analysis is highly promising to study novel molecular characteristics of transportable microRNAs while bypassing the complex mechanistic details.

  15. Pluripotency can be rapidly and efficiently induced in human amniotic fluid-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunliang; Zhou, Junmei; Shi, Guilai; Ma, Yu; Yang, Ying; Gu, Junjie; Yu, Hongyao; Jin, Shibo; Wei, Zhe; Chen, Fang; Jin, Ying

    2009-11-15

    Direct reprogramming of human somatic cells into pluripotency has broad implications in generating patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells for disease modeling and cellular replacement therapies. However, the low efficiency and safety issues associated with generation of human iPS cells have limited their usage in clinical settings. Cell types can significantly influence reprogramming efficiency and kinetics. To date, human iPS cells have been obtained only from a few cell types. Here, we report for the first time rapid and efficient generation of iPS cells from human amniotic fluid-derived cells (hAFDCs) via ectopic expression of four human factors: OCT4/SOX2/KLF4/C-MYC. Significantly, typical single iPS cell colonies can be picked up 6 days after viral infection with high efficiency. Eight iPS cell lines have been derived. They can be continuously propagated in vitro and express pluripotency markers such as AKP, OCT4, SOX2, SSEA4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81, maintaining the normal karyotype. Transgenes are completely inactivated and the endogenous OCT4 promoter is adequately demethylated in the established iPS cell lines. Moreover, various cells and tissues from all three germ layers are found in embryoid bodies and teratomas, respectively. In addition, microarray analysis demonstrates a high correlation coefficient between hAFDC-iPS cells and human embryonic stem cells, but a low correlation coefficient between hAFDCs and hAFDC-iPS cells. Taken together, these data identify an ideal human somatic cell resource for rapid and efficient generation of iPS cells, allowing us to establish human iPS cells using more advanced approaches and possibly to establish disease- or patient-specific iPS cells.

  16. Sero-prevalence of brucellosis in occupationally exposed human beings of Himachal Pradesh (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalmali; Panda, Ashok Kumar; Chahota, Rajesh

    2012-06-01

    The chief objective of respective study was to investigate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among occupationally exposed human beings in Himachal Pradesh. A total of 165 serum samples that were obtained from human beings from various regions of the state were screened through a battery of serological tests which included RBPT, STAT, 2-MET, dot-ELISA and indirect-ELISA. 165 of human sera samples included 42 from veterinarians, 40 shepherds, 35 livestock owners, 20 workers at veterinary hospitals/clinics, 16 abattoir workers and 12 veterinary pharmacists. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis among occupationally exposed human beings was observed to be 6.66% showing highest in abattoir workers (18.75%) followed by pharmacists (8.33%), veterinarians (7.14%), and livestock owners (5.71%) and shepherds (5.00%). In humans it is prevalent as an occult infection or under diagnosed disease, especially; in case of abattoir workers the highest seropositivity for brucella agglutinins was observed. Indirect-ELISA and Dot-ELISA proved best in the diagnosis of brucellosis.

  17. An overview of financial sources being utilized to support Zika Virus published research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodridge, Keisha; Reveiz, Ludovic; Elias, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Since its initial detection in Brazil in 2015, Zika Virus (ZIKV) has spread rapidly throughout most of the Caribbean and South, Central and North America. An upsurge in congenital syndrome associated with ZIKV and Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) has been associated with the increase in ZIKV. This amplification in numbers led to the need for funded research initiatives focusing on various countries globally and on specific experimental types. To determine the financial institutions involved in the production of primary research into the ZIKV epidemic. This research also intends to draw attention to the investigative areas that are dominating, experimental types being conducted and the geographical areas that are producing the bulk of the research utilizing available funds. A cross sectional search of published primary research was conducted using Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) Zika platform and PubMed between January 2007 and October 2016. Titles, abstract and full articles were assed and one researcher extracted data. Information was crossed checked by a second researcher to ensure accuracy. 268 articles were included and investigations occurred across 48 countries with Brazil and USA dominating the research. Applied Research and Laboratory based studies were most frequently utilized. 38.1% of articles did not report financial sources. Public institutions were the major known contributors. Other financiers included private, non-profits and mixed funders exclusive of public sources. 156 individual financial bodies assisted with National Institute of Health being most frequently mentioned followed by The National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and the Institut Pasteur. Virus, vectors and reservoirs was most frequently used (99/268, 36.9%) followed by clinical management (70/268, 26.1%) and epidemiology (46/268, 17.2%). The evidence suggests international efforts to fund ZIKV research and a need to foster collaborative and

  18. Human factors research in Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry creation of safety culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horie, Yasuo [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    To prevent accident of nuclear power plant, Human Factors Center was built in the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in July 1987. It developed an evaluation method of human error cases and an application method of human factors information. Now it continues analysis and application of human factors information, development of training/work support tools and research/experiment of human behavior. Japan-Human Performance Evaluation System (J-HPES) was developed as an analytical system for analysis and evaluation of human factors related to the trouble and for using the result as the common property by storage the analytical results. J-HPES has a standard procedure consisted of collecting and analyzing data and proposing the countermeasures. The analytical results are arranged by 4 kinds of charts by putting into the form of a diagram. Moreover, it tries to find the causes with indirect and potential causes. Two kinds of materials, Caution Report and Human Factors Precept by means of Illustrations, are published. People can gain access to HFC database by URL http://criepi.denken.or.jp/CRIEPI/HFC/DB. To prevent these accidents, creation of human factors culture has been required. Five kinds of teaching materials and the training method are developed. (S.Y.)

  19. Problematizing Digital Research Evaluation using DOIs in Practice-Based Arts, Humanities and Social Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swijghuisen Reigersberg, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores emerging practices in research data management in the arts, humanities and social sciences (AHSS). It will do so vis-à-vis current citation conventions and impact measurement for research in AHSS. Case study findings on research data inventoried at Goldsmiths', University of London will be presented. Goldsmiths is a UK research-intensive higher education institution which specialises in arts, humanities and social science research. The paper's aim is to raise awareness of the subject-specific needs of AHSS scholars to help inform the design of future digital tools for impact analysis in AHSS. Firstly, I shall explore the definition of research data and how it is currently understood by AHSS researchers. I will show why many researchers choose not to engage with digital dissemination techniques and ORCID. This discussion must necessarily include the idea that practice-based and applied AHSS research are processes which are not easily captured in numerical 'sets' and cannot be labelled electronically without giving careful consideration to what a group or data item 'represents' as part of the academic enquiry, and therefore how it should be cited and analysed as part of any impact assessment. Then, the paper will explore: the role of the monograph and arts catalogue in AHSS scholarship; how citation practices and digital impact measurement in AHSS currently operate in relation to authorship and how digital identifiers may hypothetically impact on metrics, intellectual property (IP), copyright and research integrity issues in AHSS. I will also show that, if we are to be truly interdisciplinary, as research funders and strategic thinkers say we should, it is necessary to revise the way we think about digital research dissemination. This will involve breaking down the boundaries between AHSS and other types of research.

  20. Protection of Human Beings Trafficked for the Purpose of Organ Removal: Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascalev, Assya; Van Assche, Kristof; Sándor, Judit; Codreanu, Natalia; Naqvi, Anwar; Gunnarson, Martin; Frunza, Mihaela; Yankov, Jordan

    2016-02-01

    This report presents a comprehensive set of recommendations for protection of human beings who are trafficked for the purpose of organ removal or are targeted for such trafficking. Developed by an interdisciplinary group of international experts under the auspices of the project Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal (also known as the HOTT project), these recommendations are grounded in the view that an individual who parts with an organ for money within an illegal scheme is ipso facto a victim and that the crime of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal (THBOR) intersects with the crime of trafficking in organs. Consequently, the protection of victims should be a priority for all actors involved in antitrafficking activities: those combating organ-related crimes, such as health organizations and survivor support services, and those combating trafficking in human beings, such as the criminal justice sectors. Taking into account the special characteristics of THBOR, the authors identify 5 key stakeholders in the protection of human beings trafficked for organ removal or targeted for such trafficking: states, law enforcement agencies and judiciary, nongovernmental organizations working in the areas of human rights and antitrafficking, transplant centers and health professionals involved in transplant medicine, and oversight bodies. For each stakeholder, the authors identify key areas of concern and concrete measures to identify and protect the victims of THBOR. The aim of the recommendations is to contribute to the development of a nonlegislative response to THBOR, to promote the exchange of knowledge and best practices in the area of victim protection, and to facilitate the development of a policy-driven action plan for the protection of THBOR victims in the European Union and worldwide.

  1. How can clinical biobanks and patient information be adapted for research – Establishing a hospital based data warehouse solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Reed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of human biological material and related clinical information is central in basic research, translational research and clinical research. Extracting this information from hospital information systems is time-consuming and labor intensive. Establishing a data warehouse is a possible solution to extract the information in an efficient and secure way. An information model for a data warehouse has been developed at the Oslo University Hospital in collaboration with Akershus University Hospital. Being hospitals, the overall information model is patientcentered. The model also allows for appropriate data exchange between different organizations. The model is described with a focus on some of the major conditions for success with respect to the legal and organizational framework of Norwegian hospitals. A web-based information and tracking system for clinical biobanks is an important element of the model, and one of the aims of the national project Biobank Norway

  2. How might educational research into children’s ideas about light be of use to teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Mark; Riordan, John-Paul

    2014-11-01

    This paper offers a synthesis of research evidence around teaching light to primary and secondary school pupils as part of the Institute of Physics Promoting and Interpreting Physics Education Research (PIPER) project. Conceptual change literature describes many of the difficulties young people can have understanding the phenomenon of light, and this knowledge can be useful in the classroom. Pupil-teacher dialogue is used to illustrate some of the pedagogical challenges teachers face in this topic. This paper also highlights the range of influences on pupils from everyday life and from the classroom, with a view to promoting teacher awareness of conceptual change research evidence.

  3. Hepatitis C intervention research - Where are we now and where should we be heading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Tahany; Thorlund, Kristian; Mabrouk, Mahasen;

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we outline some of the major pending research questions that lie ahead in hepatitis C intervention research. We argue why these should be answered with randomised clinical trials and we stress how Egypt and other Arab countries can play an important role in this context. We delineate...... a number of design issues relevant to recent and future hepatitis C randomised clinical trials and provide insights on how and why randomised clinical trial designed in a pragmatic and evidence-based framework will efficiently answer pending research questions....

  4. Trafficking in human beings as a specific form of women's migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrvić-Petrović Nataša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The author is analyzing trafficking in human beings as a specific form of women's (illegal migration. The author is presenting detailed analysis of the international standards and recent activities of different international organizations (UN, Council of Europe, European Community, OSCE, concerning prevention of trafficking in human beings, regulation of foreign migrants' status and protection of victims of trafficking. Starting from the analysis of international documents and national legislations dealing with migration and prostitution, the author is proposing changes of existing domestic laws concerning movement and residence of foreigners. The aim of such changes is to harmonize our legislation with international standards and obligations accepted by signing the Palermo Convention.

  5. Attitudes of medical students towards human genome research and genetic counselling and testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schäfer, Mike Steffen

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study aimed to describe students' attitudes towards human genome research and towards genetic counselling and testing at cancer patients. The background of this investigation provided the increasing relevance ob human genetics research for clinical practice.Methods: A total of 167 medical students (54% female, aged 24 +/- 2 years from the second phase of their studies were surveyed in obligatory courses at the University of Leipzig, using a standardized questionnaire. Topics of the survey were attitudes towards human genome research and genetic counselling and testing at cancer patients as well as general values and socio-demographic data of the students.Results: The students consider human genome research as relevant and evaluate it positively, mainly based on expectations of medical uses. Genetic counselling and testing at cancer patients as an application of human genetics is also evaluated as important. The students attribute high relevance to clinical procedures for identification of genetic backgrounds for cancer (family history, information about genetic diagnostic. Nevertheless, deficits in their medical education are highlighted und reflected upon: the increased integration of human genetic content into medical curricula is demanded.Discussion: In accordance with the newly formulated „Approbationsordnung für Ärzte", the results suggest that current human genetic development should be more emphasized in medical education. This could be realized by an enlarged ratio of human genetic courses within curricula and by the transformation of these courses from facultative into obligatory.

  6. Ethical Issues of Transplanting Organs from Transgenic Animals into Human Beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Behnam Manesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human’s body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action. The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal’s organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven.

  7. Human subjects protection issues in QUERI implementation research: QUERI Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritchie Mona

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Subjects protections approaches, specifically those relating to research review board oversight, vary throughout the world. While all are designed to protect participants involved in research, the structure and specifics of these institutional review boards (IRBs can and do differ. This variation affects all types of research, particularly implementation research. Methods In 2001, we began a series of inter-related studies on implementing evidence-based collaborative care for depression in Veterans Health Administration primary care. We have submitted more than 100 IRB applications, amendments, and renewals, and in doing so, we have interacted with 13 VA and University IRBs across the United States (U.S.. We present four overarching IRB-related themes encountered throughout the implementation of our projects, and within each theme, identify key challenges and suggest approaches that have proved useful. Where applicable, we showcase process aids developed to assist in resolving a particular IRB challenge. Results There are issues unique to implementation research, as this type of research may not fit within the traditional Human Subjects paradigm used to assess clinical trials. Risks in implementation research are generally related to breaches of confidentiality, rather than health risks associated with traditional clinical trials. The implementation-specific challenges discussed are: external validity considerations, Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, risk-benefit issues, the multiple roles of researchers and subjects, and system-level unit of analysis. Discussion Specific aspects of implementation research interact with variations in knowledge, procedures, and regulatory interpretations across IRBs to affect the implementation and study of best methods to increase evidence-based practice. Through lack of unambiguous guidelines and local liability concerns, IRBs are often at risk of applying both variable and inappropriate or

  8. Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells or Estrogen may be Beneficial in Treating Heatstroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hsien Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This current review summarized animal models of heatstroke experimentation that promote our current knowledge of therapeutic effects on cerebrovascular dysfunction, coagulopathy, and/or systemic inflammation with human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBCs or estrogen in the setting of heatstroke. Accumulating evidences have demonstrated that HUCBCs provide a promising new therapeutic method against neurodegenerative diseases, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury as well as blood disease. More recently, we have also demonstrated that postor pretreatment by HUCBCs may resuscitate heatstroke rats with by reducing circulatory shock, and cerebral nitric oxide overload and ischemic injury. Moreover, CD34+ cells sorted from HUCBCs may improve survival by attenuating inflammatory, coagulopathy, and multiorgan dysfunction during experimental heatstroke. Many researchers indicated pro(e.g. tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and anti-inflammatory (e.g. interleukin-10 [IL-10] cytokines in the peripheral blood stream correlate with severity of circulatory shock, cerebral ischemia and hypoxia, and neuronal damage occurring in heatstroke. It has been shown that intravenous administration of CD34+ cells can secrete therapeutic molecules, such as neurotrophic factors, and attenuate systemic inflammatory reactions by decreasing serum TNF-α but increasing IL-10 during heatstroke. Another line of evidence has suggested that estrogen influences the severity of injury associated with cerebrovascular shock. Recently, we also successfully demonstrated estrogen resuscitated heatstroke rats by ameliorating systemic inflammation. Conclusively, HUCBCs or estrogen may be employed as a beneficial therapeutic strategy in prevention and repair of cerebrovascular dysfunction, coagulopathy, and/or systemic inflammation during heatstroke.

  9. What Researchers Should Know and be Able to do When Contemplating Involvement in Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridky, R. W.

    2004-12-01

    At some point in their careers, many researchers are motivated to share what they have learned with a wider audience. As their studies mature, and national awareness for more effective integration of research and education intensifies, researchers are increasingly directing efforts toward informal and pre-college educational sectors. Each initiative comes with good intentions, but many fall short of intended benefit. Quality education and outreach programs develop from the same precepts that shape research programs of high professional standing. A researcher is most likely to make useful contributions when they are willing and able to implement familiar research principles to broader educational endeavors. As with research endeavors, principles of significance, literacy, design, feasibility, analysis and dissemination need to be regarded as essential indicators of education program quality. It is helpful to provide researchers who are contemplating more active educational involvement with more than casual understanding of the purposes underlying their pending contributions. Such understanding is premised on the tenet that education and research are always in the public service and therefore inextricably bound at all levels. Both research and education have, as their ultimate goal, enhanced scientific literacy of the citizenry. By example, it can be shown that the best-supported programs, within government and academia, recognize that the way they translate knowledge and make it available to scientific organizations and the public is critical to their intrinsic societal value and level of support. As education conjures up a host of operational meanings arising from one's own values and experiences, the knowledge researchers bring to pre-college and informal educational settings is often based on personal experience rather than on education research, practice and policy. Researchers may believe that because they spent 13 years in school, an additional 4 years at a

  10. Hardware Development Process for Human Research Facility Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Liz

    2000-01-01

    The simple goal of the Human Research Facility (HRF) is to conduct human research experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts during long-duration missions. This is accomplished by providing integration and operation of the necessary hardware and software capabilities. A typical hardware development flow consists of five stages: functional inputs and requirements definition, market research, design life cycle through hardware delivery, crew training, and mission support. The purpose of this presentation is to guide the audience through the early hardware development process: requirement definition through selecting a development path. Specific HRF equipment is used to illustrate the hardware development paths. The source of hardware requirements is the science community and HRF program. The HRF Science Working Group, consisting of SCientists from various medical disciplines, defined a basic set of equipment with functional requirements. This established the performance requirements of the hardware. HRF program requirements focus on making the hardware safe and operational in a space environment. This includes structural, thermal, human factors, and material requirements. Science and HRF program requirements are defined in a hardware requirements document which includes verification methods. Once the hardware is fabricated, requirements are verified by inspection, test, analysis, or demonstration. All data is compiled and reviewed to certify the hardware for flight. Obviously, the basis for all hardware development activities is requirement definition. Full and complete requirement definition is ideal prior to initiating the hardware development. However, this is generally not the case, but the hardware team typically has functional inputs as a guide. The first step is for engineers to conduct market research based on the functional inputs provided by scientists. CommerCially available products are evaluated against the science requirements as

  11. Maritime health research-should the paradigm of the hierarchy of the best evidence be changed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Canals, ML

    2010-01-01

    Historically the long term clinical controlled trials have been held to be the most valuable type of health research, but this seems to have changed. Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT) were thought to be the best type of health science but the excellent results obtained in the RCTs could...

  12. A Research Roadmap for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Groth, Katrina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research through the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to extend the life of the currently operating fleet of commercial nuclear power plants. The Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) research pathway within LWRS looks at ways to maintain and improve the safety margins of these plants. The RISMC pathway includes significant developments in the area of thermalhydraulics code modeling and the development of tools to facilitate dynamic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). PRA is primarily concerned with the risk of hardware systems at the plant; yet, hardware reliability is often secondary in overall risk significance to human errors that can trigger or compound undesirable events at the plant. This report highlights ongoing efforts to develop a computation-based approach to human reliability analysis (HRA). This computation-based approach differs from existing static and dynamic HRA approaches in that it: (i) interfaces with a dynamic computation engine that includes a full scope plant model, and (ii) interfaces with a PRA software toolset. The computation-based HRA approach presented in this report is called the Human Unimodels for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER) and incorporates in a hybrid fashion elements of existing HRA methods to interface with new computational tools developed under the RISMC pathway. The goal of this research effort is to model human performance more accurately than existing approaches, thereby minimizing modeling uncertainty found in current plant risk models.

  13. 75 FR 52537 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial Review Group; Genome Research Review... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  14. 75 FR 2148 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial Review Group, Genome Research Review... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  15. 78 FR 56905 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel; H3AFRICA ELSI Research.... Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, Suite 3055, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD...

  16. 78 FR 24223 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial Review Group; Genome Research Review... applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 3rd floor Conf. Room 3146, 5635 Fishers...

  17. 76 FR 3643 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial Review Group; Genome Research Review... Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: January...

  18. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    Transport currently represents approximately 19% of the global energy demand and accounts for about 23% of the global carbon dioxide emissions (IEA 2009). As the demand for mobility is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades, the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will require the evolution of transport, along with power generation, building design and manufacturing. The continued development of these sectors will need to include changes in energy sources, energy delivery, materials, infrastructure and human behavior. Pathways to reducing carbon from the transport sector have unique challenges and opportunities that are inherent to the human choices and behavioral patterns that mold the transportation systems and the associated energy needs. Technology, government investment, and regulatory policies have a significant impact on the formulation of transportation infrastructure; however, the role of human behavior and public acceptance on the efficiency and effectiveness of transport systems should not be underestimated. Although developed, rapidly developing, and underdeveloped nations face different challenges in the establishment of transport infrastructure that can meet transport needs while achieving sustainable carbon dioxide emissions, the constraints that establish the domain of possibilities are closely related for all nations. These constraints include capital investment, fuel supplies, power systems, and human behavior. Throughout the world, there are considerable efforts directed at advancing and optimizing the financing of sustainable infrastructures, the production of low carbon fuels, and the production of advanced power systems, but the foundational work on methods to understand human preferences and behavior within the context of transport and the valuation of reductions in carbon dioxide emissions is greatly lagging behind. These methods and the associated understanding of human behavior and the willingness to pay for

  19. The Earth Sciences, Human Well-Being, and the Reduction of Global Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, John C.

    2005-04-01

    Poverty is not solely a social or political matter, nor is it caused simply by population pressures as Thomas Malthus postulated in 1798. A new understanding of poverty is emerging in which natural and environmental drivers, together with social, political, and demographic causes, underpin livelihoods. The Earth sciences, therefore, play a critical role in identifying the deep causes of human suffering and in identifying solutions. The State of the Planet: Why Are So Many So Poor? For far too many, the state of human well-being is bleak. Around one in six human beings-1 billion people-live in extreme poverty, struggling to survive on less than $1 a day; another one sixth of humanity ekes out existence on $2 per day (U.N. Development Programme (UNDP) Human Development Report, 2004; http://hdr.undp.org/2004/). The extreme poor lack all normal attributes of a decent, dignified life: adequate food, housing, sanitation, health care, education, and employment. Some 800 million people lack sufficient nourishment almost every day. It stunts their mental and physical development and shortens their lives, making them susceptible to common illnesses that attack their hunger-weakened bodies. Poor nutrition in mothers and infants is the leading cause of reduced disability-adjusted life years in poor countries [ Economist, 2004].

  20. Why religious human beings need evolutionary epistemology! A theological and evolutionary viewpoint of 'why humans need to embrace evolutionary epistemology'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan A. van Rooyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available I put forward an understanding of evolutionary epistemology that rescues something of the old and venerable idea of freedom, and it means that we as theologians should grasp our very nature realistically, beyond any illusionism and utopian dreams. The author feels that scholars, especially theologians, should firstly take evolution seriously and secondly regard evolutionary epistemology as important as evolution itself, the reason being theologians should know that it is of paramount importance for their systematic-theological intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications, which is embarking on a way of thinking that regards evolutionary epistemology as a friend in their accommodation of their respective theological fields of interest. This accommodation is substantial as it will enhance their respective theological disciplines as �an exhilarating vision of God�. Evolutionary epistemology takes a pragmatic view of humans. Evolutionary epistemologists question how humans really behave and what the true origin of their behaviour is. In contrast to this programme, many conceptions of humans are based on an idealisation of our species.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Evolutionary epistemology takes a pragmatic view of humans. Evolutionary epistemologists question how humans really behave and what the true origin of their behaviour is. In contrast to this programme, many conceptions of humans are based on an idealisation of our species. I then put forward my own understanding of evolutionary epistemology and conclude that evolutionary epistemology recues something of the old and venerable idea of freedom, and it means that we should grasp our very nature realistically, beyond any illusionism and utopian dreams.Keywords: Evolutionary epistemology

  1. Meteoric 10Be as a tool to investigate human induced soil fluxes: a conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campforts, Benjamin; Govers, Gerard; Vanacker, Veerle; De Vente, Joris; Boix-Fayos, Carolina; Minella, Jean; Baken, Stijn; Smolders, Erik

    2014-05-01

    The use of meteoric 10Be as a tool to understand long term landscape behavior is becoming increasingly popular. Due its high residence time, meteoric 10Be allows in principle to investigate in situ erosion rates over time scales exceeding the period studied with classical approaches such as 137Cs. The use of meteoric 10Be strongly contributes to the traditional interpretation of sedimentary archives which cannot be unequivocally coupled to sediment production and could provide biased information over longer time scales (Sadler, 1981). So far, meteoric 10Be has successfully been used in geochemical fingerprinting of sediments, to date soil profiles, to assess soil residence times and to quantify downslope soil fluxes using accumulated 10Be inventories along a hill slope. However, less attention is given to the potential use of the tracer to directly asses human induced changes in soil fluxes through deforestation, cultivation and reforestation. A good understanding of the processes governing the distribution of meteoric 10Be both within the soil profile and at landscape scale is essential before meteoric 10Be can be successfully applied to assess human impact. We developed a spatially explicit 2D-model (Be2D) in order to gain insight in meteoric 10Be movement along a hillslope that is subject to human disturbance. Be2D integrates both horizontal soil fluxes and vertical meteoric 10Be movement throughout the soil prolife. Horizontal soil fluxes are predicted using (i) well studied geomorphical laws for natural erosion and soil formation as well as (ii) human accelerated water and tillage erosion. Vertical movement of meteoric 10Be throughout the soil profile is implemented by inserting depth dependent retardation calculated using experimentally determined partition coefficients (Kd). The model was applied to different environments such as (i) the Belgian loess belt, characterized by aeolian deposits enriched in inherited meteoric 10Be, (ii) highly degraded and stony

  2. Ethical Standards of Scientific Research Involving Human Subjects in Brazil: Perspectives Concerning Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Leitão

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBrazilian associations for research in human, social and applied social sciences have long sought ethical aspects regulation compatible with the epistemological, theoretical and methodological specificities of these sciences. Consequently, the Brazilian regulatory system (Research Ethics Committees/CEPs of the National Research Ethics Commission/CONEP is currently undergoing an important review process. This article presents the positions taken by the National Association of Research and Postgraduate Studies in Psychology - ANPEPP. The article: (1 highlights the origins of the current ethics review model, based on biomedical research; (2 summarizes criticisms recurrent to this model; (3 identifies the directions required for the improvement of the system; and (4 lists the challenges to be overcome in the current process of creating specific regulations for the human and social sciences. The considerations presented highlight two crucial points that challenge the construction of a specific resolution for research ethics in the human and social sciences: (1 the clear characterization of what is meant by 'research in the human and social sciences' - and that would, therefore, have its ethical review regulated from the perspective of the specific resolution for the human and social sciences; and (2 the definition of parameters from which different risk levels in studies can be identified.

  3. Ecosystem Services and Human Well-Being: a Participatory Study in a Mountain Community in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Miguel Pereira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services are essential for human well-being, but the links between ecosystem services and human well-being are complex, diverse, context-dependent, and complicated by the need to consider different spatial and temporal scales to assess them properly. We present the results of a study in the rural community of Sistelo in northern Portugal that formed part of the Portugal Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. The main purpose of our study was to assess the linkages between human well-being and ecosystem services at the local level, as perceived by the community. We used a range of tools that included participatory rural appraisal and rapid rural appraisal as well as other field methods such as direct observation, familiarization and participation in activities, semistructured interviews, trend lines, well-being ranking, and other ranking and scoring exercises. Sistelo has a unique landscape of agricultural terraces that are now being abandoned because of the depopulation of the region, a common trend in mountainous rural areas of Europe. From the community perspective, some components of well-being such as material well-being have been improving, whereas some ecosystem services, e.g., food production, have been declining. Although a few of the local criteria for well-being are closely related to local ecosystem services, most of them are not. People recognize many of the services provided by ecosystems, in particular, provisioning, cultural, and regulating services, although they feel that provisioning services are the most important for well-being. It is apparent that, for the Sistelo community, there is an increasing disconnect between local well-being and at least some local ecosystem services. This disconnect is associated with greater freedom of choice at the local level, which gives the local inhabitants the power to find substitutes for ecosystem services. The consequences of land abandonment for human well-being and ecosystem services

  4. Antibiotic resistance - the interplay between antibiotic use in animals and human beings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singer, R.S.; Finch, R.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were first identified in the 1940s, but while new antibiotics were being discovered at a steady rate, the consequences of this phenomenon were slow to be appreciated. Today, the excessive use of antibiotics compounded by the paucity of new agents on the market has...... meant the problem of antibiotic resistance is fast escalating into a global health crisis. There is no doubt that misuse of these drugs in human beings has contributed to the increasing rates of resistance, but recently the use of antibiotics in food animals and its consequent effect on resistance....... There is a growing concern over the transmission of resistant bacteria via the food chain. Many questions will be difficult to resolve, such as how do you distinguish the fraction of resistance in human beings that originated from animals? If we wait to see evidence that a significant amount of antibiotic resistance...

  5. Human resource management in the project-oriented organization: Employee well-being and ethical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, R.; Huemann, M.; Keegan, A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a wider study into human resource management (HRM) practices in project-oriented organizations, we investigated the issue of employee well-being. Project-oriented organizations adopt temporary work processes to deliver products and services to clients. This creates a dynamic work environm

  6. Human resource management in the project-oriented organization: Employee well-being and ethical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, R.; Huemann, M.; Keegan, A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a wider study into human resource management (HRM) practices in project-oriented organizations, we investigated the issue of employee well-being. Project-oriented organizations adopt temporary work processes to deliver products and services to clients. This creates a dynamic work

  7. Impacts of Community Forest Management on human economic well-being across Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasolofoson, Ranaivo Andriarilala; Ferraro, Paul J.; Ruta, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Community Forest Management (CFM) devolves forest management to local communities to achieve conservation and human well-being goals. Yet, the evidence for CFM's impacts is mixed and difficult to interpret because of inadequate attention to rival explanations for the observed empirical patterns. ...

  8. Environmental Quality and Human Well-being. Outcomes of a workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp I van; Hollander AEM den; Staatsen BAM; Poll R van; MGO

    2003-01-01

    In April 2002 an international workshop on environmental quality and human well-being was held at Utrecht, the Netherlands. The workshop was aimed at obtaining consensus on basic principles and assumptions underlying conceptual models concerning environmental quality (EQ) and quality of life (QoL) a

  9. Human Well Being: A Decile Group Analysis on Indian Household Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saswati

    2008-01-01

    This is an attempt to measure human well being across different sections of the society in India over time where sections have been made in terms of ten decile groups of income. In this context, the extent to which rural sector is lagging behind the urban sector is another dimension of the study. The study uses grouped household data, collected…

  10. Consequences of residential development for biodiversity and human well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liba Pejchar; Sarah E. Reed; Patrick Bixler; Lindsay Ex; Miranda H. Mockrin

    2015-01-01

    Residential development is a leading driver of land-use change, with important implications for biodiversity, ecosystem processes, and human well-being. We reviewed over 500 published scientific articles on the biophysical, economic, and social effects of residential development and open space in the US. We concluded that current knowledge of the effects of this type...

  11. Trafficking in human beings: a modern form of slavery or a transnational crime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wilt, H.

    2014-01-01

    Trafficking in human beings is often qualified as a modern form of slavery, with the obvious intention to stress the seriousness of the crime and to bring it within the jurisdictional scope of the International Criminal Court. This article critically assesses this position. The author argues that,

  12. Being Human Today: A Digital Storytelling Pedagogy for Transcontinental Border Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kristian; Gachago, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a collaborative digital storytelling project titled "Being Human Today," a multimodal curricular initiative that was implemented simultaneously in both a South African and an American university classroom in 2015. By facilitating dialogue and the sharing of digital stories by means of a closed…

  13. Transformational leadership and employee psychological well-being: A review and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kara A

    2017-07-01

    This review paper focuses on answering 2 research questions: (a) Does transformational leadership predict employee well-being? (b) If so, how and when does this prediction occur? A systematic computerized search and review of empirical papers published between January 1980 and December 2015 was conducted. Forty papers were found that met the criteria of reporting empirical results, being published in English, and focused on answering the above research questions. Based on these papers it appears that, in general, transformational leadership positively predicts positive measures of well-being, and negatively predicts negative measures of well-being (i.e., ill-being). However, recent findings suggest that this is not always such a simple relationship. In addition, several mediating variables have been established, demonstrating that in many cases there is an indirect effect of transformational leadership on employee well-being. Although some boundary conditions have been examined, more research is needed on moderators. The review demonstrated the importance of moving forward in this area with stronger research designs to determine causality, specifying the outcome variable of interest, investigating the dimensions of transformational leadership separately, and testing more complicated relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. [Research progress on free radicals in human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q B; Xu, F P; Wei, C X; Peng, J; Dong, X D

    2016-08-10

    Free radicals are the intermediates of metabolism, widely exist in the human bodies. Under normal circumstances, the free radicals play an important role in the metabolic process on human body, cell signal pathway, gene regulation, induction of cell proliferation and apoptosis, so as to maintain the normal growth and development of human body and to inhibit the growth of bacteria, virus and cancer. However, when organic lesion occurs affected by external factors or when equilibrium of the free radicals is tipped in the human body, the free radicals will respond integratedly with lipids, protein or nucleic acid which may jeopardize the health of human bodies. This paper summarizes the research progress of the free radicals conducted in recent years, in relations to the perspective of the types, origins, test methods of the free radicals and their relationship with human's health. In addition, the possible mechanisms of environmental pollutants (such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) mediating oxidative stress and free radicals scavenging in the body were also summarized.

  15. New perspectives in human stem cell therapeutic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trounson Alan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human stem cells are in evaluation in clinical stem cell trials, primarily as autologous bone marrow studies, autologous and allogenic mesenchymal stem cell trials, and some allogenic neural stem cell transplantation projects. Safety and efficacy are being addressed for a number of disease state applications. There is considerable data supporting safety of bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cell transplants but the efficacy data are variable and of mixed benefit. Mechanisms of action of many of these cells are unknown and this raises the concern of unpredictable results in the future. Nevertheless there is considerable optimism that immune suppression and anti-inflammatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells will be of benefit for many conditions such as graft versus host disease, solid organ transplants and pulmonary fibrosis. Where bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cells are being studied for heart disease, stroke and other neurodegenerative disorders, again progress is mixed and mostly without significant benefit. However, correction of multiple sclerosis, at least in the short term is encouraging. Clinical trials on the use of embryonic stem cell derivatives for spinal injury and macular degeneration are beginning and a raft of other clinical trials can be expected soon, for example, the use of neural stem cells for killing inoperable glioma and embryonic stem cells for regenerating β islet cells for diabetes. The change in attitude to embryonic stem cell research with the incoming Obama administration heralds a new co-operative environment for study and evaluation of stem cell therapies. The Californian stem cell initiative (California Institute for Regenerative Medicine has engendered global collaboration for this new medicine that will now also be supported by the US Federal Government. The active participation of governments, academia, biotechnology, pharmaceutical companies, and private investment is a powerful consortium for

  16. Are typical human serum BPA concentrations measurable and sufficient to be estrogenic in the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeguarden, Justin; Hanson-Drury, Sesha; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Doerge, Daniel R

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian estrogen receptors modulate many physiological processes. Chemicals with structural features similar to estrogens can interact with estrogen receptors to produce biological effects similar to those caused by endogenous estrogens in the body. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a structural analogue of estrogen that binds to estrogen receptors. Exposure to BPA in humans is virtually ubiquitous in industrialized societies, but BPA is rapidly detoxified by metabolism and does not accumulate in the body. Whether or not serum concentrations of BPA in humans are sufficiently high to disrupt normal estrogen-related biology is the subject of intense political and scientific debate. Here we show a convergence of robust methods for measuring or calculating serum concentrations of BPA in humans from 93 published studies of more than 30,000 individuals in 19 countries across all life stages. Typical serum BPA concentrations are orders of magnitude lower than levels measurable by modern analytical methods and below concentrations required to occupy more than 0.0009% of Type II Estrogen Binding Sites, GPR30, ERα or ERβ receptors. Occupancies would be higher, but ≤0.04%, for the highest affinity receptor, ERRγ. Our results show limited or no potential for estrogenicity in humans, and question reports of measurable BPA in human serum.

  17. Human factors multi-technique approach to teenage engagement in digital technologies health research

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Alexandra R; Craven, Michael P; Atkinson, Sarah; Simons, Lucy; Cobb, Sue; Mazzola, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the use of multi-techniques for teenage HCI health research. Through four case studies we present information about adolescents as users of healthcare services and technologies, adolescent personal development and the human factors approaches through which teenagers have been involved in healthcare research projects. In each case study; comprising of the design or evaluation of a new digital technology for supporting health or well-being, the techniques used by researche...

  18. Data and models for exploring sustainability of human well-being in global environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffuant, G.; Alvarez, I.; Barreteau, O.; de Vries, B.; Edmonds, B.; Gilbert, N.; Gotts, N.; Jabot, F.; Janssen, S.; Hilden, M.; Kolditz, O.; Murray-Rust, D.; Rougé, C.; Smits, P.

    2012-11-01

    This position paper proposes a vision for the research activity about sustainability in global environmental change (GEC) taking place in the FuturICT flagship project. This activity will be organised in an "Exploratory", gathering a core network of European scientists from ICT, social simulation, complex systems, economics, demographics, Earth system science. These research teams will collaborate in building a self-organising network of data sources and models about GEC and in using new facilities fostering stakeholder participation. We develop examples of concrete directions for this research: world wide virtual population with demographic and some economic descriptors, ecosystem services production and distribution, governance systems at various scales.

  19. National well-being policy and a weighted approach to human feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Gus; Oswald, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Governments are becoming interested in the concept of human well-being and how truly to assess it. As an alternative to traditional economic measures, some nations have begun to collect information on citizens' happiness, life satisfaction, and other psychological scores. Yet how could such data actually be used? This paper is a cautious attempt to contribute to thinking on that question. It suggests a possible weighting method to calculate first-order changes in society's well-being, discusses some of the potential principles of democratic 'well-being policy', and (as an illustrative example) reports data on how sub-samples of citizens believe feelings might be weighted.

  20. Quality of Life Theory II. Quality of Life as the Realization of Life Potential: A Biological Theory of Human Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents one of the eight theories of the quality of life (QOL used for making the SEQOL (self-evaluation of quality of life questionnaire or the quality of life as realizing life potential. This theory is strongly inspired by Maslow and the review furthermore serves as an example on how to fulfill the demand for an overall theory of life (or philosophy of life, which we believe is necessary for global and generic quality-of-life research.Whereas traditional medical science has often been inspired by mechanical models in its attempts to understand human beings, this theory takes an explicitly biological starting point. The purpose is to take a close view of life as a unique entity, which mechanical models are unable to do. This means that things considered to be beyond the individual's purely biological nature, notably the quality of life, meaning in life, and aspirations in life, are included under this wider, biological treatise. Our interpretation of the nature of all living matter is intended as an alternative to medical mechanism, which dates back to the beginning of the 20th century. New ideas such as the notions of the human being as nestled in an evolutionary and ecological context, the spontaneous tendency of self-organizing systems for realization and concord, and the central role of consciousness in interpreting, planning, and expressing human reality are unavoidable today in attempts to scientifically understand all living matter, including human life.